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Sample records for crystal gamma coincidence

  1. Studies of weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via coincidence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Rowland, C; Champagne, A E; Dummer, A K; Fitzgerald, R; Harley, E C T; Mosher, J; Runkle, R

    2002-01-01

    A method for measuring weak capture-gamma-ray resonances via gamma gamma-coincidence counting techniques is described. The coincidence apparatus consisted of a large-volume germanium detector and an annular NaI(Tl) crystal. The setup was tested by measuring the weak E sub R =227 keV resonance in sup 2 sup 6 Mg(p,gamma) sup 2 sup 7 Al. Absolute germanium and NaI(Tl) counting efficiencies for a range of gamma-ray energies and for different detector-target geometries are presented. Studies of the gamma-ray background in our spectra are described. Compared to previous work, our method improves the detection sensitivity for weak capture-gamma-ray resonances by a factor of approx 100. The usefulness of the present technique for investigations of interest to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  2. Gamma--gamma directional correlations and coincidence studies in /sup 154/Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, J B; Gupta, S L; Hamilton, J H; Ramayya, A V [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, Tenn. (USA). Dept. of Physics; Delhi Univ. (India). Ramjas Coll.)

    1977-06-01

    The intensities, placements and E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions in the decay of /sup 154/Eu have been carefully studied to provide accurate data for microscopic calculations. Coincidence relationships in thhe decay of /sup 154/Eu have been studied extensively with a multiparameter ..gamma..-..gamma.. coincidence system with two large volume Ge(Li) detectors. Spectra in coincidence with twenty energy gates were analyzed. Twenty-nine new coincidence relationships were established and confirmed most, but not all, of several levels previously assigned by energy fits only. From an analysis of coincidence spectra and singles spectra with a 18% efficiency Ge(Li) detector new information on the gamma-ray intensities were obtained. Precise values of the E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions from the gamma- and beta-vibrational bands to the g.s. band have been determined from ..gamma..-..gamma.. directional correlation measurements with a NaI(Tl)-Ge(Li) detector coincidence system. Mixing ratios were obtained for a number of other transitions including those from KPI = 0/sup -/ and 2+ bands from direct and skipped cascade correlations.

  3. Calibration of nuclides by gamma-gamma sum peak coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of extending sum peak coincidence counting to the direct calibration of gamma-ray emitters having particular decay schemes was investigated, also checkings of the measurement accuracy, by comparing with more precise beta-gamma coincidence counting have been performed. New theoretical studies and experiments were developed, demonstrating the reliability of the procedure. Uncertainties of less than one percent were obtained when certain radioactive sources were measured. The application of the procedure to 60 Co, 22 Na, 47 Ca and 148 Pm was studied. Theoretical bases of sum peak coincidence counting were set in order to extend it as an alternative method for absolute activity determination. In this respect, theoretical studies were performed for positive and negative beta decay, and electron capture, either accompanied or unaccompanied by coincident gamma rays. They include decay schemes containing up to three daughter nuclide excited levels, for different geometrical configurations. Equations are proposed for a possible generalization of the procedure. (M.E.L.) [es

  4. Operations manual for the megachannel gamma-ray coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.

    1977-01-01

    To aid in the study of nuclear structures, a megachannel pulse-height coincidence analysis system on a PDP-8 computer was constructed. The system digitizes the energies of coincident gamma-rays and stores the resultant information on a moving-head disk. The system uses a minicomputer to sort and store gamma-gamma coincident information on line. The megachannel system and how to use it are described

  5. Gamma-gamma directional correlations and coincidence studies in 154Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.B.; Gupta, S.L.; Hamilton, J.H.; Ramayya, A.V.; Delhi Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The intensities, placements and E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions in the decay of 154 Eu have been carefully studied to provide accurate data for microscopic calculations. Coincidence relationships in thhe decay of 154 Eu have been studied extensively with a multiparameter γ-γ coincidence system with two large volume Ge(Li) detectors. Spectra in coincidence with twenty energy gates were analyzed. Twenty-nine new coincidence relationships were established and confirmed most, but not all, of several levels previously assigned by energy fits only. From an analysis of coincidence spectra and singles spectra with a 18% efficiency Ge(Li) detector new information on the gamma-ray intensities were obtained. Precise values of the E2/M1 mixing ratios of transitions from the gamma- and beta-vibrational bands to the g.s. band have been determined from γ-γ directional correlation measurements with a NaI(Tl)-Ge(Li) detector coincidence system. Mixing ratios were obtained for a number of other transitions including those from KPI = 0 - and 2+ bands from direct and skipped cascade correlations. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluation of pulmonary nodules and lung cancer with one-inch crystal gamma coincidence positron emission tomography/CT versus dedicated positron emission tomography/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodie, K.; Lau, E.; Hicks, R. J.; Cherk, M. H.; Turlakow, A.; Skinner, S.; Kelly, M. J.; Kalff, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dedicated positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners using BGO and related detectors (d-PET) have become standard imaging instruments in many malignancies. Hybrid gamma camera systems using Nal detectors in coincidence mode (g-PET) have been compared to d-PET but reported usefulness has been variable when gamma cameras with half-inch to three-fourth-inch thick crystals have been used without CT. Our aim was to compare g-PET with a 1-in.-thick crystal and inbuilt CT for lesion localization and attenuation correction (g-PET/CT) and d-PET/CT in patients presenting with potential and confirmed lung malignancies. One hour after 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), patients underwent BGO d-PET/CT from jaw to proximal thigh. This was followed by one to two bed position g-PET/CT 194 + 27 min after FDG. Each study pair was independently analysed with concurrent CT. d-PET/CT was interpreted by a radiologist experienced in both PET and CT, and g-PET/CT by consensus reading of an experienced PET physician and an experienced CT radiologist, A TNM score was assigned and studies were then unblinded and compared. Fifty-seven patients underwent 58 scan pairs over 2 years. Eighty-nine percent concordance was shown between g-PET/CT and d-PET/CT for the assessment of I intrapulmonary lesions, with 100% concordance for intrapulmonary lesions I >10 mm (36 of 36). Eighty-eight per cent (51 of 58) concordance was shown between g-PET/CTand d-PET/CTforTNM staging. Coincidence imaging usingan optimized dual-head 1-in.-thick crystal gamma camera with inbuilt CT compares reasonably well with dedicated PET/CT for evaluation of indeterminate pulmonary lesions and staging of pulmonary malignancies and may be of some] value when d-PET/CT is not readily available.

  7. An Optimized Design of Single-Channel Beta-Gamma Coincidence Phoswich Detector by Geant4 Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimized single-channel phoswich well detector design has been proposed and assessed in order to improve beta-gamma coincidence measurement sensitivity of xenon radioisotopes. This newly designed phoswich well detector consists of a plastic beta counting cell (BC404 embedded in a CsI(Tl crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The BC404 is configured in a cylindrical pipe shape to minimise light collection deterioration. The CsI(Tl crystal consists of a rectangular part and a semicylindrical scintillation part as a light reflector to increase light gathering. Compared with a PhosWatch detector, the final optimized detector geometry showed 15% improvement in the energy resolution of a 131mXe 129.4 keV conversion electron peak. The predicted beta-gamma coincidence efficiencies of xenon radioisotopes have also been improved accordingly.

  8. SU-G-IeP4-12: Performance of In-111 Coincident Gamma-Ray Counting: A Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahlka, R; Kappadath, S; Mawlawi, O [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The decay of In-111 results in a non-isotropic gamma-ray cascade, which is normally imaged using a gamma camera. Creating images with a gamma camera using coincident gamma-rays from In-111 has not been previously studied. Our objective was to explore the feasibility of imaging this cascade as coincidence events and to determine the optimal timing resolution and source activity using Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: GEANT4 was used to simulate the decay of the In-111 nucleus and to model the gamma camera. Each photon emission was assigned a timestamp, and the time delay and angular separation for the second gamma-ray in the cascade was consistent with the known intermediate state half-life of 85ns. The gamma-rays are transported through a model of a Siemens dual head Symbia “S” gamma camera with a 5/8-inch thick crystal and medium energy collimators. A true coincident event was defined as a single 171keV gamma-ray followed by a single 245keV gamma-ray within a specified time window (or vice versa). Several source activities (ranging from 10uCi to 5mCi) with and without incorporation of background counts were then simulated. Each simulation was analyzed using varying time windows to assess random events. The noise equivalent count rate (NECR) was computed based on the number of true and random counts for each combination of activity and time window. No scatter events were assumed since sources were simulated in air. Results: As expected, increasing the timing window increased the total number of observed coincidences albeit at the expense of true coincidences. A timing window range of 200–500ns maximizes the NECR at clinically-used source activities. The background rate did not significantly alter the maximum NECR. Conclusion: This work suggests coincident measurements of In-111 gamma-ray decay can be performed with commercial gamma cameras at clinically-relevant activities. Work is ongoing to assess useful clinical applications.

  9. A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence; Metodo de coincidencias {beta} - {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agullo, F

    1960-07-01

    A {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method for absolute counting is given. The fundamental principles are revised and the experimental part is detailed. The results from {sup 1}98 Au irradiated in the JEN 1 Swimming pool reactor are given. The maximal accuracy is 1 per cent. (Author) 11 refs.

  10. Analysis method for beta-gamma coincidence spectra from radio-xenon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjing; Yin Jingpeng; Huang Xiongliang; Cheng Zhiwei; Shen Maoquan; Zhang Yang

    2012-01-01

    Radio-xenon isotopes monitoring is one important method for the verification of CTBT, what includes the measurement methods of HPGe γ spectrometer and β-γ coincidence. The article describes the analytic flowchart and method of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra from β-γ systems, and analyses in detail the principles and methods of the regions of interest of coincidence spectra and subtracting the interference, finally gives the formula of radioactivity of Xenon isotopes and minimum detectable concentrations. Studying on the principles of three-dimensional beta-gamma coincidence spectra, which can supply the foundation for designing the software of β-γ coincidence systems. (authors)

  11. Coincidence summing corrections for positron emitters in germanium gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, A.E.; Sallee, W.W.; New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces

    1990-01-01

    For positron emitters, 511 keV annihilation quanta are in coincidence with other gamma rays in the decay scheme. If the positrons are not localized at the point of decay, annihilation quanta will be produced at a site some distance from the point of emission. The magnitude of the summing coincidence effect will depend upon the position of annihilation. A method for determining the magnitude of the summing effect for a single gamma of energy E in coincidence with the annihilation gammas from non-localized positrons has been developed which makes use of the counting data for the full energy peaks for both the gamma ray (E) and the 511 keV annihilation gammas. With this data and efficiency calibration data one can determine the average total efficiency for the annihilation positions from which 511 keV gammas originate, and thereby obtain the summing correction factor, SCF, for gamma ray (E). Application of the method to a 22 Na NIST standard gave excellent agreement of observed emission rates for the 1275 keV gamma with the NIST value for wide ranging degrees of positron localization having summing correction factors ranging from 1.021 to 1.505. The method was also applied successfully to 58 Co in neutron-irradiated nickel foils. The method shows promise as a check on the accuracy of the efficiency calibration for a particular detector geometry at the 511 keV energy and energies for other gammas associated with positron emission. (orig.)

  12. A gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na/(7)Be activity ratio measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Stukel, Matthew; Mekarski, Pawel

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a digital gamma-gamma coincidence/anticoincidence spectrometer was developed and examined for low-level cosmogenic (22)Na and (7)Be in air-filter sample monitoring. The spectrometer consists of two bismuth germanate scintillators (BGO) and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The spectrometer design allows a more selective measurement of (22)Na with a significant background reduction by gamma-gamma coincidence events processing. Hence, the system provides a more sensitive way to quantify trace amounts of (22)Na than normal high resolution gamma spectrometry providing a critical limit of 3 mBq within a 20 h count. The use of a list-mode data acquisition technique enabled simultaneous determination of (22)Na and (7)Be activity concentrations using a single measurement by coincidence and anticoincidence mode respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identification of peaks in multidimensional coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, Miroslav E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.sk; Kliman, Jan; Matousek, Vladislav; Veselsky, Martin; Turzo, Ivan

    2000-03-21

    In the paper a new algorithm to find peaks in two, three and multidimensional spectra, measured in large multidetector {gamma}-ray arrays, is derived. Given the dimension m, the algorithm is selective to m-fold coincidence peaks. It is insensitive to intersections of lower-fold coincidences, hereinafter called ridges.

  14. Quantification of 235U and 238U activity concentrations for undeclared nuclear materials by a digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Yi, Jing; Mekarski, Pawel; Ungar, Kurt; Hauck, Barry; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of verifying depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NU), low enriched uranium (LEU) and high enriched uranium (HEU) by a developed digital gamma-gamma coincidence spectroscopy. The spectroscopy consists of two NaI(Tl) scintillators and XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results demonstrate that the spectroscopy provides an effective method of (235)U and (238)U quantification based on the count rate of their gamma-gamma coincidence counting signatures. The main advantages of this approach over the conventional gamma spectrometry include the facts of low background continuum near coincident signatures of (235)U and (238)U, less interference from other radionuclides by the gamma-gamma coincidence counting, and region-of-interest (ROI) imagine analysis for uranium enrichment determination. Compared to conventional gamma spectrometry, the method offers additional advantage of requiring minimal calibrations for (235)U and (238)U quantification at different sample geometries. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Low level GAMMA0 spectrometry by beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, E.L.; Luca, A.; Razdolescu, A.C.; Ivan, C.

    1999-01-01

    Low level gamma spectrometry has a wide application, especially in environmental monitoring. Two variants, based on a beta-gamma coincidence technique, were studied. The equipment was composed of a beta detector and a Ge(Li) gamma detector (6% - relative efficiency), with the associated electronics. The gamma rays are recorded by the multichannel analyzer (4096 channels) only if the associated beta particles, which precede the gamma transitions, are registered in coincidence. Two types of beta detectors were used: plastic and liquid scintillators. In both cases, an external lead shield of 5 cm thick was used. The integral gamma background (50-1700 KeV) was reduced about 85 and 50 times, respectively. The corresponding MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity) values decreased about 1.5 and (3-7) times, respectively. The 2π sr plastic beta detector was placed on top the Ge(Li). The sample was inserted between the two detectors. The measurement time was 10 4 s. A 4π sr detector, built of the same material, was also studied, but it proved to be less advantageous because the background was reduced only 16 times; for a MDA reduction similar with that of the 2π sr variant, a longer measurement was needed (3.10 4 s). The other type of beta detector used, was a liquid scintillator. The dissolving of the samples in scintillator ensures a 4π sr measurement geometry. The vials with scintillator (10 ml volume) were placed on top the Ge(Li) and visualised by the photocathode of a phototube. This setup was surrounded by an enclosure which prevent the light penetration. The measurement time was 10 4 s. The only difficulty encountered in this low level measurement method is the accurate determination of the beta efficiency. A limitation is the possibility to measure only small mass samples. These variants are more simple and cheaper than others, previously studied. The advantage of the method is obvious when, instead of low MDA values, shorter measurement times are preferred. The

  16. Coincidence method for determination of radionuclides activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrukhovich, S.K.; Berestov, A.V.; Rudak, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The radon and radium activity measurements using six-crystal gamma-gamma coincidence, 4 -spectrometer PRIPJAT and radioactivity measurements in different samples of meat and vegetation by 32-crystal spectrometer ARGUS, are described. Radiation detector with 4 -geometry provides higher efficiency, and therefore shorter counting time than a detector without such geometry. However, its application is limited by the fact that obtained spectrum contains summing peaks of all γ-quanta registered in coincidence. Multiparameter information on coincident photon emission can be obtained only by a detection system where the 4 -geometry is made by many detectors, such are both the PRIPJAT and the ARGUS - γ-coincidence spectrometer of the Crystal Ball type in the Institute of Physics, Minsk [1,2]. There are other characteristics, as background conditions, energy and time resolution, makes it ve suitable for investigation of rare decays and interactions, cascade transitions, k intensity radiations etc. We are developing a method of 2 26R a and 2 26 Rn measurement by a multidetector 4 -spectrometer. The method is based on coincidence counting of γ-rays from two step cascade transitions that follow - decay of 2 14 Bi. Its application to the PRIPL spectrometer, which has 6 Nal(Tl) detectors, is presented here, as well as the method of the determination of radionuclide activities based on the registration of the cascades intensity of γ-rays of different multiplicity using ARGUS

  17. Study and development of a spectrometer with Compton suppression and gamma coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents the characteristics of a spectrometer consisting of a Ge detector surrounded by a NaI(T1) detector that can operate in Compton-suppression and gamma-gamma coincidence modes. The criteria that led to this measurement configuration are discussed and the spectrometer performances are shown for 60 Co and 137 Cs gamma-ray sources. The results for the measurement of 189 Ir (Compton suppression) and for the measurement of 101 Rh (gamma-gamma coincidence) in the presence of other radioisotopes are given. 83 Rb and 105 Ag isotopes are also measured with this spectrometer [fr

  18. Analysis of radionuclide mixtures by {alpha}-{gamma} and {beta}-{gamma} coincidences using a simple device; Analyse de melanges de radionucleides par un dispositif simple de coincidences {alpha}-{gamma} et {beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottier, R; Berger, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-06-01

    A procedure is described for the qualitative and quantitative spectrographic analysis of radioactive sources containing two alpha-gamma emitters having the same alpha energy or two beta-gamma emitters having the same gamma energy. The main apparatus is a multichannel pulse-height analyzer including a coincidence circuit. The principle of the method, the synoptic scheme, the electronic device, the type of sources, and the precautions to be taken or the corrections to take into account are reported. The results obtained in solving the three following problems are discussed as examples of applications of the method: analysis of {sup 241}Am in alpha-gamma sources containing {sup 238}Pu; analysis of {sup 237}Np in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 239}Pu; and analysis of {sup 106}Ru-{sup 106}Rh in beta-gamma sources containing {sup 95}Zr-{sup 95}Nb. (authors) [French] Dans ce. rapport, on presente une methode d'analyse spectrographique qualitative et quantitative de sources radioactives contenant deux emetteurs alpha-gamma de meme energie alpha et deux emetteurs beta-gamma de meme energie gamma. L'organe principal est un analyseur d'amplitude a 400 canaux comprenant un circuit de coincidence. On decrit le principe de la methode, le schema synoptique, l'appareillage, le type des sources, les precautions a prendre ou les corrections a faire. On discute les resultats obtenus dans la solution des trois problemes suivants traites a titre d'application de la methode: 1. analyse d'americium 241 en presence de plutonium 238; 2. analyse de neptunium 237 en presence de plutonium 239; 3. analyse de ruthenium 106-rhodium 106 en presence de zirconium 95-niobium 95. (auteurs)

  19. Studies on the true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples by gamma spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lian Qi; Chang Yong Fu; Xia Bing

    2002-01-01

    The true coincidence correction in measuring filter samples has been studied by high efficiency HPGe gamma detectors. The true coincidence correction for a specific three excited levels de-excitation case has been analyzed, and the typical analytical expressions of true coincidence correction factors have been given. According to the measured relative efficiency on the detector surface with 8 'single' energy gamma emitters and efficiency of filter samples, the peak and total efficiency surfaces are fitted. The true coincidence correction factors of sup 6 sup 0 Co and sup 1 sup 5 sup 2 Eu calculated by the efficiency surfaces agree well with experimental results

  20. Crystal diffraction lens telescope for focusing nuclear gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Faiz, M.

    1996-08-01

    A crystal diffraction lens was constructed at Argonne National Laboratory for use as a telescope to focus nuclear gamma rays. It consisted of 600 single crystals of germanium arranged in 8 concentric rings. The mounted angle of each crystal was adjusted to intercept and diffract the incoming gamma rays with an accuracy of a few arc sec. The performance of the lens was tested in two ways. In one case, the gamma rays were focused on a single medium size germanium detector. In the second case, the gamma rays were focused on the central germanium detector of a 3 x 3 matrix of small germanium detectors. The efficiency, image concentration and image quality, and shape were measured. The tests performed with the 3 x 3 matrix detector system were particularly interesting. The wanted radiation was concentrated in the central detector. The 8 other detectors were used to detect the Compton scattered radiation, and their energy was summed with coincident events in the central detector. This resulted in a detector with the efficiency of a large detector (all 9 elements) and the background of a small detector (only the central element). The use of the 3 x 3 detector matrix makes it possible to tell if the source is off axis and, if so, to tell in which direction. The crystal lens acts very much like a simple convex lens for visible light. Thus if the source is off to the left then the image will focus off to the right illuminating the detector on the right side: telling one in which direction to point the telescope. Possible applications of this type of crystal lens to balloon and satellite experiments will be discussed

  1. Preliminary results of a neutron-gamma coincidence experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercey, R.B.; Dunnam, F.E.; Muga, M.L.; Rester, A.C.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.; Eberth, J.; Zganjar, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The recently completed neutron multiplicity detector dubbed PANDA (Pentagonal Annular Neutron Detector Array) is fully described later in this report. The new detector was recently used for the first time on-line at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility to measure neutron-gamma coincidence in the 24 Mg( 58 Ni,xαypzn) reaction. The detector configuration for the experiment is shown. The PANDA was situated in the forward direction, coaxial to the beam line with five gamma-ray detectors placed at +/- 90 0 , +/- 135 0 , and 0 0 . 2 figures

  2. Performances evaluation of the coincidence detection on a gamma-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreuille, O. de; Gaillard, J.F.; Brasse, D.; Bendriem, B.; Groiselle, C.; Rocchisani, J.M.; Moretti, J.L.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of the VERTEX gamma-camera (ADAC) working in coincidence mode are investigated using a protocol derived from the NEMA and IEC recommendations. With a field of view determined by two rectangular detectors (50.8 cm x 40 cm) composed of NaI crystal, this camera allows a 3-D acquisition with different energy window configurations: photopeak-photopeak only (PP) and photopeak-photopeak + photopeak-Compton (PC). An energy resolution of 11% and a scatter fraction of 27% and 33% for the 3D-PP and 3D-PC mode respectively are the main significant results of our study. The spatial resolution equals 5.9 mm and the limit of the detectability ranges from 16 mm to 13 mm for a contrast of 2.5: as a function of the random estimation, the maximum of the Noise Equivalent Count rate varies from 3 kcps to 4.5 kcps for the PP mode and from 3.85 kcps to 6.1 kcps for the PC mode. These maxima are reached for a concentration of 8 kBq/ml for the PP mode and 5 kBq/ml for the PC mode. These values are compared with the results obtained by other groups for the VERTEX gamma camera and several dedicated PET systems. (authors)

  3. Automatic analysis algorithm for radionuclide pulse-height data from beta-gamma coincidence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz Biegalski, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    There are two acceptable noble gas monitoring measurement modes for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban-Treaty (CTBT) verification purposes defined in CTBT/PC/II/WG.B/1. These include beta-gamma coincidence and high-resolution gamma-spectrometry. There are at present no commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) applications for the analysis of β-γ coincidence data. Development of such software is in progress at the Prototype International Data Centre (PIDC) for eventual deployment at the International Data Centre (IDC). Flowcharts detailing the automatic analysis algorithm for β-γ coincidence data to be coded at the PIDC is included. The program is being written in C with Oracle databasing capabilities. (author)

  4. Selection and evaluation of gamma decay standards for detector calibration using coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence method for calibration of gamma detectors using suitable calibration standards with two cascading gamma rays is analyzed. From the list of recommended gamma ray standards currently under reevaluation by the CRP, 14 radionuclides were selected as the potential source candidates for the coincidence method. The following sources were selected 24 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 66 Ga, 75 Se, 88 Y, Nb 94 , 111 In, 123m Te, 133 Ba, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 207 Bi. Reaction 11 B (p,γ) 12 C* was also selected as a source of high energy gamma rays. Experimental data on angular correlation coefficients for selected sources were collected from the literature and evaluated according to the recommended procedure. Theoretical angular correlation coefficients were calculated and compared to the evaluated data. (author)

  5. Value of coincidence gamma camera PET for diagnosing head and neck tumors: functional imaging and image coregistration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Hahn, K.

    2001-01-01

    54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors (30 m, 24 f, age: 32-67 years) were examined using dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [ 18 F]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first (Siemens ECAT Exact HR+) followed by a scan on the coincidence gamma camera PET (Picker Prism 2000 XP-PCD, Marconi Axis g-PET 2 AZ). Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, coincidence gamma camera PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and coincidence gamma camera PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique (Siemens Somatom Plus 4, Marconi MX 8000). Image coregistration was performed on an Odyssey workstation (Marconi). All findings have been verified by the gold standard histology or in case of negative histology by follow-up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using coincidence gamma camera PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with coincidence gamma camera PET and in 15/18 with CT. False-positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and hybrid PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastatic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with coincidence gamma camera PET elsewhere in the body (lung: n = 7, bone: n = 3, liver: n = 1). Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. (orig.) [de

  6. Development of Simultaneous Beta-and-Coincidence-Gamma Imager for Plant Imaging Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Yuan-Chuan [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States). School of Medicine

    2016-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a novel imaging system that can simultaneously acquire beta and coincidence gamma images of positron sources in thin objects such as leaves of plants. This hybrid imager can be used to measure carbon assimilation in plants quantitatively and in real-time after C-11 labeled carbon-dioxide is administered. A better understanding of carbon assimilation, particularly under the increasingly elevated atmospheric CO2 level, is extremely critical for plant scientists who study food crop and biofuel production. Phase 1 of this project is focused on the technology development with 3 specific aims: (1) develop a hybrid detector that can detect beta and gamma rays simultaneously; (2) develop an imaging system that can differentiate these two types of radiation and acquire beta and coincidence gamma images in real-time; (3) develop techniques to quantify radiotracer distribution using beta and gamma images. Phase 2 of this project is to apply technologies developed in phase 1 to study plants using positron-emitting radionuclide such as 11C to study carbon assimilation in biofuel plants.

  7. Performance of A Compact Multi-crystal High-purity Germanium Detector Array for Measuring Coincident Gamma-ray Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Daigle, Stephen [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Buckner, Matt [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Erikson, Luke E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stave, Sean C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Champagne, Art [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Cooper, Andrew [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Downen, Lori [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Keegan [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Sallaska, Anne [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Triangle Univ. Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States)

    2015-02-18

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the 14N(p,γ)15O* reaction for several transition energies at an effective center of mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the segmented nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within the uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance will be presented.

  8. Performance of a compact multi-crystal high-purity germanium detector array for measuring coincident gamma-ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Chris; Daigle, Stephen; Buckner, Matt [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Erikson, Luke E.; Runkle, Robert C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Stave, Sean C., E-mail: Sean.Stave@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Champagne, Arthur E.; Cooper, Andrew; Downen, Lori [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Glasgow, Brian D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kelly, Keegan; Sallaska, Anne [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The Multi-sensor Airborne Radiation Survey (MARS) detector is a 14-crystal array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors housed in a single cryostat. The array was used to measure the astrophysical S-factor for the {sup 14}N(p,γ){sup 15}O{sup ⁎} reaction for several transition energies at an effective center-of-mass energy of 163 keV. Owing to the granular nature of the MARS detector, the effect of gamma-ray summing was greatly reduced in comparison to past experiments which utilized large, single-crystal detectors. The new S-factor values agree within their uncertainties with the past measurements. Details of the analysis and detector performance are presented.

  9. Using CHIMERA detector at LNS for gamma-particle coincidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardella G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently evaluated the quality of γ-ray angular distributions that can be extracted in particle-gamma coincidence measurements using the CHIMERA detector at LNS. γ-rays have been detected using the CsI(Tl detectors of the spherical part of the CHIMERA array. Very clean γ-rays angular distributions were extracted in reactions induced by different stable beams impinging on 12C thin targets. The results evidenced an effect of projectile spin flip on the γ-rays angular distributions. γ-particle coincidence measurements were also performed in reactions induced by neutron rich exotic beams produced through in-flight fragmentation at LNS. In recent experiments also the Farcos array was used to improve energy and angular resolution measurements of the detected charged particles. Results obtained with both stable and radioactive beams are reported.

  10. Simulation approach to coincidence summing in {gamma}-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziri, S., E-mail: samir.dziri@iphc.cnrs.fr [Groupe RaMsEs, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), University of Strasbourg, CNRS, IN2P3, UMR 7178, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Nourreddine, A.; Sellam, A.; Pape, A.; Baussan, E. [Groupe RaMsEs, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), University of Strasbourg, CNRS, IN2P3, UMR 7178, 23 rue de Loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2012-07-15

    Some of the radionuclides used for efficiency calibration of a HPGe spectrometer are subject to coincidence-summing (CS) and account must be taken of the phenomenon to obtain quantitative results when counting samples to determine their activity. We have used MCNPX simulations, which do not take CS into account, to obtain {gamma}-ray peak intensities that were compared to those observed experimentally. The loss or gain of a measured peak intensity relative to the simulated peak is attributed to CS. CS correction factors are compared with those of ETNA and GESPECOR. Application to a test sample prepared with known radionuclides gave values close to the published activities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coincidence summing occurs when the solid angle is increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The loss of counts gives rise to an approximative efficiency curves, this means a wrong quantitative data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To overcome this problem we need mono-energetic source, otherwise, the MCNPX simulation allows by comparison with the experiment data to get the coincidence summing correction factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By multiplying these factors by the approximative efficiency, we obtain the accurate efficiency.

  11. Standardization of 56Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardiyanto, Gatot; Pujadi

    2000-01-01

    Standardization of exp.56 Co had been carried out using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence methods. The radionuclide use for calibration of nuclear instruments on range of energy over 1500 keV. The exp.56 Co had been produced by irradiation of proton by using a cyclotron with 15 MeV of energy and 300 mb of cross-section to natural iron target (99,5% of purity) at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after the irradiated source was dissolved in 8N HCI solution. The disintegration rate had been measured using 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus, where the gamm gets sets on 511 and 847 keV gamma-rays. The result measurement is fairly good with the specific activity is 3078 n 15 Bq/mg

  12. ESCL8R and LEVIT8R: interactive graphical analysis of {gamma}-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence data for level schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, D C [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1992-08-01

    The extraction of complete and consistent nuclear level schemes from high-fold coincidence data will require intelligent computer programs. These will need to present the relevant data in an easily assimilated manner, keep track of all {gamma}-ray assignments and expected coincidence intensities, and quickly find significant discrepancies between a proposed level scheme and the data. Some steps in this direction have been made at Chalk River. The programs ESCL8R and LEVIT8R, for analysis of two-fold and three-fold data sets respectively, allow fast and easy inspection of the data, and compare the results to expectations calculations on the basis of a proposed level scheme. Least-squares fits directly to the 2D and/or 3D data, with the intensities and energies of the level scheme transitions as parameters, allow fast and easy extraction of the optimum physics results. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Use of sum-peak and coincidence counting methods for activity standardization of {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, E.M. de, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.br [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Silva, M.A.L. da [Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Nucleares/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, R. Gal. Severiano, 90 - Botafogo, CEP 22290-901 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Fundacao Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Av. Erasmo Braga, 118-6 Degree-Sign andar, CEP 20020-000 Centro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R.T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68509, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    A solution containing the positron emitter {sup 22}Na has been absolutely standardized using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence counting method and the sum-peak spectrometry counting method. In the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence method two ways for the activity concentration measurements were used: gating on the 1275 keV photopeak and on the 1786 keV sum-peak where the knowledge of the {beta}{sup +}-branching ratio is required. In the sum-peak method the measurements were carried out using three experimental arrangements: the first composed by a well type 5 in. Multiplication-Sign 5 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal, the second by a 3 in. Multiplication-Sign 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal placed on the top of the first, resulting in a 4{pi} counting geometry and the third arrangement is a high purity coaxial germanium detector. The results that are obtained by these two methods are compatible within the standard uncertainty values with a coverage factor of k=2 ({approx}95% of the confidence level). This means that the sum-peak counting with its more simple experimental setup than the complex coincidence 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} counting system gives consistent results for the activity standardization of {sup 22}Na with smaller uncertainties. Besides, the time period involved to attain the result of the standardization was quite shorter than the coincidence measurements used in this work.

  14. Absolute measurements of the alpha-gamma emitters activities by a sum-coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute activity of U-235 contained in a UO 2 sample, using a sum-coincidence circuit which selected only the alpha particles which were simultaneous with the well known 184 Kev gamma radiation from Th-231. The alpha particles were detected by ZnS(Ag) scintillator specially designed to show its maximun efficiency for U-235 alpha particles, whereas the gamma radiation was detected by NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The values obtained for the half-life of U-235 was compared with data from various observers using different experimental techniques. (Author) [pt

  15. A new 4π(LS)-γ coincidence counter at NCBJ RC POLATOM with TDCR detector in the beta channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemek, T; Jęczmieniowski, A; Cacko, D; Broda, R; Lech, E

    2016-03-01

    A new 4π(LS)-γ coincidence system (TDCRG) was built at the NCBJ RC POLATOM. The counter consists of a TDCR detector in the beta channel and scintillation detector with NaI(Tl) crystal in the gamma channel. The system is equipped with a digital board with FPGA, which records and analyses coincidences in the TDCR detector and coincidences between the beta and gamma channels. The characteristics of the system and a scheme of the FPGA implementation with behavioral simulation are given. The TDCRG counter was validated by activity measurements on (14)C and (60)Co solutions standardized in RC POLATOM using previously validated methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic classification of gammas-gamma coincidence matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J. M.; Gonzalez, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The information obtained during a coincidence experiment, recorded on magnetic tape by a MULTI-8 minicomputer, is transferred to a new tape in 36 bit words, using the program LEC0M8. The classification in two dimensional matrix form is carried out off-line, on a magnetic disk file, by the program CLAFI. On finishing classification one obtains a copy of the coincidence matrix on the second magnetic tape. Both programs are written to be processed in that order with the UNIVAC 1106 computer of J.E.N. (Author) 4 refs

  17. Automatic classification of gamma-gamma coincidence matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The information obtained during a coincidence experiment, recorded on magnetic tape by a Multi-8 minicomputer, is transferred to a new tape in 36 bit words, using the program Lecom8. The classification in two dimensional matrix form is carried out off-line, on a magnetic disk file, by the program Clafi. On finishing classification one obtains a copy of the coincidence matrix on the second magnetic tape. Both programs are written to be processed in that order with the Univac 1106 computer of J.E.N. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo simulation of {beta}-{gamma} coincidence system using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, M.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: msdias@ipen.br; Piuvezam-Filho, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baccarelli, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica-PUC/SP-Rua Marques de Paranagua 111, 01303-050 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takeda, M.N. [Universidade Santo Amaro, UNISA-Rua Prof. Eneas da Siqueira Neto 340, 04829-300 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Koskinas, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4{pi}{beta}(PS)-{gamma} coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to {sup 60}Co and {sup 133}Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma} coincidence system.

  19. PET with a coincidence gamma camera: results in selected oncological questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, I.; Haase, A; Adam, S.; Prueter, I.; Richter, E.; Baehre, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since early 1997, about 1660 investigations with coincidence gamma camera PET (CGC-PET) have been performed in our department, mostly undertaken for oncological questions. Based on these data, several retrospective and prospective studies were performed. In the following, the results in CUP (cancer of unknown primary) syndrome, melanoma and malignant lymphoma are presented. Methods: CGC-PET was performed after application of 250-350 MBq [ 18 F]FDG using a coincidence double head gamma camera with 19 mm Nal cristal. CUP-Syndrome: After completing conventional diagnostic procedures, 32 patients have been examined in a prospective study, including 25 patients with recently detected CUP and 7 patients undergoing restaging after therapy. Localization of the primary tumor was successful in 12 (38%) cases. Melanoma: We evaluated 50 studies in 41 patients suffering from melanoma, retrospectively. CGC-PET showed a sensitivity of 76%, and a specificity of 94%. In comparison to conventional diagnostic methods, CGC-PET delineated important additional information in 16%. CGC-PET was superior to morphological diagnostic tools in the differentiation between residual scar tissue and active tumor following immunochemotherapy. Malignant lymphoma: 29 CGC-PET in 29 patients were performed for staging of malignant lymphoma, sensitivity was 86% versus 88% for CT. Overall CGC-PET showed additional information to conventional diagnostic methods, but revealed problems in detecting small infiltrations of organs. In restaging malignant melanoma (26 patients, 33 studies), specificity of CGC-PET was superior to conventional diagnostics (92% versus 35%). (orig.) [de

  20. Calculation of “LS-curves” for coincidence summing corrections in gamma ray spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Tim; Korun, Matjaž

    2006-01-01

    When coincidence summing correction factors for extended samples are calculated in gamma-ray spectrometry from full-energy-peak and total efficiencies, their variation over the sample volume needs to be considered. In other words, the correction factors cannot be computed as if the sample were a point source. A method developed by Blaauw and Gelsema takes the variation of the efficiencies over the sample volume into account. It introduces the so-called LS-curve in the calibration procedure and only requires the preparation of a single standard for each sample geometry. We propose to replace the standard preparation by calculation and we show that the LS-curves resulting from our method yield coincidence summing correction factors that are consistent with the LS values obtained from experimental data.

  1. Gamma-X-ray coincidence Moessbauer spectroscopic study of the aftereffects in sulfate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Makita, T.; Fukumura, K.

    1990-01-01

    The anomalous charge states formed after the electron capture decay of 57 Co in FeSO 4 .H 2 O and FeSO 4 .7H 2 O are investigated using the conventional Moessbauer emission spectroscopy and a gamma-X ray coincidence method. This method is based on the idea that a Moessbauer spectrum observed with the coincidence technique only when K-X rays are emitted is reflected by isolated events with a reduced influence of the Auger-electron self-irradiation. The formation of the anomalous electronic and structural configuration is attributed to the self-radiolysis of the H 2 O and SO 4 2- ligands in the nearest and the second nearest coordination shells around the decaying atom. (orig.)

  2. Spectroscopy of {sup 189,187}Pb from gamma-FMA coincidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Davids, C.N.; Blumenthal, D. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The very neutron-deficient Pb isotopes are of much current interest because they exhibit shape coexistence between a spherical groundstate and a deformed prolate excited configuration located very low in excitation energy. Last year the nucleus {sup 186}Pb was studied at the FMA in an FMA-{gamma}-{gamma} coincidence experiment. The purpose of the present measurement was to delineate, for the first time, the groundstate and near groundstate excitations in the odd Pb isotopes {sup 189,187}Pb in order to identify the orbitals which have an important role in driving the nuclear shape. The experiment was performed only very recently at the FMA with 10 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors from the Argonne Notre Dame BGO Gamma-Ray facility. {sup 187}Pb was studied with the {sup 155}Gd({sup 36}Ar,4n) reaction at 179 MeV, while {sup 189}Pb was reached with the {sup 158}Gd({sup 36}Ar,5n) reaction at the same beam energy. The analysis just began. It can already be stated that transitions in both Pb isotopes were identified and that it should be possible to establish level schemes. The presence of possible isomeric states in {sup 189}Pb will be checked in a follow-up experiment planned in Canberra. A similar measurement on {sup 187}Pb appears very difficult because of the very small cross section involved.

  3. Coincidence corrections for a multi-detector gamma spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, R., E-mail: r.britton@surrey.ac.uk [University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Regan, P.H. [University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    List-mode data acquisition has been utilised in conjunction with a high-efficiency γ–γ coincidence system, allowing both the energetic and temporal information to be retained for each recorded event. Collected data is re-processed multiple times to extract any coincidence information from the γ-spectroscopy system, correct for the time-walk of low-energy events, and remove accidental coincidences from the projected coincidence spectra. The time-walk correction has resulted in a reduction in the width of the coincidence delay gate of 18.4±0.4%, and thus an equivalent removal of ‘background’ coincidences. The correction factors applied to ∼5.6% of events up to ∼500 keV for a combined {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co source, and are crucial for accurate coincidence measurements of low-energy events that may otherwise be missed by a standard delay gate. By extracting both the delay gate and a representative ‘background’ region for the coincidences, a coincidence background subtracted spectrum is projected from the coincidence matrix, which effectively removes ∼100% of the accidental coincidences (up to 16.6±0.7% of the total coincidence events seen during this work). This accidental-coincidence removal is crucial for accurate characterisation of the events seen in coincidence systems, as without this correction false coincidence signatures may be incorrectly interpreted.

  4. Beta-gamma counting system for Xe fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; Perkins, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    A beta-gamma coincidence counting system has been developed for automated analysis of Xe gas samples separated from air. The Xe gas samples are contained in a cylindrical plastic scintillator cell located between two NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. The X-ray and gamma spectra gated by coincident events in the plastic scintillator cell are recorded for each NaI(Tl) crystal. The characteristic signatures of the 131m Xe, 133g Xe, 133m Xe, and 135g Xe isotopes of interest for nuclear test-ban verification as well as the procedures and results of absolute efficiency measurements are described. A NaI(Tl) crystal with provision for 4 sample cells has been implemented for the system to be deployed in the field. Examples of data on ambient air samples in New York City obtained with the field prototype are presented. (author)

  5. Xe isotope detection and discrimination using beta spectroscopy with coincident gamma spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, P. L.; Bowyer, T. W.

    1998-02-01

    Beta spectroscopic techniques show promise of significant improvements for a beta-gamma coincidence counter that is part of a system for analyzing Xe automatically separated from air. The previously developed counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133gXe, and 135gXe can be enhanced to give additional discrimination between these Xe isotopes by using the plastic scintillation sample cell as a beta spectrometer to resolve the conversion electron peaks. The automated system will be a key factor in monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  6. True coincidence summing correction determination for 214Bi principal gamma lines in NORM samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The gamma lines 609.3 and 1,120.3 keV are two of the most intensive γ emissions of 214 Bi, but they have serious true coincidence summing (TCS) effects due to the complex decay schemes with multi-cascading transitions. TCS effects cause inaccurate count rate and hence erroneous results. A simple and easy experimental method for determination of TCS correction of 214 Bi gamma lines was developed in this work using naturally occurring radioactive material samples. Height efficiency and self attenuation corrections were determined as well. The developed method has been formulated theoretically and validated experimentally. The corrections problems were solved simply with neither additional standard source nor simulation skills. (author)

  7. Using Compton scattering for random coincidence rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstein, M.; Chmeissani, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Voxel Imaging PET (VIP) project presents a new approach for the design of nuclear medicine imaging devices by using highly segmented pixel CdTe sensors. CdTe detectors can achieve an energy resolution of ≈ 1% FWHM at 511 keV and can be easily segmented into submillimeter sized voxels for optimal spatial resolution. These features help in rejecting a large part of the scattered events from the PET coincidence sample in order to obtain high quality images. Another contribution to the background are random events, i.e., hits caused by two independent gammas without a common origin. Given that 60% of 511 keV photons undergo Compton scattering in CdTe (i.e. 84% of all coincidence events have at least one Compton scattering gamma), we present a simulation study on the possibility to use the Compton scattering information of at least one of the coincident gammas within the detector to reject random coincidences. The idea uses the fact that if a gamma undergoes Compton scattering in the detector, it will cause two hits in the pixel detectors. The first hit corresponds to the Compton scattering process. The second hit shall correspond to the photoelectric absorption of the remaining energy of the gamma. With the energy deposition of the first hit, one can calculate the Compton scattering angle. By measuring the hit location of the coincident gamma, we can construct the geometric angle, under the assumption that both gammas come from the same origin. Using the difference between the Compton scattering angle and the geometric angle, random events can be rejected.

  8. Primary 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides by means of plastic scintillators; Sistema primario por coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a padronizacao de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccarelli, Aida Maria

    2003-07-01

    The present work describes a 4{pi}({alpha},{beta})-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute measurement of radionuclide activity using a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry for charged particles detection and a Nal (Tl) crystal for gamma-ray detection. Several shapes and dimensions of the plastic scintillator have been tried in order to obtain the best system configuration. Radionuclides which decay by alpha emission, {beta}{sup -}, {beta}{sup +} and electron capture have been standardized. The results showed excellent agreement with other conventional primary system which makes use of a 4{pi} proportional counter for X-ray and charged particle detection. The system developed in the present work have some advantages when compared with the conventional systems, namely; it does not need metal coating on the films used as radioactive source holders. When compared to liquid scintillators, is showed the advantage of not needing to be kept in dark for more than 24 h to allow phosphorescence decay of ambient light. Therefore it can be set to count immediately after the sources are placed inside of it. (author)

  9. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  10. Hopping conduction in gamma-irradiated InSe and InSe:Sn single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MUSTAFAEVA, S.N.; ISMAILOV, A.A.; ASADOV, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The semiconductive InSe layer compound is characterized by a strong covalent bond inside the layers and a weak Van der Waals bonding between them. It was shown that across the layers of InSe single crystals at low temperatures (T ≤ 200 K) at direct current (dc) hopping conduction through localized states near the Fermi level takes place. The results of dc-conductivity of gamma-irradiated p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn layer single crystals have been presented in this work. ρ-InSe single crystal specimens grown by the Bridgman method were used in the experiments. Plates of the crystals under study were obtained by cleaving along the layers of single crystal ingots. The single-crystal InSe samples for electric measurements had the form of planar capacitors normal to the C axis of the crystals, with silver-paste electrodes. The thickness of the InSe samples was 300 mkm. Co 60 serves as the source of irradiation with energy of gamma-quantum equal to 1.3 MeV. The electric properties of non-irradiated and gamma-irradiated InSe crystals were measured under the same conditions. It is revealed that InSe and InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals exhibit a variable range hopping conduction along a normal to their natural layers at temperatures T≤200 K in a dc electric field. From experimental data the parameters of localized states of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn were calculated before and after gamma-irradiation. It is revealed that gamma-irradiation of p-InSe and n-InSe : Sn (0.2 and 0.4 mole percent Sn) single crystals leads to significant change of localized states parameters. After gamma-irradiation the density of states near the Fermi level increased, but their energy spread and the average jump distance decreased. The concentrations of radiated defects were estimated in p-InSe (5.18*10 1 7 sm - 3) and n-InSe : Sn (2.5*10 1 7 - 2.7*10 1 8 sm - 3) single crystals. The present results demonstrate that gamma-irradiation offers the possibility of tuning

  11. Differential coincidence circuit in the 10{sup -10} second region (1960); Circuit de coincidence differentiel dans le domaine de 10{sup -10} seconde (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zurk, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Lab. de Physique Nucleaire, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; [Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A coincidence circuit of low resolution time using the differential coincidence Bay principle is described. It uses three 6BN6 tubes ordered to chronotron structure. Results with Radiotechnique 56 AVP photomultipliers and for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences are 4,6.10{sup -10} s (full width at half maximum) if the efficiency is {epsilon} = 40 per cent and also 7,2.10{sup -10} s if {epsilon} = 85 per cent. (author) [French] Un circuit de coincidence differentiel du type de Bay, utilise en selecteur en temps a canal mobile, a ete construit pour la mesure des periodes {gamma} et des periodes d'annihilation du positon dans differents materiaux. Il comporte trois tubes 6BN6 disposes en structure chronotron. On a utilise les nouveaux photomultiplicateurs 56 AVP avec scintillateur plastique. Avec les coincidences {gamma}-{gamma} du {sup 60}Co, on obtient 2T 4,6.10{sup -10} s avec une efficacite de 40 pour cent et 2T = 7,2.10{sup -10} s avec une efficacite de 85 pour cent. (auteur)

  12. A method for measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertzen, Andrew L; Stout, David B; Thompson, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Positron emission tomography (PET) system energy response is typically characterized in singles detection mode, yet there are situations in which the energy spectrum of coincidence events might be different than the spectrum measured in singles mode. Examples include imaging with isotopes that emit a prompt gamma in coincidence with a positron emission, imaging with low activity in a LSO/LYSO-based cameras, in which the intrinsic activity is significant, and in high scatter situations where the two 511 keV photons have different scattering probabilities (i.e. off-center line source). The ability to accurately measure the energy spectrum of coincidence events could be used for validating simulation models, optimizing energy discriminator levels and examining scatter models and corrections. For many PET systems operating in coincidence mode, the only method available for estimating the energy spectrum is to step the lower and upper level discriminators (LLD and ULD). Simple measurement techniques such as using a narrow sliding energy window or stepping only the LLD will not yield a spectrum of coincidence events that is accurate for cases where there are different energy components contributing to the spectrum. In this work we propose a new method of measuring the energy spectrum of coincidence events in PET based on a linear combination of two sets of coincident count measurements: one made by stepping the LLD and one made by stepping the ULD. The method was tested using both Monte Carlo simulations of a Siemens microPET R4 camera and measured data acquired on a Siemens Inveon PET camera. The results show that our energy spectrum calculation method accurately measures the coincident energy spectra for cases including the beta/gamma spectrum of the (176)Lu intrinsic activity present in the LSO scintillator crystals, a (68)Ge source and an (124)I source (in which there are prompt gamma-rays emitted together with the positron).

  13. Effect of inter-crystal scatter on estimation methods for random coincidences and subsequent correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Espallardo, I; Spanoudaki, V; Ziegler, S I; Rafecas, M; McElroy, D P

    2008-01-01

    Random coincidences can contribute substantially to the background in positron emission tomography (PET). Several estimation methods are being used for correcting them. The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of techniques for random coincidence estimation, with various low-energy thresholds (LETs). Simulated singles list-mode data of the MADPET-II small animal PET scanner were used as input. The simulations have been performed using the GATE simulation toolkit. Several sources with different geometries have been employed. We evaluated the number of random events using three methods: delayed window (DW), singles rate (SR) and time histogram fitting (TH). Since the GATE simulations allow random and true coincidences to be distinguished, a comparison between the number of random coincidences estimated using the standard methods and the number obtained using GATE was performed. An overestimation in the number of random events was observed using the DW and SR methods. This overestimation decreases for LETs higher than 255 keV. It is additionally reduced when the single events which have undergone a Compton interaction in crystals before being detected are removed from the data. These two observations lead us to infer that the overestimation is due to inter-crystal scatter. The effect of this mismatch in the reconstructed images is important for quantification because it leads to an underestimation of activity. This was shown using a hot-cold-background source with 3.7 MBq total activity in the background region and a 1.59 MBq total activity in the hot region. For both 200 keV and 400 keV LET, an overestimation of random coincidences for the DW and SR methods was observed, resulting in approximately 1.5% or more (at 200 keV LET: 1.7% for DW and 7% for SR) and less than 1% (at 400 keV LET: both methods) underestimation of activity within the background region. In almost all cases, images obtained by compensating for random events in the reconstruction

  14. Imaging of gamma-Irradiated Regions of a Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, Danut; McClure, Steven; Johnston, Allan; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2004-01-01

    A holographic technique has been devised for generating a visible display of the effect of exposure of a photorefractive crystal to gamma rays. The technique exploits the space charge that results from trapping of electrons in defects induced by gamma rays. The technique involves a three-stage process. In the first stage, one writes a holographic pattern in the crystal by use of the apparatus shown in Figure 1. A laser beam of 532-nm wavelength is collimated and split into signal and reference beams by use of a polarizing beam splitter. On its way to the crystal, the reference beam goes through a two-dimensional optical scanner that contains two pairs of lenses (L1y, L2y and L1x,L2x) and mirrors M1 and M2, which can be rotated by use of micrometer drives to make fine adjustments. The signal beam is sent through a spatial light modulator that imposes the holographic pattern, then through two imaging lenses L(sub img) on its way to the crystal. An aperture is placed at the common focus of lenses Limg to suppress high-order diffraction from the spatial light modulator. The hologram is formed by interference between the signal and reference beams. A camera lens focuses an image of the interior of the crystal onto a charge-coupled device (CCD). If the crystal is illuminated by only the reference beam once the hologram has been formed, then an image of the hologram is formed on the CCD: this phenomenon is exploited to make visible the pattern of gamma irradiation of the crystal, as described next. In the second stage of the process, the crystal is removed from the holographic apparatus and irradiated with rays at a dose of about 100 krad. In the third stage of the process, the crystal is remounted in the holographic apparatus in the same position as in the first stage and illuminated with only the reference beam to obtain the image of the hologram as modified by the effect of the rays. The orientations of M1 and M2 can be adjusted slightly, if necessary, to maximize the

  15. Absolute 22Na radioactivity measurement by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio; Kawada, Yasusi.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute radioactivity of 22 Na was obtained by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method. Some other previous techniques, such as sum peak gate method based on the positron emission rate, relative measurement with calibrated ionization chambers, and gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector, were also tried to ensure the present result. The results of these methods were in reasonable agreement with the present absolute measurement. The assayed source solution of this experiment was transferred to NBS type ampoules, and sealed ampoules were sent to the SIR (International Reference System) in BIPM, Taiwan and Indonesia for the international comparison. (author)

  16. Particle-gamma coincidence measurements in /sup 12/C+/sup 12/C and /sup 12/C+Pb collisions at 2. 1 GeV/nucleon incident energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, G.; Koontz, R.; Mulera, T.; Pugh, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Hallman, T.; Madansky, L. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (USA)); Carroll, J. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Chang, C.C. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)); Kirk, P.N.

    1985-06-24

    A particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed with a 2.1 GeV per nucleon /sup 12/C beam from the Bevalac. Data were taken with C and Pb targets. The ..gamma..-ray spectra are almost independent of the energy or the kind of charged particles detected in coincidence, mainly protons and deuterons. These ..gamma..-ray spectra are interpreted as resulting from ..pi../sup 0/ decay, and are consistent with known ..pi../sup 0/ production rates. A search for a possible decay of singly-charged anomalons into a gamma and a deuteron (or unbound proton-neutron system) has been done by studying the ..gamma..p and ..gamma..d invariant mass distributions. The upper limits for such a process are found to be 2 to 20% of the deuteron production rate, for anomalon masses for 200 to 400 MeV above the deuteron mass, with an anomalon mean lifetime of up to 10/sup -9/ s, depending on which kind of decay process is considered.

  17. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x10 11 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of 128 I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10''x10'' NaI(TI) annulus and a 3''x3'' NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of 137 Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported

  18. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Radiochemistry Research Laboratory

    1997-10-01

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of {sup 128}I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10``x10`` NaI(TI) annulus and a 3``x3`` NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of {sup 137}Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. The measurement of cross sections of inelastic and transfer reactions with gamma-particle coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagatto, V.A.B.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Pereira, D.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Rossi Junior, E.S.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Toufen, D.L. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Guarulhos, SP (Brazil); Silveira, M.A.G. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lubian, J.; Linares, R. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Nobre, G.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A new method was developed in Pelletron laboratory to measure gamma-particle coincidences and the chosen experiment to test this method was the {sup 18}O +{sup 110} Pd in the 46-60 MeV range. The following work aims to obtain experimental cross sections of inelastic excitation 0{sup +} {yields} 2{sup +} of {sup 110}Pd and transfer to excited states reactions (both measured by gamma-particle coincidences). The measurements were made at the Pelletron accelerator laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo with the Saci-Perere spectrometer [1], which consists of 4 GeHP Compton suppressed gamma detectors and a 4{pi} charged particle ancillary system with 11{Delta}E-E plastic phoswich scintillators (further details about the experimental procedure may be found in [2]). Calculations were performed with a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential, specifically developed for the inclusion of dissipative processes like deep-inelastic collisions (DIC) [3,4] considering the Coulomb plus nuclear potential (with the aid of FRESCO code [5]). The experimental cross sections were obtained such as described in [6] including particle-gamma angular correlations, finite size of gamma and particle detectors as the vacuum de-alignment effects [7] (caused by hyperfine interaction) for the {sup 110}Pd inelastic reaction and for the {sup 110}Pd 2n transfer reaction. Also the effects of the beam spot size and energy loss in the target were included in these calculations. For these purposes a new code has been developed to assist in the data analysis. The gamma-particle angular correlations are calculated using the scattering amplitudes given by FRESCO. The theoretical predictions still consider 2 different types of normalization factors in its the real part: 1:0, and 0:6 as proposed in [3] for the weakly bound projectile cases. The analyses indicate that the 0:6 factor describes better the experimental data possible due to the large density of states in the transitional region. [1

  20. Digested livestock wastewater treatment using gamma-ray irradiation and struvite crystallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak Hyun; Lee, Sang Ryul; Nam, Youn Ku; Lee, Myun Joo

    2009-01-01

    Livestock wastewater generally contains high strength of organics (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), phosphate phosphorus (PO 4 3- -P) and suspended solids. It is very difficult to treat by conventional wastewater treatment techniques. In this study, struvite crystallization was carried out to treat the digested livestock wastewater. 1.0 :1.2 :1.2 was determined as an optimal NH 4 + :Mg 2+ : PO 4 3- mol ratio of struvite crystallization. For the digested livestock wastewater, COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P removal efficiencies by struvite crystallization were 72.4%, 98.9%, and 74.8%, respectively. Gamma-ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. The enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency could be obtained by the pretreatment of gamma-ray irradiation due to the decrease of COD, NH 4 + -N and PO 4 3- -P concentration

  1. Numerical expressions for the computation of coincidence-summing correction factors in gamma-ray spectrometry with HPGe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, S.; Tomarchio, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The analytical relations used to compute the coincidence-summing effects on spectral response of Ge semiconductor detectors are quite complex and involve full-energy peak and total efficiencies. For point-sources, a general method for calculating the correction factors for gamma ray coincidences has been formulated by Andreev et al. and used by Schima and Hoppes to obtain γ-X K coincidence correction expressions for 17 nuclides. However, because the higher-order terms are neglected, the expressions supplied do not give reliable results in the case of short sample-detector distances. Using the formulae given by Morel et al.[3] and Lepy et al.[4], we have developed a computer program able to get numerical expressions to compute γ-γ e γ-X K coincidence summing corrections for point sources. Only full-energy peak and total efficiencies are needed. Alternatively, values of peak-to-total ratio can be introduced. For extended sources, the same expressions can be always considered with the introduction of 'effective efficiencies' as defined by Arnold and Sima, i.e. an average over the source volume of the spatial distribution of the elementary photon source total efficiency, weighted by the corresponding peak efficiency. We have considered the most used calibration radioisotopes as well as fission products, activation products and environmental isotopes. All decay data were taken from the most recent volumes of 'Table of Radionuclides', CEA Monographie BIPM-5 and a suitable matrix representation of a decay scheme was adopted. For the sake of brevity, we provide for each nuclide a set of expressions for the more intense gamma emissions, considered sufficient for most applications. However, numerical expressions are available for all the stored gamma transitions and can be obtained on request. As examples of the use of the expressions, the evaluation of correction values for point sources and a particulate sample reduced to a 6x6x0.7 cm packet - with reference

  2. Gamma radiation effects on photorefractive and photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, Eh.S.; Ovsepyan, R.K.; Pogosyan, A.R.; Timofeev, A.L.

    1984-08-01

    Investigations into the gamma radiation effect on the photorefractive aned photoelectric properties of lithium niobate crystals have been carried out for the first time. Gamma irradiation has been found to lead to an increase in the photorefractive sensitivity. The effect of optical decoloration has been discovered for the first time along with photorelaxation currents resulting from radiation center decay under the action of light. It has been shown that an increase of photorefractive sensitivity in gamma-irradiated lithium niobate crystals is caused by a new photorefraction mechanism - photorelaxation currents.

  3. Testing gravitational parity violation with coincident gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Owen, Benjamin J.; Alexander, Stephon

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational parity violation is a possibility motivated by particle physics, string theory, and loop quantum gravity. One effect of it is amplitude birefringence of gravitational waves, whereby left and right circularly polarized waves propagate at the same speed but with different amplitude evolution. Here we propose a test of this effect through coincident observations of gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts from binary mergers involving neutron stars. Such gravitational waves are highly left or right circularly polarized due to the geometry of the merger. Using localization information from the gamma-ray burst, ground-based gravitational wave detectors can measure the distance to the source with reasonable accuracy. An electromagnetic determination of the redshift from an afterglow or host galaxy yields an independent measure of this distance. Gravitational parity violation would manifest itself as a discrepancy between these two distance measurements. We exemplify such a test by considering one specific effective theory that leads to such gravitational parity violation, Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and all-sky gamma-ray telescopes can be sensitive to the propagating sector of Chern-Simons gravitational parity violation to a level roughly 2 orders of magnitude better than current stationary constraints from the LAGEOS satellites.

  4. Nanodefect formation in LiF crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussaeva, M.A.; Ibragimova, Eh.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Muminov, M.I.

    2006-01-01

    One studied the spectra of absorption and of photoluminescence, microhardness and performed X-ray structure analysis of gamma-irradiated LiF crystals in a shutdown reactor and in 60 Co source when gamma-radiation dose rate was equal to 7.65 Gy/s. In addition to formation of point and combined radiation defects one detected the presence of the gamma-irradiation induced 28 nm size nanoparticles of LiOH phase in Li sublattice. Formation of defects is shown to occur more efficiently in a shutdown reactor in contrast to 60 Co source [ru

  5. Detector characterization and first coincidence tests of a Compton telescope based on LaBr3 crystals and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Barrio, J.; Cabello, J.; Crespo, A.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Callier, S.; La Taille, C. de; Raux, L.

    2012-01-01

    A Compton telescope for dose monitoring in hadron therapy consisting of several layers of continuous LaBr 3 crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is under development within the ENVISION project. In order to test the possibility of employing such detectors for the telescope, a detector head consisting of a continuous 16 mm×18 mm×5 mm LaBr 3 crystal coupled to a SiPM array has been assembled and characterized, employing the SPIROC1 ASIC as readout electronics. The best energy resolution obtained at 511 keV is 6.5% FWHM and the timing resolution is 3.1 ns FWHM. A position determination method for continuous crystals is being tested, with promising results. In addition, the detector has been operated in time coincidence with a second detector layer, to determine the coincidence capabilities of the system. The first tests are satisfactory, and encourage the development of larger detectors that will compose the telescope prototype.

  6. Darmstadton hunting in the interaction $\\gamma$-crystal

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    From several years, indications of the existence of sharp lines, presenting all features of light neutral particles, particles have been found in heavy ions-atoms interaction at the GSI (Darmstadt). \\\\\\\\ This experiment aims to produce these particles in $\\gamma-$interaction with the strong field of a crystal near the direction of an axis. \\\\\\\\ The small divergence tagged $\\gamma-$beam is obtained from a 150 GeV $e^{-}-$ beam. The angular measurements are performed by $\\mu-$strip detector, at large distance ($\\approx$80 m of vacuum pipe shielded against the earth's magnetic field). Energy measurements are performed by magnetic analysis and independently by lead glass calorimeters. \\\\\\\\The setup is fitted to the search of such particles in the lifetime ranges:\\\\ $[10^{-13} s > \\tau > 0.5 10^{-17}s]$ and $[10^{-9}s > \\tau > 10^{-13}s]$ \\\\\\\\ - In the first case (LL), the magnets Trim9 and Trim5 are not used, the particle decaying near the crystal will appear as a narrow peak over a large bump due to the pairs ...

  7. Gamma-induced defect production in ZrO2-Y2O3 crystals with different defectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurov, M.Kh.; Amonov, M.Z.; Rakov, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The defectiveness degree of ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 crystals depends on stabilizer concentration. The work is aimed at study gamma-induced defect production in crystals with different concentration of stabilizer and defects generated by neutron irradiation. Absorption spectra were measured with Specord M-40. It was found, that after gamma-irradiation of as-grown crystals up to some dose the intensity of absorption band at 420 nm reaches the maximum level of saturation. The dose of saturation depends of the concentration of stabilizer. It means that gamma-radiation does not produce any additional defects of structure. The oxygen vacancies existing in as-grown crystals are filled by the radiation induced electrons. Since the number of oxygen vacancies depends on the stabilizer concentration, then all these vacancies can be occupied by electrons at different gamma-doses. In crystals pre-irradiated with different neutron fluences followed by gamma-irradiation, the intensity of absorption bands at 420 and 530 nm increases in two stages. The gamma-dose of the second stage beginning decreases as the neutron fluence grows. The first stage of the absorption increase is due to developing of vacancies existing in as-grown crystals. The second stage is caused by generation of additional vacancies as the result of non-radiative exciton decay near the existing structure damages. The decrease of the gamma-dose, when the second stage of vacancy accumulation begins, results from the neutron induced structure damage degree

  8. Environmental studies on X- and {gamma}-irradiated LiCsSO{sub 4} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E

    2003-09-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of LiCsSO{sub 4} crystal have been studied after exposure to different doses of X and {gamma} radiations. The glow curves showed TL response of three peaks at 75 deg. C, 125 deg. C and 250 deg. C. The structure of the glow peaks due to X-rays is quite different from that due to {gamma}-rays. UV exposure yields a regeneration of the TL peaks for the post-irradiated samples with X- or {gamma}-radiation with some changes in the peak structure especially the third peak. For the post-X-ray irradiated crystals, the area under the third glow peak (PK III) increased linearly with the integrated time of UV exposure till about 30 min after which no changes were observed; while, for the post-{gamma}-irradiated crystals, two linear regions were observed. The models of the TL response for the post-irradiated samples as a result of exposure to UV are discussed.

  9. Method for improvement of gamma-transition cascade spectra amplitude resolution by computer processing of coincidence codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    A method of improvement of amplitude resolution in the case of record of coinciding codes on the magnetic tape is suggested. It is shown on the record with Ge(Li) detectors of cascades of gamma-transitions from the 35 Cl(n, #betta#) reaction that total width at a half maximum of the peak may decrease by a factor of 2.6 for quanta with the energy similar to the neutron binding energy. Efficiency loss is absent

  10. F-18 FDG PET with coincidence detection, dual-head gamma camera, initial experience in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.M.G.; Pocock, N.; Quach, T.; Camden, B.M.C. [Liverpool Health Services, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Ultrasound

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The development of Co-incidence Detection (CD) in gamma camera technology has allowed the use of positron radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice without dedicated PET facilities. We report our initial experience of this technology in Oncological applications. All patients were administered 200 MBq of F- 18 FDG intravenously in a fasting state, with serum glucose below 8.9 mmol/L., and hydration well maintained. Tomography was performed using an ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) dual-head gamma camera, 60 minutes after administration and immediately after voiding. Tomography of the torso required up to three collections depending on the length of the patient, with each collection requiring 32 steps of 40 second duration, and a 50% overlap. Tomography of the brain required a single collection with 32 steps of 80 seconds. Patients were scanned in the supine position. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was employed without attenuation correction. All patients had histologically confirmed malignancy. Scan findings were correlated with results of all conventional diagnostic imaging procedures that were pertinent to the evaluation and management of each individual patient`s disease. Correlation with tumour type and treatment status was also undertaken. F-18 FDG uptake as demonstrated by CD-PET was increased in tumour bearing sites. The degree of increased uptake varied with tumour type and with treatment status. Our initial experience with CD-PET has been very encouraging, and has led us to undertake prospective short and long term studies to define its role in oncology

  11. Automatic classification of gammas-gamma coincidence matrices; Clasificacion automatizada de matrices de coincidencias Gamma-Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos Merino, J M; Gonzalez, J A

    1978-07-01

    The information obtained during a coincidence experiment, recorded on magnetic tape by a MULTI-8 minicomputer, is transferred to a new tape in 36 bit words, using the program LEC0M8. The classification in two dimensional matrix form is carried out off-line, on a magnetic disk file, by the program CLAFI. On finishing classification one obtains a copy of the coincidence matrix on the second magnetic tape. Both programs are written to be processed in that order with the UNIVAC 1106 computer of J.E.N. (Author) 4 refs.

  12. Minicomputer system for radiochemical analysis by coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brauer, F.P.; Fager, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Minicomputer-based coincidence analysis methods have been developed for use in performing radiochemical analysis by high-resolution x- and gamma-ray coincidence spectrometry. This paper describes the data-acquisition and analysis methods develolped for qualitative and quantitative analyses of coincidence spectrometric data. Data-acquisition capabilities include both direct multiparameter pulse-height analysis and buffered list-mode acquisition

  13. Three-gamma annihilation of ortho-positronium in NiO/γ-Al2O3 catalysts detected by positron lifetime and coincidence Doppler broadening measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.H.; Chen, Z.Q.; Zhang, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The pore structure of NiO/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts is characterized by positron lifetime and Doppler broadening measurements. A very long lifetime τ 4 of 92 ns is resolved from the positron lifetime spectrum measured for pure Al 2 O 3 , which could be attributed to the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime in large pores. It was also found that the fitted lifetime τ 4 and its corresponding intensity I 4 obtained from the lifetime spectra both decrease with narrowing energy window of the stop channel in the fast–fast coincidence lifetime measurement system. This suggests that the ultra long lifetime is primarily due to the self annihilation of o-Ps which emits three gamma-rays. Such 3γ annihilation is further evidenced by measuring the Doppler broadening of annihilation gamma rays in coincidence with the prompt gamma rays (1.28 MeV) emitted from the 22 Na positron source. In NiO/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts both the lifetime τ 4 and its intensity I 4 decreases with increasing NiO content (from 3 wt% to 40 wt%), which indicates decreasing of the number of 3γ events. The 3γ annihilation parameter analyzed from the coincidence Doppler broadening spectrum shows consistent decrease with increasing NiO content. - Highlights: ► Above paper reported study of the 3-gamma annihilation of o-Ps. ► 3γ annihilation was verified by varying the energy window of the lifetime system. ► A new coincidence Doppler broadening technique is also used to record 3γ events. ► 3γ parameter decreases with NiO content in NiO/γ-Al 2 O 3 catalysts.

  14. Stress coarsening of gamma-prime and its influence on creep properties of a single crystal superalloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, D.D.; Lemkey, F.D.; Kear, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of stress annealing on the gamma-prime morphology in single crystals of a Ni-13Al-9Mo-2Ta alloy is examined. It is found that a crystal subjected to tensile creep in the 100 line orientation develops platelets, or rafts, of gamma-prime in orientations perpendicular to the applied stress. Due to the large negative gamma/gamma-prime misfit (about 0.7%) in this alloy, the gamma/gamma-prime interfaces feature high-density misfit dislocations. Under a stress of 207 MPa at 1038 C, the rafted gamma-prime structure exhibits a rupture life of over 400 hr as compared with 100 hr for unrafted material

  15. Morphological changes of gamma prime precipitates in nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.A.

    1984-07-01

    Changes in the morphology of the gamma prime precipitate were examined during tensile creep at temperatures between 927 and 1038 C in 001-oriented single crystals of a Ni-Al-Mo-Ta superalloy. In this alloy, which has a large negative misfit of -0.80%, the gamma prime particles link together during creep to form platelets, or rafts, which are aligned with their broad faces perpendicular to the applied tensile axis. The dimensions of the gamma and gamma prime phases were measured as directional coarsening developed in an attempt to trace the changing morphology under various stress levels. In addition, the effects of initial microstructure, as well as slight compositional variations, were related to raft development and creep properties. The results showed that directional coarsening of gamma prime began during primary creep, and under certain conditions, continued to develop after the onset of steady-state creep. The length of the rafts increased linearly with time up to a plateau region. The thickness of the rafts, however, remained equal to the initial gamma prime size at least up through the onset of tertiary creep this is a clear indication of the stability of the finely-spaced gamma-gamma prime lamellar structure. It was found that the single crystals with the finest gamma prime size exhibited the longest creep lives, because the resultant rafted structure had a larger number of gamma-gamma prime interfaces per unit volume of material

  16. Crystal growth and characterization of a semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystal of gamma glycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, J. Thomas Joseph; Kumararaman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma glycine has been successfully synthesized by taking glycine and potassium chloride and single crystals have been grown by solvent evaporation method for the first time. The grown single crystals have been analyzed with XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA) measurements. Its mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness measurements. Its nonlinear optical property has been tested by Kurtz powder technique. Its optical behavior was examined by UV-vis., and found that the crystal is transparent in the region between 240 and 1200 nm. Hence, it may be very much useful for the second harmonic generation (SHG) applications

  17. Room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors using thallium bromide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Hitomi, K; Shoji, T; Suehiro, T; Hiratate, Y

    1999-01-01

    Thallium bromide (TlBr) is a compound semiconductor with wide band gap (2.68 eV) and high X- and gamma-ray stopping power. The TlBr crystals were grown by the horizontal travelling molten zone (TMZ) method using purified material. Two types of room temperature X- and gamma-ray detectors were fabricated from the TlBr crystals: TlBr detectors with high detection efficiency for positron annihilation gamma-ray (511 keV) detection and TlBr detectors with high-energy resolution for low-energy X-ray detection. The detector of the former type demonstrated energy resolution of 56 keV FWHM (11%) for 511 keV gamma-rays. Energy resolution of 1.81 keV FWHM for 5.9 keV was obtained from the detector of the latter type. In order to analyze noise characteristics of the detector-preamplifier assembly, the equivalent noise charge (ENC) was measured as a function of the amplifier shaping time for the high-resolution detector. This analysis shows that parallel white noise and 1/f noise were dominant noise sources in the detector...

  18. Increased gamma band power during movement planning coincides with motor memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thürer, Benjamin; Stockinger, Christian; Focke, Anne; Putze, Felix; Schultz, Tanja; Stein, Thorsten

    2016-01-15

    The retrieval of motor memory requires a previous memory encoding and subsequent consolidation of the specific motor memory. Previous work showed that motor memory seems to rely on different memory components (e.g., implicit, explicit). However, it is still unknown if explicit components contribute to the retrieval of motor memories formed by dynamic adaptation tasks and which neural correlates are linked to memory retrieval. We investigated the lower and higher gamma bands of subjects' electroencephalography during encoding and retrieval of a dynamic adaptation task. A total of 24 subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment and control group. Both groups adapted to a force field A on day 1 and were re-exposed to the same force field A on day 3 of the experiment. On day 2, treatment group learned an interfering force field B whereas control group had a day rest. Kinematic analyses showed that control group improved their initial motor performance from day 1 to day 3 but treatment group did not. This behavioral result coincided with an increased higher gamma band power in the electrodes over prefrontal areas on the initial trials of day 3 for control but not treatment group. Intriguingly, this effect vanished with the subsequent re-adaptation on day 3. We suggest that improved re-test performance in a dynamic motor adaptation task is contributed by explicit memory and that gamma bands in the electrodes over the prefrontal cortex are linked to these explicit components. Furthermore, we suggest that the contribution of explicit memory vanishes with the subsequent re-adaptation while task automaticity increases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Attenuation of Reactor Gamma Radiation and Fast Neutrons Through Large Single-Crystal Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized formula is given which, for neutron energies in the range 10-4< E< 10 eV and gamma rays with average energy 2 MeV , permits calculation of the transmission properties of several single crystal materials important for neutron scattering instrumentation. A computer program Filter was developed which permits the calculation of attenuation of gamma radiation, nuclear capture, thermal diffuse and Bragg-scattering cross-sections as a function of materials constants, temperature and neutron energy. The applicability of the deduced formula along with the code checked from the obtained agreement between the calculated and experimental neutron transmission through various single-crystals A feasibility study for use of Si, Ge, Pb, Bi and sapphire is detailed in terms of optimum crystal thickness, mosaic spread and cutting plane for efficient transmission of thermal reactor neutrons and for rejection of the accompanying fast neutrons and gamma rays.

  20. Effect of Co-60 gamma radiation on optical, dielectric and mechanical properties of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate NLO crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileep, M. S.; Suresh Kumar, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    A potentially useful nonlinear optical semi-organic single crystal of strontium L-ascorbate hexahydrate (SLAH) was grown by solution growth slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The grown crystal is semi transparent, yellowish in color with monoclinic crystal system having space group P21 and is stable up to 198 °C. Further, SLAH crystals were irradiated with gamma rays produced by 60Co with different doses of 10 KGy, 30 KGy and 50 KGy at room temperature and then studied the effect of gamma-rays on dielectric properties, optical absorption, microhardness and SHG efficiency. The absorption study reveals that the absorbance of the grown crystal is appeared to be low throughout the visible region with a lower cutoff wavelength of 277 nm and these parameters are not affected upon gamma irradiation. The luminescence intensity of the crystal is also not affected by the irradiation. There is noticeable changes were observed in dielectric properties and hardness of the materials for different doses of gamma irradiation. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the grown crystal is 0.54 times that of the KDP crystal and is decreased moderately by increasing the dosage of gamma irradiation.

  1. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-01-01

    In 4π β-γ coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between theβ--and γ-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs

  2. Soudan 2 muons in coincidence with BATSE bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMuth, D.M.; Marshak, M.L.; Wagner, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the possibilities of statistically significant temporal and spatial coincidences between underground muons at Soudan 2 and Gamma Ray Bursts at the GRO-BATSE detector. Our search uses data from the April 91 to March 92 BATSE burst catalog to seek correlations within a 100 second window of coincidence. Sixteen of 180 BATSE triggers have temporally and spatially coincident muons in the Soudan 2 detector. We estimate the chance probability of each coincidence assuming the null hypothesis on the basis of a study of the multiplicities of spatially coincident muons observed over a two day period centered on the time of burst

  3. BiI{sub 3} single crystal for room-temperature gamma ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T., E-mail: saito.tatsuya125@canon.co.jp [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, T. [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan); Kurosawa, S.; Yoshikawa, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Den, T. [Frontier Research Center, Canon Inc., 3-30-2, Shimomaruko, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 146-8501 (Japan)

    2016-01-11

    BiI{sub 3} single crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport method. The repeated sublimation of the starting material reduced impurities in the BiI{sub 3} single crystal to sub-ppm levels. The detector was fabricated by depositing Au electrodes on both surfaces of the 100-μm-thick BiI{sub 3} single crystal platelet. The resistivity of the BiI{sub 3} single crystal was increased by post-annealing in an iodine atmosphere (ρ=1.6×10{sup 11} Ω cm). Pulse height spectroscopy measurements showed clear peaks in the energy spectrum of alpha particles or gamma rays. It was estimated that the mobility-lifetime product was μ{sub e}τ{sub e}=3.4–8.5×10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and the electron–hole pair creation energy was 5.8 eV. Our results show that BiI{sub 3} single crystals are promising candidates for detectors used in radiographic imaging or gamma ray spectroscopy.

  4. High-energy Neutrino Emission from Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Prospects for Coincident Detection with Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Murase, Kohta; Mészáros, Peter [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kiuchi, Kenta [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-10-10

    We investigate current and future prospects for coincident detection of high-energy neutrinos and gravitational waves (GWs). Short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) are believed to originate from mergers of compact star binaries involving neutron stars. We estimate high-energy neutrino fluences from prompt emission, extended emission (EE), X-ray flares, and plateau emission, and we show that neutrino signals associated with the EE are the most promising. Assuming that the cosmic-ray loading factor is ∼10 and the Lorentz factor distribution is lognormal, we calculate the probability of neutrino detection from EE by current and future neutrino detectors, and we find that the quasi-simultaneous detection of high-energy neutrinos, gamma-rays, and GWs is possible with future instruments or even with current instruments for nearby SGRBs having EE. We also discuss stacking analyses that will also be useful with future experiments such as IceCube-Gen2.

  5. PET with coincidence gamma cameras - clinical benefit from the radiooncologists' point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.; Feyerabend, T.; Stallmann, C.; Lauer, I.; Baehre, M.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with FDG (FDG-PET) is a new technique, which displays the cellular metabolic activity. Since tumors exhibit an increased metabolic activity when compared to normal tissue, this imaging modality has a particularly high importance. FDG-PET is not only useful for localizing and staging of malignant tumors, but also to evaluate therapy response. In this context, PET is superior to morphologically orientated modalities, because therapeutically induced changes in glucose metabolism precede morphologic alterations. Numerous studies indicate, that PET will play an important role in radiooncology concerning therapy planning and monitoring the effects of therapy during and after treatment. Further clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the information provided by FDG-PET more precisely. Coincidence gamma cameras with adequate imaging characteristics will gain enhanced importance to meet these increasing demands. (orig.) [de

  6. Qualification study of LiF flight crystals for the objective crystal spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Rasmussen, I.; Schnopper, Herbert W.

    1992-01-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer (OXS) on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will carry these types of natural crystals LiF(220), Ge(111) and RAP(001). They will be used to study, among others, the H- and the He-like emission from the cosmically important elements Fe, S, Ar and O. More than 300 Li...

  7. Particle-gamma coincidence measurements in 12C+12C and 12C+Pb collisions at 2.1 GeV/nucleon incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, G.; Koontz, R.; Mulera, T.; Pugh, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Carroll, J.; Chang, C.C.; Kirk, P.N.; Krebs, G.; Vicente, J.

    1985-01-01

    A particle-gamma coincidence experiment has been performed with a 2.1 GeV per nucleon 12 C beam from the Bevalac. Data were taken with C and Pb targets. The γ-ray spectra are almost independent of the energy or the kind of charged particles detected in coincidence, mainly protons and deuterons. These γ-ray spectra are interpreted as resulting from π 0 decay, and are consistent with known π 0 production rates. A search for a possible decay of singly-charged anomalons into a gamma and a deuteron (or unbound proton-neutron system) has been done by studying the γp and γd invariant mass distributions. The upper limits for such a process are found to be 2 to 20% of the deuteron production rate, for anomalon masses for 200 to 400 MeV above the deuteron mass, with an anomalon mean lifetime of up to 10 -9 s, depending on which kind of decay process is considered. (orig.)

  8. Analysis of minor elements in steel by coincidence method in deuteron-induced prompt gamma-ray emission (D-PIGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ene, Antoaneta; Popescu, I.; Badica, T.; Olariu, Agata; Besliu, C.

    2000-01-01

    Among the factors affecting the sensitivity of PIGE method (particle-induced prompt gamma-ray emission) frequently discussed in the literature, the background in the γ-ray spectrum holds a prominent place. In this work the limits of detection of minor elements in a standard steel sample (Euronorm rm No. 085/1) irradiated with 5 MeV deuterons have been determined by the regular d-PIGE method and with the selection of the (d,n) reaction channel by measuring γ--n coincidences following the reaction steel + deuterons. This approach has resulted in a significant improvement of the sensitivity of the analysis, reducing the background in prompt gamma ray spectrum by eliminating the γ--rays observed in the singular spectrum which arises from the reaction channels (d, d'), (d, γ), (d, p), (d, 3 He), (d, α) and (d, t). From the singular spectrum we could establish the presence of the elements S, Pb, Mo, Co, V, P, O, Si, Zn, Mn, Cu, Sb, C, Al, N, As, Ti and Fe. The γ--n coincidence spectrum, obtained as a result of the selection of the γ- transitions via the reaction channel (d, n), is substantially different from the singular γ--spectrum, exhibiting γ- lines of rather high intensity to be used in the analyses on a reduced background. The coincidence spectrum shows lines from S, Mo, Co, Zn, Si, Mn, V, Sb, Ti, As, Ni, Cr, P, O, Al, Cu and Fe. We also made a comparative study with the published results using 5.5 MeV protons as projectiles. While for a given energy of the protons not all the elements of interest lead to a (p, n) reaction (C, O, P, S, Si etc.), most of the (d, n) reactions are exoergic. On the other side, the identification of the elements is more difficult in the case of deuterons. (authors)

  9. Study of a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for absolute radionuclide activity measurement using plastic scintillators; Estudo de um sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} para a medida absoluta de atividade de radionuclideos empregando cintiladores plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piuvezam Filho, Helio

    2007-07-01

    The present work was intended to study a coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} for absolute activity measurement using plastic scintillators in 4{pi} geometry. Along with experiments on the coincidence system, simulations were also performed applying the Monte Carlo Method, by means of codes PENELOPE and ESQUEMA. These simulations were performed in order to calculate the extrapolation curve of the coincidence system 4{pi}(PS){beta}-{gamma} and compare it to experimental data. A new geometry was proposed to the coincidence system adding up a second photomultiplier tube to the previous system for improving light collection from the plastic scintillator, as this system presented limitations in the minimum detected energy due to the presence of electronic noise and low gain. The results show that an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio was obtained, as well as in the minimum detected energy. Moreover, there was an increase in the detection efficiency. With these modifications, it is now possible to calibrate radionuclides which emit low energy electrons or X-rays, increasing the number of radionuclides that can be standardized with this type of system.(author)

  10. Construction of the Crystal Ball detector system and study of the helicity asymmetry in {gamma}p{yields}p{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}; Aufbau des Crystal Ball-Detektorsystems und Untersuchung der Helizitaetsasymmetrie in {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krambrich, D.

    2007-01-15

    Since spring 2004 the Crystal Ball Detector has been used for coincidence experiments probing the structure of the nucleons with real photons at the Mainzer Microtron. A major part of the commissioning, which was the first goal of this work, was the development and implementation of a new system for the Crystal Ball electronics. Components were designed or tested and, if necessary, modified to fit the experimental needs. After the commissioning, the set-up was then used successfully in several pion and eta production experiments for more than 2500 hours of beamtime. The second focus of this dissertation is the first measurement of the beam helicity asymmetry I{sup s}un in photoproduction of two neutral pions. The understanding of the excitation spectra of the nucleon requires experiments using polarised photons and/or polarised targets. Models based on different assumptions do reproduce the quantities measured without polarisation equally well but differ in the prediction of polarisation observables. The determination of more sensitive quantities is therefore mandatory. In contrast to single meson production, an observable appears in double pion production when using circularly polarized photons incident on an unpolarized target. This observable was determined as a function of energy and angle in the reactions {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} and in {gamma} p {yields} p {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -}. The results differ significantly from the model predictions. (orig.)

  11. Gamma induced atom displacements in LYSO and LuYAP crystals as used in medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñera, Ibrahin, E-mail: ipinera@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Cruz, Carlos M.; Abreu, Yamiel; Leyva, Antonio [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Van Espen, Piet [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Díaz, Angelina; Cabal, Ana E. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, CEADEN, 30 St. 502, Playa 11300, Havana (Cuba); Van Remortel, Nick [University of Antwerp, CGB, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2015-08-01

    The radiation damage, in terms of atom displacements, induced by gamma irradiation in LYSO and LuYAP crystals is presented. {sup 44}Sc, {sup 22}Na and {sup 48}V are used as gamma sources for this study. The energy of gammas from the electron–positron annihilation processes (511 keV) is also included in the study. The atom displacements distributions inside each material are calculated following the Monte Carlo assisted Classical Method introduced by the authors. This procedure also allows to study the atom displacements in-depth distributions inside each crystal. The atom displacements damage in LYSO crystals is found to be higher than in LuYAP crystals, mainly provoked by the displacements of silicon and oxygen atoms. But the difference between atom displacements produced in LYSO and LuYAP decreases when more energetic sources are used. On the other hand, the correlation between the atom displacements and energy deposition in-depth distributions is excellent. The atom displacements to energy deposition ratio is found to increases with more energetic photon sources. LYSO crystals are then more liable to the atom displacements damage than LuYAP crystals.

  12. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, T.; Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Kishimoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Kawabata, N.; Ikeda, H.; Kamada, K.

    2013-05-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 105 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  13. A new measurement of the rare decay eta -> pi^0 gamma gamma with the Crystal Ball/TAPS detectors at the Mainz Microtron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B M; Prakhov, S; Aguar-Bartolom��, P; Annand, J R; Arends, H J; Bantawa, K; Beck, R; Bekrenev, V; Bergh��user, H; Braghieri, A; Briscoe, W J; Brudvik, J; Cherepnya, S; Codling, R F; Collicott, C; Costanza, S; Danilkin, I V; Denig, A; Demissie, B; Dieterle, M; Downie, E J; Drexler, P; Fil' kov, L V; Fix, A; Garni, S; Glazier, D I; Gregor, R; Hamilton, D; Heid, E; Hornidge, D; Howdle, D; Jahn, O; Jude, T C; Kashevarov, V L; K��ser, A; Keshelashvili, I; Kondratiev, R; Korolija, M; Kotulla, M; Koulbardis, A; Kruglov, S; Krusche, B; Lisin, V; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J; Maghrbi, Y; Mancel, J; Manley, D M; McNicoll, E F; Mekterovic, D; Metag, V; Mushkarenkov, A; Nikolaev, A; Novotny, R; Oberle, M; Ortega, H; Ostrick, M; Ott, P; Otte, P B; Oussena, B; Pedroni, P; Polonski, A; Robinson, J; Rosner, G; Rostomyan, T; Schumann, S; Sikora, M H; Starostin, A; Strakovsky, I I; Strub, T; Suarez, I M; Supek, I; Tarbert, C M; Thiel, M; Thomas, A; Unverzagt, M; Watts, D P; Werthmueller, D; Witthauer, L

    2014-08-01

    A new measurement of the rare, doubly radiative decay eta->pi^0 gamma gamma was conducted with the Crystal Ball and TAPS multiphoton spectrometers together with the photon tagging facility at the Mainz Microtron MAMI. New data on the dependence of the partial decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma), on the two-photon invariant mass squared, m^2(gamma gamma), as well as a new, more precise value for the decay width, Gamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma) = (0.33+/-0.03_tot) eV, are based on analysis of 1.2 x 10^3 eta->pi^0 gamma gamma decays from a total of 6 x 10^7 eta mesons produced in the gamma p -> eta p reaction. The present results for dGamma(eta->pi^0 gamma gamma)/dm^2(gamma gamma) are in good agreement with previous measurements and recent theoretical calculations for this dependence.

  14. Crystal glass used for X ray and gamma radiation shielding - Part two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2007-01-01

    Crystal glass has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. However, properties of the radiation attenuation of crystal glass commercially available in Brazil, for the different types of energy are not known. For this reason, this work was carried out aiming to determine the radiation attenuation, transmission curves and Half Value Layer. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20 cm x 20 cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, were used. The plates were X-ray irradiated with potential constants of 60, 80, 110, 150 kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. Analysis in the properties of the 60 Co radiation attenuation of barite plaster and barite concrete commercially available in Brazil were also carried out. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. The thickness equivalent of a half value layer and deci value layer of crystal glass for all types of radiation and energies studied was also determined. (author)

  15. Electrophysical properties of In P crystals, irradiated with CO-60 gamma quanta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, M.I.; Guseynova, M.A.; Aliyev, I.M.; Ragimov, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : n-InP monocrystals were investigated before and after gamma irradiation having a doze about 10 and also within temperature interval from 77 to 320 K. On χ(T) and σ(T) dependences it is revealed that during gamma irradiation p-type antistructural defects are generated in n-InP crystals. It gives an opportunity of receiving of not alloyed semiinsulating indium fosfide [ru

  16. Quantifying radionuclide signatures from a γ–γ coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, Richard; Jackson, Mark J.; Davies, Ashley V.

    2015-01-01

    A method for quantifying gamma coincidence signatures has been developed, and tested in conjunction with a high-efficiency multi-detector system to quickly identify trace amounts of radioactive material. The γ–γ system utilises fully digital electronics and list-mode acquisition to time–stamp each event, allowing coincidence matrices to be easily produced alongside typical ‘singles’ spectra. To quantify the coincidence signatures a software package has been developed to calculate efficiency and cascade summing corrected branching ratios. This utilises ENSDF records as an input, and can be fully automated, allowing the user to quickly and easily create/update a coincidence library that contains all possible γ and conversion electron cascades, associated cascade emission probabilities, and true-coincidence summing corrected γ cascade detection probabilities. It is also fully searchable by energy, nuclide, coincidence pair, γ multiplicity, cascade probability and half-life of the cascade. The probabilities calculated were tested using measurements performed on the γ–γ system, and found to provide accurate results for the nuclides investigated. Given the flexibility of the method, (it only relies on evaluated nuclear data, and accurate efficiency characterisations), the software can now be utilised for a variety of systems, quickly and easily calculating coincidence signature probabilities. - Highlights: • Monte-Carlo based software developed to easily create/update a coincidence signal library for environmental radionuclides. • Coincidence library utilised to accurately quantify gamma coincidence signatures. • All coincidence signature probabilities are corrected for cascade summing, conversion electron emission and pair production. • Key CTBTO relevant radionuclides have been tested to verify the calculated correction factors. • Accurately quantifying coincidence signals during routine analysis will allow dramatically improved detection

  17. Scintillation response of CsI: Tl crystal under neutron, gamma, alpha particles and beta excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa; Madi Filho, Tufic; Lopes, Valdir Maciel; Berretta, Jose Roberto; Cardenas, Jose Patricio Nahuel, E-mail: macoper@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Among the converters of X and gamma radiation in light photons, known as scintillators, the one which is the most efficient emits photons with a wavelength near 400 nm. Particularly, among them, the cesium iodine doped with thallium (CsI:Tl) crystal is that which matches better between the light emission spectrum (peak at 540 nm) and the quantum sensitivity curve of the photodiodes and CCD (Charge Coupled Device). This explains the renewed interest in using this crystal as scintillator. Although the CsI:Tl crystal is commercially available, its local development would give the possibility to obtain it in different geometric configurations and coupling. Moreover, there is a special interest in studying new conditions that will alter the properties of this crystal in order to achieve a optimal level of its functional characteristics. Having an efficient national scintillator with low cost is a strategic opportunity to study the response of a detector applied to different types of radiation. The crystal of cesium iodide activated with thallium (CsI:Tl) has a high gamma detection efficiency per unit volume. In this paper, the CsI:Tl crystal, grown by the vertical Bridgman technique in evacuated silica ampoules and with the purpose of use as radiation detectors, is described. To evaluate the scintillator, measures of the thallium distribution in the crystal volume were taken, with overall efficiency score. The scintillator response was studied through gamma radiation from sources of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 60}Co, {sup 22}Na, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc; the beta radiation from source of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, alpha particles from {sup 241}Am source and the scintillator response to neutrons from Am/Be source. The energetic resolution for {sup 137}Cs gamma rays (662 keV) was 10%. The results showed the validity of using the CsI:Tl crystal developed in our laboratory, in many applications in the area of radiation detectors. (author)

  18. Influence of Gamma-Ray Irradiation on Absorption and Fluorescent Spectra of Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG Laser Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Dun-Lu; ZHANG Qing-Li; XIAO Jing-Zhong; LUO Jian-Qiao; JIANG Hai-He; YIN Shao-Tang

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation on the absorption and fluorescent spectra of Nd3+ : Y3Al5O12 (Nd:YAG) and Yb3+ :Y3Al5O12 (Yb:YAG) crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Two additional absorption (AA) bands induced by gamma-ray irradiation appear at 255nm and 340nm. The former is eontributed due to Fe3+ impurity, the latter is due to Fe2+ ions and F-type colour centres. The intensity of the excitation and emission spectra as well as the fluorescent lifetime of Nd:YAG crystal decrease after the irradiation of 100 Mrad gamma-ray. In contrast, the same dose irradiation does not impair the fluorescent properties of Yb: YA G crystal. These results indicate that Yb: YA G crystal possesses the advantage over Nd: YA G crystal that has better reliability for applications in harsh radiant environment.

  19. On neutron activation analysis with γγ coincidence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, Rolf; Danyal Turkoglu; Ibere Souza Ribeiro Junior; Shetty, M.G.

    2017-01-01

    A new γγ coincidence system has been set up at NIST. It is operated with a digital data finder supported by new software developed at NIST. The system is used to explore possible enhancements in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and study applicability to neutron capture prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA). The performance of the system is tested with certified reference materials for efficiency calibration and quantitative performance. Comparisons of INAA results based on conventional gamma-ray spectrometry data with INAA results based on coincidence data obtained from the same samples show improvements in the counting uncertainties and demonstrates the quantitative accuracy of the new system. (author)

  20. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  1. Absolute activity measurement and gamma-ray emission probability for decay of I-126; Medida absoluta da atividade e determinacao da taxa de emissao gama por decaimento do {sup 126} I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Katia Aparecida

    1997-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of the gamma-ray emission probability per decay of radionuclides is important in several applications. In the case of {sup 126} I, its importance lies mainly in fast neutron dosimetry as well as in the production of {sup 125} I where {sup 126} I appears as an impurity. In the present work the gamma-ray emission probabilities per decay for the 388 and 666-KeV transitions of {sup 126} I have been measured. This radionuclide was obtained by means of the {sup 127} I(n, 2n){sup 126} I reaction in a fast neutron flux at the IPEN 2 MW research reactor. The methodology for the primary standardization of {sup 126} I is described. For this purpose, two different coincidence systems were used due to the complex decay scheme of this radionuclide. The {beta}branch measurement was carried out in a 4 {pi}(PC){beta}-{gamma} coincidence system consisting of a proportional counter, coupled to a pair of 3'x3' Na I (Tl) crystal. The electron capture branch was measured in a X-{gamma} coincidence system using two NaI(Tl) crystals. The gamma-ray measurements were performed in a HPGe system, previously calibrated by means of standard sources supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  2. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  3. Influence of UV Photo-Transfer on Post Irradiated Double Sulphate Poly-Crystals By Gamma And X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-kolaly, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Solid state thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry has for many years been the pre-eminent method for quantifying ionizing radiation dose. In this work, thermoluminescence characteristics of the double sulphate (Li Cs So 4 ) poly-crystals have been studied after exposure to different doses from X and gamma radiation. The glue curves showed TL response of three peaks at 75,125,250 degree. The structure of the glue peaks due to X-rays is quite different from that due to gamma rays. UV exposure yields a regeneration of the TL peaks for the post irradiated samples for X or gamma radiation with some changes in the peaks structure especially the third peak. For the post X-ray irradiated crystals, the area under the third glow peak (III) increased linearly with the integrated time of UV exposures till about 30 min. after which no changes were observed; while , for the post gamma-irradiated crystals two linear regions were observed

  4. Influence of gamma radiation and impurity atoms on the photoconductivity of GeS single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madatov, R.S.; Alekperov, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wide opportunities for using of layered semiconductors, particularly in optoelectronics have generated considerable interest to them. Recently it was created the unique device from GeS for the storage of solar energy. The investigated GeS 1 -xNd x S single crystals were grown by the Bridgman method. The samples were irradiated by gamma-quanta and was conducted to install 60Co at room temperature. Irradiation of p-GeS 1 -xNd x S single crystals by small doses of gamma rays increases the photoconductivity on 40%

  5. Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Zhang Chuanfei; Hu Mengchun; Peng Taiping; Wang Zhentong; Tang Dengpan; Zhao Guangjun

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal, which is important for pulsed γ-ray measurement, was studied in this work.The Ce: YAG crystal, which was developed at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was aligned point by point with γ-rays scattered from an industrial 60 Co line source. The γ-ray relative energy response was calculated using the mass attenuation coefficient. The results show that the numerical calculation method of γ-ray relative energy response is reliable, and the experimental method with multi-energy point γ-ray by Compton scattering is also feasible, that can be used for checking up correctness of the numerical calculation results. (authors)

  6. System for ν-ν-coincidence spectra processing with data compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byalko, A.A.; Volkov, N.G.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.; Churakov, A.K.

    1982-01-01

    Calculational algorithm and program for analyzing gamma-gamma coincidence spectra based on using the method of expansion in singular values for data compression (the SVD method) are described. Results of the testing of the program during the processing of coincidence spectrum for the low-energy region of transitions corresponding to decay 164 Lu → 164 Yb are given. The program is written in the FORTRAN language and is realized by the ES-1040 computer. The counting time constitutes about 20 min. It is concluded that the use of the SVD method permits to correct the data at the expense of distortion filtration caused with statistical deviations and random interferences, at that not distorting the initial data. The data compressed correspond more to theoretical suggestions of forms of semiconductor detector lines and two-dimensional line in the coincidence spectrum

  7. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J E. de; Granados, C E

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  8. A new approach to beta-gamma coincidence counting. Advance report on the Samar electronic system; Informe preliminar del sistema Samar sistema automatico de medidas absolutas de Radionucleidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, J. E. de; Granados, C. E.

    1972-07-01

    In 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} coincidence measurements, precision on the evaluation of coincidence counting losses is made difficult because of complex overlapping effects between the{beta}--and {gamma}-side dead times due to pre cursive counted events. In this context the SAMAR electronic system is aimed to give a precise way of automatic counting and reduce the need for calculated corrections. This report describes its configuration and basic features. The SAMAR has been conceived in such a manner that both beta and gamma chains are sharing a common and non extending dead-time which is simultaneously applied to both channels. The shared dead time is made to be the only one inserted throughout the chains. Overlapping effects vanish and the three counting channels have identical transmission ratios. A new dead-time circuit based on fast linear gates as blocking elements has been developed. Application of the two-oscillator Muller's method evidences a fully non-extending character. Automatism is implemented by using a live timer corrective channel controlling the counting scalers. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Low level radioactivity measurements with phoswich detectors using coincident techniques and digital pulse processing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, R; de Celis, B; del Canto, V; Lumbreras, J M; de Celis Alonso, B; Martín-Martín, A; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J L

    2008-10-01

    A new system has been developed for the detection of low radioactivity levels of fission products and actinides using coincidence techniques. The device combines a phoswich detector for alpha/beta/gamma-ray recognition with a fast digital card for electronic pulse analysis. The phoswich can be used in a coincident mode by identifying the composed signal produced by the simultaneous detection of alpha/beta particles and X-rays/gamma particles. The technique of coincidences with phoswich detectors was proposed recently to verify the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) which established the necessity of monitoring low levels of gaseous fission products produced by underground nuclear explosions. With the device proposed here it is possible to identify the coincidence events and determine the energy and type of coincident particles. The sensitivity of the system has been improved by employing liquid scintillators and a high resolution low energy germanium detector. In this case it is possible to identify simultaneously by alpha/gamma coincidence transuranic nuclides present in environmental samples without necessity of performing radiochemical separation. The minimum detectable activity was estimated to be 0.01 Bq kg(-1) for 0.1 kg of soil and 1000 min counting.

  10. 'Dip-sticks' calibration handles self-attenuation and coincidence effects in large-volume gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolterbeek, H T

    2000-01-01

    Routine gamma-spectrometric analyses of samples with low-level activities (e.g. food, water, environmental and industrial samples) are often performed in large samples, placed close to the detector. In these geometries, detection sensitivity is improved but large errors are introduced due to self-attenuation and coincidence summing. Current approaches to these problems comprise computational methods and spiked standard materials. However, the first are often regarded as too complex for practical routine use, the latter never fully match real samples. In the present study, we introduce a dip-sticks calibration as a fast and easy practical solution to this quantification problem in a routine analytical setting. In the proposed set-up, calibrations are performed within the sample itself, thus making it a broadly accessible matching-reference approach, which is principally usable for all sample matrices.

  11. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et des rapports

  12. Development of Coincidence Method for Determination Thermal Neutron Flux on RSG-GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhri, Syaiful; Hamzah, Amir

    2004-01-01

    The research to develop detection radiation system using coincidence method has been done to determine thermal neutron flux in RS1 and RS2 irradiation facilities RSG-GAS. At this research has arranged beta-gamma coincidence equipment system and parameter of measurement according to Au-198 beta-gamma spectrum. Gold foils that have irradiated for period of time, counted, and the activities of radiation is analyzed to get neutron flux. Result of research indicate that systems measurement of absolute activity with gamma beta coincidence method functioning well and can be applied at activity measurement of gold foil for irradiation facility characterization. The results show that thermal neutron flux in RS1 and RS2, respectively is 2.007E+12 n/cm 2 s and 2.147E+12 n/cm 2 s. To examine the system performance, the result was compared to measure activity using high resolution of Hp Ge detector and achieved discrepancy is about 1.26% and 6.70%. (author)

  13. Study of the feasibility of a compact gamma camera for real-time cancer assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero Ontanaya, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Results from the simulations of a Compton gamma camera based on compact configuration of detectors consisting in two detection modules, each of them having two stages of high-resolution position- and energy sensitive radiation detectors operated in time-coincidence are presented. Monolithic scintillation crystals instead of pixelated crystals in order to reduce dead areas have been simulated. In order to study the system feasibility to produce real-time images, different setups are considered. Performance in terms of acquisition times have been calculated to determine the real-time capabilities and limitations of such a system.

  14. Pile-up correction for coincidence counting using a CAEN 1724 digitizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro Junior, Iberê S.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    In conventional gamma-ray spectrometry, the probability of pile-up effects is considered to be proportional to the dead-time, and is usually neglected for low dead-times (below 4-5%). In gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry, though, while the dead time takes into account only events that are actually digitized, the pile-up effects are proportional to the actual gamma-ray detection rate in each detector, not only to the ones that trigger the coincidence gate. Thus, the pile-up corrections may not be so easy to assess as in single spectrometry systems. In this work, a system composed of two HPGe detectors coupled to a CAEN v1724 digitizer is studied. A 3kBq {sup 60}Co source was analyzed, both alone and in the presence of other radioactive sources ({sup 137}Cs, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 152}Eu), and the resulting coincidence peak areas were compared to assess the effectiveness of two distinct corrections: a simple normalization by the live time of acquisition and the normalization by the count rate obtained using a pulse generator. The results obtained stress the need to use the pulse generator in this specific setup in order to get accurate results. (author)

  15. Thermoluminescence response of a mixed ternary alkali halide crystals exposed to gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R.; Vazquez P, G.; Riveros, H.; Gonzalez M, P.

    2014-08-01

    Ionic crystals, mainly alkali halide crystals have been the subject of intense research for a better understanding of the luminescence properties of defects induced by ionizing radiation. The defects in crystals can be produced in appreciable concentration due to elastic stresses, radiation, and addition of impurities. These defects exhibit remarkable thermoluminescence properties. This work is concerned with the Tl properties of a ternary alkali halide crystal after being irradiated with gamma and beta rays. It has been found that the Tl glow peak of the crystal follows a rule of average associated to the Tl Temperatures of the components of the mixture, similarly to the response of europium doped binary mixed crystals KCl x KBr 1-x and KBr x RbBr 1-x . (Author)

  16. A Gamma Scanner Using a Ge(Li) Semi-Conductor Detector, with the Possibility of Operation in the Anti-Coincidence Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H

    1970-04-15

    A fuel element transport flask has been modified as a facility for gamma scanning irradiated fuel elements up to a length of 75 cm. By means of a Ge(Li) semi-conductor detector, satisfactory activity profiles along the specimens have been obtained, permitting the location of individual fuel pellets. An annular plastic detector surrounding the Ge(Li) detector allows operation of the spectrometer in the anti-coincidence mode, and reduction of the Compton continuum by about 50% has been obtained.

  17. A Gamma Scanner Using a Ge(Li) Semi-Conductor Detector, with the Possibility of Operation in the Anti-Coincidence Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, R.S.; Blackadder, W.H.

    1970-04-01

    A fuel element transport flask has been modified as a facility for gamma scanning irradiated fuel elements up to a length of 75 cm. By means of a Ge(Li) semi-conductor detector, satisfactory activity profiles along the specimens have been obtained, permitting the location of individual fuel pellets. An annular plastic detector surrounding the Ge(Li) detector allows operation of the spectrometer in the anti-coincidence mode, and reduction of the Compton continuum by about 50% has been obtained

  18. Factors which influence directional coarsening of Gamma prime during creep in nickel-base superalloy single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.A.; Ebert, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the morphology of the gamma prime precipitate were examined as a function of time during creep at 982 C in 001 oriented single crystals of a Ni-Al-Mo-Ta superalloy. In this alloy, which has a large negative misfit of -0.80 pct., the gamma prime particles link together during creep to form platelets, or rafts, which are aligned with their broad faces perpendicular to the applied tensile axis. The effects of initial microstructure and alloy composition of raft development and creep properties were investigated. Directional coarsening of gamma prime begins during primary creep and continues well after the onset of second state creep. The thickness of the rafts remains constant up through the onset of tertiary creep a clear indication of the stability of the finely-spaced gamma/gamma prime lamellar structure. The thickness of the rafts which formed was equal to the initial gamma prime size which was present prior to testing. The single crystals with the finest gamma prime size exhibited the longest creep lives, because the resultant rafted structure had a larger number of gamma/gamma prime interfaces per unit volume of material. Reducing the Mo content by only 0.73 wt. pct. increased the creep life by a factor of three, because the precipitation of a third phase was eliminated

  19. The measurement of cross sections of inelastic and transfer reactions with gamma-particle coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagatto, V.A.B.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Pereira, D.; Allegro, P.R.P.; Chamon, L.C.; Cybulska, E.W.; Medina, N.H.; Ribas, R.V.; Rossi Junior, E.S.; Seale, W.A.; Silva, C.P.; Gasques, L.; Toufen, D.L.; Silveira, M.A.G.; Zahn, G.S.; Genezini, F.A.; Shorto, J.M.B.; Lubian, J.; Linares, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The following work aims to obtain experimental reaction cross sections of inelastic excitation and transfer to excited states reactions (both measured by gamma-particle coincidences) and its comparison with theoretical predictions based in a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential. The measurements were made at the Pelletron accelerator laboratory of the University of Sao Paulo with the Saci-Perere spectrometer, which consists of 4 a GeHP Compton suppressed gamma detectors and a 4 π charged particle ancillary system with 11ΔΕ - Ε plastic phoswich scintillators (further details about the experimental procedure may be found in: J.R.B. Oliveira et al., XVIII International School on Nuclear Physics, Neutron Physics and Applications (2009). Theoretical angular distribution calculations (using code GOSIA) were performed with a new model based on the Sao Paulo Potential, specifically developed for the inclusion of dissipative processes like deep-inelastic collisions (DIC) considering the Coulomb plus nuclear potential (with the aid of code FRESCO). The experimental cross sections were obtained such as described in J.R.B. Oliveira et al however, in this work, the particle-gamma angular correlations and the vacuum de-alignment effects (caused by hyperfine interaction) were finally added for the 110 Pd inelastic reaction and for the 112 Pd transfer reaction. For these purposes a new code has been developed to assist in the data analysis. We take into account the particle-gamma angular correlations using the scattering amplitudes given by FRESCO, considering the vacuum de-alignment effects as proposed by A. Abragam and R. V. Pound, Phys. Rev. 92, 943 (1953). The theoretical predictions still consider 2 different types of Sao Paulo Potential, the first one has a multiplying factor equals to 1.0 in the real part of the potential and the second considers this factor equals to 0.6, as proposed in D. Pereira, J. Lubian, J.R.B. Oliveira, D.P. de Sousa and L

  20. Thermoluminescence response of a mixed ternary alkali halide crystals exposed to gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R. [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Vazquez P, G.; Riveros, H. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Apdo. Postal 20-364, 01000 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Gonzalez M, P., E-mail: mijangos@cifus.uson.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Ionic crystals, mainly alkali halide crystals have been the subject of intense research for a better understanding of the luminescence properties of defects induced by ionizing radiation. The defects in crystals can be produced in appreciable concentration due to elastic stresses, radiation, and addition of impurities. These defects exhibit remarkable thermoluminescence properties. This work is concerned with the Tl properties of a ternary alkali halide crystal after being irradiated with gamma and beta rays. It has been found that the Tl glow peak of the crystal follows a rule of average associated to the Tl Temperatures of the components of the mixture, similarly to the response of europium doped binary mixed crystals KCl{sub x}KBr{sub 1-x} and KBr{sub x}RbBr{sub 1-x}. (Author)

  1. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulut, A.; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F.

    2000-01-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C 2 H 7 NO 3 S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of 32 SO - 2 and 33 SO - 2 radicals. The hyperfine values of 33 SO - 2 radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites

  2. Effect of composition and. gamma. -irradiation on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indenbaum, G V; Novikova, S F; Vanyukov, A V; Dvorkin, Yu V [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov (USSR)

    1981-02-01

    Value of crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide after annealing and quenching at temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 deg C are found for the both boundaries of homogeneity region with error of 5x10/sup -5/A. The effect of ..gamma.. irradiation with quanta energy of 1.25 MeV from /sup 60/Co source (10/sup 4/, 10/sup 5/ and 10/sup 6/ G/kg) on crystal lattice spacing of lead sulphide preliminary saturated with sulphur or lead at 600 deg C, is studied. It is established that lattice spacing of lead sulphide depends on material prehistory and decreases at room temperature after quenching and ..gamma..-irradiation. Effect of natural ageing of lead sulphide is explained by the decomposition of nonstechiometric solid solution, supersaturated with components, at room temperature.

  3. Method and program for decay scheme reconstruction based on formal logical analysis of gamma-gamma coincidence matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new, rigorously substantiated approach to construction of decay schemes on the basis of γ-γ coincidence data is described. Complete decay modes (concrete cascades of transitions from excited to the ground-state of a nucleus excited in a decay or a reaction) and continuity regions in complete modes (regions of successive transitions) are isolated by logical operations with rows (columns) of a symmetrical coincidence matrix where rows (columns) correspond to energies of coinciding transitions and matrix elements are unities and zeros, depending on the presence or absence of the given coincidence. To reject false complete modes and continuity regions arising from incompleteness of the coincidence data and errors in them, energy selection is introduced for complete modes and continuity regions, which demands that total energy of their constituent transitions should be equal to total energy of some other complete modes and continuity regions and to the energies of singles. With the continuity regions found, it is possible to order transitions in the selected complete modes and to algorithmize matching of complete modes into a decay scheme. 10 refs., 3 figs

  4. Standardisation of 64Cu using a software coincidence counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Miroslav; Sochorová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the radionuclide 64 Cu was determined by the efficiency extrapolation method applied to 4π(PC)−γ coincidence counting. The standardisation was performed by software coincidence counting—a digital method for primary activity measurement that simplifies the setting of optimal coincidence parameters. The γ-ray-energy window, characterised by identical gamma detection efficiency related to the sum of EC and to the sum of beta decay branches, was found. This setting ensured a linear and zero slope extrapolation curve. - Highlights: • Standardisation realised by extrapolation method applied to 4π(PC)−γ coincidence. • Digital method for optimal setting of coincidence parameters was used. • Result with total standard uncertainty of 0.74% was obtained

  5. Crystal growth and thermoluminescence response of NaZr2(PO4)3 at high gamma radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordóñez-Regil, E.; Contreras-Ramírez, A.; Fernández-Valverde, S.M.; González-Martínez, P.R.; Carrasco-Ábrego, H.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 exposed to gamma doses of 10, 30 and 50 MGy. •Gamma radiation produced growth of the crystal size of the NZP. •Morphology changes were reversible by heating. •Linear relationship between the thermoluminescence and the applied gamma dose. •This property could be useful for high-level gamma dosimetry. -- Abstract: This work describes the synthesis and characterization of NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 . The stability of this material under high doses of gamma radiation was investigated in the range of 10–50 MGy. Samples of unaltered and gamma irradiated NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermoluminescence. The results showed that while functional groups were not affected by the gamma irradiation, morphology changes were observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. The morphology of the non-irradiated compound is agglomerated flakes; however, irradiation at 10 MGy splits the flakes inducing the formation of well-defined cubes. Gamma irradiation induced the crystal size of the NaZr 2 (PO 4 ) 3 to grow. The heat treatment (973 K) of samples irradiated at 50 MGy resulted in the recovery of the original morphology. Furthermore, the thermoluminescence analysis of the irradiated compound is reported

  6. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byeong Hak; Jo, Seong Hui; Lee, Myun Joo; Kim, Tak Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The struvite crystallization was applied to remove NH 4 + in livestock wastewater. The ammonium ions can be very toxic to the aquatic creatures. In this experiments, the livestock wastewater from Gongju livestock wastewater treatment plant was used. The behaviors of various parameters such as pH, mole ratio of Mg 2+ : NH 4 + : PO 4 3- and reaction temperature for struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater and the effect of gamma ray irradiation were evaluated. As results, for the pH variation, the NH 4 + removal efficiency showed the highest, 88%, at pH 9 ∼ 9.25. The removal efficiency of NH 4 + , Mg 2+ and PO 4 3- was showed highest when same molar ratio of Mg 2+ and PO 4 3- were applied. The NH 4 + removal efficiency showed 82% at 7 .deg. C, and 90% at 30 .deg. C, with temperature. When the wastewater was irradiated with 20 kGy of gamma ray, NH 4 + was removed as much as 83%

  7. Analysis of (HI, xnγ) coincidence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattabiraman, N.S.; Ghugre, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The increase in the sensitivity and the detection limits of the modern third generation gamma detector arrays, has made it necessary to properly understand and estimate the observed background in such experiments. The present paper extends the two algorithms to improve the genuine photo-peak-photo-peak coincident events of interest

  8. Analysis of rocking curve measurements of LiF flight crystals for the objective crystal spectrometer on SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halm, I.; Wiebicke, H.-J.; Geppert, U.R.M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA satellite will use three types of natural crystals LiF(220), Si(111), RAP(001), and a multilayer structure providing high-resolution X- ray spectroscopy of Fe, S, O, and C line regions of bright cosmic X-ray sources. 330 - 360 LiF(220......) crystals of dimensions approximately 23 × 63 mm2 are required to cover one side of a large (1000 × 600 mm2) panel, which is to be mounted in front of one of two high throughput X- ray telescopes. Rocking curves of 441 LiF(220) crystals measured by using an expanded Cu - Kα2 beam were analyzed to select...... the main parameters of the rocking curve averaged over all crystals can be improved at least by a factor of 1.6 both in full width half maximum and peak reflectivity....

  9. Near stellar sources of gamma-ray bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Luchkov, B. I.; Markin, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Correlation analysis of gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby stars, registered on 2008-2011, revealed 5 coincidences with angular accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The random probability is $7\\times 10^{-7}$, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. The proposed method should be continued in order to provide their share in common balance of cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  10. EPR studies of gamma-irradiated taurine single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulut, A. E-mail: abulut@samsun.omu.edu.tr; Karabulut, B.; Tapramaz, R.; Koeksal, F

    2000-04-01

    An EPR study of gamma-irradiated taurine [C{sub 2}H{sub 7}NO{sub 3}S] single crystal was carried out at room temperature. The EPR spectra were recorded in the three at mutually perpendicular planes. There are two magnetically distinct sites in monoclinic lattice. The principle values of g and hyperfine constants for both sites were calculated. The results have indicated the presence of {sup 32}SO{sup -}{sub 2} and {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radicals. The hyperfine values of {sup 33}SO{sup -}{sub 2} radical were used to obtain O-S-O bond angle for both sites.

  11. Crystal glass and barite used for x ray and gamma radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, Joao

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass and in the wall covering, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. However, properties of the radiation attenuation of crystal glass commercially available in Brazil, for the different types of energy are not known. For this reason, this work was carried out aiming to determine the radiation attenuation, transmission curves and Half Value Layer. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20 cm x 20 cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, and ten plates of barite plaster and five plates of barite concrete, with dimensions of 20 x 20 cm 2 and range of thicknesses from 1,0 to 5,0 cm, were used. The plates were X-ray irradiated with potential constants of 60, 80, 110, 150 kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. Analysis in the properties of the 60 Co radiation attenuation of barite plaster and barite concrete commercially available in Brazil were also carried out. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/m A.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. The thickness equivalent of a half value layer and deci value layer of crystal glass for all types of radiation and energies studied was also determined. Although their use permits the dimensioning of the armor covering for external x-radiation whit precision and safety without elevating the cost of protection. (author)

  12. Germanium crystal dimensions and their influences on the observed peak-to-background distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, W [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, AG-Personendosimetrie, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Koenig, K [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1997-03-01

    This description applies to the parameters of in vivo and in vitro detection systems as they relate to the type of the detector (or arrangements of detectors) and the performance of the choice. In detail, measurements of a set of pulse-height distributions were done to determine the influence from the detector-crystal dimensions on the peak-to-background variation for point and volume sources as well as ambient radiation. The current capability in suppression of Compton scattered {gamma}-rays using coincidence/anti-coincidence arrangements both for in vivo and in vitro system are presented. Criteria and relations as well as advantages and disadvantages of the applicability are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Gamma-radiation and isotopic effect on the critical behavior in triglycine selenate crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M.E.; Hamed, A.E.; Abulnasr, L.; Abboudy, S. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1994-11-01

    Isotopic effects in pure and {gamma}-irradiated triglycine selenate crystals were investigated using the specific heat (C{sub p}) technique. The obtained results showed an interesting dependence of the critical behavior of C{sub p} on the deuterium content. With increasing content of deuterium, the character of the phase transition changed from a second order ({lambda}-type) to a first order transition. After {gamma}-irradiation, the behavior of C{sub p} around the phase transition region was essentially affected. The transition temperature, T{sub c}, decreased and {Delta}C{sub p} depressed, and the transition became broad. It was noted that the effect of {gamma}-irradiation is opposite to the isotopic effect. (author).

  14. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of neutron-rich products of heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Ahmad, I. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Thick-target {gamma}{gamma} coincidence techniques are being used to explore the spectroscopy of otherwise hard-to-reach neutron-rich products of deep-inelastic heavy ion reactions. Extensive {gamma}{gamma} coincidence measurements were performed at ATLAS using pulsed beams of {sup 80}Se, {sup 136}Xe, and {sup 238}U on lead-backed {sup 122,124}Sn targets with energies 10-15% above the Coulomb barrier. Gamma-ray coincidence intensities were used to map out yield distributions with A and Z for even-even product nuclei around the target and around the projectile. The main features of the yield patterns are understandable in terms of N/Z equilibration. We had the most success in studying the decays of yrast isomers. Thus far, more than thirty new {mu}s isomers in the Z = 50 region were found and characterized. Making isotopic assignments for previously unknown {gamma}-ray cascades proves to be one of the biggest problems. Our assignments were based (a) on rare overlaps with radioactivity data, (b) on the relative yields with different beams, and (c) on observed cross-coincidences between {gamma} rays from light and heavy reaction partners. However, the primary products of deep inelastic collisions often are sufficiently excited for subsequent neutron evaporation, so {gamma}{gamma} cross-coincidence results require careful interpretation.

  15. GaAs radiovoltaic cell enhanced by Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal for the development of new gamma microbatteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheng-Rong [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 General Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing 211106 (China); Tang, Xiao-Bin, E-mail: tangxiaobin@nuaa.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 General Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing 211106 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion, Nanjing 211106 (China); Liu, Yun-Peng [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 General Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing 211106 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Material and Technology for Energy Conversion, Nanjing 211106 (China); Xu, Zhi-Heng; Yuan, Zi-Cheng; Liu, Kai; Chen, Wang [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29 General Road, Jiangning District, Nanjing 211106 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • A new gamma/GaAs multi-level structure radiovoltaic microbattery is proposed. • The properties of the new GaAs/YSO radiovoltaic cell was discussed. • The cell with Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal can provide higher power and current output. • The irradiation resistance of Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal under X-ray excitation was studied. - Abstract: The design of a new gamma/GaAs multi-level structure radiovoltaic microbattery enhanced by an Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (YSO) crystal is proposed. By introducing the YSO crystal in the GaAs radiovoltaic cell, the output power from the cell was significantly improved. We focus on the enhancement mechanisms of performance output in one level of a multi-level structure. The radioluminescence spectra of the YSO crystal revealed its fluorescence in the wavelength range of approximately 300–700 nm. Light at the exact wavelength would normally be totally absorbed by the GaAs photovoltaic material. The radiovoltaic cells were tested using an X-ray tube to simulate the gamma rays emitted by a gamma-radioactive source. Experimental investigation showed that the YSO crystal can increase the cell output power. The output power of the new GaAs/YSO radiovoltaic cell was enhanced by more than four times compared to that of the conventional GaAs radiovoltaic cell. In addition, considering the importance of the YSO crystal in the new GaAs/YSO radiovoltaic cell, the irradiation resistance of the YSO crystal under X-ray excitation was also analysed.

  16. Secondary electron/reflected particle coincidence studies during slow highly charged ion-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, C.T.; Szilagyi, Z.; Shah, M.B.; McCullough, R.W. [Queen' s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Woolsey, J.M. [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). DBMS; Trassl, R.; Salzborn, E. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2001-07-01

    We have measured the secondary electron emission statistics (ES) for 5 keV N{sup q+} (q = 1-4) ions incident at 10 on polycrystalline aluminium, in coincidence with specularly reflected N{sup 0}. In this arrangement the kinetic contribution to secondary electron emission is minimised. The experimental data shows that the coincident electron yield, {gamma}, increases linearly with incident ion charge state. The kinetic emission contribution has also been determined from this data. The ES due to 2 and 4 keV He{sup 2+} impact on polycrystalline aluminium in coincidence with specularly reflected He{sup +} and He{sup 0} have also been determined. The process He{sup 2+} {yields} He{sup 0} yields a larger {gamma} value than the process He{sup 2+} {yields} He{sup +}. (orig.)

  17. A normalisation for the four - detector system for gamma - gamma angular correlation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiang, G.C.; Chen, C.H.; Niu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    A normalisation method for the multiple - HPGe - detector system is described. The system consists of four coaxial HPGe detectors with a CAMAC event - by - event data acquisition system, enabling to measure six gamma -gamma coincidences of angles simultaneously. An application for gamma - gamma correlation studies of Kr 82 is presented and discussed. 3 figs., 6 refs. (author)

  18. Recent progress with digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, K.S.A.; Watt, G.C.; Alexiev, D.

    1999-01-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by ANSTO as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue to digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4Π beta detector and a NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software based algorithms. The system is operational and results are now being routinely collected and analysed. Some of the early work is presented for Co-60, Na-22 and Sm-153

  19. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  20. A triple-crystal phoswich detector with digital pulse shape discrimination for alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Travis L.; Miller, William H.

    1999-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri - Columbia have developed a three-crystal phoswich detector coupled to a digital pulse shape discrimination system for use in alpha/beta/gamma spectroscopy. Phoswich detectors use a sandwich of scintillators viewed by a single photomultiplier tube to simultaneously detect multiple types of radiation. Separation of radiation types is based upon pulse shape difference among the phosphors, which has historically been performed with analog circuitry. The system uses a GaGe CompuScope 1012, 12 bit, 10 MHz computer-based oscilloscope that digitally captures the pulses from a phoswich detector and subsequently performs pulse shape discrimination with cross-correlation analysis. The detector, based partially on previous phoswich designs by Usuda et al., uses a 10 mg/cm 2 thick layer of ZnS(Ag) for alpha detection, followed by a 0.254 cm CaF 2 (Eu) crystal for beta detection, all backed by a 2.54 cm NaI(Tl) crystal for gamma detection. Individual energy spectra and count rate information for all three radiation types are displayed and updated periodically. The system shows excellent charged particle discrimination with an accuracy of greater than 99%. Future development will include a large area beta probe with gamma-ray discrimination, systems for low-energy photon detection (e.g. Bremsstrahlung or keV-range photon emissions), and other health physics instrumentation

  1. Effect of UV on the post irradiated Li Cs S O{sub 4} crystal by X and gamma radiation. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, M E [On Leave, Alexandria University, Faculty of Science, PHysics Department. Alexandria (Egypt); EL-Kolaly, M A [On Leave, Radiation Protection Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Al-Houty, L I [University of Qatar, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    1996-03-01

    Thermoluminescence characteristics of Li Cs S O{sub 4} crystal have been studied after exposure to different doses of X and Gamma-Radiations. The glow curves showed TL response of Three peaks at 75,125 and 250 degree C. The structure of the glow peaks due to X-rays is quite different from that due to gamma-rays. UV exposure yields regeneration of the TL peaks for the post irradiated samples with X or Gamma-radiation with some changes in the peaks`s structure especially the third peak. For the post X-ray irradiated crystals, the area under the third glow peak (PK III) increased with integrated time of UV exposure till about 30 min after which no changes were observed; while, for the post gamma-irradiated crystals, two linear regions were observed. The models of the TL response for the post irradiated samples as a result to UV are discussed. 5 figs.

  2. Calibration and adjustment of the EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The coincidence/time-of-flight system of the energetic gamma ray experiment telescope (EGRET) on NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) consists of two layers of sixteen scintillator tiles. These tiles are paired into 96 coincidence telescopes. Valid coincidence and time-of-flight values (indicating downward moving particles) from one of these telescopes are two of the requirements for an EGRET event trigger. To maximize up-down discrimination, variations in the mean timing value of the telescopes must be minimized. The timing values of the 96 telescopes are not independent, hence they cannot be individually adjusted to calibrate the system. An iterative approach was devised to determine adjustments to the length of the photomultiplier signal cables. These adjustments were made directly in units of time using a time domain reflectometry technique, by timing the reflection of a fast pulse from the unterminated end of eable, and observing the charge in signal propagation time as the length of the cable was shortened. Two constant fraction discriminators, a time-to-amplitude converter and a pulse height analyzer were used for these measurements. Using this direct time measuring approach, the timing values for the 96 EGRET coincidence/time-of-flight telescopes were adjusted with an FWHM variation of less than 450 ps (± 1 TOF timing channel). (orig.)

  3. An investigation on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the optical absorption spectra in Cu(II) doped ammonium Tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Fadl, A.; Mohamad, G.A.; Abd El-Sttar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical transmittance measurements were carried out on Ammonium tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) crystals doped with small concentrations of Cu 2+ ions and irradiated with different doses of gamma-radiation. The absorption coefficient (alpha) and the extinction coefficient (K) of unirradiated and irradiated ATZC crystals were calculated. Valued of the allowed indirect optical energy gap (E g ) of ATZC were calculated as a function of gamma-dose. The effect of gamma irradiation is to increase in the absorption coefficient value and to decrease in E g value. The results could be explained in the fact that gamma irradiation produces defects of ionizing type because of internal irradiation with photon or Compton electrons

  4. Characterization of barite and crystal glass as attenuators in X-ray and gamma radiation shieldings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Airton Tavares de

    2005-03-01

    Aiming to determine the barium sulphate (BaSO 4 ) ore and crystal glass attenuation features, both utilized as shieldings against ionizing X and gamma radiations in radiographic installations, a study of attenuation using barite plaster and barite concrete was carried out, which are used, respectively, on wall coverings and in block buildings. The crystal glass is utilized in screens and in windows. To do so, ten plates of barite plaster and three of barite concrete with 900 cm 2 and with an average thickness ranging from 1 to 5 cm, and three plates of crystal glass with 323 cm 2 and with thicknesses of 1, 2 and 4 cm were analyzed. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with potentials of 60, 80, 110 and 150 kilovolts, and also with 60 Co gamma rays. Curves of attenuation were obtained for barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) and (mGy/h), both at 1 meter, as a function of thickness and curve of transmission through barite plaster and barite concrete as a function of the thickness. The equivalent thicknesses of half and tenth value layers for barite plaster, barite concrete and crystal glass for all X-Ray energies were also determined. (author)

  5. Coloration dependence in the thermoluminescence properties of the double doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Mejorada, G.; Gelover-Santiago, A.L.; Frias, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this work the behaviour of calcium manganese doped NaCl single crystals under gamma irradiation is reported. Various single crystals of NaCl doped with Ca and Mn have been irradiated at different doses with ionising radiation. The production of defects has been correlated to the increase in the intensity of the thermo luminescent glow curve as a function of doses. The glow curves intensity as a function of doses shows the potential use of these materials as dosimeters. Optical properties of such crystals after irradiation with gamma rays have also been studied; results have shown their potentiality as a good detector and optical store memory devices. Since the creations of colour centres by photons with energy less than the band gap energy has been detected also in ns 2 -ion doped alkali halides. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Studies on the decay of 160Tb to levels in 160Dy by Ge (Li)-Ge(Li)-coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.; Mekamer, M.

    1981-01-01

    This work concerned with the study of the energy levels and the properties of gamma-ray transitions in 160 Dy resulting from the B-decay of the parent radioactive isotope 160 Tb (72 d.). These studies have been done by means of, single and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements. Log(ft). Internal Conversion Coefficient (ICC) values and the branching ratios have been calculated. The construction and testes of the Ge(Li)-Ge(Li) gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer are presented. In addition to the previously reported transitions in three new transitions of energies 203, 420 and 1048 keV have been observed for the first time. The energy level at 1288.60 keV is confirmed, due to the presence of the 246 keV and 1005 keV gamma-ray transitions in the singles and gamma-gamma coincidence spectra. Furthermore the B-intensity feeding this level was calculated for the first time to be 0.08%. The log(ft) values of the energy level at 1288.6 keV was calculated for the first time to be 10.79. The energy level diagram of 160 Dy as summerised in the present work consists of 12 excited states, the levels at 581(6 + ) and 1391 keV reported by some authors were not encluded, since no transitions populated or depopulated these levels could be observed

  7. High resolution phoswich gamma-ray imager utilizing monolithic MPPC arrays with submillimeter pixelized crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, T; Kataoka, J; Nakamori, T; Kishimoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Sato, K; Ishikawa, Y; Yamamura, K; Kawabata, N; Ikeda, H; Kamada, K

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of a high spatial resolution tweezers-type coincidence gamma-ray camera for medical imaging. This application consists of large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs) and submillimeter pixelized scintillator matrices. The MPPC array has 4 × 4 channels with a three-side buttable, very compact package. For typical operational gain of 7.5 × 10 5 at + 20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ± 5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤ 400 kcps per channel. We selected Ce-doped (Lu,Y) 2 (SiO 4 )O (Ce:LYSO) and a brand-new scintillator, Ce-doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 (Ce:GAGG) due to their high light yield and density. To improve the spatial resolution, these scintillators were fabricated into 15 × 15 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm 2 pixels. The Ce:LYSO and Ce:GAGG scintillator matrices were assembled into phosphor sandwich (phoswich) detectors, and then coupled to the MPPC array along with an acrylic light guide measuring 1 mm thick, and with summing operational amplifiers that compile the signals into four position-encoded analog outputs being used for signal readout. Spatial resolution of 1.1 mm was achieved with the coincidence imaging system using a 22 Na point source. These results suggest that the gamma-ray imagers offer excellent potential for applications in high spatial medical imaging.

  8. Standardization of radionuclides multi-gamma emitters 166mHo and 72Ga and determination of its gamma intensities by decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Denise Simoes

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, the multi-gamma emitters 166m Ho and 72 Ga have been measured by 4πβ-γ coincidence technique. The calibration system is composed of a 4π gas-flow proportional counter coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) crystals. Both radionuclides were measured by using two gamma discrimination windows, namely (629.9 + 834.2) keV and (2201.6 + 2507.7) keV for 72 Ga and 184.4 keV and (711.7 + 830.5) keV for 166m Ho. The methodology recently developed by LMN (Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear) for simulating all detection processes in a 4π(β,X)-γ coincidence system by means of the Monte Carlo technique was applied to the measurements of both radionuclides, and the predict behavior extrapolation curve was compared with the experimental data. The results obtained were in good agreement within the experimental uncertainty. The emission probabilities per decay of the most intense y-ray in the decay of 166m Ho and 72 Ga were measured by means HPGe spectrometer system, which was previously calibrated with standard sources of 57 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 133 Ba, 24 Na, 152E u and 241 Am previously standardized in the 4πβ-γ system. All the uncertainties evolved were treated rigorously, by means of covariance analysis. (author)

  9. Solid state structural investigations of the bis(chalcone) compound with single crystal X-ray crystallography, DFT, gamma-ray spectroscopy and chemical spectroscopy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakalı, Gül; Biçer, Abdullah; Eke, Canel; Cin, Günseli Turgut

    2018-04-01

    A bis(chalcone), (2E,6E)-2,6-bis((E)-3phenylallidene)cyclohexanone, was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, gamma-ray spectroscopy and single crystal X- ray structural analysis. The optimized molecular structure of the compound is calculated using DFT/B3LYP with 6-31G (d,p) level. The calculated geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data obtained from our reported X-ray structure. The powder and single crystal compounds were gama-irradiated using clinical electron linear accelerator and 60Co gamma-ray source, respectively. Spectral studies (1H NMR, 13C NMR, FTIR and UV-Vis) of powder chalcone compound were also investigated before and after irradiation. Depending on the irradiation notable changes were observed in spectral features powder sample. Single crystal X-ray diffraction investigation shows that both unirradiated and irradiated single crystal samples crystallizes in a orthorhombic crystal system in the centrosymmetric space group Pbcn and exhibits an C-H..O intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing is stabilised by strong intermolecular bifurcate C-H..O hydrogen bonds and π…π stacking interactions. The asymmetric unit of the title compound contains one-half of a molecule. The other half of the molecule is generated with (1-x,y,-3/2-z) symmetry operator. The molecule is almost planar due to having π conjugated system of chalcones. However, irradiated single crystal compound showed significant changes lattice parameters, crystal volume and density. According to results of gamma-ray spectroscopy, radioactive elements of powder compound which are 123Sb(n,g),124Sb,57Fe(g,p),56Mn, 55Mn(g,n), and 54Mn were determined using photoactivation analysis. However, the most intensive gamma-ray energy signals are 124Sb.

  10. Sub-100 ps coincidence time resolution for positron emission tomography with LSO:Ce codoped with Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Lecoq, Paul; Auffray, Etiennette; Ferri, Alessandro; Gola, Alberto; Piemonte, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The coincidence time resolution (CTR) becomes a key parameter of 511keV gamma detection in time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). This is because additional information obtained through timing leads to a better noise suppression and therefore a better signal to noise ratio in the reconstructed image. In this paper we present the results of CTR measurements on two different SiPM technologies from FBK coupled to LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals. We compare the measurements performed at two separate test setups, i.e. at CERN and at FBK, showing that the obtained results agree within a few percent. We achieve a best CTR value of 85  ±  4 ps FWHM for 2  ×  2  ×  3 mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals, thus breaking the 100 ps barrier with scintillators similar to LSO:Ce or LYSO:Ce. We also demonstrate that a CTR of 140  ±  5 ps can be achieved for longer 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 crystals, which can readily be implemented in the current generation PET syst...

  11. Multilayer x-ray mirrors for the objective crystal spectrometer on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louis, E.; Spiller, E.; Abdali, S.

    1995-01-01

    with Kr+- and Ar+- ions of 300, 500, and 1000 eV. We examined the effect of different polishing parameters on the smoothening of the Co- and Ni-layers. The in-situ reflectivity of lambda equals 3.16 nm during deposition and the ex-situ grazing incidence reflectivity of Cu-K(alpha ) radiation (lambda...... multiplied by 6 cm2 Si (111) crystals for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Russian Spectrum Rontgen Gamma satellite. The coatings on the flight crystals have a period Lambda of 3.95 plus or minus 0.02 nm and a reflectivity of more than 8% averaged over s- and p-polarization over the entire...

  12. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewellen, T. K.; Miyaoka, R. S.; Jansen, F.; Kaplan, M. S.

    1997-06-01

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz.

  13. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, T.K.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz

  14. Effect of ultraviolet and gamma rays on the activity of delta-endotoxin protein crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, H.D.; Hillyer, S.; Chanter, D.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sensitive bioassays with larvae of Pieris brassicae revealed no reduction of insecticidal activity as a result of severe gamma or ultraviolet irradiation of crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis (serotype V). The measured response was the inhibition of larval feeding by the crystals over exposure periods short enough for the presence of live spores not to influence feeding. The results were analyzed using a logistic model. (U.S.)

  15. Crystal growth and thermoluminescence response of NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} at high gamma radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordóñez-Regil, E., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.mx [Depto. de Química, Gerencia de Ciencias Básicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Ramírez, A., E-mail: aida.contreras@inin.gob.mx [Depto. de Química, Gerencia de Ciencias Básicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico); Depto. de Tecnología de Materiales, Gerencia de Ciencias Aplicadas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Unidad Académica el Cerrillo, Piedras Blancas, AP 2-139, CP 50000 Toluca Estado de México (Mexico); Fernández-Valverde, S.M., E-mail: suilma.fernandez@inin.gob.mx [Depto. de Química, Gerencia de Ciencias Básicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico); González-Martínez, P.R., E-mail: pedro.gonzalez@inin.gob.mx [Depto. de Física, Gerencia de Ciencias Básicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico); Carrasco-Ábrego, H., E-mail: hector.carrasco@inin.gob.mx [Depto. Aceleradores, Gerencia de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, CP 11801 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} exposed to gamma doses of 10, 30 and 50 MGy. •Gamma radiation produced growth of the crystal size of the NZP. •Morphology changes were reversible by heating. •Linear relationship between the thermoluminescence and the applied gamma dose. •This property could be useful for high-level gamma dosimetry. -- Abstract: This work describes the synthesis and characterization of NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The stability of this material under high doses of gamma radiation was investigated in the range of 10–50 MGy. Samples of unaltered and gamma irradiated NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermoluminescence. The results showed that while functional groups were not affected by the gamma irradiation, morphology changes were observed with increasing doses of gamma irradiation. The morphology of the non-irradiated compound is agglomerated flakes; however, irradiation at 10 MGy splits the flakes inducing the formation of well-defined cubes. Gamma irradiation induced the crystal size of the NaZr{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} to grow. The heat treatment (973 K) of samples irradiated at 50 MGy resulted in the recovery of the original morphology. Furthermore, the thermoluminescence analysis of the irradiated compound is reported.

  16. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  17. Calibration of sodium iodide crystal (NaI) gamma ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwah Jaafar; Juhari Yusof

    2005-01-01

    Sodium Iodide crystal gamma ray detector are widely used to detect leak in the pipeline linkage study, the complete mixing substances in of industrial processes, to measure the river and stream discharges and other usage in estuary and coastal sediment studies. These instruments are more sensitive as compared to other types of counters like Geiger Muller or plastic scintillation component. This calibration is to ensure the correct voltage for each detector. The characteristics of detector are different from each other. Once the operating voltage (HV) is determined it can be used effectively to measure the radiation in the application of nuclear techniques. (Author)

  18. The Decay of Bound Isobaric Analogue States in {sup 28}Si and {sup 32}S Using (d, n{gamma}) Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, L; Nilsson, A; Bergqvist, I

    1970-03-15

    A method has been developed for recording coincidences between neutrons and gamma - rays produced in (d, n{gamma}) reactions. Neutron energies were measured by time-of-flight techniques and a large Nal(Tl) crystal was used to determine gamma - ray energies and intensities. The neutron detector was placed in the forward direction to emphasize the excitation of l{sub P} = 0 levels in the residual nuclei. The method was applied to the {sup 27}Al (d, n{gamma}) {sup 28}Si and {sup 31}P (d, n{gamma}) {sup 32}S reactions at the deuteron energy 4.0 MeV. The gamma - ray decay of a number of levels below 12 MeV in {sup 28}Si and below 9 MeV in {sup 32}S was studied. The isobaric analogue levels are prominently populated by the (d, n) reaction. The method is in particular suitable for studies of the decay of these levels.

  19. Gamma-ray detection with an UV-enhanced photodiode and scintillation crystals emitting at short wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-noise ion implanted photodiode with high spectral response in the deep blue/UV region has been tested as read-out device for scintillation crystals with matching emission spectra (YAP(Ce), GSO(Ce), BGO and CsI(Tl)). This gamma-ray detector concept is attractive in many industrial applications where compactness, reliability and ambient temperature operation are important. The results show that the amount of detected scintillation light energy falls rapidly off as the wavelength of the scintillation light decreases. It is concluded that the dynamic spectral response of the photodiode, due to increasing carrier collection times, is considerably less than the DC response at short wavelengths. The diode is not useful in pulse mode operation with scintillation crystals emitting at wavelengths below about 400 nm. For read-out of CsI(Tl) with 661.6 keV gamma-radiation, however, the photodiode concept shows better energy resolution (7.1%) than other detectors. (orig.)

  20. Standardisation of {sup 18}F by a coincidence method using full solid angle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nedjadi, Youcef, E-mail: youcef.nedjadi@chuv.c [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Bailat, Claude; Caffari, Yvan; Bochud, Francois [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    A solution of {sup 18}F was standardised with a 4{pi}{beta}-4{pi}{gamma} coincidence counting system in which the beta detector is a one-inch diameter cylindrical UPS89 plastic scintillator, positioned at the bottom of a well-type 5''x5'' NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector. Almost full detection efficiency-which was varied downwards electronically-was achieved in the beta-channel. Aliquots of this {sup 18}F solution were also measured using 4{pi}{gamma} NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo calculated efficiencies as well as the CIEMAT-NIST method. Secondary measurements of the same solution were also performed with an IG11 ionisation chamber whose equivalent activity is traceable to the Systeme International de Reference through the contribution IRA-METAS made to it in 2001; IRA's degree of equivalence was found to be close to the key comparison reference value (KCRV). The {sup 18}F activity predicted by this coincidence system agrees closely with the ionisation chamber measurement and is compatible within one standard deviation of the other primary measurements. This work demonstrates that our new coincidence system can standardise short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine.

  1. Gamma-stimulated modification of structure and mechanical properties of silicon crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, T.K.; Khamraeva, R.N.; Rustamova, V.M.; Ibragimova, E.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Abdurakhimov, A.A.; Abdurakhmanov, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of gamma-irradiation effect on the fine structure and mechanical properties of silicon crystals. The objects of researches were p-Si single crystals with the following characteristics: ρ ≅ 10Ω · cm; N D ≅ 10 2 cm -2 ; N O ≅ 10 17 cm -3 ; N B ≅ 6· 10 15 cm -3 . The plate size were 20.8·4.1· 1.2 mm 3 with the surface oriented along {111}. The structure was studied at the diffractometer DRON-UM1 with CuK α - radiation ( λ = 0.1542 nm). The intrinsic friction (Q -1 ) of the samples was measured with the ultra-sonic resonance technique at the frequency of 148 kHz of the plate bending oscillations. The samples were irradiated at the INP AS RUz 60 Co gamma-facility (E γ ≅ 1.2 MeV) in the dose range of 10 1 † 10 7 Gy at 320 K. The dose dependence of Q -1 had a non-monotonous character. The irradiation to the dose of 5·10 3 Gy resulted in increasing the initial value of Q -1 due to irradiation induced growth of the point defect concentration and accumulating of the elastic lattice strains. It is also evidenced by the symmetric broadening of the structure reflection (111). At the dose of 5 ·10 3 Gy the strain value seems to gain the upper fluidity limit of (6 †15) ·10 -8 N/m 2 , after which a weak splitting of the (111) reflection appears, meaning the beginning of twin formation in the form of insertion stock defects with partial dislocations. At dose increasing to 10 4 Gy the twins cause the sharp drop of Q -1 , related with decreasing of the elastic strains, which stops at the dose of 5·10 4 Gy probably due to reaching the lower limit of fluidity for silicon ((1† 4) · 10 -8 N/m 2 ), when the process of the twin defect formation completes. This mechanism is confirmed by the total splitting of the structure peak (111) and practical independence of Q -1 on dose till 10 7 Gy. Thus, gamma-irradiation in the studied dose range modifies the existing lattice imperfectness, that influences upon both mechanical

  2. Design of a software for gamma detector efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy with highly-pure-germanium detector is one of the most used method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of samples. Nevertheless Gamma spectroscopy results require to be corrected, first for taking into account the self-shielding effect that represents the absorption of the photons by the sample itself and secondly for correcting the fact that 2 photons emitted simultaneously with energy E 1 and E 2 are likely to be simultaneously detected and then counted as a single photon with an energy E 1 +E 2 . This effect is called gamma-gamma coincidence. A software has been designed to simulate both effect and produce correcting factors in the case of cylindrical geometries. This software has been validated on Americium 241 for the self-shielding effect and on Cesium 134 for gamma-gamma coincidence. (A.C.)

  3. High Sensitivity Detection of Xe Isotopes Via Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Reeder, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of xenon fission product isotopes is a key element in the global network being established to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which includes a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. The counting geometry is nearly 100% for beta and conversion electrons. The resolution in the pulse height spectrum from the plastic scintillator is sufficient to observe distinct peaks for specific conversion electrons. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. Each of the four xenon isotopes has a distinctive signature in the two-dimensional energy array. The details of the counting system, examples of two-dimensional beta-gamma data, and operational experience with this counting system will be described

  4. Reproduction of the coincidence effect in gamma ray spectrometry by using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. H.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. H.

    2001-01-01

    Scintillation detector such as NaI(TI), or semiconductor detector, such as HPGe, are used for Measurement/Assessment of the radiation type and radiation activity. The measured energy spectrum are used for measuring the radiation type and activity. Corrections for true coincidence due to emit more than 2 photons at the same time and random coincidence due to measuring system when increasing of the radiation intensity. For accurate assessment, measurement with adequate measure system is performed, and corrections for coincidence are performed in the hardware aspect and software aspect. In general, there are limitations or difficulties in measurement of radiation assessment, computational simulation is instead used. In simulation, it has much advantages than measurement in technically, timely, and financially, it is widely used instead of measurement. In this study, the method to reproduce of the coincidence effect was proposed by using monte carlo method

  5. Intensification of electroluminescence of ZnSe(Te,O) crystals after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmurotova, D.B.; Ibragimova, E. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Wide-gap A 2 B 6 semiconductors are of special interest within eyeshot of energy-saving, on the base of which light sources are produced. Excitation voltage for injection electro luminescence (EL) corresponds to a transition potential barrier height, and wavelength determines the radiative transition energy and a recombination level position. The problem is in increasing the EL excitation efficiency, in particular the way of lowering the working voltage. The aim of the present work is experimental researches of possible amendment of EL characteristics of wide-gap ZnSe(Te,O) single crystals by influence of ionizing gamma-radiation on the electrical and optical active centers, and also exposure of possibility for creation of light emitting structures. We studied ZnSe crystals grown with Bridgman method at the Research Institute for Single Crystals (Kharkov, Ukraine). Diffusion doping with Te was used for creation of p-n transition in ZnSe crystals, that resulted in additional generation of Zn vacancies, treatment in oxidizing environment caused formation of extra Zn interstitials. Dominating evaporation of Zn, which is stipulated by a higher mobility of Zn i , leads to the increase of defect concentration of V Zn type, this process is vividly expressed in the crystals doped with Te that may be explained by the formation of stable V Zn Te Se Zn i associates. A few samples of each series were irradiated with≅ 1.25 MeV gamma-rays of 60 Co radioisotope source at the dose power of 10 Gy/s to the dose of 10 6 Gy at 300 K and compared with the non-irradiated reference samples. Spectra of EL were measured in the wave range of 200-900 nm at 300 K. A constant voltage in the range of 7-80 V was applied in straight and inverse direction for exposing hysteresis in the EL voltage-brightness dependences. The EL spectra include a wide band with the maximum at 600 nm. For the untreated samples the threshold voltage was 70-80 V, when the EL intensity began growing sharply

  6. Design of an electronic system with simultaneous registering of pulse amplitude and event time applied to the 4πβ-γ coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Fabio de

    2009-01-01

    The 4πβ-γ coincidence method for absolute radionuclide activity measurement has been considered for many years as a primary standard in Nuclear Metrology, because of dependence on few observable quantities and high accuracy. The Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear (LMN) - Nuclear Metrology Laboratory -, at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) - Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -, among its measurement techniques, uses the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. Recently a new technique known as 'software coincidence' has been used, with many advantages over the conventional coincidence methodology. In order to update the methodologies for radionuclide standardizations, the LMN developed a new system based on the software coincidence technique, described in the present work. This system uses the same nuclear set up for beta and gamma detection. The new software coincidence electronics uses a National Instruments (NI) acquisition card connected to a microcomputer and, through a connection panel, to the nuclear detection set up. The card configuration and controlling is accomplished by software using the LabVIEW, a NI proprietary product. This system records into disk files all the amplitudes and occurrence times for beta and gamma detected pulses. A suitable software was developed (the coincidence analysis program) to process the recorded data in order to obtain beta, gamma and coincidence counts and perform calculation of the radioactive source activity. The work also presents and discusses the results obtained with the first version of the coincidence analysis program, as well as perspectives for future works. (author)

  7. Gamma-gamma angular correlation measurement in the 100 Ru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenchian, G.

    1990-01-01

    An angular correlation automatic spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors has been developed. The spectrometer moves automatically, controlled by a microcomputer. The gamma-gamma directional angular correlations of coincidence transitions have been measured in 100 Ru nuclide, following the β + and electron capture of 100 Rh. The 100 Rh source has been produced with 100 Ru(p,n) 100 Rh reaction, using the proton beam of the Cyclotron Accelerator insiding in 100 Ru isotope. (author)

  8. Development of a minicomputer system for on-line processing of gamma--gamma coincidence events and measurements of E2/M1 mixing ratios in 110Cd and 134Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhter, W.D.

    1977-12-01

    A megachannel pulse-height analysis system using a 32,000-word PDP-8/E minicomputer and two moving-head disk memories was developed. The system has a storage capacity of 2 18 events at any of 2 20 data locations, is capable of processing 1,040 events/s, and provides on-line sorting and disk storage. An X- or Y- pulse-height spectrum in coincidence with one to four arithmetically combined pulse-height windows can be assembled in core for scope display and spectral analysis within 2 to 20 seconds. The software for the system was written extensively in machine language. Excellent energy and timing resolution were achieved. An energy resolution of 2.3 keV fwhm and a timing resolution of 8.5 ns fwhm were obtained for 60 Co at a singles rate of 10,000 counts/s. The prompt timing peak remained Gaussian down to the fwtm by gating the TAC with SCAs which discriminated against low-energy events. The coincidence electronics also allowed on-line subtraction of accidental coincidence events. Alignment of the detectors and tests of the system's performance were made by measuring solid-angle correction factors for the Ge(Li) detectors through the correlation measurements of the 0 + --2 + --0 + cascade in 106 Pd, and by measuring the angular spread of positron annihilation radiation coincidences. Results were in excellent agreement with theoretical solid-angle correction factors calculated for the detector and source sizes used. Directional correlation data were obtained for gamma-ray cascades in 134 Ba and 110 Cd. Analyses of these data gave E2/M1 mixing ratios which are in excellent agreement with results obtained by other investigators. The improved resolution and data processing capabilities of this system gave new results for the 563-keV transition in 134 Ba and the 1505-keV transition in 110 Cd. E2/M1 mixing ratios of 13.3/sup +2.3/sub -1.8/ for the 563-keV transition and -1.24 +- 0.20 for the 1505-keV transition were measured

  9. Gamma radiation effect on n-InP crystals with impurity clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitovskij, N.A.; Dakhno, A.N.; Emel'yanenko, O.V.; Lagunova, T.S.; Mashovets, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    Parameters of acceptor-impurity atom clusters have been investigated for the cases of nonirradiated and gamma-irradiated n-InP crystals. Temperature dependences of electric conductivity, the Hall coefficient and the longitudinal magnetoresistance have been measured both in darkness and in lighting, the kinetics of the photoconductivity drop has also been studied. It is shown that in nonirradiated n-InP:Cu and n-InP-Zn the number of atoms in the cluster may be about 25-30. The concentration of the clusters may reach 10 11 cm -3 . Gamma-radiation increases the number of atoms in the cluster up to approximately equal to 40 with the insignificant change of the radius. In the nonirradiated material, the potential barrier heights created by the cluster are 0.15 eV and 0.4 eV at 78 and 300 K, respectively. The irradiation increases the barrier and the fraction of the volume occupied by the space-charge regions which overlap if the dose is sufficiently high

  10. Recovering the triple coincidence of non-pure positron emitters in preclinical PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsin-Hon; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chen, Szu-Yu; Jan, Meei-Ling

    2016-03-01

    Non-pure positron emitters, with their long half-lives, allow for the tracing of slow biochemical processes which cannot be adequately examined by the commonly used short-lived positron emitters. Most of these isotopes emit high-energy cascade gamma rays in addition to positron decay that can be detected and create a triple coincidence with annihilation photons. Triple coincidence is discarded in most scanners, however, the majority of the triple coincidence contains true photon pairs that can be recovered. In this study, we propose a strategy for recovering triple coincidence events to raise the sensitivity of PET imaging for non-pure positron emitters. To identify the true line of response (LOR) from a triple coincidence, a framework utilizing geometrical, energy and temporal information is proposed. The geometrical criterion is based on the assumption that the LOR with the largest radial offset among the three sub pairs of triple coincidences is least likely to be a true LOR. Then, a confidence time window is used to test the valid LOR among those within triple coincidence. Finally, a likelihood ratio discriminant rule based on the energy probability density distribution of cascade and annihilation gammas is established to identify the true LOR. An Inveon preclinical PET scanner was modeled with GATE (GEANT4 application for tomographic emission) Monte Carlo software. We evaluated the performance of the proposed method in terms of identification fraction, noise equivalent count rates (NECR), and image quality on various phantoms. With the inclusion of triple coincidence events using the proposed method, the NECR was found to increase from 11% to 26% and 19% to 29% for I-124 and Br-76, respectively, when 7.4-185 MBq of activity was used. Compared to the reconstructed images using double coincidence, this technique increased the SNR by 5.1-7.3% for I-124 and 9.3-10.3% for Br-76 within the activity range of 9.25-74 MBq, without compromising the spatial resolution or

  11. Efficiency-optimized low-cost TDPAC spectrometer using a versatile routing/coincidence unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, M., E-mail: renteria@fisica.unlp.edu.ar; Bibiloni, A. G.; Darriba, G. N.; Errico, L. A.; Munoz, E. L.; Richard, D.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2008-01-15

    A highly efficient, reliable, and low-cost {gamma}-{gamma} TDPAC spectrometer, PACAr, optimized for {sup 181}Hf-implanted low-activity samples, is presented. A versatile EPROM-based routing/coincidence unit was developed and implemented to be use with the memory-card-based multichannel analyzer hosted in a personal computer. The excellent energy resolution and very good overall resolution and efficiency of PACAr are analyzed and compare with advanced and already tested fast-fast and slow-fast PAC spectrometers.

  12. The determination of electron momentum densities by inelastic scattering gamma-ray-electron coincidence measurements: The (γ,eγ)-experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollason, A.J.; Bell, F.; Schneider, J.R.

    1989-09-01

    Measurements have been made of the recoiling electron in 320 keV gamma ray inelastic scattering collisions in thin aluminium targets. The angular correlation of these electrons detected in coincidence with the scattered photon is in agreement with the kinematic requirements of the Compton effect and is correctly predicted by Monte Carlo simulations based on the impulse approximation. Further simulations of ideal-geometry experiments indicate that information about the initial electron momenta is available from an examination of those electron-photon events originating in a surface layer of one electronic mean free path depth and that elastic scattering of the recoil electrons from greater depths produces a nearly flat background to this signal. The results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the (γ,eγ) experiment for studying electron momentum densities with synchrotron radiation. (orig.) With 23 refs., 17 figs

  13. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence System; Aplicacao do metodo de Monte Carlo no estudo da padronizacao de radionuclideos com esquema de desintegracao complexos em sistema de coincidencias 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-07-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all {beta}{sup -} branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: {sup 134}Cs, {sup 72}Ga which disintegrate by {beta}{sup -} transition, {sup 133}Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and {sup 35}S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  14. Simulation of triple coincidences in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal-González, J; Herranz, E; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Lage, E; Dave, S R; Parot, V; Herraiz, J L; Moore, S C; Park, M-A

    2015-01-01

    Although current PET scanners are designed and optimized to detect double coincidence events, there is a significant amount of triple coincidences in any PET acquisition. Triple coincidences may arise from causes such as: inter-detector scatter (IDS), random triple interactions (R T ), or the detection of prompt gamma rays in coincidence with annihilation photons when non-pure positron-emitting radionuclides are used (β + γ events). Depending on the data acquisition settings of the PET scanner, these triple events are discarded or processed as a set of double coincidences if the energy of the three detected events is within the scanner’s energy window. This latter option introduces noise in the data, as at most, only one of the possible lines-of-response defined by triple interactions corresponds to the line along which the decay occurred. Several novel works have pointed out the possibility of using triple events to increase the sensitivity of PET scanners or to expand PET imaging capabilities by allowing differentiation between radiotracers labeled with non-pure and pure positron-emitting radionuclides. In this work, we extended the Monte Carlo simulator PeneloPET to assess the proportion of triple coincidences in PET acquisitions and to evaluate their possible applications. We validated the results of the simulator against experimental data acquired with a modified version of a commercial preclinical PET/CT scanner, which was enabled to acquire and process triple-coincidence events. We used as figures of merit the energy spectra for double and triple coincidences and the triples-to-doubles ratio for different energy windows and radionuclides. After validation, the simulator was used to predict the relative quantity of triple-coincidence events in two clinical scanners assuming different acquisition settings. Good agreement between simulations and preclinical experiments was found, with differences below 10% for most of the observables considered. For

  15. Disintegration rate of Tc -99m and In -111 radioactive solutions in coincidence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Andreia Barreto de

    2011-01-01

    The 111 In and 99 mTc standardization in a 4πβ-γ coincidence system is described. The 111 In was produced by the reaction of 111 Cd (p, n) 111 In in the cyclotron. The 111 In decays with a half life of 2.8 days by electron capture process, populating the excited levels of 111 Cd, emitting two main gamma rays with energies of 171 keV and 245 keV. The 99m Tc decay with a half life of 6.007 h for isomeric transition, from the radioactive decay of 99 Mo. 111 In standardization was carried out in a 4πβ-γ system, consisted of a gas flow proportional counter with 4π geometry coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) scintillation counter with conventional electronics. The gamma window was set comprising the (171 keV + 245 keV) total absorption energy peaks. The choice of the window was based on the analysis of the extrapolation curves prediction, obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. The 99 mTc standardization has been accomplished by the 4πβ-γ coincidence method using a thin window proportional counter in a 4π geometry coupled to a single NaI(Tl) scintillation counter. The beta efficiency was varied by electronic discrimination using a software coincidence counting system (SCS). Two windows were selected for the gamma channel: one at 140 keV gamma ray and the other at 20 keV X ray total absorption peaks. The result of the experimental activity of 111 In two solutions agree with the results obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental activities of 99m Tc for the two gamma windows are in agreement within the experimental uncertainty, indicating that the adopted methodology is adequate. (author)

  16. A flexible VME-based multiparametric apparatus for coincidence spectroscopy and investigation of parameters of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubek, J.

    2000-01-01

    The methodology of Coincidence Instrumental Activation Analysis (CIAA) based on a three-parameter gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer with two high-purity Ge detectors is presented. A flexible coincidence system was built on standard NIM spectrometric modules connected to a VME or CAMAC data acquisition system. The detailed setup of the system optimized for the maximum energy resolution, maximum data throughput (dead time correction, pile-up rejection) and maximum flexibility is described. The use of different data acquisition platforms is discussed (VME bus with several different controllers, CAMAC bus). The software developed for reading and basic processing of measured data is also described. The possibilities of off-line data evaluation are discussed. The system was tested with respect to its compliance with the criteria of the CIAA method. Some results of measurement by this method are also presented. The flexibility of the system is demonstrated on its ability to measure the time characteristics of different detectors. (author)

  17. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3 crystals doped with Eu and Ce - Dy ions exposed to ultraviolet and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz O.; Silva, Edna S.

    2011-01-01

    Due to environmental problems such as degradation of the ozone layer and control of radiation levels in units of radiation, new dosimetric materials with high sensitivity for ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation are of great interest for applications in environmental dosimetry. In this context, this paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the thermoluminescent (TL) response of LaAlO 3 crystals doped with different concentrations of trivalent optically active ions exposed to UV and gamma radiation doses. The work has been performed under a direct cooperation between the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry in Moscow (IGIC), responsible for crystal growth, and the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), responsible for the study of its luminescent properties. In this context, samples doped with 1% of Eu 3+ , 1% Ce 3+ , 5% of Ce 3+ and also co-doped with 5% Ce 3+ and 1% Dy 3+ were grown under hydrothermal conditions. The investigation was divided into two fronts, one for gamma radiation and the other for UV radiation. In the investigation with gamma radiation the best TL response has been obtained from LaAlO 3 :Eu. This crystal has shown good sensitivity and excellent linearity between TL output and the delivered gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 mGy. In addition, its TL curve is quite similar to the Al 2 O 3 :C, a commercial TL phosphor with high sensitivity to gamma radiation. In the investigation with UV radiation the best response has been achieved for co-doped LaAlO 3 :Ce,Dy. They have excellent sensitivity and good linearity for spectral irradiances ranging from 0.042 to 1.2 mJ.cm -2 . (author)

  18. Development of a coincidence system for radio-nuclide standardization using surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinas, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A system for the standardization of alpha-gamma or electron-X radionuclide emitters has been developed in the present work. The system consists of one or two surface barrier detectors for alpha or electron detection which are coupled to thin-window NaI (T1) crystals suitable for low energy X or gamma ray detection. The performance of the system has been verified by means of the standardization of 241 Am, 137 Cs and 109 Cd solutions. The activity has been obtained using the extrapolation method applied to the 4Πα-γ and 2Πe c -X coincidence technique. The surface barrier detection efficiency was varied by placing absorbers over the radioactive sources or by changing the source to detector distance. The results were compared to those obtained using conventional absolute systems based on gas-flow and pressurized 4Π proportional counters, or using radioactive solutions standardized in international comparisons spondored by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The expect and measured activities agree within the experimental uncertainties which were: 0.2 % for 241 Am, 0.7% for 137 Cs and 0.6% for 109 Cd. The ratio between the probabilities of (electron capture + internal conversion) and internal conversion for the K-shell of 109 Cd has been determined. The result is: 2.8883 ± 0.016. (author) [pt

  19. Measurement of Gamma-ray Energy Spectrum According to Temperature Variation Using a Fiber-Optic Radiation Sensor Based on YSO:Ce Crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H.; Yoo, W. J.; Shin, S. H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwon, G.; Lee, D. E.; Jang, K. W.; Lee, B. [BK21 Plus Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an alternative to conventional radiation detectors, various fiber-optic radiation sensors (FORSs) have been investigated for gamma-ray monitoring because of their various desirable advantages, such as their small sensing volume, substantial flexibility, remote operation, ability to make real-time measurement, and immunity to high electromagnetic interference. In general, the basic principle of a radiation detection using scintillators is to measure the scintillating light signals generated from the interactions between the scintillators and the radiations. To measure gamma-ray, the inorganic scintillators used in the FORS should have some properties, such as high atomic material, high light yields, fast decay time, high density, and high stopping power. For these reasons, a cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) crystal has been introduced as a promising scintillator in various radiation sensor applications. According to the recent studies, however, LYSO:Ce crystal is impossible to be applied in high-temperature conditions because it serves the fluctuations of its light yields with the temperature variation (i.e., thermosluminescence). In this study, to obtain gamma-ray energy spectra by measuring scintillating light signals emitted from the scintillators in high-temperature conditions, we first fabricated an FORS system using various inorganic scintillator crystals and then evaluated the light yields of each inorganic scintillator. As a promising scintillator for use in high-temperature conditions, a cerium-doped yttrium orthosilicate (YSO:Ce) crystal was selected and evaluated its thermal property according to the elevated temperature up to 300 .deg. C. We fabricated an FORS using inorganic scintillator and an optical fiber bundle. To select an adequate scintillator to apply in high-temperature conditions, the gamma-ray energy spectra were obtained by using four kinds of inorganic scintillators. From the experimental results, we selected YSO

  20. Coincidence detection of photons of 511 keV from positon annihilation on a conventional gamma camera: optimization and analysis of potentialities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, David

    1999-01-01

    The feasibility of acquiring clinical oncology studies on a gamma camera designed for the imaging of low energy single photons was investigated. The first prototype used two Nal(Tl) detectors of 40 cm by 30 cm with a 3/8 inch height and the second prototype was equipped with two large Nal(Tl) detectors of 40 cm by 54 cm with a 4/8 inch height. The optimization of such devices was mainly an optimization of the count rates obtained for reconstruct an image as a function of the angular axial aperture of the projections, with and without axial collimators. This optimization was performed experimentally using an anthropomorphic whole body phantom and the noise equivalent count rate as the figure of merit. An original correction for the random coincidences was also designed in order to optimize the contrast recovery and the contrast to noise ratio of small tumors (16 mm and 19 mm diameter). Finally, the optimal dose of FDG that can be injected to the subjects for an acquisition of that machine was determined and data acquired on an ECAT HR+ were compared with those acquired on the gamma camera for five subjects. (author) [fr

  1. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the electroluminescence of ZnSe:Zn,Te crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmuratova, D.B.; Ibragimova, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of 60 Co gamma-radiation at the dose rate of 10 Gy/s on electroluminescence (El)Zn Se crystals with 0.5 weight % Te treated in zinc vapor was studied for possible manufacturing of light emitting structures. Broad El band with the maximum at 610 nm is excited in the origin samples at a voltage above 15 V. After irradiation to the high dose of 10 6 Gy the El intensity grows by ∼2.5 times in the direct polarity at 24 V. The observed El of Zn Se:Zn,Te single crystals is assumed to be caused by the charge carrier recombination at the interstitial zinc centers by the excitation mechanism of a barrier sub breakdown type (authors)

  2. Soft X-ray Calibration of the Co/C Multilayer Mirrors for the Objective Crystal Spectrometer on the Spectrum Röntgen-Gamma Satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdali, Salim; Tarrio, C.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1996-01-01

    The objective crystal spectrometer (OXS) on the forthcoming Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma satellite is designed to carry three kinds of crystals: LiF(220), Si(111) and RAP(001), placed in front of the SODART telescope. Thirty six super polished (RMS roughness

  3. The Absolute Standardization Method of 18F by Using 4π(PC)-γ Coincidence Counting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujadi

    2003-01-01

    The absolute standardization of 18 F radionuclide had been carried out using 4π(PC)-γ coincidence counting. The radionuclide 18 F fluoro 2 deoxyglucose (FDG) was the quantity used at nuclear medicine in diagnosis of oncology. The radionuclide 18 F had been produced by 18 O(p,n) 18 F reaction in a cyclotron. Source preparation had been done by gravimetry method after source was dissolved in aquadest. The samples have been measured using 4π(PC)-γ coincidence counting on different three window gamma energy, the gamma windows were set on 511 keV peak, 1022 keV and above 511 keV region. The result of measurement on 1022 keV peak and above 511 keV region, are fairly good with discrepancy about 0.15%, but the linearity of gamma window above 511 keV is the best with R 2 = 0.8287. The measurement on 511 keV gamma window region gave the result with difference 2.28% compared with another two region. (author)

  4. Performance evaluation of BGO block detectors used in positron emission tomography and a coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. H.; Choi, Y.; Lim, K. C.; Lee, M. Y.; Woo, S. K.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, S. E.; Choi, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the basic performances of the BGO block detectors, which is used in the GE Advance positron emission tomography. The block detector is composed of 36 small BGO crystals coupled to two 2-channel photomultiplier tubes. In this study, we measured the crystal map and the intrinsic energy resolution of the detector. The coincidence signals between the detectors were also obtained using F-18. The intrinsic energy resolution of the block detector was 69% FWHM at 140 keV and 33% FWHM at 511 keV. High quality crystal map and the coincidence signals between the detectors were successfully obtained. The timing resolution of the detectors are being measured. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of developing high performance positron emission tomography

  5. Instrument limitation of accuracy of absolute measurement by method of 4π beta-gamma coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plkh, J.

    1979-01-01

    Accuracy is discussed of determination of coincidence channels dead-time in 4π β-γ installation and determination of coincidence resolution time as well as conditions for determination and accuracy of these parameters. Conditions are considered under which these parameters have not been determined and there is wrong performance of the installation. Special attention was paid to the electronic circuit of the γ-channel. It has been shown that as a result of wrong performance of electronic circuit a new type of wrong coincidence appeared [ru

  6. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strålberg, Elisabeth; Klemola, Seppo; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical...

  7. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of 64Zn to 65Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W.; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-06-01

    Transmutation of 64Zn to 65Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the 65Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of 64Zn nuclei to 65Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu2+ ions (where 63Cu and 65Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu2+ (3d9) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from 65Cu nuclei. The absence of 63Cu lines in this Cu2+ spectrum left no doubt that the observed 65Cu signals were due to transmuted 65Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu+-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu+-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  8. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  9. Resistance to {gamma} irradiation of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LaCl{sub 3}:Ce single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normand, S. [CEA-Recherche Technologique, DETECS/SSTM CE Saclay F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: stephane.normand@cea.fr; Iltis, A. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, 104 Route de Larchant, 77140 St Pierre les Nemours (France); Bernard, F. [Saint-Gobain Crystals, 104 Route de Larchant, 77140 St Pierre les Nemours (France); Domenech, T. [CEA-Recherche Technologique, DETECS/SSTM CE Saclay F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France); Delacour, P. [CEA-Recherche Technologique, DETECS/SSTM CE Saclay F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-03-11

    LaBr{sub 3}:Ce (Brillance 380) and LaCl{sub 3}:Ce (Brillance 350) both exhibit a very good energy resolution and energy linearity response. They are also more sensitive to {gamma}-rays than NaI(Tl) detectors, due to their higher density. The aim of this work is to determine the behaviour of those new single crystals in comparison with NaI(Tl) under severe {gamma}-ray irradiation. Therefore we have irradiated three 25 by 25 mm cylinder crystals encapsulated in air-tight aluminium housing with {sup 60}Co beam. Crystals were tested as stand-alone material not to test the impact of radiation to our photomultiplier tube (PMT). Only encapsulated crystals (alone, without PMTs) were irradiated during several periods to achieve the final 3.4 kGy integrated dose. Intermediate measurements of {sup 137}Cs spectrum were done in order to evaluate the impact of the dose on the studied crystal performances. The radiation hardness of LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LaCl{sub 3}:Ce was then compared to NaI(Tl). We show in this paper that up to 3.4 kGy no permanent modification of the energy resolution nor colour change is observed for LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LaCl{sub 3}:Ce crystals. The light output also seems quite stable. This is in stark contrast with the behaviour of NaI:Tl which exhibits continuously decreasing light output, colour change and worsening of energy resolution for doses above 5 Gy.

  10. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO{sub 3} crystals doped with Eu and Ce - Dy ions exposed to ultraviolet and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Vitor H.; Faria, Luiz O., E-mail: farialo@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Silva, Edna S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Khaidukov, Nicholas M. [Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, IGIC, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-01

    Due to environmental problems such as degradation of the ozone layer and control of radiation levels in units of radiation, new dosimetric materials with high sensitivity for ultraviolet (UV) and gamma radiation are of great interest for applications in environmental dosimetry. In this context, this paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the thermoluminescent (TL) response of LaAlO{sub 3} crystals doped with different concentrations of trivalent optically active ions exposed to UV and gamma radiation doses. The work has been performed under a direct cooperation between the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry in Moscow (IGIC), responsible for crystal growth, and the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN), responsible for the study of its luminescent properties. In this context, samples doped with 1% of Eu{sup 3+}, 1% Ce{sup 3+}, 5% of Ce{sup 3+} and also co-doped with 5% Ce{sup 3+} and 1% Dy{sup 3+} were grown under hydrothermal conditions. The investigation was divided into two fronts, one for gamma radiation and the other for UV radiation. In the investigation with gamma radiation the best TL response has been obtained from LaAlO{sub 3}:Eu. This crystal has shown good sensitivity and excellent linearity between TL output and the delivered gamma doses ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 mGy. In addition, its TL curve is quite similar to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, a commercial TL phosphor with high sensitivity to gamma radiation. In the investigation with UV radiation the best response has been achieved for co-doped LaAlO{sub 3}:Ce,Dy. They have excellent sensitivity and good linearity for spectral irradiances ranging from 0.042 to 1.2 mJ.cm{sup -2}. (author)

  11. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the

  12. Dynamic imaging with coincidence gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmassi, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we develop a technique to calculate dynamic parameters from data acquired using gamma-camera PET (gc PET). Our method is based on an algorithm development for dynamic SPECT, which processes all decency projection data simultaneously instead of reconstructing a series of static images individually. The algorithm was modified to account for the extra data that is obtained with gc PET (compared with SPEC). The method was tested using simulated projection data for both a SPECT and a gc PET geometry. These studies showed the ability of the code to reconstruct simulated data with a varying range of half-lives. The accuracy of the algorithm was measured in terms of the reconstructed half-life and initial activity for the simulated object. The reconstruction of gc PET data showed improvement in half-life and activity compared to SPECT data of 23% and 20%, respectively (at 50 iterations). The gc PET algorithm was also tested using data from an experimental phantom and finally, applied to a clinical dataset, where the algorithm was further modified to deal with the situation where the activity in certain pixels decreases and then increases during the acquisition. (author)

  13. Multi-dimensional analysis of high resolution {gamma}-ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, Ch.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires

    1992-12-31

    A new generation of high resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometers capable of recording high-fold coincidence events with a large efficiency will soon be available. Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. As a contribution to the software development associated with the EUROGAM spectrometer, the performances of computer codes designed to select multi-dimensional gates from 3-, 4- and 5-fold coincidence databases were tested. The tests were performed on events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation and also on real experimental triple data recorded with the 8{pi} spectrometer and with a preliminary version of the EUROGAM array. (R.P.) 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs.

  14. Triple-coincidence with automatic chance coincidence correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.L.

    1975-05-01

    The chance coincidences in a triple-coincidence circuit are of two types--partially correlated and entirely uncorrelated. Their relative importance depends on source strength and source and detector geometry so that the total chance correction cannot, in general, be calculated. The system described makes use of several delays and straightforward integrated circuit logic to provide independent evaluation of the two components of the chance coincidence rate. (auth)

  15. Portable gamma and thermal neutron probe using a 6LiI(Eu) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Araujo, Geraldo P.; Milian, Felix M.; Barbosa, Jurandir C.; Garcia, Fermin; Oliveira, Arno H.; Silva, Mario R.S.; Penna, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Europium-activated lithium-6 iodide is a scintillator used for gamma and neutron counting. A portable detection system was built based on this scintillator. This system has three modules: the scintillator, a 10 m liquid light guide, and a Hamamatsu photon counting head H9319 used as a light pulse digitizer. Data transfer, measurement time and other necessary adjustment can be controlled by software from the PC through the RS-232C interface. The scintillator, a crystal of 6 LiI(Eu), is a small cylinder with 3 mm diameter and 40 mm length completely sealed in an aluminum tube coupled to the light guide. The small size of the scintillator increases the neutron/gamma count ratio, since 2 to 3 mm of thickness of this crystal absorbs all thermal neutrons. Intensities of X and gamma rays, and thermal neutrons can be recorded for time intervals of 10 ms to 1 s storing up to 10000 countings. The system was calibrated for measuring radiation doses for validating numerical models in dosimetry. Two characteristic reinforce this application, measurements can be done at several meters away from the radiation source and also inside of water. In addition, it was used to build nuclear probes based on Compton scattering or neutron moderation in porous media by attaching an AmBe source to the top of the aluminum tube. Tests were done to determine the reproducibility of counting rates. Background counting was measured at several temperatures to verify the influence of dark current of PMT. Sealed AmBe, low activity Am, and X rays sources were used for studies of radiation counting statistics. X rays apparatus was used to correlate counting rates measured with the 6 LiI(Eu) detection system and doses measured with an ionization chamber at several distances from the X ray source. (author)

  16. Standardization of Ga-68 by coincidence measurements, liquid scintillation counting and 4πγ counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; Rodríguez Barquero, Leonor; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo; Balpardo, Christian; Rodrígues, Darío; Llovera, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The radionuclide 68 Ga is one of the few positron emitters that can be prepared in-house without the use of a cyclotron. It disintegrates to the ground state of 68 Zn partially by positron emission (89.1%) with a maximum energy of 1899.1 keV, and partially by electron capture (10.9%). This nuclide has been standardized in the frame of a cooperation project between the Radionuclide Metrology laboratories from CIEMAT (Spain) and CNEA (Argentina). Measurements involved several techniques: 4πβ−γ coincidences, integral gamma counting and Liquid Scintillation Counting using the triple to double coincidence ratio and the CIEMAT/NIST methods. Given the short half-life of the radionuclide assayed, a direct comparison between results from both laboratories was excluded and a comparison of experimental efficiencies of similar NaI detectors was used instead. - Highlights: ► We standardized the positron emitter Ga-68 in a bilateral cooperation. ► We used several techniques, as coincidence, integral gamma and liquid scintillation. ► An efficiency comparison replaced a direct comparison of reference materials.

  17. 65Zn and 133Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2017-01-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of 65 Zn and 133 Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for 65 Zn and 0.48 % for 133 Ba samples. (author)

  18. 65Zn and 133Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; da Cruz, Paulo A. L.; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2018-03-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of 65Zn and 133Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for 65Zn and 0.48 % for 133Ba samples.

  19. Advanced Time-Delayed Coincidence Studies of $^{31,32}$Mg from the $\\beta$-decays of $^{31,32}$Na

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Plociennik, W A

    2002-01-01

    It is proposed to study the lifetime of the 2$_{1}^{+}$ 885.4 keV state in $^{32}$Mg by means of Advanced Time-Delayed $\\beta \\gamma \\gamma$(t) method with the precision in the half-life value of about $\\pm$ 1.5 ps. This would be an independent verification of the B(E2; 0$_{1}^{+} \\rightarrow$ 2$_{1}^{+}$) values obtained so far in a few studies using Coulomb excitations at intermediate beam energies. The advantage of time-delayed coincidence measurements is that they are free of corrections used in the Coulex studies, which strongly affect the deduced B(E2) results. In addition, we propose to study the lifetimes or lifetime limits of other states in nuclei populated in the decays of $^{31}$Na and $^{32}$Na, specifically focusing on the intruder negative parity band in $^{31}$Mg. As a side benefit to this investigation we expect high-quality $\\gamma \\gamma$ coincidences to reveal new excited states in both $^{31}$Mg and $^{32}$Mg. Our results from a brief test-measurement yield a lifetime of T$_{1/2}$ = 10.5(...

  20. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  1. Comparison of modeled and measured performance of a GSO crystal as gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parno, D.S.; Friend, M.; Mamyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F.; Camsonne, A.; Franklin, G.B.; Paschke, K.; Quinn, B.

    2013-01-01

    We have modeled, tested, and installed a large, cerium-activated Gd 2 SiO 5 crystal scintillator for use as a detector of gamma rays. We present the measured detector response to two types of incident photons: nearly monochromatic photons up to 40 MeV, and photons from a continuous Compton backscattering spectrum up to 200 MeV. Our GEANT4 simulations, developed to determine the analyzing power of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, reproduce the measured spectra well

  2. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of 64Zn to 65Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W.; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C.; Halliburton, L. E.

    2014-01-01

    Transmutation of 64 Zn to 65 Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the 65 Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of 64 Zn nuclei to 65 Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu 2+ ions (where 63 Cu and 65 Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu 2+ (3d 9 ) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from 65 Cu nuclei. The absence of 63 Cu lines in this Cu 2+ spectrum left no doubt that the observed 65 Cu signals were due to transmuted 65 Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu + -H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu + -H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  3. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  4. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  5. Search for two-{gamma} sum-energy peaks in the decay out of superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenthal, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays decaying out of the superdeformed (SD) band in {sup 192}Hg has a quasicontinuous distribution. Whereas methods to construct level schemes from discrete lines in coincidence spectra are well established, new techniques must still be developed to extract information from coincidences involving quasicontinuous {gamma}rays. From an experiment using Eurogam, we obtained impressively clean 1- and 2-dimensional {gamma} spectra from pairwise or single gates, respectively, on the transitions of the SD band in {sup 192}Hg. We investigated methods to exploit the 2-dimensional quasicontinuum spectra coincident with the SD band to determine the excitation energy of the SD band above the normal yrast line. No strong peaks were observed in the 2-{gamma} sum spectra; only candidates of peaks at a 2-3 {sigma} level were found. This suggests that 2-{gamma} decay is not the dominant decay branch out of SD bands, consistent with the observed multiplicity of 3.2. We shall next search for peaks in sum-spectra of 3 {gamma}s.

  6. Passive neutron coincidence counting with plastic scintillators for the characterization of radioactive waste drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyglun, C.; Simony, B.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C. [CEA, DEN, Cadarache, Nuclear Measurement Laboratory, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Saurel, N.; Colas, S. [CEA, DAM, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Collot, J. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-01

    The quantification of radioactive material is essential in the fields of safeguards, criticality control of nuclear processes, dismantling of nuclear facilities and components, or radioactive waste characterization. The Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (LMN) of CEA is involved in the development of time-correlated neutron detection techniques using plastic scintillators. Usually, 3He proportional counters are used for passive neutron coincidence counting owing to their high thermal neutron capture efficiency and gamma insensitivity. However, the global {sup 3}He shortage in the past few years has made these detectors extremely expensive. In addition, contrary to {sup 3}He counters for which a few tens of microseconds are needed to thermalize fast neutrons, in view to maximize the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H capture cross section, plastic scintillators are based on elastic scattering and therefore the light signal is formed within a few nanoseconds, correlated pulses being detected within a few dozen- or hundred nanoseconds. This time span reflects fission particles time of flight, which allows reducing accordingly the duration of the coincidence gate and thus the rate of random coincidences, which may totally blind fission coincidences when using {sup 3}He counters in case of a high (α,n) reaction rate. However, plastic scintillators are very sensitive to gamma rays, requiring the use of a thick metallic shield to reduce the corresponding background. Cross talk between detectors is also a major issue, which consists on the detection of one particle by several detectors due to elastic or inelastic scattering, leading to true but undesired coincidences. Data analysis algorithms are tested to minimize cross-talk in simultaneously activated detectors. The distinction between useful fission coincidences and the correlated background due to cross-talk, (α,n) and induced (n,2n) or (n,n'γ) reactions, is achieved by measuring 3-fold coincidences. The performances of a

  7. Production of beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual radioxenon isotopes for improved analysis of nuclear explosion monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Derek Anderson

    Radioactive xenon gas is a fission product released in the detonation of nuclear devices that can be detected in atmospheric samples far from the detonation site. In order to improve the capabilities of radioxenon detection systems, this work produces beta-gamma coincidence spectra of individual isotopes of radioxenon. Previous methods of radioxenon production consisted of the removal of mixed isotope samples of radioxenon gas released from fission of contained fissile materials such as 235U. In order to produce individual samples of the gas, isotopically enriched stable xenon gas is irradiated with neutrons. The detection of the individual isotopes is also modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to produce spectra. The experiment shows that samples of 131mXe, 133 Xe, and 135Xe with a purity greater than 99% can be produced, and that a sample of 133mXe can be produced with a relatively low amount of 133Xe background. These spectra are compared to models and used as essential library data for the Spectral Deconvolution Analysis Tool (SDAT) to analyze atmospheric samples of radioxenon for evidence of nuclear events.

  8. Comparison of modeled and measured performance of a GSO crystal as gamma detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parno, D.S., E-mail: dparno@uw.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); University of Washington, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics and Department of Physics, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Friend, M. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mamyan, V.; Benmokhtar, F. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Camsonne, A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Franklin, G.B. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Paschke, K. [University of Virginia, Department of Physics, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Quinn, B. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Physics, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2013-11-11

    We have modeled, tested, and installed a large, cerium-activated Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal scintillator for use as a detector of gamma rays. We present the measured detector response to two types of incident photons: nearly monochromatic photons up to 40 MeV, and photons from a continuous Compton backscattering spectrum up to 200 MeV. Our GEANT4 simulations, developed to determine the analyzing power of the Compton polarimeter in Hall A of Jefferson Lab, reproduce the measured spectra well.

  9. Isotropic gates in large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the angular distribution information extracted from high-fold gamma-gamma coincidence events is analyzed. It is shown that a correct quasi-isotropic gate setting, available at the modern large gamma-ray detector arrays, essentially preserves the quality of the angular information. (orig.)

  10. Absolute disintegration rate and 320 keV {gamma}-ray emission probability of {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes /Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/ IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio-Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: candida@ird.gov.br; Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes /Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/ IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio-Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    This work describes the procedures for determining absolutely the {sup 51}Cr disintegration rate by using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence and anti-coincidence counting and the sum-peak methods. A 4''x4''-NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the {gamma}- channel of the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for {gamma}-ray counting. In the {beta}-channel, a 4{pi} gas flow proportional counter was used for counting of characteristic X-rays and Auger electrons originating from the electron capture events of the {sup 51}Cr decay scheme. Gamma spectrometry measurements by high-pure planar and coaxial germanium detectors were performed in the sum-peak method and in the determination of the 320 keV {gamma}-emission probability of {sup 51}Cr. This latter determined value agrees with the recent values found in the literature, confirming the reliability of the three methods used in this work for the disintegration rate measurements.

  11. Instrumentation and data handling. I. Positron coincidence imaging with the TOKIM system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    In addition to the conventional singles mode of operation, the TOKIM system's two Anger-type gamma cameras may be used in the (stationary, 180 0 opposition) coincidence mode, making it possible to achieve tomographic imaging with three-dimensional spatial resolution and high detection sensitivity, utilizing β + emitting radioisotopes. This method, however, suffers from certain inherent limitations. Our efforts during this past year to improve upon the TOKIM imaging capability in the β + mode have been directed towards the reduction of the limitations by the following means: the removal of out of focal plane image contributions through a computerized iterative correction procedure, coupled with coincidence aperture limitation to achieve uniform sensitivity across a reasonable portion of the detector pair diameter, and the application of Muehllehner's graded filter approach to the TOKIM to increase the ratio of usable coincidence events versus singles count rate

  12. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N. [Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France). Services de Medecine Nucleaire; Wartski, M.; Zerbib, E. [Hopital Marie Lannelongue Le Plessis Robinson (France); Lumbroso, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy Villejuif (France)

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of {sup 18} F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physician`s hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

  13. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N.; Lumbroso, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of 18 F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physician's hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

  14. An electronic interface for acquisition of 12 delayed gamma-gammacoincidence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domienikan, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    An electronic interface has been constructed to be used m conjunctionwith a Time differential Perturbed gamma-gamma Angular Correlation (TDPAC)spectrometer with four BaF 2 detectors. The routing interface is speciallydesigned to work with the Ortec model ADCAM 920-16 multichannel analyzer(MCA) having 16 multiplexed inputs, permitting the simultaneous acquisitionof 12 delayed gamma-gamma coincidence spectra. This innovation provides aconsiderable reduction in the experimental data acquisition time and as aconsequence permits an improvement in the precision of the final results ofthe hyperfine parameters deduced from the TDPAC measurements. The interfaceconsists of two distinct electronic circuits. A novel high performance analogdemultiplexer circuit is used to address the linear pulses from the time toamplitude converter (TAC) to the corresponding MCA inputs, according to thepair of detectors responsible for the given gamma-gamma coincidence.Validation of the gamma-gamma coincidence and control of the analogdemultiplexer are realized by a digital circuit, consisting basically ofmonostable multivibrators and decoders of High-Speed CMOS Logic (HCT). Theperformance of the routing interface was evaluated through several testmeasurements which included the time resolution and linearity of the system,the quadrupolar interaction in 181 Ta(Hf), 181 Ta(HfO 2 ), 111 Cd(Cd)and 111 Cd(Pd) samples, and the hyperfine magnetic field in 181 'Ta(Ni), 11 '1Cd(Ni) and 140 Ce(Gd) samples. The results of the hyperfineinteraction measurements are discussed and compared with previous results andserve to demonstrate the correct and efficient performance of the constructedinterface. (author)

  15. Portable gamma and thermal neutron probe using a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Clemente J.G.; Araujo, Geraldo P.; Milian, Felix M.; Barbosa, Jurandir C.; Garcia, Fermin [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UESC), Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas em Ciencias e Tecnologias das Radiacoes (CPqCTR); Oliveira, Arno H.; Silva, Mario R.S.; Penna, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Europium-activated lithium-6 iodide is a scintillator used for gamma and neutron counting. A portable detection system was built based on this scintillator. This system has three modules: the scintillator, a 10 m liquid light guide, and a Hamamatsu photon counting head H9319 used as a light pulse digitizer. Data transfer, measurement time and other necessary adjustment can be controlled by software from the PC through the RS-232C interface. The scintillator, a crystal of {sup 6}LiI(Eu), is a small cylinder with 3 mm diameter and 40 mm length completely sealed in an aluminum tube coupled to the light guide. The small size of the scintillator increases the neutron/gamma count ratio, since 2 to 3 mm of thickness of this crystal absorbs all thermal neutrons. Intensities of X and gamma rays, and thermal neutrons can be recorded for time intervals of 10 ms to 1 s storing up to 10000 countings. The system was calibrated for measuring radiation doses for validating numerical models in dosimetry. Two characteristic reinforce this application, measurements can be done at several meters away from the radiation source and also inside of water. In addition, it was used to build nuclear probes based on Compton scattering or neutron moderation in porous media by attaching an AmBe source to the top of the aluminum tube. Tests were done to determine the reproducibility of counting rates. Background counting was measured at several temperatures to verify the influence of dark current of PMT. Sealed AmBe, low activity Am, and X rays sources were used for studies of radiation counting statistics. X rays apparatus was used to correlate counting rates measured with the {sup 6}LiI(Eu) detection system and doses measured with an ionization chamber at several distances from the X ray source. (author)

  16. Calculation of coincidence summing corrections for a specific small soil sample geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmer, R.G.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Previously, a system was developed at the INEL for measuring the {gamma}-ray emitting nuclides in small soil samples for the purpose of environmental monitoring. These samples were counted close to a {approx}20% Ge detector and, therefore, it was necessary to take into account the coincidence summing that occurs for some nuclides. In order to improve the technical basis for the coincidence summing corrections, the authors have carried out a study of the variation in the coincidence summing probability with position within the sample volume. A Monte Carlo electron and photon transport code (CYLTRAN) was used to compute peak and total efficiencies for various photon energies from 30 to 2,000 keV at 30 points throughout the sample volume. The geometry for these calculations included the various components of the detector and source along with the shielding. The associated coincidence summing corrections were computed at these 30 positions in the sample volume and then averaged for the whole source. The influence of the soil and the detector shielding on the efficiencies was investigated.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of activity measurements by means of 4πβ-γ coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mauro N.; Dias, Mauro S.; Koskinas, Marina F.

    2004-01-01

    The methodology for simulating all detection processes in a 4πβ-γ coincidence system by means of the Monte Carlo technique is described. The goal is to predict the behavior of the observed activity as a function of the 4πβ detector efficiency. In this approach, the information contained in the decay scheme is used for determining the contribution of all radiations emitted by the selected radionuclide, to the measured spectra by each detector. This simulation yields the shape of the coincidence spectrum, allowing the choice of suitable gamma-ray windows for which the activity can be obtained with maximum accuracy. The simulation can predict a detailed description of the extrapolation curve, mainly in the region where the 4πβ detector efficiency approaches 100%, which is experimentally unreachable due to self absorption of low energy electrons in the radioactive source substrate. The theoretical work is being developed with MCNP Monte Carlo code, applied to a gas-flow proportional counter of 4π geometry, coupled to a pair of NaI(Tl) crystals. The calculated efficiencies are compared to experimental results. The extrapolation curve can be obtained by means of another Monte Carlo algorithm, being developed in the present work, to take into account fundamental characteristics of a complex decay scheme, including different types of radiation and transitions. The present paper shows preliminary calculated values obtained by the simulation and compared to predicted analytical values for a simple decay scheme. (author)

  18. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nino, Juan C. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Baciak, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Johns, Paul [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sulekar, Soumitra [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Totten, James [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Nimmagadda, Jyothir [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-04-12

    BiI3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.

  19. Coincident Detection Significance in Multimessenger Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, G.; Burns, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dent, T.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Nielsen, A. B.; Prix, R.; Was, M.; Zhu, S. J.

    2018-06-01

    We derive a Bayesian criterion for assessing whether signals observed in two separate data sets originate from a common source. The Bayes factor for a common versus unrelated origin of signals includes an overlap integral of the posterior distributions over the common-source parameters. Focusing on multimessenger gravitational-wave astronomy, we apply the method to the spatial and temporal association of independent gravitational-wave and electromagnetic (or neutrino) observations. As an example, we consider the coincidence between the recently discovered gravitational-wave signal GW170817 from a binary neutron star merger and the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A: we find that the common-source model is enormously favored over a model describing them as unrelated signals.

  20. An experimental search for gamma radiation associated with thunderstorm activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, D.

    1992-11-01

    This experiment is a repeat of an earlier experiment, but with more sensitive apparatus and in a location with a higher incidence of thunderstorm activity. The earlier experiment was undertaken by Ashby and Whitehead to investigate the theory that ball lightning might be associated with the annihilation of small amounts of antimatter, and it yielded some very interesting but inconclusive results. In the course of about 12 months of data taking, four high rate bursts of gamma radiation were detected. These events lasted a few seconds and had many thousands of counts (16500, 5000, 3700, and > 7700. Unfortunately, the association of these gamma ray bursts with thunderstorms or ball lightning was not clearly established, although one of the bursts did occur during a local thunderstorm in rough coincidence with a lightning bolt striking a flagpole about 100 yards from the gamma ray detection crystals. A pulse height spectrum taken for this burst (no spectrum was taken for the other three) exhibited a significant peak, well above background, the energy of which appeared to be compatible with the 511 keV positron annihilation line. While the peak could not be unambiguously attributed to positron annihilation, this certainly appeared to be the most likely source

  1. Coincidence corrected efficiency calibration of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aucott, Timothy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Brand, Alexander [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiPrete, David [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-04-20

    The authors present a reliable method to calibrate the full-energy efficiency and the coincidence correction factors using a commonly-available mixed source gamma standard. This is accomplished by measuring the peak areas from both summing and non-summing decay schemes and simultaneously fitting both the full-energy efficiency, as well as the total efficiency, as functions of energy. By using known decay schemes, these functions can then be used to provide correction factors for other nuclides not included in the calibration standard.

  2. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriashin, A.V.; Devkin, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, J.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Sztaricskai, T.; Petoe, G.; Vasvary, L.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra from (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (Auth.)

  3. Effects of ionizing radiation on struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tak- Hyun; Nam, Yun-Ku; Joo Lim, Seung

    2014-01-01

    Livestock wastewater is generally very difficult to be treated by conventional wastewater treatment techniques because it contains high-strength organics (COD), ammonium (NH 4 + ), phosphate (PO 4 3− ) and suspended solids. Struvite crystallization has been recently studied for the simultaneous removal of NH 4 + and PO 4 3− . In this study, gamma ray irradiation was carried out prior to struvite crystallization of the anaerobically digested livestock wastewater. The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater were investigated. As a result, gamma ray irradiation can decrease the concentration of COD, NH 4 + and PO 4 3− contained in the livestock wastewater. This results in not only an enhancement of the struvite crystallization efficiency but also a decrease in the chemical demands for the struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. - Highlights: • Gamma ray was applied prior to struvite crystallization of livestock wastewater. • Gamma ray resulted in an enhancement of struvite crystallization efficiency. • This is due to the decrease of COD concentration by gamma ray irradiation

  4. Coincident photoelectron spectroscopy on superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the performed experiments of this thesis was to attempt to detect Cooper pairs as carriers of the superconducting current directly by means of the photoelectric effect. The method of the coincident photoelectron spectroscopy aims thereby at the detection of two coherently emitted electrons by the interaction with a photon. Because electrostatic analyzers typically cover only a very small spatial angle, which goes along with very low coincidence rates, in connection with this thesis a time-of-flight projection system has been developed, which maps nearly the whole spatial angle on a position-resolving detector. The pulsed light source in form of special synchrotron radiation necessary for the measurement has been adjusted so weak, that only single photons could arrive at the sample. Spectroscoped were beside test measurements on silver layers both a lead monocrystal as representative of the classical BCS superconductors and monocrystalline Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 from the family of the high-temperature superconductors. With excitation energies up to 40 eV could be shown that sufficiently smooth and clean surfaces in the superconducting phase exhibit within the resolving power of about 0.5 eV no recognizable differences in comparison to the normally conducting phase. Beside these studies furthermore the simple photoemission at the different samples and especially in the case of the lead crystal is treated, because here no comparable results are known. Thereby the whole momentum space is discussed and the Fermi surface established as three-dimensional model, by means of which the measurement results are discussed. in the theoretical descriptions different models for the Cooper-pair production are presented, whereby to the momentum exchange with the crystal a special role is attributed, because this can only occur in direct excitations via discrete lattice vectors.

  5. Positron emission tomography with gamma camera in coincidence mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertel, A.; Hoer, G.

    1999-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using F-18 FDG has been estbalished in clinical diagnostics with first indications especially in oncology. To install a conventional PET tomography (dedicated PET) is financially costly and restricted to PET examinations only. Increasing demand for PET diagnostics on one hand and restricted financial resources in the health system on the other hand led industry to develop SPECT cameras to be operated in coincidence mode (camera PET) in order to offer nuclear medicine physicians cost-effective devices for PET diagnostic. At the same time camera PET is inferior to conventional PET regarding sensitivity and detection-efficiency for 511 keV photons. Does camera-PET offer a reliable alternative to conventional PET? The first larger comparative studies are now available, so a first apraisal about the technical clinical performance of camera-PET can be done. (orig.) [de

  6. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anil Kumar, G.; Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, 60 Co, 46 Sc, 94 Nb and 24 Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of 137 Cs and 60 Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  7. Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction for large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in soccer-ball and castle geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Kumar, G., E-mail: anilg@tifr.res.i [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Mazumdar, I.; Gothe, D.A. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2009-11-21

    Efficiency calibration and coincidence summing correction have been performed for two large arrays of NaI(Tl) detectors in two different configurations. They are, a compact array of 32 conical detectors of pentagonal and hexagonal shapes in soccer-ball geometry and an array of 14 straight hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors in castle geometry. Both of these arrays provide a large solid angle of detection, leading to considerable coincidence summing of gamma rays. The present work aims to understand the effect of coincidence summing of gamma rays while determining the energy dependence of efficiencies of these two arrays. We have carried out extensive GEANT4 simulations with radio-nuclides that decay with a two-step cascade, considering both arrays in their realistic geometries. The absolute efficiencies have been simulated for gamma energies from 700 to 2800 keV using four different double-photon emitters, namely, {sup 60}Co, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 94}Nb and {sup 24}Na. The efficiencies so obtained have been corrected for coincidence summing using the method proposed by Vidmar et al. . The simulations have also been carried out for the same energies assuming mono-energetic point sources, for comparison. Experimental measurements have also been carried out using calibrated point sources of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The simulated and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. This demonstrates the reliability of the correction method for efficiency calibration of two large arrays in very different configurations.

  8. Design and construction of the Donner 280-crystal positron ring for dynamic transverse section emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Banchero, P.G.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1977-09-01

    The design and construction of a medical imaging system for the rapid, accurate, three-dimensional imaging of positron-labeled compounds in the human body are described. Our medical research goals include quantifying blood flow and metabolism in human heart muscle and brain. The system consists of a large gantry containing lead shielding and a ring of 280 NaI(Tl) detectors that completely encircles the patient; 280 photomultiplier tubes, preamplifiers and timing discriminators; circuits that determine whenever a crystal has detected a gamma ray in time coincidence (i.e., within 12 nsec) of any of the opposing 105 crystals and determine the addresses of the crystals involved; 120K words of 12 bit memory for the simultaneous acquisition of data from eight portions of the cardiac cycle; and a hardwired image reconstructor capable of filtering and backprojecting data from 140 views to form a 210 x 210 computed transverse section image in less than 2 sec

  9. Design and construction of the Donner 280-crystal positron ring for dynamic transverse section emission imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Banchero, P.G.; Cahoon, J.L.; Huesman, R.H.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1977-09-01

    The design and construction of a medical imaging system for the rapid, accurate, three-dimensional imaging of positron-labeled compounds in the human body are described. Our medical research goals include quantifying blood flow and metabolism in human heart muscle and brain. The system consists of a large gantry containing lead shielding and a ring of 280 NaI(Tl) detectors that completely encircles the patient; 280 photomultiplier tubes, preamplifiers and timing discriminators; circuits that determine whenever a crystal has detected a gamma ray in time coincidence (i.e., within 12 nsec) of any of the opposing 105 crystals and determine the addresses of the crystals involved; 120K words of 12 bit memory for the simultaneous acquisition of data from eight portions of the cardiac cycle; and a hardwired image reconstructor capable of filtering and backprojecting data from 140 views to form a 210 x 210 computed transverse section image in less than 2 sec.

  10. Gamma multi-detectors and nuclear structure studies: search for superdeformed structures in {sup 147}Gd and {sup 144}Gd isotopes using Crystal Castle; simulation calculations for EUROGAM multi-detector definition; Multidetecteurs gamma et etudes de structure nucleaire: recherche avec le Chateau de Cristal de structures superdeformees dans les isotopes {sup 147}Gd et {sup 144}Gd; calculs de simulation pour la definition du multidetecteur EUROGAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    France, G de

    1992-12-31

    Computer simulations have been used for the calculation of the new generation of 4 {pi}{gamma} multi-detectors (Castle Crystal) of EUROGAM system (phase I and II). Two superdeformed bands (I and II), comprising 16 and 13 transitions respectively, have been described for {sup 147}Gd nucleus during the {sup 122}Sn({sup 30}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy. Dynamic inertia momentum similarities and gamma transition energy similarities have been observed between band I and {sup 148}Gd nucleus and between band II and {sup 146}Gd nucleus, respectively. These similarities can be related to a pseudo-spin symmetry. Calculations suggest the existence of an octupolar susceptibility in this mass region. {sup 144}Gd nucleus has been studied using {sup 120}Sn({sup 29}Si,5n) fusion-evaporation reaction in a 155 MeV bombardment energy and using {sup 100}Mo({sup 48}Ti,4n) reactions in a 200 MeV bombardment energy. {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences have revealed the existence of a 58 keV width valley in the matrix representation compatible with theoretical predictions. In spite of the evidence for about ten transitions during these experiments, no superdeformed structure has been demonstrated for {sup 144}Gd nucleus. (J.S.). 87 refs., 57 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andryashin, A.V.; Devlein, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, Y.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra form (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs

  12. Analysis of coincidence {gamma}-ray spectra using advanced background elimination, unfolding and fitting algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morhac, M. E-mail: fyzimiro@savba.skfyzimiro@flnr.jinr.ru; Matousek, V. E-mail: matousek@savba.sk; Kliman, J.; Krupa, L.L.; Jandel, M

    2003-04-21

    The efficient algorithms to analyze multiparameter {gamma}-ray spectra are presented. They allow to search for peaks, to separate peaks from background, to improve the resolution and to fit 1-, 2-, 3-parameter {gamma}-ray spectra.

  13. Development of gallium arsenide gamma spectrometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kuru, I.

    1975-03-01

    GaAs semiconductor material has been considered to be a suitable material for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature since it has a wid-band gap, larger than that of silicon and germanium. The basic objective of this work is to develop a GaAs gamma-ray spectrometric detector which could be used for gamma spectrometric measurement of uranium and plutonium in nuclear fuel safeguards. Liquid phase epitaxial techniques using iron (Fe) as dopant have been developed in making high purity GaAs crystals suitable for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature. Concentration of Fe in the epitaxial crystal was controlled by initial growth temperature. The best quality epitaxial crystal was obtained under the following conditions: starting temperature is about 800degC, the proportion of Fe to Ga solvent is 1 to 300. Carrier concentration of epitaxial crystals grown distributed in the ranges of 10 12 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3 at room temperature. The thickness of the crystals ranged from 38 μm to 120 μm. Au-GaAs surface barrier detector was made of epitaxial crystal. Some of the detector were encapsulated in a can with a 50 μm Be window by welding a can to the detector holder. The detector with high energy resolution and good charge collecting characteristics was selected by alpha spectrometry at room temperature. Energy resolution of the detector for gamma-rays up to about 200 keV was very good at room temperature operation. The best energy resolutions taken with a GaAs detector were 3 keV (fwhm) and 3.8 keV for 241 Am 59.6 keV and 57 Co 122 keV, respectively, at room temperature. In order to study the applicability of the detector for nuclear safeguards, the measurements of 235 U gamma-ray spectrum have been carried out at room temperature. It was clarified that the gamma-ray spectrum of enriched U sample could be measured in high resolution with GaAs detector at room temperature, and that the content of 235 U in enriched U sources could be determined by

  14. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  15. High-resolution studies of momentum distributions using perfect crystal gamma diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krexner, G.; Bischof, G.; Jentschel, M.; Boerner, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Positron annihilation spectroscopy has turned out to be highly successful in the investigation of Fermi surfaces, electronic structures and various kinds of defects. On the other hand, algorithms based on density functional theory have made enormous progress in recent years and calculations for the contributions of both delocalized and core electrons in a rapidly increasing number of systems is either already feasible today or to be expected in the near future. By comparison, over the last decades there has been little improvement in the experimental limitations which are still set by the energy resolution of germanium detectors (slightly above 1 keV for annihilation photons close to 500 keV) and the angular resolution in ACAR studies (superior by about one order of magnitude). In addition, coincidence techniques are hampered by low count rates. An alternative is suggested by the fact that, in principle, Bragg diffraction techniques using perfect single crystals provide a way for the precise determination of wavelengths corresponding to energies in the MeV range. The single crystal analyzer instrument PN3 at the Institute Laue-Langevin (Grenoble, France) offers the unique possibility to determine the energy of annihilation photons with an accuracy close to about 1 eV, i.e. an improvement of up to three orders of magnitude in comparison to conventional semiconductor detectors. We discuss possible applications of this spectrometer in high-resolution studies of momentum distributions for both delocalized and core electrons. (author)

  16. Copper doping of ZnO crystals by transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu: An electron paramagnetic resonance and gamma spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recker, M. C.; McClory, J. W., E-mail: John.McClory@afit.edu; Holston, M. S.; Golden, E. M.; Giles, N. C. [Department of Engineering Physics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Halliburton, L. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

    2014-06-28

    Transmutation of {sup 64}Zn to {sup 65}Cu has been observed in a ZnO crystal irradiated with neutrons. The crystal was characterized with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) before and after the irradiation and with gamma spectroscopy after the irradiation. Major features in the gamma spectrum of the neutron-irradiated crystal included the primary 1115.5 keV gamma ray from the {sup 65}Zn decay and the positron annihilation peak at 511 keV. Their presence confirmed the successful transmutation of {sup 64}Zn nuclei to {sup 65}Cu. Additional direct evidence for transmutation was obtained from the EPR of Cu{sup 2+} ions (where {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu hyperfine lines are easily resolved). A spectrum from isolated Cu{sup 2+} (3d{sup 9}) ions acquired after the neutron irradiation showed only hyperfine lines from {sup 65}Cu nuclei. The absence of {sup 63}Cu lines in this Cu{sup 2+} spectrum left no doubt that the observed {sup 65}Cu signals were due to transmuted {sup 65}Cu nuclei created as a result of the neutron irradiation. Small concentrations of copper, in the form of Cu{sup +}-H complexes, were inadvertently present in our as-grown ZnO crystal. These Cu{sup +}-H complexes are not affected by the neutron irradiation, but they dissociate when a crystal is heated to 900 °C. This behavior allowed EPR to distinguish between the copper initially in the crystal and the copper subsequently produced by the neutron irradiation. In addition to transmutation, a second major effect of the neutron irradiation was the formation of zinc and oxygen vacancies by displacement. These vacancies were observed with EPR.

  17. Gamma-ray multiplicity distribution in ternary fission of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandel, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kliman, J [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, L [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Morhac, M [Department of Nuclear Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hamilton, J H [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Kormicki, J [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Ramayya, A V [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Hwang, J K [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Luo, Y X [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Fong, D [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Gore, P [Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States); Akopian, G M Ter; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rodin, A M; Fomichev, A S; Popeko, G S; Daniel, A V [Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Rasmussen, J O; Macchiavelli, A O [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Stoyer, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Donangelo, R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Cole, J D [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2002-12-01

    From multiparameter data obtained at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the integral characteristics of the prompt {gamma}-ray emission were extracted for tripartition of {sup 252}Cf with He, Be and C being the third light charged particle. We used multifold {gamma}-ray coincidence spectra for the determination of {gamma}-ray multiplicities assuming a Gaussian distribution for {gamma}-ray multiplicity. The multiplicity distribution characteristics, i.e. mean multiplicity and its dispersion were obtained by minimizing with respect to the calculated values of probabilities of multifold {gamma}-ray coincidences using a combinatoric method. Comparison with the known experimental data from binary fission was made. Further, we investigated dependencies of the mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity on the kinetic energy of the light charged particle. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity for He ternary fission is found to increase rapidly with increasing kinetic energy of He in the region less than 11 MeV and then decrease slowly with increasing kinetic energy of He. The anomalous behaviour of {gamma}-ray emission is discussed. The mean {gamma}-ray multiplicity was determined for the first time for Be and C ternary fission. For Be, the {gamma}-ray multiplicity as a function of kinetic energy was obtained as well.

  18. Primary 4πβ-γ coincidence system for standardization of radionuclides by means of plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccarelli, Aida Maria

    2003-01-01

    The present work describes a 4π(α,β)-γ coincidence system for absolute measurement of radionuclide activity using a plastic scintillator in 4π geometry for charged particles detection and a Nal (Tl) crystal for gamma-ray detection. Several shapes and dimensions of the plastic scintillator have been tried in order to obtain the best system configuration. Radionuclides which decay by alpha emission, β - , β + and electron capture have been standardized. The results showed excellent agreement with other conventional primary system which makes use of a 4π proportional counter for X-ray and charged particle detection. The system developed in the present work have some advantages when compared with the conventional systems, namely; it does not need metal coating on the films used as radioactive source holders. When compared to liquid scintillators, is showed the advantage of not needing to be kept in dark for more than 24 h to allow phosphorescence decay of ambient light. Therefore it can be set to count immediately after the sources are placed inside of it. (author)

  19. Coincidence measurements with the use of detectors measuring the energy of the radiances (proportional meters and scintillation counter); Mesures de coincidences avec utilisation de detecteurs mesurant l'energie des rayonnements (compteurs proportionnels et compteur a scintillations)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartory, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-07-01

    In the setting of the realization of a set of installations permitting of the measures of coincidences between sorted radiances according to their energies, an installation understanding a proportional counter and a scintillation counter has been constructed and optimized. It has been used to do some measures of coincidences between X{sub K} photons and photons {gamma} issued at the time of the radioactive transformation of the selenium 75 (electronic capture). The efficiency of the proportional meter has been determined roughly. Besides, a proportional counter of solid angle neighboring of 4{pi} was able to achieve measures of coincidences while only doing one selection of amplitudes: indeed, the simultaneity of the detection of two radiances appear by an impulse whose amplitude is the sum of the amplitudes of the impulses resulting from each of the studied radiations. This method, applied to the coincidences between X-rays, permitted to bring the information on the diagram of decay of the arsenic 73. Besides, the coefficient of internal conversion of a consecutive transition to this decay has been valued. (author) [French] Dans le cadre de la realisation d'une serie de montages permettant des mesures de coincidences entre rayonnements tries d'apres leurs energies, un montage comprenant un compteur proportionnel et un compteur a scintillations a ete construit et mis au point. Il a ete utilise pour effectuer quelques mesures de coincidences entre photons X{sub K} et photons {gamma} emis lors de la transformation radioactive du selenium 75 (capture electronique). L'efficacite du compteur proportionnel a ete approximativement determinee. De plus, un compteur proportionnel d'angle solide voisin de 4{pi} a pu etre utilise pour realiser des mesures de coincidences en n'effectuant qu'une selection d'amplitudes: en effet, la simultaneite de la detection de deux rayonnements se manifeste par une impulsion dont l'amplitude est la somme des amplitudes des impulsions

  20. Measuring 226Ra and 232Th activity in soil and vegetation samples using a method of double γ-coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Antovic, I.

    2010-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring radium and thorium activity has been developed using the PRIPYAT-2M gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer, with six NaI(Tl) detectors and registration geometry close to 4π. It was tested by measuring soil samples from the Northern region of Montenegro, as well as vegetation samples from the same region. The results showed a good agreement with ones obtained by the HPGe spectrometer. (author)

  1. Research of coincidence method for calculation model of the specific detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangchun, Hu; Suping, Liu; Jian, Gong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    The physical size of specific detector is known normally, but production business is classified for some sizes that is concerned with the property of detector, such as the well diameter, well depth of detector and dead region. The surface source of even distribution and the sampling method of source particle isotropy sport have been established with the method of Monte Carlo, and gamma ray respond spectral with the {sup 152}Eu surface source been calculated. The experiment have been performed under the same conditions. Calculation and experiment results are compared with relative efficiency coincidence method and spectral similar degree coincidence method. According to comparison as a result, detector model is revised repeatedly to determine the calculation model of detector and to calculate efficiency of detector and spectra. (authors)

  2. Effect of γ-softness on continuum gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamoto, I.; Onishi, N.

    1985-01-01

    In the case that a nuclear system has a large fluctuation in the direction of triaxiality, we examine the possible feature expected to appear in the continuum gamma-ray spectra, especially a possibility of the filling in the central valley of the two-dimensional gamma-energy coincidence spectra. (orig.)

  3. Experimental determination of the atmospheric gamma photons spectra at 12 GeV cut-off rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.; Vedrenne, G.; Albernhe, F.

    1974-01-01

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays from 0.9 to 18.0 MeV has been measured as a function of altitude in a series of two balloon flights from Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (12 GV cut-off rigidity). The detector used was a 4' x 4' NaI (Tl) crystal with a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield, connected to a 128 channel pulse height analyser. Above 20g/cm 2 , the energy spectrum could be fitted to a power law with exponent 1.0 +- -+ 0.1 independent of the altitude. From 20 to 760 g/cm 2 , the spectrum was found to be somewhat steeper with the exponential index being 1.3 +- -+ 0.1. At 3.5 g/cm 2 , the gamma-ray flux was 0.30 photons/cm 2 -s at 1 MeV. These measurements are discussed and compared with calculated results [pt

  4. gamma. -relaxation process in crystallizable polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindiyarov, Kh G; Zelenev, Yu V; Bartenev, G M [Birskij Gosudarstvennyj Pedagogicheskij Inst. (USSR)

    1975-07-01

    In the present paper, with the aid of radiothermoluminescence technique ..gamma..-relaxation processes are investigated, which are conditioned by molecular mobility and are associated with defects in the crystalline structure of polymers PEh, PP, and elastomers PIB, NK, SKD, SKI exposed to ..gamma..-rays of Co/sup 60/ at a dose rate of 1 Mrad. The shape of the thermoluminescence curve, i.e. the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha.. - ..gamma..-maxima, their relationship, position with respect to temperature are strongly dependent on the degree of crystallinity, on the thermal and mechanical prehistory. In highly crystalline samples of PEh and PP ..cap alpha..-maximum may be absent. Dependence has been studied of the luminescence intensity in the ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-maxima (Isub(..cap alpha..)/Isub(..gamma..)) on the crystallization temperature; the curve passes through the minimum when the crystallization rate is maximum. The relationship Isub(..gamma..)re of crystallinity degree.

  5. Annihilation gamma ray background characterization and rejection for a positron camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, C.S.; Tornai, M.P.; MacDonald, L.R.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a miniature (1.2 cm 2 ) beta-ray camera prototype to assist a surgeon in locating and removing the margins of a resected tumor. When imaging positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals, annihilation gamma ray interactions in the detector can mimic those of the betas. The extent of the background contamination depends on the detector, geometry and tumor specificity of the radiopharmaceutical. We have characterized the effects that annihilation gamma rays have on positron imaging with the camera. We studied beta and gamma ray detection rates and imaging using small positron or electron sources directly exposed to the detector to simulate hot tumor remnants and a cylinder filled with 18 F to simulate annihilation background from the brain. For various ratios of phantom brain/tumor activity, a annihilation gamma rate of 1.8 cts/sec/gCi was measured in the CaF 2 (Eu) detector. We present two gamma-ray background rejection schemes that use a β-γ coincidence. Results show that the coincidence methods works with ∼99% gamma ray rejection efficiency

  6. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J.; Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H.

    2015-10-01

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl 2 ) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn 2+ was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from 60 Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  7. Thermoluminescence and F centers of manganese doped NaCl and NaCl-CKl crystals exposed to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somera, L.; Cruz Z, E.; Roman L, J. [UNAM, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, J. M.; Murrieta S, H., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Alkali halides crystals doped with rare earths or transition metals have been widely studied due to the luminescence properties. In particular, NaCl and KCl single crystals present thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) after gamma irradiation. The NaCl and the NaCl KCl mixed crystal doped with manganese (MnCl{sub 2}) impurity were grown by using the Czochralski method. The emission characteristic of Mn{sup 2+} was observed at 543 nm. The crystals were exposed between 0.02 and 10 kGy gamma dose from {sup 60}Co irradiator. Optical absorption at room temperature shows the peaked band at 452 nm corresponding to the manganese impurity. The F bands, was ascribed to the electron trapped in the anion vacancy in the lattice, were obtained at 452 nm and 455 nm belonging to NaCl:Mn and NaCl KCl:Mn, respectively. The F band increases as the doses increase and it was bleaching by the UV light at 470 nm. The glow curves of the samples show the first glow peak between 92-103 degrees C, while the second main peak was observed at 183 degrees C for the undoped NaCl and at 148 and 165 degrees C for the NaCl:Mn and NaCl-KCl:Mn, respectively. The main peak was slowly bleaching when the irradiated sample was illuminated with F (470 nm) light. Optical bleaching confirms that the F center has an important participation in the thermoluminescent response. The glow curves structure from the thermal bleaching suggests the participation of different kind of traps. Also, the kinetics parameters such as activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and the kinetic order (b) were investigated. (Author)

  8. {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Ba standardizing by photon-photon coincidence counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Jamir S.; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Iwahara, Akira; Delgado, José U., E-mail: palcruz@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The LNMRI/Brazil has deployed a system using X-gamma coincidence technique for the standardizing radionuclide, which present simple and complex decay scheme with X-rays of energy below 100 keV. The work was carried on radionuclide metrology laboratory using a sodium iodide detector, for gamma photons, in combination with a high purity germanium detector for X-rays. Samples of {sup 65}Zn and {sup 133}Ba were standardized and the results for both radionuclides showed good precision and accuracy when compared with reference values. The standardization differences were 0.72 % for {sup 65}Zn and 0.48 % for {sup 133}Ba samples. (author)

  9. Crystal identification for a dual-layer-offset LYSO based PET system via Lu-176 background radiation and mean shift algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingyang; Ma, Tianyu; Xu, Tianpeng; Zeng, Ming; Gu, Yu; Dai, Tiantian; Liu, Yaqiang

    2018-01-01

    Modern positron emission tomography (PET) detectors are made from pixelated scintillation crystal arrays and readout by Anger logic. The interaction position of the gamma-ray should be assigned to a crystal using a crystal position map or look-up table. Crystal identification is a critical procedure for pixelated PET systems. In this paper, we propose a novel crystal identification method for a dual-layer-offset LYSO based animal PET system via Lu-176 background radiation and mean shift algorithm. Single photon event data of the Lu-176 background radiation are acquired in list-mode for 3 h to generate a single photon flood map (SPFM). Coincidence events are obtained from the same data using time information to generate a coincidence flood map (CFM). The CFM is used to identify the peaks of the inner layer using the mean shift algorithm. The response of the inner layer is deducted from the SPFM by subtracting CFM. Then, the peaks of the outer layer are also identified using the mean shift algorithm. The automatically identified peaks are manually inspected by a graphical user interface program. Finally, a crystal position map is generated using a distance criterion based on these peaks. The proposed method is verified on the animal PET system with 48 detector blocks on a laptop with an Intel i7-5500U processor. The total runtime for whole system peak identification is 67.9 s. Results show that the automatic crystal identification has 99.98% and 99.09% accuracy for the peaks of the inner and outer layers of the whole system respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method is suitable for the dual-layer-offset lutetium based PET system to perform crystal identification instead of external radiation sources.

  10. Positron imaging with multiwire proportional chamber-gamma converter hybrid detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.Y.H.

    1976-09-01

    A large area positron camera was developed using multiwire proportional chambers as detectors and electromagnetic delay lines for coordinate readout. Honeycomb structured gamma converters made of lead are coupled to the chambers for efficient gamma detection and good spatial resolution. Two opposing detectors, each having a sensitive area of 48 cm x 48 cm, are operated in coincidence for the detection of annihilation gammas (511 keV) from positron emitters. Detection efficiency of 4.2 percent per detector and spatial resolution of 6 to 7 mm FWHM at the mid-plane were achieved. The present camera operates at a maximum count rate of 24 K counts/min, limited by accidental coincidence. The theory for the gamma converter is presented along with a review of the operation of the multiwire proportional chamber and delay line readout. Calculated gamma converter efficiencies are compared with the measured results using a prototype test chamber. The characteristics of the positron camera system is evaluated, and the performance is shown to be consistent with calculation

  11. Gamma spectroscopy of the isotope 253No

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaninova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The first part deals with the evaluation of the relative and absolute efficiency of detectors for the registration of gamma radiation to separator SHIP at GSI Darmstadt (Germany). In the second part we discussed the decay alpha-gamma coincidence spectroscopy of isotope 253 No. In conclusion, the basic characteristics of deexcitation of K-isomeric state in isotope 253 No are evaluated. Only sort abstract is published.

  12. The findings of F-18 FDG camera-based coincidence PET in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Lee, M. H. [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of F-18 FDG coincidence PET (CoDe-PET) using a dual-head gamma camera in the assessment of patients with acute leukemia. F-18 FDG CoDE-PET studies were performed in 5 patients with acute leukemia (6 ALL and 2 AML) before or after treatment. CoDe-PET was performed utilizing a dual-head gamma camera equipped with 5/8 inch NaI(Tl) crystal. Image acquisition began 60 minutes after the injection of F-18 FDG in the fasting state. A whole trunk from cervical to inguinal regions or selected region were scanned. No attenuation correction was made and image reconstruction was done using filtered back-projection. CoDe-PET studies were evaluated visually. F-18 FDG image performed in 5 patients with ALL before therapy depicted multiple lymph node involvement and diffuse increased uptake involving axial skeleton, pelvis and femurs. F-18 FDG image done in 2 AML after chemotherapy showed only diffuse increased uptake in sternum, ribs, spine, pelvis and proximal femur and these may be due to G-CSF stimulation effect in view of drug history. But bone marrow histology showed scattered blast cell suggesting incomplete remission in one and completer remission in another. F-18 image done in 1 ALL after therapy showed no abnormal uptake. CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma showed multiple lymphnode and bone marrow involvement in whole body. Therefore we conclude that CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG usefulness for evaluation of extent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But there was a limitation to assess therapy effectiveness during therapy due to reactive bone marrow.

  13. {gamma} decay of spin-isospin states in {sup 13}N via ({sup 3}He, t{gamma}) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, F; Akimune, H; Daito, I; Fujimura, H; Fujiwara, M; Inomata, T; Ishibashi, K; Yoshida, H [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Fujita, Y

    1998-03-01

    Spin-isospin states in {sup 13}N have been studied by means of the {sup 13}C ({sup 3}He,t) reaction at and near zero degree, at E({sup 3}He)=450 MeV. Decayed {gamma}-rays from each state were measured at backward angle in coincidence with the ejectile tritons. The branching ratio of {gamma} decay for some of spin-isospin states were determined and were compared to those from previous data. (author)

  14. Photoluminescence and optical absorption spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranjcec, M. [Department of Geotechnics, University of Zagreb, 7 Hallerova Aleja, Varazdin, 42000 (Croatia); Ruder Boskovic Institute, 54 Bijenicka Cesta, Zagreb, 10000 (Croatia); Studenyak, I.P. [Uzhhorod National University, 46 Pidhirna Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine); Azhniuk, Yu. M. [Institute of Electron Physics, Ukr. Nat. Acad. Sci., 21 Universytetska Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine)

    2005-08-01

    Temperature and compositional studies of photoluminescence and optical absorption edge spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals with x=0.1-0.4 are performed. Exciton and impurity-related photoluminescence bands are revealed at low temperatures and Urbach shape of the absorption edge is observed in the temperature range 77-300 K. Temperature and compositional dependences of the photoluminescence band spectral positions and halfwidths as well as optical pseudogap and absorption edge energy width are investigated. Mechanisms of radiative recombination and optical absorption as well as crystal lattice disordering processes in {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} solid solutions are studied. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Estimating accidental coincidences for pixelated PET detectors and singles list-mode acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafecas, M.; Torres, I.; Spanoudaki, V.; McElroy, D.P.; Ziegler, S.I.

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the validity of random estimation techniques for various low energy thresholds (LETs) and single list-mode data sets in small animal PET. While a LET below 255 keV helps to increase the sensitivity, it also results in an increase of random coincidences and inter-crystal scatter (ICS). The study is carried out for MADPET-II, a dual-layer positron emission tomography (PET) scanner prototype consisting of LSO crystals read out individually by APDs. The data are acquired in singles list-mode format, and coincidences are computed post-acquisition. To estimate randoms, we have used the delayed coincidence window method (DW), and the singles rate model (SR). Various phantoms were simulated using GATE. For LETs under 255 keV, the number of random events R, estimated using the SR and the DW methods, is larger than the number of randoms which was directly computed from GATE simulations, and R(SR)>R(DW)>R(GATE). The higher the LET, the smaller the overestimation. For LETs >255 keV, R(DW)/R(GATE) ∼1. If scattered singles were excluded from the file, this discrepancy between R(DW or SR) and R(GATE) significantly diminished. This fact points out to ICS as the effect responsible for the mismatch, since for LETs lower than 255 keV, all singles related to an ICS event can be detected independently, thus altering the singles rate. Therefore, if low LETs are used, random estimation techniques should account for ICS

  16. Standardization of 201Tl and 55Fe radionuclides in a 4 (PC)-NaI(Tl) coincidence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Carlos Augusto

    2008-01-01

    In the present work the procedure for the standardization of radionuclides using the 4π(PC)-NaI(Tl) coincidence system was developed. The radionuclides selected were 201 Tl, used in nuclear medicine, and 55 Fe primary standard source, used for x-ray spectrometers calibration. The 4π(PC)-NaI(Tl) is composed of a 4 proportional counter operated at 0.1MPa coupled to two NaI(Tl) crystals. The 201 Tl decays by electron capture process followed by a prompt gamma-ray. The disintegration rate was determined by extrapolation technique using two methods: electronic discrimination and external absorbers. The radioactive sources were prepared in a 20 μg cm -2 thick Collodion film. The conventional electronic system was used. The observed events were registered by the TAC method. The 55 Fe decays by electron capture process to the ground state of 55 Mn, emitting x rays with around 6 keV. The standardization was obtained by the tracing method. This technique was applied using two radionuclides, which decay by electron capture process followed by a prompt gamma-ray, namely 51 Cr and 54 Mn, as tracers. Measurements with 1 and 2 aluminum foils, each 150 g cm-2 thick were carried out. The activity was obtained by extrapolation for zero thickness Al foil. The uncertainties were treated by means of matrix covariance methodology and takes into account all correlations involved. (author)

  17. Multidimensional analysis of high resolution. gamma. -ray data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flibotte, S.; Huettmeier, U.J.; France, G. de; Haas, B.; Romain, P.; Theisen, C.; Vivien, J.P.; Zen, J. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France)); Bednarczyk, P. (Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland))

    1992-08-15

    Algorithms are developed to analyze high-fold {gamma}-ray coincidences. Performances of the programs have been tested in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions using events generated with a Monte Carlo simulation. (orig.).

  18. True coincidence-summing corrections for the coincident γ-rays measured with coplanar grid CdZnTe detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuecel, H.; Solmaz, A.N.; Koese, E.; Bor, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, true coincidence-summing (TCS) correction factors have been measured for the sources 22 Na, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 152 Eu by use of three large volume coplanar grid CdZnTe (acronym: CZT) detectors. In case of a close-in detection geometry, two different TCS calculation algorithms were used to compute the required TCS correction factors. Both of the algorithms are based on the measured total-to-peak (TTP) ratio and full-energy peak (FEP) efficiency values that were obtained using almost 'single' energy and coincidence-free nuclides. The results for TCS correction factors obtained by two different algorithms were agreeable to each other. The obtained TCS factors were ranged from about 7% to 30.5% in a 2250 mm 3 CZT detector when a close counting geometry was used. For other two detectors with a volume of 1000 and 1687.5 mm 3 , the resulted TCS correction factors were relatively smaller and varied between about 0.1% and 20% at the close counting geometry condition. Therefore, the results indicate that there is a need for the estimation of TCS corrections in CZT detectors, especially when their crystal volumes are greater than 1 cm 3 and these detectors are used in the case of a close-in detection geometry.

  19. Investigation of thermoluminescent response of K2YF5:Dy3+ crystals for gamma and X radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.C.; Nogueira, M.S.; Faria, L.O.; Khaidukov, N.M.

    2005-01-01

    K 2 YF 5 crystals doped with rare earths have been synthesized with 0 to 100% of Dy 3+ ions optically active ions and an investigation was conducted to test its thermoluminescent (TL) response due to function of Dy 3+ concentration and their response in energy. After being irradiated with gamma and X-rays, it was observed that crystals doped with 1.0% of Dy 3+ feature the best response TL. The main dosimetric peak can be decomposed into three secondary TL peaks, centered in 96.4, 104.9 and 130.7 deg C, respectively, showing a good linearity and reproducibility of the dose measurements. The sensitization process seems to improve response TL and TL peak sensitivity increase to 130, 7 deg C at the expense of TL peak to 104, 9 deg C. The linear coefficient sign TL for K 2 Y 0.09 Dy 0.01 F5 is comparable to that of the dosemeter CaSO 4 : Mn, irradiated with gamma radiation source ( 137 Cs) under the same conditions. Energy dependence measurements show that the answer for X-rays with energy of 41.1 keV is more than 30 times the response to Cs-137, when exposed to the same dose. Due to the main peak in low temperature and the TL high reply to low energy fields, the results reported indicate that the K 2 YF 5 crystals doped with Dy 3+ present great potential for radiation dosimetry in X-rays therapy, clinical dosimetry and also for applications in digital thermoluminescent images

  20. Modeling of LMM-MVV Auger-Auger Coincidence Spectra From Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, R.; Weiss, A. H.; Hulbert, S. L.; Bartynski, R. A.

    2006-03-01

    Atoms that are highly excited due to the presence of a hole in an inner shell often relax via an Auger transition. This auto-ionizing process results in a final state with two or more holes from an Auger cascade. We present results of the direct measurements of the second and third Auger decays in this sequence. We have measured the Mn MVV Auger spectra from a single-crystal sample of MnO in time coincidence with Auger electrons emitted from prior Mn LMM Auger decays and find these to be much wider than the MVV spectrum measured in time coincidence with M core photoelectron emission. We present a model which attributes the increased energy width of the MVV transitions that follow LMM decays to the rearrangement of ``not so innocent'' bystander hole(s) in the valence band. The energetics of the Auger cascade process are modeled mathematically in terms of correlation integral(s) and convolution integral(s) over the valence band density of states. Comparisons with recent Auger-Auger coincidence studies of Ag and Pd will be made. Acknowledgements: Welch Foundation, NSF DMR98-12628, NSF DMR98-01681, and DOE DE-AC02-98CH10886.

  1. Electron spin resonance and E.N.D.O.R. double resonance study of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, B.

    1970-01-01

    Gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals at 300 deg. K gives two radicals. Identification and detailed studies of their electronic and geometric structure have been made by ESR and ENDOR techniques. A study of the hydrogen bonded protons hyperfine tensor is made and let us conclude to the inexistence of movement and tunneling of these protons. The principal low temperature radical, produced by gamma irradiation at 77 deg. K has been also studied by ESR and a model has been proposed. (author) [fr

  2. The beginning of gamma-ray astronomy with Fermi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paneque, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is designed to perform gamma-ray astronomy in the energy range 20 MeV to 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 30 MeV. Fermi was successfully launched on June 11 (2008) from the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral. The main instrument of Fermi is the Large Area Telescope (LAT), which provides break-through high-energy measurements using techniques typically used in particle detectors for collider experiments. The LAT consists of 16 identical towers in a four-by-four grid, each one containing a pair conversion tracker and a hodoscopic crystal calorimeter, all covered by a segmented plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield. The LAT is currently monitoring the GeV gamma-ray sky with rather uniform exposure (covering 20% of the sky at any instant and the entire sky on a timescale of a few hours) and a sensitivity ∼ 30 times better than its predecessor, EGRET. The large performance improvement of LAT opens a new and important window on a wide variety of high-energy astrophysical phenomena, as well as potential to discover/study non-conventional physics. In the talk I will report the instrument performance, the mission status and science opportunities and will present some results derived from the first months of operation, which includes astronomical telegrams on AGN flares, 2 GCN circulars on LAT-detected GRBs and the monitoring of some selected sources (22 blazars and 1 high mass X-ray Binary). (author)

  3. Initial experience with a prototype dual-crystal (LSO/NaI) dual-head coincidence camera in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Urvi; Boellaard, Ronald; Comans, Emile F.I.; Raijmakers, Pieter G.H.M.; Pijpers, Rik J.; Teule, Gerrit J.J.; Lingen, Arthur van; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Miller, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo performance of a prototype dual-crystal [lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)/sodium iodide (NaI)] dual-head coincidence camera (DHC) for PET and SPET (LSO-PS), in comparison to BGO-PET with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in oncology. This follows earlier reports that LSO-PS has noise-equivalent counting (NEC) rates comparable to partial ring BGO-PET, i.e. clearly higher than standard NaI DHCs. Twenty-four randomly selected oncological patients referred for whole-body FDG-PET underwent BGO-PET followed by LSO-PS. Four nuclear medicine physicians were randomised to read a single scan modality, in terms of lesion intensity, location and likelihood of malignancy. BGO-PET was considered the gold standard. Forty-eight lesions were classified as positive with BGO-PET, of which LSO-PS identified 73% (95% CI 60-86%). There was good observer agreement for both modalities in terms of intensity, location and interpretation. Lesions were missed by LSO-PS in 13 patients in the chest (n=6), neck (n=3) and abdomen (n=4). The diameter of these lesions was estimated to be 0.5-1 cm. Initial results justify further evaluation of LSO-PS in specific clinical situations, especially if a role as an instrument of triage for PET is foreseen. (orig.)

  4. GammaSem Proceedings - A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, P.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.; Israelson, C.

    2010-03-01

    The project GammaSem was proposed to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and to establish a network of users of gamma spectrometry in the Nordic countries, thereby strengthening the collaboration and improving all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. The seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 75 people participated; representing 34 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and also all Nordic authorities. During the seminar several key issues for follow-up were identified and working groups for addressing the identified problems were established. The working groups were: 1) Uncertainties and detections of limits 2) True summing coincidence 3) Monte Carlo simulations and efficiency transfer 4) Absorption (density corrections and geometries) 5) Mobile gamma spectrometry systems 6) Nuclear forensics (on special samples and special parts of the spectra). The identified topics will form the basis for the agenda of the next seminar in 2010. There, the different working groups will be invited to present their ideas/solutions to the relevant problems. (author)

  5. GammaSem Proceedings - A Nordic seminar for users of gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, P. (ed.) (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (IS)); Israelson, C. (National Institute of Radiation Protection (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    The project GammaSem was proposed to provide a forum for discussions and sharing of information on practical issues concerning gamma spectrometry and to establish a network of users of gamma spectrometry in the Nordic countries, thereby strengthening the collaboration and improving all participants' competence in practical gamma spectrometry. The seminars' focus was practical challenges met by the users themselves, rather than theoretical matters. Scientists and users of gamma spectrometry from all five Nordic countries were invited to the seminar, as well as scientist from the Baltic countries. A total of 75 people participated; representing 34 different universities, commercial companies, research institutes and also all Nordic authorities. During the seminar several key issues for follow-up were identified and working groups for addressing the identified problems were established. The working groups were: 1) Uncertainties and detections of limits 2) True summing coincidence 3) Monte Carlo simulations and efficiency transfer 4) Absorption (density corrections and geometries) 5) Mobile gamma spectrometry systems 6) Nuclear forensics (on special samples and special parts of the spectra). The identified topics will form the basis for the agenda of the next seminar in 2010. There, the different working groups will be invited to present their ideas/solutions to the relevant problems. (author)

  6. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balpardo, C.; Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide 241 Am decays by alpha emission to 237 Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of 237 Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of 241 Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  7. A cadmium-zinc-telluride crystal array spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, H. R.; Quam, W.; DeVore, T.; Vogle, R.; Weslowski, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a gamma detector employing an array of eight cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) crystals configured as a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. This detector is part of a more complex instrument that identifies the isotope,displays this information, and records the gamma spectrum. Various alarms and other operator features are incorporated in this battery operated rugged instrument. The CZT detector is the key component of this instrument and will be described in detail in this paper. We have made extensive spectral measurements of the usual laboratory gamma sources, common medical isotopes, and various Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) with this detector. Some of these data will be presented as spectra. We will also present energy resolution and detection efficiency for the basic 8-crystal array. Additional data will also be presented for a 32-crystal array. The basic 8-crystal array development was completed two years ago, and the system electronic design has been imp roved recently. This has resulted in significantly improved noise performance. We expect to have a much smaller detector package, using 8 crystals, in a few months. This package will use flip-chip packaging to reduce the electronics physical size by a factor of 5

  8. Study on the Spatial Resolution of Single and Multiple Coincidences Compton Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyev, Andriy; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Celler, Anna

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we study the image resolution that can be obtained from the Multiple Coincidences Compton Camera (MCCC). The principle of MCCC is based on a simultaneous acquisition of several gamma-rays emitted in cascade from a single nucleus. Contrary to a standard Compton camera, MCCC can theoretically provide the exact location of a radioactive source (based only on the identification of the intersection point of three cones created by a single decay), without complicated tomographic reconstruction. However, practical implementation of the MCCC approach encounters several problems, such as low detection sensitivities result in very low probability of coincident triple gamma-ray detection, which is necessary for the source localization. It is also important to evaluate how the detection uncertainties (finite energy and spatial resolution) influence identification of the intersection of three cones, thus the resulting image quality. In this study we investigate how the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images using the triple-cone reconstruction (TCR) approach compares to images reconstructed from the same data using standard iterative method based on single-cone. Results show, that FWHM for the point source reconstructed with TCR was 20-30% higher than the one obtained from the standard iterative reconstruction based on expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and conventional single-cone Compton imaging. Finite energy and spatial resolutions of the MCCC detectors lead to errors in conical surfaces definitions (“thick” conical surfaces) which only amplify in image reconstruction when intersection of three cones is being sought. Our investigations show that, in spite of being conceptually appealing, the identification of triple cone intersection constitutes yet another restriction of the multiple coincidence approach which limits the image resolution that can be obtained with MCCC and TCR algorithm.

  9. Study on the thermoluminescent properties of K2YF5 and K2GdF5 crystals doped with optically active trivalent ions for gamma and neutrons dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edna Carla da

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the thermoluminescent (TL) properties of both double potassium yttrium fluoride (K 2 YF 5 ) and double potassium gadolinium fluoride (K 2 GdF 5 ) crystals doped with optically active rare earth ions were investigated from the point of view of gamma and neutron dosimetry. Crystalline platelets with thickness of about 1 mm, synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, were irradiated in order to study TL sensitivity, as well as dose and energy response, reproducibility and fading, in terms of Ce 3+ , Tb 3+ , Dy 3+ , e Pr 3+ concentrations. The K 2 YF 5 crystals doped with 1.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have an excellent linear TL response to X and gamma photons, in the range of 0.01 to 10 mGy. The TL output is comparable to that of CaS0 4 :Mn dosemeters. The main peak at 130 deg C has been found to have a TL response for 41.1 keV X-ray energy 32 times higher than that for 662 keV gamma rays. This fact points out that the K 2 Y 0.99 Dy 0.01 F 5 crystals have great potential for X-rays diagnostic and/or industrial radiography. On the other hand, the K 2 GdF 5 crystals doped with 5.0 at por cent Dy 3+ have been found to have the better TL response for gamma and fast neutron radiation, among the dopants studied. For gamma fields the TL response was linear for doses ranging from 0.1 to 200 mGy. The TL peak around 200 deg C can be deconvoluted into four individual peaks, all of them with linear behavior. For fast neutron radiation produced by an 241 Am B e source, the TL responses for doses ranging from 0.6 to 12 mSv were also linear and comparable to that of commercial TLD-600, irradiated at same conditions. The TL emission due to neutrons was in the high temperature range, above 200 deg C. These results points out that K 2 Gd 0.95 Dy 0.05 F 5 crystals are good candidates for use in neutron dosimetry applications. (author)

  10. Gamma ray detecting device using dislocation-free crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, V.; Chang, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a γ-ray detector. It comprises: a dislocation-free single crystal having an input surface and a transmission surface at opposite ends thereof; an active shield surrounding the crystal and functioning as an anticoincidence counter; and γ-ray detector means disposed adjacent the transmission surface of the crystal for receiving and detecting γ-rays of a predetermined wavelength incident on the input surface of the crystal at a specific Bragg angle and transmitted through the crystal

  11. An application of the coincidence Doppler spectroscopy for substances of chemical interest: phthalocyanine and acetylacetonate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence Doppler spectroscopy, which is particularly powerful when one is concerned with high momentum components of positron annihilation gamma-rays, has been applied to two different kinds of organo-metallic ligands: metal phthalocyanines and metal acetylacetonates. The energy (momentum) profiles of the annihilation gamma-rays were the same for metal phthalocyanines indicating that positron and/or positronium are not interacting with the metal ions. However, the profiles for the metal acetylacetonates evidently showed a dependence on the kind of metal ions. Discussion is made on the features of positron interaction which are different for phthalocyanines and acetylacetonates.

  12. Further development of a cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.; McLarty, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a network of certified laboratories that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on global air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of measurements for treaty compliance. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates operated in time-stamp mode to detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. This provides a mean background reduction of 75.2 % with MDA improvements of 45.6 %. The CTBT requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system does not require dedicated coincidence electronics, and remains easily configurable with dual acquisition of unsuppressed and suppressed spectra. Performance has been significantly improved by complete processing of the cosmic-ray spectrum (0-25 MeV) combined with the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident. (author)

  13. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1980-04-01

    Relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays were evaluated for 16 nuclides, 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 139 Ce, sup(180m)Hf, 198 Au, 203 Hg and 207 Bi. For most of these nuclides disintegration rates can be determined by means of β-γ or X-γ coincidence method. Since decay schemes of these nuclides are established, intensities per decay of strong gamma rays were accurately evaluated by using weak beta-ray branching ratios, relative gamma-ray intensities and internal conversion coefficients. Half-lives of the nuclides were also evaluated. Use of the nuclides, therefore, are recommended for precision intensity calibration of the detectors. (author)

  14. Standardization of I-125 solution by extrapolation of an efficiency wave obtained by coincidence X-(X-γ) counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.

    1989-01-01

    The activity concentration of 125 I was determined by X-(X-α) coincidence counting method and efficiency extrapolation curve. The measurement system consists of 2 thin NaI(T1) scintillation detectors which are horizontally movable on a track. The efficiency curve is obtained by symmetricaly changing the distance between the source and the detectors and the activity is determined by applying a linear efficiency extrapolation curve. All sum-coincidence events are included between 10 and 100 KeV window counting and the main source of uncertainty is coming from poor counting statistic around zero efficiency. The consistence of results with other methods shows that this technique can be applied to photon cascade emitters and are not discriminating by the detectors. It has been also determined the 35,5 KeV gamma-ray emission probability of 125 I by using a Gamma-X type high purity germanium detector. (author) [pt

  15. Positron Annihilation Induced Auger and Gamma Spectroscopy of Catalytically Important Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.; Nadesalingam, M. P.; Sundaramoorthy, R.; Mukherjee, S.; Fazleev, N. G.

    2006-10-01

    The annihilation of positrons with core electrons results in unique signatures in the spectra of Auger-electron and annihilation-gamma rays that can be used to make clear chemical identification of atoms at the surface. Because positrons implanted at low energies are trapped with high efficiency in the image-correlation well where they are localized just outside the surface it is possible to use annihilation induced Auger and Gamma signals to probe the surfaces of solids with single atomic layer depth resolution. In this talk we will report recent applications of Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy (PAES) and Auger-Gamma Coincidence Spectroscopy (AGCS) to the study of surface structure and surface chemistry. Our research has demonstrated that PAES spectra can provide new information regarding the composition of the top-most atomic layer. Applications of PAES to the study of catalytically important surfaces of oxides and wide band-gap semiconductors including TiO2, SiO2,Cu2O, and SiC will be presented. We conclude with a discussion of the use of Auger-Gamma and Gamma-Gamma coincidence spectroscopy for the study of surfaces at pressures closer to those found in practical chemical reactors. Research supported by the Welch Foundation Grant Number Y-1100.

  16. A new recoil filter for {gamma}-detector arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, J; Lahmer, W; Maier, K H [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany); Janicki, M; Meczynski, W; Styczen, J [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-08-01

    A considerable improvement of gamma spectra recorded in heavy ion induced fusion evaporation residues can be achieved when gamma rays are detected in coincidence with the recoiling evaporations residues. This coincidence suppresses gamma rays from fission processes, Coulombic excitation, and reactions with target contaminations, and therefore cleans gamma spectra and improves the peak to background ratio. A sturdy detector for evaporation residues has been designed as an additional detector for the OSIRIS spectrometer. The recoil filter consists of two rings of six and twelve detector elements. In each detector element, nuclei hitting a thin Mylar foil produce secondary electrons, which are electrostatically accelerated and focussed onto a thin plastic scintillator. Recoiling evaporation residues are discriminated from other reaction products and scattered beam by the pulse height of the scintillation signal and time of flight. The detector signal is fast enough to allow the detection of an evaporation residue even if the scattered beam hits the detector first. In-beam experiment were performed with the reactions {sup 40}Ar+{sup 124}Sn, {sup 40}Ar+{sup 152}Sm at 185 MeV beam energy, and {sup 36}Ar+{sup 154,156}Gd at 175 MeV. In the latter two cases, fission amount to 50-75% of the total fusion cross section. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  17. The mirror symmetric centroid difference method for picosecond lifetime measurements via {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences using very fast LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regis, J.-M., E-mail: regis@ikp.uni-koeln.d [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Pascovici, G.; Jolie, J.; Rudigier, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2010-10-01

    The ultra-fast timing technique was introduced in the 1980s and is capable of measuring picosecond lifetimes of nuclear excited states with about 3 ps accuracy. Very fast scintillator detectors are connected to an electronic timing circuit and detector vs. detector time spectra are analyzed by means of the centroid shift method. The very good 3% energy resolution of the nowadays available LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detectors for {gamma}-rays has made possible an extension of the well-established fast timing technique. The energy dependent fast timing characteristics or the prompt curve, respectively, of the LaBr{sub 3}(Ce) scintillator detector has been measured using a standard {sup 152}Eu {gamma}-ray source. For any energy combination in the range of 200keVgamma}<}1500keV, the {gamma}-{gamma} fast timing characteristics is calibrated as a function of energy with an accuracy of 2-4 ps. An extension of the centroid shift method providing very attractive features for picosecond lifetime measurements is presented. The mirror symmetric centroid difference method takes advantage of the symmetry obtained when performing {gamma}-{gamma} lifetime measurements using a pair of almost identical very fast scintillator detectors. In particular cases, the use of the mirror symmetric centroid difference method also allows the direct determination of picosecond lifetimes, hence without the need of calibrating the prompt curve.

  18. Thermal neutron capture cross section for Fe-56(n,gamma)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Firestone, R. B.; Belgya, T.; Krtička, M.; Bečvář, F.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Tomandl, Ivo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 014328. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-07117S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : neutron cross section * gamma gamma-coincidence data Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  19. A computational study on altered theta-gamma coupling during learning and phase coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zhang

    Full Text Available There is considerable interest in the role of coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in the brain in the context of learning and memory. Here we have used a neural network model which is capable of producing coupling of theta phase to gamma amplitude firstly to explore its ability to reproduce reported learning changes and secondly to memory-span and phase coding effects. The spiking neural network incorporates two kinetically different GABA(A receptor-mediated currents to generate both theta and gamma rhythms and we have found that by selective alteration of both NMDA receptors and GABA(A,slow receptors it can reproduce learning-related changes in the strength of coupling between theta and gamma either with or without coincident changes in theta amplitude. When the model was used to explore the relationship between theta and gamma oscillations, working memory capacity and phase coding it showed that the potential storage capacity of short term memories, in terms of nested gamma-subcycles, coincides with the maximal theta power. Increasing theta power is also related to the precision of theta phase which functions as a potential timing clock for neuronal firing in the cortex or hippocampus.

  20. Method and apparstus for determining random coincidence count rate in a scintillation counter utilizing the coincidence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horrocks, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the reliable determination of a random coincidence count attributable to chance coincidences of single-photon events which are each detected in only a single detector of a scintillation counter utilizing two detectors in a coincidence counting technique are described. A firstdelay device is employed to delay output pulses from one detector, and then the delayed signal is compared with the undelayed signal from the other detector in a coincidence circuit, to obtain an approximate random coincidence count. The output of the coincidence circuit is applied to an anti-coincidence circuit, where it is corrected by elimination of pulses coincident with, and attributable to, conventionally detected real coincidences, and by elimination of pulses coincident with, and attributable to, real coincidences that have been delayed by a second delay device having the same time parameter as the first. 8 claims

  1. Prompt gamma-ray imaging for small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libai

    Small animal imaging is recognized as a powerful discovery tool for small animal modeling of human diseases, which is providing an important clue to complete understanding of disease mechanisms and is helping researchers develop and test new treatments. The current small animal imaging techniques include positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound (US). A new imaging modality called prompt gamma-ray imaging (PGI) has been identified and investigated primarily by Monte Carlo simulation. Currently it is suggested for use on small animals. This new technique could greatly enhance and extend the present capabilities of PET and SPECT imaging from ingested radioisotopes to the imaging of selected non-radioactive elements, such as Gd, Cd, Hg, and B, and has the great potential to be used in Neutron Cancer Therapy to monitor neutron distribution and neutron-capture agent distribution. This approach consists of irradiating small animals in the thermal neutron beam of a nuclear reactor to produce prompt gamma rays from the elements in the sample by the radiative capture (n, gamma) reaction. These prompt gamma rays are emitted in energies that are characteristic of each element and they are also produced in characteristic coincident chains. After measuring these prompt gamma rays by surrounding spectrometry array, the distribution of each element of interest in the sample is reconstructed from the mapping of each detected signature gamma ray by either electronic collimations or mechanical collimations. In addition, the transmitted neutrons from the beam can be simultaneously used for very sensitive anatomical imaging, which provides the registration for the elemental distributions obtained from PGI. The primary approach is to use Monte Carlo simulation methods either with the specific purpose code CEARCPG, developed at NC State University or with the general purpose

  2. Coincidence counting corrections for dead time losses and accidental coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1987-04-01

    An equation is derived for the calculation of the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting taking into account the dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The derivation is an extension of the method of J. Bryant [Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 14:143, 1963]. The improvement on Bryant's formula has been verified by experiment

  3. A novel gamma-ray detector with submillimeter resolutions using a monolithic MPPC array with pixelized Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T., E-mail: katou.frme.8180@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kataoka, J.; Nakamori, T.; Miura, T.; Matsuda, H.; Kishimoto, A. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K.; Ishikawa, Y.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.; Kawabata, N. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan); Ikeda, H. [ISAS/JAXA, 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa (Japan); Yamamoto, S. [Kobe City College of Technology, 8-3, Gakuenhigashimati, Nishi-ku, Kobe-shi, Hyougo 651-2194 (Japan); Kamada, K. [Materials Research Laboratory, Furukawa Co., Ltd., 1-25-13, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0856 (Japan)

    2013-01-21

    We have developed a large-area monolithic Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) array consisting of 4×4 channels with a three-side buttable package. Each channel has a photosensitive area of 3×3 mm{sup 2} and 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs). For typical operational gain of 7.5×10{sup 5} at +20 °C, gain fluctuation over the entire MPPC device is only ±5.6%, and dark count rates (as measured at the 1 p.e. level) amount to ≤400kcps per channel. We first fabricated a gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array with one-to-one coupling to a Ce-doped (Lu,Y){sub 2}(SiO{sub 4})O (Ce:LYSO) crystal array (4×4 array of 3×3×10 mm{sup 3} crystals). Energy and time resolutions of 11.5±0.5% (FWHM at 662 keV) and 493±22ps were obtained, respectively. When using the charge division resistor network, which compiles signals into four position-encoded analog outputs, the ultimate positional resolution is estimated as 0.19 mm in both X and Y directions, while energy resolution of 10.2±0.4% (FWHM) was obtained. Finally, we fabricated submillimeter Ce:LYSO and Ce-doped Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 12} (Ce:GGAG) scintillator matrices each consisting of 1.0×1.0, 0.7×0.7 and 0.5×0.5 mm{sup 2} pixels, to further improve the spatial resolution. In all types of Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG matrices, each crystal was clearly resolved in the position histograms when irradiated by a {sup 137}Cs source. The energy resolutions for 662 keV gamma-rays for each Ce:LYSO and Ce:GGAG scintillator matrix were ≤14.3%. These results suggest excellent potential for its use as a high spatial medical imaging device, particularly in positron emission tomography (PET). -- Highlights: ► We developed a newly designed large-area monolithic MPPC array. ► We obtained fine gain uniformity, and good energy and time resolutions when coupled to the LYSO scintillator. ► We fabricated gamma-ray camera consisting of the MPPC array and submillimeter pixelized LYSO and GGAG scintillators. ► In

  4. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  5. Device for gamma-chamber transducer alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirkhodzhaev, A.Kh.; Kuznetsov, N.K.; Ostryj, Yu.E.

    1987-01-01

    The device consists of the upper part of the gamma chamber pilar to which a rod is rigidly fastened with a disk of acrylic plastic moving freely on the opposite end. The disk is placed coaxially and is equal to the gamma chamber detector crystal. The device makes it possible to use ordinary medical couches covered with a porolone mattress when the gamma chamber detector is placed below

  6. Separate assessment of natural beta and gamma dose-rates with TL from α-Al2O3:C single-crystal chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchgruber, R.; Wagner, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    A measurement procedure was developed for fast and separate assessment of beta and gamma dose-rates in natural sediments using highly sensitive α-Al 2 O 3 :C single-crystal chips. The dosemeters were buried for periods from two days to three weeks in sediments with different layer structure and homogeneity. For each measurement, a pair of dosemeters was buried, in order to assess beta and gamma dose-rates separately. One dosemeter was wrapped only in thin plastic foil to shield it from alpha radiation, thus measuring beta + gamma components. The second one, used for the gamma component only, was packed additionally in a 1mm copper container for absorption of beta radiation. For calibration, another set of dosemeters was buried in reference soil with a well-known dose-rate and similar content of radioactive nuclides. By comparing the thermally stimulated luminescence signals from the dosemeters the gamma dose-rate and also, by subtraction, the beta dose-rate in the unknown soil could be determined. The calculated uncertainties were 5-7% and 10%, respectively. The resulting dose-rates for homogeneous and inhomogeneous media were compared with the results obtained by Ge- and on-site NaI-gamma-ray spectrometry. An agreement within 2σ-error limits was found for homogeneous media after only few days of exposure

  7. Analysis of ({sup 7}F{sub 0}){gamma}{sub 1g}{yields}({sup 5}D{sub 2}){gamma}{sub 5g}, {gamma}{sub 3g} and ({sup 7}F{sub 0}){gamma}{sub 1g}{yields}({sup 5}L{sub 6}){gamma}{sub 1g}, a{gamma}{sub 5g} two-photon absorption spectra of Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6}:Eu{sup 3+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning Lixin; Wang Dianyuan; Xia Shangda [Structure Research Laboratory, Academica Sinica, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Heifei, Anhui (China); Thorne, Jonathan R.G. [Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Tanner, Peter A. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (China)

    2002-04-15

    The direct calculation of transition line strengths and relative intensities is presented for two intraconfigurational two-photon absorption (TPA) transitions of Eu{sup 3+} in the cubic Cs{sub 2}NaYF{sub 6} host. Crystal field wavefunctions were utilized for the initial and final f{sup N}-electron states and various approaches were used in constructing all the 4f{sup N-1} 5d{sup 1} intermediate-state wavefunctions. The calculated relative intensities of the ({sup 7}F{sub 0}) {gamma}{sub 1g}{yields}({sup 5}D{sub 2}){gamma}{sub 5g}, {gamma}{sub 3g} TPA transitions are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The neglect of J-mixing in the initial state has only a small effect upon the calculation, whereas the neglect of spin-orbit couplings within the initial and terminal states drastically reduces the calculated transition linestrengths, but does not markedly change the intensity ratios. In the case of the ({sup 7}F{sub 0}){gamma}{sub 1g}{yields}({sup 5}L{sub 6}){gamma}{sub 1g}, a{gamma}{sub 5g} transitions, serious discrepancies between experiment and theory are found if the intermediate states are constructed from a 4f{sup 5} core comprising free ion states and the 5d{sup 1} crystal field states. Satisfactory agreement is, however, found when the 4f{sup 5} crystal field states are utilized in constructing the intermediate states. The contributions to the transition moment have been evaluated for various Hamiltonian terms and the results are discussed. (author)

  8. Standardization of {sup 241}Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balpardo, C., E-mail: balpardo@cae.cnea.gov.a [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Capoulat, M.E.; Rodrigues, D.; Arenillas, P. [Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radioisotopos, CNEA, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The nuclide {sup 241}Am decays by alpha emission to {sup 237}Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of {sup 237}Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of {sup 241}Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  9. Thermal neutron detectors based on complex oxide crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Volkov, V; Chernikov, V; Zelenskaya, O

    2002-01-01

    The ways of improvement of spectrometric quality of CWO and GSO crystals have been investigated with the aim of their application in thermal neutron detectors based on radiation capture reactions. The efficiency of the neutron detection by these crystals was measured, and the obtained data were compared with the results for sup 6 LiI(Tl) crystals. It is shown that the use of complex oxide crystals and neutron-absorption filters for spectrometry of thermal and resonance neutrons could be a promising method in combination with computer data processing. Numerical calculations are reported for spectra of gamma-quanta due to radiation capture of the neutrons. To compensate for the gamma-background lines, we used a crystal pair of heavy complex oxides with different sensitivity to neutrons.

  10. Properties of a large NaI(Tl) spectrometer for the energy measurement of high-energy gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.B.; Finman, L.C.; Hofstadter, R.; Lepetich, J.E.; Lin, Y.C.; Mattox, J.R.; Nolan, P.L.; Parks, R.; Walker, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    A large NaI(T1) spectrometer is expected to play a crucial role in the measurement of the energy spectra from an all-sky survey of high-energy celestial gamma rays on the Gamma Ray Observatory. The crystal size and requirements of space flight have resulted in a novel crystal-packaging and optics combination. The structure of this spectrometer and the operating characteristics determined in a test program using high energy positrons are described

  11. Acoustic loss and frequency stability studies of gamma- and proton-irradiated alpha-quartz crystal resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    This work examines the radiation-induced effects in alpha-quartz crystal resonators and distinguishes the various acoustic losses responsible for the frequency susceptibility over these dose ranges. Simulation of low-earth-orbit proton radiation was accomplished with protons from the Harvard University Cyclotron using a novel proton-beam modulator, which was designed to emulate a 10-120 MeV proton spectrum for the radiation susceptibility and acoustic-loss studies on AT quartz resonators. Quartz resonators having aluminum defect center concentrations between 0.01 and 19 ppm experienced proton-induced frequency shifts not correlated to their aluminum impurity content. It was also found that AT quartz resonators of the electrode-less BVA design experienced the smallest frequency shifts. Experiments conducted with 1.25-MeV gamma rays from a cobalt 60 source demonstrated identical frequency shifts in quartz, indicating that the energy losses of gamma rays and protons in quartz over the examined dose and energy ranges were similar. Acoustic-loss measurements conducted over the 0.3-70 K range revealed that the phonon-phonon and two-level energy excitation peaks near 20 and 5 K, respectively, were not affected by proton or cobalt 60 radiation

  12. Effect of water on self-assembled tubules in {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol-based organogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, Ruud den; Heussen, Patricia C M; Bot, Arjen, E-mail: ruud-den.adel@unilever.co [Unilever Research and Development Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, NL-3133 AT Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    2010-10-01

    Mixtures of {beta}-sitosterol and {gamma}-oryzanol form a network in triglyceride oil that may serve as an alternative to the network of small crystallites of triglycerides occurring in regular oil structuring. The present x-ray diffraction study investigates the relation between the crystal forms of the individual compounds and the mixture in oil, water and emulsion. {beta}-Sitosterol and {gamma}-oryzanol form normal crystals in oil, in water, or in emulsions. The crystals are sensitive to the presence of water. The mixture of {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol forms crystals in water and emulsions that can be traced back to the crystals of the pure compounds. Only in oil, a completely different structure emerges in the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol + {gamma}-oryzanol, which bears no relation to the structures that are formed by both individual compounds, and which can be identified as a self-assembled tubule (diameter 7.2{+-}0.1 nm, wall thickness 0.8{+-}0.2 nm).

  13. The GSF anticoincidence-shielded Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometer and its application to the analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1981-01-01

    A high-efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer has been designed and built to provide simultaneous anticoincidence and coincidence spectrometry of low-level environmental samples. The spectrometer consists of a large-volume Ge(Li) detector as the main detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) guard detector. The Ge(Li) detector is a closed-end coaxial detector housed in a crystal of the vertical dip-stick type. Its relative photopeak efficiency is 27.5%. The guard counter is a 23-cm-dia. by 23-cm-long NaI(Tl) crystal with a 7.8-cm-dia. by 18-cm-deep centre well. The passive shield consists of a 10-cm lead shield with copper and cadmium lining. The electronics is designed to operate independently and simultaneously in the anticoincidence mode as well as in the coincidence or in the normal passive shield mode. When operating in the anticoincidence mode the Compton edge of 137 Cs is reduced by a factor of 7.7 to provide a peak-to-Compton edge ratio of 480:1. Bulk samples up to about 300 cm 3 can be measured on the top of the detector end cap inside the well of the NaI(Tl) crystal. The lower limit of detection (1000 min counting time, 95% confidence level) for 137 Cs is 1.6 pCi in a 3.8-cm-dia. by 3.5-cm-high sample geometry. The design of the spectrometer, its properties and the application to investigations on the migration of radionuclides in the soil, the analysis of radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants and to fallout studies are described. (author)

  14. MCNP analysis and optimization of a triple crystal phoswich detector

    CERN Document Server

    Childress, N L

    2002-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Missouri-Columbia have designed a triple crystal phoswich detector that allows for simultaneous detection of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. A ZnS:Ag layer detects alpha particles, a CaF sub 2 :Eu scintillator preferentially interacts with beta particles, and a NaI:Tl cell is used for gamma detection. The detector output is digitally collected, processed, and analyzed by a personal computer using custom software. Monte Carlo N-Particle version 4C simulations of this detector found that the phoswich design has inherent minimum energy limits of 250 keV E sub m sub a sub x for beta particles and 50 keV for gamma-rays. For a 2.54 cm thick NaI:Tl crystal, intrinsic gamma efficiency for photons ranges from a maximum of 80% at 100 keV to 26% for 2 MeV photons. Mischaracterized gamma events in the CaF sub 2 :Eu crystal above 175 keV can be corrected by subtracting 26+-4% of the total number of counts in the NaI:Tl crystal from the CaF sub 2 :Eu response. Beta induced events in the N...

  15. Spectrometric properties and radiation damage of BGO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gen C.; Gasanov, Eldar M.

    1997-07-01

    Spectrometric properties, such as light output, energy resolution BGO crystals before and after (superscript 60)Co gamma-ray (dose 10(superscript 4) - 10(superscript 6) R) and neutron irradiation (fluence 10(superscript 14) cm(superscript -2)) are investigated. Condition for degradation of spectrometric properties and their recovering after irradiation are studied. The energy spectrum of the photons emitted from BGO crystals irradiated with neutron fluence contains the long living background peak which is caused by self-irradiation with radioactive isotopes produced in the crystals. The defect production was studied in crystals under the high dose gamma-irradiation with (superscript 60)Co isotope. It was found that after doses above 10(superscript 8) R the color center at 365 nm and doses higher than 10(superscript 9) R a wide absorption band in the region of 300 - 350 nm occur. Comparison of these results with those of reactor irradiation has shown that under the high dose gamma-irradiation the structure defect production takes place.

  16. The sample of INTEGRAL SPI-ACS gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Licht, G.G.; Hurley, K.

    2005-01-01

    The anti-coincidence system of the spectrometer on board INTEGRAL is operated as a nearly omni directional gamma-ray burst detector above ∼ 75 KeV. During the elapsed mission time 324 burst candidates were detected. As part of the 3rd Interplanetary Network of gamma-ray detectors the cosmic origin of 115 burst was confirmed. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the SPI-ACS gamma-ray burst sample. In particular we discuss the origin of a significant population of short events (duration < 0.2 s) and a possible method for a flux calibration of the data

  17. Determining chance coincidence, survival factor and decay factor in 220Rn delayed coincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Derong; Yan Yongjun; Zhou Jianliang; Qiu Shoukang

    2013-01-01

    The method and calculation formulas to determine the chance coincidence in the 220 Rn coincidence measurement are introduced in this paper. The poisson distribution is introduced to correct the chance coincidence. The relative deviation of the true coincidence between the method and the Giffin's is within 5% after the correction of the cohance coincidence. The measurement of 220 Rn is done by comparative measurement with RAD7. The results shows that 220 Rn can be measured by the method with a relative deviation of 14%. Mean while, for the 220 Rn flow regime is difficult to meet the condition of calculation formulas, a solution to solve the survival factor and decay factor is proposed and the error come from the useage of theoretical calculation formula is avoided. (authors)

  18. Development of a cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic radiation contributes significantly towards the background radiation measured by a gamma-spectrometer. A novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed that provides a mean background reduction of 54.5%. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates operated in time-stamp mode to detect coincident muon interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer. The instrument is easily configurable and provides improved sensitivity for radionuclides indicative of nuclear weapons tests and reactor incidents, including 140 Ba, 95 Zr, 99 Mo, 141 Ce, 147 Nd, 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs. This has been demonstrated for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty applications to obtain the required 140 Ba MDA of 24 mBq within 2 days counting. Analysis of an air filter sample collected during the Fukushima incident indicates improved sensitivity compared to conventional gamma-spectrometers. (author)

  19. Diagnosis of myocardial viability by dual-head coincidence gamma camera fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with and without non-uniform attenuation correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, B.; Zimmy, M.; Kaiser, H.-J.; Schaefer, W.; Reinartz, P.; Buell, U.; Schwarz, E.R.; Dahl, J. vom

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed a dual-head coincidence gamma camera (hybrid PET) equipped with single-photon transmission for myocardial fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging by comparing this technique with conventional positron emission tomography (PET) using a dedicated ring PET scanner. Twenty-one patients were studied with dedicated FDG ring PET and FDG hybrid PET for evaluation of myocardial glucose metabolism, as well as technetium-99 m tetrofosmin single-photon emission tomography (SPET) to estimate myocardial perfusion. All patients underwent transmitted attenuation correction using germanium-68 rod sources for ring PET and caesium-137 point sources for hybrid PET. Ring PET and hybrid PET emission scans were started 61±12 and 98±15 min, respectively, after administration of 154±31 MBq FDG. Attenuation-corrected images were reconstructed iteratively for ring PET and hybrid PET (ac-hybrid PET), and non-attenuation-corrected images for hybrid PET (non-ac-hybrid PET) only. Tracer distribution was analysed semiquantitatively using a volumetric vector sampling method dividing the left ventricular wall into 13 segments. FDG distribution in non-ac-hybrid PET and ring PET correlated with r=0.36 (P<0.0001), and in ac-hybrid PET and ring PET with r=0.79 (P<0.0001). Non-ac-hybrid PET significantly overestimated FDG uptake in the apical and supra-apical segments, and underestimated FDG uptake in the remaining segments, with the exception of one lateral segment. Ac-hybrid PET significantly overestimated FDG uptake in the apical segment, and underestimated FDG uptake in only three posteroseptal segments. A three-grade score was used to classify diagnosis of viability by FDG PET in 136 segments with reduced perfusion as assessed by SPET. Compared with ring PET, non-ac-hybrid PET showed concordant diagnoses in 80 segments (59%) and ac-hybrid PET in 101 segments (74%) (P<0.001). Agreement between ring PET and non-ac-hybrid PET was best in the basal lateral wall and in the

  20. A high-efficiency neutron coincidence counter for small samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Russo, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The inventory sample coincidence counter (INVS) has been modified to enhance its performance. The new design is suitable for use with a glove box sample-well (in-line application) as well as for use in the standard at-line mode. The counter has been redesigned to count more efficiently and be less sensitive to variations in sample position. These factors lead to a higher degree of precision and accuracy in a given counting period and allow for the practical use of the INVS counter with gamma-ray isotopics to obtain a plutonium assay independent of operator declarations and time-consuming chemicals analysis. A calculation study was performed using the Los Alamos transport code MCNP to optimize the design parameters. 5 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs

  1. PET with a dual-head coincidence gamma camera in head and neck cancer: A comparison with computed tomography and dedicated PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimny, M.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG PET) is a promising imaging tool for detecting and staging of primary or recurrent head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate a dual-head gamma camera modified for coincidence detection (KGK-PET) in comparison to computed tomography (CT) and dedicated PET (dPET). 50 patients with known or suspected primary or recurrent head and neck cancer were enrolled. 32 patients underwent KGK-PET and dPET using a one-day protocol. The sensitivity for the detection of primary/ recurrent head and neck cancer for KGK-PET and CT was 80% and 54%, respectively, specificity was 73% and 82%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymph node metastases based on neck sides with KGK-PET was 71% (CT: 65%) and 88% (CT: 89%) respectively. In comparison to dPET, KGK-PET revealed concordant results in 32/32 patients with respect to primary tumor/recurrent disease and in 55/60 evaluated neck sides. All involved neck sides that were missed by KGK-PET were also negative with dPET. These results indicate that in patients with head and neck cancer KGK-PET reveals information, that are similar to dPET and complementary to CT. (orig.) [de

  2. Study of gamma ray multiplicity spectra for radiative capture of neutrons in 113,115In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.P.; Fajkov-Stanchik, Kh.; Grigor'ev, Yu.V.; Muradyan, G.V.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1997-08-01

    Neutron radiative capture measurements were performed for the enriched isotopes 113 In and 115 In on the neutron spectrometer at the Neutron Physics Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research employing the gamma ray multiplicity technique and using a ''Romashka'' multi-sectional 4p detector on the 500 m time base of the IBR-30 booster. The gamma multiplicity spectra of resolved resonances were obtained for the 20-500 eV energy range. The mean gamma ray multiplicity was determined for each resonance. The dependence of the ratio S of the low-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum to the high-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum on resonance energy exhibits a non-statistical structure. This structure was found to correlate with the local neutron strength function. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Gamma and Xray spectroscopy at high performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchert, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    The author determines that for many interesting problems in gamma and Xray spectroscopy it is necessary to use crystal diffractometers. The basic features of such instruments are discussed and the special performance of crystal spectrometers is demonstrated by means of typical examples of various applications

  4. Nuclear structure at high spin using multidetector gamma array and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-05

    Apr 5, 2014 ... large angular momentum using heavy-ion fusion evaporation reactions ... Gamma detector array (GDA) [6,7], at Inter-University Accelerator Centre (IUAC) is .... used in the present work has improved the quality of coincidence ...

  5. Effect of. gamma. -irradiation on the crystalline structure of silk fibroin and silk sericin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Masuhiro; Aoki, Akira

    1985-02-01

    Changes in the crystalline structure of silk sericin and silk fibroin induced by gamma-irradiation in the atmosphere described. The crystalline structure of silk sericin which had been subjected to gamma-irradiation remained unchanged. However the decomposition temperature of the specimen decreased to about 230 deg C, when the total dose of ..gamma.. rays exceeded 4.6 Mrad. The structure of the silk 1 type crystal of silk fibroin in the solid state, with a low degree of molecular orientation, changed into the silk 2 type crystal, when the total dose of ..gamma.. rays exceeded 4.6 Mrad. No changes in the crystalline structure were observed in the solid state of the silk 2 type crystal regardless of gamma-irradiation. The decrease in the decomposition temperature of the specimen was attributed to the decrease in the molecular orientation. However, the molecular conformation of silk fibroin with a randomly coiled structure remained unchanged even after gamma-irradiation.

  6. Standardization and determination of the total internal conversion coefficient of In-111.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Izabela T; Koskinas, Marina F; Nascimento, Tatiane S; Yamazaki, Ione M; Dias, Mauro S

    2014-05-01

    The standardization of (111)In by means of a 4πβ-γ coincidence system, composed of a proportional counter in 4π geometry, coupled to a 20% relative efficiency HPGe crystal, for measuring gamma-rays is presented. The data acquisition was performed by means of the software coincidence system (SCS) and the activity was determined by the extrapolation technique. Two gamma-ray windows were selected: at 171 keV and 245 keV total absorption peaks, allowing the determination of the total internal conversion coefficient for these two gamma transitions. The results were compared with those available in the literature. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Silicon PIN diode based electron-gamma coincidence detector system for Noble Gases monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrustalev, K; Popov, V Yu; Popov, Yu S

    2017-08-01

    We present a new second generation SiPIN based electron-photon coincidence detector system developed by Lares Ltd. for use in the Noble Gas measurement systems of the International Monitoring System and the On-site Inspection verification regimes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The SiPIN provide superior energy resolution for electrons. Our work describes the improvements made in the second generation detector cells and the potential use of such detector systems for other applications such as In-Situ Kr-85 measurements for non-proliferation purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Advances in gamma-ray burst astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.

    1976-01-01

    Work at Goddard is presently being carried out in three major areas of gamma-ray burst research: (1) A pair of simultaneously operating 0.8-m 2 burst detectors were successfully balloon-borne at locations 800 miles apart on 9 May, 1975, each to atmospheric depths of 3 to 4 g cm -2 , for a 20-h period of coincident data coverage. This experiment investigates the size spectrum of bursts in the 10 -7 to 10 -6 erg cm -2 size region where dozens of events per day are expected on a -1.5 index integral power-law extrapolation. Considerable separation in latitude was used to avoid possible atmospheric and auroral secondary effects. Its results are not yet available. (2) A deep-space burst detector, the first spacecraft instrument built specifically for gamma-ray burst studies, was recently successfully integrated into the Helios-B space probe. Its use at distances of up to 2 AU will make possible the first high-resolution directional study of gamma-ray burst source locations. Similar modifications to several other space vehicles are also being prepared. (3) The gamma-ray instrument on the IMP-7 satellite is presently the most sensitive burst detector still operating in orbit. Its results have shown that all measured event-average energy spectra are consistent with being alike. Using this characteristic spectrum to select IMP-7 candidate events of smaller size than those detected using other spacecraft in coincidence, a size spectrum is constructed which fits the -1.5 index power law down to 2.5 x 10 -5 erg cm -2 per event, at an occurrence rate of about once per month. (Auth.)

  9. Determination of the absolute activity by the coincidences 4πβ-γ method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urcelay Silva, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The 4π beta-gamma coincidence method for absolute determination of activities is extremely important in the production of high-precision radioactive sources. By means of this method it is possible to obtain absolute measurements of decay to within 0.1%. Thanks to the high efficiency of the 4π counter, most of the corrections required - background, random coincidences, dead time, decay scheme and detector efficiency - are small. The paper describes the experimental set-up showing the pulses in the two branches of the system, together with the conditions under which the 4πbeta flux detector functions. To determine whether the system was functioning satisfactorily, the activity of four cobalt-60 standards (supplied by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures based at Sevres in France) was determined and the differences obtained were less than 0.5% with respect to the certificates accompanying the sources. Alterations to the flux detector are suggested so that higher accuracy may be obtained. (author)

  10. Scintillation crystal mounting apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Deans, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    An improved detector head for a gamma camera is disclosed. The detector head includes a housing and a detector assembly mounted within the housing. Components of the detector assembly include a crystal sub-assembly, a phototube array, and a light pipe between the phototube array and crystal sub-assembly. The invention provides a unique structure for maintaining the phototubes in optical relationship with the light pipe and preventing the application of forces that would cause the camera's crystal to crack

  11. Calibrated radioactive sources - absolute measurements using a 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma} apparatus; Sources etalons de radioactivite - mesures absolues au moyen d'un ensemble 4{pi} {beta}-{gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, P; Philis, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    In this paper, the principle of the standardization of the radioisotopes by the 4{pi} {beta} - {gamma} coincidence method is reminded. Some theoretical examples are given emphasizing on instrumental coincidences and their corrections. The experimental apparatus is described: one discusses the choice of the experimental conditions for the many isotopes measured. Results are given and discussed. In appendix we describe the preparation of the sources. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, nous rappelons d'abord le principe de la methode d'etalonnage 4{pi} {beta} - {gamma} en donnant quelques exemples theoriques et en insistant sur la correction des erreurs instrumentales. Une description critique de l'appareillage utilise est donnee. On discute le choix des conditions experimentales pour divers isotopes mesures et les resultats obtenus. En annexe, nous decrivons la fabrication des sources que nous mesurons.

  12. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE-Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Donzaud, C. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dumas, A.; Gay, P. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje, Texel (Netherlands); Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouchner, A. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); Loucatos, S. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (MA); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (FR); Sanguineti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (IT); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT)

    2017-01-15

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  13. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E.; Bruijn, R.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V.; Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Donzaud, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Giordano, V.; Haren, H. van; Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marinelli, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Pradier, T.; Sanguineti, M.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  14. A continuum approach to combined $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ evolution and dislocation plasticity in Nickel-based superalloys

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ronghai; Zaiser, Michael; Sandfeld, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Creep in single crystal Nickel-based superalloys has been a topic of interest since decades, and nowadays simulations are more and more able to complement experiments. In these alloys, the $\\gamma/\\gamma'$ phase microstructure co-evolves with the system of dislocations under load, and understanding the mutual interactions is essential for understanding the resulting creep properties. Predictive modeling thus requires multiphysics frameworks capable of modeling and simulating both the phase an...

  15. Solid state scintillators for gamma spectrometry. Studio di scintillatori a stato solido per spettrometria gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Mela, G; Torrisi, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy)

    1991-01-01

    Using different scintillator crystals, measurements of energy resolution and detection efficiency have been performed to detect gamma rays of energy ranging between 500 en 1550 KeV. This investigation is devoted to characterize the best systems to detect photons coming from positron annihilation processes, such as a PET apparatus where the medical image is the final aim of the investigation, and gamma emission from radioisotopes of biomedical interest.

  16. Levels of Re-188 nucleus populated in thermal neutron capture reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berzins, J.; Krasta, T.; Simonova, L.; Balodis, M.; Bondarenko, T.; Jentschel, M.; Urban, W.; Tomandl, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 947, MAR (2016), s. 76-126 ISSN 0375-9474 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0891; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 283883 - NMI3-II Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear reaction Re-187 (n, gamma), E=thermal, enriched targets * GAMS5 crystal diffraction spectrometer, Ge detectors * measured E-Gamma, I-gamma, gamma gamma-coincidences Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.916, year: 2016

  17. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  18. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  19. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  20. Investigation of high resolution compact gamma camera module based on a continuous scintillation crystal using a novel charge division readout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Qiusheng; Zhao Cuilan; Qi Yujin; Zhang Hualin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate a high performance and lower cost compact gamma camera module for a multi-head small animal SPECT system. A compact camera module was developed using a thin Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystal slice coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). A two-stage charge division readout board based on a novel subtractive resistive readout with a truncated center-of-gravity (TCOG) positioning method was developed for the camera. The performance of the camera was evaluated using a flood 99m Tc source with a four-quadrant bar-mask phantom. The preliminary experimental results show that the image shrinkage problem associated with the conventional resistive readout can be effectively overcome by the novel subtractive resistive readout with an appropriate fraction subtraction factor. The response output area (ROA) of the camera shown in the flood image was improved up to 34%, and an intrinsic spatial resolution better than 2 mm of detector was achieved. In conclusion, the utilization of a continuous scintillation crystal and a flat-panel PSPMT equipped with a novel subtractive resistive readout is a feasible approach for developing a high performance and lower cost compact gamma camera. (authors)

  1. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-01-01

    We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi-GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS......) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi-GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about...

  2. Coincident photoelectron spectroscopy on superconductors; Koinzidente Photoelektronenspektroskopie an Supraleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Aim of the performed experiments of this thesis was to attempt to detect Cooper pairs as carriers of the superconducting current directly by means of the photoelectric effect. The method of the coincident photoelectron spectroscopy aims thereby at the detection of two coherently emitted electrons by the interaction with a photon. Because electrostatic analyzers typically cover only a very small spatial angle, which goes along with very low coincidence rates, in connection with this thesis a time-of-flight projection system has been developed, which maps nearly the whole spatial angle on a position-resolving detector. The pulsed light source in form of special synchrotron radiation necessary for the measurement has been adjusted so weak, that only single photons could arrive at the sample. Spectroscoped were beside test measurements on silver layers both a lead monocrystal as representative of the classical BCS superconductors and monocrystalline Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8} from the family of the high-temperature superconductors. With excitation energies up to 40 eV could be shown that sufficiently smooth and clean surfaces in the superconducting phase exhibit within the resolving power of about 0.5 eV no recognizable differences in comparison to the normally conducting phase. Beside these studies furthermore the simple photoemission at the different samples and especially in the case of the lead crystal is treated, because here no comparable results are known. Thereby the whole momentum space is discussed and the Fermi surface established as three-dimensional model, by means of which the measurement results are discussed. in the theoretical descriptions different models for the Cooper-pair production are presented, whereby to the momentum exchange with the crystal a special role is attributed, because this can only occur in direct excitations via discrete lattice vectors.

  3. The D-D Neutron Generator as an Alternative to Am(Li) Isotopic Neutron Source in the Active Well Coincidence Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cleveland, Steven L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The 235U mass assay of bulk uranium items, such as oxide canisters, fuel pellets, and fuel assemblies, is not achievable by traditional gamma-ray assay techniques due to the limited penetration of the item by the characteristic 235U gamma rays. Instead, fast neutron interrogation methods such as active neutron coincidence counting must be used. For international safeguards applications, the most commonly used active neutron systems, the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC), Uranium Neutron Collar (UNCL) and 252Cf Shuffler, rely on fast neutron interrogation using an isotopic neutron source [i.e., 252Cf or Am(Li)] to achieve better measurement accuracies than are possible using gamma-ray techniques for high-mass, high-density items. However, the Am(Li) sources required for the AWCC and UNCL systems are no longer manufactured, and newly produced systems rely on limited supplies of sources salvaged from disused instruments. The 252Cf shuffler systems rely on the use of high-output 252Cf sources, which while still available have become extremely costly for use in routine operations and require replacement every five to seven years. Lack of a suitable alternative neutron interrogation source would leave a potentially significant gap in the safeguarding of uranium processing facilities. In this work, we made use of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL’s) Large Volume Active Well Coincidence Counter (LV-AWCC) and a commercially available deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator to examine the potential of the D-D neutron generator as an alternative to the isotopic sources. We present the performance of the LV-AWCC with D-D generator for the assay of 235U based on the results of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulations and measurements of depleted uranium (DU), low enriched uranium (LEU), and highly enriched uranium (HEU) items.

  4. Ion-induced gammas for photofission interrogation of HEU.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, Barney Lee (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Antolak, Arlyn J.; Morse, Daniel H.; Provencio, Paula Polyak (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-01

    High-energy photons and neutrons can be used to actively interrogate for heavily shielded special nuclear material (SNM), such as HEU (highly enriched uranium), by detecting prompt and/or delayed induced fission signatures. In this work, we explore the underlying physics for a new type of photon source that generates high fluxes of mono-energetic gamma-rays from low-energy (<500 keV) proton-induced nuclear reactions. The characteristic energies (4- to 18-MeV) of the gamma-rays coincide with the peak of the photonuclear cross section. The source could be designed to produce gamma-rays of certain selected energies, thereby improving the probability of detecting shielded HEU or providing a capability to determine enrichment inside sealed containers. The fundamental physics of such an interrogation source were studied in this LDRD through scaled ion accelerator experiments and radiation transport modeling. The data were used to assess gamma and neutron yields, background, and photofission-induced signal levels from several (p,{gamma}) target materials under consideration.

  5. Relative branching ratio of the {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} decay channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, N.; Papandreou, Z.; Lolos, G.J.; Benslama, K.; Huber, G.M.; Li, S.; Bekrenev, V.; Briscoe, W.J.; Grosnick, D.; Isenhower, D.; Koetke, D.D.; Kozlenko, N.G.; Kruglov, S.; Manley, D.M.; Manweiler, R.; McDonald, S.; Olmsted, J.; Shafi, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S

    2004-06-03

    The {eta}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} rare decay was measured at the AGS with the Crystal Ball photon spectrometer and its relative branching ratio was extracted to be B{sub 1}=(8.3{+-}2.8{+-}1.4)x10{sup -4}, based on the analysis of 3x10{sup 7} detected {eta} mesons. This leads to a lower partial width for this eta channel than past measurements and is in line with chiral perturbation theory calculations.

  6. Crystal structure and transport properties of gamma-Na sub x CoO sub 2 (x=0.67 approx 0.75)

    CERN Document Server

    Ono, Y; Miyazaki, Y; Kajitani, T; Ishii, Y

    2003-01-01

    Crystal structure and transport properties of gamma-Na sub x CoO sub 2 have been studied in the range of x=0.67-0.75. Single-phase samples were prepared by sintering mixture of raw materials, Na sub 2 CO sub 3 (99.5%) and Co sub 3 O sub 4 (99.9%). Na/Co composition ratio (x) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. The crystal structure parameters were refined by Rietveld analysis of powder neutron diffraction intensities, assuming P6 sub 3 /mmc type space symmetry. Little changes in the crystal structure are noticed, except for Na contents. Electric resistivity rho and Seebeck coefficient S were measured at temperatures between 380 K and 1000 K by the standard four-probe method and temperature gradient method, respectively. The rho-T curves exhibit the thermal hysteresis in the initial measurement. But, in the following measurement, the thermal hysteresis is significantly suppressed. The S was slightly higher in the sample with x = 0.75 than in the others at any temperatures. Power factor...

  7. Development of the software dead time methodology for the 4πβ-γ software coincidence system analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Fabio de; Brancaccio, Franco; Dias, Mauro da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Metrologia Nuclear - LMN, Nuclear Metrology Laboratory -, at IPEN-CNEN/SP, Sao Paulo, Brazil, developed a new Software Coincidence System (SCS) for 4πβ-γ radioisotope standardization. SCS is composed by the data acquisition hardware, for the coincidence data recording, and the coincidence data analysis program that performs the radioactive activity calculation for the target sample. Due to hardware intrinsic signal sampling characteristics, multiple undesired data recording occurs from a single saturated pulse. Also pulse pileup leads to bad data recording. As the beta counting rates are much greater than the gamma ones, due to the high 4π geometry beta detecting efficiencies, the beta counting significantly increases because of multiple pulse recordings, resulting in a respective increasing in the calculated activity value. In order to minimize such bad recordings effect, a software dead time value was introduced in the coincidence analysis program, under development at LMN, discarding multiple recordings, due to pulse pileup or saturation. This work presents the methodology developed to determine the optimal software dead time data value, for better accuracy results attaining, and discusses the results, pointing to software improvement possibilities. (author)

  8. Control system and automation of the spectrum acquisition for a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachowski, Ademir F.A.; Lapolli, André L.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N.

    2017-01-01

    This work reports results from the automation of data acquisition for a gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer located in the hyperfine interactions laboratory (LIH) of IPEN. A PAC spectrometer comprises usually four scintillation detectors (BaF_3 for example) and carries out time measurements from gamma rays of any two combinations of detectors in coincidence. Gamma rays come from the decay of probe nuclei embedded into the material to be studied. Measurements are generally performed as a function of temperature. The fourth-detectors PAC spectrometer was automated in Java language because it is a multi platform and object oriented programming language, having, therefore, portability and longer lifetime due to the ease of implementation of peripherals. Finally, the software has a friendly and intuitive interface with the user being able to operate the hardware manually or automatically with time acquisitions up to 100 consecutive hours. Before each acquisition, the software sets the temperature, waits for temperature stability and records data in different files. Moreover, the software also saves in a file all information of relevant parameters during acquisition. (author)

  9. Control system and automation of the spectrum acquisition for a perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowski, Ademir F.A.; Lapolli, André L.; Carbonari, Artur W.; Saxena, Rajendra N., E-mail: alapolli@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This work reports results from the automation of data acquisition for a gamma-gamma perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectrometer located in the hyperfine interactions laboratory (LIH) of IPEN. A PAC spectrometer comprises usually four scintillation detectors (BaF{sub 3} for example) and carries out time measurements from gamma rays of any two combinations of detectors in coincidence. Gamma rays come from the decay of probe nuclei embedded into the material to be studied. Measurements are generally performed as a function of temperature. The fourth-detectors PAC spectrometer was automated in Java language because it is a multi platform and object oriented programming language, having, therefore, portability and longer lifetime due to the ease of implementation of peripherals. Finally, the software has a friendly and intuitive interface with the user being able to operate the hardware manually or automatically with time acquisitions up to 100 consecutive hours. Before each acquisition, the software sets the temperature, waits for temperature stability and records data in different files. Moreover, the software also saves in a file all information of relevant parameters during acquisition. (author)

  10. Integrated coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borejko, V.F.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of two coincidence units employing integral circuits in the VISHNYA standard. The units are distinguished for the coincidence selection element which is essentially a combination of a tunnel diode and microcircuits. The output fast response of the units is at least 90 MHz in the mode of the output signal unshaped in duration and 50 MHz minimum in the mode of the output signal shaping. The resolution time of the units is dependent upon the duration of input signals

  11. Perpendicularity among the linear polarization directions of {gamma} radiations coming from the positron-electron annihilation: entanglement or conservation law; Perpendicularidade entre as direcoes de polarizacao linear das radiacoes-{gamma} originarias do processo de aniquilacao positron-eletron: emaranhamento ou lei de conservacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovitch, Henrique [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF/MCT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Correlacao Angular

    2010-07-01

    The results of the experiments presented in this paper, concludes that the number of coincidences among the R{gamma} polarized by the EC-method is bigger with the detectors perpendicularly positioned (90 deg) than the parallel (0 deg). It can also observed that the R{gamma} source used presents, close to the 511 keV, another R{gamma} source with more problematic shielding

  12. Gamma-ray multiplicity measurements in the 28Si + 64Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, A.; Cardella, G.; Musumarra, A.; Papa, M.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; De Rosa, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; Inglima, G.; Roca, V.; Romano, M.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Terrasi, F.; Fioretto, E.

    1994-01-01

    The 28 Si+ 64 Ni reaction at 163.8 MeV incident energy is studied by measuring in coincidence γ-rays and charged particles identified from Z 2 to Z = 16. The transition from quasi-elastic to more damped reactions is observed when the difference between the detected charge and the projectile one is increased. The strong influence of the particle decay on the measured γ-ray multiplicity is evidenced with the help of the statistical model computer code CASCADE. Dissipative events are well described in the rolling limit with excitation energy equally shared between the fragments. The overall agreement is lost for the fragments with the projectile charge which show a small value of the γ-multiplicity even for dissipative events. This is probably connected with the previously observed non statistical behavior of gamma rays emitted in coincidence with projectile-like fragments. In the alpha-spectrum measured in coincidence with gamma-rays, the deexcitation of fused systems is clearly separated from in flight emission of deep inelastic fragments. The low measured gamma-ray multiplicity for fusion events is qualitatively explained taking into account the effect of alpha-emission in the statistical decay. (orig.)

  13. The influence of radiation and light on Ps formation in PMMA and PE studied by coincidence Doppler-broadening spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, T; Shantarovich, V; Kondo, K; Hamada, E; Matso, M; Ma Li; Ito, Y

    2003-01-01

    Using two Ge detectors, the high-resolution Doppler-broadening energy spectra of positron annihilation gamma rays has been obtained by measuring the coincidences of the two photons. Light bleaching and oxygen effects on positron annihilation were investigated in this way. A large enhancement of the high-momentum part of the coincidence Doppler spectra was observed in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), which contains oxygen atoms in the polymer structure. Bleaching experiments in PMMA and in copolymer ethylene-methylmethacrylate EMMA (LDPE+MMA 3 mol%) have demonstrated that the enhancement effect may be due to the trapping of positrons by the polar -C sup + 6-O sup - groups, followed by positron annihilation with the electrons belonging to oxygen.

  14. Positron emission measurement with coincidence counting technic using large plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinasse, P.; Minchella, P.

    1990-01-01

    For measuring positron emission of a large organ such as the brain for example, a device has been built with two cylindric plastic scintillators allowing the detection in coincidence of the 511 keV gamma rays without any spectrometry. The main results are for the sensitivity at the center of the field with 22 Na source in water: 240 ips/MBq; background = 12 ips, and for the countloss due to the deadtime >5% with 42 MBq. Sensitivity is almost uniform on the main axis between the probes. It falls to about 50% on the edges of a central diameter of 20 cm. The performances could certainly be improved by using modern rapid photomultipliers [fr

  15. Comparison of three gamma ray isotopic determination codes: FRAM, MGA, and TRIFID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, T.L.; Malcom, J.E.; Bonner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the isotopic distribution of plutonium and the americium concentration is required for the assay of nuclear material by calorimetry or neutron coincidence counting. The isotopic information is used in calorimetric assay to compute the effective specific power from the measured isotopic fractions and the known specific power of each isotope. The effective specific power is combined with the heat measurement to obtain the mass of plutonium in the assayed nuclear material. The response of neutron coincidence counters is determined by the 240 Pu isotopic fraction with contributions from the other even plutonium isotopes. The effect of the 240 Pu isotopic fraction and the other neutron contributing isotopes are combined as 240 Pu effective. This is used to calculate the mass of nuclear material from the neutron counting data in a manner analogous to the effective specific power in calorimeter. Comparisons of the precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting often focus only on the precision and accuracy of the heat measurement (calorimetry) compared to the precision and accuracy of the neutron coincidence counting statistics. The major source of uncertainty for both calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting often lies in the determination of the plutonium isotopic distribution ad determined by gamma ray spectroscopy. Thus, the selection of the appropriate isotopic distribution code is of paramount importance to good calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting. Three gamma ray isotopic distribution codes, FRAM, MGA, and TRIFID have been compared at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility under carefully controlled conditions of similar count rates, count times, and 240 Pu isotopic fraction

  16. Automatic storing of single gamma spectra on magnetic tape. Programs LONGO, DIRE; Automatizacion del almacenamiento en cinta magnetica de espectros gamma directos. Programas LONGO, DIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos Merino, J M

    1978-07-01

    The program LONGO provides the block size and the block number in a binary file on magnetic tape. It has been applied to analyse the structure of the nine-track magnetic tapes storing single or coincidence gamma spectra files, recorded in octet form by a MULTI-8 minicomputer in the Nuclear Spectrometry Laboratory of J.E.N. Then the program DIRE has been written to transform the single gamma spectra into a new FASTRAND disk file, storing the information in-36 bit words. A copy of this file is obtained on magnetic tape and the single gamma spectra are then available by standard FORTRAN V reading sentences. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Deconvolution of 2D coincident Doppler broadening spectroscopy using the Richardson-Lucy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.D.; Zhou, T.J.; Cheung, C.K.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Ng, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Coincident Doppler Broadening Spectroscopy (CDBS) measurements are popular in positron solid-state studies of materials. By utilizing the instrumental resolution function obtained from a gamma line close in energy to the 511 keV annihilation line, it is possible to significantly enhance the quality of the CDBS spectra using deconvolution algorithms. In this paper, we compare two algorithms, namely the Non-Negativity Least Squares (NNLS) regularized method and the Richardson-Lucy (RL) algorithm. The latter, which is based on the method of maximum likelihood, is found to give superior results to the regularized least-squares algorithm and with significantly less computer processing time

  18. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrion, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; Mcrae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; Van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Burns, E.; Veres, P.; Kocevski, D.; Racusin, J.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Blackburn, L.; Hamburg, R.; Hui, C. M.; von Kienlin, A.; McEnery, J.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W. H.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Poolakkil, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J.; Roques, J. -P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International

  19. Standardization of Ga-68 by coincidence measurements, liquid scintillation counting and 4πγ counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roteta, Miguel; Peyres, Virginia; Rodríguez Barquero, Leonor; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Arenillas, Pablo; Balpardo, Christian; Rodrígues, Darío; Llovera, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    The radionuclide (68)Ga is one of the few positron emitters that can be prepared in-house without the use of a cyclotron. It disintegrates to the ground state of (68)Zn partially by positron emission (89.1%) with a maximum energy of 1899.1 keV, and partially by electron capture (10.9%). This nuclide has been standardized in the frame of a cooperation project between the Radionuclide Metrology laboratories from CIEMAT (Spain) and CNEA (Argentina). Measurements involved several techniques: 4πβ-γ coincidences, integral gamma counting and Liquid Scintillation Counting using the triple to double coincidence ratio and the CIEMAT/NIST methods. Given the short half-life of the radionuclide assayed, a direct comparison between results from both laboratories was excluded and a comparison of experimental efficiencies of similar NaI detectors was used instead. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  1. Solid state scintillators for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Mela, G.; Torrisi, M.

    1991-01-01

    Using different scintillator crystals, measurements of energy resolution and detection efficiency have been performed to detect gamma rays of energy ranging between 500 en 1550 KeV. This investigation is devoted to characterize the best systems to detect photons coming from positron annihilation processes, such as a PET apparatus where the medical image is the final aim of the investigation, and gamma emission from radioisotopes of biomedical interest

  2. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance of gamma irradiated (CH3)3NHClO4 and CH3NH3ClO4 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Metin; Koeksal, Fevzi

    1999-01-01

    Gamma irradiation damage centers in (CH 3 ) 3 NHClO 4 and CH 3 NH 3 ClO 4 single crystals have been investigated at room temperature by the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. It has been found that γ-irradiation produces the (CH 3 ) 3 N + radical in the first, and NH + 3 and ClO 3 radicals in the second compound. The EPR parameters of the observed radicals have been determined and discussed

  4. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gam...

  5. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo, E-mail: giacomo.reggiori@humanitas.it; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano [Physics Service of Radiation Oncology Department, Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20098 (Italy); Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta [Radiation Oncology Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Picozzi, Piero [Neurosurgery Department, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan 20089 (Italy); Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Roma 00133 (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions.

  6. Evaluation of a synthetic single-crystal diamond detector for relative dosimetry on the Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancosu, Pietro; Reggiori, Giacomo; Stravato, Antonella; Gaudino, Anna; Lobefalo, Francesca; Palumbo, Valentina; Tomatis, Stefano; Navarria, Piera; Ascolese, Anna; Scorsetti, Marta; Picozzi, Piero; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the new commercial PTW-60019 synthetic single-crystal microDiamond detector (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) for relative dosimetry measurements on a clinical Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery system. Methods: Detector output ratios (DORs) for 4 and 8 mm beams were measured using a microDiamond (PTW-60019), a stereotactic unshielded diode [IBA stereotactic field detector (SFD)], a shielded diode (IBA photon field detector), and GafChromic EBT3 films. Both parallel and transversal acquisition directions were considered for PTW-60019 measurements. Measured DORs were compared to the new output factor reference values for Gamma Knife Perfexion (0.814 and 0.900 for 4 and 8 mm, respectively). Profiles in the three directions were also measured for the 4 mm beam to evaluate full width at half maximum (FWHM) and penumbra and to compare them with the corresponding Leksell GammaPlan profiles. Results: FWHM and penumbra for PTW-60019 differed from the calculated values by less than 0.2 and 0.3 mm, for the parallel and transversal acquisitions, respectively. GafChromic films showed FWHM and penumbra within 0.1 mm. The output ratio obtained with the PTW-60019 for the 4 mm field was 1.6% greater in transverse direction compared to the nominal value. Comparable differences up to 0.8% and 1.0% for, respectively, GafChromic films and SFD were found. Conclusions: The microDiamond PTW-60019 is a suitable detector for commissioning and routine use of Gamma Knife with good agreement of both DORs and profiles in the three directions

  7. Evaluation of in-plant neutron coincidence counters for the measurement of molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Russo, P.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Americium is extracted from plutonium by a molten salt extraction (MSE) process. The residual americium-laden salts are a significant waste stream in this pyrochemical purification process. Rapid assay of MSE residues is desirable to minimize the exposure of personnel to these often high-level emissions. However, the quantitative assay of plutonium in MSE residues is difficult. Variable, unknown (a,n) rates and variable emitted-neutron energy spectra preclude the use of standard neutron coincidence counting techniques with old-generation neutron coincidence counters. Gamma-ray assay methods have not been successful with some residues because of random lumps of plutonium metal. In this paper, we present measurements of MSE residues with two state-of-the-art neutron coincidence counters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility: an in-line counter built for the assay of bulk waste material and the pyrochemical multiplicity counter that underwent test and evaluation at that facility. Both of these counters were designed to minimize the effects on measurements of variations in the sample geometry and variable energy spectra of emitted neutrons. These results are compared to measurements made with an HLNCII and with a 20-yr-old in-line well counter. The latter two counters are not optimized in ft sense. We conclude that the newer counters provide significantly improved assay results. The pyrochemical multiplicity counter operated in the conventional coincidence mode provided the best assays overall

  8. Exploring short-GRB afterglow parameter space for observations in coincidence with gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Resmi, L.; Misra, Kuntal; Pai, Archana; Arun, K. G.

    2018-03-01

    Short duration Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRB) and their afterglows are among the most promising electromagnetic (EM) counterparts of Neutron Star (NS) mergers. The afterglow emission is broad-band, visible across the entire electromagnetic window from γ-ray to radio frequencies. The flux evolution in these frequencies is sensitive to the multidimensional afterglow physical parameter space. Observations of gravitational wave (GW) from BNS mergers in spatial and temporal coincidence with SGRB and associated afterglows can provide valuable constraints on afterglow physics. We run simulations of GW-detected BNS events and assuming that all of them are associated with a GRB jet which also produces an afterglow, investigate how detections or non-detections in X-ray, optical and radio frequencies can be influenced by the parameter space. We narrow down the regions of afterglow parameter space for a uniform top-hat jet model, which would result in different detection scenarios. We list inferences which can be drawn on the physics of GRB afterglows from multimessenger astronomy with coincident GW-EM observations.

  9. Application of PWO crystals for detection of low-activity gamma- radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Drobychev, G Yu; Fedorov, A A; Khruschinsky, A A; Korjik, M V; Lecoq, P; Missevitch, O V; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.08.059

    2005-01-01

    Lead tungstate PbWO4 (PWO) scintillator was developed during the R&D project initiated in a frame of preparation of experiments in high- energy physics to be carried out at new generation of colliders like LHC (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland). Compared to other promising fast and dense scintillators, PWO is an optimal compromise to make a very compact detector with good performance and the best price/performance ratio. Moreover, the results of PWO development carried out by the INP team together with collaborators show that scintillation parameters of PWO crystals can be further modified, which significantly extends opportunities of PWO application. One such field where an application of PWO scintillator can be very advantageous is a detection of low-activity gamma-radiation in the energy range above 3 MeV. Application of heavy scintillator allows to decrease a detector volume and therefore to reduce background. According to our preliminary estimations, PWO scintillation crystal will allow to reach significant...

  10. Determination of 131mXe and 133mXe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Bowyer, T.W.; McIntyre, J.I.; Pitts, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131m Xe, 133m Xe, 133g Xe, and 135g Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse-height spectra of gamma-energy versus beta-energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131m Xe. 133m Xe, and 133g Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (T 1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta-particles from 133g Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133 Cs is being developed. This technique allows separation of the 133g Xe beta spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131m Xe and 133m Xe and uniquely quantifies all three nuclides. (author)

  11. Determination of 131m Xe and 133m Xe in the presence of 133gXe via combined beta-spectroscopy and delayed coincidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, Paul L.; Bowyer, Ted W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Pitts, W K.

    2001-01-01

    The International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty will include measurements of Xe fission products. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an automated system for separating Xe from air which detects Xe fission products using a beta-gamma counting system for 131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe, and 135Xe. Betas and conversion electrons are detected in a plastic scintillation cell containing the Xe sample. Gamma and X-rays are detected in a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector which surrounds the plastic scintillator sample cell. Two-dimensional pulse height spectra of gamma energy versus beta energy are obtained. The plastic scintillator spectrum in coincidence with the 31-keV X-rays from 131mXe. 133mXe, and 133Xe is a complex mixture of conversion electrons and betas. A new technique to simultaneously measure the delayed coincidence (t1/2 = 6.27 ns) between beta particles from 133Xe and conversion electrons depopulating the 81-keV state in 133Cs is being developed. This technique will allow separation of the 133Xe spectrum from the conversion electrons due to 131mXe and 133mXe and will uniquely quantify all three nuclides

  12. Parametrization of angular correlation function of final particles and gamma quanta at the gamma quanta detection out off reaction plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.; Teplov, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    A possibility for determining all the elements of a density matrix for reactions and inelastic particle scattering with the production of even-even nucleus in the 2 + state is analyzed on the base of studying angular correlation function in different planes of gamma quantum escape. Angular correlations are considered in the coordinate system, where an incident beam of particles is directed along the Z axis, and the reaction plane coincides with the xZ plane. Given is the summary of the number of angular correlation function parameters and the number of Asub(kx) spin-tensor components (or amplitude combinations) which these parameters depend on. Analytical expressions for the function of angular correlation of finite particles and gamma quanta have been obtained. It is shown, that the angular correlation function shape and, correspondingly, reliability of determining its parameters from the experiment in different planes differ. The angular correlation function of finite particles and gamma quanta for any reaction with the production of even-even nuclei in the 2 + state irrespective of the reaction mechanism is defined by five parameters. Dependence of the parameters on azimuthal angle of gamma quantum escape is determined analytically. Orientation of gamma quantum registration plane in relation to the reaction plane is determined from the azimuthal angle phisub(γ). For complete reduction of the density matrix of an arbitrary reaction it is necessary to measure the function of angular correlation of finite particles and gamma quanta emitted by a finite nucleus during the transition from the 2 + state to the 0 + main state in two planes one of which can be a plane with phisub(γ)=45 deg, and the other has not to coincide with phisub(γ)=90 deg. For inelastic scattering of spinless particles the density matrix reduction is related to measuring the angular correlation function in two planes of gamma quanta escape, where phi sub(γ) not equal to 0 phi sub(γ0 deg. The

  13. Multiplicity and correlated energy of gamma rays emitted in the spontaneous fission of Californium-252

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunson, G.S. Jr.

    1982-06-01

    An array of eight high-speed plastic scintillation detectors has been used to infer a mathematical model for the emission multipliciy of prompt gammas in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf. Exceptional time resolution and coincidence capability permitted the separation of gammas from fast neutrons over a flight path of approximately 10 cm. About 20 different distribution models were tested. The average energy of the prompt gammas is inversely related to the number emitted; however, this inverse relationship is not strong and the total gamma energy does increase with increasing gamma number. An extension of the experiment incorporated a lithium-drifted germanium gamma spectrometer that resolved nearly 100 discrete gammas associated with fission. Of these gammas, some were preferentially associated with fission in which few gammas were emitted. Certain others were more frequent when many gammas were emitted. Results are presented

  14. Channelling phenomenon in the gamma irradiated Benzo-quinone and other compounds observed under the scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, Y.M.

    1984-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (S.E.M.), has been used to examine the gamma irradiated pure crystals of Benzo-quinone and other compounds in the polycrystaline form. After gamma irradiation, shallow lines (channels) were observed on the crystal's surfaces when the crystal layers arrangements are parallel to the photons beam direction. Holes were also observed when those layers of the crystals are in the nonparallel case. The phenomenon has been studied and analysed in connected with the H-atom bonds disruption, and H-atoms migration through the crystal's layers. (author)

  15. The study of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Pd(n,gamma) sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Pd reaction with thermal neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, M M H; Harada, H; Nakamura, S

    2002-01-01

    This is a report about the study of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Pd(n,gamma) sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Pd reaction with thermal neutrons performed by Dr. M.M.H.Miah, who was engaged in the investigation as a visiting research associate of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) under the STA fellowship program for the periods ranging from January 2001 to July 2002, together with members belong to System Design Analysis Group of JNC. The investigation of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Pd(n,gamma) sup 1 sup 0 sup 6 Pd reaction has been performed by using the prompt gamma-ray spectroscopic technique to supply basic data for the nuclear transmutation. Samples of natural Pd and enriched sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Pd were irradiated separately with the B-4 thermal neutron guide facilities at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). Capture prompt gamma-rays were detected in both singles and coincidence modes by using two high purity Ge detectors. By analyzing gamma-gamma coincidence data, 42 cascading gamma-transitions were identified ...

  16. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  17. Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Primack, J.R.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Parkinson, P.M.S.; Ziegler, M.; Abdo, A.A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Gwon, C.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wolff, M.T.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Pierbattista, M.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. (authors)

  18. Suitability study of using a coincidence monitor for room air radioactivity monitoring in a PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roellig, D.; Reichelt, C.; Iwatschenko-Borho, M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of radioactive nuclides in medicine may cause as well radioactive exposure of personnel (Medical Technical Assistants). In the present case the exposure of personnel in the area of medical positron-emission tomography (PET) within the Research Center of Rossendorf due to exhalation of the injected activity by the patient shall be investigated. For this purpose it is necessary to measure the activity concentration of the room air. Conventional methods such as collecting samples on special filters are not suitable due to the short half-life time of the used nuclides. Standard type continuous monitors are hardly suitable as well, because the injected activity of the patient and various radioactive sources required for the calibration of the PET-Camera produce an increased gamma background. In order to eliminate these disturbing influences a monitor has been constructed which uses CCM (cobalt coincidence method) developed by the company Thermo Eberline ESM. This method is specially suitable because upon each radioactive decay of PET nuclides positrons are emitted which in turn annihilate via the simultaneous emission of two 511 keV gamma quanta under an angle of 180 . The air to be measured is sucked through a cavity with two scintillation detectors on opposite sides. The coincident pulses produced by annihilating positrons inside the cavity are counted by a suitable electronic. Gamma quanta from outside the cavity can produce a pulse only in one detector and are rejected. Therefore no heavy lead shielding is required. Besides the mechanical construction of the monitor optimization and calibration for different PET-nuclides had to be performed. Special attention was paid to the sampling system. The air intake had to be close to the breathing zone of the MTA. The hose to the monitor had to be as short as possible. The target of the work was to design a model for an industrial monitor. (orig.) [de

  19. Sensitivity to coincidences and paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlaczky, Gergö; Westerlund, Joakim

    2011-12-01

    Often it is difficult to find a natural explanation as to why a surprising coincidence occurs. In attempting to find one, people may be inclined to accept paranormal explanations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether people with a lower threshold for being surprised by coincidences have a greater propensity to become believers compared to those with a higher threshold. Participants were exposed to artificial coincidences, which were formally defined as less or more probable, and were asked to provide remarkability ratings. Paranormal belief was measured by the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale. An analysis of the remarkability ratings revealed a significant interaction effect between Sheep-Goat score and type of coincidence, suggesting that people with lower thresholds of surprise, when experiencing coincidences, harbor higher paranormal belief than those with a higher threshold. The theoretical aspects of these findings were discussed.

  20. INTEGRAL Detection of the First Prompt Gamma-Ray Signal Coincident with the Gravitational-wave Event GW170817

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L. [ISDC, Department of Astronomy, University of Geneva, Chemin d’Écogia, 16 CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Kuulkers, E. [European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J. [INAF-Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133-Rome (Italy); Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J. [DTU Space, National Space Institute Elektrovej, Building 327 DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Diehl, R.; Von Kienlin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Domingo, A. [Centro de Astrobiología (CAB-CSIC/INTA, ESAC Campus), Camino bajo del Castillo S/N, E-28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Hanlon, L.; Martin-Carrillo, A. [Space Science Group, School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jourdain, E. [IRAP, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, UPS, CNES, 9 Av. Roche, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10 rue Alice Domont et Léonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Lutovinov, A. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mereghetti, S. [INAF, IASF-Milano, via E.Bassini 15, I-20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2017-10-20

    We report the INTernational Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory ( INTEGRAL ) detection of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A (discovered by Fermi -GBM) with a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.6, and, for the first time, its association with the gravitational waves (GWs) from binary neutron star (BNS) merging event GW170817 detected by the LIGO and Virgo observatories. The significance of association between the gamma-ray burst observed by INTEGRAL and GW170817 is 3.2σ, while the association between the Fermi -GBM and INTEGRAL detections is 4.2σ. GRB 170817A was detected by the SPI-ACS instrument about 2 s after the end of the GW event. We measure a fluence of (1.4 ± 0.4 ± 0.6) × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} (75–2000 keV), where, respectively, the statistical error is given at the 1σ confidence level, and the systematic error corresponds to the uncertainty in the spectral model and instrument response. We also report on the pointed follow-up observations carried out by INTEGRAL , starting 19.5 hr after the event, and lasting for 5.4 days. We provide a stringent upper limit on any electromagnetic signal in a very broad energy range, from 3 keV to 8 MeV, constraining the soft gamma-ray afterglow flux to <7.1 × 10{sup −11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (80–300 keV). Exploiting the unique capabilities of INTEGRAL , we constrained the gamma-ray line emission from radioactive decays that are expected to be the principal source of the energy behind a kilonova event following a BNS coalescence. Finally, we put a stringent upper limit on any delayed bursting activity, for example, from a newly formed magnetar.

  1. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  2. Study of unexplained hard photon production by electrons channelled in a crystal

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Our preceding experiment (NA33) designed to study the pair creation process in the interaction of high energy $\\gamma$ with a crystal in alignment conditions had revealed the existence of an unexpected peak in the radiation of 150 GeV e$^{-}$ beam for E$_{\\gamma}$/E$_{e^{-}} \\simeq$ 0.85 incident along the axis of a 185 $\\mu$m. Ge crystal and the photon multiplicity for the peak events has been measured to be M $\\simeq$ 5.7.\\\\ In NA42, in a 76 $\\mu$m crystal of the same crystallographic quality, the peak nearly disappears, and the photon multiplicity at x = 0.85 is only M $\\simeq$ 2.0. \\\\ The thickness dependence of the effect shows that the extrapolated multiplicity in the peak in a very thin crystal tends to unity. The high energy radiation peak emitted by axially channeled electrons in a thick crystal is then interpreted by the radiation cooling mechanism. \\\\ The extrapolation to zero thickness of these results will allow us to extract from the data the single $\\gamma$ radiation spectrum. The comparison o...

  3. Growth of large detector crystals. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boatner, L.A.; Samuelson, S.

    1997-01-01

    In the course of a collaborative research effort between L.A. Boatner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Prof. Alex Lempicki of the Department of Chemistry of Boston University, a new highly efficient and very fast scintillator for the detection of gamma-rays was discovered. This new scintillator consists of a single crystal of lutetium orthophosphate (LuPO 4 ) to which a small percentage of trivalent cerium is added as an activator ion. The new lutetium orthophosphate-cerium scintillator was found to be superior in performance to bismuth germanium oxide--a material that is currently widely used as a gamma-ray detector in a variety of medical, scientific, and technical applications. Single crystals of LuPO 4 and related rare-earth orthophosphates had been grown for a number of years in the ORNL Solid State Division prior to the discovery of the efficient gamma-ray-scintillation response of LuPO 4 :Ce. The high-temperature-solvent (flux-growth) method used for the growth of these crystals was capable of producing crystals in sizes that were adequate for research purposes but that were inadequate for commercial-scale production and widespread application. The CRADA between ORNL and Deltronic Crystal Industries of Dover, NJ was undertaken for the purpose of investigating alternate approaches, such as top-seeded-solution growth, to the growth of LuPO 4 :Ce scintillator crystals in sizes significantly larger than those obtainable through the application of standard flux-growth methods and, therefore, suitable for commercial sales and applications

  4. Characterization of barite and crystal glass as attenuators in X-ray and gamma radiation shieldings; Caracterizacao da barita e do vidro cristal como atenuadores na blindagem das radiacoes X e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Junior, Airton Tavares de

    2005-03-15

    Aiming to determine the barium sulphate (BaSO{sub 4}) ore and crystal glass attenuation features, both utilized as shieldings against ionizing X and gamma radiations in radiographic installations, a study of attenuation using barite plaster and barite concrete was carried out, which are used, respectively, on wall coverings and in block buildings. The crystal glass is utilized in screens and in windows. To do so, ten plates of barite plaster and three of barite concrete with 900 cm{sup 2} and with an average thickness ranging from 1 to 5 cm, and three plates of crystal glass with 323 cm{sup 2} and with thicknesses of 1, 2 and 4 cm were analyzed. The samples were irradiated with X-rays with potentials of 60, 80, 110 and 150 kilovolts, and also with {sup 60}Co gamma rays. Curves of attenuation were obtained for barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) and (mGy/h), both at 1 meter, as a function of thickness and curve of transmission through barite plaster and barite concrete as a function of the thickness. The equivalent thicknesses of half and tenth value layers for barite plaster, barite concrete and crystal glass for all X-Ray energies were also determined. (author)

  5. Primary radioactivity standardization and gamma intensities determination of {sup 124}Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Almeida, M.C.M. de; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-04-21

    A solution containing {sup 124}Sb was primarily standardized by the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence and anticoincidence extrapolation methods in the frame of the EUROMET 907 international comparison organized by Laboratoire National Henri Bequerel (LNHB)/France, in 2007. The main purposes of this exercise are the improvement in the uncertainties on the gamma-ray emission intensities and they clarify the discrepancies verified among the intensity values for many weak gamma rays reported in the literature. In this work the results of the activity obtained were used to determine the absolute and relative gamma-ray intensities using a planar and coaxial HPGe detectors calibrated by {sup 152}Eu and {sup 116m}Ho multi-gamma standard sources covering the energy range from 20 to 1408 keV. Additionally the half-life of {sup 124}Sb was determined following the decay of a solution of {sup 124}Sb contained in a glass ampoule over a period of three half-lives using two 4{pi}{gamma} ionization chambers.

  6. Early optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst afterglow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Carole G; Steele, Iain A; Smith, Robert J; Kobayashi, Shiho; Melandri, Andrea; Guidorzi, Cristiano; Gomboc, Andreja; Mottram, Chris J; Clarke, David; Monfardini, Alessandro; Carter, David; Bersier, David

    2007-03-30

    We report the optical polarization of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow, obtained 203 seconds after the initial burst of gamma-rays from GRB 060418, using a ring polarimeter on the robotic Liverpool Telescope. Our robust (2sigma) upper limit on the percentage of polarization, less than 8%, coincides with the fireball deceleration time at the onset of the afterglow. The combination of the rate of decay of the optical brightness and the low polarization at this critical time constrains standard models of GRB ejecta, ruling out the presence of a large-scale ordered magnetic field in the emitting region.

  7. Depth of interaction in scintillation crystal by light collimation for the design of open-quotes universal nuclear medicine imagerclose quotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosnjakovic, V.B.

    1996-01-01

    The detector head for a dual headed open-quotes Universal Nuclear Medicine Imagerclose quotes (UNMI) is designed. It is based on position sensitive (PS) area detectors fitted with a thick (0.75 inches) NaI(Tl) crystal. In order to make it open-quotes universalclose quotes, a means for determining the depth of interaction (DOI) in the crystal is devised. Crystal thickness is divided into two layers, each 3/8 inches thick, by insertion of a thin (0.03 inches) quartz (glass) layer; these layers added to the external lower and upper surfaces of crystal, too, form two internal open-quotes light collimatorclose quotes (LC) channels by their reflectively (specular) polished couplings. These DOI channels, according to the light refraction / reflection law direct the light reflected from quartz layers (as exceeding a critical angle) through NaI(Tl) layers to the external parts of LC system; these are connected via quartz optical cables to the DOI determining PM tubes. DOI electronics including a coincidence circuit, connecting signals from conventional PS and DOI PM tubes arrays, identifies a DOI layer and shifts an, x, y, address to the particular DOI memory stack. The UNMI design is likely to retain spatial resolution of PS detectors - gamma cameras for low energy single photon emitters and to improve spatial resolution in PET studies done by PS detectors fitted with thick NaI crystals, enabling a proper correction for parallax error

  8. Borehole instrument for scintillation gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, A.Ya.; Gabitov, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Described are a schematic diagram and main specifications of a borehole instrument with autostabilization of energy scale measure by gamma bench-mark of 137 Cs, intended for the application in a logging gamma spectrometer to determine separately the concentrations of nature radioactive elements. The instrument may be connected to the KOBDFM-2 cable of 600 m length. It contains a scintillation counter for gamma quanta consisting of 30x70 mm NaI(Tl) crystal and a FEU-85 photoamplifier, an input conforming stage, a diagram of threshold pulse formation and regulating high-voltage generator. The borehole instrument has been proved under laboratory and field conditions at 10-40 deg C

  9. The value of T/NT in FDG imaging with a coincidence camera for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Zhan Hongwei; Xu Wei; Ye Xiaojuan; Liu Qichang

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the value of T/NT in FDG imaging with a coincidence camera for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions. Methods: 18F-FDG imaging were performed in 57 patients with a mean age of 62.18 (range from 33 83 years old) for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and mass lesions using a gamma camera with 1 inch crystal in coincidence mode (Siemens E.comduet). 175 296 MBq (5 8 mci) of 18F-FDG was given by iv on an empty stomach at least for 6 hours, and a whole body imaging without brain and legs was performed after 40 60 minutes. The count rate of target ROI and no-target ROI (T/NT) were calculated as a semiquantative analysis to differentiate malignant from inflammatory lesions. The result was compared with CT, MRI, and/or pathology. Results: The mean value of T/NT in malignant lesions (N=45) in lungs is 4.32 (range 1.61 10.62). But it is 1.52 (range 1.37 1.95) in inflammatory lesions (N=17) in lungs, and 4.09 (range 2.2 7.01) in lung tuberculosis lesions (N=5). In 45 malignant, the value of T/NT is less than 2.0 in only 3 lesions. So the overlapping of T/NT value is very little between malignant and inflammatory lesions. But there is full overlapping of T/NT value between malignant and tuberculosis lesions. Conclusions: Focal pulmonary nodules and mass lesions are commonly encountered in clinical practice, and PET with 18F-FDG has proved to be an accurate noninvasive test for identifying pulmonary malignant lesions. The technique of semiquantity with T/NT is useful to differentiate malignant from inflammatory lesions. But it is invalidate for distinguishing malignant from tuberculosis lesions. (authors)

  10. Measurement of radioactive isotopes by {gamma} and x rays spectrometry with INa crystals. application to radiochemistry of some fission and activation products; Mesures d'isotopes radioactifs par spectrometrie {gamma} et x a l'aide de cristaux INa. application a la radiochimie de certains produits de fission et d'activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonet, P; Boile, G; Simonet, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The measurement of an number of atoms N may be obtained by detection of one {gamma} ray emitted if its branching ratio K{sub E} is known (number of E energy {gamma} transitions/number of disintegrations). N = A/{lambda} N{sub {gamma}}{sub E} / (K{sub E} * {lambda}) This measurement is effectuated in well-defined geometry, {gamma} rays emitted by the source are detected by a calibrated NaI crystal which is connected to a photomultiplier delivering electric impulses analysed by a multichannel analyser. Crystals are chosen according to energy, intensity of measured rays and of background. Calibration is established with standard sources or by total absolute efficiency of a definite crystal. Half-life, energy of measured photopeak branching ratio have been determined for these isotopes: Fission products: {sup 95}Zr, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 111}Ag, {sup 115}Cd, {sup 115m}Cd, {sup 132}Te, {sup 129m}Te, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 136}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La. Rare earth elements: {sup 91}Y, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 147}Nd, {sup 156}Eu. Products from reactions (n, {gamma}) (n, 2n): 1{sup 10}Ag, {sup 124}Sb, {sup 239}Np, {sup 237}U, {sup 241}Am. (authors) [French] La mesure du nombre d'atomes N d'un isotope peut s'effectuer sur un rayonnement {gamma} si l'on connait le rapport d'embranchement K{sub E} (nombre de rayonnements {gamma} d'energie E/nombre de desintegrations). N = A/{lambda} N{sub {gamma}}{sub E} / (K{sub E} * {lambda}) La mesure s'effectue en geometrie definie; les rayonnements {gamma} emis par la source sous mylar sont detectes par un cristal INa etalonne en fonction de l'energie, lequel est relie a un photomultiplicateur delivrant des impulsions electriques qui seront analysees par un selecteur multicanaux. La connaissance de la distribution theorique (effet photoelectrique, compton, paires, retrodiffusion, echappement... ) permet de determiner qualitativement si les elements sont purs, et de faire une mesure sur

  11. Testing 144- and 256-crystal BGO block detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.G.; Nutt, R.; Andreaco, M.; Williams, C.W.

    1994-01-01

    New block detectors have been fabricated incorporating large numbers of small crystals. The authors evaluate and compare the performance of the new detectors with a standard 64-crystal block detector from Siemens-CTI. The new detectors demonstrate greatly improved imaging capability for 511 keV gamma rays. Future PET tomographs incorporating such detectors should produce substantially better volume images with little increase in tomograph manufacturing costs. The detectors will require a new type of automatic calibration procedure. Various such procedures have been tested and are discussed. A technique using higher energy gamma rays has shown special promise

  12. Recent advances and future perspectives of gamma imagers for scintimammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pani, R. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: roberto.pani@uniroma1.it; Pellegrini, R. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Cinti, M.N. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Bennati, P. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Betti, M. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Casali, V. [INFN-Department of Experimental Medicine and Pathology, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Schillaci, O. [Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Second University, Rome (Italy); Mattioli, M. [INFN-Department of Physics, ' La Sapienza' University, Rome (Italy); Orsolini Cencelli, V. [INFN-National Institute of Nuclear Physics, RomeIII (Italy); Navarria, F. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Bollini, D. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Bologna (Italy); Moschini, G. [INFN-Department of Physics, University of Padova (Italy); Garibaldi, F. [INFN-Laboratory of Physics ISS, Rome (Italy); Cusanno, F. [INFN-Laboratory of Physics ISS, Rome (Italy); Iurlaro, G. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Montani, L. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Scafe, R. [ENEA-TEC, C. R. Casaccia, Rome (Italy); De Notaristefani, F. [INFN-National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rome (Italy)

    2006-12-20

    The very low sensitivity of Scintimammography for tumors under 1 cm in diameter, with current nuclear medicine cameras in use, is the major limitation in recommending this test modality for screening purposes. Recently latest generation cameras with superior imaging performances have allowed to foresee a very promising future for scintimammography. Recent technological advances obtained from our research group on the new Lanthanum scintillation crystals are now demonstrating how continuous crystals coupled to Hamamatsu Flat panel tube can overcome a number of limitations in spatial and energy resolution of scintillation arrays, carrying out 6% energy resolution, and submillimeter spatial resolution values at 140 keV. In this paper three basic detection systems have been analysed: a LumaGEM 3200S gamma camera (Gamma Medica, InC., Northridge, USA), based on a cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) semiconductor detector with a FoV of 12.5x12.5 cm{sup 2} and with detector elements of 1.6x1.6 mm{sup 2} in size and a detector prototype consisting of a Flat panel PMT coupled to planar LaBr{sub 3}:Ce scintillator. The third one is a first generation large FoV gamma camera chosen for comparison, based on PSPMTs photodetector array coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal matrix. LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and CZT cameras showed superior spatial and energy resolution than previous generation one based on NaI(Tl) scintillation array. Both CZT and LaBr gamma cameras showed similar efficiencies for the same energy window though LaBr{sub 3}:Ce continuous crystal showed better imaging performance than pixellated detectors. However large area LaBr{sub 3}:Ce continuous crystals are not available yet.

  13. MCNP modelling of a combined neutron/gamma counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A; Ottmar, H; Weaver, D R

    1999-01-01

    A series of Monte Carlo neutron calculations for a combined gamma/passive neutron coincidence counter has been performed. This type of device, part of a suite of non-destructive assay instruments utilised for the enforcement of the Euratom nuclear safeguards within the European Union, is to be used for high accuracy measurements of the plutonium content of small samples of nuclear materials. The multi-purpose Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) code version 4B has been used to model in detail the neutron coincidence detector and to investigate the leakage self-multiplication of PuO sub 2 and mixed U-Pu oxide (MOX) reference samples used to calibrate the instrument. The MCNP calculations have been used together with a neutron coincidence counting interpretative model to determine characteristic parameters of the detector. A comparative study to both experimental and previous numerical results has been performed. Sensitivity curves of the variation of the detector's efficiency, epsilon, to, alpha, the ratio of (alpha...

  14. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourva, L.C.A.; Croft, S.

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP TM , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents a new evaluation technique for the estimation of gate utilisation factors. It uses the die-away profile of a neutron coincidence chamber generated either by MCNP TM , or by other means, to simulate the neutron detection arrival time pattern originating from independent spontaneous fission events. A shift register simulation algorithm, embedded in the MCF code, then calculates the coincidence counts scored within the electronics gate. The gate utilisation factor is then deduced by dividing the coincidence counts obtained with that obtained in the same Monte Carlo run, but for an ideal detection system with a coincidence gate utilisation factor equal to unity. The MCF code has been benchmarked against analytical results calculated for both single and double exponential die-away profiles. These results are presented along with the development of the closed form algebraic expressions for the two cases. Results of this validity check showed very good agreement. On this

  15. Automatic storage of single gamma spectra on magnetic tape. Programs Longo, Dire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program Longo provides the block size and the black number in a binary file on magnetic tape. It has been applied to analyse the structure of the nine-track magnetic tapes storing single or coincidence gamma spectra files, recorded in octet form by a Multi-8 minicomputer in the Nuclear Spectrometry Laboratory of J.E.N. Then the program Dire has been written to transform the single gamma spectra into a new Fastrand disk file, storing the information in 36 bit words. A copy of this file is obtained on magnetic tape and the single gamma spectra are then availables by standard Fortran V reading sentences. (author)

  16. Automatic storing of single gamma spectra on magnetic tape. Programs LONGO, DIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The program LONGO provides the block size and the block number in a binary file on magnetic tape. It has been applied to analyse the structure of the nine-track magnetic tapes storing single or coincidence gamma spectra files, recorded in octet form by a MULTI-8 minicomputer in the Nuclear Spectrometry Laboratory of J.E.N. Then the program DIRE has been written to transform the single gamma spectra into a new FASTRAND disk file, storing the information in-36 bit words. A copy of this file is obtained on magnetic tape and the single gamma spectra are then available by standard FORTRAN V reading sentences. (Author) 3 refs

  17. Application of Monte Carlo method in study of the padronization for radionuclides with complex disintegration scheme in 4πβ-γ coincidence System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Mauro Noriaki

    2006-01-01

    The present work described a new methodology for modelling the behaviour of the activity in a 4πβ-γ coincidence system. The detection efficiency for electrons in the proportional counter and gamma radiation in the NaI(Tl) detector was calculated using the Monte Carlo program MCNP4C. Another Monte Carlo code was developed which follows the path in the disintegration scheme from the initial state of the precursor radionuclide, until the ground state of the daughter nucleus. Every step of the disintegration scheme is sorted by random numbers taking into account the probabilities of all β - branches, electronic capture branches, transitions probabilities and internal conversion coefficients. Once the final state was reached beta, electronic capture events and gamma transitions are accounted for the three spectra: beta, gamma and coincidence variation in the beta efficiency was performed simulating energy cut off or use of absorbers (Collodion). The selected radionuclides for simulation were: 134 Cs, 72 Ga which disintegrate by β - transition, 133 Ba which disintegrates by electronic capture and 35 S which is a beta pure emitter. For the latter, the Efficiency Tracing technique was simulated. The extrapolation curves obtained by Monte Carlo were filled by the Least Square Method with the experimental points and the results were compared to the Linear Extrapolation method. (author)

  18. Propagation speed of {gamma}-radiation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Jose T.P.D.; Silva, Paulo R.J.; Saitovitch, Henrique [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Macedo Junior, Marcelo A.V. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica de Nilopolis (CEFET), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To perform such measurements the availability of a gamma radiation source in which two {gamma}-rays are emitted simultaneously in opposite directions -as already used(5,6) as well as applied in the present case- turns out to be essential to the feasibility of the experiment, as far as no reflection techniques could be used. Such suitable source was the positron emitter {sup 22}Na placed in a metal container in which the positrons are stopped and annihilated when reacting with the medium electrons, in such way originating -as it is very well established from momentum/energy conservation laws(7)- two {gamma}-rays, energy 511 KeV each, both emitted simultaneously in opposite directions. In all these previous experiments were used photomultiplier detectors coupled to NaI(Tl) crystal scintillators, which have a good energy resolution but a deficient time resolution for such purposes. Presently, as an innovatively improvement, were used BaF{sub 2} and CsF crystal scintillators which display a much better time resolution. (author)

  19. Gamma ray detector for solar maximum mission (SMM) of NASA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, W.; Brichzin, K.; Sach, E.

    1981-06-01

    For NASA's Project Solar Maximum Mission-SMM (launch 14.2.80) a Gamma Ray Detector was developed, manufactured and tested to measure solar high energetic Gamma rays and Neutron fluxes within the energy range 10-160 MeV, 4,43 MeV amd 2,23 MeV. The main components of the sensor are 7 NaI crystals 3 x 3 and a CsI crystal 30 cm diameter x 7,5 cm. The rejection of charged particles is done by two plasitc scintillators and 4 CsI-shields. From the beginning of the mission the experiment is working fully successfull. (orig.) [de

  20. Angular correlation between short-range. cap alpha. particles and. gamma. quanta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kul' chitskii, L A; Latyshev, G D; Bulyginskii, D G

    1949-01-01

    Chang (Phys. Rev. 69, 60(1946); 70, 632(1946)) has found that the intensities of short-range ..cap alpha.. rays of Po and Ra are considerably higher than the values given by the Geiger-Nuttall law. This can be explained by assuming surface vibrations of ..cap alpha..-radioactive nuclei, which produce deformations and corresponding lowerings of the potential barrier in certain directions. In this case an angular correlation should exist between the short-range ..cap alpha.. ray and the accompanying ..gamma.. quantum. The authors checked this conclusion by applying the coincidence method to the ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. radiations of a mixture of RdTh (/sup 228/Th) and ThC (/sup 212/Bi). Maxima of coincidence numbers occur at angles 45 and 135 deg., with lesser maxima at 0 and 180 deg. Theoretical considerations show that in cases (like the one investigated) where the nuclear spin before and after the ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. emissions is zero, the angular correlations are uniquely determined whatever the deformation caused by the vibration; in other cases, the correlation depends on the kind of deformation. Therefore, it would be interesting to investigate the case of Pa, whose nuclear spin is not zero and the decay exhibits intensive groups of short-range ..cap alpha.. particles.

  1. Soliton cellular automata associated with crystal bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Goro; Kuniba, Atsuo; Takagi, Taichiro

    2000-01-01

    We introduce a class of cellular automata associated with crystals of irreducible finite dimensional representations of quantum affine algebras U' q (g-circumflex n ). They have solitons labeled by crystals of the smaller algebra U' q (g-circumflex n-1 ). We prove stable propagation of one soliton for g-circumflex n =A (2) 2n-1 ,A (2) 2n ,B (1) n ,C (1) n ,D (1) n and D (2) n+1 . For g-circumflex n =C (1) n , we also prove that the scattering matrices of two solitons coincide with the combinatorial R matrices of U' q (C (1) n-1 )-crystals

  2. Prospects in coincidence experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of virtual photons to the local variations of the charge and magnetization densities is exploited to study the short-range part of the nucleon-nucleon interaction inside the nucleus. The possibility of varying energy, squared mass and longitudinal polarization of the photons independently enables us to disentangle the mechanisms related to the internal structure of the nucleon (e.g. quark interchange) and the contribution due to meson exchange. Coincidence experiments of the type (e,e'N) and (e,e'NN) are performed to suppress the meson contribution to the longitudinal part of the quasi-elastic peak. Four typical examples of coincidence experiments induced by virtual photons are discussed: experiments (1) on the spectroscopic structure of the quasi-elastic peak and the problem of deep lying hole states; (2) on the structure of the continuum; (3) on the low energy side of the quasi-elastic peak; and finally a three-arm coincidence experiment. (Auth.)

  3. The feasibility study of BGO crystal applied to natural gamma ray spectral logging in deep wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Zhang Jingyi

    1992-01-01

    The experimental research on the feasibility of BGO crystal application to natural gamma ray spectral logging was performed under laboratory conditions. The natural radioactive standard sources and heater case were used to simulate the realistic logging environment. The experimental results of BGO detector show that the spectrum stabilization can be effectively realized, and the temperature effect of energy resolution has no obvious impact on spectrum analysis when the temperature of detector ranging from 20 degree C to 60 degree C. The temperature effect of the output pulse height is the main cause of the system error in spectrum analysis, which will surely be reduced in realistic logging by the low temperature gradient. The experimental results of CsI(Na) detector support this conclusion. A suggestion for further work is proposed at the end of this paper

  4. The feasibility study of BGO crystal applied to natural gamma ray spectral logging in deep wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Li; Jingyi, Zhang [Qinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Chongfan, He; Jingying, Liao [Shanghai Silicate Institute (China)

    1992-09-01

    The experimental research on the feasibility of BGO crystal application to natural gamma ray spectral logging was performed under laboratory conditions. The natural radioactive standard sources and heater case were used to simulate the realistic logging environment. The experimental results of BGO detector show that the spectrum stabilization can be effectively realized, and the temperature effect of energy resolution has no obvious impact on spectrum analysis when the temperature of detector ranging from 20 degree C to 60 degree C. The temperature effect of the output pulse height is the main cause of the system error in spectrum analysis, which will surely be reduced in realistic logging by the low temperature gradient. The experimental results of CsI(Na) detector support this conclusion. A suggestion for further work is proposed at the end of this paper.

  5. Numerical coincidences and 'tuning' in cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Martin J.

    2004-01-01

    Fred Hoyle famously drew attention to the significance of apparent coincidences in the energy levels of the carbon and oxygen nucleus. This paper addresses the possible implications of other coincidences in cosmology.

  6. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  7. Shock-resistant gamma-ray detector tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A simple durable scintillation detector is described which, it is claimed, offers a solution to the shock resistance problems encountered when gamma detectors are used for deep bore hole well logging or in space vehicles. The shock resistant detector consists of an elongate sodium iodide scintillation crystal and rigid metal container with a round glass optical window at one end of the container and a metal end closure cap at the opposite end. An elastic rubber compression pad is provided between the end cap and the scintillation crystal to bias the crystal axially toward the glass window. An extension transparent silicone rubber light pipe of substantial axial thickness permanently couples the optical window to the crystal while allowing substantial movement under high g forces. (U.K.)

  8. Optical simulations for the S3 project - Super separator spectrometer - gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy of a transfermium nucleus: the 251Md101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechery, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    In analogy with the atomic closed shells giving rise to the stability and high ionisation energies of noble gases, nuclear physics also has its magic numbers of protons and neutrons which enhance nuclear structure stability. Knowledge of the structure of doubly-magic nuclei, both proton and neutron numbers, is crucial to parameterize theoretical models. The discovery of the next and ultimate magic numbers will provide a strong constraint on the many predictions. These two numbers are like the centre coordinates of an area of enhanced stability of the nuclear chart, well known as 'island of stability'. These superheavy nuclei only exist due to pure quantum shell effects. My thesis work deals with two distinct, but complementary, aspects of fundamental physics with the common goal of studying these extreme mass nuclei structure. The first part corresponds to the development of a next generation instrument for nuclear physics to allow synthesis and spectroscopy studies of superheavy nuclei: the Super Separator Spectrometer S 3 . This project will be installed at SPIRAL2 (GANIL) and has been approved by the French Research National Agency (ANR) within the EQUIPEX framework. It has been designed to take advantage of the high intensity heavy ion beam from the LINAC, giving access to a wide range of physical programs. The second part corresponds to the preparation, realisation and analysis of an experiment on 251-Mendelevium in which the very first prompt gamma-electron coincidence spectroscopy was performed for a transfermium nuclei. (author) [fr

  9. Method for improving the gamma-transition cascade spectra amplitude resolution during coincidence code computerized processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of unfolding the differential γ-cascade spectra during radiation capture of slow neutrons based on the computeri-- zed processing of the results of measurements performed, by means of a spectrometer with two Ge(Li) detectors is suggested. The efficiency of the method is illustrated using as an example the spectrum of 35 Cl(n, γ) reaction corresponding to the 8580 keV peak. It is shown that the above approach permits to improve the resolution by 1.2-2.6 times without decrease in registration efficiency within the framework of the method of coincidence pulse amplitude summation

  10. gamma-ray tracking in germanium the backtracking method

    CERN Document Server

    Marel, J V D

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a European TMR network project the concept for a gamma-ray tracking array is being developed for nuclear physics spectroscopy in the energy range of approx 10 keV up to several MeV. The tracking array will consist of a large number of position-sensitive germanium detectors in a spherical geometry around a target. Due to the high segmentation, a Compton scattered gamma-ray will deposit energy in several different segments. A method has been developed to reconstruct the tracks of multiple coincident gamma-rays and to find their initial energies. By starting from the final point the track can be reconstructed backwards to the origin with the help of the photoelectric and Compton cross-sections and the Compton scatter formula. Every reconstructed track is given a figure of merit, thus allowing suppression of wrongly reconstructed tracks and gamma-rays that have scattered out of the detector system. This so-called backtracking method has been tested on simulated events in a shell-like geometry ...

  11. Gamma ray transitions in de-excitation of 252Cf spontaneous fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Rashid, K.; Ahmad, M.; Qureshi, I.E.; Alam, G.D.; Ali, A.; Bhatti, N.; Horsch, F.

    1983-11-01

    Gamma rays in the range from 60 keV to 730 keV have been observed following the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, with high resolution Ge(Li) detector, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 700 eV at 122 keV, in coincidence with the two fission fragments observed with surface barrier detectors. A total number of 18, 636, 549 events were recorded over a run period of about 150 hours stretching over three weeks. The events were sorted to generate gamma ray spectra belonging to 2 amu intervals gamma of the fragment masses and 6 MeV intervals of the total kinetic energy released. Some of the prominent gamma lines belonging to various masses of the fission fragments have been identified. For some gamma lines, the intensities have been evaluated as a function of the total kinetic energy of the fission fragments. (authors)

  12. A Monte Carlo Model for Neutron Coincidence Counting with Fast Organic Liquid Scintillation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamage, Kelum A.A.; Joyce, Malcolm J.; Cave, Frank D.

    2013-06-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is an established, nondestructive method for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of nuclear materials. Several even-numbered nuclei of the actinide isotopes, and especially even-numbered plutonium isotopes, undergo spontaneous fission, resulting in the emission of neutrons which are correlated in time. The characteristics of this i.e. the multiplicity can be used to identify each isotope in question. Similarly, the corresponding characteristics of isotopes that are susceptible to stimulated fission are somewhat isotope-related, and also dependent on the energy of the incident neutron that stimulates the fission event, and this can hence be used to identify and quantify isotopes also. Most of the neutron coincidence counters currently used are based on 3 He gas tubes. In the 3 He-filled gas proportional-counter, the (n, p) reaction is largely responsible for the detection of slow neutrons and hence neutrons have to be slowed down to thermal energies. As a result, moderator and shielding materials are essential components of many systems designed to assess quantities of fissile materials. The use of a moderator, however, extends the die-away time of the detector necessitating a larger coincidence window and, further, 3 He is now in short supply and expensive. In this paper, a simulation based on the Monte Carlo method is described which has been performed using MCNPX 2.6.0, to model the geometry of a sector-shaped liquid scintillation detector in response to coincident neutron events. The detection of neutrons from a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pellet using an organic liquid scintillator has been simulated for different thicknesses of scintillators. In this new neutron detector, a layer of lead has been used to reduce the gamma-ray fluence reaching the scintillator. The effect of lead for neutron detection has also been estimated by considering different thicknesses of lead layers. (authors)

  13. Photoion spectroscopy of atoms using coincidence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayaishi, Tatsuji

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of atoms or molecules with photons causes many effects which are often obscured because of many decay paths from the event. To pick up an effect in the mixed-up ones, it is necessary to observe the decay path arising the effect alone. There is a coincidence technique in one of experimental means for the purpose of observing the decay path. In this article, two coincidence measurements are presented; a photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique and a threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique. Furthermore, experimental facts of rare gases atoms obtained by the techniques are reviewed. (author)

  14. Development and evaluation of a LOR-based image reconstruction with 3D system response modeling for a PET insert with dual-layer offset crystal design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Goertzen, Andrew L; Stortz, Greg; Sossi, Vesna; Thompson, Christopher J; Retière, Fabrice; Kozlowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this study we present a method of 3D system response calculation for analytical computer simulation and statistical image reconstruction for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert system that uses a dual-layer offset (DLO) crystal design. The general analytical system response functions (SRFs) for detector geometric and inter-crystal penetration of coincident crystal pairs are derived first. We implemented a 3D ray-tracing algorithm with 4π sampling for calculating the SRFs of coincident pairs of individual DLO crystals. The determination of which detector blocks are intersected by a gamma ray is made by calculating the intersection of the ray with virtual cylinders with radii just inside the inner surface and just outside the outer-edge of each crystal layer of the detector ring. For efficient ray-tracing computation, the detector block and ray to be traced are then rotated so that the crystals are aligned along the X-axis, facilitating calculation of ray/crystal boundary intersection points. This algorithm can be applied to any system geometry using either single-layer (SL) or multi-layer array design with or without offset crystals. For effective data organization, a direct lines of response (LOR)-based indexed histogram-mode method is also presented in this work. SRF calculation is performed on-the-fly in both forward and back projection procedures during each iteration of image reconstruction, with acceleration through use of eight-fold geometric symmetry and multi-threaded parallel computation. To validate the proposed methods, we performed a series of analytical and Monte Carlo computer simulations for different system geometry and detector designs. The full-width-at-half-maximum of the numerical SRFs in both radial and tangential directions are calculated and compared for various system designs. By inspecting the sinograms obtained for different detector geometries, it can be seen that the DLO crystal

  15. PSR J1856+0245: Arecibo discovery of a young, energetic pulsar coincident with the TeV γ-ray source HESS J1857+026

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, J.W.T.; Nice, D.J.; Gaensler, B.M.; Kaspi, V.M.; Lorimer, D.R.; Champion, D.J.; Lyne, A.G.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J.M.; Freire, P.C.C.; Camilo, F.; Ransom, S.M.; Deneva, J.S.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Cognard, I.; Crawford, F.; Jenet, F.A.; Kasian, L.; Lazarus, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Stairs, I.H.; Stappers, B.W.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present the discovery of the Vela-like radio pulsar J1856+0245 in the Arecibo PALFA survey. PSR J1856+0245 has a spin period of 81 ms, a characteristic age of 21 kyr, and a spin-down luminosity (E) over dot = 4.6 x 10(36) ergs s(-1). It is positionally coincident with the TeV gamma-ray source

  16. CeBr3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan Ding; Reed, Alexis; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2009-01-01

    Cerium bromide (CeBr 3 ) has become a material of interest in the race for high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy at room temperature. This investigation quantified the potential of CeBr 3 as a room-temperature, high-resolution gamma-ray detector. The performance of CeBr 3 crystals was compared to other scintillation crystals of similar dimensions and detection environments. Comparison of self-activity of CeBr 3 to cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr 3 :Ce) was performed. Energy resolution and relative intrinsic efficiency were measured and are presented.

  17. gamma-ray emission probabilities of sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 Os

    CERN Document Server

    Marnada, N; Ueda, N; Ikeda, K; Hayashi, N

    2002-01-01

    Precise measurements of disintegration rates by using a 4 pi beta-gamma coincidence apparatus have resulted in improved certainties of the principal gamma-ray emission probabilities of sup 1 sup 9 sup 3 Os. Most of the uncertainties are less than 1%, whereas the uncertainties of emission probabilities evaluated in the Nuclear Data Sheets (83 (1998) 921) are more than 6%. The precision is improved for the beta-ray branching ratio for direct transition to the ground state and the value is larger than the evaluated value by about 6%.

  18. A quality assurance program in stereotactic radiosurgery using the gamma knife unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuecklschweiger, G.F.; Feichtinger, K.

    1998-01-01

    Because of the large single fraction dose in stereotactic radiosurgery it is important to guarantee a high geometric and dosimetric accuracy. The paper represent the quality assurance program for the Gamma Knife unit at the University Clinic of Neurosurgery in Graz. The program includes the following procedures: Timer control, mechanical radiation isocenter coincidence, trunnion centricity, helmet microswitches test, radiation output and relative helmet factors, dose profile verification, safety interlocks checks and software quality assurance. In summary, the mechanical accuracy and reproducibility of the Gamma Knife unit are [de

  19. Spectroscopic and radiation-resistant properties of Er,Pr:GYSGG laser crystal operated at 2.79 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xu-Yao; Sun Dun-Lu; Luo Jian-Qiao; Zhang Hui-Li; Fang Zhong-Qing; Quan Cong; Li Xiu-Li; Cheng Mao-Jie; Zhang Qing-Li; Yin Shao-Tang

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the spectroscopic and laser performance before and after 100 Mrad gamma-ray irradiation on an Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal grown by the Czochralski method. The additional absorption of Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal is close to zero in the 968 nm pumping and 2.7–3 μm laser wavelength regions. The lifetimes of the upper and lower levels show faint decreases after gamma-ray irradiation. The maximum output powers of 542 and 526 mW with the slope efficiencies of 17.7% and 17.0% are obtained, respectively, on the GYSGG/Er,Pr:GYSGG composite crystal before and after the gamma-ray irradiation. These results suggest that Er,Pr:GYSGG crystal as a laser gain medium possesses a distinguished anti-radiation ability for application in space and radiant environments. (paper)

  20. The making of analog module for gamma camera interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulinarsari, Leli; Rl, Tjutju; Susila, Atang; Sukandar

    2003-01-01

    The making of an analog module for gamma camera has been conducted. For computerization of planar gamma camera 37 PMT it has been developed interface hardware technology and software between the planar gamma camera with PC. With this interface gamma camera image information (Originally analog signal) was changed to digital single, therefore processes of data acquisition, image quality increase and data analysis as well as data base processing can be conducted with the help of computers, there are three gamma camera main signals, i.e. X, Y and Z . This analog module makes digitation of analog signal X and Y from the gamma camera that conveys position information coming from the gamma camera crystal. Analog conversion to digital was conducted by 2 converters ADC 12 bit with conversion time 800 ns each, conversion procedure for each coordinate X and Y was synchronized using suitable strobe signal Z for information acceptance

  1. Radio-thermoluminescence of p-InP crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyev, M.I.; Rashidova, Sh.Sh.; Guseynova, M.A.; Aliyev, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A 3 B 5 compounds, including InP, are called forth the heighten interest in connection with their use in such devices as bipolar and field transistors with hetero junctions, solar cells, light emitting diodes, etc. It is known that under influence of high-level radiation (gamma quanta electron, etc. bombardment ) in semiconductors there are formed either local energetic defect states of torn bonds in the case of the crystal radiation with gamma quanta or local energy level tails of gap states at the expense of the point defect formation and that leads to the change of electrophysical and optical properties of A 3 B 5 compounds. In the paper, it is put forward results of experimental investigations of radio-thermoluminescence (RTL) features of gamma irradiated p-InP crystals in the range of 80 to 400 K. Samples doped with InP were fabricated by the Czochralski method. p-In crystals were irradiated with gamma quanta by the isotopic source, 60 Co, with the dose power of D=1.03 Gy/s at temperature of 77 K. Curves for RTL were obtained by a radio-thermo-luminograph, RTL-69, while the heating rate was 5 K/min. Presents the dependence of RTL versus temperature after each stage of radiation with doses of D=10 kGy and D=35 kGy. It is shown, that with increasing the radiation dose the intensity of luminescence decreases. It is also observed a shift of the maximum peak at 180 K towards lower temperatures by 10 degrees. The peak after irradiation with the large dose (D=35 kGy) is manifested at 170 K. The peak being emerged after irradiation with the dose of D=35 kGy at 300 K correspondents the H 3 (0.51 eV) level, which is the P In 0 hole trap. The decrease of the peak intensity after irradiation with the high dose is apparently connected with radiation anti-structural defects (ASD) of the donor type, In P . Thus, the irradiation by gamma quanta of InP crystals, doped with Zn results in the point defect formation of the structure, i.e. defects of the ASD

  2. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases; Calculos dosimetricos por Monte Carlo para tratamientos de radiocirugia con el Leksell Gamma Knife, casos homogeneo y no homogeneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas C, E.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Lallena R, A.M. [Universidad de Granada (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of {sup 60} Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  3. Role of activators and vacancies in the gamma-scintillation decay in CsI-Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panova, A.N.; Grinev, B.V.; Sojfer, L.M.; Shakhova, K.V.; Kosinov, N.N.; Mitichkin, A.I.; Korsunova, S.P.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the influence of activator concentration (CNaI) and plastic deformation on the change in the contribution of the slow component to the decay of gamma-scintillation in CsI-Na crystals. The influence of CNaI on the change in the form of the luminescence excitation spectrum in the region of the absorption of activator centers (AC) and centers of vacancy nature (VNC) is investigated. The effect of CNaI on the change in the intercenter decay time of the mentioned centers is studied too. It is shown that AC and VNC participate in the photoluminescence and gamma-scintillations of CsI-Na crystals. In gamma-scintillations AC are responsible for the component τ i 370 ns, whereas the components τ 1 ' = 460 ns and τ 2 ∼ 2 μs are bound up with VNC. The decrease of τ γ from 770 to 560 ns with the growth of C from 2·10 -3 to 3·10 -2 mol. % NaI, and after plastic deformation of the crystals (ε = 5 %) along the axis from 570 to 470 ns is caused by the decrease in the number of VNC. Mechanisms of gamma-scintillations of CsI-Na crystals AC and VNC, as well as the decrease in the number of VNC are discussed. (authors)

  4. Human gamma oscillations during slow wave sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Valderrama

    Full Text Available Neocortical local field potentials have shown that gamma oscillations occur spontaneously during slow-wave sleep (SWS. At the macroscopic EEG level in the human brain, no evidences were reported so far. In this study, by using simultaneous scalp and intracranial EEG recordings in 20 epileptic subjects, we examined gamma oscillations in cerebral cortex during SWS. We report that gamma oscillations in low (30-50 Hz and high (60-120 Hz frequency bands recurrently emerged in all investigated regions and their amplitudes coincided with specific phases of the cortical slow wave. In most of the cases, multiple oscillatory bursts in different frequency bands from 30 to 120 Hz were correlated with positive peaks of scalp slow waves ("IN-phase" pattern, confirming previous animal findings. In addition, we report another gamma pattern that appears preferentially during the negative phase of the slow wave ("ANTI-phase" pattern. This new pattern presented dominant peaks in the high gamma range and was preferentially expressed in the temporal cortex. Finally, we found that the spatial coherence between cortical sites exhibiting gamma activities was local and fell off quickly when computed between distant sites. Overall, these results provide the first human evidences that gamma oscillations can be observed in macroscopic EEG recordings during sleep. They support the concept that these high-frequency activities might be associated with phasic increases of neural activity during slow oscillations. Such patterned activity in the sleeping brain could play a role in off-line processing of cortical networks.

  5. Thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing a single material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, Ashley; Burger, Arnold; Lukosi, Eric

    2017-05-02

    A combined thermal neutron detector and gamma-ray spectrometer system, including: a detection medium including a lithium chalcopyrite crystal operable for detecting thermal neutrons in a semiconductor mode and gamma-rays in a scintillator mode; and a photodetector coupled to the detection medium also operable for detecting the gamma rays. Optionally, the detection medium includes a .sup.6LiInSe.sub.2 crystal. Optionally, the detection medium comprises a compound formed by the process of: melting a Group III element; adding a Group I element to the melted Group III element at a rate that allows the Group I and Group III elements to react thereby providing a single phase I-III compound; and adding a Group VI element to the single phase I-III compound and heating; wherein the Group I element includes lithium.

  6. Digital coincidence counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, S. M.; Ius, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method.

  7. Digital coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, S.M.; Ius, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a digital coincidence-counting system which comprises a custom-built data acquisition card and associated PC software. The system has been designed to digitise the pulse-trains from two radiation detectors at a rate of 20 MSamples/s with 12-bit resolution. Through hardware compression of the data, the system can continuously record both individual pulse-shapes and the time intervals between pulses. Software-based circuits are used to process the stored pulse trains. These circuits are constructed simply by linking together icons representing various components such as coincidence mixers, time delays, single-channel analysers, deadtimes and scalers. This system enables a pair of pulse trains to be processed repeatedly using any number of different methods. Some preliminary results are presented in order to demonstrate the versatility and efficiency of this new method. (orig.)

  8. Cadium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) Gamma Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Quam

    2001-01-01

    This report describes CZT crystals and their use in large arrays for generation of gamma ray spectra. Laboratory spectra will be shown together with spectra accumulated by various battery powered portable instruments (see Appendix A). One of these portable instruments was specifically constructed to minimize power consumption and yet provide reasonable isotope identification capability. Detailed data will be presented covering gamma energy resolution, gamma peak shapes, system background, and detector efficiency. Nearly all data were taken with very small crystals of CZT; cubes 5 mm on a side. A few spectra will be presented from cylindrical crystals of about the same size (see Appendix A). The small crystal size leads to low counting rates and extended counting times for reliable isotope identification. We have addressed this problem by using arrays of CZT crystals, initially two crystals and, at present, arrays of eight crystals. Data will be shown relating spectral parameters for these two arrays. System MDA is one way of combining resolution, efficiency, and background that will enable direct comparison of various detector types for individual isotope identification. We have calculated the MDA for an early dual crystal array and the current eight crystal array. Data derived from each array will be presented. In addition, it is possible to extrapolate the MDA methodology to much larger arrays. A 32-crystal array is under construction and extrapolations to 256 and 1024 crystals are considered possible. Estimated MDA values for these larger arrays are also presented. Several 8-crystal arrays have been constructed and versions have been incorporated into portable instruments. Descriptions of these small instruments are given covering physical size, weight, and general configuration. These instruments have been tested for shock and temperature effects and data will be presented on the results of these tests. The MDA concept will also allow extrapolation to large

  9. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Eduardo; Parot, Vicente; Moore, Stephen C; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Udías, Jose M; Dave, Shivang R; Park, Mi-Ae; Vaquero, Juan J; Herraiz, Joaquin L

    2015-03-01

    Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. To recover triple coincidences, the authors' method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. The addition of triple-coincidence events with the authors' method increased peak

  10. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.; Herraiz, Joaquin L. [Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moore, Stephen C.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Park, Mi-Ae [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Udías, Jose M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vaquero, Juan J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Biomédica e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés 28911 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  11. Improving the singles rate method for modeling accidental coincidences in high-resolution PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Josep F; Rafecas, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Random coincidences ('randoms') are one of the main sources of image degradation in PET imaging. In order to correct for this effect, an accurate method to estimate the contribution of random events is necessary. This aspect becomes especially relevant for high-resolution PET scanners where the highest image quality is sought and accurate quantitative analysis is undertaken. One common approach to estimate randoms is the so-called singles rate method (SR) widely used because of its good statistical properties. SR is based on the measurement of the singles rate in each detector element. However, recent studies suggest that SR systematically overestimates the correct random rate. This overestimation can be particularly marked for low energy thresholds, below 250 keV used in some applications and could entail a significant image degradation. In this work, we investigate the performance of SR as a function of the activity, geometry of the source and energy acceptance window used. We also investigate the performance of an alternative method, which we call 'singles trues' (ST) that improves SR by properly modeling the presence of true coincidences in the sample. Nevertheless, in any real data acquisition the knowledge of which singles are members of a true coincidence is lost. Therefore, we propose an iterative method, STi, that provides an estimation based on ST but which only requires the knowledge of measurable quantities: prompts and singles. Due to inter-crystal scatter, for wide energy windows ST only partially corrects SR overestimations. While SR deviations are in the range 86-300% (depending on the source geometry), the ST deviations are systematically smaller and contained in the range 4-60%. STi fails to reproduce the ST results, although for not too high activities the deviation with respect to ST is only a few percent. For conventional energy windows, i.e. those without inter-crystal scatter, the ST method corrects the SR overestimations, and deviations from

  12. Channel coincidence counter: version 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krick, M.S.; Menlove, H.O.

    1980-06-01

    A thermal neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the assay of fast critical assembly fuel drawers and plutonium-bearing fuel rods. The principal feature of the detector is a 7-cm by 7-cm by 97-cm detector channel, which provides a uniform neutron detection efficiency of 16% along the central 40 cm of the channel. The electronics system is identical to that used for the High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter

  13. Coincident effect characteristic in a thermoacoustic regenerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yicai; Xin Tianlong; Huang Qian; Shi Xiangnan; Chen Siming; Chen Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Many previous studies on characteristics of thermoacoustic regenerator are based on fluid micro-groups and their compression-expansion cycle. In this paper, coincident frequency is introduced to evaluate its acoustic characteristics by combining structural acoustic with structural vibration theories. The relationship among structure wave radiation and regenerator position, slab thickness, and properties of material are analyzed by numerical calculation. The results show that in the low-frequency thermoacoustic system, the coincident effect generated by higher frequency wave weakens the fundamental sound wave. While in the high-frequency thermoacoustic system, where the oscillating fundamental frequency is higher than the coincident frequency, the sound field strength is enhanced by stronger structure wave radiation because of the coincident effect.

  14. Measuring 137Cs, 40K and decay products of 226Ra and 232Th in samples of different nature by a multidetector spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antovic, N.M.; Popovic, V.; Vukotic, P.

    2011-01-01

    A coincidence method for measuring 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra and 232 Th decay products activity in soil, vegetation and fish samples, was applied to the six-crystal gamma-coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M. In this way, some problems appeared in simultaneous measurement of 137 Cs, 226 Ra and 232 Th by NaI(Tl) detectors and the PRIPYAT-2M spectrometer were solved. The obtained results were agreeable with the HPGe spectrometer ones. (author)

  15. Development of high-resolution gamma detector using sub-mm GAGG crystals coupled to TSV-MPPC array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipovec, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study a high-resolution gamma detector based on an array of sub-millimeter Ce:GAGG (Cerium doped Gd 3 Al 2 Ga 3 O 12 ) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount type of TSV-MPPC was developed. MPPC sensor from Hamamatsu which has a 26 by 26 mm 2 detector area with 64 channels was used. One channel has a 3 by 3 mm 2 photosensitive area with 50 μ m pitch micro cells. MPPC sensor provides 576 mm 2 sensing area and was used to decode 48 by 48 array with 0.4 by 0.4 by 20 mm 3 Ce:GAGG crystals of 500 μ m pitch. The base of the detector with the crystal module was mounted to a read out board which consists of charge division circuit, thus allowing for a read out of four channels to identify the position of the incident event on the board. The read out signals were amplified using charge sensitive amplifiers. The four amplified signals were digitized and analyzed to produce a position sensitive event. For the performance analysis a 137 Cs source was used. The produced events were used for flood histogram and energy analysis. The effects of the glass thickness between the Ce:GAGG and MPPC were analyzed using the experimental flood diagrams and Geant4 simulations. The glass between the scintillator and the detector allows the spread of the light over different channels and is necessary if the channel's sensitive area is bigger than the scintillator's area. The initial results demonstrate that this detector module is promising and could be used for applications requiring compact and high-resolution detectors. Experimental results show that the detectors precision increases using glass guide thickness of 1.35 mm and 1.85 mm; however the precision using 2.5 mm are practically the same as if using 0.8 mm or 1.0 mm glass guide thicknesses. In addition, simulations using Geant4 indicate that the light becomes scarcer if thicker glass is used, thus reducing the ability to indicate which crystal was targeted. When 2.5 mm glass thickness is used, the scarce

  16. Investigation of prompt gamma-ray yields as a function of mass and charge of 236U fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel', A.A.; Gundorin, N.A.; Duka-Zojomi, A.; Kliman, Ya.; Krishtiak, J.

    1987-01-01

    New experimental results determining yields of the prompt gamma-rays from the excited states decay of fission fragments are presented. 80 gamma-transitions were observed in 51 fission fragments. The measurements were performed by Ge(Li)-spectrometry in coincidence with fast ionization chamber (10g 235 U). The beam of the resonance neutrons with energy range from 0.7 to 36 eV was used

  17. Response functions of NaI(Tl) detectors to terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyurcsak, J.; Lenda, A.

    1978-01-01

    Computer programs, serving for calculation of detector efficiency and energy deposition spectrum for scintillation crystals irradiated by isotropic or half-isotropic gamma-ray fields were elaborated. The Monte-Carlo models used in calculations are valid for gamma-ray energies 2 π geometry by the 1.5'' x 2'' probe with experimental results is given. (author)

  18. Determination of radionuclides for river sediment CRM with HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jinbo; Hao Runlong; Tang Zhenxin

    1994-01-01

    The authors described the method and results for determination of seven radionuclides: 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs in the river sediment Certified Reference Material (CRM) using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy and reliability of measurement results were improved through varieties of techniques, which include: precise calibration of the gamma-ray spectrometer, coincidence summing correction and interference peak correction, two kinds of peak analysis methods (TPA and function fit), and utilization of as many as possible characteristic gamma-rays. Present measurement results for the seven radionuclides were in agreement with the verification results of the CRM with 1 σ or 2σ uncertainty, and its relative deviation were in the range of +1.0%--6.5%

  19. The effect of gamma irradiation on thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity of Ln0.01Sn0.99Se (Ln-Pr,Tb,Er) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseynov, D.I.; Murguzov, M.I.; Ismaylov, Sh.S.; Mamedova, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper contains research results on the effect of gamma irradiation on thermal electromotive force and thermal conductivity of Ln 0 .01Sn 0 .99Se (Ln-Pr,Tb,Er) crystals. It is studied some electrical properties of the samples obtained before and after irradiation in a wide temperature range (80-420 K). As a source it was used an isotope 60Co with photon energies 1.25 MeV, the radiation dose was 65 Mrad

  20. Using the computer simulation methods for the PHOS gamma spectrometer in the ALICE design. Pt. 1. Simulation of the base module response on a high-energy gamma quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenko, V.G.; Blau, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    After all lead tungstate crystals have been fabricated and transferred for assembling of the gamma-spectrometer PHOS in frame of ALICE experiment on the Large Hadron Collider a simulation was performed of the light collection in single scintillation module taking into account realistic properties of entire crystal party [ru

  1. Alpha-gamma pulse shape discrimination in CsI:Tl, CsI:Na and BaF sub 2 scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Dinca, L E; Haas, J; Bom, V R; Eijk, C W E

    2002-01-01

    Some scintillating materials offer the possibility of measuring well separated alpha and gamma scintillation response using a single crystal. Eventually aiming at thermal neutron detection using sup 6 Li or sup 1 sup 0 B admixture, pulse shape discrimination measurements were made on three scintillators: CsI:Tl, CsI:Na and pure BaF sub 2 crystals. A very good alpha/gamma discrimination was obtained using sup 2 sup 2 Na, sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (gamma) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Cm (alpha) radioactive sources.

  2. CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretto, E; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Zuin, L; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Prete, G

    2000-01-01

    We report on the performances of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Light output yield and energy resolution have been measured for different crystals and read-out configurations.

  3. Precision measurement of sub-nanosecond lifetimes of excited nuclear states using fast-timing coincidences with LaBr3(Ce) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Precision measurements of electromagnetic (EM) transition rates enable tests of models of internal nuclear structure. Measurements of transition rates can be used to infer the spin and parity differences between the initial and final discrete nuclear excited states via which the EM transition takes place. This short conference paper reports on developments of detection systems for the identification of discrete energy gamma-ray decays using arrays of halide-scintillation detectors acting in coincidence mode, which can be used to determine electromagnetic transition rates between excited nuclear states in the sub-nanosecond temporal regime. Ongoing development of a new multi-detector LaBr 3 (Ce) array for studies of exotic nuclei produced at the upcoming Facility for Anti-Proton and Ion Research (FAIR) as part of the NUSTAR–DESPEC project are presented, together with initial results from pre-NUSTAR implementations of this array for nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich fission fragment radionuclides at ILL-Grenoble, France and RIBF at RIKEN, Japan. - Highlights: • This paper reports on new detection systems for identification of gamma decays. • It focusses on using arrays of halide-scintillation detectors in coincidence mode. • These can determine lifetimes of nuclear states at the sub-ns level. • Plans for new LaBr3(Ce) arrays for studies of exotic nuclei are presented.

  4. Investigation of hyperfine interactions in pure silicon and NTD silicon by means of perturbed angular {gamma}-{gamma} correlation spectroscopy; Investigacao de interacoes hiperfinas em silicio puro e silicio NTD pela tecnica de correlacao angular {gamma}-{gamma} perturbada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, Moacir Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    III the present work, a microscopic investigation of hyperfine interactions in single crystal silicon samples was carried out by means of Perturbed Angular {gamma} -{gamma} correlation technique (PAC), which is based in hyperfine interactions. In order to achieve these measurements, it was used {sup 111} In {yields} {sup 111}Cd radioactive probe nuclei, which decay through the well known {gamma} cascade 171-245 keV with an intermediate level of 245 keV ( I 5{sup +}/2, Q = 0.83b, T{sub 1/2} = 84.5 ns). The samples were prepared using different probe nuclei insertion methods, making possible to increase our understanding on the impact generated by each of these techniques in PAC measurements. Ion implantation, diffusion and evaporation were carefully investigated giving emphasis on its characteristics and particularities. Then, it was made a study about the concentration of intrinsic defects as function of severe annealing processes. Finally, a comparative analysis was made for all these probe nuclei insertion methods. This work also accomplished PAC measurements in single crystal silicon doped with phosphorus by means of Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) method, carried out in a research nuclear reactor. The extremely high doping uniformity allied to the nonexistence of previous measurements in these materials emphasize the importance of the results obtained. These results are then compared with literature results for samples doped by conventional methods presenting the respective conclusions. (author)

  5. Study of gamma detection capabilities of the REWARD mobile spectroscopic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbuena, J. P.; Baptista, M.; Barros, S.; Dambacher, M.; Disch, C.; Fiederle, M.; Kuehn, S.; Parzefall, U.

    2017-07-01

    REWARD is a novel mobile spectroscopic radiation detector system for Homeland Security applications. The system integrates gamma and neutron detection equipped with wireless communication. A comprehensive simulation study on its gamma detection capabilities in different radioactive scenarios is presented in this work. The gamma detection unit consists of a precise energy resolution system based on two stacked (Cd,Zn)Te sensors working in coincidence sum mode. The volume of each of these CZT sensors is 1 cm3. The investigated energy windows used to determine the detection capabilities of the detector correspond to the gamma emissions from 137Cs and 60Co radioactive sources (662 keV and 1173/1333 keV respectively). Monte Carlo and Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulations are combined to determine its sensing capabilities for different radiation sources and estimate the limits of detection of the sensing unit as a function of source activity for several shielding materials.

  6. Angular correlation for gamma-gamma transitions in 81Br and 83Br nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matheus, R.

    1984-01-01

    The directional angular correlation of coincident gamma transitions in 81 Br and 83 Br have been measured following the β - decay of 81 Se(T sub(1/2) = 18.6 min) and 83 Se(T sub(1/2) = 22.6 min) respectively, using Ge(Li) - high purity Ge and Ge(Li)-NaI(Tl) spectrometers. The radioactive sources were prepared by irradiating with neutrons in the IEA-R1 reactor, metallic selenium (natural) to produce 81 Se and samples of metallic selenium enriched (to approx. 90% in 82 Se) to produce 83 Se. Measurements have been carried out for the gamma cascades 260-276 KeV, 290-276 KeV and 552-276 KeV in 81 Br and the gamma cascades 225(510)-356 KeV, 510-356 KeV, 572-(510)-356 KeV, 718-(225)-(510)-356 KeV, 1064-356 KeV, 718-225 KeV, 718-(225)-510 KeV, 836-718 KeV, 718-(225)-866 KeV, 883-718 KeV and 1895-799 KeV in 83 Br. The multipole mixing ratios, σ(E2/M1), were determined for 3 gamma transitions in 81 Br and 11 gamma transitions in 83 Br. In the case of 81 Br present results confirmed some of the earlier results. The spin and parity assignment were made to the majority of levels in 81 Br and 83 Br involved in the present study, some of them confirming the earlier results. A comparison of some of the nuclear properties of the 79 Br, 81 Br and 83 Br is made based on the available experimental data. The experimental results are also discussed qualitatively in terms of some nuclear models applicable for the description of the properties of odd-A bromine isotopes. (Author) [pt

  7. Experience gained in gamma spectroscopy; Experience acquise dans la spectrometrie gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeanmaire, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    There are two types of method which make it possible to estimate the internal contamination of individuals. On the one hand these are the indirect techniques based on measurements of the excreted products, on the other there are the direct techniques in which attempts are made to measure directly the radio-activity existing in the organism. We propose to give a few of the results obtained by the direct method using equipment built by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The apparatus consists of a {gamma} spectrometer. It includes: 1) A crystal of sodium iodide 20 cm in diameter and 10 cm high. The large size of this crystal ensures a good sensitivity and makes it possible to carry out rapid measurements. 2) A 25 channel type SAE 25 selector which classifies the pulses according to their amplitude. It is therefore possible to distinguish between {gamma} rays of varying energy. 3) A comparatively very light radiation protection, consisting of only 5 cm thickness of lead which diminishes the ambient {gamma} ray intensity to a sufficient level for the majority of the measurements. A certain collimation is thus obtained which makes it possible to localise the source approximately and to reduce the undesirable effects of external contamination. (author) [French] Deux types de methodes permettent d'apprecier la contamination interne d'un individu. D'une part, les techniques indirectes basees sur la mesure des produits excretes, d'autre part, les techniques directes au moyen desquelles on essaie de mesurer directement la radioactivite existant dans l'organisme. Nous nous proposons d'indiquer quelques resultats obtenus par la methode directe, au moyen d'ensembles realises par le Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. L'appareillage est un spectrometre {gamma}. II comprend: 1) Un cristal d'iodure de sodium de 20 cm de diametre et 10 cm de hauteur. La grande taille de ce cristal assure une bonne sensibilite et permet d'effectuer des mesures rapides. 2) Un selecteur a 25 canaux

  8. Comparative study of chance coincidence correction in measuring 223Ra and 224Ra by delay coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongjun; Huang Derong; Zhou Jianliang; Qiu Shoukang

    2013-01-01

    The delay coincidence measurement of 220 Rn and 219 Rn has been proved to be a valid indirect method for measuring 224 Ra and 223 Ra extracted from natural water, which can provide valuable information on estuarine/ocean mixing, submarine groundwater discharge, and water/soil interactions. In practical operation chance coincidence correction must be considered, mostly Moore's correction method, but Moore's and Giffin's methods were incomplete in some ways. In this paper the modification (method 1) and a new chance coincidence correction formula (method 2) were provided. Experiments results are presented to demonstrate the conclusions. The results show that precision is improved while counting rate is less than 70 min- 1 . (authors)

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of β-γ coincidence system using plastic scintillators in 4π geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, M.S.; Piuvezam-Filho, H.; Baccarelli, A.M.; Takeda, M.N.; Koskinas, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4πβ(PS)-γ coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4π geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to 60 Co and 133 Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system

  10. Development of source-less efficiency calibration procedure for CeBr3 based gamma spectrometry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit K.; Narayani, K.; Pant, Amar D.; Bhosale, Nitin; Anilkumar, S.; Palani Selvam, T.

    2018-01-01

    Scintillation spectrometers are widely used in detection and spectrometry of gamma photons. Sodium Iodide (NaI(Tl)) is the most commonly used scintillation detector for gamma ray spectrometry. However for portable application that require higher efficiency and better resolution Cerium Bromide (CeBr 3 ) crystals are more suitable than NaI(Tl) crystals. CeBr 3 detectors have high light output (∼ 68,000 photons/MeV), good proportionality, fast response and better energy resolution (<4% for 662 keV of 137 Cs), which makes it very promising detector for gamma ray spectrometry. In the present work, experimental and Monte Carlo based efficiencies for CeBr 3 detector for 137 Cs and 60 Co were evaluated

  11. X-ray observations of the 5 March 1979. gamma. -burst field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfand, D J; Long, K S [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.

    1979-12-06

    On 5 March 1979 an extremely intense burst of hard X-rays and ..gamma..-rays was recorded by the nine interplanetary spacecraft of the burst sensor network and localised by time-of-flight determinations to a position coincident with the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Several times, both before and after the ..gamma..-ray event, this region of the sky was observed with the soft X-ray imaging instruments aboard the Einstein Observatory. Coupled with optical plate material, the soft x-ray data are used here to place severe constraints on models for the origin of this remarkable transient phenomenon.

  12. Monte Carlo calculations of the neutron coincidence gate utilisation factor for passive neutron coincidence counting

    CERN Document Server

    Bourva, L C A

    1999-01-01

    The general purpose neutron-photon-electron Monte Carlo N-Particle code, MCNP sup T sup M , has been used to simulate the neutronic characteristics of the on-site laboratory passive neutron coincidence counter to be installed, under Euratom Safeguards Directorate supervision, at the Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria, UK. This detector is part of a series of nondestructive assay instruments to be installed for the accurate determination of the plutonium content of nuclear materials. The present work focuses on one aspect of this task, namely, the accurate calculation of the coincidence gate utilisation factor. This parameter is an important term in the interpretative model used to analyse the passive neutron coincidence count data acquired using pulse train deconvolution electronics based on the shift register technique. It accounts for the limited proportion of neutrons detected within the time interval for which the electronics gate is open. The Monte Carlo code MCF, presented in this work, represents...

  13. Electronic, elastic, thermodynamic properties and structure disorder of {gamma}-AlON solid solution from ab initio calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuezhong, E-mail: wyzphysics@163.com [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tianjin Jinhang Institute of Technical Physics, Tianjin 300192 (China); Lu, Tiecheng, E-mail: lutiecheng@scu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); International Center for Material Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110015 (China); Zhang, Rongshi [Tianjin Jinhang Institute of Technical Physics, Tianjin 300192 (China); Jiang, Shengli; Qi, Jianqi; Wang, Ying [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Qingyun [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Miao, Naihua [Physique Theorique des Materiaux, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B-4000 (Belgium); He, Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reassess the chemical bonding character of {gamma}-AlON which shows strong ionicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-AlON single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic properties are investigated in a wider temperature/pressure range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-AlON is an O/N partially disordered structure. - Abstract: Spinel aluminium oxynitride ({gamma}-AlON), as a kind of transparent ceramic material expectable, is studied using the ab initio density functional method, in terms of electronic, elastic, thermodynamic properties and structure disorder. The results show that {gamma}-AlON exhibits strong ionicity, as quantitatively expressed by (Al{sub O}{sup 2.43+}){sub 15}(Al{sub T}{sup 2.41+}){sub 8}(O{sup 1.64-}){sub 27}(N{sup 2.27-}){sub 5} from our reassessment of the ionic character. We summarize and speculate that the considered oxynitride single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. The interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of {gamma}-AlON according to quasi-harmonic Debye model confirm the available experiments and are extended to a wider temperature/pressure range. This material holds high elastic strength under extreme environments, where dB/dT absolute value is less than 0.03 GPa/K, independent of the pressure. Finally, we study the O/N structure disorder character of {gamma}-AlON solid solution by investigating nine possible crystal structures. It is found that {gamma}-AlON should be partially disordered, and in fact, the O/N ordering has a significant effect on the properties.

  14. Electron spin resonance and E.N.D.O.R. double resonance study of free radicals produced by gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals; Etude par resonance paramagnetique electronique et double resonance E.N.D.O.R. des radicaux libres crees par irradiation gamma de monocristaux d'imidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamotte, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    Gamma irradiation of imidazole single crystals at 300 deg. K gives two radicals. Identification and detailed studies of their electronic and geometric structure have been made by ESR and ENDOR techniques. A study of the hydrogen bonded protons hyperfine tensor is made and let us conclude to the inexistence of movement and tunneling of these protons. The principal low temperature radical, produced by gamma irradiation at 77 deg. K has been also studied by ESR and a model has been proposed. (author) [French] L'irradiation gamma de monocristaux d'imidazole a 300 deg. K conduit a deux radicaux dont l'identification et l'etude detaillee des structures electroniques et geometriques ont ete obtenues par la resonance paramagnetique electronique (RPE) et la double resonance ENDOR. En particulier l'examen des protons de la liaison hydrogene permet de conclure, pour ceux-ci, a l'inexistence de tout mouvement par effet tunnel. De plus, l'analyse des spectres de RPE du radical principal cree par irradiation gamma de l'imidazole a 77 deg. K nous a permis de proposer un modele pour ce radical. (auteur)

  15. Statistical data filtration in neutron coincidence counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddingfield, D.H.; Menlove, H.O.

    1992-11-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of statistical data filtration to minimize the contribution of matrix materials in 200-ell drums to the nondestructive assay of plutonium. Those matrices were examined: polyethylene, concrete, aluminum, iron, cadmium, and lead. Statistical filtration of neutron coincidence data improved the low-end sensitivity of coincidence counters. Spurious data arising from electrical noise, matrix spallation, and geometric effects were smoothed in a predictable fashion by the statistical filter. The filter effectively lowers the minimum detectable mass limit that can be achieved for plutonium assay using passive neutron coincidence counting

  16. Enhanced gamma ray sensitivity in bismuth triiodide sensors through volumetric defect control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Paul M.; Baciak, James E.; Nino, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the more attractive semiconducting compounds for ambient temperature radiation detector applications are impacted by low charge collection efficiency due to the presence of point and volumetric defects. This has been particularly true in the case of BiI_3, which features very attractive properties (density, atomic number, band gap, etc.) to serve as a gamma ray detector, but has yet to demonstrate its full potential. We show that by applying growth techniques tailored to reduce defects, the spectral performance of this promising semiconductor can be realized. Gamma ray spectra from >100 keV source emissions are now obtained from high quality Sb:BiI_3 bulk crystals with limited concentrations of defects (point and extended). The spectra acquired in these high quality crystals feature photopeaks with resolution of 2.2% at 662 keV. Infrared microscopy is used to compare the local microstructure between radiation sensitive and non-responsive crystals. This work demonstrates that BiI_3 can be prepared in melt-grown detector-grade samples with superior quality and can acquire the spectra from a variety of gamma ray sources.

  17. Modulated High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Micro-quasar Cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wood, K.S.; Abdo, A.A.; Cheung, C.C.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W.B.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Johnson, A.S.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.B.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Axelsson, M.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Jackson, M.S.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Grenier, I.A.; Koerding, E.; Rodriguez, J.; Starck, J.L.; Tibaldo, L.

    2009-01-01

    Micro-quasars are accreting black holes or neutron stars in binary systems with associated relativistic jets. Despite their frequent outburst activity, they have never been unambiguously detected emitting high-energy gamma rays. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has detected a variable high-energy source coinciding with the position of the x-ray binary and micro-quasar Cygnus X-3. Its identification with Cygnus X-3 is secured by the detection of its orbital period in gamma rays, as well as the correlation of the LAT flux with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The gamma-ray emission probably originates from within the binary system, opening new areas in which to study the formation of relativistic jets. (authors)

  18. Moessbauer determination of magnetic structure of Fe/sub 3/BO/sub 6/ crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, P.P.; Labushkin, V.G.; Ovsepyan, A.K.; Sarkisov, Eh.R.; Smirnov, E.V.; Prokopov, A.R.; Seleznev, V.N.

    1984-10-01

    The magnetic structure of a Fe/sub 3/BO/sub 6/ crystal belonging to space group Dsub(2h)sup(16)(Psub(nma)) is determined by the Moessbauer ..gamma..-radiation diffraction. The bragg reflection (700) of Moessbauer 14.4 keV ..gamma..-quanta from the Fe/sub 3/BO/sub 6/ monocrystal has been studied experimentally. A high sensitivity of the interference of ..gamma..-quantum diffraction scattering on Fe nuclei being in crystallographically non-equivalent 8d- and 4s-positions to the type of magnetic ordering in the crystal is used for determination of the magnetic structure. Agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical calculations, conducted for types of magnetic ordering resolved by the symmetry of the crystal, permitted to reliably determine the magnetic structure of this compound. The results obtained confirm the data of neutrondiffraction studies on magnetic ordering in Fe/sub 3/BO/sub 6/. Advantages of the Moessbauer-diffraction study, as compared to the magnetic neutrondiffraction method, in particular, for investigation of crystals, in which the hyperfine magnetic fields on Fe nuclei have different values, are revealed and discussed in detail.

  19. Prompt dipole gamma-ray emission in fusionlike heavy-ion reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Pierroutsakou, D; Di Pietro, M; Mordente, R; Ordine, A; Romoli, M; De Rosa, A; Inglima, G; La Commara, M; Martin, B; Roca, V; Sandoli, M; Trotta, M; Vardaci, E; Ming, R; Rizzo, F; Soramel, F; Stroe, L

    2003-01-01

    The sup 3 sup 2 S+ sup 1 sup 0 sup 0 Mo and sup 3 sup 6 S+ sup 9 sup 6 Mo fusionlike reactions were studied at incident energy of E sub l sub a sub b =298 MeV and 320 MeV, respectively, with the aim of probing the influence of the entrance channel charge asymmetry on the dipole gamma-ray emission. The excitation energy and spin distribution of the compound nucleus created in these reactions were identical, the only difference being associated with the unequal charge asymmetry of the two entrance channels. High-energy gamma-rays were detected in an array of 9 seven-pack BaF sub 2 clusters. Coincidence with fusionlike residues detected in four PPAC ensured the selection of central reaction events. By studying the differential gamma-ray multiplicity associated with the two reactions it was shown that the dipole strength excited in the compound nucleus increases with the entrance channel charge asymmetry. From the linearized spectra, the increase of the GDR gamma-ray intensity was found to be propor to 25% for th...

  20. Multidimensional Gamma-Ray Spectrometry and its Use in Biology; La Spectrometry Gamma Multidimensionnelle et son Application en Biologie; Mnogomernaya spektrometriya gamma-luchej i ee ispol'zovanie v biologii; La Espectrometria Gamma Multidimensional y su Empleo en Biologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J. M.; Kornberg, H. A. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1965-10-15

    Multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometry is a new technique for the measurement of radionuclides which has special application in biology. This instrumental technique allows direct identification and measurement of individual gamma-ray emitters in complex mixtures of radionuclides in diverse sample matrices without prior chemical treatment. The detector system is designed to provide: high sensitivity through use of two large (6-in diam., 4-in thick) Nal(Tl) detectors; high selectivity by using coincidence counting techniques which separate gamma ray spectra by taking advantage of the gamma-ray decay characteristics of each radionuclide ; and ultra-low background and reduced Compton interference through a surrounding anticoincidence annulus detector (a NaI(Tl) crystal 11 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half -in thick with a 6 Vulgar-Fraction-One-Half - in - diam. hole). A 4096-channel multidimensional analyser analyses the two gamma-rays in coincidence according to their energies and stores them in the plane of the 64 X 64-channel memory while non-coincident events are stored only on the axes of the memory. This effectively decreases the background and Compton interference by orders of magnitude while greatly improving the selectivity. Direct gamma-ray spectrometric measurement of trace levels of radionuclides in biological samples has been inhibited by the presence of relatively large amounts of natural 4 Degree-Sign K whose 1.47 MeV gamma-radiation has interfered with their measurement. Since most radionuclides decay through emission of two or more gamma-rays in cascade the new technique does provide a direct selective measurement and permits wider application. For example, {sup 22}Na (a naturally occurring cosmic-ray produced radionuclide), {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs (fission products) can be readily measured at existing levels (in some cases at less than 1 dpmAg) in meat, fish, foodstuffs, as well as in urine, so that uptake-excretion studies are possible. This technique

  1. Dosimetric calculations by Monte Carlo for treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, homogeneous and non homogeneous cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas C, E.L.; Lallena R, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this work dose profiles are calculated that are obtained modeling treatments of radiosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife. This was made with the simulation code Monte Carlo Penelope for an homogeneous mannequin and one not homogeneous. Its were carried out calculations with the irradiation focus coinciding with the center of the mannequin as in near areas to the bone interface. Each one of the calculations one carries out for the 4 skull treatment that it includes the Gamma Knife and using a model simplified of their 201 sources of 60 Co. It was found that the dose profiles differ of the order of 2% when the isocenter coincides with the center of the mannequin and they ascend to near 5% when the isocenter moves toward the skull. (Author)

  2. Disentangling the gamma-ray emission towards Cygnus X: Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric

    2015-09-01

    We have just discovered distinct X-ray emission coincident with VER J2018+363, a TeV source recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. NuSTAR reveals a hard point source and a diffuse nebula adjacent to and possibly part of Sh2-104, a compact HII region containing several young massive stellar clusters. There is reasonable evidence that these X-rays probe the origin of the gamma-ray flux, however, unrelated extragalactic sources need to be excluded. We propose a short Chandra observation to localize the X-ray emission to identify a putative pulsar or stellar counterpart(s). This is an important step to fully understand the energetics of the MGRO J2019+37 complex and the production of gamma-rays in star formation regions, in general.

  3. Development of crystals based in cesium iodide for application as radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Maria da Conceicao Costa

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic scintillators with fast luminescence decay time, high density and high light output have been the object of studies for application in nuclear physics, high energy physics, nuclear tomography and other fields of science and engineering. Scintillation crystals based on cesium iodide (CsI) are matters with relatively low higroscopy, high atomic number, easy handling and low cost, characteristics that favor their use as radiation detectors. In this work, the growth of pure CsI crystals, CsI:Br and CsI:Pb, using the Bridgman technique, is described. The concentration of the bromine doping element (Br) was studied in the range of 1,5x10 -1 M to 10 -2 M and the lead (Pb) in the range of 10 -2 M to 5x10 -4 M. To evaluate the scintillators developed, systematic measurements were carried out for luminescence emission and luminescence decay time for gamma radiation, optical transmittance assays, Vickers micro-hardness assays, determination of the doping elements distribution along the grown crystals and analysis of crystals response to the gamma radiation in the energy range of 350 keV to 1330 keV and alpha particles from a 241 Am source, with energy of 5.54 MeV. It was obtained 13 ns to 19 ns for luminescence decay time for CsI:Br and CsI:Pb crystals. These results were very promising. The results obtained for micro-hardness showed a significant increase in function of the doping elements concentration, when compared to the pure CsI crystal, increasing consequently the mechanical resistance of the grown crystals. The validity of using these crystals as radiation sensors may be seen from the results of their response to gamma radiation and alpha particles. (author)

  4. Calculation Analysis of Calibration Factors of Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Zhu Jinhui; Xie Honggang; He Qinglin

    2009-01-01

    To determine the calibration factors of an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer measuring large area gamma-ray emitting source at deferent flying height, a series of Monte Carlo simulations were drawn. Response energy spectrums of NaI crystals in airplane caused by nature-decay-series calibration-pads, and calibration factors on different heights above Cs-137 plane source, were obtained. The calculated results agreed with the experimental data well. (authors)

  5. Time resolution deterioration with increasing crystal length in a TOF-PET system

    CERN Document Server

    Gundacker, S; Auffray, E; Jarron, P; Meyer, T; Lecoq, P

    2014-01-01

    Highest time resolution in scintillator based detectors is becoming more and more important. In medical detector physics L(Y)SO scintillators are commonly used for time of flight positron emission tomography (TOF-PET). Coincidence time resolutions (CTRs) smaller than 100 ps FWHM are desirable in order to improve the image signal to noise ratio and thus give benefit to the patient by shorter scanning times. Also in high energy physics there is the demand to improve the timing capabilities of calorimeters down to 10 ps. To achieve these goals it is important to study the whole chain, i.e. the high energy particle interaction in the crystal, the scintillation process itself, the scintillation light transfer in the crystal, the photodetector and the electronics. Time resolution measurements for a PET like system are performed with the time-over-threshold method in a coincidence setup utilizing the ultra-fast amplifier-discriminator NINO. With 2×2×3 mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals coupled to commercially avai...

  6. Evaluation of accidental coincidences for time-differential Moessbauer-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alflen, M.; Meyer, W.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental coincidences of a measuring system based on time-to-amplitude conversion are considered in some detail for the case of low starting and high stopping rates. Two types of accidental coincidences are distinguished, those carrying time information and those without time information. Neglecting any deadtime effects of the detectors, analytical expressions for the calculation of the time distribution of the random coincidences are evaluated. The analytical expressions have been confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The procedure is applied to time-differential Moessbauer spectroscopy in order to extract the time spectra of true coincidences. The measured spectrum in a time channel turns out to be a superposition of the true spectrum (true coincidences), a time integral spectrum (random coincidences), and a weighted superposition of true spectra of other time channels (random but time carrying information). A measurement with a single line 57 Co/Rh-source and single line K[Fe(CN) 6 ].3H 2 O-absorber with stopping rates of 1 MBq shows agreement between the theoretical time-filtered spectra and the corrected measured spectra of true coincidences. ((orig.))

  7. Absolute standardization of radionuclides with complex decay by the peak-sum coincidence method and photon spectrometry with HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ronaldo Lins da

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a new methodology for absolute standardization of 133 Ba, which is a complex decay radionuclide, using the peak-sum coincidence method associated with gamma spectrometry with a high resolution germanium detector. The use of the method of direct multiplication of matrices allowed identifying all the energies of sum coincidence, as well as their probabilities of detection, which made possible the calculation of the probabilities of detecting the energies of interferences. In addition, with the use of deconvolution software it was possible to obtain the areas of energy without interference of other sums, and by means of the deduced equation for the peak sum method, it was possible to standardize 133 Ba. The result of the activity was compared with those found by the absolute methods existing in the LNMRI, where the result obtained by coincidence peak-sum was highlighted among all. The estimated uncertainties were below 0.30%, compatible with the results found in the literature by other absolute methods. Thus, it was verified that the methodology was able to standardize radionuclide 133 Ba with precision, accuracy, easiness and quickness. The relevance of this doctoral thesis is to provide the National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) with a new absolute standardization methodology for complex decay radionuclides. (author)

  8. Performance of coincidence-based PSD on LiF/ZnS Detectors for Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Stave, Sean C.; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward R.; Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Behling, Richard S.

    2016-10-06

    Abstract: Mass accountancy measurement is a nuclear nonproliferation application which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. With a well-designed and efficient detector system, several relevant parameters of the material can be verified simultaneously. 6LiF/ZnS scintillating sheets may be used for this purpose due to a combination of high efficiency and short die-away times in systems designed with this material, but involve choices of detector geometry and exact material composition (e.g., the addition of Ni-quenching in the material) that must be optimized for the application. Multiplicity counting for verification of declared nuclear fuel mass involves neutron detection in conditions where several neutrons arrive in a short time window, with confounding gamma rays. This paper considers coincidence-based Pulse-Shape Discrimination (PSD) techniques developed to work under conditions of high pileup, and the performance of these algorithms with different detection materials. Simulated and real data from modern LiF/ZnS scintillator systems are evaluated with these techniques and the relationship between the performance under pileup and material characteristics (e.g., neutron peak width and total light collection efficiency) are determined, to allow for an optimal choice of detector and material.

  9. Coincidence Imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Yang-jian; ZHU Shi-yao

    2006-01-01

    we present a theoretical study of coincidence imaging and interference with coherent Gaussian beams The equations for the coincidence image formation and interference fringes are derived,from which it is clear that the imaging is due to the corresponding focusing in the two paths .The quality and visibility of the images and fringes can be high simultaneously.The nature of the coincidence imaging and interference between quantum entangled photon pairs and coherent Gaussian beams are different .The coincidence image with coherent Gaussian beams is due to intensity-intensity correspondence,a classical nature,while that with entangled photon pairs is due to the amplitude correlation a quantum nature.

  10. Synchrotron measurement of the 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of nickel-base superalloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epishin, Alexander; Link, Thomas; Ulbricht, Alexander; Bansal, Mamta [Technical Univ. of Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Material Science and Technology; Zizak, Ivo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin for Materials and Energy BESSY II, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The 3D shape of X-ray reflections from the {gamma}/{gamma}{sup '}-microstructure of a nickel-base superalloy was investigated using synchrotron X-ray radiation and a position sensitive area detector. The measurements were performed on the 4{sup th} generation single-crystal nickel-base superalloy TMS138. The results show that X-ray reflections from non-cubic crystallographic planes have a complex 3D shape which changes during rafting. The 3D intensity distributions contain information about the spacing of the planes and their orientation as well. Whereas h00 reflections show the usual splitting into a {gamma}{sup '} and one {gamma}-subreflection, the hh0 and hhh reflections show two and three {gamma}-peaks respectively, resulting from the different types of {l_brace}100{r_brace} matrix channels. Therefore, these 3D diffraction measurements supply additional information about the spatial distribution of microstrains. (orig.)

  11. A laboratory exercise on systematic effects in gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrik Ramebaeck

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for calculation of true coincidence summing correction factors as well as calculating the effect of deviations between sample and standard source (filling height) was developed. This laboratory exercise was held in a masters course in nuclear chemistry the first time during fall 2013. The aim of the exercise was to high-light the importance of correcting for biases due to different systematic effects in gamma spectrometric measurements. (author)

  12. Use of proportional gas scintillator in absolute measurements of alpha-gamma emitter activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, C.C.B.

    1987-01-01

    The absolute activity of U-235 contained in a U 3 O 8 sample was measured utilizing a sum-coincidence circuit which selects only the alpha particles which are simultaneous with the 143 KeV and 186 KeV gamma radiations from the Th-231 (product nucleus). The alpha particles were detected by means of a new type of a gas scintillating chamber, in which the light emitted by excitation of the gas atoms, due to the passage of a charged incoming particle, has its intensity increased by the action of an applied electric field. The gamma radiations were detected by means of a NaI(Tl) 1'' x 1 1/2'' scintillation detector. The value obtained for the half-life of U-235 was compared with the data available from various observers which used different experimental techniques. It is shown tht the results, are in excellent agreement with the best international data available on the subject and that, therefore, the sum-coincidence technique constitutes an important method for such measurements. (Author) [pt

  13. Study on dose distribution of therapeutic proton beams with prompt gamma measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. W. [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, C. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, D. K.; Yoon, M. Y. [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    The proton beam has an advantage of the sharp dose falloff in dose distribution called Bragg peak while conventional radiation therapy modalities such as photons exhibit considerable amount of exit dose. To take advantage of this property it is important to know the exact location of the distal dose falloff. An error can cause overdose to the normal tissue or underdose to the tumor volume. The only way of finding out the dose distribution in-situ in particle therapy is to measure the gammas produced by nuclear reactions with tissue materials. Two kinds of gammas can be used: one is prompt gamma and the other is coincident gamma from the positron-emission isotopes. We chose to detect prompt gammas, and developed a prompt gamma scanning system (PGS). The proton beams of the proton therapy facility at National Cancer Center were used. The gamma distribution was compared to the dose distribution measured by an ionization chamber at three different energies of 100, 150, 200 MeV's. The two distributions were well correlated within 1-2 mm. The effect of high-energy neutron appeared as blurred distribution near the distal dose falloff at the energy of 200 MeV. We then tested the PGS shielding design by adding additional layer of paraffin plates outside of the PGS, and found that fast neutrons significantly affect the background level. But the location of the dose fall-off was nearly coincident. The analysis of gamma energy spectrum showed that cut-off energy in gamma counting can be adjusted to enhance the signal to noise ratio. Further the ATOM phantom, which has similar tissue structure to human, was used to investigate the gamma distribution for the case of inhomogeneous matter. The location of dose falloff region was found to be well defined as for water phantom. Next an actual therapy beam, which was produced by the double scattering method, was used, for which the dose falloff by the gamma distribution was completely wiped out by background neutrons. It is not

  14. Controlling the crystal polymorph by exploiting the time dependence of nucleation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Laurie J; King, Alice A K; Sear, Richard P; Keddie, Joseph L

    2017-10-14

    Most substances can crystallise into two or more different crystal lattices called polymorphs. Despite this, there are no systems in which we can quantitatively predict the probability of one competing polymorph forming instead of the other. We address this problem using large scale (hundreds of events) studies of the competing nucleation of the alpha and gamma polymorphs of glycine. In situ Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the polymorph of each crystal. We find that the nucleation kinetics of the two polymorphs is very different. Nucleation of the alpha polymorph starts off slowly but accelerates, while nucleation of the gamma polymorph starts off fast but then slows. We exploit this difference to increase the purity with which we obtain the gamma polymorph by a factor of ten. The statistics of the nucleation of crystals is analogous to that of human mortality, and using a result from medical statistics, we show that conventional nucleation data can say nothing about what, if any, are the correlations between competing nucleation processes. Thus we can show that with data of our form it is impossible to disentangle the competing nucleation processes. We also find that the growth rate and the shape of a crystal depend on it when nucleated. This is new evidence that nucleation and growth are linked.

  15. Development of an ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head GAGG coincidence imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu; Kato, Katsuhiko; Hatazawa, Jun

    2013-03-01

    A silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for high resolution PET systems due to its small channel size and high gain. Using Si-PMs, it will be possible to develop a high resolution imaging systems. For this purpose, we developed a small field-of-view (FOV) ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system for small animals and plant research. A new scintillator, Ce doped Gd3Al12Ga3O12 (GAGG), was selected because of its high light output and its emission wavelength matched with the Si-PM arrays and contained no radioactivity. Each coincidence imaging block detector consists of 0.5×0.5×5 mm3 GAGG pixels combined with a 0.1-mm thick reflector to form a 20×17 matrix that was optically coupled to a Si-PM array (Hamamatsu MPPC S11064-050P) with a 1.5-mm thick light guide. The GAGG block size was 12.0×10.2 mm2. Two GAGG block detectors were positioned face to face and set on a flexible arm based detector stand. All 0.5 mm GAGG pixels in the block detectors were clearly resolved in the 2-dimensional position histogram. The energy resolution was 14.4% FWHM for the Cs-137 gamma ray. The spatial resolution was 0.7 mm FWHM measured using a 0.25 mm diameter Na-22 point source. Small animal and plant images were successfully obtained. We conclude that our developed ultrahigh-resolution Si-PM-based dual-head coincidence imaging system is promising for small animal and plant imaging research.

  16. Combined in-beam gamma-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with radioactive ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konki J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In-beam gamma-ray and electron spectroscopy have been widely used as tools to study the broad variety of phenomena in nuclear structure. The SPEDE spectrometer is a new device to be used in conjunction with the MINIBALL germanium detector array to enable the detection of internal conversion electrons in coincidence with gamma rays from de-exciting nuclei in radioactive ion beam experiments at the upcoming HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN, Switzerland. Geant4 simulations were carried out in order to optimise the design and segmentation of the silicon detector to achieve good energy resolution and performance.

  17. Calculation of the secondary gamma radiation by the Monte Carlo method at displaced sampling from distributed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Eh.E.; Fadeev, I.A.

    1979-01-01

    A possibility to use displaced sampling from a bulk gamma source in calculating the secondary gamma fields by the Monte Carlo method is discussed. The algorithm proposed is based on the concept of conjugate functions alongside the dispersion minimization technique. For the sake of simplicity a plane source is considered. The algorithm has been put into practice on the M-220 computer. The differential gamma current and flux spectra in 21cm-thick lead have been calculated. The source of secondary gamma-quanta was assumed to be a distributed, constant and isotropic one emitting 4 MeV gamma quanta with the rate of 10 9 quanta/cm 3 xs. The calculations have demonstrated that the last 7 cm of lead are responsible for the whole gamma spectral pattern. The spectra practically coincide with the ones calculated by the ROZ computer code. Thus the algorithm proposed can be offectively used in the calculations of secondary gamma radiation transport and reduces the computation time by 2-4 times

  18. Method of summation of amplitudes of coinciding pulses from Ge(Li) detectors used to study cascades of gamma-transitions in (n,#betta#) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdzel', A.A.; Vasil'eva, Eh.V.; Elizarov, O.I.

    1982-01-01

    Main performanes and peculiarities of spectrometer based on the coincidence pulse amplitude total-count method and containing two Ge(La) detectors with transmission neutron spectrometer - IBR-30 pulse reactor are considered. It is shown on the 35 Cl(n, #betta#) reaction that the method of summalion of amplitudes of coinciding pulses from the Ge(Li) detector can be used to study the cascades of two #betta#-transitions with a total energy similar to the neutron binding energy. The shape of the response function of this spectrometer was studied versus the energies of #betta#-transition cascades

  19. Using a Borated Panel to Form a Dual Neutron-Gamma Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Wilde; Raymond Keegan

    2008-06-20

    A borated polyethylene plane placed between a neutron source and a gamma spectrometer is used to form a dual neutron-gamma detection system. The polyethylene thermalizes the source neutrons so that they are captured by {sup 10}B to produce a flux of 478 keV gamma-rays that radiate from the plane. This results in a buildup of count rate in the detector over that from a disk of the same diameter as the detector crystal (same thickness as the panel). Radiation portal systems are a potential application of this technique.

  20. Elastic scattering of gamma radiation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, O.D.

    1987-01-01

    The elastic scattering of gamma rays in solids is studied: Rayleigh scattering as well as Bragg scattering in Laue geometries. We measured Rayleigh cross sections for U, Pb, Pt, W, Sn, Ag, Mo, Cd, Zn, and Cu with gamma energies ranging from 60 to 660 KeV and angles between 5 0 and 140 0 . The experimental data are compared with form factor theories and second order perturbation theories and the limits of validity of both are established. In the 60 KeV experiment, a competition between Rayleigh and Bragg effects is found in the region of low momentum transfer. The Bragg experiments were performed using the gamma ray diffractometer from the Hahn-Meitner Institut (Berlin) with gammas of 317 KeV and angles up to 2 0 . In particular, we studied the effect of annealing in nearly perfect Czochralski Silicon crystals with high perfection in the crystallographic structure. The results are compared with Kinematical and Dynamical theories. (author)

  1. Development of an Apparatus for High-Resolution Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) and Electron Ion Coincidence (EICO) Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Takuhiro; Hashimoto, Shogo; Fujita, Narihiko; Mase, Kazuhiko; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Okusawa, Makoto

    We have developed an electron electron ion coincidence (EEICO) apparatus for high-resolution Auger photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy (APECS) and electron ion coincidence (EICO) spectroscopy. It consists of a coaxially symmetric mirror electron energy analyzer (ASMA), a miniature double-pass cylindrical mirror electron energy analyzer (DP-CMA), a miniature time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer (TOF-MS), a magnetic shield, an xyz stage, a tilt-adjustment mechanism, and a conflat flange with an outer diameter of 203 mm. A sample surface was irradiated by synchrotron radiation, and emitted electrons were energy-analyzed and detected by the ASMA and the DP-CMA, while desorbed ions were mass-analyzed and detected by the TOF-MS. The performance of the new EEICO analyzer was evaluated by measuring Si 2p photoelectron spectra of clean Si(001)-2×1 and Si(111)-7×7, and by measuring Si-L23VV-Si-2p Auger photoelectron coincidence spectra (Si-L23VV-Si-2p APECS) of clean Si(001)-2×1.

  2. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  3. Irradiation damage in gamma lithium aluminate - LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvray-Gely, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Single crystals of gamma lithium aluminate (of tetragonal structure) are irradiated) with various projectiles (electrons, He ions, protons, X and gamma photons) and we used (i) electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption to detect the defects produced, and (ii) transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The lithium aluminate single crystals irradiated with electrons or ions contain five different paramagnetic defects. Each of them has several anisotropic configurations whose EPR signals (i) have a Lande factor close to 2, (ii) exhibit a resolved hyperfine structure and (iii) are identical only when the static magnetic field is along /001/. In addition, four optical absorption bands appear in the range 1-6 eV in the same irradiation conditions. But only three among the five paramagnetic defects and one of the optical bands appear in X-and gamma-ray irradiated samples. Using these observations, we discuss the nature of the detected defects and we conclude about the type of their production mechanism. Particularly, we assign a six-line EPR signal and an optical band in the ultraviolet range to the F + -centre. We compare this hypothesis to a defect model based on the computation of approximate electronic wave functions using the variational method. Our TEM study shows that when gamma-LiAlO 2 single crystals are irradiated with 1 MeV electrons (fluence: 10 20 electrons/sqcm), tridimensional defects (of mean dimension 100 nm) appear. At lower energies, the defect production is hidden by a thermal effect that is sufficient to induce the evaporation of lithium oxyde and the formation of LiAl 5 0 8 [fr

  4. Research progress in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1974-01-01

    Progress during the last few years in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation, i.e. in the measuring, recording, and interpreting of gamma ray signals in NaI(Tl) crystals, is discussed. Non-terrestrial background contributions have been accurately characterized. The feasibility of determining the water equivalent of snow cover by aerial survey techniques has been demonstrated. Repeat surveys over areas surrounding reactor sites can now be used to detect average differences of less than 1.0 μR/hr in terrestrial gamma radiation levels. New data acquisition and recording systems allow isotope concentrations and total inventories to be measured in spatial resolutions of a few hundred feet. Aerial survey data have been combined with population distribution data to obtain population exposure values from natural terrestrial gamma radiation around reactor sites

  5. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  6. Thermal desensitization of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernov, V.; Rogalev, B.; Afonin, G. (Institute of Geochemistry, Irkutsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-01-01

    The thermoluminescence sensitivity variation of gamma irradiated LiF:Mg,Ti after annealing at temperatures of 300-500[sup o]C has been studied. This variation is shown to be due to concurrent processes of sensitization and damage. Annealing of irradiated crystals leads to the restoration of the initial sensitivity. The damage decay time is approximately an order of magnitude greater than the decay time of the sensitization. The experimental data are interpreted quantitatively within the scope of included gamma track overlapping. (author).

  7. A comparative study of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 based gamma-ray spectrometers for planetary remote sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, A; Mitrofanov, I; Owens, A; Quarati, F; Benkhoff, J; Bakhtin, B; Fedosov, F; Golovin, D; Litvak, M; Malakhov, A; Mokrousov, M; Nuzhdin, I; Sanin, A; Tretyakov, V; Vostrukhin, A; Timoshenko, G; Shvetsov, V; Granja, C; Slavicek, T; Pospisil, S

    2016-08-01

    The recent availability of large volume cerium bromide crystals raises the possibility of substantially improving gamma-ray spectrometer limiting flux sensitivities over current systems based on the lanthanum tri-halides, e.g., lanthanum bromide and lanthanum chloride, especially for remote sensing, low-level counting applications or any type of measurement characterized by poor signal to noise ratios. The Russian Space Research Institute has developed and manufactured a highly sensitive gamma-ray spectrometer for remote sensing observations of the planet Mercury from the Mercury Polar Orbiter (MPO), which forms part of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The Flight Model (FM) gamma-ray spectrometer is based on a 3-in. single crystal of LaBr3(Ce(3+)) produced in a separate crystal development programme specifically for this mission. During the spectrometers development, manufacturing, and qualification phases, large crystals of CeBr3 became available in a subsequent phase of the same crystal development programme. Consequently, the Flight Spare Model (FSM) gamma-ray spectrometer was retrofitted with a 3-in. CeBr3 crystal and qualified for space. Except for the crystals, the two systems are essentially identical. In this paper, we report on a comparative assessment of the two systems, in terms of their respective spectral properties, as well as their suitability for use in planetary mission with respect to radiation tolerance and their propensity for activation. We also contrast their performance with a Ge detector representative of that flown on MESSENGER and show that: (a) both LaBr3(Ce(3+)) and CeBr3 provide superior detection systems over HPGe in the context of minimally resourced spacecraft and (b) CeBr3 is a more attractive system than LaBr3(Ce(3+)) in terms of sensitivities at lower gamma fluxes. Based on the tests, the FM has now been replaced by the FSM on the BepiColombo spacecraft. Thus, CeBr3 now forms the central gamma-ray detection element on the MPO spacecraft.

  8. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  9. Gamma-Ray Dosimetry System Using Radiation-Resistant Optical Fibers and a Luminescent Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamagishi, H.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.; Shikama, T.; Nagata, S.

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-ray dosimetry system using radiation-resistant optical fibers and a luminescent material was developed for use in a damaged Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The system was designed to be compact and unnecessary of an external supply of electricity to a radiation sensor head with a contaminated working environment and restricted through-holes to a measurement point in the damaged reactor. The system can detect a gamma-ray dose rate at a measurement point using a couple of optical fibers and a luminescent material with a coincidence method. This system demonstrated a linear response with respect to the gamma-ray dose rate from 0.5 mGy/h to 0.1 Gy/h and the system had a capability to measure the dose rate of more than 10 2 Gy/h. (authors)

  10. Disorder effects on free excitons in CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goede, O.; Hennig, D.; John, L.

    1979-01-01

    In CdSsub(1-x)Sesub(x) mixed crystals the energies and transition probability ratios for free A, B, and C excitons are obtained as a function of the composition x by reflection and emission measurements at 77 K. The observation of the disorder-allowed A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition, the bowing of the energy difference between A and C exciton, and the broadening of the exciton lines clearly demonstrate the importance of disorder effects in these mixed crystals. This conclusion is further supported by the stress-induced enhancement of the A(GAMMA 6 ) exciton transition probability by uniaxial stress parallel to the c-axis of the mixed crystals. The experimental results are discussed on the basis of an effective exciton Hamiltonian consisting of a quasi-cubic VCA-Hamiltonian for wurtzite-type mixed crystals and an additional lower-symmetric term which describes the disorder effects phenomenologically by two fluctuating crystal fields parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis, respectively. (author)

  11. High coincidence-to-accidental ratio continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a grating-coupled silicon strip waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Kai; Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a very high coincidence-to-accidental ratio of 673 using continuous-wave photon-pair generation in a silicon strip waveguide through spontaneous four-wave mixing. This result is obtained by employing on-chip photonic-crystal-based grating couplers for both low-loss fiber......-to-chip coupling and on-chip suppression of generated spontaneous Raman scattering noise. We measure a minimum heralded second-order correlation of g(H)((2)) (0) = 0.12, demonstrating that our source operates in the single- photon regime with low noise. (C) 2017 The Japan Society of Applied Physics...

  12. High resolution detectors based on continuous crystals and SiPMs for small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, J.; Barrillon, P.; Barrio, J.; Bisogni, M.G.; Del Guerra, A.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Saikouk, H.; Solaz, C.; Solevi, P.; La Taille, C. de; Llosá, G.

    2013-01-01

    Sensitivity and spatial resolution are the two main factors to maximize in emission imaging. The improvement of one factor deteriorates the other with pixelated crystals. In this work we combine SiPM matrices with monolithic crystals, using an accurate γ-ray interaction position determination algorithm that provides depth of interaction. Continuous crystals provide higher sensitivity than pixelated crystals, while an accurate interaction position determination does not degrade the spatial resolution. Monte Carlo simulations and experimental data show good agreement both demonstrating sub-millimetre intrinsic spatial resolution. A system consisting in two rotating detectors in coincidence is currently under operation already producing tomographic images

  13. Assessment of the geometric coincidence of neutron and gamma probe measurements with solo 40 and CPN 501 B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, V.; Guiresse, M.; Tcherbakov, R.

    1989-01-01

    The distance between the gamma and neutron probe measurement centres was determined for the Nardeux Solo 40 and CPN 501 B probes. The centre of the spheres of influence was localized using a water-air interface constituted by a metal cylinder filled with 200 liters of water. For Solo 40, the discrepancy between the two measurement centres was 6 cm. This shift value, which is quite acceptable, does not require any correction for these measurements, even when the soil is heterogeneous. For CNP 501 B, the discrepancy between the neutron and gamma measurement was 11 cm, i.e. nearly twice the value observed with Solo 40. In soils with a marked vertical heterogeneity, it therefore seems preferable to operate a 11 cm shift of the probe between the moisture and density measurements [fr

  14. Contribution to knowledge of radiation damage in KCl crystals doped with Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, G.-M.A.A.

    1974-11-01

    The radiation damages in KCl crystals doped with Sr ++ using thermo-ionic technique (ITC) and optical absorption measurements were studied. The variation of the entropy for the dipole jump starting from results reported by several authors was calculated. The irradiation effects with three different exposures were analysed: irradiation with gamma rays; irradiation with fast neutrons added to gamma irradiation; and irradiation with thermal neutrons together with fast neutrons and gamma rays. (Author) [pt

  15. High rate 4π β-γ coincidence counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.O.; Gehrke, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    A high count rate 4π β-γ coincidence counting system for the determination of absolute disintegration rates of short half-life radionuclides is described. With this system the dead time per pulse is minimized by not stretching any pulses beyond the width necessary to satisfy overlap coincidence requirements. The equations used to correct for the β, γ, and coincidence channel dead times and for accidental coincidences are presented but not rigorously developed. Experimental results are presented for a decaying source of 56 Mn initially at 2 x 10 6 d/s and a set of 60 Co sources of accurately known source strengths varying from 10 3 to 2 x 10 6 d/s. A check of the accidental coincidence equation for the case of two independent sources with varying source strengths is presented

  16. Basic principles of 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography uses photons to receive regional information about dynamic, physiologic, and biochemical processes in the living body. A positron decay is measured indirectly by the simultaneous registration of both gamma rays created by the annihilation. The event is counted, if two directly opposite located detectors register gamma rays in coincidence. Unfortunately the detectors of a positron emission tomography system do not register only true coincident events. There are also scattered and random coincidences. Different types of positron tomographs are presented and scintillation crystals, which are in use for positron emission tomography are discussed. The 2D- and 3D-acquisition methods are described as well as preprocessing methods, such as correction for attenuation, scatter and dead time. For quantification the relative parameter standard uptake value (SUV) is explained. Finally hybrid systems, such as combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography scanners and the use of computed tomography data for attenuation correction are introduced. (author)

  17. Correlation of the crystal orientation and electrical properties of silicon thin films on glass crystallized by line focus diode laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Huang, J.; Teal, A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Suntech R& D Australia, Botany, NSW 2019 (Australia); Varlamov, S.; Green, M.A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2016-06-30

    In this work, crystallographic orientation of polycrystalline silicon films on glass formed by continuous wave diode laser crystallization was studied. Most of the grain boundaries were coincidence lattice Σ3 twin boundaries and other types of boundaries such as, Σ6, Σ9, and Σ21 were also frequently observed. The highest photoluminescence signal and mobility were observed for a grain with (100) orientation in the normal direction. X-ray diffraction results showed the highest occupancies between 41 and 70% along the (110) orientation. However, the highest occupancies changed to (100) orientation when a 100 nm thick SiO{sub x} capping layer was applied. Suns-Voc measurement and photoluminescence showed that higher solar cell performance is obtained from the cell crystallized with the capping layer, which is suspected from increased occupancies of (100) orientation. - Highlights: • Linear grains parallel to the scan direction formed with high density. • Σ3 coincidence lattice (CSL) boundaries found inside a grain • Grain boundaries exhibit various CSL boundaries such as Σ9, Σ18, and Σ27. • Grain with < 100 > orientation in normal direction showed highest electrical properties. • Improved voltage observed when percentage of < 100 > normal orientation is increased.

  18. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  19. A magnetic-lens - mini-orange coincidence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargholtz, C.; Holmberg, L.; Ruus, N.; Tegner, P.E.; Weiss, G.

    1997-04-01

    A coincidence spectrometer consisting of a Gerholm type magnetic lens and a permanent magnet mini-orange spectrometer is described. Electron-electron or electron-positron coincidences may be registered in various angular settings. The spectrometer has been developed mainly to search for anomalous contributions to Bhabha scattering or positrons and is at present used for such studies. 6 refs

  20. Slow coincidences for CAMAC multiparameter analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, Yu.K.; Kalinin, A.I.; Tissol'd, E.; Fromm, V.D.; Ekstein, P.

    1978-01-01

    A coincidence circuit with controlled parameters is described. The circuit has six coincidence inputs and one input for anticoincidences. A pulse duration in channels is changed from 0.25 to 5 μs and delay time, within 8 μs. The circuit is developed for multiparameter spectrometric analysis with the use of amplitude-digital and time-digital convertors. Its introduction permits one to diminish considerably the ''dead'' time of apparatus and to select rapidly and reliably strictly correlated digital information from convertors

  1. Can past gamma-ray bursts explain both INTEGRAL and ATIC/PAMELA/Fermi anomalies simultaneously?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvez, Antoine; Kusenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been invoked to explain both the 511 keV emission from the Galactic bulge and the high-energy positron excess inferred from the ATIC, PAMELA, and Fermi data. While independent explanations can be responsible for these phenomena, we explore the possibility of their common GRB-related origin by modeling the GRB distribution and estimating the rates. For an expected Milky Way long GRB rate, neither of the two signals is generic; the local excess requires a 2% coincidence while the signal from the Galactic center requires a 20% coincidence with respect to the timing of the latest GRB. The simultaneous explanation requires a 0.4% coincidence. Considering the large number of statistical 'trials' created by multiple searches for new physics, the coincidences of a few percent cannot be dismissed as unlikely. Alternatively, both phenomena can be explained by GRB if the Galactic rate is higher than expected. We also show that a similar result is difficult to obtain assuming a simplified short GRB distribution.

  2. Proton current measurements using the prompt gamma ray diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeper, R.J.; Burns, E.J.T.; Johnson, D.J.; McMurtry, W.M.

    1981-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray signals from the nuclear reaction 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be have been used to make time resolved proton current measurements. In these measurements, the proton beam was allowed to strike cylindrical thick lithium metal targets. The time integrated proton current was measured using gamma activation of copper via the reaction 63 Cu(γ,n) 62 Cu(β+). The positron activity of the copper sample was easily measured using coincidence counting techniques. The number of 62 Cu atoms produced per proton incident on a thick Li metal target was determined with separate calibration runs performed on the Sandia 2.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator. The time history of the prompt gamma production was measured using six EGG NPM-54 scintillator photomultiplier combinations shielded by 96.5 cm of concrete and 5.1 cm of Pb. The use of six scintillator photomultiplier combinations was necessary to increase the statistical precision of the data. The normalization of the prompt gamma time history data with the total time integrated proton-current measurement yielded the absolute time resolved proton current on target. Data from runs performed on the Sandia Proto I accelerator will be presented

  3. Gamma-radiation effect on diamond and steel during their irradiation in WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaenko, V.A.; Karpukhin, V.I.; Amaev, A.D.; Vikhrov, V.I.; Korolev, Yu.N.; Krasikov, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    A study is made into the influence of reactor gamma radiation on expansion of crystal lattice in diamond. The data obtained are compared to those on radiation embrittlement of reactor vessel steels. The necessity of taking into consideration gamma radiation effects on WWER reactor vessel radiation resistance during long-term operation is shown [ru

  4. De-excitation gamma-ray technique for improved resolution in intermediate energy photonuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.; Thompson, M.N.; Rassool, R.; Adler, J.O.; Fissum, K.; Issaksson, L.; Ruijter, H.; Schroeder, B.; Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Crawford, G.I.; Gregel, J.

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (γ,p) reaction was studied. The experiment was done at the MAX Laboratory of Lund University, using tagged photons with energy between 50 and 70 MeV and natural carbon targets. It has been possible to detect γ-ray emitted from the residual nucleus, in coincidence with photoprotons leading to the excited residual state. The 200 KeV gamma-ray resolution permitted the identification of the residual states and allowed off-line cuts to be made in order to identify the excitation region in 11 B from what particular de-excitation gamma-ray were seen. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  5. A position sensitive gamma-ray detector which employs photodiode and CsI (T1) crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.J.; Graham, G.; Hopkins, C.J.; Ramsden, D.; Lei, M.

    1987-01-01

    A compact CsI(Tl)/photodiode gamma-ray detector is described which is capable of locating the point of interaction of incident gamma-ray photons in the spectral region around 1 MeV. Laboratory tests are used to quantify both the spectral and positional resolutions of the detectors. Their likely application in space gamma-ray astronomy is also discussed

  6. Phenomenon of ''self-cleaning'' of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, O.A.; Arkad'eva, E.N.; Goncharov, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Crystals of germanium and cadmium telluride have been produced having the characteristics corresponding to the low content of electrically active impurities and crystal defects. The crystals have been grown under conditions of an equilibrium diffusion-concentration interaction of the impurities and crystal defects, with the donor alloying and controlling the acceptors concentration. These crystals have been studied with the help of the mass-spectral analysis, the Hall effect, photoelectroscopy, spectral photoconductivity and losses of collection of a charge from an ionizing particle on gamma-detectors fabricated of the crystals. Herein the doped composition of the crystals has been determined, the concentrations of the shallow and deep acceptors and donors have been measured separately, the life-times of the electrons and holes have been measured, the energetic position and the concentration of the carrier capture levels have been determined. The crystals grown possess all the characteristic features of rather pure crystals. The results of the mass-spectral analysis have shown that in the cadmium telluride crystals the impurities are present within 10 14 to 10 17 cm -3 . Therefore, a deep ''self-refining'' of the crystal takes place, which proceeds by means of deactivation of the electrically active centers with their associating into electrically inactive complexes. Thus a fact of the deep ''self-refining'' of germanium- and cadmium telluride crystals is stated. It is presumed that such a ''self-refining'' can actually proceed practically in all the crystals

  7. On the determination of iridium in diverse geological samples employing HPGe-coincidence/NaI(Tl)-anticoincidence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, A. V.; Parekh, P. P.; Cumming, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the Ir content of a variety of geological samples determined by the high-purity Ge-coincidence/NaI(Tl)-anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry (henceforth referred to as coincidence/anticoincidence technique) and by the conventional INAA. The advantages of this technique are: (1) the Ir content of the samples is obtained (ppm to a fraction of ppb ranges) not only by the 468.1 keV peak as in the conventional INAA but also by the 784.6 keV and 920.9 keV sum peaks, which gives more confidence in the values obtained; and (2) it is well suited for the samples with high Compton background for which it is difficult to measure the Ir content by the conventional INAA technique. The practical sensitivity of this technique depends on the sample matrix. Under present experimental conditions, it varied from 0.1 ng for Mn nodules and 0.004 ng for Libyan Desert Glass. Iridium values obtained on small (about 1 microg) olivine grains demonstrate the potential application of this new technique to microsamples. The principle and methodology of this new technique as well as its advantages and disadvantages over the conventional INAA are discussed.

  8. Portable scintillation gamma-spectrometer for field measurement of radioactivity in extensive objects; Portativnyj stsintillyatsionnyj gamma-spektrometr dlya izmereniya radioaktivnosti ob''emnykh sred v polevykh usloviyakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besshejko, O. A. [Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv (Ukraine); Vishnevskij, I. N.; Denisenko, R. V.; Malyuk, I. A.; Petrosyan, Eh. E. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Karpenko, S. A.; Prijmak, V. N. [Ukrainian Association for Valves Industry, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    The portable scintillated gamma-spectrometer for field measurement of radioactivity in the volume objects was designed. The crystal CdWO{sub 4} that has weak dependence of light yield from temperature in combination with PMT was applied as the gamma-rays detector. The design of the device provides the possibility for measuring radioactivity of the extensive objects in 4{pi}-geometry without background measurements. In this case the value of the efficiency needed for specific activity calculation in close approximation depends only from crystal geometry and density of measuring object and may be set as the device parameter without efficiency calibration procedure during the operation. The spectrometer does not have an auxiliary radio-active source and connecting cables in the composition. The smartphone operated under Windows Mobile is used as the control module. Bluetooth connection provides data exchange between smartphone and measurement head.

  9. True-coincidence correction when using an LEPD for the determination of the lanthanides in the environment via k0-based INAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, M C; De Corte, F

    1994-01-01

    As part of a recent study on the environmental effects caused by the operation of a coal-fired power station at Sines, Portugal, k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for the determination of the lanthanides (and also of tantalum and uranium) in plant leaves and lichens. In view of the accuracy and sensitivity of the determinations, it was advantageous to make use of a low-energy photon detector (LEPD). To begin with, in the present article, a survey is given of the former developments leading to user-friendly procedures for detection efficiency calibration of the LEPD and for correction for true-coincidence (cascade summing) effects. As a continuation of this, computer coincidence correction factors are now tabulated for the relevant low-energetic gamma-rays of the analytically interesting lanthanide, tantalum, and uranium radionuclides. Also the 140.5-keV line of 99Mo/99mTc is included, molybdenum being the comparator chosen when counting using an LEPD.

  10. First experimental observation of double-photon Compton scattering using single gamma detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, B.S.; Saddi, M.B.; Singh, B.; Ghumman, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The phenomenon of double-photon Compton scattering has been successfully observed using single gamma detector, a technique avoiding the use of complicated slow-fast coincidence set-up used till now for observing this higher order process. Here doubly differentiated collision cross-section integrated over direction of one of the two final photons, the direction of other one being kept fixed, has been measured experimentally for 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons. The energy spectra of the detected photons are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on the lower side of the full energy peak in the recorded scattered energy spectrum. The presen