WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal display part

  1. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  2. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  3. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  4. Liquid crystal displays for aircraft engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko L. F.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Operating conditions for liquid-crystal displays of aircraft instruments have been examined. Requirements to engineering of a liquid-crystal display for operation in severe environment have been formulated. The implementation options for liquid-crystal matrix illumination have been analyzed in order to ensure the sufficient brightness depending on external illumination of a display screen.

  5. Identification of Text and Symbols on a Liquid Crystal Display Part I: Characterisation of the Luminance, Temporal and Spectral Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Association of Physicists in Medicine set up the AAPM Task Group 18 to establish standards for medical displays, and this group recommended that luminance...Using CRT-Generated Stimuli. Color Research and Application, 24(3), 164-176. TG18, A. (2005). AAPM On-Line Report No. 03. Assessment of Display...for Medical Imaging Systems: Executive Summary of AAPM TG18 Report. Medical Physics, 32(4), 1205-1225. 29 DSTO-TN-0770 30 Appendix A

  6. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  7. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  8. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  9. Liquid Crystal Microlenses for Autostereoscopic Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Algorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional vision has acquired great importance in the audiovisual industry in the past ten years. Despite this, the first generation of autostereoscopic displays failed to generate enough consumer excitement. Some reasons are little 3D content and performance issues. For this reason, an exponential increase in three-dimensional vision research has occurred in the last few years. In this review, a study of the historical impact of the most important technologies has been performed. This study is carried out in terms of research manuscripts per year. The results reveal that research on spatial multiplexing technique is increasing considerably and today is the most studied. For this reason, the state of the art of this technique is presented. The use of microlenses seems to be the most successful method to obtain autostereoscopic vision. When they are fabricated with liquid crystal materials, extended capabilities are produced. Among the numerous techniques for manufacturing liquid crystal microlenses, this review covers the most viable designs for its use in autostereoscopic displays. For this reason, some of the most important topologies and their relation with autostereoscopic displays are presented. Finally, the challenges in some recent applications, such as portable devices, and the future of three-dimensional displays based on liquid crystal microlenses are outlined.

  10. Latest Developments In Liquid Crystal Television Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Shinji; Oguchi, Kouichi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    1984-06-01

    This paper will discuss developments in liquid crystal (LC) television displays, mainly for pocket-size TV sets. There are two types of LC television displays. One is a simple multiplexing type, and the other is an active matrix type. The former type is an easier way to fabricate large and low-cost LC panels than the latter. However, it has serious drawbacks. The contrast gets lower as the duty ratio gets higher. Therefore the TV image of this type inevitably has rather low contrast and resolution. On the other hand, the active matrix type, which consists of active elements in each pixel, has several advantages in overcoming such problems. The metal oxide semiconductor transistors and the amorphous or polycrystalline Si thin-film transistors (TFTs) have possibilities in this application. A full-color LC display, which can be realized by the combina-tion of color filters and poly Si TFT arrays on a transparent substrate, was proven to have excellent color image, close to that of conventional CRTs. Here, several examples of LC television displays, including color, are shown. Some of them are already on the market, and others will be soon.

  11. Crystal structure of a human rhinovirus that displays part of the HIV-1 V3 loop and induces neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianping; Smith, Allen D; Geisler, Sheila C; Ma, Xuejun; Arnold, Gail Ferstandig; Arnold, Eddy

    2002-07-01

    We report the 2.7 A resolution structure of a chimeric rhinovirus, MN-III-2, that displays part of the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop and elicits HIV-neutralizing antibodies. The V3 loop insert is dominated by two type I beta turns. The structures of two adjacent tripeptides resemble those of analogous segments in three Fab/V3 loop peptide complexes. Although two of the three corresponding antibodies bind and neutralize MN-III-2 well, only one of the three can bind without significant rearrangement. These results suggest that the V3 loop insert: (1) can share some local conformational similarity to V3 loop sequences presented on different structural frameworks; (2) must be able to adopt multiple conformations, even in a relatively constrained environment; and (3) may mimic the conformational variability of the epitope on HIV-1, increasing the likelihood of eliciting appropriate neutralizing immune responses.

  12. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  13. Micropatterning with a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Photolithography has been applied to biological applications such as cell and protein micropatterning and the fabrication of microfluidic channels. However, the preparation of photomasks for projecting micropattern lighting images is often time consuming and costly. Therefore, we have developed maskless photolithography devices by modifying the optics of commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors from extended to reduced projection. The developed second and third devices produce practically a centimeter-scale micropattern by dividing an original large mask pattern into several patterns, which are individually and synchronously exposed to substrates with a motorized XY-stage, applying them to cell micropatterning and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device production. The first part of this chapter describes the developments of the maskless photolithography devices. The second part describes the exposure control system with a motorized XY-stage. The third part describes the applications of devices to cell micropatterning. The last part describes the application of the devices to the fabrication of the PDMS microfluidic channel. Maskless photolithography with an LCD projector has a large advantage with no requirement for a photomask. In particular, the maskless photolithography devices show a greater power by optimizing the conditions of pattern size and shape.

  14. High Performance Negative Dielectric Anisotropy Liquid Crystals for Display Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Song

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We review recent progress in the development of high birefringence (Δn ≥ 0.12 negative dielectric anisotropy (Δε < 0 liquid crystals (LCs for direct-view and projection displays. For mobile displays, our UCF-N2 (low viscosity, negative Δε, high Δn based homogeneous alignment fringe-field switching (called n-FFS mode exhibits superior performance to p-FFS in transmittance, single gamma curve, cell gap insensitivity, and negligible flexoelectric effect. For projection displays using a vertical alignment liquid-crystal-on-silicon (VA LCOS, our high birefringence UCF-N3 mixture enables a submillisecond gray-to-gray response time, which is essential for color sequential displays without noticeable color breakup. Our low viscosity UCF-N2 also enables multi-domain VA displays to use a thinner cell gap for achieving faster response time.

  15. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  16. Liquid crystal displays with high brightness of visualization versus active displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olifierczuk, Marek; Zieliński, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Nowadays Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) takes the very important place among different visualization devices. It's are used in many standard applications such as computer or video screens. In May 2006, 100" LCD TV monitor had been shown by LG. But beside of this main direction of display development, very interesting - because of insignificant electro-magnetic disturbances - is the possibility of it's applications in motorization and aviation. An example of it can be a glass cockpit of U2 , Boeing 777 or many different car dashboards. On this field beside LCD we have now many another display technologies, but interesting for us are 3 of them: FEDs (Field Emission Displays), OLEDs (Organic Light Emitting Diode), PLEDs (Polymer Light Emitting Diode). The leading position of LCD is a result of LCD unique advantages of flat form, weight, power consumption, and reliability, higher (than CRT) luminance, luminance uniformity, sunlight readability, wide dimming range, fault tolerance and a large active display area with a small border. The basis of starting our investigation was the comparison of passive LCD and the other technology, which can be theoretically used on motorization and aviation field. The following parameters are compared: contrast ratio, luminance level, temperature stability, life-time, operating temperature range, color performance, and depth, viewing cone, technology maturity, availability and cost. In our work an analysis of Liquid Crystal Displays used in specific applications is done. The possibilities of the applications such a display under high lighting level are presented. The presented results of this analysis are obtained from computer program worked by authors, which makes it possible to calculate the optical parameters of transmissive and reflective LCD working in quasi-real conditions. The base assumption of this program are shown. This program calculate the transmission and reflection coefficient of a display taking into account the

  17. Thermal modeling of laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.

    1990-06-01

    Optical-absorption calculations and finite-element methods are used to calculate time-dependent temperature profiles in two contrasting laser-addressed liquid-crystal displays. It is shown that the presence of conducting electrode layers has a significant effect on the temperature profiles both by affecting the optical-absorption characteristics of the cell and the resulting thermal conductivity. It is shown that efficient optical absorption does not necessarily result in the best cell-addressing performance.

  18. Green backlighting for TV liquid crystal display using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepierre, Gabriel; Mahfouz, Rami; Cadete Santos Aires, Francisco J.; Dijon, Jean

    2010-08-01

    A methodology to evaluate the emission characteristics of carbon nanotube layers in the context of liquid crystal display backlighting has been elaborated. Carbon nanotube layers with emission characteristics compatible with backlighting have been demonstrated for growth temperature as low as 400 °C, thanks to the use of plasma pretreatment before growth. This very low growth temperature allows to use soda lime glass for the backlight unit and thus to expect very low cost and very low power consumption devices with this technology.

  19. Fast-response liquid crystal display by the VA-IPS display mode with nematic liquid crystal and polymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Jung; Lin, Guan-Jhong; Chen, Bo-Yu; Wu, Jin-Jei; Yang, Ying-Jay

    2012-10-01

    To improve electrooptical characteristics of the vertical aligned (VA) liquid crystal displays (LCDs), the monomer material and in-plane switching (IPS) field produced by interdigital electrodes are employed in LC cells. The fast switching response and well optical transmittance of the VA-IPS display mode are successfully achieved by mixing the nematic LC with polymer networks, attributed to the surface anchoring, and the molecular orientation of the LC cell will be further governed, especially under the greater applied voltage. Furthermore, the high concentration doping of the monomer can effectively improve the response behavior, but it also results in the transmittance sacrificed due to the light scattering, and the threshold voltage (Vth) increased.

  20. Recovery of valuable materials from waste liquid crystal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Gao, Song; Duan, Huabo; Liu, Lili

    2009-07-01

    Associated with the rapid development of the information and electronic industry, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been increasingly sold as displays. However, during the discarding at their end-of-life stage, significant environmental hazards, impacts on health and a loss of resources may occur, if the scraps are not managed in an appropriate way. In order to improve the efficiency of the recovery of valuable materials from waste LCDs panel in an environmentally sound manner, this study presents a combined recycling technology process on the basis of manual dismantling and chemical treatment of LCDs. Three key processes of this technology have been studied, including the separation of LCD polarizing film by thermal shock method the removal of liquid crystals between the glass substrates by the ultrasonic cleaning, and the recovery of indium metal from glass by dissolution. The results show that valuable materials (e.g. indium) and harmful substances (e.g. liquid crystals) could be efficiently recovered or separated through above-mentioned combined technology. The optimal conditions are: (1) the peak temperature of thermal shock to separate polarizing film, ranges from 230 to 240 degrees C, where pyrolysis could be avoided; (2) the ultrasonic-assisted cleaning was most efficient at a frequency of 40 KHz (P = 40 W) and the exposure of the substrate to industrial detergents for 10 min; and (3) indium separation from glass in a mix of concentrated hydrochloric acid at 38% and nitric acid at 69% (HCl:HNO(3):H(2)O = 45:5:50, volume ratio). The indium separation process was conducted with an exposure time of 30 min at a constant temperature of 60 degrees C.

  1. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming

    2017-04-05

    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling.

  2. An Adaptive Algorithm of Local dimming for Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxia Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The local dimming backlight technique enables liquid crystal display to present images with high contrast ratio and low power consumption. Considering that it is more important to make sure a high quality of the displayed image when reducing the power consumption, therefore, in this paper the new algorithm chooses RPSNR (the peak signal-to-noise ratio =30 as the lowest standard to guarantee the quality of image. RPSNR =30 could provide a value that the maximum distortion of the image can be accepted, then, we substitute the maximum gray level of each region into the formula to judge whether satisfy the flow chart. If the value do not meet the condition, we decrease it one by one until find the right value. Finally, we take the luminance of the right value as backlight luminance.   Meanwhile, a method is also proposed in this paper to simplify the calculation time. Successive searches will be made on the basis of the n (ranging from 0.1 to 1 times of the maximum luminance, and stop when RPSNR>=30. However, in order to guarantee the quality of the image, the 0.7 times of the maximum luminance is used as the minimum backlight luminance. In the end, we only choose 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 times of the maximum luminance as backlight luminance.

  3. Application of pyrolysis process to remove and recover liquid crystal and films from waste liquid crystal display glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rixin; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-12-01

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) glass mainly consists of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrate. Removing and recovering the liquid crystal and films from the LCD glass effectively has important significance for recovering the other parts. This study proposed a pyrolysis process to recover the organic parts from LCD glass. Through thermal gravimetric analysis, the pyrolysis temperature of the LCD glass could be chosen at 850 K. The removal rate of organic parts from LCD glass reached 87.87 wt%. Pyrolysis products consisted of 66.82 wt% oils, 21.01 wt% gaseous and 12.13 wt% residues. In addition, the oils contained 46.27 wt% acetic acid and 32.94 wt% triphenyl phosphate. Then, the pyrolysis mechanisms and products sources of the liquid crystal glass have been analyzed based on the information of bonds energy. The pyrolysis mechanism analysis proved that the products mainly consisted of acetic acid, triphenyl phosphate and C, which is consistent to the results of GC-MS analysis. A reasonable way has been put forward to recycle the pyrolysis products: acetic acid and triphenyl phosphate can be collected by distillation, the rest oils and gases can be used as fuel and the remained glass can be used to extract indium and to produce building materials.

  4. Study on Birefringent Color Generation for a Reflective Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Valyukh, Iryna; Xu, Peizhi; Chigrinov, Vladimir

    2006-10-01

    We study the possibility of a layer of a surface stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal coupled with several retardation plates for birefringent color generation. Double and single polarizer reflective bistable dichromatic ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are considered. We demonstrate that one or two retardation plates are sufficient for a display having good color characteristics and high brightness. Optimal parameters for green/red and blue/yellow ferroelectric liquid crystal displays are found.

  5. An electrochemical study of a liquid crystal used in information displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, D. M.; Kern, J. B.; Robertson, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    The operational lifetime of liquid crystal displays were investigated. Electrochemical reaction at the electrodes of the display can cause failure after 2000 to 3000 hours of operation. Studies using cyclic voltametry of electrochemical reactions of N (p-methoxybenzilidene p-butylaniline (MBBA), a nematic liquid crystal were made. These studies indicate the presence of a reversible reduction of MBBA at the cathode, and that the reduction product undergoes a further reaction leading to products which are not reversibly oxidized. It is concluded that the degradation of the liquid crystal in displays can be reduced with a suitable frequency of alternating voltage.

  6. Controllable liquid crystal gratings for an adaptive 2D/3D auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. A.; Jin, T.; He, L. C.; Chu, Z. H.; Guo, T. L.; Zhou, X. T.; Lin, Z. X.

    2017-02-01

    2D/3D switchable, viewpoint controllable and 2D/3D localizable auto-stereoscopic displays based on controllable liquid crystal gratings are proposed in this work. Using the dual-layer staggered structure on the top substrate and bottom substrate as driven electrodes within a liquid crystal cell, the ratio between transmitting region and shielding region can be selectively controlled by the corresponding driving circuit, which indicates that 2D/3D switch and 3D video sources with different disparity images can reveal in the same auto-stereoscopic display system. Furthermore, the controlled region in the liquid crystal gratings presents 3D model while other regions maintain 2D model in the same auto-stereoscopic display by the corresponding driving circuit. This work demonstrates that the controllable liquid crystal gratings have potential applications in the field of auto-stereoscopic display.

  7. 77 FR 3793 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, and Modules, and Components Thereof; Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission...

  8. 77 FR 5055 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Determination Not To Review Initial Determination Granting Joint Motion To Terminate Based on Settlement Agreement...

  9. 77 FR 45375 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as...

  10. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD...

  11. Single-substrate liquid-crystal displays by photo-enforced stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penterman, Roel; Klink, Stephen I.; de Koning, Henk; Nisato, Giovanni; Broer, Dirk J.

    2002-05-01

    Data visualization plays a crucial role in our society, as illustrated by the many displays that surround us. In the future, displays may become even more pervasive, ranging from individually addressable image-rendering wall hangings to data displays integrated in clothes. Liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) provide most of the flat-panel displays currently used. To keep pace with the ever-increasing possibilities afforded by developments in information technology, we need to develop manufacturing processes that will make LCDs cheaper and larger, with more freedom in design. Existing batch processes for making and filling LCD cells are relatively expensive, with size and shape limitations. Here we report a cost-effective, single-substrate technique in which a coated film is transformed into a polymer-covered liquid-crystal layer. This approach is based on photo-enforced stratification: a two-step photopolymerization-induced phase separation of a liquid-crystal blend and a polymer precursor. The process leads to the formation of micrometre-sized containers filled with a switchable liquid-crystal phase. In this way, displays can be produced on a variety of substrates using current coating technology. The developed process may be an important step towards new technologies such as `display-on-anything' and `paintable displays'.

  12. Polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal for flexible displays using plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kawakita, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Yuzuru

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a ferroelectric liquid crystal device with a novel structure containing a polymer fiber network for flexible lightweight displays using thin plastic substrates. The aligned polymer fibers of sub-micrometers -diameter were formed under ultraviolet light irradiation in a heated nematic- phase solution consisting of liquid crystal and monofunctional acrylate monomer. The rigid polymer network was found to adhere to the two plastic substrates, and the uniform liquid crystal alignment provided a contrast ratio of 100:1 for a monomer concentration of 20 wt%. This device achieves a continuous grayscale capability as a result of change in the spatial distribution of small liquid crystal domains, and also exhibits a fast response time of 80 microsecond(s) due to high-purity separation of polymer and liquid crystal materials. It therefore has attractive features for flexible moving-image display applications.

  13. Charge retention of twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    A simulated thin-film transistor (TFT) circuit has been built to drive the twisted nematic (TN) cell for the measurements of charge retention and the transmission versus peak voltage applied to the drain electrode of the simulated TFT using the gate pulse width as a parameter. The established rule that the transmission of the TN cell depends only on the rms voltage applied to the cell has been confirmed by calculating the rms voltage of the charge retention curves in correlation with the measured transmissions. The deviation of the decaying charge retention curves from the exponential behavior has been observed and can be qualitatively explained by a combination of the dielectric and transport properties of nematic liquid-crystal medium.

  14. Liquid crystal cell design of VGA field sequential color LCoS display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanyan; Geng, Weidong; Dai, Yongping

    2009-07-01

    The design of liquid crystal cell is an important factor to determine the display quality of LCoS display device. The goal of this paper is to gain VGA field sequential color (FSC) LCoS device used for near-to-eye system. The characteristics of optics and electrooptics for the twist nematic liquid crystal material and the material requirements of the FSC LCoS were studied. The LCOS liquid crystal cell optimized by dynamic parameter space method had an uniform reflectivity (about 90%) for the light with wave length from 450nm to 650nm. Both considering the electrooptic response curve of liquid crystal and the relationship between the contrast ratio and pixel size, we determined to use high speed twist nematic liquid crystal working in normally white mode. The liquid crystal cell gap and the pixel size were determined as 2.5um and 12um, respectively. The VGA FSC LCoS device was fabricated with SMIC 0.35um CMOS process and filled with LC-A liquid crystal of Merck in Varitronix. The measurement showed that the response time of liquid crystal from light to dark was 1.8ms and from dark to light was 4.4ms. The contrast ratio is bigger than 50:1. The LCoS displays well.

  15. Time-multiplexed three-dimensional displays based on directional backlights with fast-switching liquid-crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ko-Wei; Shieh, Han-Ping D

    2006-05-01

    An autostereoscopic display using a directional backlight with a fast-switching liquid-crystal (LC) display was designed and fabricated to obtain a better perception of 3D images by enhanced resolution and brightness. A grooved light guide in combination with an asymmetric focusing foil was utilized to redirect the emitting cones of light to the left and right eyes, respectively. By designing the groove structures of the focusing foil with rotation from -1.5 degrees to 1.5 degrees in the gradient and having the pitch ratio of the grooved light guide to the focusing foil of less than 3, the boundary angle then shifts from normal viewing and the moiré phenomenon can be suppressed. Cross talk of less than 6% and a LC response time of faster than 7.1 ms further improve the stereoscopic image perception. Additionally, 2D-3D compatibility is provided.

  16. A NEW METHOD TO ALIGN LIQUID CRYSTAL MOLECULES BY LINEAR PHOTO-POLYMERIZATION FOR LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG ZHAO-YAN; FANG KUN; XUAN LI; HUANG XI-MIN; DING BAO-QUAN; LU RAN; ZHAO YING-YING

    2000-01-01

    A new technique to uniformly align liquid crystal molecules is presented.The technique is based on producing an anisotropic surface on the glass substrate coated with photo-polymers by photo-polymerization of linear polarized UVlight.The orientation of liquid crystal molecules is governed by the direction of the polarized vector of UV-light.Using this method,we have studied the photo-polymer PSi-CM aligning LC 6710A molecules.The liquid crystal microscopic texture between crossed polarizers,optical retardation from liquid crystal layers and electro-optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal display cell are obtained,which was prepared with one side -photo-alignment and the other siderebbed substrate.

  17. Reduction of image blurring in an autostereoscopic multilayer liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2011-03-01

    A multilayer liquid crystal display (LCD) is a display device constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal layers on top of a light source. As shown in a previous study, a multilayer LCD can deliver varying images depending on the viewers'eye positions, and can be used for auto-stereoscopic 3D viewing. However, undesirable blurring is sometimes observed in the images that a viewer receives from the display. Such blurring is notable especially around objects in the scene that are far away from the viewer. To address this problem, we propose to put a convex lens in front of the layers of liquid crystal. The lens refracts the beams of light, thus bringing the effects of moving the objects to nearer positions. Through a simulation-based study, we show that an optimal choice exists for the focal length of the lens, which reduces the local image blurring while not compromising the overall image quality.

  18. Liquid crystal panel for high efficiency barrier type autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-Huan; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chuang, Shang-Chih; Wu, Chi-Lin; Shieh, Han-Ping D; Mphepö, Wallen; Hsieh, Chiu-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Chia

    2009-06-20

    An autostereoscopic display with parallax barrier attached onto a liquid crystal panel suffers from the trade-off between brightness and crosstalk. One approach for making improvement by modifying the layout of light blocking components, such as thin film transistor, storage capacitor, and protrusion, in the liquid crystal pixel has been proposed. Ray tracing simulation shows that the aperture of the slanted barrier can be significantly increased, hence increasing efficiency, while keeping the same crosstalk level if those light blocking components can be shifted to the corner of the pixel. A six-view 2.83 in. (7.19 cm) prototype has shown improvement on both brightness and crosstalk compared to its counterpart using a traditional liquid crystal panel, which demonstrates an effective approach for a high-efficiency barrier-type autostereoscopic 3D display with a liquid crystal panel.

  19. Phase separation of monomer in liquid crystal mixtures and surface morphology in polymer-stabilized vertical alignment liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jae Jin; Lee, Jun Hyup; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon [Development Center, LCD Business, SAMSUNG Electronics Co. LTD., Tangjeong-Myeon, Asan, Chungnam 336-741 (Korea, Republic of); Kikuchi, Hirotsuku; Higuchi, Hiroki [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Kim, Dae Hyun; Lee, Seung Hee, E-mail: jsquare.lyu@samsung.com, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer-Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The polymer-stabilized vertically aligned (PS-VA) liquid crystal display (LCD) driving mode has high potential for manufacturing low power consuming displays due to the higher transmittance and fast response as compared with the existing patterned vertically aligned and multi-domain vertically aligned modes. In this paper we have investigated the reaction mechanisms of monomer-liquid crystal blends to form a surface pre-tilt angle of liquid crystal in vertical alignment LCD associated with a fishbone electrode structure. The observed sizes of polymer bumps formed on the substrates were found to be dependent on the exposed UV wavelength and were almost equal in both top and bottom substrates. When a large UV wavelength was used, the phase separation mechanism of monomer in PS-VA mode was found nearly isotropic rather than anisotropic in contrast to the previous studies.

  20. Fast-response liquid-crystal lens for 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Ren, Hongwen; Xu, Su; Li, Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2014-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display has become an increasingly important technology trend for information display applications. Dozens of different 3D display solutions have been proposed. The autostereoscopic 3D display based on lenticular microlens array is a promising approach, and fast-switching microlens array enables this system to display both 3D and conventional 2D images. Here we report two different fast-response microlens array designs. The first one is a blue phase liquid crystal lens driven by the Pedot: PSS resistive film electrodes. This BPLC lens exhibits several attractive features, such as polarization insensitivity, fast response time, simple driving scheme, and relatively low driving voltage, as compared to other BPLC lens designs. The second lens design has a double-layered structure. The first layer is a polarization dependent polymer microlens array, and the second layer is a thin twisted-nematic (TN) liquid crystal cell. When the TN cell is switched on/off, the traversing light through the polymeric lens array is either focused or defocused, so that 2D/3D images are displayed correspondingly. This lens design has low driving voltage, fast response time, and simple driving scheme. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the performance of both switchable lenses meet the requirement of 3D display system design.

  1. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  2. Fourier series analysis of fractal lenses: theory and experiments with a liquid-crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Sigarlaki, Sean P; Craven, Julia M; Calvo, María Luisa

    2006-02-20

    We report on a Fourier series approach that predicts the focal points and intensities produced by fractal zone plate lenses. This approach allows us to separate the effects of the fractal order from those of the lens aperture. We implement these fractal lenses onto a liquid-crystal display and show experimental verification of our theory.

  3. Searching for the preferred backlight intensity in liquid crystal displays with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is one of the most promising techniques for reducing power consumption and improving contrast characteristics of liquid crystal displays (LCD). In practice, due to light diffusion and a smaller number of backlight sources than pixels, local backlight dimming must often trade...

  4. The development of self-assembled liquid crystal display alignment layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, J.; Elemans, J.A.A.W.; Rowan, A.E.; Rasing, T.H.M.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    From simple pocket calculators to mobile telephones and liquid crystal display (LCD)-TV, over the past few decades, devices based on LCD technology have proliferated and can now be found in all conceivable aspects of everyday life. Although used in cutting-edge technology, it is surprising that a vi

  5. 77 FR 37067 - Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 119 (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 37067-37068] [FR Doc No: 2012-15005] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-741/749] Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Including Monitors, Televisions, Modules, and Components Thereof; Final...

  6. Technical and radiological image quality comparison of different liquid crystal displays for radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams FE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francina EM Dams,2 KY Esther Leung,1 Pieter HM van der Valk,2 Marc CJM Kock,2 Jeroen Bosman,1 Sjoerd P Niehof1 1Medical Physics and Technology, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Background: To inform cost-effective decisions in purchasing new medical liquid crystal displays, we compared the image quality in displays made by three manufacturers. Methods: We recruited 19 radiologists and residents to compare the image quality of four liquid crystal displays, including 3-megapixel Barco®, Eizo®, and NEC® displays and a 6-megapixel Barco display. The evaluators were blinded to the manufacturers' names. Technical assessments were based on acceptance criteria and test patterns proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Radiological assessments were performed on images from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18. They included X-ray images of the thorax, knee, and breast, a computed tomographic image of the thorax, and a magnetic resonance image of the brain. Image quality was scored on an analog scale (range 0–10. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The Barco 3-megapixel display passed all acceptance criteria. The Eizo and NEC displays passed the acceptance criteria, except for the darkest pixel value in the grayscale display function. The Barco 6-megapixel display failed criteria for the maximum luminance response and the veiling glare. Mean radiological assessment scores were 7.8±1.1 (Barco 3-megapixel, 7.8±1.2 (Eizo, 8.1±1.0 (NEC, and 8.1±1.0 (Barco 6-megapixel. No significant differences were found between displays. Conclusion: According to the tested criteria, all the displays had comparable image quality; however, there was a three-fold difference in price between the most and least expensive displays. Keywords: data display, humans, radiographic image enhancement, user-computer interface

  7. Fundamental display properties of flexible devices containing polymer-stabilized ferroelectric liquid crystal between plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Iino, Yoshiki; Kawakita, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi

    2002-09-01

    We describe several fundamental display properties of a flexible ferroelectric liquid crystal device containing polymer fibers between thin plastic substrates. The composite film of liquid crystal and polymer was created from a solution of liquid crystal and monomer materials between the plastic substrates under ultraviolet light irradiation. The dynamic electrooptic response to analog voltage pulses was examined with an incidence of laser beam light, and its light modulation property exhibited good linearity in continuous gray-scale capability. The excellent spatial uniformity of liquid crystal alignment formed between the flexible substrates resulted in high-contrast light modulation, although slight spontaneous bending of liquid crystal alignment in the device plane was recognized. When the laser light beam was obliquely incident on the flexible display device, the measured transmittance revealed that the device has a wide viewing angle of more than 100 deg without contrast reversal. This is considered to be caused by the molecular switching in the device plane and the thin electrooptic layer in the display device.

  8. A Polarizer-free Liquid Crystal Display Using Dye-doped Liquid Crystal Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-Hsin; Yang, Jhih-Ming; Lin, Hung-Chun; Wu, Jing-Nuo

    2009-01-01

    In conclusion, we have introduced and demonstrated polarizer-free LCDs using dye-doped LC gels. These polarizer-free dye-doped LC gels exhibit high reflectance, high contrast ratio, wide viewing angle, and fast response time. Especially the low temperature process is favorable for flexible displays. The gel-like materials assist stabilizing the flexible display under trimming. Our dye-doped LC gels provide a stable LC mode and open a new window in paper-like flexible displays. A polarizer-fre...

  9. Introduction to grayscale calibration and related aspects of medical imaging grade liquid crystal displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Blume, Hartwig R; Flynn, Michael J; Samei, Ehsan

    2008-06-01

    Consistent presentation of digital radiographic images at all locations within a medical center can help ensure a high level of patient care. Currently, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are the electronic display technology of choice for viewing medical images. As the inherent luminance (and thereby perceived contrast) properties of different LCDs can vary substantially, calibration of the luminance response of these displays is required to ensure that observer perception of an image is consistent on all displays. The digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) defines the luminance response of a display such that an observer's perception of image contrast is consistent throughout the pixel value range of a displayed image. The main purpose of this work is to review the theoretical and practical aspects of calibration of LCDs to the GSDF. Included herein is a review of LCD technology, principles of calibration, and other practical aspects related to calibration and observer perception of images presented on LCDs. Both grayscale and color displays are considered, and the influence of ambient light on calibration and perception is discussed.

  10. Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display with slanted wall-shaped electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhou; Qionghua Wang; Di Wu; Jianpeng Cui

    2012-01-01

    A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed. Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes, the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes. The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.%A polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal display (BPLCD) with slanted wall-shaped electrodes is proposed.Compared with the traditional BPLCD with wall-shaped electrodes,the electrodes of the proposed BPLCD are slightly angled to obtain phase retardation in the entire cell even at the position of electrodes.The proposed BPLCD demonstrates a relatively higher average transmittance and overall brightness than the traditional BPLCD.Owing to the continuous improvement in image quality of liquid crystal displays (LCDs),they have been widely employed in desktop monitors,TVs,and mobile displays at present[1-5].With the development of LCDs the polymer-stabilized blue phase LCDs (BPLCDs)[6-11]can replace the conventional LCDs and become the nextgeneration display technology.The polymer-stabilized BPLCDs have numerous attractive features,such as submillisecond gray-to-gray response time,alignmentlayer-free process optically isotropic dark state and cell gap insensitivity[12-14].Because of these advantages,the fabrication processes of the BPLCDs are simplified,motion-image blurs are reduced,and color-sequential displays using RGB LEDs are enabled.

  11. Implementation and analysis of an autostereoscopic display using multiple liquid crystal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2012-03-01

    Multilayer displays are constructed by stacking multiple liquid crystal panels along with a pair of polarizers and a light source. Previous theoretical analyses have shown that such a display could exhibit the light field of a 3D scene if the panels in the display are properly controlled. In this study, we present an implementation of a monochromatic multilayer display using IPS-LCD panels, and report that a reasonable approximation of the light field is actually observed from the display. A major obstacle to constructing a multilayer display is the complexity of optical properties of LCD panels. Since an accurate analytic representation of panels' behavior is difficult to obtain, we have developed an approximate model specific to IPS-LCD cells, using which our implementation is built. We then evaluate the quality of the light field observed from the prototype implementation by examining the images photographed at several camera positions. The results show geometrically correct views are observable from the display within the viewing angle of 30 degrees.

  12. COMPENSATION EFFECT OF POLYIMIDE THIN FILMS ON NORMALLY WHITE TWISTED NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baozhong; HE Tianbai; DING Mengxian

    1997-01-01

    The disadvantages of Normally White Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Display (NW-TN-LCD) were discussed. The reason that the negative birefringent polyimide thin films were used to compensate NW-TN-LCD to decrease off-axis leakage, improve contrast ratios and enlarge viewing angles' was explained in this paper. A certain polyimide thin film was taken as an example to show compensation effect on NW-TN-LCD.

  13. Averaged Stokes polarimetry applied to characterize parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays

    OpenAIRE

    Márquez Ruiz, Andrés; Martínez Guardiola, Francisco Javier; Gallego Rico, Sergi; Ortuño Sánchez, Manuel; Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto; Pascual Villalobos, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    Parallel-aligned liquid crystal on silicon (PA-LCoS) displays have become the most attractive spatial light modulator device for a wide range of applications, due to their superior resolution and light efficiency, added to their phase-only capability. Proper characterization of their linear retardance and phase flicker instabilities is a must to obtain an enhanced application of PA-LCoS. We present a novel polarimetric method, based on Stokes polarimetry, we have recently proposed for the mea...

  14. Milestone in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadt, Martin

    2009-03-01

    The history of digital electronics would have been very different without the invention of field-effect liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in 1970 and their sophisticated development and implementation into numerous products. Transmissive and reflective LCDs have become a key interface between man and machine. After almost 40 years of interdisciplinary R+D and engineering, today's LCDs enable virtually all display applications, including high definition television. Field-effect LCDs are characterized by flat design, low weight, low driving voltage, design flexibility, compatibility with silicon-on-glass and very low power consumption, especially in reflection. Their polarization-sensitive layer concept is the basis for sandwiching and integration of optical and electronic thin-film functions. The liquid crystal technology has become a fast growing industry over the past 38 years, today surpassing 100 billion, with many spin-offs into new areas. Prerequisite for field-effect LCDs and their large diversification potential is the unique self-organization of liquid crystals. New applications beyond displays based on self-organisation, smart boundary alignment, dedicated liquid crystalline materials and the ability of LCs to respond to electromagnetic fields, including light, are being developed. Examples for new applications are LC polymer thin-film optics, or synergies between LCDs and solid state back-lighting, such as inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).

  15. The study of LED uniform lightguide for liquid crystal display backlight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chao-Heng; Chen, Zhi-Peng

    2008-08-01

    A conventional backlight unit (BLU) is used to as the light module to present uniform light of liquid crystal display (LCD). In general, cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) is utilized to be the light source of BLU. The light emitting diode (LED) is now considered well known as a promising device for solid state lighting. It has the advantages of long durability, no mercury substance and good endurance of heavy impact. To satisfy the market demands of the thin-film liquid crystal display (LCD) and the green product, the LED is applied to as the light source to make display thinner, lighter, no Hg containing. In this research, the LED uniform lightguide is demonstrated because it enables the point-like light to distribute propagating-light line pattern successfully. By optimizing the size and the radian of the device, the designed LED uniform lightguide can achieve the output efficiency more than 85%, and its illuminative uniformity is improved about 85%. Thus, the LED uniform lightguide not only can decrease the number of LED to save the space, but also enhance the optical efficiency. In the future, a novel LED uniform module could make displays thinner and lighter for backlight system applications.

  16. Precise prediction of optical responses of liquid-crystal display products using a behavioral model of liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chansoo; Cho, Youngmin; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Jongbin; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a precise circuit model to estimate transient optical responses of an active-matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD). Liquid crystal (LC) molecules in the pixel is behaviorally modeled by using the first-order system that is described by Verilog-A. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of a pixel determine the accuracy of the dynamic responses. Measuring C-V characteristics is impossible because pixels are driven by switching transistors in the AMLCD. We propose a method to obtain the C-V data from natural optical responses. Estimated optical responses based on the C-V data extracted by our proposal show more accurate results than those based on C-V data obtained by using transmittance-voltage data. It is demonstrated that our behavioral model enables us to predict very accurate transient responses, which makes it possible to design LCD products with lower costs.

  17. Apparatus and method for remotely monitoring a utility meter by use of a liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gombrich, P.P.; Case, S.K.; Konicek, L.R.

    1986-12-09

    An apparatus is described for optically sensing the angular position of a pointer member fixedly mounted on a rotatable shaft for rotational movement therewith as the shaft rotates about an axis of rotation, the apparatus comprising: (a) a follower member fixedly interconnected into the rotatable shaft for rotation about the axis of rotation with the pointer member, the follower member and the pointer having a circumferential path of travel. The follower member has first and second opposite sides facing in opposite axial directions, a first portion of the first side being generally reflective for reflecting light in a forward direction and a second portion being generally absorptive; (b) light emitting means positioned forward of the following member for emitting light in a backward direction towards the first side of the follower member; (c) light detecting means positioned forward of the follower member for detecting light reflected off of the follower member in a forward direction; and (d) liquid crystal display means positioned forward of the follower member, between the follower member and the light detecting means. The liquid crystal display means defines six distinct areas disposed about the circumferential path of the follower member and a background area encompassing the remaining area of the liquid crystal shutter means.

  18. Cylindrical liquid crystal lenses system for autostereoscopic 2D/3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Huang, Yi-Pai; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wang, Po-Hao; Chen, Po-Chuan; Tsai, Chao-Hsu

    2012-06-01

    The liquid crystal lenses system, which could be electrically controlled easily for autostereoscopic 2D/3D switchable display was proposed. The High-Resistance liquid crystal (HRLC) lens utilized less controlled electrodes and coated a high-resistance layer between the controlled-electrodes was proposed and was used in this paper. Compare with the traditional LC lens, the HR-LC Lens could provide smooth electric-potential distribution within the LC layer under driving status. Hence, the proposed HR-LC Lens had less circuit complexity, low driving voltage, and good optical performance also could be obtained. In addition, combining with the proposed driving method called dual-directional overdriving method, the above method could reduce the switching time by applying large voltage onto cell. Consequently, the total switching time could be further reduced to around 2second. It is believed that the LC lens system has high potential in the future.

  19. Effect of wavelength on the laser patterning of a cholesteric liquid crystal display electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, C.H., E-mail: chunhanli@itri.org.tw [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Lin, H.K. [Laser Application Technology Center / Industrial Technology Research Institute South (ITRI South),8 Gongyan Rd., Liujia Dist., Tainan City 734, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China); Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan, R.O.C. (China)

    2013-02-01

    A 1064 nm fiber laser and a 355 nm ultraviolet solid-state laser with galvanometer scanners and F-theta lenses are used to rapidly etch the silver electrode pattern of a cholesteric liquid crystal display. These results of the two laser processes are that the 1064 nm laser effectively reduces the damage to the liquid crystal layer and underlying indium tin oxide layer, and reduces the heat-affected zone of the ablated silver electrode. - Highlights: ► Laser patterning reduces the process time and costs lower than screen printing process. ► Etching of silver electrodes using 355-nm and 1064-nm lasers is compared. ► 1064-nm fiber laser can improve throughput, lower cost, and increase pattern quality.

  20. In-Plane Switching Mode for Liquid Crystal Displays Using a DNA Alignment Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Yun Jeong; Gim, Min-Jun; Oh, Kyunghwan; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2015-06-24

    We successfully fabricated the in-plane switching mode (IPS) LC display (LCD) based on a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) alignment layer. As widely known, the DNA has the right-handed double helical structure that has naturally grown grooves with a very regular period, which can be used as an alignment layer to control the orientation of liquid crystal (LC) molecules. The LC molecules on this topographical layer of DNA material align obliquely at a specific angle with respect to the direction of DNA chains, providing an instant and convenient tool for the fabrication of the IPS display compared to the conventional ways such as rubbing and mechanical shearing methods. The electro-optical performance and response time of this device were also investigated. Our result will be of great use in further exploration of the electro-optical properties of the other biomaterials.

  1. Low voltage transflective blue-phase liquid crystal display with a non-uniform etching substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Mao, Jiang-Lin; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-09-01

    A transflective polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display (BP-LCD) with a non-uniform etching substrate is proposed. In-plane switching (IPS) electrodes on the bottom substrate are put on the different gaps, and the bottom substrate between the electrodes is etched into different depths in transmissive (T) and reflective (R) regions. This structure can balance the optical phase retardation in the two regions and is helpful to achieve well-matched voltag-dependent transmittance and reflectance curves. This transflective display has high optical efficiency, a wide viewing angle, and low operating voltage (approximately 6 V). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61535007 and 61320106015) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328802).

  2. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-03-13

    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Holographic three-dimensional display and hologram calculation based on liquid crystal on silicon device [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junchang; Tu, Han-Yen; Yeh, Wei-Chieh; Gui, Jinbin; Cheng, Chau-Jern

    2014-09-20

    Based on scalar diffraction theory and the geometric structure of liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS), we study the impulse responses and image depth of focus in a holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system. Theoretical expressions of the impulse response and the depth of focus of reconstructed 3D images are obtained, and experimental verifications of the imaging properties are performed. The results indicated that the images formed by holographic display based on the LCoS device were periodic image fields surrounding optical axes. The widths of the image fields were directly proportional to the wavelength and diffraction distance, and inversely proportional to the pixel size of the LCoS device. Based on the features of holographic 3D imaging and focal depth, we enhance currently popular hologram calculation methods of 3D objects to improve the computing speed of hologram calculation.

  4. Liquid-crystal displays for medical imaging: a discussion of monochrome versus color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven L.; Samei, Ehsan

    2004-05-01

    A common view is that color displays cannot match the performance of monochrome displays, normally used for diagnostic x-ray imaging. This view is based largely on historical experience with cathode-ray tube (CRT) displays, and does not apply in the same way to liquid-crystal displays (LCDs). Recent advances in color LCD technology have considerably narrowed performance differences with monochrome LCDs for medical applications. The most significant performance advantage of monochrome LCDs is higher luminance, a concern for use under bright ambient conditions. LCD luminance is limited primarily by backlight design, yet to be optimized for color LCDs for medical applications. Monochrome LCDs have inherently higher contrast than color LCDs, but this is not a major advantage under most conditions. There is no practical difference in luminance precision between color and monochrome LCDs, with a slight theoretical advantage for color. Color LCDs can provide visualization and productivity enhancement for medical applications, using digital drive from standard commercial graphics cards. The desktop computer market for color LCDs far exceeds the medical monitor market, with an economy of scale. The performance-to-price ratio for color LCDs is much higher than monochrome, and warrants re-evaluation for medical applications.

  5. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal displays (LCD are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  6. Pixel-level tunable liquid crystal lenses for auto-stereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Robertson, Brian; Pivnenko, Mike; Chu, Daping; Zhou, Jiong; Yao, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Mobile video and gaming are now widely used, and delivery of a glass-free 3D experience is of both research and development interest. The key drawbacks of a conventional 3D display based on a static lenticular lenslet array and parallax barriers are low resolution, limited viewing angle and reduced brightness, mainly because of the need of multiple-pixels for each object point. This study describes the concept and performance of pixel-level cylindrical liquid crystal (LC) lenses, which are designed to steer light to the left and right eye sequentially to form stereo parallax. The width of the LC lenses can be as small as 20-30 μm, so that the associated auto-stereoscopic display will have the same resolution as the 2D display panel in use. Such a thin sheet of tunable LC lens array can be applied directly on existing mobile displays, and can deliver 3D viewing experience while maintaining 2D viewing capability. Transparent electrodes were laser patterned to achieve the single pixel lens resolution, and a high birefringent LC material was used to realise a large diffraction angle for a wide field of view. Simulation was carried out to model the intensity profile at the viewing plane and optimise the lens array based on the measured LC phase profile. The measured viewing angle and intensity profile were compared with the simulation results.

  7. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Tanner, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT) in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  8. Digital Beam Deflectors Based Partly on Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouch, John J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Kreminska, Liubov; Pishnyak, Oleg; Golovin, Andrii; Winker, Bruce K.

    2007-01-01

    A digital beam deflector based partly on liquid crystals has been demonstrated as a prototype of a class of optical beam-steering devices that contain no mechanical actuators or solid moving parts. Such beam-steering devices could be useful in a variety of applications, including free-space optical communications, switching in fiber-optic communications, general optical switching, and optical scanning. Liquid crystals are of special interest as active materials in nonmechanical beam steerers and deflectors because of their structural flexibility, low operating voltages, and the relatively low costs of fabrication of devices that contain them.

  9. The (unsuitability of modern liquid crystal displays (LCDs for vision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud eGhodrati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysical and physiological studies of vision have traditionally used cathode ray tube (CRT monitors to present stimuli. These monitors are no longer easily available, and liquid crystal display (LCD technology is continually improving; therefore, we characterised a number of LCD monitors to determine if newer models are suitable replacements for CRTs in the laboratory. We compared the spatial and temporal characteristics of a CRT with five LCDs, including monitors designed with vision science in mind (ViewPixx and Display++, prosumer gaming monitors, and a consumer-grade LCD. All monitors had sufficient contrast, luminance range and reliability to support basic vision experiments with static images. However, the luminance of all LCDs depended strongly on viewing angle, which in combination with the poor spatial uniformity of all monitors except the VPixx, caused up to 80% drops in effective luminance in the periphery during central fixation. Further, all monitors showed significant spatial dependence, as the luminance of one area was modulated by the luminance of other areas. These spatial imperfections are most pronounced for experiments that use large or peripheral visual stimuli. In the temporal domain, the gaming LCDs were unable to generate reliable luminance patterns; one was unable to reach the requested luminance within a single frame whereas in the other the luminance of one frame affected the luminance of the next frame. The VPixx and Display++ were less affected by these problems, and had good temporal properties provided stimuli were presented for 2 or more frames. Of the consumer-grade and gaming displays tested, and if problems with spatial uniformity are taken into account, the Eizo FG2421 is the most suitable alternative to CRTs. The specialized ViewPixx performed best among all the tested LCDs, followed closely by the Display++; both are good replacements for a CRT, provided their spatial imperfections are considered.

  10. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  11. Rigorous analysis of an electric-field-driven liquid crystal lens for 3D displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong-Sik; Lee, Seung-Chul; Park, Woo-Sang [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    We numerically analyzed the optical performance of an electric field driven liquid crystal (ELC) lens adopted for 3-dimensional liquid crystal displays (3D-LCDs) through rigorous ray tracing. For the calculation, we first obtain the director distribution profile of the liquid crystals by using the Erickson-Leslie motional equation; then, we calculate the transmission of light through the ELC lens by using the extended Jones matrix method. The simulation was carried out for a 9 view 3D-LCD with a diagonal of 17.1 inches, where the ELC lens was slanted to achieve natural stereoscopic images. The results show that each view exists separately according to the viewing position at an optimum viewing distance of 80 cm. In addition, our simulation results provide a quantitative explanation for the ghost or blurred images between views observed from a 3D-LCD with an ELC lens. The numerical simulations are also shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The present simulation method is expected to provide optimum design conditions for obtaining natural 3D images by rigorously analyzing the optical functionalities of an ELC lens.

  12. Using channelized Hotelling observers to quantify temporal effects of medical liquid crystal displays on detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platiša, Ljiljana; Goossens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Badano, Aldo; Philips, Wilfried

    2010-02-01

    Clinical practice is rapidly moving in the direction of volumetric imaging. Often, radiologists interpret these images in liquid crystal displays at browsing rates of 30 frames per second or higher. However, recent studies suggest that the slow response of the display can compromise image quality. In order to quantify the temporal effect of medical displays on detection performance, we investigate two designs of a multi-slice channelized Hotelling observer (msCHO) model in the task of detecting a single-slice signal in multi-slice simulated images. The design of msCHO models is inspired by simplifying assumptions about how humans observe while viewing in the stack-browsing mode. For comparison, we consider a standard CHO applied only on the slice where the signal is located, recently used in a similar study. We refer to it as a single-slice CHO (ssCHO). Overall, our results confirm previous findings that the slow response of displays degrades the detection performance of the observers. More specifically, the observed performance range of msCHO designs is higher compared to the ssCHO suggesting that the extent and rate of degradation, though significant, may be less drastic than previously estimated by the ssCHO. Especially, the difference between msCHO and ssCHO is more significant for higher browsing speeds than for slow image sequences or static images. This, together with their design criteria driven by the assumptions about humans, makes the msCHO models promising candidates for further studies aimed at building anthropomorphic observer models for the stack-mode image presentation.

  13. Characterization of the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon in Liquid Crystal on Silicon displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, L.; Lizana, A.; Márquez, A.; Moreno, I.; Iemmi, C.; Campos, J.; Yzuel, M. J.

    2011-04-01

    The diffractive efficiency of Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) displays can be greatly diminished by the appearance of temporal phase fluctuations in the reflected beam, depolarization effects and also because of phase modulation depths smaller than 2π. In order to maximize the efficiency of the Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) implemented in the LCoS device, the Minimum Euclidean Distance principle can be applied. However, not all the diffractive elements can be corrected in the same way due to the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon, which is related to the LCoS response, largely dependending on the period and the spatial orientation of the generated DOE. Experimental evidence for the anamorphic and frequency dependent phenomenon is provided in this paper, as well as a comparative study between the efficiency obtained for binary gratings of different periods

  14. Enhanced contrast ratio of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays by controlling the surface-anchoring strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Woo, Chang Woo; Oh, Sang Hoon; Mukherjee, Amrita; Lee, Seung Hee [Department of BIN Fusion Technology and Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Ho; Kim, Kyeong Jin; Yang, Myung Su, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.kr [Panel Performance Department, LG Display Co., Ltd., Paju, Gyeonggi-do 413-811 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-17

    The dark state of homogeneously aligned liquid crystal displays (LCDs) associated with the in-plane switching of a LC director depends on their molecular ordering. We propose a new approach to reduce the light leakage in the dark state of homogeneously aligned LCDs. A very small amount of reactive mesogen (RM) is mixed with the LC material and polymerized at room temperature and also at a low temperature (-20 {sup 0}C) to strengthen the surface-anchoring energy. The contrast ratio of the low-temperature cured cell is improved by about 50% over that of the pure LC cell and the room temperature cured RM-mixed LC cell due to an enhanced order parameter.

  15. A liquid crystal display with consistent moving image quality regardless of viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Seung-Ryul; Kim, Jongbin; Kim, Minkoo; Lee, Seung-Woo

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes a new overdrive (OD) technology to precisely compensate for the viewing angle dependent characteristics of LCDs. This paper reports that optical response of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) is considerably dependent on viewing angles for the first time. The new OD technology applies different OD look-up tables (LUTs) depending on the viewing angles. In addition, we combine a new OD technology with an eye tracker that is usually adopted for autostereoscopic 3D LCD systems. The application results show that a new OD technology improves the motion image quality perfectly regardless of viewing angles. We expect that our proposed method will definitely enable the LCD products to have consistent motion image quality regardless of viewing angles.

  16. Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Indium from Flat-Panel Displays of Spent Liquid Crystal Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Alam, Shafiq

    2015-02-01

    A recovery process for indium from waste liquid crystal display panels was developed on the basis of hydrometallurgical technology. The powdered sample was leached with 3 M HCl to extract its various metal constituents (indium, aluminum, tin, etc.). The mutual separation and subsequent recovery of the dissolved metals was achieved using two column adsorption tests: The first column was packed with a porous resin impregnated with Aliquat 336, a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on a quaternary ammonium compound, and the resin contained in the second column was impregnated with Cyanex 923, also a commercially available solvent extraction reagent based on trialkylphosphine oxide. In the first column, tin, iron, and zinc were removed from the leach liquor. In the second column, only indium was selectively recovered. The metal ions trapped in these columns were eluted with 0.1 M H2SO4, yielding a solution purified indium solution with a concentration 10 times that of the feed solution.

  17. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-11-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs.

  18. Novel cell parameter determination of a twisted-nematic liquid crystal display

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xia; Jing Hai; Fu Guo-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a novel method is proposed to determine the cell parameters including the twist angle, optic retardation and rubbing direction of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TNLCD) by rotating the TNLCD. It is a single-wavelength method. Because using subtraction equation of transmittance as curve fitting equation, the influence of the light from environment and the absorption by polarizer, the sample of TNLCD and analyser on the transmittance is eliminated. Accurate results can also be obtained in imperfect darkness. By large numbers of experiments, we found that not only the experimental setup is quite simple and can be easily adopted to be carried out, but also the results are accurate.

  19. Colorimetric characterization of liquid crystal display using an improved two-stage model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Wang; Haisong Xu

    2006-01-01

    @@ An improved two-stage model of colorimetric characterization for liquid crystal display (LCD) was proposed. The model included an S-shape nonlinear function with four coefficients for each channel to fit the Tone reproduction curve (TRC), and a linear transfer matrix with black-level correction. To compare with the simple model (SM), gain-offset-gain (GOG), S-curve and three-one-dimensional look-up tables (3-1D LUTs) models, an identical LCD was characterized and the color differences were calculated and summarized using the set of 7 × 7 × 7 digital-to-analog converter (DAC) triplets as test data. The experimental results showed that the model was outperformed in comparison with the GOG and SM ones, and near to that of the S-curve model and 3-1D LUTs method.

  20. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail: zmxu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2016-01-25

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  1. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-01-25

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrolysis mechanism for recycle renewable resource from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming

    2014-08-15

    Liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly consist of polarizing film, liquid crystal and glass substrates. In this study, a novel pyrolysis model and a pyrolysis mechanism to recover the reusable resource from polarizing film of waste LCD panels was proposed. Polarizing film and its major components, such as cellulose triacetate (TAC) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were pyrolyzed, respectively, to model the pyrolysis process. The pyrolysis process mainly generated a large ratio of oil, a few gases and a little residue. Acetic acid was the main oil product and could be easily recycled. The pyrolysis mechanism could be summarized as follows: (i) TAC, the main component of polarizing film, was heated and generated active TAC with a low polymerization, and then decomposed into triacetyl-d-glucose. (ii) Some triacetyl-d-glucose generated triacetyl-d-mannosan and its isomers through an intramolecular dehydration, while most triacetyl-d-glucose generated the main oil product, namely acetic acid, through a six-member cyclic transition state. (iii) Meanwhile, other products formed through a series of bond cleavage, dehydration, dehydrogenation, interesterification and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. This study could contribute significantly to understanding the polarizing film pyrolysis performance and serve as guidance for the future technological parameters control of the pyrolysis process.

  3. Viewing angle switching of liquid crystal display using fringe-field switching to control off-axis phase retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Jin Ho; Her, Jung Hwa; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Joun Ho; Kim, Byeong Koo [Mobile Product Development Department, LG Display Company, Ltd, Gumi, Gyungbuk 730-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Wan-Seok; Lee, Gi-Dong, E-mail: gdlee@dau.ac.k, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k [Department of Electronics Engineering, Dong-A University, Pusan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-03

    A viewing angle switchable liquid crystal display associated with fringe-field switching mode is proposed. In the device, one pixel is composed of a main pixel and a sub-pixel, in which both pixels are formed to generate a fringe electric field. However, the field directions are different from each other so that in the main pixel, the fringe field rotates the liquid crystal for displaying the main image, whereas it controls only the tilt angle of the liquid crystal without rotating in the sub-pixel region. In this way, phase retardation to cause leakage of light at the off-normal axis can be generated in the sub-pixel, and by utilizing the light, the main displayed image in the normal direction can be blocked in the oblique viewing direction.

  4. Program Design of Graphic Realism Displaying System Based on DXF Lathe Turning Rotational Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Xin

    2014-01-01

    For virtually realizing the graphic realism display of DXF machine parts, in AutoCAD2007 graphic drawing environment, an interactive experimental method was taken to realize the display of graphic in DXF, which was taken as the data-exchanged interface and source. Based on depth analysis of DXF data structure, take one drawing of DXF lathe turning rotational part asthe test piece. By VC++6.0 programming, part’s geometry information could be obtained. Through data processing, 3D data of the test piece could be generated, which is based on 2D data of DXF test piece. Then, OpenGL graphic processing technologies (light, material, texture, map, et al.) were applied on the 3D display of test piece from DXF files or program modules. Finally based on the test report, results of the system functions were shared to prove the realization of system design, and the feasibility of algorithms used. In the developed software, Machine Designers could get a full view of machine parts, and do some proper modifications. The study content and results of our work have some theory and practical significance on the application of program design in the practical projects.

  5. Need for liquid-crystal display monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwasa, Takeshi; Morishita, Junji; Hatanaka, Shiro; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the potential usefulness of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth. An LCD monitor having the capability of rendering 8, 10, and 12 bits was used. It was calibrated to the grayscale standard display function with a maximum luminance of 450 cd/m(2) and a minimum of 0.75 cd/m(2). For examining the grayscale resolution reported by ten observers, various simple test patterns having two different combinations of luminance in 8, 10, and 12 bits were randomly displayed on the LCD monitor. These patterns were placed on different uniform background luminance levels, such as 0, 50, and 100%, for maximum luminance. All observers participating in this study distinguished a smaller difference in luminance than one gray level in 8 bits irrespective of background luminance levels. As a result of the adaptation processes of the human visual system, observers distinguished a smaller difference in luminance as the luminance level of the test pattern was closer to the background. The smallest difference in luminance that observers distinguished was four gray levels in 12 bits, i.e., one gray level in 10 bits. Considering the results obtained by use of simple test patterns, medical images should ideally be displayed on LCD monitors having 10 bits or greater so that low-contrast objects with small differences in luminance can be detected and for providing a smooth gradation of grayscale.

  6. Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Neural Network Model to Color Deviation Defect Detection in Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Dar Lin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Display (TFT-LCD has excellent properties such as lower voltage to start and less occupied space if comparing with traditional Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT. But screen flaw points and display color deviation defects on image display exist in TFT-LCD products. This research proposes a new automated visual inspection method to solve the problems. We first use multivariate Hotelling T2 statistic for integrating coordinates of color models to construct a T2 energy diagram for inspecting defects and controlling patterns in TFT-LCD display images. An Ant Colony based approach that integrates computer vision techniques is developed to detect the flaw point defects. Then, Back Propagation Network (BPN model is proposed to inspect small deviation defects of the LCD display colors. Experimental results show the proposed system can provide good effects and practicality.

  7. Ray-tracing simulations of liquid-crystal gradient-index lenses for three-dimensional displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijter, M.; Herzog, A.; De Boer, D.K.G.; Krijn, M.P.C.M.; Urbach, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, to our knowledge, we report ray-tracing simulations of an advanced liquid-crystal gradientindex lens structure for application in switchable two-dimensional/three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic displays. We present ray-tracing simulations of the angular-dependent lens action.

  8. Study on the waste liquid crystal display treatment: focus on the resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinying; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2013-01-15

    A process combined pyrolysis and acid immersion was proposed in this study to dispose the hazardous liquid crystal display (LCD) waste for recovering valuable resources. The thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and fixed bed pyrolysis were investigated for the polarizing film that was separated from LCD. The results suggested the liquid product mainly contained acids, esters and aromatics should be upgraded such as hydrotreating process before used as industrial feedstock or fuel source. The gaseous product mainly consisted of H(2), CO, CO(2) and CH(4) can be used as a valuable fuel. The sulfuric acid immersion experiments were studied for recovering indium from the LCD glass after stripping the polarizing film. Central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the acid immersion process and the results indicated the indium recovery can be fitted based on the actual value to a polynomial quadratic equation and the temperature was more essential factor than time and acid concentration in the studied ranges. The optimum processing condition was obtained with time 42.2 min, temperature 65.6 °C and acid concentration 0.6 mol/L. Under the optimal conditions, the indium recovery was close to 100%.

  9. Automated optical inspection of liquid crystal display anisotropic conductive film bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) bonding is widely used in the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. It implements circuit connection between screens and flexible printed circuits or integrated circuits. Conductive microspheres in ACF are key factors that influence LCD quality, because the conductive microspheres' quantity and shape deformation rate affect the interconnection resistance. Although this issue has been studied extensively by prior work, quick and accurate methods to inspect the quality of ACF bonding are still missing in the actual production process. We propose a method to inspect ACF bonding effectively by using automated optical inspection. The method has three steps. The first step is that it acquires images of the detection zones using a differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging system. The second step is that it identifies the conductive microspheres and their shape deformation rate using quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the DIC images. The final step is that it inspects ACF bonding using a back propagation trained neural network. The result shows that the miss rate is lower than 0.1%, and the false inspection rate is lower than 0.05%.

  10. Comparison of viewing angle and observer performances in different types of liquid-crystal display monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Shiro; Morishita, Junji; Hiwasa, Takeshi; Dogomori, Kiyoshi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-07-01

    It is known that the performance of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, such as the luminance and contrast ratio, is dependent on the viewing angle. Our purpose in this study was to compare the angular performance and the effect on observer performance of different types of LCD monitors. The luminance performance and contrast ratio as a function of viewing angle (-60 degrees to 60 degrees) in each direction for two types of LCD monitors, namely, a general-purpose LCD monitor and one especially designed for medical use, were measured in this study. Furthermore, the observer performance at various viewing angles in the horizontal direction for a medical-grade LCD monitor was investigated by eight observers based on a contrast-detail diagram. The two types of LCD monitors showed notable variations in luminance and contrast ratio as a function of the viewing angle. Acceptable viewing angles in terms of the contrast ratio were much smaller in each direction than those for nominal viewing angles in the specifications provided by the manufacturers, and those for the medical-grade LCD monitor in the horizontal and vertical directions were broader than those of the general-purpose LCD monitor. There was no significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 40 degrees. On the other hand, our results showed a statistically significant difference in observer performance between 0 degrees and 60 degrees.

  11. Curved Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Matrix Displays Driven by Field-Sequential-Color and Active-Matrix Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Sato, Hiroto; Murashige, Takeshi; Fujisaki, Yoshihide; Kurita, Taiichiro; Furukawa, Tadahiro; Sato, Fumio

    This paper describes a curved field-sequential-color matrix display using fast-response ferroelectric liquid crystal. Black matrix and transparent electrode patterns were formed on a thin plastic substrate by a transfer method from a glass substrate. While a composite film of liquid crystal and micro-polymers of walls and fibers was formed between the flexible substrates by printing, laminating and curing processes of a solution of monomers and liquid crystal, the mechanical stability was enhanced by use of multi-functional monomers to form large display panels. The image pixels of the matrix panel were driven by an active matrix scheme using an external switch transistor array at a frequency of 180 Hz for intermittent three-primary-color backlight illumination. The flexible A4-paper-sized color display with 24 × 16 pixels and 60 Hz field frequency was demonstrated by illuminating it with sequential three-primary-color lights from light-emitting diodes of the backlight. Our display system is useful in various information displays because of its freedom of setting and location.

  12. A new AS-display as part of the MIRO lightweight robot for surgical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Christoph M.

    2010-02-01

    The DLR MIRO is the second generation of versatile robot arms for surgical applications, developed at the Institute for Robotics and Mechatronics at Deutsche Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. With its low weight of 10 kg and dimensions similar to those of the human arm, the MIRO robot can assist the surgeon directly at the operating table where space is scarce. The planned scope of applications of this robot arm ranges from guiding a laser unit for the precise separation of bone tissue in orthopedics to positioning holes for bone screws, robot assisted endoscope guidance and on to the multi-robot concept for endoscopic minimally invasive surgery. A stereo-endoscope delivers two full HD video streams that can even be augmented with information, e.g vectors indicating the forces that act on the surgical tool at any given moment. SeeFront's new autostereoscopic 3D display SF 2223, being a part of the MIRO assembly, will let the surgeon view the stereo video stream in excellent quality, in real time and without the need for any viewing aids. The presentation is meant to provide an insight into the principles at the basis of the SeeFront 3D technology and how they allow the creation of autostereoscopic display solutions ranging from smallest "stamp-sized" displays to 30" desktop versions, which all provide comfortable freedom of movement for the viewer along with excellent 3D image quality.

  13. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.

    2016-06-28

    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  14. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Linda; Seefeldner, Meinhard; Wiegner, Matthias; Mayer, Bernhard

    2017-07-01

    Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs) indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques) field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT) provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  15. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  16. Realization of Field Sequential Color in Simple Matrix Antiferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays by Utilizing Fast Pretransitional Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yasushi; Chen, Guo-Ping; Manna, Uttam; Vij, Jagdish K.; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2009-07-01

    Simple matrix antiferroelectric liquid crystal displays (SM-AFLCDs) are prototyped to realize field sequential color (FSC) by utilizing the fast pretransitional response. The developed FSC-SM-AFLCDs will lead to the replacement of existing static driven FSC-SM-nematic-LCDs. Bright and clear color can be given to already market-acquired, black-and-white SM-LCDs of up to 1/64-duty and 3-in. diagonal size. To optimize the display performance, we analyze two important factors, the large pretransitional effect and the appropriate reset pulse, in terms of the interlayer interaction potential used in describing the field-induced transition of the antiferroelectric smectic phase.

  17. Horizontally-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays and their interactions with liquid crystal molecules: Physical characteristics and display applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Roussel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on the physical characteristics of horizonthally-grown Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (h-al-SWNT arrays and their potential use as transparent and conducting alignment layer for liquid crystals display devices. Microscopy (SEM and AFM, spectroscopic (Raman and electrical investigations demonstrate the strong anisotropy of h-al-SWNT arrays. Optical measurements show that h-al-SWNTs are efficient alignment layers for Liquid Crystal (LC molecules allowing the fabrication of optical wave plates. Interactions between h-al-SWNT arrays and LC molecules are also investigated evidencing the weak azimuthal anchoring energy at the interface, which, in turn, leads to LC devices with a high pretilt angle. The electro-optical reponses of h-al-SWNT/LC cells demonstrate that h-al-SWNT arrays are efficient nanostructured electrodes with potential use for the combined replacement of Indium Tin Oxyde and polymeric alignment layers in conventional displays.

  18. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  19. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C N; Whang, L M; Lin, H L

    2008-01-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. The total amount of wastewater from TFT-LCD manufacturing plants is expected to exceed 200,000 CMD in the near future. Typically, organic solvents used in TFT-LCD manufacturing processes account for more than 33% of the total TFT-LCD wastewater. The main components of these organic solvents are composed of the stripper (dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and monoethanolamine (MEA)), developer (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)) and chelating agents. These compounds are recognized as non-or slow-biodegradable organic compounds and little information is available regarding their biological treatability. In this study, the performance of an A/O SBR (anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactor) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater was evaluated. The long-term experimental results indicated that the A/O SBR was able to achieve stable and satisfactory removal performance for DMSO, MEA and TMAH at influent concentrations of 430, 800, and 190 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for all three compounds examined were more than 99%. In addition, batch tests were conducted to study the degradation kinetics of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The organic substrate of batch tests conducted included 400 mg/L of DMSO, 250 mg/L of MEA, and 120 mg/L of TMAH. For DMSO, specific DMSO degradation rates under aerobic and anoxic conditions were both lower than 4 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific DMSO degradation rate was estimated to be 14 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr, which was much higher than those obtained under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The optimum specific MEA and TMAH degradation rates were obtained under aerobic conditions with values of 26.5 mg MEA/g VSS-hr and 17.3 mg TMAH/g VSS

  20. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J.; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee

    2016-10-01

    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  1. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying

    2016-09-01

    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  2. Profiling of liquid crystal displays with Raman spectroscopy: Preprocessing of spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Stanimirovic; H.F.M. Boelens; A.J.G. Mank; H.C.J. Hoefsloot; A.K. Smilde

    2005-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is applied for characterizing paintable displays. Few other options than Raman spectroscopy exist for doing so because of the liquid nature of functional materials. The challenge is to develop a method that can be used for estimating the composition of a single display cell on the

  3. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  4. WE-D-204-02: Novel Method for Correcting Degradation of Sharpness of Liquid-Crystal Display Based On Modulation Transfer Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokurei, S [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University Hospital, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Morishita, J; Yabuuchi, H [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu Universi, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiotsuki, K [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Fukuoka (Japan); Bamba, Y; Ogaki, M; Kita, M [Eizo Corporation, Hakusan, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a method for improving sharpness of images reproduced on liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) by compensating for the degradation of modulation transfer function (MTF) of the LCD. Methods: The inherent MTF of a color LCD (display MTF) was measured using a commercially available color digital camera. The frequency responses necessary to compensate for the resolution property of the LCD were calculated from the inverses of the display MTFs in both the horizontal and vertical directions. In addition, the inverses of the display MTFs were combined with the response of the human eye. The finite impulse response (FIR) filters were computed by taking the inverse Fourier transform of the frequency responses, and the effects of the FIR filtering on both the resolution and noise properties of the displayed images were verified by measuring the MTF and Wiener spectrum (WS), respectively. The FIR filtering was then applied to the representation of digital bone and chest radiographs. Results: The FIR filtering improved the MTF values by up to almost 1.0 or greater over the frequency range of interest, while it minimally increased the WS values. Combining the inverses of the display MTFs with the response of the human eye led to further refinement of the MTF. Our method was successfully and beneficially applied to the image interpretation of bone radiographs. The resolution enhancement of chest radiographs, which include larger scattered radiation than bone radiographs, was easily perceived by incorporating the response of the human eye. In addition, no artifacts were observed on the processed images. Conclusion: Our proposed method to compensate for the degradation of the resolution properties of LCDs has the potential to improve the observer performance of radiologists when reading digital radiographs. This work was supported in part by grant from EIZO Corporation.

  5. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.

    2012-10-01

    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least dye composition (~2.4 years). The complex interaction of pigment nano-particles with LC molecules and the resulting effects on the LC electro-optical performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  6. Displaying radiologic images on personal computers: image storage and compression--Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespy, T; Rowberg, A H

    1994-02-01

    This is part 2 of our article on image storage and compression, the third article of our series for radiologists and imaging scientists on displaying, manipulating, and analyzing radiologic images on personal computers. Image compression is classified as lossless (nondestructive) or lossy (destructive). Common lossless compression algorithms include variable-length bit codes (Huffman codes and variants), dictionary-based compression (Lempel-Ziv variants), and arithmetic coding. Huffman codes and the Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) algorithm are commonly used for image compression. All of these compression methods are enhanced if the image has been transformed into a differential image based on a differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) algorithm. The LZW compression after the DPCM image transformation performed the best on our example images, and performed almost as well as the best of the three commercial compression programs tested. Lossy compression techniques are capable of much higher data compression, but reduced image quality and compression artifacts may be noticeable. Lossy compression is comprised of three steps: transformation, quantization, and coding. Two commonly used transformation methods are the discrete cosine transformation and discrete wavelet transformation. In both methods, most of the image information is contained in a relatively few of the transformation coefficients. The quantization step reduces many of the lower order coefficients to 0, which greatly improves the efficiency of the coding (compression) step. In fractal-based image compression, image patterns are stored as equations that can be reconstructed at different levels of resolution.

  7. Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Min Su; Kang, Byeong Gyun; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Yoon, Sukin; Lee, Seung Hee [Polymer BIN Fusion Research Center, Department of Polymer Nano-Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Ge Zhibing; Rao Linghui; Gauza, Sebastian; Wu, Shin-Tson, E-mail: lsh1@chonbuk.ac.k, E-mail: swu@creol.ucf.ed [College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2009-12-07

    Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect are emerging due to their submillisecond response time, wide view and simple fabrication process. However, the conventional in-plane switching device exhibits a relatively high operating voltage because the electric fields are restricted in the vicinity of the electrode surface. To overcome this technical barrier, we propose a partitioned wall-shaped electrode configuration so that the induced birefringence is uniform between electrodes throughout the entire cell gap. Consequently, the operating voltage is reduced by {approx} 2.8x with two transistors. The responsible physical mechanisms are explained.

  8. Development of High-Thrust and Double-Sided Linear Synchronous Motor Module For Liquid Crystal Display Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-jin; CHUNG; Sang-yeon; HWANG

    2010-01-01

    <正>Recently,there is an increasing requirement for controlling linear motion up to a few hundred of millimeter strokes in the area of the liquid crystal display(LCD) production equipment.The requirements of the motion system for LCD production equipment are high acceleration and high velocity with positioning accuracy.To satisfy these requirements,it has to be designed with the high-thrust force and low velocity ripple.In this work, high-thrust and double-sided linear synchronous motor (LSM)module is proposed and the developed high-thrust and double-sided LSM module is verified by performance test.

  9. Parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon display based optical set-up for the generation of polarization spatial distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Irene; Lizana, Angel; Zheng, Xuejie; Peinado, Alba; Ramírez, Claudio; Martínez, Jose Luis; Márquez, Andrés.; Moreno, Ignacio; Campos, Juan

    2015-06-01

    Liquid Crystals on Silicon (LCOS) displays are a type of LCDs that work in reflection. Such devices, due to the double pass that the light beam performs through the LC cells, lead to larger phase modulation than transmissive LCDs with the same thickness. By taking advantage of this modulation capability exhibited by LCOS displays, we propose a new experimental set-up which is able to provide customized state of polarization spatial distributions just by means of a single LCOS display. To this aim, a double reflection on different halves of the display is properly performed. This fact is achieved by including a compact optical system that steers the light and performs a proper polarization plane rotation. The set-up has been experimentally implemented and some experimental concerns are discussed. The suitability of the system is provided by generating different experimental spatial distributions of polarization. In this regard, well-known polarization distributions, as axial, azimuthal or spiral linear polarization patterns are here provided. Based on the excellent results obtained, the suitability of the system to generate different spatially variant distributions of polarization is validated.

  10. EVALUATION OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES SHIFT FOR IMAGE DISPLAYED ON LIQUID CRYSTAL PANELS WITH VARIOUS PROPERTIES ON COLOR REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the problem of evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift for image displayed on liquid crystal panels with various properties on color reproduction. A mathematical model represents the color reproduction characteristics. The spread of the color characteristics of the screens has a statistical nature. Differences of color reproduction for screens are perceived by the observer in the form of different colors and shades that are displayed on the same type of commercially available screens. Color differences are characterized by numerical measure of the difference of colors and can be mathematically compensated. The solution of accounting problem of the statistical nature of the color characteristics spread for the screens has a particular relevance to aviation instrumentation. Method. Evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift of the image is based on the application of the Grassmann laws of color mixing.Basic data for quantitative calculation of shift are the profiles of two different liquid crystal panels defined by matrixes of scales for components of primary colors (red, green, blue. The calculation is based on solving the system of equations and calculating the color difference in the XY-plane. In general, the calculation can be performed in other color spaces: UV, Lab. The statistical nature of the spread of the color characteristics for the screens is accounted for in the proposed mathematical model based on the interval setting of coordinate values of the color gamut triangle vertices on the set of commercially available samples. Main Results. Carried outresearches result in the mathematical expressions allowing to recalculate values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on various samples of liquid crystal screens. It is shown that the spread of the color characteristics of the screens follows bivariate normal distribution law with the accuracy sufficient for practice. The results of

  11. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-05-19

    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".

  12. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo

    2015-06-01

    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  13. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  14. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacher, Klaus; Smeets, Peter; De Hauwere, An; Voet, Tony; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; Thierens, Hubert

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  15. Image quality performance of liquid crystal display systems: Influence of display resolution, magnification and window settings on contrast-detail detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, Klaus [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)]. E-mail: klaus.bacher@ugent.be; Smeets, Peter [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); De Hauwere, An [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Voet, Tony [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Duyck, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Verstraete, Koenraad [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Thierens, Hubert [Department of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of liquid crystal display (LCD) resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the low-contrast performance in soft-copy image interpretation in digital radiography and digital mammography. In addition, the effect of a new LCD noise reduction mechanism on the low-contrast detectability was studied. Digital radiographs and mammograms of two dedicated contrast-detail phantoms (CDRAD 2.0 and CDMAM 3.4) were scored on five LCD devices with varying resolutions (1-3- and 5-megapixel) and one dedicated 5-megapixel cathode ray tube monitor. Two 5-megapixel LCDs were included. The first one was a standard 5-megapixel LCD and the second had a new (Per Pixel Uniformity) noise reduction mechanism. A multi-variate analysis of variance revealed a significant influence of LCD resolution, image magnification and window/level adjustment on the image quality performance assessed with both the CDRAD 2.0 and the CDMAM 3.4 phantoms. The interactive adjustment of brightness and contrast of digital images did not affect the reading time, whereas magnification to full resolution resulted in a significantly slower soft-copy interpretation. For digital radiography applications, a 3-megapixel LCD is comparable with a 5-megapixel CRT monitor in terms of low-contrast performance as well as in reading time. The use of a 2-megapixel LCD is only warranted when radiographs are analysed in full resolution and when using the interactive window/level adjustment. In digital mammography, a 5-megapixel monitor should be the first choice. In addition, the new PPU noise reduction system in the 5-megapixel LCD devices provides significantly better results for mammography reading as compared to a standard 5-magapixel LCD or CRT. If a 3-megapixel LCD is used in mammography setting, a very time-consuming magnification of the digital mammograms would be necessary.

  16. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  17. A FPGA-Based Integrated Controller for Liquid Crystal Display%基于FPGA的液晶控制器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪金辉; 张健; 宫娜; 吴武臣; 董利民

    2008-01-01

    介绍了一种基于 FPGA 的集成液晶控制器.系统由显示模块和控制模块组成,显示模块(LEM101)为10 bit 多功能通用型器件,内含看门狗(WDT)/时钟发生器,2 种频率的蜂鸣驱动电路,内置显示RAM,及3-4线串行接口.控制器基于1.5万门 FPGA 芯片(Xilinx XC3S1500),易于扩展和升级.利用 Verilog 语言,在 FPGA 芯片中实现了控制模块的设计,通过 GR-XC3S-1500 开发板验证,本设计完全满足对液晶模块的控制要求,并成功应用于光栅测量显示控制系统中.控制模块由四部分组成:存储、译码、串并转换器、输出控制.文章讨论了设计方法和设计过程,给出了部分 Verilog 代码.此外,本设计还创造性地在电源和 FPGA 芯片间插入低成本元件,满足了液晶上电后,初始化命令的延迟要求,从而节约了 FPGA 的硬件资源.%This paper presents a FPGA-based integrated controller for liquid crystal display system. The system consists of a display module and a controlling module. The former (LCM101 chip) is 10 bit multi-functional device with a WDT(watch dog timer), a dual frequency driving circuit, a display RAM and seri-al interface. The later is an integrated display controller using a FPGA chip of 1. 5million gate (Xilinx XC3S1500), so being easy to extend and upgrade. Integrated controller design in FPGA chip has been im-plemented by using Verilog language coding and verified in Xilinx Development Board. The design fits the requirements to control liquid crystal display entirely, and is successfully applied in a grating measurement system. The controller module includes four parts: storage, decoding, serial-parallel interface translation,and output controlling. This paper discusses the design method and the design process of each part above,providing Verilog codes partly. What's more a low-cost accessory is originally located between FPGA chip and power supply in hardware design to satisfy delay after liquid crystal electrify

  18. Brightness-Luminance Ratio of a Liquid Crystal Display in a Transmission Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Teruo

    1981-08-01

    A psychological experiment was executed binocularly for a bipartite or a separated field. The viewing subtence was 2° in both fields and the spatial separation in a separated field was 1°. Seven observers adjusted the luminance of a white comparison stimulus to appear equally as bright as a test stimulus of a liquid crystal cell. Red-, green-, blue-color under the tunable birefringence mode were shown as a test stimulus. The ratios of the mean observer in a bipartite field were 1.35± 0.23 for red, 1.20± 0.13 for green, 1.06± 0.13 for blue, and lower than those in a separated field.

  19. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo

    2008-12-08

    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  20. Ionization annealing of semiconductor crystals. Part two: the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a conception that irradiation of semiconductor crystals with high energy electrons (300 keV results in a significant and irreversible deterioration of their electrical, optical and structural properties. Semiconductors are typically irradiated by low voltage electron accelerators with a continuous flow, the current density in such accelerators is 10–5—10–6 A/cm2, the energy — 0,3—1 MeV. All changes in the properties after such irradiation are resistant at room temperature, and marked properties recovery to baseline values is observed only after prolonged heating of the crystals to a high temperature. In contrast, the authors in their studies observe an improvement of the structural properties of semiconductor crystals (annealing of defects under irradiation with powerful (high current pulsed electron beams of high energy (E0 = 0,3–1 MeV, t = 0,1—10 ns, Ω = 1—10 Hz, j = 20—300 A/cm2. In their previous paper, the authors presented theoretical basis of this effect. This article describes an experimental study on the influence of high-current pulsed electron beams on the optical homogeneity of semiconductor GaAs and CdS crystals, confirming the theory put forward earlier.

  1. Crystal Structures of Human SIRT[subscript 3] Displaying Substrate-induced Conformational Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lei; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Yaobin; Peng, Hao; Cai, Jianhua; Mao, Chen; Dai, Han; Choy, Wendy; Bemis, Jean E.; Jirousek, Michael R.; Milne, Jill C.; Westphal, Christoph H.; Perni, Robert B.; (Viva Biotech); (Medicilon); (GSK)

    2009-11-04

    SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase playing important roles in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and energy production and has been linked to the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction. SIRT3 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target to treat metabolic and neurological diseases. We report the first sets of crystal structures of human SIRT3, an apo-structure with no substrate, a structure with a peptide containing acetyl lysine of its natural substrate acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, a reaction intermediate structure trapped by a thioacetyl peptide, and a structure with the dethioacetylated peptide bound. These structures provide insights into the conformational changes induced by the two substrates required for the reaction, the acetylated substrate peptide and NAD+. In addition, the binding study by isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the acetylated peptide is the first substrate to bind to SIRT3, before NAD{sup +}. These structures and biophysical studies provide key insight into the structural and functional relationship of the SIRT3 deacetylation activity.

  2. Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating applied within image splitter for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-09-01

    Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application within image splitter for autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. Two initiator systems consisting of photoinitiator, Methylene Blue and coinitiator, p-toluenesulfonic acid as well as photoinitiator, Rose Bengal and coinitiator, Nphenylglycine are employed. We demonstrate that Bragg gratings can be formed in this syrup polymerized under three lasers simultaneously including 632.8nm from He-Ne laser, 532nm from Verdi solid state laser, and 441.6nm from He- Cd laser. The diffraction efficiency of three kinds of gratings with different exposure wavelength are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. The threshold driving voltages of those gratings are 2.8, 3.05, and 2.85 V/μm, respectively. We also present the results for the feasibility of this proposed H-PDLC grating applied into image splitter without color dispersion for autostereoscopic display according to experimental splitting effect.

  3. A Color Gamut Description Algorithm for Liquid Crystal Displays in CIELAB Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the accuracy of gamut boundary description is significant for gamut mapping process, a gamut boundary calculating method for LCD monitors is proposed in this paper. Within most of the previous gamut boundary calculation algorithms, the gamut boundary is calculated in CIELAB space directly, and part of inside-gamut points are mistaken for the boundary points. While, in the new proposed algorithm, the points on the surface of RGB cube are selected as the boundary points, and then converted and described in CIELAB color space. Thus, in our algorithm, the true gamut boundary points are found and a more accurate gamut boundary is described. In experiment, a Toshiba LCD monitor’s 3D CIELAB gamut for evaluation is firstly described which has regular-shaped outer surface, and then two 2D gamut boundaries ( CIE-a*b* boundary and CIE-C*L* boundary are calculated which are often used in gamut mapping process. When our algorithm is compared with several famous gamut calculating algorithms, the gamut volumes are very close, which indicates that our algorithm’s accuracy is precise and acceptable.

  4. Design, construction and tests of a crystal bender which provides constant position of the central part of the crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A I; Busetto, E; Franc, F; Hrdy, J; Mrazek, D; Savoia, A

    2001-01-01

    We propose a new scheme for a crystal bender. This scheme provides the constant position of the central point of a rectangular crystal during the bending process. The measurements show that the full scatter of the position of the central part of a sample during the bending process is slightly less than 100 microns. The measured profile of a sample bent to a radius of about 50 cm was compared with a circle fitted by the least square method. The relative difference between measured and fitted radii appeared to be about 10 sup - sup 5.

  5. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  6. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah

    2012-01-01

    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  7. The influence of the conical incidence on the waveguide-type colour-separating backlight for liquid crystal display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ji; Wang, Wenfeng

    2011-02-01

    The lightguide assisted by diffraction gratings is used to implement colour-separating backlight for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). In the configuration, the light incidence angle is required to be a precise designed one. However, the light incidence is conical always. In this paper, by rigorous coupled wave theory, the influence of conical input on the colour-separating backlight is investigated. It shows that, when the azimuthal angle of the light increases, the diffraction efficiency could be enhanced by a factor of 2, which means that the conical input will benefit the diffraction efficiency of the lightguide. However, it also leads to a larger output spot area at the same time, which could result in the mixing of RGB pix. When the azimuthal angle is smaller than 12°, the maximum diffraction angles of RGB light can be completely separated, which means that, with a designed distance or with an assisted micro-lens layer between the grating and the pix layer, the RGB light can reach their corresponding pix. The influence of the conical input on the polarized light is also investigated. The conical input will result in the output with composite polarization, which, in principle, disables the use of polarized light source in LCD.

  8. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2010-06-15

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposure to some of which has been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol (1811.0+/-1740.4 ppb), acetone (669.0+/-561.0 ppb), isopropyl alcohol (187.0+/-205.3 ppb) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) (102.9+/-102.0 ppb) were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether> or =324 ppb-year had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.14-10.17) compared with those exposed to LCD industry, and cumulative exposure to specific VOCs might be associated with kidney dysfunction.

  9. Use of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass in the production of ceramic tiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we employ the following operating conditions: varied pressure (25 kgf/cm(2)), sintering temperature (900-1200 degrees C), sintering time (6h), percentage of thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) waste glass by weight (0-50%) and temperature rising at a rate of 5 degrees C/min, to fabricate clay tiles. The sintering characteristics of the clay blended with TFT-LCD waste glass tiles are examined to evaluate the feasibility of the reuse of TFT-LCD waste glass. TFT-LCD waste glass contains large amounts of glass. The TCLP leaching concentrations all met the ROC EPAs current regulatory thresholds. The addition of TFT-LCD waste glass to the mixture, increased the apparent weight loss. The incorporation of 50% TFT-LCD waste glass resulted in a significant increase in the porosity ratio of the specimens compared to the porosity ratio of the ceramic tile containing TFT-LCD waste glass. The main constituent in both the clay tile and the clay with TFT-LCD waste glass samples is quartz. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increase in the flexural strength and resistance to abrasion in the tiles. The porosity ratio decreases as shrinkage increases. The relation between the porosity ratio and the hardness of the tiles used in the study is also shown.

  10. Dendronized Polyimides Bearing Long-Chain Alkyl Groups and Their Application for Vertically Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Tsuda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyimides having dendritic side chains were investigated. The terphenylene diamine monomer having a first-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris(n-dodecyloxy-benzoate and the monomer having a second-generation monodendron, 3,4,5-tris[-3’,4’,5’-tri(n-dodecyloxybenzyloxy]benzoate were successfully synthesized and the corresponding soluble dendritic polyimides were obtained by polycondensation with conventional tetracarboxylic dianhydride monomers such as benzophenone tertracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA. The two-step polymerizations in NMP that is a general method for the synthesis of soluble polyimides is difficult; however, the expected dendritic polyimides can be obtained in aromatic polar solvents such as m-cresol and pyridine. The solubility of these dendoronized polyimides is characteristic; soluble in common organic solvents such as dichloromethane, chloroform, toluene and THF. These dendronized polyimides exhibited high glass transition temperatures and good thermal stability in both air and under nitrogen. Their application as alignment layers for LCDs was investigated, and it was found that these polyimides having dendritic side chains were applicable for the vertically aligned nematic liquid crystal displays (VAN-LCDs.

  11. Fluorescence depolarization and contact angle investigation of dynamic and static interfacial tension of liquid crystal display materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintella, Cristina M; Lima, Angelo M V; Gonçalves, Cristiane C; Watanabe, Yuji N; Mammana, Alaide P; Schreiner, Marcos A; Pepe, Iuri; Pizzo, Angela A

    2003-06-01

    Interfacial interactions control two processes empirically known to be critical for molecular anchoring in twisted nematic liquid crystal displays technology (TN-LCDs): surface treatment and filling procedure. Static and dynamical interfacial tensions (Gamma(SL)) between liquids and several substrates with similar roughness were observed respectively by contact angle (theta(c)) of sessile drops and by fluorescence depolarization of thin liquid films flowing at high velocity. Gamma(SL) decreased when glass was coated with tin dioxide and increased with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) deposition. Drops were circular for all substrates except rubbed PVA, where they flowed spontaneously along the rubbing direction, reaching an oblong form that had theta(c) parallel and perpendicular to the rubbing direction respectively greater and smaller than theta(c) for non-rubbed PVA. This is attributed to polar group alignment generating an asymmetric Gamma(SL) distribution with nanometric preferential direction, inducing a capillary-like flow. Polarization and anisotropy maps for high-velocity flow parallel to the PVA rubbing direction showed an increase in the net alignment of molecular domains and a widening of the region where it occurred. This is attributed to preferential anchoring in the downstream direction, instead of in several directions, as for non-rubbed PVA. This explains why filling direction is crucial for TN-LCDs homogeneous behavior.

  12. Optical simulation of in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal display using the finite-difference time-domain method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hu; Ma, Hongmei; Sun, Yu-Bao

    2016-09-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method is used to simulate the optical characteristics of an in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display. Compared with the matrix optic methods and the refractive method, the finite-difference time-domain method, which is used to directly solve Maxwell’s equations, can consider the lateral variation of the refractive index and obtain an accurate convergence effect. The simulation results show that e-rays and o-rays bend in different directions when the in-plane switching blue phase liquid crystal display is driven by the operating voltage. The finite-difference time-domain method should be used when the distribution of the liquid crystal in the liquid crystal display has a large lateral change. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304074, 61475042, and 11274088), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2015202320 and GCC2014048), and the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Province University, China.

  13. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: hhiroshi@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Rahman, Ismail M.M., E-mail: I.M.M.Rahman@gmail.com [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Maki, Teruya [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Mizutani, Satoshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto 3-3-138, Sumiyoshi-Ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • A new process for indium recovery from end-of-life LCD panels. • Chelants are used for the dissolution of indium from the waste LCD panels. • Indium extraction with chelant is enhanced with the aid of microwave irradiation. • Extraction rate is quantitative in the hyperbaric high-temperature environment. -- Abstract: Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ∼50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described.

  14. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: Comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj, E-mail: dodbiba@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nagai, Hiroki; Wang Lipang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two pre-treatment methods, prior to leaching of indium from obsolete LCD modules, were described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional grinding and electrical disintegration have been evaluated and compared in the context of LCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental data on the leaching capacity for indium and the electricity consumption of equipment were inputted into the LCA model in order to compare the environmental performance of each method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An estimate for the environmental performance was calculated as the sum of six impact categories. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical disintegration method outperforms conventional grinding in all impact categories. - Abstract: In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5 mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding.

  15. Design of 1-μm-pitch liquid crystal spatial light modulators having dielectric shield wall structure for holographic display with wide field of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    In the development of electronic holographic displays with a wide field of view, one issue is the realization of 1-μm-pitch spatial light modulators (SLMs) using liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) techniques. We clarified that it is necessary to suppress not only the leakage of fringe electric fields from adjacent pixels but also the effect of elastic forces in the liquid crystal to achieve full-phase modulation (2π) in individual pixels. We proposed a novel LCOS-SLM with a dielectric shield wall structure, and achieved driving of individual 1-μm-pitch pixels. We also investigated the optimum values for width and dielectric constant of the wall structure when enlarging the area that can modulate light in the pixels. These results contribute to the design of 1-μm-pitch LCOS-SLM devices for wide-viewing-angle holographic displays.

  16. Optimize the modulation response of twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays as pure phase spatial light modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Baiheng; Peng, Fei; Kang, Mingwu; Zhou, Jiawu

    2014-11-01

    Twisted-nematic liquid crystal displays (TN-LCD) are widely used in numerous research fields of optics working as spatial light modulators. Approaches to obtaining desired intensity or phase modulation by TN-LCD have been extensively studied based on the knowledge of TN-LCD's internal structure parameters, e.g., the orientation of LC molecules at the surfaces, the twist angle, the thickness of the LC layer, and the birefringence of the material. Generally TN-LCD placed between two linear polarizers (P) produces coupled intensity and phase modulation. To obtain the commonly used pure phase modulation, quarter wave plates (QWP) are often used in front of and/or behind the LCD. In this paper, we present a method to optimize the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD to obtain pure phase modulation in the configuration of P-QWP-LCD-QWP-P each with proper orientation. Firstly an improved method for determining the Jones matrix of the TN-LCD without knowing its internal parameters is presented, which is based on the macroscopical Jones matrix descriptions for TN-LCD, linear polarizer and QWP. Only three sets of intensity measurements are needed for the complete determination of the TN-LCD's Jones matrix for a single wavelength. Then Jones matrix calculations are carried out to determine the orientations of the polarizers and QWPs for pure phase modulation response. In addition, we prove that the phase modulation depth (PMD) of the TN-LCD can be further increased provided that the mean intensity transmission is decreased to a lower level, which is very useful when the TN-LCD is used as a phase modulator and the ratio between the intensities of the desired diffracted order relative to the other diffracted orders is required higher. Experimental results coincide well with the optical modulation properties of the TN-LCD predicted by our determined Jones matrix. In contrast to the traditional method which requires knowledge of the TN-LCD's internal structure parameters

  17. The Effectiveness of Various Attitude Indicator Display Sizes and Extended Horizon Lines on Attitude Maintenance in a Part-Task Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Jones, Leslie C.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial disorientation (SD) is a constant contributing factor to the rate of fatal aviation accidents. SD occurs as a result of perceptual errors that can be attributed in part to the inefficient presentation of synthetic orientation cues via the attitude indicator when external visual conditions are poor. Improvements in the design of the attitude indicator may help to eliminate instrumentation as a factor in the onset of SD. The goal of the present study was to explore several display concepts that may contribute to an improved attitude display. Specifically, the effectiveness of various display sizes, some that are used in current and some that are anticipated in future attitude displays that may incorporate Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) concepts, was assessed. In addition, a concept known as an extended horizon line or Malcolm Horizon (MH) was applied and evaluated. Paired with the MH, the novel concept of a fixed reference line representing the central horizontal plane of the aircraft was also tested. Subjects performance on an attitude control task and secondary math workload task was measured across the various display sizes and conditions. The results, with regard to display size, confirmed the bigger is better concept, yielding better performance with the larger display sizes. A clear and significant improvement in attitude task performance was found with the addition of the extended horizon line. The extended or MH seemed to equalize attitude performance across display sizes, even for a central or foveal display as small as three inches in width.

  18. Reduced operating voltage and grey-to-grey response time in a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of two polyimide alignment materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hoon; Choi, Young Eun; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Byeong Hoon; Song, Won Il; Jeong, Kwang-Un; Lee, Gi-Dong; Lee, Seung Hee

    2013-12-01

    We proposed a method to reduce the operating voltage and the grey-to-grey switching time of a vertically aligned liquid crystal display using a mixture of planar and vertical polyimide alignment materials. The surface anchoring energy of the two-polyimide mixture was smaller than that of the pure vertical polyimide and consequently, liquid crystal molecules were easily switched to a planar state with an electric field, resulting in a greater maximum retardation than that of the pure polyimide at the same applied voltage. Rising time was also significantly reduced due to the suppressed optical bouncing effect in the mixed planar polyimide, and the decaying time showed negligible change. With the proposed approach, we can reduce the cell gap to obtain half-wave retardation allowing for faster response time while keeping a low operating voltage.

  19. 基于液晶空间光调制器的全息显示∗%Holographic display based on liquid crystal spatial light mo dulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏军; 常琛亮; 雷威

    2015-01-01

    In conventional phase-only holographic display, the phase-only computer generated hologram is usually calculated based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, in which the Nyquist theory should be satisfied. However, due to the pixel structure of the liquid crystal spatial light modulator and a fixed spatial sampling rate, the size of the reconstructed image is limited by the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator. The traditional solution is to use convolution algorithm or double-step Fresnel diffraction algorithm to calculate the Fresnel hologram, but FFT has to be calculated many times in both of the methods, thereby increasing the burden of hologram computation. Therefore, in this paper we propose a method to calculate the phase-only hologram based on setting a virtual hologram plane. This virtual hologram plane is set based on the principle of lens imaging. So the calculation of the hologram can be divided into two steps: the first step is to calculate the Fresnel diffraction from the object plane to the virtual hologram plane, and the second step is to calculate the hologram from the virtual hologram plane by being multiplied with a quadratic phase term. In this way, the hologram can be calculated from the original object with any sampling rate we need by adjusting the corresponding parameters of distance. By this method one can calculate the Fresnel diffraction between hologram plane and object plane with variable sampling rates, without considering the space-bandwidth product of the liquid crystal phase modulator, and this algorithm uses only one FFT calculation, which can speed up the calculation of hologram compared with the convolution based method (using three FFTs in calculation) and the double-step Fresnel method (using two FFTs in calculation). Both the computer simulation and the optical experiments demonstrate that the object can be reconstructed with different sizes in the holographic display system. In the optical

  20. Crystal arthritides - gout and calcium pyrophosphate arthritis : Part 1: Epidemiology and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S; Bollheimer, L C; Bertsch, T; Sieber, C C; Härle, P

    2017-02-23

    Gout and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD, pseudogout) are still the most frequent inflammatory arthritides in multimorbid elderly patients. Gout and CPPD are different diseases and based on different pathophysiological principles. Gout is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The prevalence of asymptomatic hyperuricemia is estimated to be 10-20% of adults in industrial nations and prevalence is strongly associated with age. More than 7% of persons aged over 65 years suffer from clinically manifest gout. The underlying pathophysiological principle is an imbalance between the formation and elimination of uric acid. The degradation of the purine bases adenine and guanosine to uric acid is catalysed by xanthine oxidase and genetic polymorphisms and mutations play an important role in absorption and excretion processes. Furthermore, carrier proteins, such as URAT-1 or OAT-4 also have an influence on these processes. An imbalance of the physiological processes results in the solubility product being exceeded, which in consequence leads to crystallization of urate. This induces a cascade of massive inflammatory reactions at the molecular and cellular level with the activation of cytokines. The inflammatory process can be stopped by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that modulate aggregation and degradation of chemokines and cytokines and partitioning of crystallized urate against immune cells. Calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPP) crystals are formed in the cartilage and CPP deposition can be found in 30% of people aged over 80 years. Inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) is synthesized in chondrocytes and plays an important part in the formation of calcium pyrophosphate crystals. The degradation is catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. If there is dysregulation of this homeostasis more PPi is produced, which ultimately contributes to the formation of the CPP crystals.

  1. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  2. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  3. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  4. Fourier Analysis and Structure Determination--Part III: X-ray Crystal Structure Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesick, John P.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is single crystal X-ray crystal structure analysis. A common link between the NMR imaging and the traditional X-ray crystal structure analysis is reported. Claims that comparisons aid in the understanding of both techniques. (MVL)

  5. Effect of spatial noise of medical grade Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) on the detection of micro-calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Hans; Fan, Jiahua; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-08-01

    This presentation describes work in progress that is the result of an NIH SBIR Phase 1 project that addresses the wide- spread concern for the large number of breast-cancers and cancer victims [1,2]. The primary goal of the project is to increase the detection rate of microcalcifications as a result of the decrease of spatial noise of the LCDs used to display the mammograms [3,4]. Noise reduction is to be accomplished with the aid of a high performance CCD camera and subsequent application of local-mean equalization and error diffusion [5,6]. A second goal of the project is the actual detection of breast cancer. Contrary to the approach to mammography, where the mammograms typically have a pixel matrix of approximately 1900 x 2300 pixels, otherwise known as FFDM or Full-Field Digital Mammograms, we will only use sections of mammograms with a pixel matrix of 256 x 256 pixels. This is because at this time, reduction of spatial noise on an LCD can only be done on relatively small areas like 256 x 256 pixels. In addition, judging the efficacy for detection of breast cancer will be done using two methods: One is a conventional ROC study [7], the other is a vision model developed over several years starting at the Sarnoff Research Center and continuing at the Siemens Corporate Research in Princeton NJ [8].

  6. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part I: Experimental apparatus and observations of vitrification, crystallization, and photoelasticity effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    Cryomacroscopy is an effective means to observe physical events affecting cryopreservation success in large-size specimens. The current study aims at integrating polarized-light in the study of large-size cryopreservation, using the scanning cryomacroscope as a development platform. Results of this study demonstrate polarized light as a visualization enhancement means, including the following effects: contaminants in the CPA solution, crystallization, fracture formation, thermal contraction, and solute precipitation. In addition, photoelasticity effects are used to demonstrate the development of residual stresses and the potential for stress relaxation above the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, this study suggests that the ability to periodically switch between non-polarized light and polarized light is an essential feature of investigation. When using polarized light for example, a dark region may represent a free-of-stress and free-of-crystals material, or fully crystallized material, which may potentially experience mechanical stress; switching to a non-polarized light would help to distinguish between the different cases. The analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation is essentially based on four key elements: identification of physical events, knowledge of physical properties, thermal analysis of the specimen, and description of the mechanical behavior of the cryopreserved material (also known as the constitutive law). With the above knowledge, one can investigate the conditions to preserve structural integrity. While the current study aims at identification of physical events, critical knowledge on physical properties and mechanical behavior has already been developed in previous studies. The companion manuscript (Part II) aims at providing means for thermal analysis in the specimen, which will serve as the basis for a multi-scale analysis of thermo-mechanical stress in large-size specimens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  8. Quartz Crystal Microbalances for quantitative picosecond laser-material-interaction investigations - Part I: Technical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierse, N.; Schildt, T.; Esser, H. G.; Sergienko, G.; Brezinsek, S.; Freisinger, M.; Zhao, D.; Ding, H.; Terra, A.; Samm, U.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2016-12-01

    In this work the technical suitability of Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QMBs) for in situ, pulse resolved mass removal measurements is demonstrated for picosecond laser ablation of magnetron sputtered coatings. The QMBs show a linear characteristic of the sensitivity for layer thickness of different metals up to several microns. Laser pulse resolved measurements of the mass ablated from the metal layer were performed. About 400 ng of chromium was ablated during the first laser pulse while in subsequent pulses ablation of the QMBs is found to be larger than for deposition, which is explained by the radial sensitivity of the QMBs. Future refinements of the setup and the benefits of the pulse resolved mass loss measurements for laser based methods like LIBS and LIAS are discussed and will be presented in part II currently in preparation.

  9. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  10. The influence of liquid crystal display monitors on observer performance for the detection of interstitial lung markings on both storage phosphor and flat-panel-detector chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Yon Mi [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Hospital, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Jin [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: mj1.chung@samsung.com; Lee, Kyung Soo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-ku, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyunghee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To compare observer performance with a flat-panel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor and with a high-resolution gray-scale cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor in the detection of interstitial lung markings using a silicon flat-panel-detector direct radiography (DR) and storage phosphor computed radiography (CR) in a clinical setting. Materials and methods: We displayed 39 sets of posteroanterior chest radiographs from the patients who were suspected of interstitial lung disease. Each sets consisted of DR, CR and thin-section CT as the reference standard. Image identities were masked, randomly sorted, and displayed on both five mega pixel (2048 x 2560 x 8 bits) LCD and CRT monitors. Ten radiologists independently rated their confidence in detection for the presence of linear opacities in the four fields of the lungs; right upper, left upper, right lower, and left lower quadrant. Performance of a total 6240 (39 sets x 2 detector systems x 2 monitor system x 4 fields x 10 observers) observations was analyzed by multi-reader multi-case receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Differences between monitor systems in combinations of detector systems were compared using ANOVA and paired-samples t-test. Results: Area under curves (AUC) for the presence of linear opacities measured by ROC analysis was higher on the LCDs than CRTs without statistical significance (p = 0.082). AUC was significantly higher on the DR systems than CR systems (p = 0.006). AUC was significantly higher on the LCDs than CRTs for DR systems (p = 0.039) but not different for CR systems (p = 0.301). Conclusion: In clinical conditions, performance of the LCD monitor appears to be better for detecting interstitial lung markings when interfaced with DR systems.

  11. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  12. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  13. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  14. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles synthesized from liquid crystal display manufacturing extracts as a potential candidate for a drug delivery carrier: evaluation of their safety and biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin YC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Chih Lin,1 Liang-Yi Lin,2 Ming-Yi Gao,3 Yi-Ping Fang31Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, 2Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 3Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, TaiwanAbstract: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs were synthesized as a promising drug delivery carrier due to the large surface area and porous characteristics. Our previous study successfully recycled wastes from the liquid crystal display (LCD industry as the silica precursor. In this study, we substantiated the possibility of applying this material as a drug carrier. MSNs synthesized from the extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels were characterized as having an average diameter of 100 nm, a surface area of 788 m2/g, a uniform pore size distribution of 3.8 nm, and a pore volume of up to 1.04 cm3/g. Methotrexate and camptothecin were entrapped in MSNs at about 33.88% and 75.12%, respectively. The cell viability assay demonstrated that MSNs at 1 µg/mL had no significant influence on human lung fibroblast (WI-38 cells or ovarian cancer (ES-2 cells. A lactate dehydrogenase assay also indicated no inflammation occurred. Moreover, a hemolytic erythrocyte test indicated that the dose range of <100 µg/mL showed that 5% of erythrocytes were affected. After exposure to biofluids, the ordered structure was slightly degraded. The results revealed that MSNs synthesized from extraction of wastes from the manufacture of LCD panels had a good entrapment capacity for hydrophobic drugs and controllable safety conditions; they may be applied as a drug delivery carrier.Keywords: mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs, waste recycle, drug delivery carrier, safety, biocompatibility

  15. Non-destructive NIR-FT-raman analyses in practice. Part II. Analyses of 'jumping' crystals, photosensitive crystals and gems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, G N; Schrader, B; Boese, R; Rademacher, P; von Cranach, L

    2001-12-01

    Using an improved sampling arrangement we observed the FT Raman spectra of the different phases of a 'jumping crystal', an inositol derivative. The phase transition produced--as consequences of large changes of the unit cell constants--changes in frequency and intensity mainly of CH deformation vibrations. Photochemical reactions, usually produced with light quanta in the visible range, are not activated with the quanta from the Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm. The Raman spectra of the 'dark' form of a dinitrobenzyl pyridine and afterwards the 'light' form, the product of its illumination in the visible range, were recorded. We could not observe changes of most bands, especially not of the NO2-vibrations; however, a new strong band appeared at 1253 cm(-1), which may be due to the expected NH-photo-isomer. Genuine gemstones and fakes can be unambiguously identified by FT Raman spectroscopy. This is especially useful for the stones whose physical properties are quite similar to those of diamonds--moissanite and zirconia. The quality of diamonds can be estimated from relative band intensities; however, this is not in complete agreement with the internationally accepted visual qualification. Synthetic diamonds produced by CVD (chemical vapor deposition) show remarkable differences from natural ones in their FT-Raman spectra.

  16. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  17. Atomic modelling of crystal/complex fluid/crystal contacts—Part I. The genetic iterative multi-species (GIMS) approach and case of kaolinite/brine/kaolinite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanna, P.; Pèpe, G.; Dweik, J.; Gouze, P.

    2010-11-01

    Predicting the impact of underground engineering on the environment requires the knowledge of natural media at different scales. In particular, understanding basic phenomena controlling the properties of rocks in the presence of complex fluids necessitates a detailed atomic description of the solid/fluid/solid contacts, the subject of Part I of the present study. First, building the solid interspace between two different crystals in a non-periodic situation is achieved using the ab initio and molecular mechanics code GenMol TM. A description of the fluid confined within the interspace is then derived from the original genetic iterative multi-species (GIMS) algorithm implemented in the same code. This approach consists of equilibrating chemical potentials, cycle after cycle and species after species, between the confined fluid and the free natural fluid. An elementary iteration for a species k consists of different steps incrementing the number Nk of particles k, with other numbers Nk' remaining constant. At each step, an optimum fluid composition is obtained by a genetic process distributing the fluid particles on a grid by stochastic shots, followed in fine by a refining process. The effectiveness of the GIMS approach is demonstrated in the case study of a fluid confined between two (0 0 1) kaolinite faces, with apertures h varying between 4 and 10 Å, connected to a 9-species external solution [H 2O, Cl -, N a+, CO 2(aq), NaCl (aq), Ca 2+, Mg 2+, HCO3-, H 3O +] where concentrations are ranging from 55 to 10 -4 mol/L. The results show a drastic variation in the solute/solvent and cations/ions ratios in the confined fluid when aperture h is lowered to less than 1 nm. These results obtained with a very rapid convergence of the iterative algorithm combined with a very competitive genetic optimizer are validated with high precision on a free solution. This description of contacts between crystals is original and unattainable by standard crystal interface approaches

  18. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  19. 基于柱面光栅的液晶三维自由立体显示%3D Autostereoscopic Liquid Crystal Display Based on Lenticular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琼华; 陶宇虹; 李大海; 赵仁亮; 赵悟翔

    2008-01-01

    根据双目视差原理和柱面光栅的分光特性研制了液晶三维自由立体显示器.该立体显示器由二维平板液晶显示器和柱面光栅有机耦合而成.采用九个视差图实现了三维静态、动态和视频的显示效果.一个19英寸的立体显示器具有相对应的平面显示器相同的亮度、对比度和色彩,其分辨率在垂直和水平方向都有合理的下降.该立体显示器的观看距离是(1000±500)mm,视角为 90°,可供多人不戴立体眼镜就能自由观看立体图像.%According to binocular parallax and the optical property of lenticular lens, a three-dimension (3D) au-tostereoscopic liquid crystal display was developed. The display is composed of a two-dimension (2D) fiat liquid crystal display and a lenticular lens sheet. Nine views are used to realize the display of 3D static, animation and video images. A 19-inch 3D monitor prototype presents the same brightness, contrast ratio and color as those of the corresponding 2D display. Only the resolution reduces on both the horizontal and vertical direction of the screen reasonably. The viewing distance is (1000±500)mm and viewing angle is 90°. Several viewers without wearing eyeglass can see 3D stereo images on the prototype of the display.

  20. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  1. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  2. Human Engineering Design Criteria for Modern Control/Display Components and Standard Parts. Addendum. Recommended Modifications to MIL-STD-1472B; Selected Sections on Controls, Displays and Related Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    right " turn signal indication", etc. d. External vehicle identification/mode lights, e.g.: rear caution/stop/backup/turn lights, vehicle perimeter...Windshield washer/wiper, turn - signal , horn, speedoimnter, fuel, oi-l and tempera - ture displays, etc.). 242 A MF I RECOMMIENDED MODIFICATIONI RAT

  3. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  4. Physiochemical Characterization of Iodine (V Oxide Part II: Morphology and Crystal Structure of Particulate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Little

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the production of particulate films of iodine (V oxides is investigated. The influence that sonication and solvation of suspended particles in various alcohol/ketone/ester solvents have on the physical structure of spin or drop cast films is examined in detail with electron microscopy, powder x-ray diffraction, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that sonicating iodine oxides in alcohol mixtures containing trace amounts of water decreases deposited particle sizes and produces a more uniform film morphology. UV-visible spectra of the pre-cast suspensions reveal that for some solvents, the iodine oxide oxidizes the solvent, producing I2 and lowering the pH of the suspension. Characterizing the crystals within the cast films reveal their composition to be primarily HI3O8, their orientations to exhibit a preferential orientation, and their growth to be primarily along the ac-plane of the crystal, enhanced at higher spin rates. Spin-coating at lower spin rates produces laminate-like particulate films versus higher density, one-piece films of stacked particles produced by drop casting. The particle morphology in these films consists of a combination of rods, plates, cubes, and rhombohedra structure.

  5. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  6. Design, construction, and measurements of a bender, which provide constant position of the central part of the crystal monocromator during bending process (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemev, A.; Artemiev, N.; Busetto, E.; Franc, F.; Hrdý, J.; Mrázek, D.; Savoia, A.

    2002-03-01

    The bender described is a part of the double crystal monochromator for the QUICKEXAFS spectrometer, which is under development for ELETTRA. Technical specification for the bender include the following: constant position of the central point of the crystal during the bending process, the full size of the crystal must be as small as possible in the dynamic bending process, and the bender must be highly vacuum compatible. To satisfy all of these demands we propose a new scheme for a bender of rectangular crystal with four living supports. The bender has two inner wings, which bear two inner crystal supports, and two outer wings, which bear two outer supports. These wings are moved by two cones placed on the same rod. The cones have different profiles. In order to keep the central part of the crystal in a constant position during the bending process these cone profiles are designed and manufactured in a very special way. Measurements of the bender characteristics were made with the help of a test bench. Instead of a Si single crystal we used a bronze plate of the same size, which had very similar elastic constants. The full scattering of the position of the central part of the bronze plate during the bending process is less then 100 μm. The measured profile of the plate bent to about 506 mm was compared with a circle fitted by the least square method. The relative difference between measured and fitted radius appeared to be about 10-5.

  7. Real-time synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8Kx4K three-dimensional display with spliced four liquid crystal panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huilong; Sang, Xinzhu; Xing, Shujun; Ning, Jiwei; Yan, Binbin; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-10-01

    A high speed synchronized rendering of multi-view video for 8K×4K multi-LCD-spliced three-dimensional (3D) display system based on CUDA is demonstrated. Because the conventional image processing calculation method is no longer applicable to this 3D display system, the CUDA technology is used for 3D image processing to address the problem of low efficiency.The 8K×4K screen is composed of four LCD screens, and accurate segmentation of the scene is carried out to ensure the correct display of 3D contents and a set of controlling and the host software are optimally implemented to make all of the connected processors render 3D videos simultaneously. The system which is based on the master-slave synchronization communication mode and DIBR-CUDA accelerated algorithm is used to realize the high resolution, high frame rate, large size, and wide view angle video rendering for the real-time 3D display. Experimental result shows a stable frame-rate at 30 frame-per-second and the friendly interactive interface can be achieved.

  8. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  9. Research on Color Temperature and Color Reproduction Performance Based on Four Primary Colors Liquid Crystal Display%四元色液晶显示器色温与色重显性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 王静; 李娜; 李桂苓

    2013-01-01

    Based on the data of the test by choosing seven color temperatures and testing the colorimetric parameters of the four primary colors liquid crystal display, the relations of the color temperature and the brightness, chroma, tone, color gamut coverage of the liquid crystal display are analyzed. The result shows that while the color temperature rises up, the brightness of the LCD increases, and the color gamut coverage decreases with the distortion of some color tones and chromas.%选择7种色温,分别测试了四元色液晶显示器的色度参数,并基于测试数据,分析了色温与液晶显示器亮度、彩度、色调和色域覆盖率的关系.结果表明,色温升高时,液晶显示器的亮度加大,色域覆盖率减小,还引起某些颜色色调和彩度失真.

  10. Observation of applied voltage response of dye-doped liquid crystal by optical measurement of real and imaginary parts of complex refractive index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Bannai, Kenta; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of liquid crystal (LC) molecules and dye molecules in a dye-doped liquid crystal (DDLC) under a voltage application condition was quantitatively investigated. To observe the reorientation of these molecules, the real and imaginary parts of the complex refractive index were simultaneously and individually measured using an optical interferometer. The obtained results indicate that the alignment of dye molecules doped in DDLC occurs following the electrically responding LC molecules, near the Freedericksz transition region of LC.

  11. Reexamination of Color Vision Standards, Part 2. A Computational Method to Assess the Effect of Color Deficiencies in Using ATC Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    Cliffs, NJ. Berlin B, Kay P (1969). Basic Color Terms. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press. Boynton RM, MacLaury R, Uchikawa K...1986). Space, colour and typography on visual display terminals. Behav and Information Technol; 5(2): 99-118. Vienot F, Brettel H, Mollon JD (1999

  12. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  13. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  14. Chirality versus dichroism: Competition and role in conical diffraction displayed from the Nd:Bi2ZnOB2O6 acentric biaxial laser crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier, A.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.

    2017-10-01

    We have grown acentric chiral Nd-doped BZBO single crystals by the Kyropoulos method, cut perpendicular to the optical axis. With a focused beam at wavelengths in the spectral domain of transparency with various polarizations, the conoscopy patterns revealed the specific role of chirality: disappearance of the optical axis replaced by two C-directions, linear polarization rotation and spiral patterns. The specific rotatory power was measured. The output near field exhibits the influence of chirality on the conical diffraction. Going to wavelengths in the spectral domain of absorption corresponding to the 4I9/2 → 4F5/2 Nd3+ transition, we first studied the chirality/dichroism competition from propagation along the C-directions, characterizing the circular and elliptic eigen-modes. We exhibited the wavelengths at which the ellipse degenerates linearly, signature of the chirality/dichroism balancing. The second aspect is the existence of the optical axis which can be restored if the dichroism is high enough. In this case a singular Voigt wave can propagate. From the experimental determination of the optical parameters, a theoretical description has been proposed, leading to quite well agreement in the far field (conoscopy) and in the near field (conical diffraction).

  15. Paring Down HIV Env: Design and Crystal Structure of a Stabilized Inner Domain of HIV-1 gp120 Displaying a Major ADCC Target of the A32 Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolbert, William D; Gohain, Neelakshi; Veillette, Maxime; Chapleau, Jean-Philippe; Orlandi, Chiara; Visciano, Maria L; Ebadi, Maryam; DeVico, Anthony L; Fouts, Timothy R; Finzi, Andrés; Lewis, George K; Pazgier, Marzena

    2016-05-03

    Evidence supports a role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) toward transitional epitopes in the first and second constant (C1-C2) regions of gp120 (A32-like epitopes) in preventing HIV-1 infection and in vaccine-induced protection. Here, we describe the first successful attempt at isolating the inner domain (ID) of gp120 as an independent molecule that encapsulates the A32-like region within a minimal structural unit of the HIV-1 Env. Through structure-based design, we developed ID2, which consists of the ID expressed independently of the outer domain and stabilized in the CD4-bound conformation by an inter-layer disulfide bond. ID2 expresses C1-C2 epitopes in the context of CD4-triggered full-length gp120 but without any known neutralizing epitope present. Thus, ID2 represents a novel probe for the analysis and/or selective induction of antibody responses to the A32 epitope region. We also present the crystal structure of ID2 complexed with mAb A32, which defines its epitope.

  16. Colorimetric evaluation of display performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    2001-08-01

    The development of information techniques, using new technologies, physical phenomena and coding schemes, enables new application areas to be benefited form the introduction of displays. The full utilization of the visual perception of a human operator, requires the color coding process to be implemented. The evolution of displays, from achromatic (B&W) and monochromatic, to multicolor and full-color, enhances the possibilities of information coding, creating however a need for the quantitative methods of display parameter assessment. Quantitative assessment of color displays, restricted to photometric measurements of their parameters, is an estimate leading to considerable errors. Therefore, the measurements of a display's color properties have to be based on spectral measurements of the display and its elements. The quantitative assessment of the display system parameters should be made using colorimetric systems like CIE1931, CIE1976 LAB or LUV. In the paper, the constraints on the measurement method selection for the color display evaluation are discussed and the relations between their qualitative assessment and the ergonomic conditions of their application are also presented. The paper presents the examples of using LUV colorimetric system and color difference (Delta) E in the optimization of color liquid crystal displays.

  17. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  18. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen......, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight....... There are different methods for brightness preservation for local backlight dimming displays, producing images with different visual characteristics. In this study, we have implemented, analyzed and evaluated several different approaches for brightness preservation, and conducted a subjective study based on rank...

  19. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  20. Crystal Ball Functional Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, David

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the MAinz MIkrotron is dedicated to studying meson production and nucleon structure and behavior via photon scattering. The photons are made via bremsstrahlung process and energy-tagged using the Glasgow Photon tagger. The photon beam then interacts in a variety of targets: cryogenic, polarized or solid state, and scattered particles deposit their energy within the NaI crystals. Scintillators are able to give results on particles energy and time. Events are reconstructed by combining information from the Tagging spectrometer, the Crystal Ball detector, the TAPS forward wall spectrometer, a Cherenkov detector, and multi-wire proportional chambers. To better understand the detector and experimental events, a live display was built to show energies deposited in crystals in real-time. In order to show a range of energies and particles, addressable LEDs that are individually programmable were used. To best replicate the Crystal Ball, 3D printing technology was employed to build a similar highly segmented icosahedron that can hold each LED, creating a 3D representation of what photons see during experiments. The LEDs were controlled via Arduino microcontroller. Finally, we implemented the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System to grab live event data, and a simple program converts this data in to color and crystal number data that is able to communicate with the Arduino. Using these simple parts, we can better visualize and understand the tools used in nuclear physics. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. IIA-1358175.

  1. Angular-resolved magnetometry beyond triclinic crystals part II: torque magnetometry of Cp*ErCOT single-molecule magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Mauro; Cucinotta, Giuseppe; Boulon, Marie-Emmanuelle; El Hallak, Fadi; Gao, Song; Sessoli, Roberta

    2014-10-20

    The experimental investigation of the molecular magnetic anisotropy in crystals in which the magnetic centers are symmetry related, but do not have a parallel orientation has been approached by using torque magnetometry. A single crystal of the orthorhombic organometallic Cp*ErCOT [Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadiene anion (C5Me5(-)); COT=cyclooctatetraenedianion (C8H8(2-))] single-molecule magnet, characterized by the presence of two nonparallel families of molecules in the crystal, has been investigated above its blocking temperature. The results confirm an Ising-type anisotropy with the easy direction pointing along the pseudosymmetry axis of the complex, as previously suggested by out-of-equilibrium angular-resolved magnetometry. The use of torque magnetometry, not requiring the presence of magnetic hysteresis, proves to be even more powerful for these purposes than standard single-crystal magnetometry. Furthermore, exploiting the sensitivity and versatility of this technique, magnetic anisotropy has been investigated up to 150 K, providing additional information on the crystal-field splitting of the ground J multiplet of the Er(III) ion. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Anisotropic surface melting in lyotropic cubic crystals. Part 1: Pn3m/L1 interface, poor faceting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, J; Plötzing, T; Rohe, D; Pieranski, P

    2006-02-01

    From experiments with ice or metal crystals, in the vicinity of their crystal/liquid/vapor triple points, it is known that melting of crystals starts on their surfaces and is anisotropic. It is shown here by direct observations under an optical microscope that this anisotropic surface melting phenomenon occurs also in lyotropic systems. In the case of C12EO2/water mixture, it takes place in the vicinity of the peritectic Pn3m/L3/L1 triple point. Above the peritectic triple point, where the Pn3m and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, the surface of a Pn3m-in-L1 crystal is composed of (111)-type facets surrounded by rough surfaces. The angular junction suggests that rough surfaces are wet by a L3-like layer while facets stay "dry". This is analogous to the pre-melting at rough surfaces in solid crystals. Upon cooling below the peritectic triple point, where L3 and L1 phases coexist in the bulk, a thick layer of the L3 phase grows from the pre-melted, rough Pn3m/L1 interface. Simultaneously, facets stay dry and their radius decreases. In this tri-phasic configuration, stable in a narrow temperature range, the L3/L1 and L3/Pn3m interfaces have shapes of constant mean curvature surfaces having common borders: edges of facets.

  3. Diagnostic performance of detecting breast cancer on computed radiographic (CR) mammograms: comparison of hard copy film, 3-megapixel liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitor and 5-megapixel LCD monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki

    2008-11-01

    The purpose was to compare observer performance in the detection of breast cancer using hard-copy film, and 3-megapixel (3-MP) and 5-megapixel (5-MP) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors in a simulated screening setting. We amassed 100 sample sets, including 32 patients with surgically proven breast cancer (masses present, N = 12; microcalcifications, N = 10; other types, N = 10) and 68 normal controls. All the mammograms were obtained using computed radiography (CR; sampling pitch of 50 mum). Twelve mammographers independently assessed CR mammograms presented in random order for hard-copy and soft-copy reading at minimal 4-week intervals. Observers rated the images on seven-point (1 to 7) and continuous (0 to 100) malignancy scales. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis was performed, and the average area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each modality. The jackknife method with the Bonferroni correction was applied to multireader/multicase analysis. The average AUC values for the 3-MP LCD, 5-MP LCD, and hard-copy film were 0.954, 0.947, and 0.956 on the seven-point scale and 0.943, 0.923, and 0.944 on the continuous scale, respectively. There were no significant differences among the three modalities on either scale. Soft-copy reading using 3-MP and 5-MP LCDs is comparable to hard-copy reading for detecting breast cancer.

  4. Influence of MTN-LCD Parameters to Liquid Crystal on Silicon Display Device%混合扭曲向列相模式的液晶盒参数对硅基液晶显示器的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜丽; 范伟; 代永平; 张志东

    2011-01-01

    Mixed mode twisted nematic (MTN) characterized by excellent color dispersion effect and low driving voltage is used in liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS).Based on MTN mode, the influence of LCD parameters on LCOS display were simulated in this paper, such as the elastic constants, dielectric constant, pretilt angle and cell gap, et al.The simulation results can provide scientific basis for the research of LCOS.%90°混合扭曲向列相液晶(MTN)模式因其良好的关态色散特性、低驱动电压而被应用于小型或者微型硅基液晶显示器(LCOS).针对MTN模式,模拟研究了液晶弹性常数、介电各向异性、预倾角以及盒厚变化对显示效果的影响,研究结果为硅基液晶显示器的开发提供了一定的理论依据.

  5. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  6. Liquid Crystal Materials for Matrix Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    TBATPB-doped MBBA, which is shown as a reference curve in Figure 1. More complete data on the scattering angles of HRL-26N3 -26N4, and - 25N2 are shown...D/T is more favorable at 20 V than at 15 V dc,Don since at higher voltage TD increases, and T decreases. For example,on at 20 V and 64*C the TD /Ton...Figure 9) changes with temperature. In the lower temperature range the TD and TON decrease with increasing temperature in the same manner as n

  7. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal...

  8. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  9. [Review of visual display system in flight simulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guang-hui; Wei, Shao-ning

    2003-06-01

    Visual display system is the key part and plays a very important role in flight simulators and flight training devices. The developing history of visual display system is recalled and the principle and characters of some visual display systems including collimated display systems and back-projected collimated display systems are described. The future directions of visual display systems are analyzed.

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel cells catalysts. Part I: Carbon monoxide oxidation onto low index platinum single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide and the interfacial structure of the CO adlayer (COads on platinum low index single crystals, Pt(111, Pt(100 and two reconstruction of Pt(110, were examined using the rotation disk electrode method in combination with the in situ surface X-ray diffraction scattering technique. The mechanism of CO oxidation is discussed on the basis of the findings that, depending on the potential, two energetic states of COads exist on the platinum surfaces. Thus, at lower potentials, weakly bonded states (COads,w and at higher potentials strongly bonded states (COads,s are formed. The mechanism of the oxidation of hydrogen-carbon monoxide mixtures is also proposed.

  11. Collimating Montel mirror as part of a multi-crystal analyzer system for resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jungho; Shi, Xianbo; Casa, Diego; Qian, Jun; Huang, XianRong; Gog, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Advances in resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir-L3 edge stands at ~25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si spherical analyzer. An angular dispersion analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to achieve higher energy resolution, namely 10 meV or better, thereby overcoming the intrinsic energy resolution limit of diced spherical crystal analyzers. One essential component for a practical use of such multi-crystal systems is the xray collimation optics. In this work, a laterally graded, parabolic collimation Montel mirror was designed with larger than 10 mrad acceptance, collimating the x-ray beam to smaller than 100 μrad divergence at the Ir-L3 absorption energy. The x-ray collimation performance was investigated at beamline 27-ID of the Advanced Photon Source, using incident photons from a Diamond (111) monochromator illuminating a controlled 40 mrad divergence scattering source of 5 μm diameter. A flat Si (111) crystal served as the analyzer. It is found from experimental data and ray-tracing simulations, combined with metrology results, that the manufactured Montel mirror satisfies the required specifications of angular acceptance and collimated x-ray divergence for a high resolution RIXS spectrometer at the Ir-L3 edge.

  12. Collimating Montel mirror as part of a multi-crystal analyzer system for resonant inelastic X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Shi, Xianbo; Casa, Diego; Qian, Jun; Huang, XianRong; Gog, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Advances in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) have come in lockstep with improvements in energy resolution. Currently, the best energy resolution at the Ir L3-edge stands at ∼25 meV, which is achieved using a diced Si(844) spherical crystal analyzer. However, spherical analyzers are limited by their intrinsic reflection width. A novel analyzer system using multiple flat crystals provides a promising way to overcome this limitation. For the present design, an energy resolution at or below 10 meV was selected. Recognizing that the angular acceptance of flat crystals is severely limited, a collimating element is essential to achieve the necessary solid-angle acceptance. For this purpose, a laterally graded, parabolic, multilayer Montel mirror was designed for use at the Ir L3-absorption edge. It provides an acceptance larger than 10 mrad, collimating the reflected X-ray beam to smaller than 100 µrad, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The performance of this mirror was studied at beamline 27-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. X-rays from a diamond (111) monochromator illuminated a scattering source of diameter 5 µm, generating an incident beam on the mirror with a well determined divergence of 40 mrad. A flat Si(111) crystal after the mirror served as the divergence analyzer. From X-ray measurements, ray-tracing simulations and optical metrology results, it was established that the Montel mirror satisfied the specifications of angular acceptance and collimation quality necessary for a high-resolution RIXS multi-crystal analyzer system.

  13. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  14. Subjective comparison of brightness preservation methods for local backlight dimming displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Forchhammer, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Local backlight dimming is a popular technology in high quality Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs). In those displays, the backlight is composed of contributions from several individually adjustable backlight segments, set at different backlight luminance levels in different parts of the screen......, according to the luma of the target image displayed on LCD. Typically, transmittance of the liquid crystal cells (pixels) located in the regions with dimmed backlight is increased in order to preserve their relative brightness with respect to the pixels located in the regions with bright backlight...... ordering to compare the relevant methods on a real-life LCD with a local backlight dimming capability. In general, our results show that locally adapted brightness preservation methods produce more preferred visual outcome than global methods, but dependency on the content is also observed. Based...

  15. Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part II: cladding effect on confinement and bend loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, M; Bradley, T; Debord, B; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Ghosh, D; Vincetti, L; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2013-11-18

    We report on numerical and experimental studies on the influence of cladding ring-number on the confinement and bend loss in hypocycloid-shaped Kagome hollow core photonic crystal fiber. The results show that beyond the second ring, the ring number has a minor effect on confinement loss whereas the bend loss is strongly reduced with the ring-number increase. Finally, the results show that the increase in the cladding ring-number improves the modal content of the fiber.

  16. Detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer on digital mammograms: comparison among hard-copy film, 3-megapixel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and 5-megapixel LCD monitors: an observer performance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Furuya, Akio; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Ishii, Nobuhide; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare observer performance in the detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer among hard-copy reading and soft-copy readings using 3-megapixel (3M) and 5-megapixel (5M) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. For the microcalcification detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 40 surgically verified cancer cases and 60 normal cases. For the mass detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 50 cancer cases and 50 normal cases. After six readers assessed both microcalcifications and masses set for each modality, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The average A(z)s for mass detection using a hard copy and 3M and 5M LCD monitors were 0.923, 0.927 and 0.920, respectively; there were no significant differences. The average A(z) for microcalcification detection using hard copy, 3M and 5M LCD monitors was 0.977, 0.954 and 0.972, respectively. There were no significant differences, but the P-values between the hard copy and 3M LCD monitor and that between the 3M and 5M LCD monitor were 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In conclusion, the observer performances for detecting masses of breast cancers were comparable among the hard copy and two LCD monitors; however, soft-copy reading with a 3M LCD monitor showed slightly lower observer performance for detecting microcalcifications of breast cancers than hard-copy or 5M LCD monitor reading.

  17. Heath monitoring of a glass transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display using abnormal operating sounds based on wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Youl; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the fault detect method of a moving transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturers based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) for feature extraction and the artificial neural network (ANN) for fault classification. Most of fault detection methods in a mechanical system have been researched based on the vibration signal. Unlike the existing methodologies, this study aims to minimize the uncertainty of a field engineer's decision making process for determining whether a fault is present or not based on the human auditory perception by developing a fault diagnosis system that uses the abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot as a source signal. Abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot has been used for this work instead of other source signals such as vibration, acoustic emission, electrical signal, etc. Its advantage as a source signal makes it possible to monitor the status of multiple faults by using only a microphone despite a relatively low sensitivity. In the application of ANN, since it is important to minimize the error of trained ANN in terms of the accuracy of fault diagnosis logic, in the paper, the number of input and target data samples was increased through a regeneration process based on statistical properties, and then the uncorrelated nodes in the input vector were also removed to improve the orthogonality of the input vector based on the entropy based feature selection method. Consequently, it can be concluded that the abnormal operating sound is sufficiently useful as a source signal for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components as well as other source signals.

  18. Crystal arthritides - gout and calcium pyrophosphate arthritis : Part 2: clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, S; Bollheimer, L C; Bertsch, T; Sieber, C C; Härle, P

    2017-02-23

    Gout develops in four stages beginning with an asymptomatic increase in blood levels of uric acid. An acute gout attack is an expression of an underlying inflammatory process, which in the course of time is self-limiting. Without therapy monosodium urate crystals remain in the synovial fluid and synovial membrane and trigger more acute attacks. In the course of the disease monosodium urate crystals form deposits (tophi) leading in severe forms to irreversible joint deformities with loss of functionality. In 20% of cases gout leads to involvement of the kidneys. Overproduction of uric acid can cause nephrolithiasis. These stones can be composed of uric acid or calcium phosphate. Another form of kidney disease caused by gout is uric acid nephropathy. This is a form of abacterial chronic inflammatory response with deposition of sodium urate crystals in the medullary interstitium. Acute obstructive nephropathy is relatively rare and characterized by renal failure due to uric acid precipitation in the tubules because of rapid cell lysis that occurs, for example, with chemotherapy. There is a causal interdependence between the occurrence of hyperuricemia and hypertension. Uric acid activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system and inhibits nitric oxide (NO) with the possible consequence of a rise in systemic vascular resistance or arteriolar vasculopathy; however, uric acid is also an apparently independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. In contrast to young patients, the diagnosis of an acute gout attack in the elderly can be a challenge for the physician. Polyarticular manifestations and obscure symptoms can make it difficult to differentiate it from rheumatoid arthritis and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD). Aspiration of synovial fluid with visualization of urate crystals using compensated polarized light microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of acute gout. Moreover, analysis of synovial fluid enables a distinction from septic

  19. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  20. Performance studies of electrochromic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Ciprian; Dobre, Robert Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The idea of having flexible, very thin, light, low power and even low cost display devices implemented using new materials and technologies is very exciting. Nowadays we can talk about more than just concepts, such devices exist, and they are part of an emerging concept: FOLAE (Flexible Organic and Large Area Electronics). Among the advantages of electrochromic devices are the low power consumption (they are non-emissive, i.e. passive) and the aspect like ink on paper with good viewing angle. Some studies are still necessary for further development, before proper performances are met and the functional behavior can be predicted. This paper presents the results of the research activity conducted to develop electric characterization platform for the organic electronics display devices, especially electrochromic displays, to permit a thorough study. The hardware part of platform permits the measuring of different electric and optical parameters. Charging/discharging a display element presents high interest for optimal driving circuitry. In this sense, the corresponding waveforms are presented. The contrast of the display is also measured for different operation conditions as driving voltage levels and duration. The effect of temperature on electrical and optical parameters (contrast) of the display will be also presented.

  1. Physicochemical properties of Brazilian cocoa butter and industrial blends. Part II Microstructure, polymorphic behavior and crystallization characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, A. P. B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural behavior of industrial standardized cocoa butter samples and cocoa butter samples from three different Brazilian states is compared. The cocoa butters were characterized by their microstructural patterns, crystallization kinetics and polymorphic habits. The evaluation of these parameters aided in establishing relationships between the chemical compositions and crystallization behavior of the samples, as well as differentiating them in terms of technological and industrial potential for use in tropical regions.

    En este trabajo se presenta el comportamiento de la microestructura y la cristalización de mantecas de cacao representativas de las mezclas industriales, y de la manteca de cacao original de tres regiones geográficas diferentes de Brasil. Las muestras se evaluaron de acuerdo a la microestructura, la cinética de cristalización y el comportamiento polimórfico. La evaluación de estos parámetros nos permite establecer relaciones entre la composición química y el comportamiento de la cristalización de las muestras, así como las diferencias sobre la adecuación del potencial tecnológico e industrial para su aplicación en las regiones tropicales.

  2. Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Lev M

    2011-01-01

    This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the firs...

  3. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  4. Do LCDs have a chance to keep a leading position on flat panel display market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Olifierczuk, Marek

    2004-09-01

    A lot of significant discoveries and inventions in the field of technology of displays were made in the latter part of the twentieth century. Apart from well-known CRT, the plasma-, luminescence- and liquid crystal-displays are commercially available. One can notice that a leading position on that flat panel displays market belong to LCD. But the progress in Organic LED materials and devices is impressive. Threshold voltage for light emission have fallen from several thousands V to just 2 - 3 V for today's OLEDs (polymer and small molecule). Luminous efficiency has increased from 0,01 to more than 10 lm/W. These improvements have brought PLED technology to the point where serious consideration is being given to OLED graphic and video display product. The question given some years ago by Dr. M. E. Becker, [Display Metrology and Systems]: "...is the current OLED enthusiasm justified because OLED displays feature significant improvements in visual and ergonomic performance, and because they are much cheaper to manufacture; Or it is just another hope for those who missed the LCD train?...," is trite. During SID Conference in Baltimore in 2003 two companies claiming to have built the largest organic LED. International Display Technology demonstrated a 20 inch display driven by "super amorphous silicon" technology; Sony showed off its 24 inch screen, which consists of a 2x2 tiled array of OLED displays. The presented work will be oriented towards specifying the characteristic features of liquid crystal and electro luminescence organic compounds which make these groups of displays so attractive and prospective among other imagery systems devices existing nowadays.

  5. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  6. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  7. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  8. Low driving voltage and fast-response in-plane switching liquid crystal display%低驱动电压和快速响应的共面转换液晶显示器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王森; 孙玉宝

    2016-01-01

    In-plane switching liquid crystal displays (IPS-LCDs)are widely applied in TFT-LCD for its excellent viewing angle and outstanding ability of color reproduction.However,its development in high-end LCDs is limited by its slow response.A fast response IPS-LCD with protrusion electrode is proposed in this paper,and its optical characteristics is simulated by TechWiz software.With the pro-trusion electrode,the driving voltage of IPS-LCD is reduced by 2.3 V.Although the driving voltage is reduced,the electric field in the liquid crystal layer is changed due to the electrode on protrusion,so the rise response speed is improved.In addition,the protrusion structure reduces the effective cell gap of the LC layer,and the decay time is proportional to the square of the cell thickness,so the decay re-sponse speed is also obviously improved.The whole response speed is improved by approximately 38% in contrast with the conventional IPS-LCD.%共面转换液晶显示器(IPS-LCD)由于其优异的视角特性和色彩还原能力在 TFT-LCD 中得到了广泛应用,然而响应速度慢的缺点始终限制着其在高端液晶显示器中的发展.本文中提出一种凸起电极结构的共面转换液晶显示器,并采用 TechWiz 软件模拟了该结构的电光特性.与传统 IPS-LCD 相比,我们提出的新结构 IPS-LCD 的驱动电压降低了2.3 V.在响应时间方面,尽管驱动电压降低了,但是由于凸起电极改变液晶层中的电场状况,因此上升响应速度得到了一定提高.此外,凸起结构减小了液晶层的等效盒厚,因为下降时间正比于液晶盒厚的平方,所以下降响应速度也得到了明显提高,该结构的整体响应速度相比传统结构提高了大约38%.

  9. Optimization of bent perfect Si(220)-crystal monochromator for residual strain/stress instrument-Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myung-Kook [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Em, Vyacheslav T. [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Hee [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Mikula, Pavol [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Hong, Kwang-Pyo [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Neutron Beam Application, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Uk-Won [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Kong, Kyung-Nam [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Korea Astronomy Observatory, Yusung, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Kyung-Chan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 35-3 Hongchon-Ri, Ipchang-Myun, Chonan-Si, Chungnam, 330-825 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-01

    Optimized diffractometer arrangements for residual strain measurements employing curved crystal monochromators provide good luminosity and a high {delta}d/d resolution in the vicinity of usually used scattering angle 2{theta}{sub S}{approx}+/-90{sup o}. Due to a variety of designs of the diffractometers which could be installed at a constant or different take-off angles, except a few attempts, there is a lack of experimental evidence providing a help in a choice of parameters for an optimum performance. In addition to our earlier investigations with curved Si(311) monochromator employed in different diffraction geometries (see paper I [M.K. Moon et al., Physica B, submitted [1

  10. Hypocycloid-shaped hollow-core photonic crystal fiber Part I: arc curvature effect on confinement loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Bradley, T; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Wang, Y Y; Vincetti, L; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F

    2013-11-18

    We report on numerical and experimental studies showing the influence of arc curvature on the confinement loss in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The results prove that with such a design the optical performances are strongly driven by the contour negative curvature of the core-cladding interface. They show that the increase in arc curvature results in a strong decrease in both the confinement loss and the optical power overlap between the core mode and the silica core-surround, including a modal content approaching true single-mode guidance. Fibers with enhanced negative curvature were then fabricated with a record loss-level of 17 dB/km at 1064 nm.

  11. 35Cl NQR spectra of phosphorus chlorides and their molecular conformations in crystals. Part 1. Phosphorus (III) chlorides RPCl 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, E. S.; Kapustin, E. G.; Soifer, G. B.

    2000-09-01

    For the phosphorus chlorides RPCl 2 (R=Cl, Me, ClCH 2, CF 3, Et, i-Pr, Me 2C=CH, PhCH=CH, Me 2N, Et 2N, Pr 2N, MeO, PhO) and R'PCl 2 (R'=Ar, 2-thienyl) two linear correlations between the 35Cl NQR frequencies and charges on the chlorine atoms of the PCl 2 groups calculated by the MNDO procedure have been found. It was shown that the 35Cl NQR spectra and the relative magnitudes of the charges on the chlorine atoms of the PCl 2 groups can be used to determine conformation of the RPCl 2 molecules in crystal. Ab initio (RHF/6-31 G ∗ and MP2/6-31 G ∗) calculations showed that the gauche conformation of Me 2NPCl 2 molecule is more stable than trans conformation. In light of ab initio calculations electron diffraction results (Vilkov L.V., Khaikin L.S., Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 168 (1966) 810) are erroneous. The NBO analysis confirmed the presence of donor-acceptor interactions between the lone pair orbital of the nitrogen atom and the antibonding orbitals of the P-Cl bonds.

  12. Photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Kurt; Wehrspohn, Ralf B; Föll, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the contributions in this topically edited book stems from the priority program SPP 1113 ""Photonische Kristalle"" run by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), resulting in a survey of the current state of photonic crystal research in Germany. The first part of the book describes methods for the theoretical analysis of their optical properties as well as the results. The main part is dedicated to the fabrication, characterization and modeling of two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals, while the final section presents a wide spectrum of applications: gas sensors, micr

  13. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements – Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new method to retrieve ice cloud asymmetry parameters from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements is applied to measurements of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP obtained during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in 2002. The method assumes individual hexagonal ice columns and plates serve as proxies for more complex shapes and aggregates. The closest fit is searched in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual, randomly oriented hexagonal columns and plates with a virtually continuous selection of aspect ratios and distortion. The asymmetry parameter, aspect ratio and distortion of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements are considered the retrieved values. Two cases of thick convective clouds and two cases of thinner anvil cloud layers are analyzed. Median asymmetry parameters retrieved by the RSP range from 0.76 to 0.78, and are generally smaller than those currently assumed in most climate models and satellite retrievals. In all cases the measurements indicate roughened or distorted ice crystals, which is consistent with previous findings. Retrieved aspect ratios in three of the cases range from 0.9 to 1.6, indicating compact particles dominate the cloud-top shortwave radiation. Retrievals for the remaining case indicate plate-like ice crystals with aspect ratios around 0.3. The RSP retrievals are qualitatively consistent with the CPI images obtained in the same cloud layers. Retrieved asymmetry parameters are compared to those determined in situ by the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN. For two cases, the median values of asymmetry parameter retrieved by CIN and RSP agree within 0.01, while for the two other cases RSP asymmetry parameters are about 0.03–0.05 greater than those obtained by the CIN. Part of this bias might be explained by vertical variation of the asymmetry parameter or ice shattering on the CIN probe, or both.

  14. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements - Part 2: Application to the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diedenhoven, B.; Cairns, B.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Garrett, T. J.

    2013-03-01

    A new method to retrieve ice cloud asymmetry parameters from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements is applied to measurements of the airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) obtained during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in 2002. The method assumes individual hexagonal ice columns and plates serve as proxies for more complex shapes and aggregates. The closest fit is searched in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual, randomly oriented hexagonal columns and plates with a virtually continuous selection of aspect ratios and distortion. The asymmetry parameter, aspect ratio and distortion of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements are considered the retrieved values. Two cases of thick convective clouds and two cases of thinner anvil cloud layers are analyzed. Median asymmetry parameters retrieved by the RSP range from 0.76 to 0.78, and are generally smaller than those currently assumed in most climate models and satellite retrievals. In all cases the measurements indicate roughened or distorted ice crystals, which is consistent with previous findings. Retrieved aspect ratios in three of the cases range from 0.9 to 1.6, indicating compact particles dominate the cloud-top shortwave radiation. Retrievals for the remaining case indicate plate-like ice crystals with aspect ratios around 0.3. The RSP retrievals are qualitatively consistent with the CPI images obtained in the same cloud layers. Retrieved asymmetry parameters are compared to those determined in situ by the Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN). For two cases, the median values of asymmetry parameter retrieved by CIN and RSP agree within 0.01, while for the two other cases RSP asymmetry parameters are about 0.03-0.05 greater than those obtained by the CIN. Part of this bias might be explained by vertical variation of the asymmetry parameter or ice shattering on the CIN probe, or both.

  15. Manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic module reliability and durability, Part I: Feedstock, crystallization and wafering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigneur, Hubert; Mohajeri, Nahid; Brooker, R. Paul; Davis, Kristopher O.; Schneller, Eric J.; Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Rodgers, Marianne P.; Wohlgemuth, John; Shiradkar, Narendra S.; Scardera, Giuseppe; Rudack, Andrew C.; Schoenfeld, Winston V.

    2016-06-01

    This article is the first in a three-part series of manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability. Here in Part 1 we focus on the three primary process steps for making silicon substrates for PV cells: (1) feedstock production; (2) ingot and brick production; and (3) wafer production. Each of these steps can affect the final reliability/durability of PV modules in the field with manufacturing metrology potentially playing a significant role. This article provides a comprehensive overview of historical and current processes in each of these three steps, followed by a discussion of associated reliability challenges and metrology strategies that can be employed for increased reliability and durability in resultant modules. Gaps in the current state of understanding in connective metrology data during processing to reliability/durability in the field are then identified along with suggested improvements that should be considered by the PV community.

  16. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  17. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  18. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  19. Liquid Crystal Motion Picture Projector①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHIYongji

    1997-01-01

    A liquid crystal moving picture projector and method are described.Light incident on a liquid crystal display-type device is selectively scattered or transmitted by respective portions of liquid crystal display,and a projection mechanism projects an image formed by either such scattered light or such transmitted light.A liquid cystal moving picture projector includes a liquid crystal display for creating characteristics of an image,and projecttion optics for projecting images sequentially created by the display.The display includes a liquid crystal material capable of temporary storing information at respective areas.The temporary storage may be a function of charge storing directly on liquid crystal material.A method of projecting plural images in sequence includes:creating an image or characteristics of an image in a liquid crystal material,storing such image in such liquid crystal material,directing light at such liquid crystal material,projecting such image as a function of light transmitted through or scattered by such liquid crystal material,and creating a further image in such liquid crystal material for subsequent projection.

  20. Laser-based displays: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellappan, Kishore V; Erden, Erdem; Urey, Hakan

    2010-09-01

    After the invention of lasers, in the past 50 years progress made in laser-based display technology has been very promising, with commercial products awaiting release to the mass market. Compact laser systems, such as edge-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and optically pumped semiconductor lasers, are suitable candidates for laser-based displays. Laser speckle is an important concern, as it degrades image quality. Typically, one or multiple speckle reduction techniques are employed in laser displays to reduce speckle contrast. Likewise, laser safety issues need to be carefully evaluated in designing laser displays under different usage scenarios. Laser beam shaping using refractive and diffractive components is an integral part of laser displays, and the requirements depend on the source specifications, modulation technique, and the scanning method being employed in the display. A variety of laser-based displays have been reported, and many products such as pico projectors and laser televisions are commercially available already.

  1. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  2. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  3. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  4. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  5. Numerical simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition – Part 2: Impact of initial ice crystal number, radiation, stratification, secondary nucleation and layer depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Unterstrasser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of contrail-to-cirrus transition were performed with an LES model. In Part 1 the impact of relative humidity, temperature and vertical wind shear was explored in a detailed parametric study. Here, we study atmospheric parameters like stratification and depth of the supersaturated layer and processes which may affect the contrail evolution. We consider contrails in various radiation scenarios herein defined by the season, time of day and the presence of lower-level cloudiness which controls the radiance incident on the contrail layer. Under suitable conditions, controlled by the radiation scenario and stratification, radiative heating lifts the contrail-cirrus and prolongs its lifetime. The potential of contrail-driven secondary nucleation is investigated. We consider homogeneous nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores released from sublimated contrail ice crystals. In our model the contrail dynamics triggered by radiative heating does not suffice to force homogeneous freezing of ambient liquid aerosol particles. Furthermore, our model results suggest that heterogeneous nucleation of preactivated soot cores is unimportant. Contrail evolution is not controlled by the depth of the supersaturated layer as long as it exceeds roughly 500 m. Deep fallstreaks however need thicker layers. A variation of the initial ice crystal number is effective during the whole evolution of a contrail. A cut of the soot particle emission by two orders of magnitude can reduce the contrail timescale by one hour and the optical thickness by a factor of 5. Hence future engines with lower soot particle emissions could potentially lead to a reduction of the climate impact of aviation.

  6. Testing Instrument for Flight-Simulator Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1987-01-01

    Displays for flight-training simulators rapidly aligned with aid of integrated optical instrument. Calibrations and tests such as aligning boresight of display with respect to user's eyes, checking and adjusting display horizon, checking image sharpness, measuring illuminance of displayed scenes, and measuring distance of optical focus of scene performed with single unit. New instrument combines all measurement devices in single, compact, integrated unit. Requires just one initial setup. Employs laser and produces narrow, collimated beam for greater measurement accuracy. Uses only one moving part, double right prism, to position laser beam.

  7. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  8. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  9. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  10. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  11. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  12. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable of providing...... part; at least one display unit capable of providing light to the plurality of transmitting parts via the optical element; and wherein the light provided to a transmitting part defines a visual value of the corresponding key element.; In this way, the keyboard is dynamic and further is able to provide...... a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard....

  13. A Microstructure Evolution Model for the Processing of Single-Crystal Alloy CMSX-4 Through Scanning Laser Epitaxy for Turbine Engine Hot-Section Component Repair (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Ranadip; Bansal, Rohan; Gambone, Justin J.; Das, Suman

    2014-12-01

    Part I [Metall. Mater. Trans. B, 2014, DOI:10.1007/s11663-014-0117-9] presented a comprehensive thermal, fluid flow, and solidification model that can predict the temperature distribution and flow characteristics for the processing of CMSX-4 alloy powder through scanning laser epitaxy (SLE). SLE is an additive manufacturing technology aimed at the creation of equiaxed, directionally solidified and single-crystal (SX) deposits of nickel-based superalloys using a fast-scanning laser beam. Part II here further explores the Marangoni convection-based model to predict the solidification microstructure as a function of the conditions at the trailing edge of the melt pool formed during the SLE process. Empirical values for several microstructural characteristics such as the primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), the columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) criterion and the oriented-to-misoriented transition (OMT) criterion are obtained. Optical microscopy provides visual information on the various microstructural characteristics of the deposited material such as melt depth, CET location, OMT location, PDAS, etc. A quantitative and consistent investigation of this complex set of characteristics is both challenging and unprecedented. A customized image-analysis technique based on active contouring is developed to automatically extract these data from experimental micrographs. Quantitative metallography verifies that even for the raster scan pattern in SLE and the corresponding line heat source assumption, the PDAS follows the growth relation w ~ G -0.5 V -0.25 ( w = PDAS, G = temperature gradient and V = solidification velocity) developed for marginal stability under constrained growth. Models for the CET and OMT are experimentally validated, thereby providing powerful predictive capabilities for controlling the microstructure of SX alloys processed through SLE.

  14. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  15. A Liquid Crystal Displayed Method of I/O Bus Driving Based on CPLD%一种基于CPLD的I/O总线驱动液晶显示的方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓东; 郑为民; 唐志敏

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a new kind of driving the LCD via I/O bus using CPLD and realizing the precise I/Ocontrol timing sequence by establishing the corresponding Verilog-HDL model. The results of application show thatthis solution can not only solve the matching of low-speed device with high-speed bus but also provide the display in-terface during the motherboard debugging process, and also prove that the whole system is reliable and stable.

  16. Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    stereoscopic, autostereoscopic , 3D , display ABSTRACT 3D image display devices have wide applications in medical and entertainment areas. Binocular (stereoscopic...and system crosstalk. In many 3D display systems viewer’ crosstalk is an important issue for good performance, especial in autostereoscopic display...UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11343 TITLE: Measurement of Contrast Ratios for 3D Display

  17. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  18. Potential improvements for dual directional view displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Jonathan; Parry Jones, Lesley; Gass, Paul; Imai, Akira; Takatani, Tomoo; Yabuta, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Dual directional view (DDV) displays show different images to different viewers. For example, the driver of a car looking at a central DDV display could view navigation information, while the passenger, looking from a different angle, could be watching a movie. This technology, which has now established itself on the dashboards of high-end Jaguar, Mercedes, and Range Rover cars, is manufactured by Sharp Corporation using a well-known parallax barrier technique. Unfortunately parallax barriers are associated with an inevitable drop in brightness compared with a single view display. A parallax barrier-based DDV display typically has less than half the transmission of a single view display. Here we present a solution to these problems via the use of a combined microlens and parallax barrier system, which can not only boost the brightness by 55% from a parallax barrier-only system but increase the head freedom by 25% and reduce crosstalk also. However, the use of microlenses (which must be positioned between the polarizers of the LCD) can adversely affect the contrast ratio of the display. Careful choice of the LCD mode is therefore required in order to create a DDV display that is both high in brightness and contrast ratio. The use of a single-domain vertically aligned nematic (VAN) liquid crystal (LC) mode, together with a microlens plus parallax barrier system can achieve this with a contrast ratio of 1700∶1 measured at 30° to normal incidence.

  19. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  20. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  1. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  2. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements (101), each key element (101) comprises a transmitting part (102) capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat (105) comprising a plurality of elevated elements......). In this way, the dynamic display keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard. Further, the only power requiring element in the keyboard is the display unit....

  3. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  4. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  5. 3D液晶显示模组不均匀分区背光扫描及其设计方法%Shutter glass type of 3D liquid crystal display module non-uniform partition scanning backlight and its design method based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴琦

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of liquid crystal display technology, 3D display gradually sought after the market and consumers. In the 3D LCD TV, there is a kind of shutter type 3D display technology. This technique also shot the same object's left and right eyes two pictures by two cameras at certain intervals, and synthetic treatment, on the display screen through time-sharing display out, then match the shutter glasses with the same time frequency, the same object images to the left and the right eyes respectively to watch camera captured. As the two pictures there is disparity is different, the human eye can feel the stereo image, realize 3D display effect. In order to achieve better 3D display effect, generally control the scanning backlight system through mode of backlight.%随着液晶显示技术的快速发展,3D液晶显示逐渐受到市场和消费者的追捧。在3D液晶电视中,有一类快门式3D显示技术。这种技术通过一定间隔的两台摄像机同时拍摄同一个物体的左右眼两幅画面,然后合成处理后,在显示屏上通过分时显示的方式显示出来,然后搭配与分时频率相同的快门式眼镜,使人的左右眼分别观看到摄像机拍摄到的同一物体画面。由于两幅画面存在视差的不同,人眼即可感受到了立体的影像,实现3D效果显示。为了实现更好的3D显示效果,一般通过扫描背光的方式来对背光系统进行控制。

  6. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    from the sulphonic acid group and achieved operating life of greater than 10’ cycles with over 3 years shelf-life. The switching speed was rather slow...pitch. In spite of all this ordering, however, liquid crystals are clearly liquid, flowing readily with quite low viscosity . Consequently the...solids and is the basis of most optical effects used in displays. Other physical properties, such as electrical conductivity, elasticity, viscosity

  7. From optical MEMS to photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Jideog; Lee, Hong-Seok; Moon, Il-Kwon; Won, JongHwa; Ku, Janam; Choi, Hyung; Shin, Hyungjae

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents the emergence of photonic crystals as significant optomechatronics components, following optical MEMS. It is predicted that, in the coming years, optical MEMS and photonic crystals may go through dynamic interactions leading to synergy as well as competition. First, we present the Structured Defect Photonic Crystal (SDPCTM) devised by the authors for providing the freedom of designing photonic bandgap structures, such that the application of photonic crystals be greatly extended. Then, we present the applications of optical MEMS and photonic crystals to displays and telecommunications. It is shown that many of the applications that optical MEMS can contribute to telecommunications and displays may be implemented by photonic crystals.

  8. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  9. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-02-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications.

  10. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  11. Identifying Suitable Projection Parameters and Display Configurations for Mobile True-3D Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano, Marcos; Hildebrandt, Dale; Subramanian, Sriram; Irani, Pourang

    2014-01-01

    International audience; We present a two-part exploration on mobile true-3D displays, i.e. displaying volumetric 3D content in mid-air. We first identify and study the parameters of a mobile true-3D projection, in terms of the projection's distance to the phone, angle to the phone, display volume and position within the display. We identify suitable parameters and constraints, which we propose as requirements for developing mobile true-3D systems. We build on the first outcomes to explore met...

  12. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  13. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  14. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  15. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E; Norcia, Anthony M

    2013-10-23

    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function ("gamma correction"). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications.

  16. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  17. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  18. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  19. Pilot performance with a simulated ILS independence pictorial display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, E.; Wempe, T.

    1972-01-01

    As part of a general investigation of the effectiveness of pictorial displays for manual control and monitoring of aircraft approaches and landings, a simulator study was conducted in which pilot performance with three pictorial displays was evaluated. These displays differed in the type of guidance symbology added to the basic perspective runway display. The effect of decreased resolution and update rate of the runway image on pilot performance was also determined. The results indicate that for pictorial displays with added guidance symbology, there was a marked improvement in pilot performance compared to results of a previous study in which the display consisted of only a runway image and aircraft attitude.

  20. Correlation between air pollution and crystal pattern of calcium oxalate in plant leaves of street trees in Itami City. [Ginkgo biloba; Salix babylonica; Aphananthe aspera; Robinia pseudoacacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemoto, K.; Tatsumi, S.

    1975-01-01

    A characteristic difference in calcium oxalate crystal patterns in leaves of roadside trees planted in relatively unpolluted northern parts of Itami City and in parts of the city polluted by automobile exhaust was discovered. The species of trees examined were Ginkgo biloba, Salix babylonica, Aphananthe aspera, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Poplar. The leaves of trees grown in relatively less air polluted areas displayed crystal aggregates of calcium oxalate (50-80 micron) that were arranged in rows on both sides of the central vein; some scattered crystal aggregates between veins were observed. Trees grown in air polluted areas showed irregular crystal patterns and more scattering of the crystals between veins. The cause of the observed differences in the pattern of crystal aggregates was attributed to the difference in metabolism of trees under different environmental conditions. Air pollutants disturb the normal metabolism of the tree and cause hyperproduction of calcium oxalate.

  1. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    hypothetical televison display. The viewing distance is 4 picture heights, and the bandwidth limitation has been set by the U.S. Monochrome Standards...significantly influence the power spectrum over most of the video frequency range. A large dc component and a small random component provide another scene... influences . It was Illuminated with natural light to a brightness of over 300 ft-L. The high brightness levels were chosen so as to nearly reproduce the

  2. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  3. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  4. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo; Beom; Eom; Hokyung; Kim; Jinchae; Kim; Un-Chul; Paek; Byeong; Ha; Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  5. Depth Map Calculation for Autostereoscopic 3D Display

    OpenAIRE

    IVANČÁK Peter; Hrozek, František

    2012-01-01

    Creation of content for 3D displays is veryactual problematic. This paper focus on thisproblematic and is divided into two parts. First partpresents various 3D displays and displayingtechnologies, especially stereoscopic displays – passive,active and autostereoscopic. Second part presentsapplication that calculates depth map fromstereoscopic image and was developed at DCI FEEITU of Košice (Department of computersand informatics, Faculty of electrical engineeringand informatics, Technical univ...

  6. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2001-03-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection TV segment. Rear LCD (liquid crystal display), MEMS/DLP (or Digital Light Processing TM) and LCOS (Liquid-crystal-on-silicon) TVs are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are also facing challenges from LCD and DLP technology for the home theater market while the business market is completely dominated by front LCD and DLP technology. Three-chip DLP projectors have replaced liquid crystal light valves in large venue applications where projectors have higher light output requirements. In recent years front LCD and LCOS projectors have been increasingly competing with 3-chip DLP projectors especially at the low end of the large venue application market. Within the next five years the projection market will experience very fast growth. Sales and presentation applications, which are the fastest growing applications in the business market, will continue to be the major driving force for the growth for front projectors, and the shift in the consumer market to digital and HDTV products will drive the rear projection market.

  7. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  8. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  9. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  10. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  11. Technologies and solutions for data display in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi

    2006-06-01

    Recent advances in technology have led to the introduction of a variety of innovative devices, each with their own platform for data display, into the operating room (OR). While these innovative applications are expanding the traditional boundaries of the surgical space and enhancing treatment capabilities, the introduction of additional screens and displays is placing an ever-increasing load on the OR team. This review describes the main data display platforms currently available in ORs: computer monitors with CRT (cathode ray tube) or LCD (liquid crystal display) screens, suspended imaging displays, wearable computers (WC), auditory displays and tactile (haptic) displays. The different display platforms are evaluated according to their compatibility with the characteristics of the working environment (OR), the monitoring task, and the users (the surgical team). No single display configuration provides an ultimate solution for presenting patient data in the OR. A multi-sensory data display including visual, acoustic and haptic manipulation is suggested as a promising configuration for data display in the OR.

  12. Navigational Heads-Up Display: Will a Shipboard Augmented Electronic Navigation System Sink or Swim?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    76 Table 6. Subject Video Game Practice...Interface GPS Global Positioning System HMD Head-Mounted Display HUD Heads-Up Display IP Internet Protocol IR Infrared LCD Liquid-Crystal Display...Stress Disorder SDK Software Development Kit SOG Speed over Ground SWOS Surface Warfare Officer School USD United States Dollar USNS United States

  13. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  14. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  15. Optimization of the bent perfect Si(311)-crystal monochromator for a residual strain/stress instrument at the HANARO reactor-Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Myung-Kook [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: moonmk@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Chang-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Em, Vyacheslav T. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Mikula, Pavol [Nuclear Physics Institute and Research Centre Rez, Ltd., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Hong, Kwang-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cheon, Jong-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Ae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Neutron Beam Application, 150 Duckjin-Dong, Yusung, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Kyung-Chan [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology 35-3 Hongchon-Ri, Ipchang-Myun, Chonan-Si, Chungnam 330-825 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-01

    Reflectivity and resolution properties of a variety of optimized focusing monochromator performances based on cylindrically bent perfect Si-crystals were tested with the aim of evaluating their possible use in a strain/stress diffractometer. It has been found that the optimized monochromator performances of the curved Si(311) crystals (for the take-off angle 2{theta}{sub M}=60 deg.) provide a good luminosity and a sufficiently high resolution (full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the instrumental {delta}d/d-profile can be about 2x10{sup -3} in the vicinity of the lattice spacing d=0.117nm for 2{theta}{sub S}{approx}90 deg.) of the strain/stress diffractometer with the figure of merit more than one order of magnitude larger than that related to the conventional flat mosaic Ge(220) monochromator of {eta}=15{sup '}.

  16. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements – Part 1: Methodology and evaluation with simulated measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new remote sensing technique to infer the average asymmetry parameter of ice crystals near cloud top from multi-directional polarization measurements. The method is based on previous findings that (a complex aggregates of hexagonal crystals generally have scattering phase matrices resembling those of their components; and (b scattering phase matrices systematically vary with aspect ratios of crystals and their degree of microscale surface roughness. Ice cloud asymmetry parameters are inferred from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements by searching for the closest fit in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual, randomly oriented hexagonal columns and plates with varying aspect ratios and roughness values. The asymmetry parameter of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements is considered the retrieved value. For clouds with optical thickness less than 5, the cloud optical thickness must be retrieved simultaneously with the asymmetry parameter, while for optically thicker clouds the asymmetry parameter retrieval is independent of cloud optical thickness. Evaluation of the technique using simulated measurements based on the optical properties of a number of complex particles and their mixtures shows that the ice crystal asymmetry parameters are generally retrieved to within 5%, or about 0.04 in absolute terms. The retrieval scheme is largely independent of calibration errors, range and sampling density of scattering angles and random noise in the measurements. The approach can be applied to measurements of past, current and future airborne and satellite instruments that measure multi-directional polarized reflectances of ice-topped clouds.

  17. Remote sensing of ice crystal asymmetry parameter using multi-directional polarization measurements – Part 1: Methodology and evaluation with simulated measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van Diedenhoven

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new remote sensing technique to infer the average asymmetry parameter of ice crystals near cloud top from multi-directional polarization measurements. The method is based on previous findings that (a complex aggregates of hexagonal crystals generally have scattering phase matrices resembling those of their components and (b scattering phase matrices systematically vary with aspect ratios of crystals and their degree of microscale surface roughness. Ice cloud asymmetry parameters are inferred from multi-directional polarized reflectance measurements by searching for the closest fit in a look-up table of simulated polarized reflectances computed for cloud layers that contain individual hexagonal columns and plates with varying aspect ratios and roughness values. The asymmetry parameter of the hexagonal particle that leads to the best fit with the measurements is considered the retrieved value. For clouds with optical thickness less than 5, the cloud optical thickness must be retrieved simultaneously with the asymmetry parameter, while for optically thicker clouds the asymmetry parameter retrieval is independent of cloud optical thickness. Evaluation of the technique using simulated measurements based on the optical properties of a number of complex particles and their mixtures shows that the ice crystal asymmetry parameters are generally retrieved to within 5%, or about 0.04 in absolute terms. The retrieval scheme is largely independent of calibration errors, range and sampling density of scattering angles and random noise in the measurements. The approach can be readily applied to measurements of past, current and future airborne and satellite instruments that measure multi-directional polarized reflectances of ice-topped clouds.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis and physicochemical characterization of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 nanopowder.Part Ⅰ: Effect of crystallization time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Saedy; Mohammad Haghighi; Mahsa Amirkhosrow

    2012-01-01

    A hydrothermal method was successfully used for synthesis of CuO/ZnO/Al2O3 (CZA) nanopowder with atomic ratio of 6∶3∶1.The effect of crystallization time (3,6,9,and 12 h) on physicochemical properties of nanopowder was investigated.Nanopowders were characterized using XRD,FESEM,EDX,FTIR,TG,and BET techniques.The XRD patterns confirmed metal oxides formation and their good crystallinity with average crystallite size of 20 nm as obtained by the Scherrer equation.Relative crystallinity was shown to increase with increasing crystallization time.In agreement with XRD results,FESEM images also illustrated nanosized particles.EDX mapping indicated homogenous dispersion of elements.BET specific surface area analysis showed acceptable surface area for CZA nanopowder.FTIR spectroscopy confirmed metal oxides formation during hydrothermal and calcination processing.TG results illustrated high thermal stability of the synthesized nanopowders.TG-DTG and FTIR analyses were used to propose a reaction mechanism for nanopowder formation during processing.Physicochemical characterization showed optimal crystallization time to be 6 h.

  19. Input Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an input device (2), such as a keyboard, comprising plurality of activation parts (4) for depression, at least one registration part (6) for individual registration of depression of activation parts, and at least one image displaying part (8), where depression...

  20. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  1. 21 CFR 880.6970 - Liquid crystal vein locator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous... skin by displaying the color changes of heat sensitive liquid crystals (cholesteric esters)....

  2. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M

    2010-07-01

    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  3. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  4. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  5. Woven Light Emitting Display

    OpenAIRE

    Kašurina, I

    2013-01-01

    Electrotextiles represent a huge potential in creating a new generation of flexible textile platforms for electronic systems and smart garments. In this research of electrotextile fabrication weaving method was used. Fully or partly replacing traditional (non-conductive) textile yarns with conductive textile yarns, it is possible to get woven conductive textile material or fabric circuit. In the paper weaving method is considered for electro textile design and process of ...

  6. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part......) learning and contrasts it to the widely studied IRF/IRE pattern in educational contexts. The activities were videotaped, transcribed and analysed according to principles and procedures of Conversation Analysis....

  7. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  8. Modeling Power-Constrained Optimal Backlight Dimming for Color Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a framework for modeling color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) having local light-emitting diode (LED) backlight with dimming capability. The proposed framework includes critical aspects like leakage, clipping, light diffusion and human perception of luminance and allows...

  9. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Clifton

    1989-01-01

    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  10. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akşit, Kaan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Ölçer, Selim; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R; Day, Sally; Urey, Hakan

    2013-06-17

    This paper describes the first demonstrations of two dynamic exit pupil (DEP) tracker techniques for autostereoscopic displays. The first DEP tracker forms an exit pupil pair for a single viewer in a defined space with low intraocular crosstalk using a pair of moving shutter glasses located within the optical system. A display prototype using the first DEP tracker is constructed from a pair of laser projectors, pupil-forming optics, moving shutter glasses at an intermediate pupil plane, an image relay lens, and a Gabor superlens based viewing screen. The left and right eye images are presented time-sequentially to a single viewer and seen as a 3D image without wearing glasses and allows the viewer to move within a region of 40 cm × 20 cm in the lateral plane, and 30 cm along the axial axis. The second DEP optics can move the exit pupil location dynamically in a much larger 3D space by using a custom spatial light modulator (SLM) forming an array of shutters. Simultaneous control of multiple exit pupils in both lateral and axial axes is demonstrated for the first time and provides a viewing volume with an axial extent of 0.6-3 m from the screen and within a lateral viewing angle of ± 20° for multiple viewers. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs. In this novel version of the display the optical system is used as an advanced dynamic backlight for a liquid crystal display (LCD). This has advantages in terms of overall display size as there is no requirement for an intermediate image, and in image quality. This system has acceptable crosstalk (< 5%) between the stereo image pairs.

  11. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  12. Interactive auto-stereoscopic display with efficient and flexible interleaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyungboo; Park, Jong-Il; Choi, Byung-Uk

    2012-02-01

    We propose a system that displays a three-dimensional (3D) scene on a 3D display device, consisting of a flat-panel display and a slanted parallax barrier, which can directly manipulate virtual 3D objects in real time. The proposed system consists of a 3D scene display part and a user interaction part. First, we propose a multi-view image interleaving method that considers the distance between a user and a display device for a slanted parallax barrier-based 3D display. Second, we define hand motion parameters for convenient hand motion analysis, and we propose a hand gesture recognition method that uses dynamic time warping (DTW) with specified hand motion parameters for user interaction. Thus, the proposed system makes it possible to see in any position, and viewers can perform event actions without regard to the shape or timing of hand motions.

  13. MicroDisplay technology: from eyeglass-mounted displays to portable projectors to the Dick Tracy video phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip

    1997-06-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies ranging from the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates to proprietary tunable color- filter technology, to optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation. All of these technologies were devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display devices with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass-clip-on virtual displays, pagers and personal communication services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are all target markets for MicroDisplay technology.

  14. Structural studies of MFE-1: the 1.9 A crystal structure of the dehydrogenase part of rat peroxisomal MFE-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Jukka P; Kiema, Tiila R; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Wierenga, Rik K

    2006-01-27

    The 1.9 A structure of the C-terminal dehydrogenase part of the rat peroxisomal monomeric multifunctional enzyme type 1 (MFE-1) has been determined. In this construct (residues 260-722 and referred to as MFE1-DH) the N-terminal hydratase part of MFE-1 has been deleted. The structure of MFE1-DH shows that it consists of an N-terminal helix, followed by a Rossmann-fold domain (domain C), followed by two tightly associated helical domains (domains D and E), which have similar topology. The structure of MFE1-DH is compared with the two known homologous structures: human mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD; sequence identity is 33%) (which is dimeric and monofunctional) and with the dimeric multifunctional alpha-chain (alphaFOM; sequence identity is 28%) of the bacterial fatty acid beta-oxidation alpha2beta2-multienzyme complex. Like MFE-1, alphaFOM has an N-terminal hydratase part and a C-terminal dehydrogenase part, and the structure comparisons show that the N-terminal helix of MFE1-DH corresponds to the alphaFOM linker helix, located between its hydratase and dehydrogenase part. It is also shown that this helix corresponds to the C-terminal helix-10 of the hydratase/isomerase superfamily, suggesting that functionally it belongs to the N-terminal hydratase part of MFE-1.

  15. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Parihar, J.K.S.; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Computer and visual display terminals have become an essential part of modern lifestyle. The use of these devices has made our life simple in household work as well as in offices. However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the wide...

  16. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  17. Crystal structure determination as part of an ongoing undergraduate organic laboratory project: 5-[(E-styryl]-1,3,4-oxathiazol-2-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor R. Nason

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H7NO2S, provides the first structure of an α-alkenyl oxathiazolone ring. The phenyl ring and the oxathiazolone groups make dihedral angles of 0.3 (3 and −2.8 (3°, respectively, with the plane of the central alkene group; the dihedral angle between the rings is 2.68 (8°. A careful consideration of bond lengths provides insight into the electronic structure and reactivity of the title compound. In the crystal, extended π-stacking is observed parallel to the a-axis direction, consisting of cofacial head-to-tail dimeric units [centroid–centroid distance of 3.6191 (11 Å]. These dimeric units are separated by a slightly longer centroid–centroid distance of 3.8383 (12 Å, generating infinite stacks of molecules.

  18. Study of 3-D stress development in parent and twin pairs of a hexagonal close-packed polycrystal: Part II - Crystal plasticity finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdolvand, Hamidreza; Majkut, Marta; Oddershede, Jette

    2015-01-01

    -of-mass positions and volumes as measured by three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy. The constructed microstructure is meshed with different element densities and for different numbers of grains. Then a selected group of twin and parent pairs are studied. It is shown that the measured average stress...... each grain, stresses in the parent and twin are quite different if they are plotted in the global coordinate system. However, if the stress tensor is rotated into the local coordinate system of the twin habit plane, all the stress components averaged over the presented population are close, except......Stress heterogeneity within each individual grain of polycrystalline Zircaloy-2 is studied using a crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) model. For this purpose, the weighted Voronoi tessellation method is used to construct 3D geometries of more than 2600 grains based on their center...

  19. Diffusion aluminide coatings for internal surface of rhenium- and rhenium-ruthenium-containing single-crystal superalloys turbine blades: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubovadzhyan, S. A.; Galoyan, A. G.

    2012-09-01

    Process of formation rhenium or refractory carbides based diffusion barrier layer (coating) on internal surface of rhenium- and rhenium-ruthenium-containing single-crystal high-temperature alloys (superalloy) turbine blades, prior to diffusion aluminide coating deposition, is studied. It is shown that diffusion barrier layer is preventing deleterious secondary reaction zone formation under aluminide coating during long-term high-temperature operation. The kinetics of powder carburizing process of rhenium- and rhenium-ruthenium-containing high-temperature alloys is investigated, and conditions for carburizing these alloys are determined. The phase composition of the surface layer after carburizing is studied, and the effect of the fractional composition of a carbon-based powder mixture on the carburizing rate is determined.

  20. The CRT display evaluation: The multidimensional rating of CRT-generated displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, D. L.; Blackman, H. S.; Banks, W. W.; Petersen, R. J.

    1982-10-01

    This report is one in a series evaluating various methods for determining the effectiveness of display formats and contains results from multidimensional rating of three cathode ray tube displays. Each display contained information regarding the status of nine safety parameters critical to safe operations the Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Certified LOFT operators evaluated three formats - bars, stars, and meters - as part of a multimethod display evaluation ongoing at INEL. Each of the six cognitive dimensions embedded in the rating scale are discussed in terms of their internal consistency and ability to differentiate between each of the three formats. Preliminary findings suggest that two of the six dimensions, content integration and cognitive processing, were able to discriminate between formats while satisfying the criteria of internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha. Conclusions in this report must be interpreted in light of moderate test-retest reliability.

  1. Rapid display of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerome R., Jr.; Moore, Stephen M.; Whitman, Robert A.; Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Karlsson, L. M.; Monsees, Thomas L.; Hassen, Gregory L.; David, Timothy C.

    1991-07-01

    The requirements for the rapid display of radiographic images exceed the capabilities of widely available display, computer, and communications technologies. Computed radiography captures data with a resolution of about four megapixels. Large-format displays are available that can present over four megapixels. One megapixel displays are practical for use in combination with large-format displays and in areas where the viewing task does not require primary diagnosis. This paper describes an electronic radiology system that approximates the highest quality systems, but through the use of several interesting techniques allows the possibility of its widespread installation throughout hospitals. The techniques used can be grouped under three major system concepts: a local, high-speed image server, one or more physician's workstations each with one or more high-performance auxiliary displays specialized to the radiology viewing task, and dedicated, high-speed communication links between the server and the displays. This approach is enhanced by the use of a progressive transmission scheme to decrease the latency for viewing four megapixel images. The system includes an image server with storage for over 600 4-megapixel images and a high-speed link. A subsampled megapixel image is fetched from disk and transmitted to the display in about one second followed by the full resolution 4-megapixel image in about 2.5 seconds. Other system components include a megapixel display with a 6-megapixel display memory space and frame-rate update of image roam, zoom, and contrast. Plans for clinical use are presented.

  2. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  3. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  4. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  5. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-10-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity--the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice--but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals.

  7. Flexible ferroelectric organic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, Magdalena; Hujsak, Karl A.; Ferris, Daniel P.; Prokofjevs, Aleksandrs; Majerz, Irena; Szklarz, Przemysław; Zhang, Huacheng; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Jakubas, Ryszard; Hong, Seungbum; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2016-01-01

    Flexible organic materials possessing useful electrical properties, such as ferroelectricity, are of crucial importance in the engineering of electronic devices. Up until now, however, only ferroelectric polymers have intrinsically met this flexibility requirement, leaving small-molecule organic ferroelectrics with room for improvement. Since both flexibility and ferroelectricity are rare properties on their own, combining them in one crystalline organic material is challenging. Herein, we report that trisubstituted haloimidazoles not only display ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity—the properties that originate from their non-centrosymmetric crystal lattice—but also lend their crystalline mechanical properties to fine-tuning in a controllable manner by disrupting the weak halogen bonds between the molecules. This element of control makes it possible to deliver another unique and highly desirable property, namely crystal flexibility. Moreover, the electrical properties are maintained in the flexible crystals. PMID:27734829

  8. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  9. A multilayer display augmented by alternating layers of lenticular sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoda, Hironobu

    2014-03-01

    A multilayer display is an autostereoscopic display constructed by stacking multiple layers of LC (liquid crystal) panels on top of a light source. It is capable of delivering smooth, continuous, and position-dependent images to viewers within a prescribed viewing zone. However, the images thus delivered may contain artifacts, which are inconsistent with real 3D scenes. For example, objects occluding one another may fuse together, or get obscured in the delivered images. To reduce such artifacts, it is often necessary to narrow the viewing zone. Using a directional rather than a uniform light source is one way to mitigate this problem. In this work, we present another solution to the problem. We propose an integrated architecture of multilayer and lenticular displays, where multiple LC panels are sandwiched between pairs of lenticular sheets. By associating a pair of lenticular sheets with a LC panel, each pixel in the panel is transformed into a view-dependent pixel, which is visible only from a particular viewing direction. Since all pixels in the integrated architecture are view-dependent, the display is partitioned into several sub-displays, each of which corresponds to a narrow viewing zone. The partitioning of display will reduce the possibility that the artifacts are noticeable in the delivered images. We will show several simulation results confirming that the proposed extension of multilayer display can deliver more plausible images than conventional multilayer display.

  10. Vitamin K 3 family members - Part II: Single crystal X-ray structures, temperature-induced packing polymorphism, magneto-structural correlations and probable anti-oncogenic candidature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Sandhya; Ahmed, Khursheed; Salunke-Gawali, Sunita; Zaware, Santosh B.; Srinivas, D.; Gonnade, Rajesh; Bhadbhade, Mohan

    2008-12-01

    Temperature-induced packing polymorphism is observed for vitamin K 3 (menadione, 3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, 1). Form 1a crystallizes at 300 K and 1b at 277 K both in the same space group P2 1/ c. Form 1b contains one molecule per asymmetric unit, performing anisotropy in g-factor viz. g z = 2.0082, g y = 2.0055 and g x = 2.0025, whereas form 1a contains two molecules in its asymmetric unit. Vitamin K 3 family members 2, [2-hydroxy vitamin K 3] and 3, [2-hydroxy-1-oximino vitamin K 3] also perform intrinsic neutral active naphthosemiquinone valence tautomers even in dark having spin concentrations due to hydrogen bonding and aromatic stacking interactions which are compared to vitamin K 3. The significant lateral C-H⋯O and O-H⋯π bifurcated or π-π ∗ interactions are discussed for molecular associations and radical formations. X-ray structure of 3 revealed π-π ∗ stack dimers as radicals signatured in EPR as triplet with five hyperfine splits [ Ā( 14N) = 11.9 G]. The centrosymmetric biradicals in 3 show diamagnetism at high temperature but below 10 K it shows paramagnetism with μeff as 0.19 B.M. Vitamin K 3 and its family members inhibit biological activities of acid phosphatase ( APase), which are proportional to their spin concentrations. This may relate to their probable anti-oncogenic candidature in future.

  11. The role of dissipation and defect energy in variational formulations of problems in strain-gradient plasticity. Part 2: single-crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B. D.

    2011-11-01

    Variational formulations are constructed for rate-independent problems in small-deformation single-crystal strain-gradient plasticity. The framework, based on that of Gurtin (J Mech Phys Solids 50: 5-32, 2002), makes use of the flow rule expressed in terms of the dissipation function. Provision is made for energetic and dissipative microstresses. Both recoverable and non-recoverable defect energies are incorporated into the variational framework. The recoverable energies include those that depend smoothly on the slip gradients, the Burgers tensor, or on the dislocation densities (Gurtin et al. J Mech Phys Solids 55:1853-1878, 2007), as well as an energy proposed by Ohno and Okumura (J Mech Phys Solids 55:1879-1898, 2007), which leads to excellent agreement with experimental results, and which is positively homogeneous and therefore not differentiable at zero slip gradient. Furthermore, the variational formulation accommodates a non-recoverable energy due to Ohno et al. (Int J Mod Phys B 22:5937-5942, 2008), which is also positively homogeneous, and a function of the accumulated dislocation density. Conditions for the existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for the various examples of defect energy, with or without the presence of hardening or slip resistance.

  12. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  13. Evaluation of an organic light-emitting diode display for precise visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masaki; Sunaga, Shoji

    2013-06-11

    A new type of visual display for presentation of a visual stimulus with high quality was assessed. The characteristics of an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display (Sony PVM-2541, 24.5 in.; Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) were measured in detail from the viewpoint of its applicability to visual psychophysics. We found the new display to be superior to other display types in terms of spatial uniformity, color gamut, and contrast ratio. Changes in the intensity of luminance were sharper on the OLED display than those on a liquid crystal display. Therefore, such OLED displays could replace conventional cathode ray tube displays in vision research for high quality stimulus presentation. Benefits of using OLED displays in vision research were especially apparent in the fields of low-level vision, where precise control and description of the stimulus are needed, e.g., in mesopic or scotopic vision, color vision, and motion perception.

  14. Display For Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prabhu

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Display subsystem is an important part of command, control, communication and intelligence(C31 system. The display used in C31 system for air defence should provide a panoramic view of thecomplete air segment under its command and control in real-time. The necessary information requiredfor taking a quick decision should be available to the commander in easily understandable graphicformat This paper describes salient features of the display known as synthetic radar situation display(SRSD developed by the Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL, Hyderabad, for such applications

  15. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2010-07-01

    Participants performed a word-non-word discrimination task within a car control display emulated on a thin film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD). The task simulated an information read-out from a TFT-LCD-based instrument panel. Subsequently, participants performed a low-contrast object detection task that simulated the detection of objects during night-time driving. In experiment 1, words/non-words were presented black-on-white (positive polarity) or white-on-black (negative polarity). In experiments 2 and 3, display colour was additionally manipulated. A positive polarity advantage in the discrimination task was consistently observed. In contrast, positive displays interfered more than negative displays with subsequent detection. The detrimental after-effect of positive polarity displays was strong with white and blue, reduced with amber and absent with red displays. Subjective measures showed a preference for blue over red, but a slight advantage for amber over blue. Implications for TFT-LCD design are derived from the results. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: When using TFT-LCDs as car instrument panels, positive polarity red TFT-LCDs are very likely to lead to good instrument readability while at the same time minimising - relative to other colours - the negative effects of an illuminated display on low-contrast object detection during night-time driving.

  16. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  17. Reassembly and co-crystallization of a family 9 processive endoglucanase from its component parts: structural and functional significance of the intermodular linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Petkun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-cellulosomal processive endoglucanase 9I (Cel9I from Clostridium thermocellum is a modular protein, consisting of a family-9 glycoside hydrolase (GH9 catalytic module and two family-3 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM3c and CBM3b, separated by linker regions. GH9 does not show cellulase activity when expressed without CBM3c and CBM3b and the presence of the CBM3c was previously shown to be essential for endoglucanase activity. Physical reassociation of independently expressed GH9 and CBM3c modules (containing linker sequences restored 60–70% of the intact Cel9I endocellulase activity. However, the mechanism responsible for recovery of activity remained unclear. In this work we independently expressed recombinant GH9 and CBM3c with and without their interconnecting linker in Escherichia coli. We crystallized and determined the molecular structure of the GH9/linker-CBM3c heterodimer at a resolution of 1.68 Å to understand the functional and structural importance of the mutual spatial orientation of the modules and the role of the interconnecting linker during their re-association. Enzyme activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry were performed to study and compare the effect of the linker on the re-association. The results indicated that reassembly of the modules could also occur without the linker, albeit with only very low recovery of endoglucanase activity. We propose that the linker regions in the GH9/CBM3c endoglucanases are important for spatial organization and fixation of the modules into functional enzymes.

  18. Visual display requirements: on standards and their users

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2005-01-01

    A new ISO standard for visual displays: "Ergonomic requirements and measurement techniques for electronic visual displays" is soon to be released as a Draft International Standard. The core of the new standard is the part with generic ergonomic requirements for visual displays. Three parts of the standard describe three types of measurements: electro-optical ones, to be used in general; user performance test methods, for innovative displays for which no electro-optical methods exist; and field assessment methods, to be used outside of the laboratory, under the conditions of use at the workplace. The last part of the standard describes five compliance routes and procedures for five different display technologies and contexts of use. A number of choices and problems that standard writers have to face are mentioned. Should a visual display standard be written primarily for young users, with mostly a high visual acuity and in possession of their full accommodative power, wanting to use tiny hand-held displays featuring very small characters ? Or should the standard be focused on the elderly, with their reduction in visual faculties, barring the use of small characters that may irritate or disable such older users ? The question how to put human factors principles in standards sometimes seems a battle between idealists and realists. It therefore is important to strike a balance between different attitudes, backgrounds and interests in a standards writing committee - as indeed happens in ISO/TC 159/SC 4/WG 2, "Visual Display Requirements". The author is convener of this Working Group.

  19. Investigating pointing tasks across angularly coupled display areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennecke, Fabian; De Luca, Alexander; Nguyen, Ngo Dieu Huong;

    2013-01-01

    Pointing tasks are a crucial part of today’s graphical user interfaces. They are well understood for flat displays and most prominently are modeled through Fitts’ Law. For novel displays (e.g., curved displays with multi-purpose areas), however, it remains unclear whether such models for predicting...... that the target position affects overall pointing speed and offset in both conditions. However, we also found that Fitts’ Law can in fact still be used to predict performance as on flat displays. Our results help designers to optimize user interfaces on angularly coupled displays when pointing tasks are involved....... user performance still hold – in particular when pointing is performed across differently oriented areas. To answer this question, we conducted an experiment on an angularly coupled display – the Curve – with two input conditions: direct touch and indirect mouse pointer. Our findings show...

  20. Modeling liquid crystal polymeric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez Pinto, Vianney Karina

    The main focus of this work is the theoretical and numerical study of materials that combine liquid crystal and polymer. Liquid crystal elastomers are polymeric materials that exhibit both the ordered properties of the liquid crystals and the elastic properties of rubbers. Changing the order of the liquid crystal molecules within the polymer network can induce shape change. These materials are very valuable for applications such as actuators, sensors, artificial muscles, haptic displays, etc. In this work we apply finite element elastodynamics simulations to study the temperature induced shape deformation in nematic elastomers with complex director microstructure. In another topic, we propose a novel numerical method to model the director dynamics and microstructural evolution of three dimensional nematic and cholesteric liquid crystals. Numerical studies presented in this work are in agreement with experimental observations and provide insight into the design of application devices.

  1. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  2. Jacquard-woven photonic bandgap fiber displays

    CERN Document Server

    Sayed, Imran; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of photonic textile displays woven on a Jacquard loom, using newly discovered polymer photonic bandgap fibers that have the ability to change color and appearance when illuminated with ambient or transmitted light. The photonic fiber can be thin (smaller than 300 microns in diameter) and highly flexible, which makes it possible to weave in the weft on a computerized Jacquard loom and develop intricate double weave structures together with a secondary weft yarn. We demonstrate how photonic crystal fibers enable a variety of color and structural patterns on the textile, and how dynamic imagery can be created by balancing the ambient and emitted radiation. Finally, a possible application in security ware for low visibility conditions is described as an example.

  3. Demonstrations with a Liquid Crystal Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    The experiments presented show the response of a liquid crystal shutter to applied electric voltages and the delay of the operations. Both properties are important for liquid crystal displays of computers and television sets. Two characteristics of the shutter are determined: (i) the optical transmittance versus applied voltage of various…

  4. Viewing Ice Crystals Using Polarized Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsman, E. M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method for identifying and examining single ice crystals by photographing a thin sheet of ice placed between two inexpensive polarizing filters. Suggests various natural and prepared sources for ice that promote students' insight into crystal structures, and yield colorful optical displays. Includes directions, precautions, and sample…

  5. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  6. Modern trends in technical crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, G.

    1980-04-01

    Interesting and significant developments have occurred in the last decade in both crystallization equipment and in the theory of crystallization process. In the field of technical crystallization new crystallizers have been developed and computer modelling has become important in scaling up and in the achievement of increased performance. The DP-Kristaller developed by Escher-Wyss-Tsukishima, the Brodie purifier, the sieve tray column having dancing balls, the automated multiple crystallization process due to Mützenberg and Saxer and the double belt cooler, all of which represent technical developments, are described in the first section. The second part of the paper reviews computer modelling of the fluidized bed crystallizer, chemical precipitation, flaking and prilling. Finally, there is a brief discussion of the impact of technical crystallization processes on environmental protection.

  7. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  8. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  9. Research of 3D display using anamorphic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Honda, Toshio

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes the auto-stereoscopic display which can reconstruct more reality and viewer friendly 3-D image by increasing the number of parallaxes and giving motion parallax horizontally. It is difficult to increase number of parallaxes to give motion parallax to the 3-D image without reducing the resolution, because the resolution of display device is insufficient. The magnification and the image formation position can be selected independently in horizontal direction and the vertical direction by projecting between the display device and the 3-D image with the anamorphic optics. The anamorphic optics is an optics system with different magnification in horizontal direction and the vertical direction. It consists of the combination of cylindrical lenses with different focal length. By using this optics, even if we use a dynamic display such as liquid crystal display (LCD), it is possible to display the realistic 3-D image having motion parallax. Motion parallax is obtained by assuming width of the single parallax at the viewing position to be about the same size as the pupil diameter of viewer. In addition, because the focus depth of the 3-D image is deep in this method, conflict of accommodation and convergence is small, and natural 3-D image can be displayed.

  10. Parallax multi-viewer autostereoscopic three-dimensional display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Lingdao; Schonfeld, Dan; Li, Qun

    2014-03-01

    It is a widely held belief that in the long run, three-dimensional (3D) display should supply stereo to multiple viewers without wearing any viewing aids and free to move. Over the last few decades, great e®orts have been made to approach auto-stereoscopic (AS) display for multiple viewers. Spatial multiplexing technique has ¯rst been employed to accommodate multiple viewers simultaneously in stereoscopic planar display. However, resolution of each view image decreases as the number of viewers increases. Recent development of high-speed liquid crystal display (LCD), which is capable of operating 240-Hz frame rate, makes feasible multi-viewer display via time multiplexing and improving image quality at the same time. In this paper, we propose a display adjustment algorithm that enables high-quality auto-stereoscopic display for multiple viewers. The proposed method relies on spatio-temporal parallax barrier to channel desired stereo pair to corresponding viewers according to their locations. We subsequently conduct simulations that demonstrate the e®ectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  13. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  14. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  15. Effective color design for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    2002-06-01

    Visual communication is a key aspect of human-computer interaction, which contributes to the satisfaction of user and application needs. For effective design of presentations on computer displays, color should be used in conjunction with the other visual variables. The general needs of graphic user interfaces are discussed, followed by five specific tasks with differing criteria for display color specification - advertising, text, information, visualization and imaging.

  16. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION HISTOGRAMS FOR INCREMENT OF CHROMATICITY COORDINATES IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  17. Liquid crystal devices for photonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigrinov, Vladimir G.

    2007-11-01

    Liquid crystal (LC) devices for Photonics applications is a hot topic of research. Such elements begin to appear in Photonics market. Passive elements for fiber optical communication systems (DWDM components) based on LC cells can successfully compete with the other elements used for the purpose, such as micro electromechanical (MEM), thermo-optical, opto-mechanical or acousto-optical devices. Application of nematic and ferroelectric LC for high speed communication systems, producing elements that are extremely fast, stable, durable, of low loss, operable over a wide temperature range, and that require small operating voltages and extremely low power consumption. The known LC applications in fiber optics enable to produce switches, filters, attenuators, equalizers, polarization controllers, phase emulators and other fiber optical components. Good robustness due to the absence of moving parts and compatibility with VLSI technology, excellent parameters in a large photonic wavelength range, whereas the complexity of the design and the cost of the device are equivalent to regular passive matrix LC displays makes LC fiber optical devices very attractive for mass production. We have already successfully fabricated certain prototypes of the optical switches based on ferroelectric and nematic LC materials. The electrooptical modes used for the purpose included the light polarization rotation, voltage controllable diffraction and fast switching of the LC refractive index. We used the powerful software to optimize the LC modulation characteristics. Use of photo-alignment technique pioneered by us makes it possible to develop new LC fiber components. Almost all the criteria of perfect LC alignment are met in case of azo-dye layers. We have already used azo-dye materials to align LC in superthin photonic holes, curved and 3D surfaces and as cladding layers in microring silicon based resonators. The prototypes of new LC efficient Photonics devices are envisaged. Controllable

  18. SOLIDFELIX: a transportable 3D static volume display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Knut; Kreft, Alexander; Wörden, Henrik Tom

    2009-02-01

    Flat 2D screens cannot display complex 3D structures without the usage of different slices of the 3D model. Volumetric displays like the "FELIX 3D-Displays" can solve the problem. They provide space-filling images and are characterized by "multi-viewer" and "all-round view" capabilities without requiring cumbersome goggles. In the past many scientists tried to develop similar 3D displays. Our paper includes an overview from 1912 up to today. During several years of investigations on swept volume displays within the "FELIX 3D-Projekt" we learned about some significant disadvantages of rotating screens, for example hidden zones. For this reason the FELIX-Team started investigations also in the area of static volume displays. Within three years of research on our 3D static volume display at a normal high school in Germany we were able to achieve considerable results despite minor funding resources within this non-commercial group. Core element of our setup is the display volume which consists of a cubic transparent material (crystal, glass, or polymers doped with special ions, mainly from the rare earth group or other fluorescent materials). We focused our investigations on one frequency, two step upconversion (OFTS-UC) and two frequency, two step upconversion (TFTSUC) with IR-Lasers as excitation source. Our main interest was both to find an appropriate material and an appropriate doping for the display volume. Early experiments were carried out with CaF2 and YLiF4 crystals doped with 0.5 mol% Er3+-ions which were excited in order to create a volumetric pixel (voxel). In addition to that the crystals are limited to a very small size which is the reason why we later investigated on heavy metal fluoride glasses which are easier to produce in large sizes. Currently we are using a ZBLAN glass belonging to the mentioned group and making it possible to increase both the display volume and the brightness of the images significantly. Although, our display is currently

  19. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  20. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  1. Skaergaard vs Sudbury: Solidification Times and Crystal Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, B. D.; Mittal, T.; Currier, R. M.; Jordon, E.

    2010-12-01

    The overall cooling time of a batch of magma is intimately reflected in the nature of the crystal sizes. The thinner are dikes and sills the finer grained are the crystals they display. And the spatial variations in crystal size and abundance record the spatial progression of solidification. Chilled margins are fine grained because of rapid solidification, and a progressive inward increase in crystal size is perfectly predictable by coupling a law of crystal growth with a suitable solidification front-based cooling model. When observed crystal sizes are much larger than predicted, as in finding phenocrysts near or in chilled margins, this is a clear indication of crystals grown and entrained prior to final emplacement and solidification. This is exactly the process exhibited by volcanics carrying swarms of large crystals. But in plutonic rocks there is frequent confusion over what crystal sizes to expect, especially when the pluton size and shape is poorly known, and there is often an unexpressed feeling that fine grained (i.e., non-phenocryst bearing) bodies almost regardless of size somehow cool fundamentally different than large bodies, especially layered intrusions. An invaluable standard state body to which to compare the crystal sizes of other large bodies is the Sudbury impact melt sheet. Formed in a few minutes, the 3km thick 200 km wide superheated melt sheet cooled and crystallized to produce a systematic and predictable internal variation in crystal size and abundance (Zieg & Marsh, 2002, JPet). Buried by 3km of fallback debris, the sheet took about 100,000 to solidify. The Skaergaard intrusion is of a similar thickness (3.4-4 km), but is much less extensive, being more like a thin-edged elliptical laccolith (Norton et. al., 1984, JGR) or a fault-bounded loaf of bread (7.75 x 10.55 x 3.7 km; Nielsen, 2004, JPet). In spite of its limited extent, the extent is large enough for solidification of the thickest parts time to approach that of an infinite sheet

  2. The sweet world of liquid crystals : the synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Elly

    1998-01-01

    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were de

  3. The sweet world of liquid crystals : The synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E

    1998-01-01

    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were de

  4. Program For Displaying Computed Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Kam W.

    1995-01-01

    EM-ANIMATE computer program specialized visualization displays and animates output data on near fields and surface currents computed by electromagnetic-field program - in particular MOM3D (LAR-15074). Program based on windows and contains user-friendly, graphical interface for setting viewing options, selecting cases, manipulating files, and like. Written in FORTRAN 77. EM-ANIMATE also available as part of package, COS-10048, includes MOM3D, IRIS program computing near-field and surface-current solutions of electromagnetic-field equations.

  5. A comparison of visual and kinesthetic-tactual displays for compensatory tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, R. J.; Flach, J. M.; Gilson, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent research on manual tracking with a kinesthetic-tactual (KT) display suggests that under certain conditions it can be an effective alternative or supplement to visual displays. In order to understand better how KT tracking compares with visual tracking, both a critical tracking and stationary single-axis tracking tasks were conducted with and without velocity quickening. In the critical tracking task, the visual displays were superior, however, the quickened KT display was approximately equal to the unquickened visual display. In stationary tracking tasks, subjects adopted lag equalization with the quickened KT and visual displays, and mean-squared error scores were approximately equal. With the unquickened displays, subjects adopted lag-lead equalization, and the visual displays were superior. This superiority was partly due to the servomotor lag in the implementation of the KT display and partly due to modality differences.

  6. The VLT Real Time Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  7. Crystals in light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Bart; Freudenthal, John; Gunn, Erica

    2010-05-18

    We have made images of crystals illuminated with polarized light for almost two decades. Early on, we abandoned photosensitive chemicals in favor of digital electrophotometry with all of the attendant advantages of quantitative intensity data. Accurate intensities are a boon because they can be used to analytically discriminate small effects in the presence of larger ones. The change in the form of our data followed camera technology that transformed picture taking the world over. Ironically, exposures in early photographs were presumed to correlate simply with light intensity, raising the hope that photography would replace sensorial interpretation with mechanical objectivity and supplant the art of visual photometry. This was only true in part. Quantitative imaging accurate enough to render the separation of crystalloptical quantities had to await the invention of the solid-state camera. Many pioneers in crystal optics were also major figures in the early history of photography. We draw out the union of optical crystallography and photography because the tree that connects the inventors of photography is a structure unmatched for organizing our work during the past 20 years, not to mention that silver halide crystallites used in chemical photography are among the most consequential "crystals in light", underscoring our title. We emphasize crystals that have acquired optical properties such as linear birefringence, linear dichroism, circular birefringence, and circular dichroism, during growth from solution. Other crystalloptical effects were discovered that are unique to curiously dissymmetric crystals containing embedded oscillators. In the aggregate, dyed crystals constitute a generalization of single crystal matrix isolation. Simple crystals provided kinetic stability to include guests such as proteins or molecules in excited states. Molecular lifetimes were extended for the preparation of laser gain media and for the study of the photodynamics of single

  8. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  9. Framework for the analysis of crystallization operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Gernaey, Krist

    Crystallization is often applied in the production of salts and/oractive pharmaceutical ingredients (API), and the crystallization step is an essential part of the manufacturing process for many chemicals-based products.In recent years the monitoring and analysis of crystallization operations has...

  10. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu

    2017-01-01

    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  11. Optimization of lens shape for autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ping; An, Shu; Ma, Jianshe

    2016-10-01

    The three-dimensional(3D) displays based on binocular parallax have drawn increasingly interests. The light splitting element, which presents separate images to the viewer's left and right eyes, plays an important part in the auto-stereoscopic display. Lenticular lenses are widely used as the light splitting elements. However, the crosstalk resulted from the unsatisfied splitting may reduce the 3D experience. It was determined that the most suitable cross sectional shape for lenticular lenses is elliptical. Firstly, the formula of the surface is derived based on the ellipse expression and the requirement of the 3D display system, that is y2+0.5651x2 - 303.4768=0. Secondly, one axial source and 4 off-axial sources placed at the heights of 2.5mm, 5mm, 7.5mm and 8mm are used to analyze the beam splitting quality of the cylindrical and elliptical lens element, respectively. The spot of elliptical lens is smaller which means a better beam splitting quality. Thirdly, Monte Carlo Non-Sequential Ray tracing algorithm is used to simulate the luminance distribution on the viewing plane, the narrower width of vertical stripes means that the aberration is suppressed. Finally, the shape of elliptical can reduce the processing difficulty with the 10μm minimum step width. In a word, the optimization of the surface has a significant effect on the improvement of stereoscopic depth and the reduction of ghost images.

  12. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  13. Crystal Ball Replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajamian, John

    2016-09-01

    The A2 collaboration of the Institute for Nuclear Physics of Johannes Gutenberg University performs research on (multiple) meson photoproduction and nucleon structure and dynamics using a high energy polarized photon beam at specific targets. Particles scattered from the target are detected in the Crystal Ball, or CB. The CB is composed of 672 NaI crystals that surround the target and can analyze particle type and energy of ejected particles. Our project was to create a replica of the CB that could display what was happening in real time on a 3 Dimensional scale replica. Our replica was constructed to help explain the physics to the general public, be used as a tool when calibrating each of the 672 NaI crystals, and to better analyze the electron showering of particles coming from the target. This poster will focus on the hardware steps necessary to construct the replica and wire the 672 programmable LEDS in such a way that they can be mapped to correspond to the Crystal Ball elements. George Washington NSF Grant.

  14. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  15. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  16. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  17. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  18. Controlling Power Consumption for Displays With Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Backlight dimming of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technology which aims at saving power and improving visual quality. The evolution of energy standards and the increasing public expectations regarding power consumption have made it necessary for backlight systems to manage their power....... Such a control is challenging to implement, because for LCD displays quality and power are closely interlinked, and one cannot be modified without affecting the other. To address this issue, we present a framework for power controlled backlight dimming defining some key concepts. Two methods to obtain backlights...... with a predefined power level for images are presented: one method has low complexity and the other achieves high performance in terms of quality/power trade-off. Those methods are evaluated on a modeled Light-Emitting Diode edge-lit backlight display. The high-performance method performs significantly better than...

  19. Crystallization behaviour of Al-Sm amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battezzati, L. (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy)); Baricco, M. (Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy)); Schumacher, P. (Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)); Shih, W.C.; Greer, A.L.

    1994-05-01

    Various Al[sub 100-x]Sm[sub x] alloys (10[<=]qslantx[<=]qslant14) have been rapidly solidified by single-roller melt spinning with careful control of the atmosphere in the quenching device. The structural state and subsequent devitrification behaviour of the melt-spun ribbons are found to be particularly sensitive to the quenching conditions. Except for the thinnest ribbons, there are inhomogeneities both through the ribbon thickness and along the length. Both fully and partially amorphous ribbons have been obtained. The crystallization processes of the amorphous phases have been followed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Al[sub 92]Sm[sub 8] shows primary crystallization of Al, followed by the formation of metastable phases; Al[sub 90]Sm[sub 10] transforms polymorphically to a metastable intermetallic; Al[sub 88]Sm[sub 12] and Al[sub 86]Sm[sub 14] display eutectic crystallization into Al and a metastable mixture of compounds. For Al[sub 90]Sm[sub 10], the DSC traces involve several overlapping peaks. This may be the result of transformations occurring in distinct parts of the ribbon with different mechanisms. A kinetic analysis of the crystallization processes has been performed by means of isothermal and non-isothermal DSC experiments. A discussion of the kinetic parameters derived from Kissinger and Avrami analyses is provided. ((orig.))

  20. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  1. SureTrak Probability of Impact Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2012-01-01

    The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display software was developed for use during rocket launch operations. The software displays probability of impact information for each ship near the hazardous area during the time immediately preceding the launch of an unguided vehicle. Wallops range safety officers need to be sure that the risk to humans is below a certain threshold during each use of the Wallops Flight Facility Launch Range. Under the variable conditions that can exist at launch time, the decision to launch must be made in a timely manner to ensure a successful mission while not exceeding those risk criteria. Range safety officers need a tool that can give them the needed probability of impact information quickly, and in a format that is clearly understandable. This application is meant to fill that need. The software is a reuse of part of software developed for an earlier project: Ship Surveillance Software System (S4). The S4 project was written in C++ using Microsoft Visual Studio 6. The data structures and dialog templates from it were copied into a new application that calls the implementation of the algorithms from S4 and displays the results as needed. In the S4 software, the list of ships in the area was received from one local radar interface and from operators who entered the ship information manually. The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display application receives ship data from two local radars as well as the SureTrak system, eliminating the need for manual data entry.

  2. Origin and use of crystallization phase diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Crystallization phase diagrams are frequently used to conceptualize the phase relations and also the processes taking place during the crystallization of macromolecules. While a great deal of freedom is given in crystallization phase diagrams owing to a lack of specific knowledge about the actual phase boundaries and phase equilibria, crucial fundamental features of phase diagrams can be derived from thermodynamic first principles. Consequently, there are limits to what can be reasonably displayed in a phase diagram, and imagination may start to conflict with thermodynamic realities. Here, the commonly used `crystallization phase diagrams' are derived from thermodynamic excess properties and their limitations and appropriate use is discussed.

  3. Macromolecular crystallization and crystal perfection

    CERN Document Server

    Chayen, Naomi E; Snell, Edward H

    2010-01-01

    Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This text describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and neutron crystallography, in the context of automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.

  4. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  5. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  6. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  7. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  8. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  9. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  10. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  11. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  12. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  13. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  14. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  15. An Evaluation of Performance Characteristics of Primary Display Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpo, Ernest U; McEntee, Mark F

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to complete a full evaluation of the new EIZO RX850 liquid crystal display and compare it to two currently used medical displays in Australia (EIZO GS510 and Barco MDCG 5121). The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 18 Quality Control test pattern was used to assess the performance of three high-resolution primary medical displays: EIZO RX850, EIZO GS510, and Barco MDCG 5121. A Konica Minolta spectroradiometer (CS-2000) was used to assess luminance response, non-uniformity, veiling glare, and color uniformity. Qualitative evaluation of noise was also performed. Seven breast lesions were displayed on each monitor and photographed with a calibrated 5.5-MP Olympus E-1 digital SLR camera. ImageJ software was used to sample pixel information from each lesion and surrounding background to calculate their conspicuity index on each of the displays. All monitor fulfilled all AAPM acceptance criteria. The performance characteristics for EIZO RX850, Barco MDCG 5121, and EIZO GS510 respectively were as follows: maximum luminance (490, 500.5, and 413 cd/m(2)), minimum luminance (0.724, 1.170, and 0.92 cd/m(2)), contrast ratio (675:1, 428:1, 449:1), just-noticeable difference index (635, 622, 609), non-uniformity (20, 5.92, and 8.5 %), veiling glare (GR = 2465.6, 720.4, 1249.8), and color uniformity (Δu'v' = +0.003, +0.002, +0.002). All monitors demonstrated low noise levels. The conspicuity index (χ) of the lesions was slightly higher in the EIZO RX850 display. All medical displays fulfilled AAPM performance criteria, and performance characteristics of EIZO RX850 are equal to or better than those of the Barco MDCG 5121 and EIZO GS510 displays.

  16. 77 FR 29251 - Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Carnival Fireworks Display, Nantasket Beach... vicinity of Hull, MA for a Carnival fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect... Youth Football is sponsoring a Carnival fireworks display on the waters off of Nantasket Beach in the...

  17. 24 CFR 110.30 - Effect of failure to display poster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of failure to display poster... FAIR HOUSING FAIR HOUSING POSTER Enforcement § 110.30 Effect of failure to display poster. Any person... Secretary pursuant to part 105 of this chapter. A failure to display the fair housing poster as required...

  18. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  19. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes - Part XIV: Crystal structure of O,O’-dipropyl ester of (S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(4-methyl-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Jelena M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidentate N,N'-ligand precursor, O,O'-dipropyl ester of (S,S- ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride, [(S,S- H4eddl]Cl2, was prepared and its crystal structure is given herein. It crystallizes in a P42 space group of tetragonal crystal system with a = 16.5620 (2 Å, b = 16.5620 (2 Å, c = 5.2240 (1 Å and Z = 2.

  20. Simulation Test of a Head-Worn Display with Ambient Vision Display for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis (Trey) J., III; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Shelton, Kevin J.; Ballard, Kathryn; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Bailey, Randall E.; Williams, Steven P.

    2017-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays (HWDs) are envisioned as a possible equivalent to a Head-Up Display (HUD) in commercial and general aviation. A simulation experiment was conducted to evaluate whether the HWD can provide an equivalent or better level of performance to a HUD in terms of unusual attitude recognition and recovery. A prototype HWD was tested with ambient vision capability which were varied (on/off) as an independent variable in the experiment testing for attitude awareness. The simulation experiment was conducted in two parts: 1) short unusual attitude recovery scenarios where the aircraft is placed in an unusual attitude and a single-pilot crew recovered the aircraft; and, 2) a two-pilot crew operating in a realistic flight environment with "off-nominal" events to induce unusual attitudes. The data showed few differences in unusual attitude recognition and recovery performance between the tested head-down, head-up, and head-worn display concepts. The presence and absence of ambient vision stimulation was inconclusive. The ergonomic influences of the head-worn display, necessary to implement the ambient vision experimentation, may have influenced the pilot ratings and acceptance of the concepts.

  1. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  2. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong In Han

    2013-01-01

    IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV) were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC) lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD) processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superio...

  3. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  4. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  5. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  6. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  7. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  8. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  9. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  10. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  11. Analysis of temporal stability of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    An analysis has been made of the stability of the images generated by electronic autostereoscopic 3D displays, studying the time course of the photometric and colorimetric parameters. The measurements were made on the basis of the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6 for the characterization of electronic liquid-crystal displays (LCD). The study uses 3 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and numbers of pixels, taking the measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). For each of the displays, the time course is shown for the tristimulus values and the chromaticity coordinates in the XYZ CIE 1931 system and values from the time periods required to reach stable values of these parameters are presented. For the analysis of how the procedure recommended in the guideline EN 61747-6 for 2D displays influenced the results, and for the adaption of the procedure to the characterization of 3D displays, the experimental conditions of the standard procedure were varied, making the stability analysis in the two ocular channels (RE and LE) of the 3D mode and comparing the results with those corresponding to the 2D. The results of our study show that the stabilization time of a autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier technology depends on the tristimulus value analysed (X, Y, Z) as well as on the presentation mode (2D, 3D); furthermore, it was found that whether the 3D mode is used depends on the ocular channel evaluated (RE, LE).

  12. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Message Display System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. M. Bakura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one‘s phone to an LCD screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller mounted on an Arduino board, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06 and an LCD screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections.The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application was created using online software called App Inventor. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display 80 characters on the 4 x 20 LCD within the range of 10m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.

  13. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  14. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product or other displays constitutes paying the retailer for rendering a display service within the meaning... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55...

  15. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  16. Gold nanoparticle capture within protein crystal scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Ann E.; Huber, Thaddaus R.; Ni, Thomas W.; Hartje, Luke F.; Appel, Karina L.; Yost, Jarad W.; Ackerson, Christopher J.; Snow, Christopher D.

    2016-06-01

    DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was confirmed by single crystal X-ray crystallography.DNA assemblies have been used to organize inorganic nanoparticles into 3D arrays, with emergent properties arising as a result of nanoparticle spacing and geometry. We report here the use of engineered protein crystals as an alternative approach to biologically mediated assembly of inorganic nanoparticles. The protein crystal's 13 nm diameter pores result in an 80% solvent content and display hexahistidine sequences on their interior. The hexahistidine sequence captures Au25(glutathione)~17 (nitrilotriacetic acid)~1 nanoclusters throughout a chemically crosslinked crystal via the coordination of Ni(ii) to both the cluster and the protein. Nanoparticle loading was validated by confocal microscopy and elemental analysis. The nanoparticles may be released from the crystal by exposure to EDTA, which chelates the Ni(ii) and breaks the specific protein/nanoparticle interaction. The integrity of the protein crystals after crosslinking and nanoparticle capture was

  17. Liquid Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  18. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  19. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeper, R.; Richwin, M. E-mail: richwin@uni-wuppertal.de; Wollmann, R.; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R

    2001-07-21

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  20. Realisation of a novel crystal bender for a fast double crystal monochromator

    CERN Document Server

    Zaeper, R; Wollmann, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D; Frahm, R

    2001-01-01

    A novel crystal bender for an X-ray undulator beamline as part of a fast double crystal monochromator development for full EXAFS energy range was characterized. Rocking curves of the monochromator crystal system were recorded under different heat loads and bending forces of the indirectly cooled first Si(1 1 1) crystal. The monochromator development implements new piezo-driven tilt tables with wide angular range to adjust the crystals' Bragg angles and a high pressure actuated bender mechanism for the first crystal.

  1. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  2. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  3. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2100516; Tikhomirov, Viktor; Lobko, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simu...

  4. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...

  5. 75 FR 35968 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display in Stevenson, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display in Stevenson, WA AGENCY... temporary safety zone covering the waters of the Columbia River in the vicinity of Stevenson, Washington... Columbia River in the vicinity of Stevenson, Washington. Specifically, the safety zone would include...

  6. Goos-Haenchen shift in complex crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhi, Stefano; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Staliunas, Kestutis [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Instituci Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avanats (ICREA), Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    The Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect for wave scattering from complex PT-symmetric periodic potentials (complex crystals) is theoretically investigated, with specific reference to optical GH shift in photonic crystal slabs with a sinusoidal periodic modulation of both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant. The analysis highlights some distinct and rather unique features as compared to the GH shift found in ordinary crystals. In particular, as opposed to GH shift in ordinary crystals, which is large at the band gap edges, in complex crystals the GH shift can be large inside the reflection (amplification) band and becomes extremely large as the PT symmetry-breaking threshold is approached.

  7. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  8. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  9. Lyotropic hexagonal columnar liquid crystals of large colloidal gibbsite platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.; Petukhov, A.V.; Vroege, G.J.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    2010-01-01

    We report the formation of hexagonal columnar liquid crystal phases in suspensions of large (570 nm diameter), sterically stabilized, colloidal gibbsite platelets in organic solvent. In thin cells these systems display strong iridescence originating from hexagonally arranged columns that are

  10. Electronic structure and first hyperpolarizability of poly(2-L-alanine-3-sodium nitrate (I)) crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Duarte Moller

    2014-10-01

    Poly(2-L-alanine-3-sodium nitrate (I)), -LASN, crystals have been grown by slow evaporation at room temperature. The nominal size of the crystals obtained by the method was of 500 nm. The UV–Vis spectrum shows a wide range, where absorption is lacking around 532 nm, which is required in order to have the second harmonic emission, when an incident radiation of 1064 nm strikes on the crystal. This guarantees the possible use of the crystal in visible light applications. The transparent nature of the crystal in the visible and infrared regions within the transmission spectrum confirms the nonlinear optical properties of the crystal. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy displays its functional groups which correspond to the poly(2-L-alanine-3-sodium nitrate (I)), where the presence of nitrates in the lattice generally can be identified by their characteristic signature within the 1660–1625, 1300–1255, 870–833 and 763–690 cm-1 range. Single crystal diffraction was carried out in order to determine atomic structure and lattice parameter. Structural parameters were = 5.388(9) Å, = 9.315(15) Å and = 13.63(2) Å. The structure of poly(2-Lalanine-3-sodium nitrate (I)) shown by single crystal diffraction shows an asymmetric unit consisting of one sodium and one nitrate ion and one L-alanine molecule. The coordination geometry around the sodium atom was trigonal bipyramidal, with three bidentate nitrate anions coordinating through their oxygen atoms and two L-alanine molecules, each coordinating through one carboxyl oxygen atom. Electronic structure was obtained by using the Becke–Lee–Yang–Part and Hartree–Fock approximations with hybrid exchangecorrelation three-parameter functional and G-311**G() basis set. Theoretical and experimental results were compared and discussed as having an excellent agreement among them.

  11. Quantum Dots for Wide Color Gamut Displays from Photoluminescence to Electroluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongyin; Song, Zhicheng; Jiang, Xiaofang; Yin, Xia; Fang, Long; Gao, Jing; Su, Yehua; Zhao, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Monodisperse quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by low-temperature process. The remarkable narrow emission peak of the QDs helps the liquid crystal displays (LCD) and electroluminescence displays (QD light-emitting diode, QLED) to generate wide color gamut performance. The range of the color gamut for QD light-converting device (QLCD) is controlled by both the QDs and color filters (CFs) in LCD, and for QLED, the optimized color gamut is dominated by QD materials.

  12. Ribbon Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Markvorsen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons...

  13. Therapeutic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Some readers might not fully know what the difference is between crystallography, and the "new age" practice of dangling crystals around the body to capitalise on their healing energy. The latter is often considered to be superstition, while ironically, the former has actually resulted in real rationally-based healing of human diseases…

  14. James Fergason, a Pioneer in Advancing of Liquid Crystal Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    James Lee Fergason (1934 - 2008) focused his research on the liquid crystals. His studies correspond to a relevant part of the history of soft matter science and technology of liquid crystals. Here a discussion of some of his researches.

  15. Optimal Backlight Modulation With Crosstalk Control in Stereoscopic Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Liangbao; Shu, Xiao; Cheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Crosstalk between the left-eye and right-eye images is one of the main artifacts affecting the visual quality of stereoscopic liquid crystal display (LCD) systems. In this paper, a novel technique, called Optimal Backlight Modulation (OBM), is proposed to reduce crosstalk by taking the advantage....... A simple closed-form approximation of the optimization problem can be easily employed and solved in real time on LCD control hardware. Simulation results show that the proposed OBM algorithm provides the same or higher luminance while reducing the crosstalk by 60% compared with the other tested methods....

  16. A faster switching regime for zenithal bistable nematic displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, J

    1997-12-01

    A simpler and faster switching regime for Zenithal Bistable Nematic displays is reported. A cell, based on homeotropic alignment of nematic liquid crystal over a continuous blazed monograting on one surface, can be switched using bipolar pulses an order of magnitude faster than monopolar pulses of the same voltage. We propose that this regime relies on simple dielectric coupling to drive the cell into a higher energy state with a long pulse time, and the relaxation into a lower energy state after the creation of surface defects from a shorter applied pulse. Although flexoelectric effects are observed, they do not form the basis of state selection as was proposed for the monopolar pulses

  17. Photonic crystals principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qihuang

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionPrimary Properties of Photonic CrystalsFabrication of Photonic CrystalsPhotonic Crystal All-Optical SwitchingTunable Photonic Crystal FilterPhotonic Crystal LaserPhotonic Crystal Logic DevicesPhotonic Crystal Sensors

  18. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  19. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  20. Garuda: a scalable tiled display wall using commodity PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirnimesh; Harish, Pawan; Narayanan, P J

    2007-01-01

    Cluster-based tiled display walls can provide cost-effective and scalable displays with high resolution and a large display area. The software to drive them needs to scale too if arbitrarily large displays are to be built. Chromium is a popular software API used to construct such displays. Chromium transparently renders any OpenGL application to a tiled display by partitioning and sending individual OpenGL primitives to each client per frame. Visualization applications often deal with massive geometric data with millions of primitives. Transmitting them every frame results in huge network requirements that adversely affect the scalability of the system. In this paper, we present Garuda, a client-server-based display wall framework that uses off-the-shelf hardware and a standard network. Garuda is scalable to large tile configurations and massive environments. It can transparently render any application built using the Open Scene Graph (OSG) API to a tiled display without any modification by the user. The Garuda server uses an object-based scene structure represented using a scene graph. The server determines the objects visible to each display tile using a novel adaptive algorithm that culls the scene graph to a hierarchy of frustums. Required parts of the scene graph are transmitted to the clients, which cache them to exploit the interframe redundancy. A multicast-based protocol is used to transmit the geometry to exploit the spatial redundancy present in tiled display systems. A geometry push philosophy from the server helps keep the clients in sync with one another. Neither the server nor a client needs to render the entire scene, making the system suitable for interactive rendering of massive models. Transparent rendering is achieved by intercepting the cull, draw, and swap functions of OSG and replacing them with our own. We demonstrate the performance and scalability of the Garuda system for different configurations of display wall. We also show that the

  1. Enhanced spatial-state feedback for night-vision goggle displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward N.; Hansman, R. John, Jr.

    1997-06-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the use of visual flow cues as an aid to ground and vertical drift awareness during helicopter flight and targeting while using night vision goggles (NVGs). Three displays wee compared: (1) NVG display: simulated NVG image of cockpit and external environment. (2) Overlay display: NVG image with an overlay display but with symbology flow cue field and a surrounding wire-frame globe; (3) Cut-out display: same as the overlay display but with symbology removed from the central region. Three levels of contrast were also compared using each display type. The visual scenery was displayed to subjects using a helmet-mounted virtual reality device that had a 40 by 50 degree field-of-view liquid crystal display. The study involved six pilots. Three tasks were given: (1) Search task: designate enemy targets with a helmet-mounted sight; (2) Hover task: null out all transnational and yaw rates while in a hover; (3) Search/Hover task: perform both Search and Hover tasks simultaneously. These tasks were conducted in a fixed-based helicopter simulator which used the dynamics of a small-scale model helicopter. The following performance measures were collected: (1) Pilot ability to detect and recognize targets; (2) Pilots ability to null transnational and yaw rates; (3) Time scanning the instrument panel. Subjects also rated displays for efficacy in completing the three tasks. Target detection scores conducted during the Search and Search/Hover tasks were highest using the NVG display, followed by the cut-out display. Root-mean-square (RMS) drift rate error was comparable for all display types in the Hover and Hover/Search tasks, however RMS control input activity in all the translational axes was significantly higher in both rate-cueing displays than with the NVG display. From the control input and drift rate time histories it appears that the motion cues were more compelling in the overlay and cut- out displays than those perceived

  2. The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of dihydrodipicolinate synthase from Clostridium botulinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Renwick C. J., E-mail: rdobson@unimelb.edu.au; Atkinson, Sarah C. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Gorman, Michael A. [St Vincents Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Newman, Janet M. [CSIRO Division of Molecular and Health Technologies, 343 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Parker, Michael W. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); St Vincents Institute, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Perugini, Matthew A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, 30 Flemington Road, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2008-03-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme in the lysine-biosynthetic pathway, is a promising target for antibiotic development against pathogenic bacteria. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of DHDPS from C. botulinum are reported. In recent years, dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS; EC 4.2.1.52) has received considerable attention from both mechanistic and structural viewpoints. This enzyme, which is part of the diaminopimelate pathway leading to lysine, couples (S)-aspartate-β-semialdehyde with pyruvate via a Schiff base to a conserved active-site lysine. In this paper, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of DHDPS from Clostridium botulinum, an important bacterial pathogen, are presented. The enzyme was crystallized in a number of forms, predominantly using PEG precipitants, with the best crystal diffracting to beyond 1.9 Å resolution and displaying P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2 symmetry. The unit-cell parameters were a = b = 92.9, c = 60.4 Å. The crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) was 2.07 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}, with an estimated solvent content of 41%. The structure of the enzyme will help guide the design of novel therapeutics against the C. botulinum pathogen.

  3. 30-view projection 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junejei; Wang, Yuchang

    2015-03-01

    A 30-view auto-stereoscopic display using angle-magnifying screen is proposed. Small incident angle of Lamp-scanning from exit pupil of projection lens is magnified into large field of view on the observing side. The lamp-scanning is realized by the vibration of Galvano-mirror that synchronizing with the frame rate of the DMD and reflecting the laser illuminator to the scanning angles. To achieve 15-view, a 3-chip DLP projector with frame rate of 720 Hz is used. For one cycle of vibration of Galvano-mirror, steps of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 14 are reflected on going-path and steps of 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 3, 1 are reflected on returning path. A frame is divided into two half parts of odd lines and even lines for two views. For each view, 48 half frames per second are provided. A projection lens with aperture-relay module is used to double the lens aperture and separating the frame into two half parts of even and odd lines. After going through the Philips prism, three panels, the scanning 15 spots are doubled to 30 spots and emerge from the exit pupil of the projection lens. The exit 30 light spots from the projection lens are projected to 30 viewing zones by the anglemagnifying screen. A cabinet of rear projection with two folded mirrors is used because a projection lens of long throw distance is required.

  4. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  5. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  6. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  7. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  8. University of Nevada Las Vegas LED Display Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-08-31

    The primary objective of this part of the project is to develop and implement a method that compensates for the inefficiency of the green LED. The proposed engineering solution which will be the backbone of this project will be to use RGBW combination in every pixel to save energy. Two different RGBW geometrical pixel configurations will be implemented and compared against traditional LED configurations. These configurations will be analyzed for energy efficiency while keeping the quality of the display the same. Cost of the addition of white LEDs to displays along with energy cost savings will be presented and analyzed.

  9. Knowledge aided display design (KADD) system - An evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Ruston M.; Frey, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the Knowledge Aided Display Design (KADD) system is described. Developed to investigate several designer support concepts in the context of the design of computer-generated displays, KADD's implementation uses technology from several disciplines of computer science including data base design and management, graphics, expert systems, and real-time simulation. This paper discusses KADD's goals and concepts, the implementation of the system, and the results of a two-part evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the KADD concepts.

  10. Crystal growth and magnetic property of YFeO3 crystal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anhua Wu; Hui Shen; Jun Xu; Zhanliang Wang; Linwen Jiang; Liqing Luo; Shujuan Yuan; Shixun Cao; Huaijin Zhang

    2012-04-01

    YFeO3 and other rare earth substituted crystals with distorted orthorhombic pervoskite-like structure (space group, ) have attracted much attention due to their remarkable magnetic properties of primary significance for technological applications. In the present work, the floating zone growth of YFeO3 crystals has been systematically investigated and high quality YFeO3 crystal was obtained by optimized process. The magnetic properties of YFeO3 crystal were investigated, and it indicated the high magneto-optical property in YFeO3 crystals with specific orientation due to its anisotropy. YFeO3 crystals display superior performance in the application magneto-optical current sensors and fast latching optical switches.

  11. See-through multi-view 3D display with parallax barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Park, Soon-gi; Kim, Jonghyun; Cha, Kyung-Hoon; Kang, Ki Hyung; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we propose the see-through parallax barrier type multi-view display with transparent liquid crystal display (LCD). The transparency of LCD is realized by detaching the backlight unit. The number of views in the proposed system is minimized to enlarge the aperture size of parallax barrier, which determines the transparency. For compensating the shortness of the number of viewpoints, eye tracking method is applied to provide large number of views and vertical parallax. Through experiments, a prototype of see-through autostereoscopic 3D display with parallax barrier is implemented, and the system parameters of transmittance, crosstalk, and barrier structure perception are analyzed.

  12. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  13. Physics of radiation effects in crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, RA

    1986-01-01

    ``Physics of Radiation Effects in Crystals'' is presented in two parts. The first part covers the general background and theory of radiation effects in crystals, including the theory describing the generation of crystal lattice defects by radiation, the kinetic approach to the study of the disposition of these defects and the effects of the diffusion of these defects on alloy compositions and phases. Specific problems of current interest are treated in the second part and include anisotropic dimensional changes in x-uranium, zirconium and graphite, acceleration of thermal creep in reactor ma

  14. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  15. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A.; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-01-01

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with

  16. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays...Telemetry Group DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK DISTRIBUTION A: APPROVED FOR...DOCUMENT 127-17 DATA DISPLAY MARKUP LANGUAGE (DDML) HANDBOOK January 2017 Prepared by Telemetry Group

  17. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  18. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  19. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  20. Non-binary Colour Modulation for Display Device Based on Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Kai; Tong, Hao; Qian, Hang; Hui, Ya-Juan; Liu, Nian; Yan, Peng; Miao, Xiang-Shui

    2016-12-01

    A reflective-type display device based on phase change materials is attractive because of its ultrafast response time and high resolution compared with a conventional display device. This paper proposes and demonstrates a unique display device in which multicolour changing can be achieved on a single device by the selective crystallization of double layer phase change materials. The optical contrast is optimized by the availability of a variety of film thicknesses of two phase change layers. The device exhibits a low sensitivity to the angle of incidence, which is important for display and colour consistency. The non-binary colour rendering on a single device is demonstrated for the first time using optical excitation. The device shows the potential for ultrafast display applications.

  1. Photonic crystal-adaptive optical devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas

    -doped liquid crystal gain medium for the realization of cheap and compact optically pumped, electrically tunable lasers. Finally, a transparent projection display is presented which uses sub-wavelength gratings for redirection of light guided inside a waveguide and facilitates electro-optic switching by means...

  2. Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Frank, Russell; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis

    2017-05-01

    Dynamic, colour-changing surfaces have many applications including displays, wearables and active camouflage. Plasmonic nanostructures can fill this role by having the advantages of ultra-small pixels, high reflectivity and post-fabrication tuning through control of the surrounding media. However, previous reports of post-fabrication tuning have yet to cover a full red-green-blue (RGB) colour basis set with a single nanostructure of singular dimensions. Here, we report a method which greatly advances this tuning and demonstrates a liquid crystal-plasmonic system that covers the full RGB colour basis set, only as a function of voltage. This is accomplished through a surface morphology-induced, polarization-dependent plasmonic resonance and a combination of bulk and surface liquid crystal effects that manifest at different voltages. We further demonstrate the system's compatibility with existing LCD technology by integrating it with a commercially available thin-film-transistor array. The imprinted surface interfaces readily with computers to display images as well as video.

  3. Polymer stabilized liquid crystals: Topology-mediated electro-optical behavior and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Libo

    There has been a wide range of liquid crystal polymer composites that vary in polymer concentration from as little as 3 wt.% (polymer stabilized liquid crystal) to as high as 60 wt.% (polymer dispersed liquid crystals). In this dissertation, an approach of surface polymerization based on a low reactive monomer concentration about 1 wt.% is studied in various liquid crystal operation modes. The first part of dissertation describes the development of a vertical alignment (VA) mode with surface polymer stabilization, and the effects of structure-performance relationship of reactive monomers (RMs) and polymerization conditions on the electro-optical behaviors of the liquid crystal device has been explored. The polymer topography plays an important role in modifying and enhancing the electro-optical performance of stabilized liquid crystal alignment. The enabling surface-pinned polymer stabilized vertical alignment (PSVA) approach has led to the development of high-performance and fast-switching displays with controllable pretilt angle, increase in surface anchoring energy, high optical contrast and fast response time. The second part of the dissertation explores a PSVA mode with in-plane switching (IPS) and its application for high-efficiency and fast-switching phase gratings. The diffraction patterns and the electro-optical behaviors including diffraction efficiency and response time are characterized. The diffraction grating mechanism and performance have been validated by computer simulation. Finally, the advantages of surface polymerization approach such as good optical contrast and fast response time have been applied to the fringe-field switching (FFS) system. The concentration of reactive monomer on the electro-optical behavior of the FFS cells is optimized. The outstanding electro-optical results and mechanism of increase in surface anchoring strength are corroborated by the director field simulation. The density and topology of nanoscale polymer protrusions

  4. Synthesis of chiral networks for polymer stabilized cholesteric texture (PSCT) displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, J.A.; Cahill, P.A.

    1997-03-01

    New mono- and di-functional polymerizable twist agents for formation of polymer stabilized cholesteric texture liquid crystal displays have been synthesized. Degree of crosslinking has a pronounced effect on electrooptic response of the cell and the stability of oriented states.

  5. An Integrated Procedure for Measuring the Spatial and Temporal Resolution of Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Lindholm & Martin, 1993; Lindholm, Pierce, & Scharine , 2001; Lindholm, Scharine , & Pierce, 2003). In addition, it is well known that imagery...J., Pierce, B., & Scharine , A. (2001). Liquid-crystal displays and moving-image quality. Proceedings of the 2001 Interservice/Industry Training...Simulation, and Education Conference. Lindholm, J., Scharine , A., and Pierce, B. (2003). Motion quality in simulator imagery: some effects of

  6. Peak Effect Evolution In Successive Proton Irradiated YBa2Cu3O7-d Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobos, Valentina; Paulius, L. M.; Petrean, A. M.; Olsson, R. J.; Kwok, W.-K.; Ferguson, S.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-03-01

    We report on the effects of point-like disorder on the pinning properties of an untwinned, single crystal of YBa2Cu3O7-d. We use magnetic hysteresis measurements in order to determine the critical current density for temperatures ranging from 10 K to 80 K in fields up to 7 T. Measurements were performed on a high quality, detwinned, single crystal of YBa2Cu3O7-d that displays a first order vortex melting transition. The sample was cleaved in two parts. One half was used for electrical transport measurements, and the other for magnetization measurements, making it possible to compare between the effects of irradiation induced defects on the critical current density in two different ranges of temperatures. We discuss the effects of the irradiation on the magnetization, critical current density, the peak effect, and vortex phase diagram. This work was supported by National Scince Foundation grant DMR-97-03732 and DMR-96-24047.

  7. Digital radiography image quality: image processing and display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Williams, Mark B; Andriole, Katherine; Strauss, Keith J; Applegate, Kimberly; Wyatt, Margaret; Bjork, Sandra; Seibert, J Anthony

    2007-06-01

    This article on digital radiography image processing and display is the second of two articles written as part of an intersociety effort to establish image quality standards for digital and computed radiography. The topic of the other paper is digital radiography image acquisition. The articles were developed collaboratively by the ACR, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine. Increasingly, medical imaging and patient information are being managed using digital data during acquisition, transmission, storage, display, interpretation, and consultation. The management of data during each of these operations may have an impact on the quality of patient care. These articles describe what is known to improve image quality for digital and computed radiography and to make recommendations on optimal acquisition, processing, and display. The practice of digital radiography is a rapidly evolving technology that will require timely revision of any guidelines and standards.

  8. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui; Carreon, Maria L.; Carreon, Moises A.

    2017-03-01

    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ˜630 m2 g-1 with relative narrow size distribution in the ˜5-60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m2 g-1 range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ˜5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  9. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  10. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  11. Display MTF measurements based on scanning and imaging technologies and its importance in the application space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Olson, Jeff; Flug, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of a display monitor is necessary for many applications such as: modeling end-to-end systems, conducting perception experiments, and performing targeting tasks in real-word scenarios. The MTF of a display defines the resolution properties and quantifies how well the spatial frequencies are displayed on a monitor. Many researchers have developed methods to measure display MTFs using either scanning or imaging devices. In this paper, we first present methods to measure display MTFs using two separate technologies and then discuss the impact of a display MTF on a system's performance. The two measurement technologies were scanning with a photometer and imaging with a CMOS based camera. To estimate a true display MTF, measurements made with the photometer were backed out for the scanning optics aperture. The developed methods were applied to measure MTFs of the two types of monitors, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The accuracy of the measured MTFs was validated by comparing MTFs measured with the two systems. The methods presented here are simple and can be easily implemented employing either a Prichard photometer or an imaging device. In addition, the impact of a display MTF on the end-to-end performance of a system was modeled using NV-IPM.

  12. Performance evaluation of soft copy display systems according to AAPM TG18 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgar, T; Kamberli, E

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the display performance of the liquid crystal display monitors according to the American association of physicists in medicine task group 18 (AAPM TG18) protocol at prior and after new calibration. We measured minimum and maximum luminance, luminance ratio, luminance and contrast response, luminance angular and spatial dependency, resolution, veiling glare and chromaticity quantitatively for 33 medical displays. Display noise was evaluated only visually. The mean maximum luminance and luminance ratio were 386 and 273 cd m(-2), respectively. The mean deviation of measured luminance and contrast response from expected response associated with the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) grayscale standard display function (GSDF) were 9.76 and 2.35 % at prior calibration and 1.23 and 0.26 % after recalibration, respectively. In luminance uniformity test the mean maximum luminance deviation was 16 %. Luminance method was used in the spatial resolution test and the mean percent luminance difference was 12 % at the center. The mean glare ratio was 1 154. The average color uniformity parameter across the display area of each display device was 0.0093. Majority of the test results were in good agreement with the criteria recommended by AAPM TG18 report. Considerable improvement was observed in display luminance and contrast response with respect to expected response of DICOM GSDF after new calibration for some displays.

  13. Rapakivi texture: An indication of the crystallization of hydrosilicates, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliston, John N.

    1985-05-01

    Rapakivi granites have puzzled all who have seriously studied them. Typical rapakivi texture is a mixture of variously mantled, non-mantled or partly mantled, concentrically zoned, plastically distorted, fragmented, reaggregated, large and small ovoids. Commonly they are potash feldspar often mantled by, and having a variable content of plagioclase. Some display remarkable sphericity. In form, composition, zoning sequence, and crystallization pattern each ovoid reflects an individual development. Up to five concentric internal plagioclase rims have been observed and some ovoids may be isolated in autoliths and wall-rocks. Anomalies and contradictions arise from any assumption of genesis from a cooling melt. The recorded objective data imply that the "magma" from which rapakivi textures develop had similar diffusive and rheological properties to those of a partly dewatered macromolecular paste or a mixture of gelatinous hydrosilicates. As indicated by deep oil wells this system is found at somewhat elevated temperatures at considerable depths within accumulated sediments. In addition to the very specific diffusive and rheological properties of such partly dewatered sediments, the system has as its major components normal solvated macromolecules of mixed clays, silica gels and hydrous ferromagnesian minerals which are characterised by distinctive particle sizes and geometric shapes (platelets, spheres and rods, respectively). Thixotropic liquefaction and intrusion of such concentrated gelatinous "magma" or sediment paste introduces relative movement between the component macromolecules whereby they can reduce surface energy by interaction to assume a "close-packed" condition and aggregate during laminar flow into macro-accretions comprised essentially of their respective particle shapes. Syneresis of these precursor accretions desorbs ions, including the small montmorillonite particles behaving as a colloidal electrolyte. These diffuse from the illitic cores to form

  14. Optical characterizations of complete TFT-LCD display devices by phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillet, Melanie [HORIBA Jobin Yvon SAS, Thin Film Division, ZA de la Vigne aux Loups-5 avenue Arago, 91 380 Chilly-Mazarin (France); Yan Yi [HORIBA Jobin Yvon Inc., 3880 Park Ave., Edison, NJ 08820-3012 (United States)], E-mail: Li.Yan@jobinyvon.com; Teboul, Eric [HORIBA Jobin Yvon Inc., 3880 Park Ave., Edison, NJ 08820-3012 (United States)

    2007-12-03

    A commercially available phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometer (PMSE) has been used to characterize a full thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) structure, including the glass substrates coated with transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layers, the twisted liquid crystal (LC) layer sandwiched in between, and the amorphous silicon (a-Si) TFT device which controls the luminance of a pixel. Due to its unique optical design, PMSE presents an unparallel capability to measure very accurately ultra thin films on transparent substrates as often found in display applications. Results show that the ITO layer is inhomogeneous in depth, corresponding to a graded microstructure. In addition, strong uniaxial anisotropy was determined for the liquid crystal device over the entire measured spectral range. Finally, doping effects on the optical properties of the a-Si layer of the TFT device were also measured.

  15. ACCURACY EVALUATION OF THE OBJECT LOCATION VISUALIZATION FOR GEO-INFORMATION AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS OF MANNED AIRCRAFTS NAVIGATION COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostishin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of accuracy estimating for the object location display in the geographic information systems and display systems of manned aircrafts navigation complexes. Application features of liquid crystal screens with a different number of vertical and horizontal pixels are considered at displaying of geographic information data on different scales. Estimation display of navigation parameters values on board the aircraft is done in two ways: a numeric value is directly displayed on the screen of multi-color indicator, and a silhouette of the object is formed on the screen on a substrate background, which is a graphical representation of area map in the flight zone. Various scales of area digital map display currently used in the aviation industry have been considered. Calculation results of one pixel scale interval, depending on the specifications of liquid crystal screen and zoom of the map display area on the multifunction digital display, are given. The paper contains experimental results of the accuracy evaluation for area position display of the aircraft based on the data from the satellite navigation system and inertial navigation system, obtained during the flight program run of the real object. On the basis of these calculations a family of graphs was created for precision error display of the object reference point position using the onboard indicators with liquid crystal screen with different screen resolutions (6 "×8", 7.2 "×9.6", 9"×12" for two map display scales (1:0 , 25 km, 1-2 km. These dependency graphs can be used both to assess the error value of object area position display in existing navigation systems and to calculate the error value in upgrading facilities.

  16. The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, Noel H.; Blazie, Deane B.

    2011-10-01

    The Boston-based National Braille Press has established a Center for Braille Innovation (CBI), whose mission is to research and develop affordable braille literacy products. The primary focus has been to facilitate the development of dramatically lower cost electronic braille display devices, and the much-sought-after "Holy Braille" of a full-page electronic braille display. Developing affordable new braille technologies is crucial to improving the extremely low braille literacy rate (around 12%) of blind students. Our CBI team is working to aid developers of braille technology by focusing attention and resources on the development of the underlying braille actuator technologies. We are also developing braille-related information resources to aid braille display developers. The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website (http://www.nbp.org) is one of these resources. The braille specifications include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements. In addition, mentoring, helping to evaluate new braille display ideas, and openly sharing braille display technology are all part of the activities of the NBP braille innovation team. NBP has expanded the CBI project with domestic and international partners including the China Braille Press, World Braille Foundation, National Federation of the Blind, American Printing House for the Blind, American Foundation for the Blind, and many university and research partners.

  17. Digital interface for high-resolution displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, David J.; Gorenflo, Ronald L.

    1999-08-01

    Commercial display interfaces are currently transitioning from analog to digital. Although this transition is in the very early stages, the military needs to begin planning their own transition to digital. There are many problems with the analog interface in high-resolution display systems that are solved by changing to a digital interface. Also, display system cost can be lower with a digital interface to a high resolution display. Battelle is under contract with DARPA to develop an advanced Display Interface (ADI) to replace the analog RGB interfaces currently used in high definition workstation displays. The goal is to create a standard digital display interface for military applications that is based on emerging commercial standards. Support for military application- specific functionality is addressed, including display test and control. The main challenges to implementing a digital display interface are described, along with approaches to address the problems. Conceptual ADI architectures are described and contrasted. The current and emerging commercial standards for digital display interfaces are reviewed in detail. Finally, the tasks required to complete the ADI effort are outlined and described.

  18. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  19. 76 FR 77175 - New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long Island Sound; Mamaroneck, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 New York Fun Factory Fireworks Display, Western Long... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck, NY in support of the New York Fun Factory Fireworks display... Guard to define regulatory safety zones. On May 10, 2012 New York Fun Factory Events is sponsoring...

  20. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display Berkeley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina... Berkeley Pier, Berkeley, CA in support of the 4th of July Festival Berkeley Marina Fireworks Display... used in the fireworks display. Background and Purpose The City of Berkeley Marina will sponsor the 4th...

  1. 75 FR 19882 - Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party, Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Benchmark Destination Corporate Party... support of the Benchmark Destination Corporate Party Fireworks Display. This safety zone is being... City of San Francisco will sponsor the Benchmark Destinations Corporate Party Fireworks Display on...

  2. 75 FR 18056 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons Island Harbor, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Patuxent River, Solomons... establishing a temporary safety zone upon specified waters of Solomons Island Harbor, a tributary of the... fireworks display launched from discharge barge located in Solomons Island, Calvert County, Maryland. This...

  3. 77 FR 40511 - Safety Zone; GR Symphony Fireworks Display, Kalamazoo Lake, Saugatuck, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; GR Symphony Fireworks Display, Kalamazoo... restrict vessels from a portion of Kalamazoo Lake during the GR Symphony Fireworks display. This temporary... the safety of spectators and vessels during the GR Symphony Fireworks. This zone will be effective...

  4. 76 FR 24843 - Safety Zone; Rudey/Braga Wedding Fireworks Display, Cos Cob Harbor, Greenwich, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rudey/Braga Wedding Fireworks Display, Cos...: The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone around a fireworks display in Cos Cob... private estate in Cos Cob Harbor. This rule proposes to create a 600 foot safety zone on the...

  5. 78 FR 32121 - When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display; San Diego, CA AGENCY... on the navigable waters of the San Diego Bay in support of the When Pigs Fly Fireworks Display on... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector San Diego, Coast Guard; telephone 619-278-7656, email...

  6. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  7. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  8. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  9. Parallel large data visualization with display walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, Luiz; Vo, Huy T.; Krüger, Jens; Silva, Cláudio T.; Comba, João L. D.

    2012-01-01

    While there exist popular software tools that leverage the power of arrays of tiled high resolution displays, they usually require either the use of a particular API or significant programming effort to be properly configured. We present PVW (Parallel Visualization using display Walls), a framework that uses display walls for scientific visualization, requiring minimum labor in setup, programming and configuration. PVW works as a plug-in to pipeline-based visualization software, and allows users to migrate existing visualizations designed for a single-workstation, single-display setup to a large tiled display running on a distributed machine. Our framework is also extensible, allowing different APIs and algorithms to be made display wall-aware with minimum effort.

  10. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  11. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  12. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  13. The Role of personality in chat-up line displays

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, David

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that chat-up lines/verbal relationship initiation approaches may act as male sexual displays. But what role does personality play in how individuals rate such approaches? 200 participants (134 females and 66 males) took part in the self-reported, within-subjects design, which involved completing Bale, Morrison & Caryl’s (2005) Chat-up Line Questionnaire, as well as Eysenck’s revised Personality Questionnaire (1994). The research found participants ...

  14. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  15. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  16. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  17. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Eric

    2000-03-01

    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  18. Nucleation of Crystals in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekilov, Peter G.

    2010-07-01

    Solution crystallization is an essential part of processes in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and a major step in physiological and pathological phenomena. Crystallization starts with nucleation and control of nucleation is crucial for the control of the number, size, perfection, polymorphism and other characteristics of the crystalline materials. Recently, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the mechanism of nucleation of crystals in solution. The most significant of these is the two-step mechanism of nucleation, according to which the crystalline nucleus appears inside pre-existing metastable clusters of size several hundred nanometers, which consist of dense liquid and are suspended in the solution. While initially proposed for protein crystals, the applicability of this mechanism has been demonstrated for small molecule organic materials, colloids, and biominerals. This mechanism helps to explain several long-standing puzzles of crystal nucleation in solution: nucleation rates which are many orders of magnitude lower than theoretical predictions, nucleation kinetic dependencies with steady or receding parts at increasing supersaturation, the role of heterogeneous substrates for polymorph selection, the significance of the dense protein liquid, and others. More importantly, this mechanism provides powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters so that the volume occupied by the dense liquid shrinks or expands.

  19. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  20. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  1. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  2. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  3. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  4. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  5. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  6. Crystal collimator systems for high energy frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytov, A. I.; Tikhomirov, V. V.; Lobko, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline collimators can potentially considerably improve the cleaning performance of the presently used collimator systems using amorphous collimators. A crystal-based collimation scheme which relies on the channeling particle deflection in bent crystals has been proposed and extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. However, since the efficiency of particle capture into the channeling regime does not exceed ninety percent, this collimation scheme partly suffers from the same leakage problems as the schemes using amorphous collimators. To improve further the cleaning efficiency of the crystal-based collimation system to meet the requirements of the FCC, we suggest here a double crystal-based collimation scheme, to which the second crystal is introduced to enhance the deflection of the particles escaping the capture to the channeling regime in its first crystal. The application of the effect of multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal and of the same in a sequence of crystals is simulated and compared for different crystal numbers and materials at the energy of 50 TeV. To enhance also the efficiency of use of the first crystal of the suggested double crystal-based scheme, we propose: the method of increase of the probability of particle capture into the channeling regime at the first crystal passage by means of fabrication of a crystal cut and the method of the amplification of nonchanneled particle deflection through the multiple volume reflection in one bent crystal, accompanying the particle channeling by a skew plane. We simulate both of these methods for the 50 TeV FCC energy.

  7. Phase Equilibria and Crystal Chemistry in Portions of the System SrO-CaO-Bi2O3-CuO, Part II—The System SrO-Bi2O3-CuO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. S.; Rawn, C. J.; Burton, B. P.; Beech, F.

    1990-01-01

    New data are presented on the phase equilibria and crystal chemistry of the binary systems Sr0-Bi203 and SrO-CuO and the ternary system SrO-Bi2O3-CuO. Symmetry data and unit cell dimensions based on single crystal and powder x-ray diffraction measurements are reported for all the binary SrO-Bi2O3 phases, including a new phase identified as Sr6Bi2O9. The ternary system contains at least four ternary phases which can be formed in air at ~900 °C. These are identified as Sr2Bi2CuO6, Sr8Bi4Cu5O19+x, Sr3Bi2Cu2O8 and a solid solution (the Raveau phase) which, for equilibrium conditions at ~900 °C, corresponds approximately to the formula Sr1.8−xBi2.2+xCu1±x/2Oz.(0.0⩽x⩽~0.15). Superconductivity in this phase apparently occurs only in compositions that correspond to negative values of x. Compositions that lie outside the equilibrium Raveau-phase field often form nearly homogeneous Raveau-phase products. Typically this occurs after relatively brief heat treatments, or in crystallization of a quenched melt. PMID:28179779

  8. Ribbon crystals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Bohr

    Full Text Available A repetitive crystal-like pattern is spontaneously formed upon the twisting of straight ribbons. The pattern is akin to a tessellation with isosceles triangles, and it can easily be demonstrated with ribbons cut from an overhead transparency. We give a general description of developable ribbons using a ruled procedure where ribbons are uniquely described by two generating functions. This construction defines a differentiable frame, the ribbon frame, which does not have singular points, whereby we avoid the shortcomings of the Frenet-Serret frame. The observed spontaneous pattern is modeled using planar triangles and cylindrical arcs, and the ribbon structure is shown to arise from a maximization of the end-to-end length of the ribbon, i.e. from an optimal use of ribbon length. The phenomenon is discussed in the perspectives of incompatible intrinsic geometries and of the emergence of long-range order.

  9. Crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  10. Framework for the analysis of crystallization operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Gernaey, Krist

    received increased attention due to the growing need to control more sophisticated production lines as well asto measure/monitor the final product characteristics. Crystallization operations involve a combination of several phenomena, and different kinetic models are required for their modeling. Growth......Crystallization is often applied in the production of salts and/oractive pharmaceutical ingredients (API), and the crystallization step is an essential part of the manufacturing process for many chemicals-based products.In recent years the monitoring and analysis of crystallization operations has...... of the crystals occurs in multiple dimensions and the relative rates of different growth and other kinetic phenomena control the shape and size distribution of the final product. Including several dimensions in the crystallization will allow a more general description of the kinetic phenomena...

  11. Glassy features of crystal plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Arttu; Costantini, Giulio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Laurson, Lasse

    2016-08-01

    Crystal plasticity occurs by deformation bursts due to the avalanchelike motion of dislocations. Here we perform extensive numerical simulations of a three-dimensional dislocation dynamics model under quasistatic stress-controlled loading. Our results show that avalanches are power-law distributed and display peculiar stress and sample size dependence: The average avalanche size grows exponentially with the applied stress, and the amount of slip increases with the system size. These results suggest that intermittent deformation processes in crystalline materials exhibit an extended critical-like phase in analogy to glassy systems instead of originating from a nonequilibrium phase transition critical point.

  12. Method of manufacturing a display device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Roozeboom, F.; Elfrink, R.J.; Johnson, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    ICs (20) are nearly separated from the semiconductor substrate (10) on/in which they are formed. Subsequently, the substrate is positioned upside down on a substrate (carrier) (3) which is provided with glue (21) at the location of a crystal. After attachment of the crystal to the carrier, the

  13. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapphire crystals are excellent filters of fast neutrons, while at the same time exhibit moderate to very little absorption at smaller energies. We have performed an extensive series of measurements in order to quantify the above effect. Alongside our experiments, we have performed a series...... of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Those simulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between the Monte-Carlo neutron transport code MCNP and the Monte Carlo ray-tracing code McStas....

  14. Proximity and physical navigation in collaborative work with a multi-touch wall-display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Multi-touch, wall-sized displays afford new forms of collaboration. Yet, most data on collaboration with multi-touch displays come from tabletop settings, where users often sit and where space is a limited resource. We study how two-person groups navigate in relation to a 2.8m!1.2m multi......-touch display with 24.8 megapixels and to each other when solving a sensemaking task on a document collection. The results show that users physically navigate to shift fluently among different parts of the display and between parallel and joint group work....

  15. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  16. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  17. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  18. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  19. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  20. Crystal structure determination as part of an undergraduate laboratory experiment: 1′,3′,3′-trimethylspiro[chromene-2,2′-indoline] and 1′,3′,3′-trimethyl-4-[(E-(1,3,3-trimethylindolin-2-ylidenemethyl]spiro[chroman-2,2′-indoline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. S. Beckett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of the title compounds, C19H19NO and C31H34N2O, were determined as part of an experiment in an undergraduate teaching laboratory that demonstrates the relationship between molecular structure and function. 1′,3′,3′-Trimethylspiro[chromene-2,2′-indoline] is both a photoswitch and thermochromic molecule. Students synthesized it and a bis-indoline adduct and compared the crystallographically determined structures to computed gas-phase models.