Sample records for crystal display panel

  1. Vacuum pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic analysis of liquid crystal from scrap liquid crystal display panels. (United States)

    Chen, Ya; Zhang, Lingen; Xu, Zhenming


    Recycling of waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels is an urgent task with the rapid expanding LCD market. However, as important composition of LCD panels, the treatment of liquid crystal is seldom concerned for its low concentration. In present study, a stripping product enriched liquid crystal and indium is gained by mechanical stripping process, in which liquid crystal is enriched from 0.3wt.% to 53wt.% and indium is enriched from 0.02wt.% to 7.95wt.%. For the stripping product, liquid crystal should be removed before indium recovery because (a) liquid crystal will hinder indium recycling; (b) liquid crystal is hazardous waste. Hence, an effective and green approach by vacuum pyrolysis is proposed to treat liquid crystal in the stripping product. The results are summarized as: (i) From the perspective of apparent activation energy, the advantages of vacuum pyrolysis is expounded according to kinetic analysis. (ii) 89.10wt.% of liquid crystal is converted and the content of indium in residue reaches 14.18wt.% under 773K, 15min and system pressure of 20Pa. This study provides reliable information for further industrial application and an essential pretreatment for the next step of indium recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Pyrolysis characteristics are conducted for a better understanding of LCDs pyrolysis. • Optimum design is developed which is significant to guide the further industrial process. • Acetic acid and TPP are recycled and separated. - Abstract: Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box–Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min{sup −1} and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry.

  3. Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis products separation for recycling organic materials from waste liquid crystal display panels. (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Xu, Zhenming


    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate with indium-tin oxide film), and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed beforehand since the organic matters would hinder the indium recycling process. In the present study, pyrolysis process is used to remove the organic materials and recycle acetic as well as and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) from waste LCD panels in an environmental friendly way. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) Pyrolysis characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics analysis are conducted which is significant to get a better understanding of the pyrolysis process. (ii) Optimum design is developed by applying Box-Behnken Design (BBD) under response surface methodology (RSM) for engineering application which is significant to guide the further industrial recycling process. The oil yield could reach 70.53 wt% and the residue rate could reach 14.05 wt% when the pyrolysis temperature is 570 °C, nitrogen flow rate is 6 L min(-1) and the particle size is 0.5 mm. (iii) Furthermore, acetic acid and TPP are recycled, and then separated by rotary evaporation, which could reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid, and be reused in electronics manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm


    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  5. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail:


    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  6. Recycling indium from waste liquid crystal display panel by vacuum carbon-reduction. (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming


    This study investigated the recovery of indium from waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel using vacuum carbon-reduction. First of all, high purity In2O3 was investigated. The results indicated that indium can be reclaimed from In2O3 using vacuum carbon-reduction in thermodynamics and dynamics. The conditions of 1223K, 50wt% carbon addition, 30min, and 1Pa were confirmed as the optimal conditions for pure In2O3 and high purity indium could be selectively recovered on condensing zone. Based on this, the experiment of the recovery of indium from waste LCD power was performed. The best parameters were confirmed as 1223K and 1Pa with 30wt% carbon addition for 30min. The recovery rate of indium from LCD powder could reach to 90wt%. No hazardous materials produced in this process. Therefore, this technique provides the possibility of reutilization of LCD in an environmentally friendly way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Recycling acetic acid from polarizing film of waste liquid crystal display panels by sub/supercritical water treatments. (United States)

    Wang, Ruixue; Chen, Ya; Xu, Zhenming


    Waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels mainly contain inorganic materials (glass substrate) and organic materials (polarizing film and liquid crystal). The organic materials should be removed first since containing polarizing film and liquid crystal is to the disadvantage of the indium recycling process. In the present study, an efficient and environmentally friendly process to obtain acetic acid from waste LCD panels by sub/supercritical water treatments is investigated. Furthermore, a well-founded reaction mechanism is proposed. Several highlights of this study are summarized as follows: (i) 99.77% of organic matters are removed, which means the present technology is quite efficient to recycle the organic matters; (ii) a yield of 78.23% acetic acid, a quite important fossil energy based chemical product is obtained, which can reduce the consumption of fossil energy for producing acetic acid; (iii) supercritical water acts as an ideal solvent, a requisite reactant as well as an efficient acid-base catalyst, and this is quite significant in accordance with the "Principles of Green Chemistry". In a word, the organic matters of waste LCD panels are recycled without environmental pollution. Meanwhile, this study provides new opportunities for alternating fossil-based chemical products for sustainable development, converting "waste" into "fossil-based chemicals".


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We consider the problem of evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift for image displayed on liquid crystal panels with various properties on color reproduction. A mathematical model represents the color reproduction characteristics. The spread of the color characteristics of the screens has a statistical nature. Differences of color reproduction for screens are perceived by the observer in the form of different colors and shades that are displayed on the same type of commercially available screens. Color differences are characterized by numerical measure of the difference of colors and can be mathematically compensated. The solution of accounting problem of the statistical nature of the color characteristics spread for the screens has a particular relevance to aviation instrumentation. Method. Evaluation of chromaticity coordinates shift of the image is based on the application of the Grassmann laws of color mixing.Basic data for quantitative calculation of shift are the profiles of two different liquid crystal panels defined by matrixes of scales for components of primary colors (red, green, blue. The calculation is based on solving the system of equations and calculating the color difference in the XY-plane. In general, the calculation can be performed in other color spaces: UV, Lab. The statistical nature of the spread of the color characteristics for the screens is accounted for in the proposed mathematical model based on the interval setting of coordinate values of the color gamut triangle vertices on the set of commercially available samples. Main Results. Carried outresearches result in the mathematical expressions allowing to recalculate values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on various samples of liquid crystal screens. It is shown that the spread of the color characteristics of the screens follows bivariate normal distribution law with the accuracy sufficient for practice. The results of

  9. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels. (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming


    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Chelant-induced reclamation of indium from the spent liquid crystal display panels with the aid of microwave irradiation. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rahman, Ismail M M; Egawa, Yuji; Sawai, Hikaru; Begum, Zinnat A; Maki, Teruya; Mizutani, Satoshi


    Indium is a rare metal that is mostly consumed as indium tin oxide (ITO) in the fabrication process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The spent LCD panels, termed as LCD-waste hereafter, is an increasing contributor of electronic waste burden worldwide and can be an impending secondary source of indium. The present work reports a new technique for the reclamation of indium from the unground LCD-waste using aminopolycarboxylate chelants (APCs) as the solvent in a hyperbaric environment and at a high-temperature. Microwave irradiation was used to create the desired system conditions, and a substantial abstraction of indium (≥80%) from the LCD-waste with the APCs (EDTA or NTA) was attained in the acidic pH region (up to pH 5) at the temperature of ≥120 °C and the pressure of ~50 bar. The unique point of the reported process is the almost quantitative recovery of indium from the LCD-waste that ensured via the combination of the reaction facilitatory effect of microwave exposure and the metal extraction capability of APCs. A method for the selective isolation of indium from the extractant solution and recycle of the chelant in solution is also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display (United States)


    with the drive capability of the present state-of-the- art microm.ziiaturized integi ated circuits. The impact of microminiaturizing the drive circuits...7 Advantages /Disadvantages of Prior Art .........- 8 Performance of the Liquid Crystal Matrix Display . . .. 8 Liquid Crystal...Holographic HUD Light Source ...................... .... 99 Design of a Special Purpose Mercury Art - Plo.?hcr La np . 104 V LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION FOR DISPLAY

  12. Miniaturized LEDs for flat-panel displays (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich J.; Meitl, Matthew; Prevatte, Carl; Bonafede, Salvatore; Rotzoll, Robert; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Raymond, Brook; Cok, Ronald; Fecioru, Alin; Trindade, António Jose; Fisher, Brent; Goodwin, Scott; Hines, Paul; Melnik, George; Barnhill, Sam; Bower, Christopher A.


    Inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) serve as bright pixel-level emitters in displays, from indoor/outdoor video walls with pixel sizes ranging from one to thirty millimeters to micro displays with more than one thousand pixels per inch. Pixel sizes that fall between those ranges, roughly 50 to 500 microns, are some of the most commercially significant ones, including flat panel displays used in smart phones, tablets, and televisions. Flat panel displays that use inorganic LEDs as pixel level emitters (μILED displays) can offer levels of brightness, transparency, and functionality that are difficult to achieve with other flat panel technologies. Cost-effective production of μILED displays requires techniques for precisely arranging sparse arrays of extremely miniaturized devices on a panel substrate, such as transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. Here we present lab-scale demonstrations of transfer printed μILED displays and the processes used to make them. Demonstrations include passive matrix μILED displays that use conventional off-the shelf drive ASICs and active matrix μILED displays that use miniaturized pixel-level control circuits from CMOS wafers. We present a discussion of key considerations in the design and fabrication of highly miniaturized emitters for μILED displays.

  13. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 701.10 Section 701.10...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel... is most likely to be displayed, presented, shown, or examined under customary conditions of display...

  14. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form and...

  15. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used in...

  16. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transistors act as a switch to charge and hold the desired voltage across a pixel. Passive matrix LCDs are easy to fabricate and cost less as compared to the active matrix LCDs. Current trend demands gray scale and colour capa- bilities even for the displays in mobile phones. Passive matrix LCDs will be preferred as.

  17. Display elements and gaps: a comparison of flat panel display characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spenkelink, G.P.J.; Besuijen, J.


    The relation between typical flat panel display characteristics and display quality was studied. Subjective preferences were obtained with respect to simulated black-on-white flat panel displays. The displays differed in the sort of separation between the display elements and the shape of these

  18. Full color waveguide liquid crystal display. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochen; Qin, Guangkui; Wang, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xiaoguang; Dong, Youmei; Moheghi, Alireza; Yang, Deng-Ke


    We developed a waveguide liquid crystal display from a liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite. It does not need polarizers or color filters. It is illuminated by color LEDs installed on its edge. The light produced by the edge LEDs is coupled into the display and then waveguided through the display. When the LC is in the transparent state, the incident light is waveguided through and no light comes out of the viewing side of the display. When the LC is in the scattering state, the incident light is scattered and comes out of the display. It can be used either for transparent display or for direct view display. The composite has a submillisecond response time, and a field sequential scheme can be used to display full color images. Because the display does not need polarizers or color filters, its energy efficiency is much higher than current liquid crystal displays.

  19. Matrix display panel based on gas discharge technology (United States)

    Schiekel, M.; Suessenbach, H.; Schwedes, W.; Keiner, H.; Peppel, G.; Hellwig, W.; Knoll, A.; Rettich, R.; Unbehaun, R.


    The components for a slim, gas discharge display panel of stacked tube geometry were developed and characterized for the presentation of color pictures. The technology of pulsed matrix display panels with a four-electrode configuration, having inherent memory, was considered. A breadboard model with maximum panel dimensions of 380 x 250 x 14 cu mm (70,000 pixels) was built. Results show that displays with long positive columns and conically shaped pixels give best brightness and efficiency values. The reliability of such display panels is considerably increased.

  20. Microminiature thermionic vacuum flat panel display prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadwick, L.P.; Baker, B.; Chen, C.C.; Petersen, R.; Johnson, S.; Hwu, R.J. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    The authors report on the fabrication and electrical characteristics of low work microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) diodes for use in flat panel display applications. In this work advances in the technology and performance of a novel thermionic analog to field emission vacuum microelectronic emitters that will be referred to by the descriptive name microminiature thermionic vacuum (MTV) emitters will be presented. The salient feature of MTV emitter technology is the use of an air-bridge (suspended) filament that greatly reduces the thermal load and stress on the system. MTV devices can be fabricated using conventional semiconductor and micromachining processing techniques on any thermally stable, vacuum compatible substrate for which a high temperature stable insulating layer can be grown or deposited on. In addition, the small (micron to sub-micron) distances between the cathode and anode allow the possibility of intrinsic operation to high frequencies comparable to that of field emitters since these devices will not suffer from solid-state electron transport effects that limit the upper frequency of operation for all semiconductor devices.

  1. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer...

  2. Multipurpose Panel Display Device Investigation. [technology assessment and product development (United States)

    Sliwa, R.


    A multipurpose panel was developed to provide a flexible control and a LED display panel with easily changeable nomenclature for use in applications where panel space is limited, but where a number of similar subsystems must be controlled, or where basic panel nomenclature and functions must be changed rapidly, as in the case of between mission changes of space shuttle payloads. In the first application, panel area limitations are overcome by time sharing a central control panel among several subsystems. In the latter case, entire control panel changes are effected by simply replacing a memory module, thereby reducing the extent of installation and checkout procedures between missions. Several types of control technologies (other than LED's) which show potential in meeting criteria for overcoming limitations of the panel are assessed.

  3. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew


    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  4. A study of waste liquid crystal display generation in mainland China. (United States)

    Liu, Zhifeng; Xu, Zeying; Huang, Haihong; Li, Bingbing


    The generation of liquid crystal display waste is becoming a serious social problem. Predicting liquid crystal display waste status is the foundation for establishing a recycling network; however, the difficulty in predicting liquid crystal display waste quantity lies in data mining. In order to determine the quantity and the distribution of liquid crystal display waste in China, the four top-selling liquid crystal display products (liquid crystal display TVs, desktop PCs, notebook PCs, and mobile phones) were selected as study objects. Then, the extended logistic model and market supply A method was used to predict the quantity of liquid crystal display waste products. Moreover, the distribution of liquid crystal display waste products in different regions was evaluated by examining the consumption levels of household equipment. The results revealed that the quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would increase rapidly in the next decade. In particular, the predicted quantity of waste liquid crystal displays would rise to approximately 4.262 × 10(9) pieces in 2020, and the total display area (i.e. the surface area of liquid crystal display panels) of waste liquid crystal displays would reach 5.539 × 10(7) m(2). The prediction on the display area of waste liquid crystal display TVs showed that it would account for 71.5% of the total display area by 2020. Meanwhile, the quantity of waste mobile phones would significantly grow, increasing 5.8 times from 2012 to 2020. In terms of distribution, Guangdong is the top waste liquid crystal display-generating province in China, followed by Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Zhejiang, and Sichuan. Considering its regional characteristics, Guangdong has been proposed to be the most important location of the recycling network. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus


    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and

  6. Flat-panel electronic displays: a triumph of physics, chemistry and engineering. (United States)

    Hilsum, Cyril


    This paper describes the history and science behind the development of modern flat-panel displays, and assesses future trends. Electronic displays are an important feature of modern life. For many years the cathode ray tube, an engineering marvel, was universal, but its shape was cumbersome and its operating voltage too high. The need for a flat-panel display, working at a low voltage, became imperative, and much research has been applied to this need. Any versatile flat-panel display will exploit an electro-optical effect, a transparent conductor and an addressing system to deliver data locally. The first need is to convert an electrical signal into a visible change. Two methods are available, the first giving emission of light, the second modulating ambient illumination. The most useful light-emitting media are semiconductors, historically exploiting III-V or II-VI compounds, but more recently organic or polymer semiconductors. Another possible effect uses gas plasma discharges. The modulating, or subtractive, effects that have been studied include liquid crystals, electrophoresis, electrowetting and electrochromism. A transparent conductor makes it possible to apply a voltage to an extended area while observing the results. The design is a compromise, since the free electrons that carry current also absorb light. The first materials used were metals, but some semiconductors, when heavily doped, give a better balance, with high transmission for a low resistance. Delivering data unambiguously to a million or so picture elements across the display area is no easy task. The preferred solution is an amorphous silicon thin-film transistor deposited at each cross-point in an X-Y matrix. Success in these endeavours has led to many applications for flat-panel displays, including television, flexible displays, electronic paper, electronic books and advertising signs.

  7. Do LCDs have a chance to keep a leading position on flat panel display market? (United States)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Olifierczuk, Marek


    A lot of significant discoveries and inventions in the field of technology of displays were made in the latter part of the twentieth century. Apart from well-known CRT, the plasma-, luminescence- and liquid crystal-displays are commercially available. One can notice that a leading position on that flat panel displays market belong to LCD. But the progress in Organic LED materials and devices is impressive. Threshold voltage for light emission have fallen from several thousands V to just 2 - 3 V for today's OLEDs (polymer and small molecule). Luminous efficiency has increased from 0,01 to more than 10 lm/W. These improvements have brought PLED technology to the point where serious consideration is being given to OLED graphic and video display product. The question given some years ago by Dr. M. E. Becker, [Display Metrology and Systems]: " the current OLED enthusiasm justified because OLED displays feature significant improvements in visual and ergonomic performance, and because they are much cheaper to manufacture; Or it is just another hope for those who missed the LCD train?...," is trite. During SID Conference in Baltimore in 2003 two companies claiming to have built the largest organic LED. International Display Technology demonstrated a 20 inch display driven by "super amorphous silicon" technology; Sony showed off its 24 inch screen, which consists of a 2x2 tiled array of OLED displays. The presented work will be oriented towards specifying the characteristic features of liquid crystal and electro luminescence organic compounds which make these groups of displays so attractive and prospective among other imagery systems devices existing nowadays.

  8. Diffractive optics for compact flat panel displays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, D.; DeLong, K.


    Three years ago LLNL developed a practical method to dramatically reduce the chromatic aberration in single element diffractive imaging lenses. High efficiency, achromatic imaging lenses have been fabricated for human vision correction. This LDRD supported research in applying our new methods to develop a unique, diffraction-based optical interface with solid state, microelectronic imaging devices. Advances in microelectronics have led to smaller, more efficient components for optical systems. There have, however, been no equivalent advances in the imaging optics associated with these devices. The goal of this project was to replace the bulky, refractive optics in typical head-mounted displays with micro-thin diffractive optics to directly image flat-panel displays into the eye. To visualize the system think of the lenses of someone`s eyeglasses becoming flat-panel displays. To realize this embodiment, we needed to solve the problems of large chromatic aberrations and low efficiency that are associated with diffraction. We have developed a graceful tradeoff between chromatic aberrations and the diffractive optic thickness. It turns out that by doubling the thickness of a micro-thin diffractive lens we obtain nearly a two-times improvement in chromatic performance. Since the human eye will tolerate one diopter of chromatic aberration, we are able to achieve an achromatic image with a diffractive lens that is only 20 microns thick, versus 3 mm thickness for the comparable refractive lens. Molds for the diffractive lenses are diamond turned with sub-micron accuracy; the final lenses are cast from these molds using various polymers. We thus retain both the micro- thin nature of the diffractive optics and the achromatic image quality of refractive optics. During the first year of funding we successfully extended our earlier technology from 1 cm diameter optics required for vision applications up to the 5 cm diameter optics required for this application. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Solution combustion synthesis and optimization of phosphors for plasma display panels (United States)

    Ingle, J. T.; Sonekar, R. P.; Omanwar, S. K.; Wang, Yuhua; Zhao, Lei


    The optimization of primary phosphors required for display panels were carried out. Phosphors were synthesized by simple solution combustion technique. The synthesis is based on the exothermic reaction between the fuel (urea) and oxidizer (ammonium nitrate).The heat generated in the reaction is used for auto combustion of precursors. The crystal structures of the prepared samples were confirmed by powder XRD technique and particle morphology by FE-SEM. The Photoluminescence properties were investigated under ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiations respectively. Prepared phosphors were found to have the best luminous performance with respect to intensity and color purity under 254 nm and 147 nm wavelength radiations.

  10. Technical trends of large-size photomasks for flat panel displays (United States)

    Yoshida, Koichiro


    Currently, flat panel displays (FPDs) are one of the main parts for information technology devices and sets. From 1990's to 2000's, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays had been mainstream FPDs. In the middle of 2000's, demand of plasma displays declined and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) newly came into FPD market. And today, major technology of FPDs are LCDs and OLEDs. Especially for mobile devices, the penetration of OLEDs is remarkable. In FPDs panel production, photolithography is the key technology as same as LSI. Photomasks for FPDs are used not only as original master of circuit pattern, but also as a tool to form other functional structures of FPDs. Photomasks for FPDs are called as "Large Size Photomasks(LSPMs)", since the remarkable feature is " Size" which reaches over 1- meter square and over 100kg. In this report, we discuss three LSPMs technical topics with FPDs technical transition and trend. The first topics is upsizing of LSPMs, the second is the challenge for higher resolution patterning, and the last is "Multi-Tone Mask" for "Half -Tone Exposure".

  11. Chemically amplified i-line positive resist for next-generation flat panel display (United States)

    Lee, Hsing-Chieh; Lu, Ying-Hao; Huang, Shin-Yih; Lan, Wei-Jen; Hanabata, Makoto


    Traditional diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) positive photoresists are widely used for TFT-LCD array process. Current LTPS technology has more than 600ppi resolution is required for small or middle-sized TFT liquid crystal display panels. One of the ways to enhance resolution is to apply i-line single exposure system instead of traditional g/h/ibroadband exposure system. We have been developing i-line chemically amplified photoresist ECA 200 series for the next generation flat panel display (FPD). ECA 200 consists of three components: a phenol resin, a photo acid generator and dissolution enhancer. We applied two different types of dissolution enhancers with two different kinds of protected groups to our resist materials. As a result, we achieved higher sensitivity, higher resolution, less footing of the resist profile and reduced standing wave effect compared with traditional DNQ photoresists. In addition, we have found further property of photoresist that does not need post exposure bake (PEB) process. This resist has a great advantage at most of current panel plants without PEB process.

  12. Design of a 360-degree holographic 3D video display using commonly available display panels and a paraboloid mirror (United States)

    Onural, Levent


    Even barely acceptable quality holographic 3D video displays require hundreds of mega pixels with a pixel size in the order of a fraction of a micrometer, when conventional flat panel SLM arrangement is used. Smaller pixel sizes are essential to get larger diffraction angles. Common flat display panels, however, have pixel sizes in the order of tens of micrometers, and this results in diffraction angles in the order of one degree. Here in this design, an array of commonly available (similar to high-end mobile phone display panels) flat display panels, is used. Each flat panel, as an element of the array, directs its outgoing low-diffraction angle light beam to corresponding small portion of a large size paraboloid mirror; the mirror then reflects the slowly-expanding, information carrying beam to direct it at a certain exit angle; this beam constitutes a portion of the final real ghost-like 3D holographic image. The collection of those components from all such flat display panels cover the entire 360-degrees and thus constitute the final real 3D table-top holographic display with a 360-degrees viewing angle. The size of the resultant display is smaller compared to the physical size of the paraboloid mirror, or the overall size of the display panel array; however, an acceptable size table top display can be easily constructed for living-room viewing. A matching camera can also be designed by reversing the optical paths and by replacing the flat display panels by flat wavefront capture devices.

  13. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel of all OTC drug products... PRODUCTS INTENDED FOR ORAL INGESTION THAT CONTAIN ALCOHOL Labeling § 328.50 Principal display panel of all... display panel,” as defined in § 201.60 of this chapter. For products whose principal display panel is on...

  14. Focus-tunable multi-view holographic 3D display using a 4k LCD panel (United States)

    Lin, Qiaojuan; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Zhidong; Yan, Binbin; Yu, Chongxiu; Wang, Peng; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan


    A focus-tunable multi-view holographic three-dimensional (3D) display system with a 10.1 inch 4K liquid crystal device (LCD) panel is presented. In the proposed synthesizing method, computer-generated hologram (CGH) does not require calculations of light diffraction. When multiple rays pass through one point of a 3D image and enter the pupil simultaneously, the eyes can focus on the point according to the depth cue. Benefiting from the holograms, the dense multiple perspective viewpoints of the 3D object are recorded and combined into the CGH in a dense-super-view way, which make two or more rays emitted from the same point in reconstructed light field into the pupil simultaneously. In general, a wavefront is converged to a viewpoint with the amplitude distribution of multi-view images on the hologram plane, and the phase distribution of a spherical wave is converged to the viewpoint. Here, the wavefronts are calculated according to all the multi-view images and then they are summed up to obtain the object wave on the hologram plane. Moreover, the reference light (converging light) is adopted to converge the central diffraction wave from the liquid crystal display (LCD) into a common area in a short view distance. Experimental results shows that the proposed holographic display can regenerate the 3D objects with focus cues: accommodation and retinal blur.

  15. Liquid crystals beyond displays chemistry, physics, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Quan


    The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science. Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, th

  16. Carbon Nanotube Macroelectronics for Active Matrix Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays. (United States)

    Cong, Sen; Cao, Yu; Fang, Xin; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Qingzhou; Gui, Hui; Shen, Chenfei; Cao, Xuan; Kim, Eun Sok; Zhou, Chongwu


    Active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) is the most widely used display technology nowadays. Transparent display is one of the emerging technologies to provide people with more features such as displaying images on transparent substrates and simultaneously enabling people to see the scenery behind the panel. Polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) is a possible active matrix transparent display technology due to its high transparency, good visibility, and low power consumption. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with excellent mobility, high transparency, and room-temperature processing compatibility are ideal materials for the driver circuit of the PDLC display. Here, we report the monolithic integration of CNT thin-film transistor driver circuit with PDLC pixels. We studied the transmission properties of the PDLC pixels and characterized the performance of CNT thin-film transistors. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated active matrix seven-segment PDLC displays using CNT driver transistors. Our achievements open up opportunities for future nanotube-based, flexible thin-film transparent display electronics.

  17. Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Based Reflex Color Reflective Displays (United States)

    Khan, Asad


    Bistable color cholesteric liquid crystal displays are unique LCDs that exhibit high reflectivity, good contrast, extremely low power operation, and are amenable to versatile roll-to-roll manufacturing. The display technology, now branded as Reflex has been in commercialized products since 1996. It has been the subject of extensive research and development globally by a variety of parties in both academic and industrial settings. Today, the display technology is in volume production for applications such as dedicated eWriters (Boogie Board), full color electronic skins (eSkin), and displays for smart cards. The flexibility comes from polymerization induced phase separation using unique materials unparalleled in any other display technology. The blend of monomers, polymers, cross linkers, and other components along with nematic liquid crystals and chiral dopants is created and processed in such ways so as to enable highly efficient manufactrable displays using ultra thin plastic substrates -- often as thin as 50μm. Other significant aspects include full color by stacking or spatial separation, night vision capability, ultra high resolution, as well as active matrix capabilities. Of particular note is the stacking approach of Reflex based displays to show full color. This approach for reflective color displays is unique to this technology. Owing to high transparency in wavelength bands outside the selective reflection band, three primarily color layers can be stacked on top of each other and reflect without interfering with other layers. This highly surprising architecture enables the highest reflectivity of any other reflective electronic color display technology. The optics, architecture, electro-topics, and process techniques will be discussed. This presentation will focus on the physics of the core technology and color, it's evolution from rigid glass based displays to flexible displays, development of products from the paradigm shifting concepts to consumer

  18. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Displays


    Schauer, A.


    A short review is given on new display technologies such as plasma, liquid crystals, light emitting diodes, electroluminescence and electrochromism. It is stated that thin or thick film or hybrid techniques are essential for all the different types of display. Comparing the performance data of displays the advantages, disadvantages, appropriate applications and future developments are described. Finally the display market and its growth are discussed briefly.

  20. Human Visual Performance and Flat Panel Display Image Quality (United States)


    adequately han- dled, can cause burn -in nonuniformities.) In matrix addressed AC thin film displays, densities of 4.9/mm cc.n easily be achieved, and...PM TUBE N i i PHOTOMETER AMHLINtK in i n r^ s% SCANNING EYEPIECE ♦ POWER SUPPLY ’GO’ SWITCH Figure 128: Schematic of photometer

  1. Novel addressing scheme for passive antiferroelectric liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Quintana, Xabier; Castillo, P. L.; Oton, Jose; Bennis, N.; Lara, A.; Urruchi, V.; Dabrowski, Roman S.


    In this work, the use of antiferroelectric liquid crystals for high-end passive displays has been explored. Antiferroelectric gray levels arise from a double symmetric hysteresis loop that can be stabilized by a constant holding voltage. This driving scheme is passive multiplexing compatible, but limitations appear when the multiplexing rate increases. We have developed new waveforms and driving schemes for high multiplexing level at video rate. The problem of accumulated voltage on bias level arising from data voltages is tackled as well.

  2. Liquid crystal alignment in nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer for LCD panel applications. (United States)

    Hong, Chitsung; Tang, Tsung-Ta; Hung, Chi-Yu; Pan, Ru-Pin; Fang, Weileun


    This paper reports the implementation and integration of a self-assembled nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (np-AAO) film and liquid crystal (LC) on an ITO-glass substrate for liquid crystal display (LCD) panel applications. An np-AAO layer with a nanopore array acts as the vertical alignment layer to easily and uniformly align the LC molecules. Moreover, the np-AAO nanoalignment layer provides outstanding material properties, such as being inorganic with good transmittance, and colorless on ITO-glass substrates. In this application, an LCD panel, with the LC on the np-AAO nanoalignment layer, is successfully implemented on an ITO-glass substrate, and its performance is demonstrated. The measurements show that the LCD panel, consisting of an ITO-glass substrate and an np-AAO layer, has a transmittance of 60-80%. In addition, the LCD panel switches from a black state to a bright state at 3 V(rms), with a response time of 62.5 ms. In summary, this paper demonstrates the alignment of LC on an np-AAO layer for LCD applications.

  3. Liquid-crystal-display-based touchable light field three-dimensional display using display-capture mapping calibration. (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Li, Haifeng; Zhong, Qing; Liu, Xu


    An approach to achieving a light field three-dimensional (3D) display with a large viewing angular range based on spliced multi-LCDs is investigated. The light field reconstruction principle, LCD-based hardware configuration, and diffuser characteristics are analyzed. A point-to-point mapping calibration method is proposed to improve imaging performance, by using an image sensor to capture the coordinate distributions of the images on the LCD panel, projected onto the display space. By measuring the coordinate distributions, calibration is implemented considering both imaging aberration and geometrical inaccuracy of the whole system. The LCD-based experiment demonstrates that this method can achieve not only fast and precise calibration but also easy scalability, flexible depth, and angular range. A touchable floating 3D scene with correct occlusion, high image resolution, and a large continuous viewing angular range can be observed.

  4. Long-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals for display applications (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Won; Yu, Byeong-Hun


    Cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) have been used for a reflective display because of their reflective nature in the planar state. In a reflective display, the planar and the focal-conic states are used for the bright state and the dark state, respectively. In this paper we introduce a long-pitch CLC device, in which a selective wavelength of the reflected light is shifted to infrared (IR) wavelengths by controlling the pitch. The planar state of a long-pitch CLC device is transparent over the entire visible wavelengths in the field-off state. Omni-directional achromatic reflection through light scattering in the focal-conic state can be achieved without a polarizer. Compared to conventional CLC cells that reflect the visible light in the planar state, a long-pitch CLC device has a longer pitch, of which the operating voltage for switching between the two state is much lower so that achromatic reflective displays and light shutters with low power consumption can be realized using long-pitch CLC devices. By coupling with a reflector, the light efficiency of a longpitch CLC cell in the focal-conic state can be enhanced, by which higher brightness can be obtained for application to reflective displays. A dye-doped long-pitch CLC device can be placed behind a transparent organic light-emitting diode display for use as a light shutter to block the ambient light.

  5. A Cost-Effective Energy-Recovering Sustain Driving Circuit for ac Plasma Display Panels (United States)

    Lim, Jae Kwang; Tae, Heung-Sik; Choi, Byungcho; Kim, Seok Gi

    A new sustain driving circuit, featuring an energy-recovering function with simple structure and minimal component count, is proposed as a cost-effective solution for driving plasma display panels during the sustaining period. Compared with existing solutions, the proposed circuit reduces the number of semiconductor switches and reactive circuit components without compromising the circuit performance and gas-discharging characteristics. In addition, the proposed circuit utilizes the harness wire as an inductive circuit component, thereby further simplifying the circuit structure. The performance of the proposed circuit is confirmed with a 42-inch plasma display panel.

  6. Full dynamic resolution low lower DA-Converters for flat panel displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Saas


    Full Text Available It has been shown that stepwise charging can reduce the power dissipated in the source drivers of a flat panel display. However the solution presented only provided a dynamic resolution of 3 bits which is not sufficient for obtaining a full color resolution display. In this work a further development of the basic idea is presented. The stepwise charging is increased to 4 bits and supplemented by a current source to provide an output signal which represents an 8 bit value with sufficient accuracy. Within this work the application is an AM-OLED flat panel display, but the concept can easily be applied to other display technologies like TFT-LCD as well.

  7. Coherent backlight unit using holographic optical elements for full-color flat-panel holographic display (United States)

    Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; An, Jungkwuen; Song, Hoon; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Young; Sung, Geeyoung; Seo, Wontaek; Seo, Juwon; Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Hojung; Kim, Yongkyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo


    We propose the coherent backlight unit (BLU) using Holographic Optical Element (HOE) for full-color flat-panel holographic display. The HOE BLU consists of two reflective type HOEs that change the optical beam path and shape by diffraction. The diverging incident beam is transformed to the collimated beam which has a very small diffraction angle (7.5°) by HOE 1 (H1) in order to illuminate the whole display. This collimated beam is converged to a point at a distance from the glass substrate by HOE 2 (H2). As a result, the diverging incident beam is converted to a point light by H1 and H2. When the high resolution Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) displaying Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) is illuminated by HOE BLU, the hologram image is displayed at a view point near focal point. Practically, we fabricated the full color HOE BLU for 5.5" flat panel holographic display by using the proposed design. At least 5.5" size of HOE is required to illuminate the whole panel. For this reason, we recorded 150 mm x 90 mm size HOE on the 10 mm thickness glass substrate. This HOE BLU exhibits a total efficiency of 8.0% at Red (660 nm), 7.7% at Green (532 nm), 3.2% at Blue (460 nm) using optimized recording conditions for each wavelength. Finally, a bright full color hologram image was achieved.

  8. LCD Panels: The Electronic Wonder. (United States)

    Anderson, Glenn


    Describes Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) panels and their use in the classroom. Topics discussed include active versus passive matrix panels; the number of pixels; projectors, including transmissive or reflective overhead projectors; costs; and vendors that supply LCDs. (LRW)

  9. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong-Rin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)


    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  10. A novel heuristic for optimization aggregate production problem: Evidence from flat panel display in Malaysia (United States)

    Al-Kuhali, K.; Hussain M., I.; Zain Z., M.; Mullenix, P.


    Aim: This paper contribute to the flat panel display industry it terms of aggregate production planning. Methodology: For the minimization cost of total production of LCD manufacturing, a linear programming was applied. The decision variables are general production costs, additional cost incurred for overtime production, additional cost incurred for subcontracting, inventory carrying cost, backorder costs and adjustments for changes incurred within labour levels. Model has been developed considering a manufacturer having several product types, which the maximum types are N, along a total time period of T. Results: Industrial case study based on Malaysia is presented to test and to validate the developed linear programming model for aggregate production planning. Conclusion: The model development is fit under stable environment conditions. Overall it can be recommended to adapt the proven linear programming model to production planning of Malaysian flat panel display industry.

  11. Reduction of the thickness of lenticular stereoscopic display using full-color LED panel (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Muguruma, Syuji; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nagai, Yoshifumi; Shimizu, Yoshinori; Nishida, Nobuo


    The goals of our research are to realize stereoscopic large displays for the general public in the open air. These goals impose certain design constraints. It is preferable to view stereoscopic images without any special glasses. Multiple viewing areas are necessary to crowds of viewers. The thickness of the stereoscopic large display is a problem for installations. We have developed a stereoscopic full color LED display using parallax barrier and demonstrated multiple viewing areas. However, the thickness of that stereoscopic display, which is consisted of 8-mm pitch LED panel, becomes over 2 min the case that the viewing distance is designed for 20 m. In order to reduce the thickness of stereoscopic LED display, we propose use of dual lenticular sheets. The first lenticular sheet performs multiple imaging, which allows multiple viewing areas without diffusion screen. The second lenticular sheets separates the raster images into the right and left eye positions. The thickness, which is defined as the distance between the LED panel and the second lenticular sheet, can be reduced below 50cm for the viewing distance of 20 m. Optimal parameters are discussed to reduce the thickness.

  12. Visual and ocular effects from the use of flat-panel displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Porcar


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of eye symptoms in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU users with flat-panel displays. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen VDU users with flat-panel display from an urban population participated in the study; their ages ranging from 20 to 34y. There were 60 females and 56 males. An eye examination to rule out the presence of significant uncorrected refractive errors, general binocular dysfunctions and eye conditions was carried out. In order to determine and quantify the type and nature of eye symptoms, participants were asked to answer written questionnaire and the results were grouped by gender, age and number of hours a day spent using a VDU. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of participants reported eye symptoms related to VDU use. Eye symptoms from moderate-to-severe were found in 23% of participants. The main symptom was moderate-to-severe tired eyes (14%; followed by sensitivity to bright lights (12%, blurred vision at far distances (10%, eyestrain or dry eye or irritated or burning eyes (9%, difficulty in refocusing from one distance to another or headache (8% and blurred vision at near or intermediate distances (<4%. Eye symptoms were greater among females (P=0.005 and increased with VDU use, markedly above 6h spent using a VDU in a typical day (P=0.01. CONCLUSION: Significant eye symptoms relate to VDU use often occur and should not be underestimated. The increasing use of electronic devices with flat-panel display should prompt users to take appropriate measures to prevent or to relieve the eye symptoms arising from their use.

  13. Thermal Characteristics of Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide and Graphite in Display Panel Based Thin Film Transistors. (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Kim, Youn-Jea


    One of the important design factors in the smart electronic industry is proper heat treatment of the display panel. In order to improve the heat transfer performance of display panels, we analyzed a three-dimensional model of multi-stack layers of the thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, we numerically investigated the thermal barrier effects of active layers having different material properties of a-IGZO (isotropy) and graphite (anisotropy). We calculated the temperature distribution on the display panel with each active layer, using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. We graphically depict comparative results of the thermal characteristics between a-IGZO and graphite with the stacked structure of the TFTs.

  14. Micropatterning with a liquid crystal display (LCD) projector. (United States)

    Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo


    Photolithography has been applied to biological applications such as cell and protein micropatterning and the fabrication of microfluidic channels. However, the preparation of photomasks for projecting micropattern lighting images is often time consuming and costly. Therefore, we have developed maskless photolithography devices by modifying the optics of commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) projectors from extended to reduced projection. The developed second and third devices produce practically a centimeter-scale micropattern by dividing an original large mask pattern into several patterns, which are individually and synchronously exposed to substrates with a motorized XY-stage, applying them to cell micropatterning and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device production. The first part of this chapter describes the developments of the maskless photolithography devices. The second part describes the exposure control system with a motorized XY-stage. The third part describes the applications of devices to cell micropatterning. The last part describes the application of the devices to the fabrication of the PDMS microfluidic channel. Maskless photolithography with an LCD projector has a large advantage with no requirement for a photomask. In particular, the maskless photolithography devices show a greater power by optimizing the conditions of pattern size and shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. New technique combined with scanning and static method in true-color panel video display (United States)

    Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Bai, Lianfa; Zhang, Baomin


    A new technique, which combined with scanning and quasi- static method is presented. By the technique, when applied in true color panel video display, the matching of three primary colors can be more suitable, the brightness of the whole screen can be higher. At the same time, because of the using of scanning method, the cost of the system is not so high as that of ordinary system. Sampling of high distinguishability data, shaping and enhancing of image outline, nonlinear rectify of the primary colors are also discussed here.

  16. Efficiency enhancement of liquid crystal projection displays using light recycle technology (United States)

    Wang, Y.


    A new technology developed at JPL using low absorption color filters with polarization and color recycle system, is able to enhance efficiency of a single panel liquid crytal display (LCD) projector to the same efficiency of a 3 panel LCD projector.

  17. Average power scaling of UV excimer lasers drives flat panel display and lidar applications (United States)

    Herbst, Ludolf; Delmdahl, Ralph F.; Paetzel, Rainer


    Average power scaling of 308nm excimer lasers has followed an evolutionary path over the last two decades driven by diverse industrial UV laser microprocessing markets. Recently, a new dual-oscillator and beam management concept for high-average power upscaling of excimer lasers has been realized, for the first time enabling as much as 1.2kW of stabilized UV-laser average output power at a UV wavelength of 308nm. The new dual-oscillator concept enables low temperature polysilicon (LTPS) fabrication to be extended to generation six glass substrates. This is essential in terms of a more economic high-volume manufacturing of flat panel displays for the soaring smartphone and tablet PC markets. Similarly, the cost-effective production of flexible displays is driven by 308nm excimer laser power scaling. Flexible displays have enormous commercial potential and can largely use the same production equipment as is used for rigid display manufacturing. Moreover, higher average output power of 308nm excimer lasers aids reducing measurement time and improving the signal-to-noise ratio in the worldwide network of high altitude Raman lidar stations. The availability of kW-class 308nm excimer lasers has the potential to take LIDAR backscattering signal strength and achievable altitude to new levels.

  18. Effect of gold nanorods in an MgO protective layer of AC plasma display panels. (United States)

    Cho, Seok Ho; Lee, Seong Min; Kim, Woo Hyun; Choi, Kyung Cheol


    We propose a modified MgO protective layer for alternating current plasma display panels. The modified MgO protective layer of the panel tested here has a structure that incorporates silica-coated Au nanorods (NRs), leading to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the near-infrared (IR) region. The silica-coated Au NRs were synthesized by a simple chemical method and inserted into an MgO protective layer using an air-spray method. The operating voltage of the proposed structure was decreased by 10 V. The luminance and luminous efficacy of the test panel part with the silica-coated Au NRs both increased by about 15%. According to the measured results of the IR response time, the sustain discharge time lag was reduced. In addition, by inserting the silica-coated Au NRs into the MgO protective layer, a decrease of the IR emission proceeding from the plasma discharge was acquired. Finally, we investigated the LSPR effect of the silica-coated Au NRs in a simulation with a finite-difference time domain method.

  19. Visual performance in medical imaging using liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Tchou, Philip Marcel


    This thesis examined the contrast performance of liquid crystal display (LCD) devices for use in medical imaging. Novel experimental methods were used to measure the ability of medical LCD devices to produce just noticeable contrast. It was demonstrated that medical LCD devices are capable of high performance in medical imaging and are suitable for conducting psychovisual research experiments. Novel methods for measuring and controlling the luminance response of an LCD were presented in Chapter 3 and used to develop a software tools to apply DICOM GSDF calibrations. Several medical LCD systems were calibrated, demonstrating that the methods can be used to reliably measure luminance and manipulate fine contrast. Chapter 4 reports on a novel method to generate low contrast bi-level bar patterns by using the full palette of available gray values. The method was used in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) psychovisual experiment to measure the contrast threshold of human observers. Using a z-score analysis method, the results were found to be consistent with the Barten model of contrast sensitivity. Chapter 5 examined error distortion associated with using z-scores. A maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method was presented as an alternative and was used to reevaluate the results from Chapter 4. The new results were consistent with the Barten model. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the statistical precision of the MLE method in relation to the number and distribution of trials. In Chapter 6, 2AFC tests were conducted examining contrast thresholds for complex sinusoid, white noise, and filtered noise patterns. The sinusoid test results were consistent with the Barten model while the noise patterns required more contrast for visibility. The effects of adaptation were also demonstrated. A noise visibility index (NVI) was introduced to describe noise power weighted by contrast sensitivity. Just noticeable white and filtered noise patterns exhibited similar NVI

  20. Flexoelectric effect in an in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell for low-power consumption display devices. (United States)

    Kim, Min Su; Bos, Philip J; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yang, Deng-Ke; Lee, Joong Hee; Lee, Seung Hee


    Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect. Despite of the urgent requirement of solving the issue, understanding of such a phenomenon is yet vague. Here, we thoroughly analyze and firstly report the flexoelectric effect in in-plane switching (IPS) liquid crystal cell. The effect takes place on the area above electrodes due to splay and bend deformations of nematic liquid crystal along oblique electric fields, so that the obvious spatial shift of the optical transmittance is experimentally observed and is clearly demonstrated based on the relation between direction of flexoelectric polarization and electric field polarity. In addition, we report that the IPS mode has inherent characteristics to solve the image-flickering issue in the low-power consumption display in terms of the physical property of liquid crystal material and the electrode structure.

  1. Optical studies of E-beam evaporated MgO films for plasma display panels

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, S I; Oh, S G


    Variable-incident-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used for non-destructive depth profiling of MgO thin films, one of the key elements of plasma display panels. We have found that all the examined MgO films have a three-layer structure with a dense interface layer , a void-included middle layer, and a surface layer. We have also found that the void fraction is increased with the oxygen-flow rate at a fixed substrate temperature and decreased with the substrate temperature at a fixed oxygen-flow rate. Moreover, discuss the close correlation between the water adsorption and the void fraction and show a general agreement between the surface layer thickness and the mean height determined by using a atomic force microscopy.

  2. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi


    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  3. Nanoimprinted photonic crystal color filters for solar-powered reflective displays. (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Hyoung; Kim, Hae-Sung; Sohn, Jin-Seung; Moon, Chang-Youl; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil


    A novel concept for reflective displays that uses two-dimensional photonic crystals with subwavelength gratings is introduced. A solar-powered reflective display with photonic crystal color filters was analyzed by a theoretical approach. We fabricated the photonic crystal color filters on a glass substrate by using low-cost nanoimprint lithography and multi-scan excimer laser annealing to produce RGB color filters through a single patterning process. The theoretical and experimental results show that the color filters have high reflectance and angular tolerance, which was qualitatively confirmed by chromaticity coordination analysis.

  4. 16 CFR 500.21 - Type size in relationship to the area of the principal display panel. (United States)


    ... statement of net quantity of contents is blown, embossed, or molded on a glass or plastic surface rather... relationship to the area of the principal display panel. (a) The statement of net quantity of contents shall be... bottoms of cans, and shoulders and necks of bottles and jars. This area shall be: (1) In the case of a...

  5. Bending Characteristics of Foldable Touch Display Panel with a Protection Structure Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chie Cheng


    Full Text Available The study proposes and demonstrates an enhancement of a touch display panel (TDP through a polymer-based protection structure to achieve higher bendability and reliability. The bending performance of the TDP without or with the protection structure designs is addressed using three-dimensional geometry-nonlinear finite element analysis and mechanical testing. The elastic properties of the components in the TDP structure are derived from nanoindentation and uniaxial tensile/compressive testing. The calculated results are compared with each other and also against the experimental bending fatigue test data. At last, a design guideline and optimal factor setting for enhanced bending performance are sought through parametric FE analysis and Taguchi experimental design, respectively. The optimal design is compared with the original in terms of bending stress. The simulation results show that bending would create significant tensile and compressive bending stresses on the indium tin oxide/dielectric layers, which are the main cause of several commonly observed failures, such as thin film cracking and delamination, in a thin rigid film coating on a thick compliant substrate. It also turns out that a substrate with a lower stiffness has a better mechanical stability against bending stress.

  6. Liquid Crystals - The 'Fourth' Phase of Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    most well-known application is the liquid crystal-display (LCD), used in watches, calculators, flat panel displays used recently even in TV sets, and so on. The anisotropic properties of liquid crystals in refractive index and dielectric constant can be exploited for the purposes of creating flat-panel displays. Usually what is done ...

  7. Two-dimensional model of an AC plasma display panel cell in a neon-xenon mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeuf, J.P.; Pitchford, L.C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)


    We present a 2-D fluid model of an AC plasma display panel cell. Plasma Display Panels (PDP) are flat display devices where the light of each picture element is emitted from a plasma created by an electric discharge. In the simplest electrode configuration, AC plasma display panels consist of two glass plates, each with parallel electrodes deposited on their surfaces. The electrodes are covered with a dielectric film above which a protective MgO layer is deposited. The plates are sealed together with their electrodes at right angles, and the cap between the plates is filled with a rare gas mixture. An electric discharge can be initiated in the gas cap by applying a voltage pulse between a line electrode and a column electrode. This discharge is transient due to the dielectric layers covering the electrode: the charges deposited on the dielectric surfaces induce in the gas cap a voltage which opposes the electrode voltage. Since the electrode voltage is AC (frequency in the 10-100 kHz range), a discharge is initiated each time the electrode voltage changes sign (the voltage across the dielectric layers adds to the electrode voltage when it changes sign). The {open_quotes}ON{close_quotes} state of a picture element is therefore a succession of transient discharges. In color displays, the UV light of the discharge is used to excite phosphors in the three fundamental colors (at least three discharge cells are used for one pixel of the screen). Neon-xenon or helium-xenon mixtures are generally used in color displays where photons emitted by excited atomic (147 nm) and molecular (150 nm and 173 nm) xenon are used to excite the phosphors.

  8. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan


    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  9. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A


    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  10. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon


    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  11. Searching for the preferred backlight intensity in liquid crystal displays with local backlight dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino


    Local backlight dimming is one of the most promising techniques for reducing power consumption and improving contrast characteristics of liquid crystal displays (LCD). In practice, due to light diffusion and a smaller number of backlight sources than pixels, local backlight dimming must often trade...

  12. Polar solar panels: Arctic and Antarctic microbiomes display similar taxonomic profiles. (United States)

    Tanner, Kristie; Manuel Martí, José; Belliure, Josabel; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Molina-Menor, Esther; Peretó, Juli; Porcar, Manuel


    Solar panels located on high (Arctic and Antarctic) latitudes combine the harshness of the climate with that of the solar exposure. We report here that these polar solar panels are inhabited by similar microbial communities in taxonomic terms, dominated by Hymenobacter spp., Sphingomonas spp., and Ascomycota. Our results suggest that solar panels, even on high latitudes, can shape a microbial ecosystem adapted to irradiation and desiccation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Technical and radiological image quality comparison of different liquid crystal displays for radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dams FE


    Full Text Available Francina EM Dams,2 KY Esther Leung,1 Pieter HM van der Valk,2 Marc CJM Kock,2 Jeroen Bosman,1 Sjoerd P Niehof1 1Medical Physics and Technology, 2Department of Radiology, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Dordrecht, The Netherlands Background: To inform cost-effective decisions in purchasing new medical liquid crystal displays, we compared the image quality in displays made by three manufacturers. Methods: We recruited 19 radiologists and residents to compare the image quality of four liquid crystal displays, including 3-megapixel Barco®, Eizo®, and NEC® displays and a 6-megapixel Barco display. The evaluators were blinded to the manufacturers' names. Technical assessments were based on acceptance criteria and test patterns proposed by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Radiological assessments were performed on images from the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18. They included X-ray images of the thorax, knee, and breast, a computed tomographic image of the thorax, and a magnetic resonance image of the brain. Image quality was scored on an analog scale (range 0–10. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The Barco 3-megapixel display passed all acceptance criteria. The Eizo and NEC displays passed the acceptance criteria, except for the darkest pixel value in the grayscale display function. The Barco 6-megapixel display failed criteria for the maximum luminance response and the veiling glare. Mean radiological assessment scores were 7.8±1.1 (Barco 3-megapixel, 7.8±1.2 (Eizo, 8.1±1.0 (NEC, and 8.1±1.0 (Barco 6-megapixel. No significant differences were found between displays. Conclusion: According to the tested criteria, all the displays had comparable image quality; however, there was a three-fold difference in price between the most and least expensive displays. Keywords: data display, humans, radiographic image enhancement, user-computer interface

  14. 76 FR 30968 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for Using the Same; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the... importation of certain liquid crystal display (``LCD'') devices, products containing same, and methods for...

  15. 75 FR 445 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... (United States)


    ... Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 5,844,533... crystal display devices or products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 1, 3, and 6 of U.S...

  16. 75 FR 14470 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and Methods for Making the Same; Notice of a Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain liquid crystal display modules, products containing the same, and methods for making...

  17. Twist angle determination in liquid crystal displays by location of local adiabatic points (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Bennis, Noureddine; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Ferreira, Carlos


    In this work we present a method for the determination of the twist angle of an arbitrary twisted nematic liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The method is based on the location of local adiabatic points, i.e., situations in which the liquid crystal SLM acts only as a rotation device. For these cases, the rotation induced on the polarization of the incident beam is equal to the twist angle. Consequently, the twist angle can be determined with high precision. We show that local adiabatic regime may be achieved in two ways, either by changing the incident beam wavelength, or by applying a voltage to the electrodes of the display. However, the simple model that describes the SLM in the off-state, may break down when a voltage is applied to the display, and it may affect the local adiabatic behaviour. We present theoretical and experimental results.

  18. Liquid crystal display device for total reflection switching with fluorescent dye addition. (United States)

    Urisu, T; Sugeta, T; Mizushima, Y


    Bias dependences for reflectivity curves were measured in the total reflection range for several liquid crystals, and orientation near the boundary was investigated. Incident angle dependences of the transient response for total reflection ON and OFF switching were measured. Fluorescent dye addition effects for total reflection switching were investigated. Using a mixture of the fluorescent dye (coumarin 6) and MBBA + BBCA, a novel display device for a wide viewing angle has been successfully demonstrated.

  19. Milestone in the History of Field-Effect Liquid Crystal Displays and Materials (United States)

    Schadt, Martin


    The history of digital electronics would have been very different without the invention of field-effect liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in 1970 and their sophisticated development and implementation into numerous products. Transmissive and reflective LCDs have become a key interface between man and machine. After almost 40 years of interdisciplinary R+D and engineering, today's LCDs enable virtually all display applications, including high definition television. Field-effect LCDs are characterized by flat design, low weight, low driving voltage, design flexibility, compatibility with silicon-on-glass and very low power consumption, especially in reflection. Their polarization-sensitive layer concept is the basis for sandwiching and integration of optical and electronic thin-film functions. The liquid crystal technology has become a fast growing industry over the past 38 years, today surpassing 100 billion, with many spin-offs into new areas. Prerequisite for field-effect LCDs and their large diversification potential is the unique self-organization of liquid crystals. New applications beyond displays based on self-organisation, smart boundary alignment, dedicated liquid crystalline materials and the ability of LCs to respond to electromagnetic fields, including light, are being developed. Examples for new applications are LC polymer thin-film optics, or synergies between LCDs and solid state back-lighting, such as inorganic and organic light emitting diodes (LEDs/OLEDs).

  20. Review on polymer-stabilized short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal displays (United States)

    Tan, Guanjun; Lee, Yun-Han; Gou, Fangwang; Chen, Haiwei; Huang, Yuge; Lan, Yi-Fen; Tsai, Cheng-Yeh; Wu, Shin-Tson


    Submillisecond response times and low operation voltage are critical to next generation liquid crystal display and photonic devices. In this paper, we review the recent progress of three fast-response short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystal modes: blue phase (BP), uniform standing helix (USH), and uniform lying helix (ULH). This review starts with a brief introduction of device structures and working principles, and then highlights two competing electro-optical effects: dielectric effect and flexoelectric effect. Next, we compare their electro-optical behaviors, response time, temperature dependence, and contrast ratio. Based on our established simulation model, we are able to optimize the phase compensation scheme for improving the viewing angle and gamma shift of USH and ULH modes. Finally, we analyze some major challenges, which remain to be overcome before the widespread applications of these liquid crystal devices can be realized.

  1. Application of flat panel OLED display technology for the point-of-care detection of circulating cancer biomarkers. (United States)

    Katchman, Benjamin A; Smith, Joseph T; Obahiagbon, Uwadiae; Kesiraju, Sailaja; Lee, Yong-Kyun; O'Brien, Barry; Kaftanoglu, Korhan; Blain Christen, Jennifer; Anderson, Karen S


    Point-of-care molecular diagnostics can provide efficient and cost-effective medical care, and they have the potential to fundamentally change our approach to global health. However, most existing approaches are not scalable to include multiple biomarkers. As a solution, we have combined commercial flat panel OLED display technology with protein microarray technology to enable high-density fluorescent, programmable, multiplexed biorecognition in a compact and disposable configuration with clinical-level sensitivity. Our approach leverages advances in commercial display technology to reduce pre-functionalized biosensor substrate costs to pennies per cm(2). Here, we demonstrate quantitative detection of IgG antibodies to multiple viral antigens in patient serum samples with detection limits for human IgG in the 10 pg/mL range. We also demonstrate multiplexed detection of antibodies to the HPV16 proteins E2, E6, and E7, which are circulating biomarkers for cervical as well as head and neck cancers.

  2. Polymer Choleristic Liquid Crystal Flakes as New Candidates for Display and Sensor Applications (United States)

    Petkoska, Anka Trajkovska

    In this paper polymer cholesteric liquid crystal (PCLC) flakes will be introduced as a novel form of particles for active applications, like electronic paper displays, as well as for sensors. The concept of electro-optic applications based on PCLC flakes is very attractive, because it offers a possibility for thin, reflective, lightweight, flexible devices that use little power. The uniqueness of PCLC flakes lies in their bright, saturated and full color capability, as well as their circular polarization effects, without the need of additional color filters and polarizers.

  3. Modeling the Color Image and Video Quality on Liquid Crystal Displays with Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Jari; Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino


    Objective image and video quality metrics focus mostly on the digital representation of the signal. However, the display characteristics are also essential for the overall Quality of Experience (QoE). In this paper, we use a model of a backlight dimming system for Liquid Crystal Display (LCD......) and show how the modeled image can be used as an input to quality assessment algorithms. For quality assessment, we propose an image quality metric, based on Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) computation in the CIE L*a*b* color space. The metric takes luminance reduction, color distortion and loss...... of uniformity in the resulting image in consideration. Subjective evaluations of images generated using different backlight dimming algorithms and clipping strategies show that the proposed metric estimates the perceived image quality more accurately than conventional PSNR....

  4. Towards an optimal model for a bistable nematic liquid crystal display device

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.


    Bistable liquid crystal displays offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine a theoretical model of a possible bistable device, originally proposed by Cummings and Richardson (Euro J Appl Math 17:435-463 2006), and explore means by which it may be optimized, in terms of optical contrast, manufacturing considerations, switching field strength, and switching times. The compromises inherent in these conflicting design criteria are discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  5. An experimental and numerical investigation of flat panel display cell using magnetic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, J W; Park, S J; Lee, H S


    Optical and fluid dynamical properties of magnetic fluid have been studied experimentally and numerically using a test device with a water-base magnetite magnetic fluid. It has been found that the 3.5 mu m thick fluid film absorbs most of the incoming visible light and can be actuated fast enough to realize display devices. The computational simulation shows that the surface tension of the liquid plays the most dominant roles for the test device, and a device that can actuate the magnetic fluid magnetically is proposed.

  6. Teachers' Attitudes towards Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Panel Interactive Board Applications (United States)

    Izci, Eyup; Darmaz, Volkan


    This study determined the viewpoints of teachers from different branches on using the interactive boards placed in classrooms in high schools, which are expected to replace the classical boards in the context of FATIH Project by the Ministry of National Education. Single Review Model was used in the present study where 21 teachers participated…

  7. The influence of need for cognition and principal display panel factors on over-the-counter drug facts label comprehension. (United States)

    Catlin, Jesse R; Pechmann, Cornelia; Brass, Eric P


    Nearly all work aimed at optimizing the ability of labeling to communicate over-the-counter (OTC) drug information has focused on back-of-the-package characteristics, such as the Drug Facts label. The effects of front of the package, or principal display panel (PDP) factors, have largely been neglected by researchers. Similarly, heterogeneity in consumers' approach to new information has received scant attention in the context of OTC drugs. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that display of a drug's brand name on the PDP and individuals' need for cognition influence comprehension of Drug Facts label information. University students (n = 212) that had experienced heartburn but not used the drug class being studied constituted the primary analysis cohort. Students were randomly assigned to review one of two PDPs (brand name or generic), followed by a Drug Facts label and a series of questions related to selection and usage of the drug. Participants with low need for cognition were influenced by the brand name PDP, as those exposed to a PDP featuring a brand (vs. generic) spent less time reading the Drug Facts label and demonstrated lower comprehension of the label information on proper drug selection. These findings suggest that further research is needed to understand the impact of PDP contents and cognitive characteristics of consumers on the communication of OTC drug information. Health care providers should consider communication strategies that account for the challenges patients face in using OTC drugs properly.

  8. Graphene oxide liquid crystals: synthesis, phase transition, rheological property, and applications in optoelectronics and display. (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Tong, Xin; Wang, Yanan; Bao, Jiming; Wang, Zhiming M


    Graphene oxide (GO) liquid crystals (LCs) are macroscopically ordered GO flakes dispersed in water or polar organic solvents. Since the first report in 2011, GO LCs have attracted considerable attention for their basic properties and potential device applications. In this review, we summarize recent developments and present a comprehensive understanding of GO LCs via many aspects ranging from the exfoliation of GO flakes from graphite, to phases and phase transitions under various conditions, the orientational responses of GO under external magnetic and electric fields, and finally Kerr effect and display applications. The emphasis is placed on the unique and basic properties of GO and their ordered assembly. We will also discuss challenges and issues that need to be overcome in order to gain a more fundamental understanding and exploit full device potentials of GO LCs.

  9. Implementation of a Reuse Process for Liquid Crystal Displays Using an Eccentric-Form Tool (United States)

    Pa, Pai-Shan


    This study presents a new nanotechnology application involving an ITO thin-film removal reuse process using an eccentric-form negative electrode, offering a fast removal rate from the surface of liquid crystal displays (LCDs). For the precision removal process, a small amount of eccentricity of the negative electrode or a higher rotational speed of the negative electrode corresponds to a higher etching rate for the ITO. A higher flow velocity of the electrolyte and a higher working temperature also correspond to a higher removal rate. The average effect of the eccentricity is better than the effects of a pulsed current, while the current rating need not be prolonged by the off-time. PMID:19865539

  10. Development of a DAQ system for a plasma display panel-based X-ray detector (PXD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hakjae [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Jun [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Eom, Sangheum [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan-si (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jungwon [Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kisung, E-mail: [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Recently, a novel plasma display panel (PDP)-based X-ray detector (PXD) was developed. The goal of this study is to develop a data acquisition system for use with the PXD as an imaging detector. Since the prototype detector does not have any barrier ribs or a switching device in a detector pixel, a novel pixelation scheme—the line-scan method—is developed for this new detector. To implement line scanning, a multichannel high-voltage switching circuit and a multichannel charge-acquisition circuit are developed. These two circuits are controlled by an FPGA-based digital signal processing board, from which the information about the charge and position of each pixel can be sent to a PC. FPGA-based baseline compensation and switching noise rejection algorithms are used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The characteristic curve of the entire PXD system is acquired, and the correlation coefficients between the X-ray dose, and the signal intensity and the SNR were determined to be approximately 0.99 and 52.9, respectively. - Highlights: • We developed a data acquisition circuit for a novel X-ray imaging detector. • Line scan, noise rejection, and data transmission methods have been implemented by the FPGA. • The linearity and SNR of the proposed detector system have been measured quantitatively.

  11. Comparison of organic electroluminescence and liquid crystal displays for clinical utility in orthopedic endoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Dezawa, Akira; Sairyo, Koichi


    Organic electroluminescence displays (OELD) use organic materials that self-emit light with the passage of an electric current. OELD provide high contrast, excellent color reproducibility at low brightness, excellent video images, and less restricted viewing angles. OELD are thus promising for medical use. This study compared the utility of an OELD with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) for imaging in orthopedic endoscopic surgery. One OELD and two conventional LCD that were indistinguishable in external appearance were used in this study. Images from 18 patients were displayed simultaneously on three monitors and evaluated by six orthopedic surgeons with extensive surgical experience. Images were shown for 2 min, repeated twice, and viewed from the front and side (diagonally). Surgeon rated both clinical utility (12 parameters) and image quality (11 parameters) for each image on a 5-point scale: 1, very good; 2, good; 3, average; 4, poor; and 5, very poor. For clinical utility in 16 percutaneous endoscopic discectomy cases, mean scores for all 12 parameters were significantly better on the OELD than on the LCD, including organ distinguishability (2.1 vs 3.2, respectively), lesion identification (2.2 vs 3.1), and overall viewing impression (2.1 vs 3.1). For image quality, all 11 parameters were better on the OELD than on LCD. Significant differences were identified in six parameters, including contrast (1.8 vs 2.9), color reproducibility in dark areas (1.8 vs 2.9), and viewing angle (2.2 vs 2.9). The high contrast and excellent color reproducibility of the OELD reduced the constraints of imaging under endoscopy, in which securing a field of view may be difficult. Distinguishability of organs was good, including ligaments, dura mater, nerves, and adipose tissue, contributing to good stereoscopic images of the surgical field. These findings suggest the utility of OELD for excellent display of surgical images and for enabling safe and highly accurate

  12. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics: Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals - Innovations in Materials, Display Technology, and Commercialization (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals have been the subject of much research, development, and commercialization - in display technology as well as other embodiments, such as sensors, privacy films, etc. The liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) at Kent State University (KSU) served as a hot bed of much of the research and development in this field in the early 1990's. From here, the reflective technology was licensed to Kent Displays (KDI) to further develop and commercialize. The 90's saw some development in flexible technologies, drive scheme, display design, as well as materials. The early part of the century took a turn with a strong effort in encapsulation based flexible display development. In 2006, KDI engineers and technologists started firming up ambitious plans for the world's first roll-to-roll manufacturing line for bistable cholesteric displays. In 2009, this became a reality! In early 2010, the first eWriter product was launched into the consumer market under the brand Boogie Board®. Within months, this became a success forcing the rapid development of the manufacturing process for the flexible displays. Today, the company has two manufacturing lines, 24 hour roll-to-roll production of flexible displays, millions of Boogie Board products in the global market place, and a growing OEM business in the Boogie Board technology. KDI continues to do basic research, development, and exploration in the bistable display field. It also has had to become an expert in the supply chain management of the unique raw materials needed for flexible display manufacturing, while still managing global operations with sales offices in several continents and a growing and diversified group of individuals. In this presentation, we will present the story, research, development, technology, and latest trends in bistable cholesteric liquid crystal materials with a particular emphasis on the eWriter technology and market.

  13. Overall noise characteristics of reduced images on liquid crystal display and advantages of independent subpixel driving technology. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Asumi; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro; Kodera, Yoshie; Funahashi, Masao


    During soft-copy diagnoses, medical images with a large number of matrices often need to display reduced images on liquid crystal displays (LCDs) because of the spatial resolution limitation of LCDs. A new technology, known as independent subpixel driving (ISD), was recently applied to clinical uses aiming to improve the spatial resolution. The authors' study demonstrates the overall noise characteristics of images displayed on a LCD at various display magnifications, with and without ISD application. Measurements of the overall noise power spectra (NPS) of x-ray images displayed on LCD were performed at varying display magnifications, with and without ISD. The NPS of displayed images in several display situations were also simulated based on hypothetical noise factors. The measured and simulated NPS showed that noise characteristics worsened when the display magnification was reduced, due to aliasing errors. The overall noise characteristics were attributed to luminance-value fluctuation converted from pixel values, image-interpolation effects, inherent noise, and blurring of the LCD. ISD improved the noise characteristics because it suppressed noise increments by aliasing errors. ISD affected the noise-characteristic advantages of reduced images displayed on LCDs, particularly at low frequencies.

  14. 75 FR 6705 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules and Products Containing the Same, and Methods for Making the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION... and products containing the same, and methods for making the same by reason of infringement of certain...

  15. 76 FR 11512 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices, Products Containing Same, and Methods for Using the Same; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution... same, and methods for using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 6...

  16. 75 FR 9928 - In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules, Products Containing Same, and Methods... (United States)


    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Liquid Crystal Display Modules, Products Containing Same, and Methods Using the Same; Notice of Commission Determination to Rescind a Limited Exclusion Order and Cease and... same, and methods for using the same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6...

  17. 76 FR 51054 - In the Matter of Certain Liquid Crystal Display Devices and Products Containing the Same; Notice... (United States)


    ... Korea (``Samsung'') alleging a violation of section 337 in the importation, sale for importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain liquid crystal display devices and products.... of Taipei, Taiwan; SANYO Electric Co., Ltd. of Osaka, Japan; and SANYO North America Corporation of...

  18. Novel Na(+) doped Alq3 hybrid materials for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices and flat panel displays. (United States)

    Bhagat, S A; Borghate, S V; Kalyani, N Thejo; Dhoble, S J


    Pure and Na(+) -doped Alq3 complexes were synthesized by a simple precipitation method at room temperature, maintaining a stoichiometric ratio. These complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV/Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. The X-ray diffractogram exhibits well-resolved peaks, revealing the crystalline nature of the synthesized complexes, FTIR confirms the molecular structure and the completion of quinoline ring formation in the metal complex. UV/Vis absorption and PL spectra of sodium-doped Alq3 complexes exhibit high emission intensity in comparison with Alq3 phosphor, proving that when doped in Alq3 , Na(+) enhances PL emission intensity. The excitation spectra of the synthesized complexes lie in the range 242-457 nm when weak shoulders are also considered. Because the sharp excitation peak falls in the blue region of visible radiation, the complexes can be employed for blue chip excitation. The emission wavelength of all the synthesized complexes lies in the bluish green/green region ranging between 485 and 531 nm. The intensity of the emission wavelength was found to be elevated when Na(+) is doped into Alq3 . Because both the excitation and emission wavelengths fall in the visible region of electromagnetic radiation, these phosphors can also be employed to improve the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic cells by using the solar spectral conversion principle. Thus, the synthesized phosphors can be used as bluish green/green light-emitting phosphors for organic light-emitting diodes, flat panel displays, solid-state lighting technology - a step towards the desire to reduce energy consumption and generate pollution free light. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Materials recovery from waste liquid crystal displays: A focus on indium. (United States)

    Fontana, Danilo; Forte, Federica; De Carolis, Roberta; Grosso, Mario


    In the present work the recovery of indium and of the polarizing film from waste liquid crystal displays was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. First of all, the polarizing film was removed by employing a number of different techniques, including thermal and chemical treatments. Leaching of indium was then performed with HCl 6N, which allowed solubilisation of approximately 90% In (i.e. 260 mg In per kg of glass) at room temperature, without shredding. Indium recovery from the aqueous phase was then investigated through solvent extraction with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based aqueous biphasic systems. Indium extraction tests through the PEG-ammonium sulphate-water system were conducted as a function of PEG concentration, salt concentration and molecular weight of PEG, using 1,10 phenanthroline as a ligand. The experimental results demonstrated that indium partitioning between the bottom (salt-rich) and the top (PEG-rich) phase is quite independent on the composition of the system, since 80-95% indium is extracted in the bottom phase and 5-20% in the top phase; it was also found that when PEG concentration is increased, the ratio between the bottom and the upper phase volumes decreases, resulting in an increase of indium concentration in the bottom phase (at [PEG]=25% w/w, indium concentration in the bottom phase is ∼30% higher than the initial concentration before the extraction). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Automated optical inspection of liquid crystal display anisotropic conductive film bonding (United States)

    Ni, Guangming; Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Juanxiu; Liu, Yong


    Anisotropic conductive film (ACF) bonding is widely used in the liquid crystal display (LCD) industry. It implements circuit connection between screens and flexible printed circuits or integrated circuits. Conductive microspheres in ACF are key factors that influence LCD quality, because the conductive microspheres' quantity and shape deformation rate affect the interconnection resistance. Although this issue has been studied extensively by prior work, quick and accurate methods to inspect the quality of ACF bonding are still missing in the actual production process. We propose a method to inspect ACF bonding effectively by using automated optical inspection. The method has three steps. The first step is that it acquires images of the detection zones using a differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging system. The second step is that it identifies the conductive microspheres and their shape deformation rate using quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the DIC images. The final step is that it inspects ACF bonding using a back propagation trained neural network. The result shows that the miss rate is lower than 0.1%, and the false inspection rate is lower than 0.05%.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of chlorine in liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) based on material flow analysis. (United States)

    Kotani, Kensuke; Masunaga, Shigeki


    Liquid crystal display glass (LCDG) may contain chlorine in trace amounts to attain some of its special properties. LCDG is primarily manufactured by glass companies, which then supply the electronic industry for utilization in the manufacture of items such as televisions, computer monitors, etc. In order to be seen as environmentally friendly, some electronic companies that utilize LCDG request that glass companies eliminate halogens such as chlorine from LCDG. The issue of halogens in products is often associated with dioxin-like problems. By using halogen-free LCDG in their manufacturing process, electronic companies aim to enhance their eco-friendly branding. Nevertheless, the real gains in terms of environmental improvement are yet to be assessed. In this study, we discussed the effectiveness of reducing or eliminating chlorine in electrical and electronic products on a scientific basis, by carrying out a quantitative assessment of cancer risk posed by potential emissions of dioxins when discarded LCDG is incinerated. The results indicate that the maximum increase of individual lifetime cancer risk is 3.2 × 10(-10). This level of cancer risk is negligible. Consequently, we suggest that there is no need to introduce stricter standards for chlorine content in LCDG, from the viewpoint of potential dioxin formation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of interproximal caries using the IPad 2 and a liquid crystal display monitor. (United States)

    Shintaku, Werner H; Scarbecz, Mark; Venturin, Jaqueline S


    The objective of this study was to compare the detection of interproximal caries in digital intraoral images presented in a 24-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor and the IPad 2. Twenty-seven digital bitewing radiographs of 102 adult teeth were generated by a charge-coupled device sensor and presented to 4 dentists in 2 sessions. The dentists were asked to rate the presence or absence of carious lesions using a 5-point scale. Differences in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were weighted using the Wilcoxon test, and the z test for the receiver operating characteristic curves. For the IPad 2 and LCD monitor, A(z) values were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively. For the tablet, the mean values of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.75, 0.86, and 0.83, respectively. For the LCD monitor, these values were 0.77, 0.82, and 0.80, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. See-through optical combiner for augmented reality head-mounted display: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens. (United States)

    Hong, Jong-Young; Lee, Chang-Kun; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byounghyo; Yoo, Dongheon; Jang, Changwon; Kim, Jonghyun; Jeong, Jinsoo; Lee, Byoungho


    A novel see-through optical device to combine the real world and the virtual image is proposed which is called an index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL). The convex lens made of anisotropic crystal is enveloped with the isotropic material having same refractive index with the extraordinary refractive index of the anisotropic crystal. This optical device functions as the transparent glass or lens according to the polarization state of the incident light. With the novel optical property, IMACL can be utilized in the see-through near eye display, or head-mounted display for augmented reality. The optical property of the proposed optical device is analyzed and aberration by the anisotropic property of the index-matched anisotropic crystal lens is described with the simulation. The concept of the head-mounted display using IMACL is introduced and various optical performances such as field of view, form factor and transmittance are analyzed. The prototype is implemented to verify the proposed system and experimental results show the mixture between the virtual image and real world scene.

  4. Ice crystal characterization in cirrus clouds: a sun-tracking camera system and automated detection algorithm for halo displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forster


    Full Text Available Halo displays in the sky contain valuable information about ice crystal shape and orientation: e.g., the 22° halo is produced by randomly oriented hexagonal prisms while parhelia (sundogs indicate oriented plates. HaloCam, a novel sun-tracking camera system for the automated observation of halo displays is presented. An initial visual evaluation of the frequency of halo displays for the ACCEPT (Analysis of the Composition of Clouds with Extended Polarization Techniques field campaign from October to mid-November 2014 showed that sundogs were observed more often than 22° halos. Thus, the majority of halo displays was produced by oriented ice crystals. During the campaign about 27 % of the cirrus clouds produced 22° halos, sundogs or upper tangent arcs. To evaluate the HaloCam observations collected from regular measurements in Munich between January 2014 and June 2016, an automated detection algorithm for 22° halos was developed, which can be extended to other halo types as well. This algorithm detected 22° halos about 2 % of the time for this dataset. The frequency of cirrus clouds during this time period was estimated by co-located ceilometer measurements using temperature thresholds of the cloud base. About 25 % of the detected cirrus clouds occurred together with a 22° halo, which implies that these clouds contained a certain fraction of smooth, hexagonal ice crystals. HaloCam observations complemented by radiative transfer simulations and measurements of aerosol and cirrus cloud optical thickness (AOT and COT provide a possibility to retrieve more detailed information about ice crystal roughness. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a completely automated method to collect and evaluate a long-term database of halo observations and shows the potential to characterize ice crystal properties.

  5. Azimuthal polarization states for the optimization of a liquid crystal display Sony LCX038ARA in the pure-phase regime (United States)

    Salamanca Vela, C. J.; Torres Moreno, Y.; Barrero Perez, J.; Acevedo Caceres, C.


    A liquid crystal display is an optoelectronic device contains molecules in an intermediate state between solid and liquid. In this work are showed numerical and experimental results of the azimuthal polarization states, which are used to optimize the pure-phase modulation of a Sony LCX038ARA LCD liquid crystal display for a linear polarized light beam with wavelength 632.8nm.

  6. Secondary indium production from end-of-life liquid crystal displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amato, Alessia; Rocchetti, Laura; Fonti, Viviana; Ruello, Maria Letizia; Beolchini, Francesca [Universita Politecnica of Marche, DISVA, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)


    In 2014, the European Union identified 20 raw materials critical for economic importance and high supply risk. Indium, used in several innovative technologies, is among such critical raw materials. Generally, it is mined as a by-product of zinc from a mineral named sphalerite, with a concentration between 1 and 100 ppm. Currently, the largest producer of indium is China and about 84% of the worldwide indium consumption is used for liquid crystal display (LCD) production, in particular to form an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film with transparent conductor properties. The fast evolution of LCD technologies caused a double effect: the growth of indium demand and an increase of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Considering these two factors, the aim of this study is to make the end-of-life LCDs a secondary indium resource. With this purpose, an indium recovery process was developed carrying out an acidic leaching, followed by a zinc cementation. The first step allowed a complete indium extraction using 2M sulfuric acid at 80 C for 10 min. The problem of low indium concentration in the scraps (around 150 ppm) was overcome using a cross-current configuration in the leaching phase that allowed an increase of metal concentration and a decrease of reagents consumption. An indium recovery higher than 90% was obtained in the final cementation step, using 5 g/L of zinc powder at pH 3 and 55 C for 10 min. Considering its high efficiency, this process is promising in a context of circular economy, where a waste becomes a resource. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, Patrick D.; Souza, João B.; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V.


    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I-parallel to/I-perpendicular to= 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  8. Assessment of Anisotropic Semiconductor Nanorod and Nanoplatelet Heterostructures with Polarized Emission for Liquid Crystal Display Technology. (United States)

    Cunningham, Patrick D; Souza, João B; Fedin, Igor; She, Chunxing; Lee, Byeongdu; Talapin, Dmitri V


    Semiconductor nanorods can emit linear-polarized light at efficiencies over 80%. Polarization of light in these systems, confirmed through single-rod spectroscopy, can be explained on the basis of the anisotropy of the transition dipole moment and dielectric confinement effects. Here we report emission polarization in macroscopic semiconductor-polymer composite films containing CdSe/CdS nanorods and colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets. Anisotropic nanocrystals dispersed in polymer films of poly butyl-co-isobutyl methacrylate (PBiBMA) can be stretched mechanically in order to obtain unidirectionally aligned arrays. A high degree of alignment, corresponding to an orientation factor of 0.87, was achieved and large areas demonstrated polarized emission, with the contrast ratio I∥/I⊥ = 5.6, making these films viable candidates for use in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices. To some surprise, we observed significant optical anisotropy and emission polarization for 2D CdSe nanoplatelets with the electronic structure of quantum wells. The aligned nanorod arrays serve as optical funnels, absorbing unpolarized light and re-emitting light from deep-green to red with quantum efficiencies over 90% and high degree of linear polarization. Our results conclusively demonstrate the benefits of anisotropic nanostructures for LCD backlighting. The polymer films with aligned CdSe/CdS dot-in-rod and rod-in-rod nanostructures show more than 2-fold enhancement of brightness compared to the emitter layers with randomly oriented nanostructures. This effect can be explained as the combination of linearly polarized luminescence and directional emission from individual nanostructures.

  9. UV durable colour pigment doped SmA liquid crystal composites for outdoor trans-reflective bi-stable displays (United States)

    Xu, H.; Davey, A. B.; Crossland, W. A.; Chu, D. P.


    High brightness trans-reflective bi-stable displays based on smectic A (SmA) liquid crystals (LCs) can have nearly perfect transparency in the clear state and very high reflection in the scattered state. Because the LC material in use is stable under UV radiation, this kind of displays can stand for strong day-light and therefore be ideal for outdoor applications from e-books to public signage and advertisement. However, the colour application has been limited because the traditional colourants in use are conventional dyes which are lack of UV stability and that their colours are easily photo bleached. Here we present a colour SmA display demonstrator using pigments as colourant. Mixing pigments with SmA LCs and maintain the desirable optical switching performance is not straightforward. We show here how it can be done, including how to obtain fine sized pigment nano-particles, the effects of particle size and size distribution on the display performance. Our optimized pigments/SmA compositions can be driven by a low frequency waveform (~101Hz) to a scattered state to exhibit colour while by a high frequency waveform (~103Hz) to a cleared state showing no colour. Finally, we will present its excellent UV life-time (at least performances are still to be fully understood. We hope this work will not only demonstrate a new and practical approach for outdoor reflective colour displays but also provide a new material system for fundamental liquid crystal colloid research work.

  10. Horizontally-aligned carbon nanotubes arrays and their interactions with liquid crystal molecules: Physical characteristics and display applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérick Roussel


    Full Text Available We report on the physical characteristics of horizonthally-grown Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (h-al-SWNT arrays and their potential use as transparent and conducting alignment layer for liquid crystals display devices. Microscopy (SEM and AFM, spectroscopic (Raman and electrical investigations demonstrate the strong anisotropy of h-al-SWNT arrays. Optical measurements show that h-al-SWNTs are efficient alignment layers for Liquid Crystal (LC molecules allowing the fabrication of optical wave plates. Interactions between h-al-SWNT arrays and LC molecules are also investigated evidencing the weak azimuthal anchoring energy at the interface, which, in turn, leads to LC devices with a high pretilt angle. The electro-optical reponses of h-al-SWNT/LC cells demonstrate that h-al-SWNT arrays are efficient nanostructured electrodes with potential use for the combined replacement of Indium Tin Oxyde and polymeric alignment layers in conventional displays.

  11. Japanese Competitiveness in Liquid Crystal Display Industry - Analysis of Causes of its Decline, and Proposal of "Core National Management" (Japanese)


    Nakata, Yukihiko


    The liquid crystal display (LCD) is an original technology that was essentially researched and developed by Japan. Therefore, Japan took the leadership and created and nurtured the LCD industry. However, South Korea and Taiwan also entered the market and in recent years both have overtaken Japan. But why has the decline of Japanese competitiveness happened? There has been a decline in competitiveness not only in the LCD industry but also in semiconductors and many other industries. In order t...

  12. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater. (United States)

    Lei, C N; Whang, L M; Lin, H L


    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. The total amount of wastewater from TFT-LCD manufacturing plants is expected to exceed 200,000 CMD in the near future. Typically, organic solvents used in TFT-LCD manufacturing processes account for more than 33% of the total TFT-LCD wastewater. The main components of these organic solvents are composed of the stripper (dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and monoethanolamine (MEA)), developer (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)) and chelating agents. These compounds are recognized as non-or slow-biodegradable organic compounds and little information is available regarding their biological treatability. In this study, the performance of an A/O SBR (anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactor) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater was evaluated. The long-term experimental results indicated that the A/O SBR was able to achieve stable and satisfactory removal performance for DMSO, MEA and TMAH at influent concentrations of 430, 800, and 190 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for all three compounds examined were more than 99%. In addition, batch tests were conducted to study the degradation kinetics of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The organic substrate of batch tests conducted included 400 mg/L of DMSO, 250 mg/L of MEA, and 120 mg/L of TMAH. For DMSO, specific DMSO degradation rates under aerobic and anoxic conditions were both lower than 4 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific DMSO degradation rate was estimated to be 14 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr, which was much higher than those obtained under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The optimum specific MEA and TMAH degradation rates were obtained under aerobic conditions with values of 26.5 mg MEA/g VSS-hr and 17.3 mg TMAH/g VSS

  13. Real-time analysis of dual-display phage immobilization and autoantibody screening using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. (United States)

    Rajaram, Kaushik; Losada-Pérez, Patricia; Vermeeren, Veronique; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Wagner, Patrick; Somers, Veerle; Michiels, Luc


    Over the last three decades, phage display technology has been used for the display of target-specific biomarkers, peptides, antibodies, etc. Phage display-based assays are mostly limited to the phage ELISA, which is notorious for its high background signal and laborious methodology. These problems have been recently overcome by designing a dual-display phage with two different end functionalities, namely, streptavidin (STV)-binding protein at one end and a rheumatoid arthritis-specific autoantigenic target at the other end. Using this dual-display phage, a much higher sensitivity in screening specificities of autoantibodies in complex serum sample has been detected compared to single-display phage system on phage ELISA. Herein, we aimed to develop a novel, rapid, and sensitive dual-display phage to detect autoantibodies presence in serum samples using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring as a sensing platform. The vertical functionalization of the phage over the STV-modified surfaces resulted in clear frequency and dissipation shifts revealing a well-defined viscoelastic signature. Screening for autoantibodies using antihuman IgG-modified surfaces and the dual-display phage with STV magnetic bead complexes allowed to isolate the target entities from complex mixtures and to achieve a large response as compared to negative control samples. This novel dual-display strategy can be a potential alternative to the time consuming phage ELISA protocols for the qualitative analysis of serum autoantibodies and can be taken as a departure point to ultimately achieve a point of care diagnostic system.

  14. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Feng; Weng, Ming-Hong


    This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs). The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA). The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors. PMID:28773889

  15. Compact Holographic Projection Display Using Liquid-Crystal-on-Silicon Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Hsu


    Full Text Available This paper presents a holographic projection display in which a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM performs three functions: beam shaping, image display, and speckle reduction. The functions of beam shaping and image display are performed by dividing the SLM window into four sub-windows loaded with different diffractive phase elements (DPEs. The DPEs are calculated using a modified iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA. The function of speckle reduction is performed using temporal integration of display images containing speckles. The speckle contrast ratio of the display image is 0.39 due to the integration of eight speckled images. The system can be extended to display full-color images also by using temporal addition of elementary color images. Because the system configuration needs only an SLM, a Fourier transform lens, and two mirrors, the system volume is very small, becoming a potential candidate for micro projectors.

  16. Directional backlight liquid crystal autostereoscopic display: technical challenges, research progress, and prospect (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Fan, Hang; Li, Kunyang; Zhou, Yangui; Liang, Haowen; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying


    Recent upsurge on virtual and augmented realities (VR and AR) has re-ignited the interest to the immerse display technology. The VR/AR technology based on stereoscopic display is believed in its early stage as glasses-free, or autostereoscopic display, will be ultimately adopted for the viewing convenience, visual comfort and for the multi-viewer purposes. On the other hand, autostereoscopic display has not yet received positive market response for the past years neither with stereoscopic displays using shutter or polarized glasses. We shall present the analysis on the real-world applications, rigid user demand, the drawbacks to the existing barrier- and lenticular lens-based LCD autostereoscopy. We shall emphasize the emerging autostereoscopic display, and notably on directional backlight LCD technology using a hybrid spatial- and temporal-control scenario. We report the numerical simulation of a display system using Monte-Carlo ray-tracing method with the human retina as the real image receiver. The system performance is optimized using newly developed figure of merit for system design. The reduced crosstalk in an autostereoscopic system, the enhanced display quality, including the high resolution received by the retina, the display homogeneity without Moiré- and defect-pattern, will be highlighted. Recent research progress including a novel scheme for diffraction-free backlight illumination, the expanded viewing zone for autostereoscopic display, and the novel Fresnel lens array to achieve a near perfect display in 2D/3D mode will be introduced. The experimental demonstration will be presented to the autostereoscopic display with the highest resolution, low crosstalk, Moiré- and defect- pattern free.

  17. Metal-induced crystallization fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zumin; Mittemeijer, Eric J


    Introduction to Metal-Induced CrystallizationAtomic Mechanisms and Interface Thermodynamics of Metal-Induced Crystallization of Amorphous Semiconductors at Low TemperaturesThermodynamics and Kinetics of Layer Exchange upon Low-Temperature Annealing Amorphous Si/Polycrystalline Al Layered StructuresMetal-Induced Crystallization by Homogeneous Insertion of Metallic Species in Amorphous SemiconductorsAluminum-Induced Crystallization: Applications in Photovoltaic TechnologiesApplications of Metal-Induced Crystallization for Advanced Flat-Panel DisplaysLaser-Assisted Meta

  18. Depth-enhanced integral imaging display system with electrically variable image planes using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal layers. (United States)

    Kim, Yunhee; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Joohwan; Cho, Seong-Woo; Kim, Youngmin; Park, Gilbae; Lee, Byoungho


    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system with electrically variable image planes is proposed. For implementing the variable image planes, polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal (PDLC) films and a projector are adopted as a new display system in the integral imaging. Since the transparencies of PDLC films are electrically controllable, we can make each film diffuse the projected light successively with a different depth from the lens array. As a result, the proposed method enables control of the location of image planes electrically and enhances the depth. The principle of the proposed method is described, and experimental results are also presented.

  19. Expanding color gamut of reflective liquid crystal displays from filtering undesirable wavelengths of a light source by an embedded etalon. (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Cheng, Ko-Ting


    This work demonstrates a method to reduce the intensity of the undesirable wavelengths of blue (B-) and green (G-) ambient lights to expand the color gamut of reflective liquid crystal displays (LCDs) by an embedded etalon. The built-in reflector of the reflective LCDs is replaced by the blue-green overlapping wavelengths filtering etalon, which is used to reduce the intensity of undesirable B- and G-primaries, thereby decreasing the color cross talk of B- and G-color filters. After etalon adoption, the color gamut can be expanded from 105.96% to 121.81% of National Television System Committee (NTSC) in International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1976 color space. Compared with the color gamut of the display without the blue-green overlapping wavelength etalon, the maximum expansion of color gamut is ∼15.85%. Moreover, the balance between light loss and color gamut expansion should be taken into consideration.

  20. Reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display possessing low power consumption and high contrast ratio under ambient light. (United States)

    Kim, Taehyung; Lee, Joong Ha; Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Choi, Suk-Won


    We propose a reflective dual-mode liquid crystal display (RD-LCD) which has advantages of long memory retention time and high contrast ratio. The proposed device adopts ideal bistable characteristics, a cell thickness over pitch (d/p) of 0.25. It can realize long memory retention time, thereby reducing power consumption. In addition, an optical configuration for the RD-LCD makes low light leakages at dark state and shows good dispersion characteristics in both dark and bright states over the entire visible ranges. We experimentally confirmed retention time over 6 months in memory mode and memory and dynamic contrast ratios of 47:1 and 43:1 under ambient light, respectively. As a result, the proposed RD-LCD demonstrates convincingly that it is a candidate for green display.

  1. Effects of personal experiences on the interpretation of the meaning of colours used in the displays and controls in electric control panels. (United States)

    Lee, Inseok; Hwang, Won-Gue


    A survey was conducted to examine how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the meaning of display and control colours on electric control panels (ECPs). In Korea, the red light on ECPs represents a normal state of operation, while the green light represents a stopped state of operation; this appears to contradict the general stereotypes surrounding these colours. The survey results indicated that the participants who had experience in using ECPs interpreted the colour meaning differently from the other participant group. More than half of the experienced participants regarded the coloured displays and controls as they were designed, while most participants in the other group appeared to interpret the colours in accordance with the stereotypes. It is presumed that accidents related to human errors can occur when non-experienced people use the ECPs, which are easily accessible in many buildings. Practitioner Summary: A survey was conducted to investigate how personal experiences affect the interpretation of the function meanings of coloured lights on electrical control panels. It was found that the interpretation varies according to personal experiences, which can induce accidents related to human errors while operating electrical equipment.

  2. Integral imaging-based large-scale full-color 3-D display of holographic data by using a commercial LCD panel. (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Bin; Ai, Ling-Yu; Kim, Eun-Soo


    We propose a new type of integral imaging-based large-scale full-color three-dimensional (3-D) display of holographic data based on direct ray-optical conversion of holographic data into elemental images (EIs). In the proposed system, a 3-D scene is modeled as a collection of depth-sliced object images (DOIs), and three-color hologram patterns for that scene are generated by interfering each color DOI with a reference beam, and summing them all based on Fresnel convolution integrals. From these hologram patterns, full-color DOIs are reconstructed, and converted into EIs using a ray mapping-based direct pickup process. These EIs are then optically reconstructed to be a full-color 3-D scene with perspectives on the depth-priority integral imaging (DPII)-based 3-D display system employing a large-scale LCD panel. Experiments with a test video confirm the feasibility of the proposed system in the practical application fields of large-scale holographic 3-D displays.

  3. Power generating reflective-type liquid crystal displays using a reflective polariser and a polymer solar cell. (United States)

    Ho Huh, Yoon; Park, Byoungchoo


    We herein report the results of a study of a power generating reflective-type liquid crystal display (LCD), composed of a 90° twisted nematic (TN) LC cell attached to the top of a light-absorbing polymer solar cell (PSC), i.e., a Solar-LCD. The PSC consisted of a polymer bulk-heterojunction photovoltaic (PV) layer of poly[[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2,7-diyl]-2,5-thiophenediyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl-2,5-thiophenediyl] and [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCDTBT:PCBM70), and showed a high power conversion efficiency of about 5%. In order to improve the visibility of the Solar-LCD, between the TN-LC and the PV cells we inserted a reflective polariser of a giant birefringent optical (GBO) film. The reflectivity from the Solar-LCD was observed to be considerably increased by more than 13-15% under illumination by visible light. The Solar-LCD also exhibited a significantly improved contrast ratio of more than 17-19. We believe there is a clear case for using such Solar-LCDs in new power-generating reflective-type displays; taken as a whole these results also demonstrate the possibility of their application in a number of energy-harvesting opto-electrical display devices.

  4. Improvement of the Response Time of Super Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal Displays by Using a Backlight System (United States)

    Hirakata, Jun-ichi; Shingai, Akira; Ono, Kikuo; Kawabe, Kazuyoshi; Furuhashi, Tsutomu


    To enable application to full moving images, the response time of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) must be improved. In this paper, we will discuss our results of improving the response time using the blink backlight system. When the display image changes from black to white, the lamp turns on after the rise of the LCD response. On the other hand, when the display image changes from white to black, the lamp turns off before the LCD response falls. The total response time of the super thin film transistor (TFT)-LCD was improved from 25 ms to 8 ms, which corresponded to the lamp response time. Moreover, the response time was dependent on the fluorescence wavelength of the lamp material. The blue fluorescent lamp (CFL) material has the fastest response time, 2 ms. If the response time of green and red fluorescent materials can be improved similarly to the blue one, it will be possible to obtain a moving picture quality comparable to that of a cathode-ray tube.

  5. Bimesogenic liquid crystals: new materials for high-performance photonics devices and displays (United States)

    Coles, Harry J.


    We describe wide temperature range new bimesogenic nematic liquid crystals with high flexoelectro-optic coefficients (e/K),of the order of 1.5- 2.0 CN -1 m -1, high switching angles, > 100° and microsecond response times which may be used to give gray scale devices in both the ULH texture, with an optimum optical in plane switch of 45° at fields of 4Vμm -1 or less, and in the USH or Grandjean texture (with a unique optically isotropic "field off" black state and contrast ratios of > 1000:1), using "in plane" electric fields, with switching times of the order of 20μs. The new materials and devices give μs level to level switching and the real potential for colour filter free frame sequential colour switching. New highly reflective Blue Phase devices, stable over a 50°C temperature range, in which an electric field is used to switch the reflection from red to green, for example, will be described. Full RGB reflections may be obtained with switching times of a few milliseconds. Finally we will briefly mention potential applications including high efficiency RGB liquid crystal laser sources.

  6. Ultrafast switching liquid crystals for next-generation transmissive and reflective displays (United States)

    Coles, H. J.; Morris, S. M.; Choi, S. S.; Castles, F.


    We describe wide temperature range bimesogenic chiral nematic liquid crystals with high flexoelectro-optic coefficients (e/K),of the order of 2.0 CN-1 m-1, high switching angles, > 160° and 50-100μs response times, which may be used to give gray scale devices in both the ULH texture, with an optimum optical in plane switch of 45° at fields of 2Vμm-1 depending on helix pitch and suitable for LCoS devices, and in the USH or Grandjean texture with a unique optically isotropic "field off" black state and contrast ratios of > 5000:1, using "in plane" electric fields, with switching times of the order of 200μs. The new materials and devices give μs level to level switching and the real potential for colour filter free frame sequential colour switching. Highly reflective Blue Phase devices, stable over a 90°C temperature range, in which an electric field is used to switch the reflection from red to green, for example, will be described. Full RGB reflections may be obtained with switching times of a few milliseconds. New surface and volume activated reflecting N* Grandjean texture devices will also be described. Visible wavelength shifts of ~100nm are reported. These are activated by so called "command" surfaces or nanoscopic ferroelectric inclusions and conventional transverse electric fields. Finally we will briefly mention potential applications including high efficiency RGB liquid crystal laser sources.

  7. Generalized nematohydrodynamic boundary conditions with application to bistable twisted nematic liquid-crystal displays

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Angbo


    Parallel to the highly successful Ericksen-Leslie hydrodynamic theory for the bulk behavior of nematic liquid crystals (NLCs), we derive a set of coupled hydrodynamic boundary conditions to describe the NLC dynamics near NLC-solid interfaces. In our boundary conditions, translational flux (flow slippage) and rotational flux (surface director relaxation) are coupled according to the Onsager variational principle of least energy dissipation. The application of our boundary conditions to the truly bistable π -twist NLC cell reveals a complete picture of the dynamic switching processes. It is found that the thus far overlooked translation-rotation dissipative coupling at solid surfaces can accelerate surface director relaxation and enhance the flow rate. This can be utilized to improve the performance of electro-optical nematic devices by lowering the required switching voltages and reducing the switching times. © 2008 The American Physical Society.

  8. Embedded LTPS flash cells with oxide-nitride-oxynitride stack structure for realization of multi-function mobile flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sungwook; Kim, Jaehong; Son, Hyukjoo; Jang, Kyungsoo; Cho, Jaehyun; Kim, Kyunghae; Choi, Byoungdeog; Yi, Junsin [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail:


    In this paper, embedded flash (eFlash) cells were fabricated for realization of multi-functions, such as systems on panels (SOPs) and threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) stabilization of flat panel displays (FPDs). Fabrication was via low temperature polycrystalline silicon (LTPS) thin film transistor (TFT) technology and an oxide-nitride-oxynitride (ONOn) stack structure on glass. Poly-silicon (poly-Si) on glass, which was annealed via an excimer laser, has a very rough surface. To fabricate LTPS eFlash cells on glass with a very rough poly-Si surface, plasma-assisted oxynitridation was performed; nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) served as a reactive gas. LTPS eFlash cells have excellent TFT electrical properties, such as V{sub TH}, a high On/Off current ratio and a low sub-threshold swing (S). The results demonstrate that eFlash cells fabricated on glass with a rough silicon surface, via an ONOn stack structure, have switching characteristics suitable for data storage, such as a low operating voltage (<{+-}10 V) suitable for mobile FPDs, a threshold voltage window, {delta}V{sub TH}, which exceeds 2.3 V, between the programming and erasing (P/E) states, over a period of 10 years, and the capacity to retain the initial {delta}V{sub TH} over a period of 10{sup 5} P/E operations. (fast track communication)

  9. Multipoint phase calibration for improved compensation of inherent wavefront distortion in parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays. (United States)

    Otón, Joaquín; Ambs, Pierre; Millán, María S; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet


    The inherent distortion of a reflective parallel aligned spatial light modulator (SLM) may need compensation not only for the backplane curvature but also for other possible nonuniformities caused by thickness variations of the liquid crystal layer across the aperture. First, we build a global look-up table (LUT) of phase modulation versus the addressed gray level for the whole device aperture. Second, when a lack of spatial uniformity is observed, we define a grid of cells onto the SLM aperture and develop a multipoint calibration. The relative phase variations between neighboring cells for a uniform gray level lead us to build a multi-LUT for improved compensation. Multipoint calibration can be done using either phase-shift interferometry or Fourier diffraction pattern analysis of binary phase gratings. Experimental results show the compensation progress in diffractive optical elements displayed on two SLMs.

  10. Development of Highly Soluble Anthraquinone Dichroic Dyes and Their Application to Three-Layer Guest-Host Liquid Crystal Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Iwanaga


    Full Text Available The relationships between molecular structures and properties of anthraquinone dichroic dyes were studied and dyes with large solubilities and dichroic ratios were developed. The yellow anthraquinone dye behaves as a quencher of the coumarin dye, and the mixture has a large absorption coefficient without fluorescence. These technologies can enlarge the color reproduction area of three-layer guest-host liquid crystal displays (GHLCDs 1.6-fold. The performances of the prototype reflective three-layer GH-LCDs are as follows: the white state luminous reflectance is 43% and the contrast is 5.3, indicating that they are promising candidates for portable information systems with full-color images.

  11. Self-passivated copper as a gate electrode in a poly-Si thin film transistor liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, G. S.; Soh, H. S.; Lee, W. H.; Lee, J. G.


    Self-passivated copper as a gate electrode in the form of TiO/Cu/TiO/TiN/SiO{sub 2} has been obtained by annealing Cu/Ti/TiN/SiO{sub 2}. The thickness of Ti in Cu/TiTiN was optimized at 150 Aa by forming an 80 Aa continuous TiO film on the outer surface of the Cu. The multilayer of SiO{sub 2}/TiO/Cu/TiO/TiN/SiO{sub 2} showed stable electrical passivating properties against Cu diffusion into the top or bottom SiO{sub 2}. Consequently, self-passivated copper has secured the dielectric properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition SiO{sub 2} and can be utilized as a gate electrode in low temperature poly-Si thin film transistor liquid crystal displays without sacrificing the low resistivity of Cu. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Conducting polymers as driving electrodes for Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystals display devices: on the electro-optical efficiency. (United States)

    Roussel, F; Chan-Yu-King, R; Buisine, J-M


    Intrinsically conducting polymer (ICP) thin films are used as driving electrodes for Polymer-Dispersed Liquid-Crystals (PDLC) display devices. In order to investigate the electro-optical efficiency of these organic electrodes, three different kinds of conducting polymers, i.e. polyaniline doped with 10-camphorsulfonic acid (PANI(HCSA)), polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (PPY(DBSA)), and polyethylenedioxythiophene doped with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT(PSS)), were prepared or purchased, and coated either on glass or plastic substrates. Optical absorption studies in the UV-Vis range of the conducting polymer-coated substrates were first performed showing the presence of conducting species for the three types of polymers. The electrical characteristics of the resulting films were measured with the four-probes technique. PANI(HCSA) exhibits a higher conductivity sigma approximately 122 S x cm(-1) (RS=1.2x10(3) Omega x (-1)) compared to PPY(DBSA) sigma approximately 2.6 S x cm(-1) (RS=150.7x10(3) Omega x (-1)), and PEDOT(PSS) sigma approximately 1.6 S x cm(-1) (RS=637.3x10(3) Omega x (-1)). It is also shown that for a given conducting polymer, its electrical conductivity decreases when a plastic substrate is used. These observations have been related to significant morphological changes observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A mixture of Norland Optical Adhesive 65 and nematic liquid-crystal E7 in the weight ratio (35:65) was used as precursor of the PDLC material. Better electro-optical responses (transmission properties, drive voltages and switching times) of PDLC films were obtained for devices prepared with (PPY(DBSA))-based electrodes. The electro-optical performances of the PDLC display devices also depend on the nature of the ICP substrate used.

  13. Crystal Structures of Human SIRT[subscript 3] Displaying Substrate-induced Conformational Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Lei; Wei, Wentao; Jiang, Yaobin; Peng, Hao; Cai, Jianhua; Mao, Chen; Dai, Han; Choy, Wendy; Bemis, Jean E.; Jirousek, Michael R.; Milne, Jill C.; Westphal, Christoph H.; Perni, Robert B.; (Viva Biotech); (Medicilon); (GSK)


    SIRT3 is a major mitochondrial NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase playing important roles in regulating mitochondrial metabolism and energy production and has been linked to the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction. SIRT3 is emerging as a potential therapeutic target to treat metabolic and neurological diseases. We report the first sets of crystal structures of human SIRT3, an apo-structure with no substrate, a structure with a peptide containing acetyl lysine of its natural substrate acetyl-CoA synthetase 2, a reaction intermediate structure trapped by a thioacetyl peptide, and a structure with the dethioacetylated peptide bound. These structures provide insights into the conformational changes induced by the two substrates required for the reaction, the acetylated substrate peptide and NAD+. In addition, the binding study by isothermal titration calorimetry suggests that the acetylated peptide is the first substrate to bind to SIRT3, before NAD{sup +}. These structures and biophysical studies provide key insight into the structural and functional relationship of the SIRT3 deacetylation activity.

  14. Light Wave Coupled Flat Panel Displays and Solid-State Lighting Using Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Materials (United States)

    Steckl, Andrew J.; Heikenfeld, Jason; Allen, Steven C.


    We present a review of light-emitting materials and devices that combine inorganic and organic lumophores and hosts. The essence of this hybrid inorganic/organic (I/O) approach is to combine materials, structures and devices from each category in such a way as to obtain best-of-both-worlds performance. The combination of high power/high efficiency inorganic light pump sources with high conversion efficiency organic lumophores is discussed in detail. In this type of Hybrid I/O device, near-ultraviolet (UV) or blue pump light is selectively converted to various visible colors based on the molecular structure of each lumophore. Since the lumophores are optically pumped their reliability is greatly increased compared to electrically pumped organic emitters. Methods for coupling the light from pumps to lumophores include direct path excitation (DPE) and light wave coupling (LWC). DPE uses one pump per lumophore pixel, which allows for active matrix style addressing, but requires large arrays of pumps. LWC uses either a single source or a small number of pump sources. To obtain pixelation for Hybrid I/O LWC devices we have developed a novel electrowetting switching method. Examples of Hybrid I/O displays and solid-state lighting are discussed.

  15. Development of a T7 Phage Display Library to Detect Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis by a Panel of Novel Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvinder Talwar


    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease, diagnosed through tissue biopsy of involved organs in the absence of other causes such as tuberculosis (TB. No specific serologic test is available to diagnose and differentiate sarcoidosis from TB. Using a high throughput method, we developed a T7 phage display cDNA library derived from mRNA isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells and leukocytes of sarcoidosis patients. This complex cDNA library was biopanned to obtain 1152 potential sarcoidosis antigens and a microarray was constructed to immunoscreen two different sets of sera from healthy controls and sarcoidosis. Meta-analysis identified 259 discriminating sarcoidosis antigens, and multivariate analysis identified 32 antigens with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83% to classify sarcoidosis from healthy controls. Additionally, interrogating the same microarray platform with sera from subjects with TB, we identified 50 clones that distinguish between TB, sarcoidosis and healthy controls. The top 10 sarcoidosis and TB specific clones were sequenced and homologies were searched in the public database revealing unique epitopes and mimotopes in each group. Here, we show for the first time that immunoscreenings of a library derived from sarcoidosis tissue differentiates between sarcoidosis and tuberculosis antigens. These novel biomarkers can improve diagnosis of sarcoidosis and TB, and may aid to develop or evaluate a TB vaccine.

  16. Improvement of Image Sticking in Liquid Crystal Display Doped with γ-Fe2O3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Ye


    Full Text Available Image sticking in thin film transistor-liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD is related to the dielectric property of liquid crystal (LC material. Low threshold value TFT LC materials have a weak stability and the free ions in them will be increased because of their own decomposition. In this study, the property of TFT LC material MAT-09-1284 doped with γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was investigated. The capacitances of parallel-aligned nematic LC cells and vertically aligned nematic LC cells with different doping concentrations were measured at different temperatures and frequencies. The dielectric constants perpendicular and parallel to long axis of the LC molecules ε⊥ and ε//, as well as the dielectric anisotropy Δε, were obtained. The dynamic responses and the direct current threshold voltages in parallel-aligned nematic LC cells for different doping concentrations were also measured. Although the dielectric anisotropy Δε decreased gradually with increasing temperature and frequency at the certain frequency and temperature in LC state for each concentration, the doping concentration of γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles less than or equal to 0.145 wt % should be selected for maintaining dynamic response and decreasing free ions. This study has some guiding significance for improving the image sticking in TFT-LCD.

  17. Identification of a panel of tumor-associated antigens from breast carcinoma cell lines, solid tumors and testis cDNA libraries displayed on lambda phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfriglia Maurizio


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecular definition of immunogenic tumor proteins based on their reactivity with autologous patient sera (SEREX. Methods Several high complexity phage-displayed cDNA libraries from breast carcinomas, human testis and breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 were constructed. The cDNAs were expressed in the libraries as fusion to bacteriophage lambda protein D. Lambda-displayed libraries were efficiently screened with sera from patients with breast cancer. Results A panel of 21 clones representing 18 different antigens, including eight proteins of unknown function, was identified. Three of these antigens (T7-1, T11-3 and T11-9 were found to be overexpressed in tumors as compared to normal breast. A serological analysis of the 21 different antigens revealed a strong cancer-related profile for at least five clones (T6-2, T6-7, T7-1, T9-21 and T9-27. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that patient serum reactivity against five of the antigens is associated with tumor disease. The novel T7-1 antigen, which is overexpressed in breast tumors and recognized specifically by breast cancer patient sera, is potentially useful in cancer diagnosis.

  18. Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal grating applied within image splitter for autostereoscopic display (United States)

    Zheng, Jihong; Wang, Kangni; Gao, Hui; Lu, Feiyue; Sun, Lijia; Zhuang, Songlin


    Multi-wavelength sensitive holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystal (H-PDLC) grating and its application within image splitter for autostereoscopic display are reported in this paper. Two initiator systems consisting of photoinitiator, Methylene Blue and coinitiator, p-toluenesulfonic acid as well as photoinitiator, Rose Bengal and coinitiator, Nphenylglycine are employed. We demonstrate that Bragg gratings can be formed in this syrup polymerized under three lasers simultaneously including 632.8nm from He-Ne laser, 532nm from Verdi solid state laser, and 441.6nm from He- Cd laser. The diffraction efficiency of three kinds of gratings with different exposure wavelength are 57%, 75% and 33%, respectively. The threshold driving voltages of those gratings are 2.8, 3.05, and 2.85 V/μm, respectively. We also present the results for the feasibility of this proposed H-PDLC grating applied into image splitter without color dispersion for autostereoscopic display according to experimental splitting effect.

  19. LCD Panels: Vivid Presentations Using Your Overhead Projector and Your Computer. (United States)

    National Audio-Visual Supply, East Rutherford, NJ.

    Designed to help create effective presentations using liquid crystal display (LCD) panels, this guide contains the basic information on LCD panels, as well as suggestions on when, where and how to best use them, presented in a step-by-step procedure format. Seven topics are addressed in the guide: (1) eight steps to a successful meeting…

  20. Electrophoresis Gel Quantification with a Flatbed Scanner and Versatile Lighting from a Screen Scavenged from a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Monitor (United States)

    Yeung, Brendan; Ng, Tuck Wah; Tan, Han Yen; Liew, Oi Wah


    The use of different types of stains in the quantification of proteins separated on gels using electrophoresis offers the capability of deriving good outcomes in terms of linear dynamic range, sensitivity, and compatibility with specific proteins. An inexpensive, simple, and versatile lighting system based on liquid crystal display backlighting is…

  1. Global characterization of nematic liquid crystal display Sony LCX038ARA with applied electric field in the modulation amplitude-coupled regime (United States)

    Cuevas Cely, C. J.; Acevedo Cáceres, C. H.; Torres Moreno, Y.


    In this work, we showed experimental and theoretical results of the characterization of a spatial light modulator based in a nematic liquid crystal display Sony model LCX038ARA with electric field excitation. The parameters: effective molecular twist and equivalent retardation are determinated using the retarder-rotor technique in the amplitude-coupled regime.

  2. New Formation Technology of Plasma Display Panel Barrier-Rib Structure Using Silicone Rubber Mold Transferred from SU-8 Master Structure (United States)

    Son, Seung-Hyun; Park, Yong-Suk; Choi, Sie-Young


    A new formation technology for a plasma display panel (PDP) barrier-rib structure is presented to realize a barrier rib with a high aspect ratio and reduce the manufacturing cost. In this study, we used an SU-8 50 photoresist, which is sensitive to UV irradiation, instead of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which is sensitive to X-ray irradiation, so that the silicone rubber mold could be applicable to a large-area PDP. The first step is to produce an SU-8 master structure using amorphous silicon as an adhesion layer between a glass substrate and SU-8 photoresist. Second, a precise soft mold is manufactured for mass replication of the PDP barrier-rib construction, by molding liquid silicone rubber onto the glass substrate with lithographically defined SU-8 master structures. Third, a PDP barrier-rib structure is formed using the pattern-transferring process with a reusable silicone rubber mold. This is a very simple and inexpensive process consisting with printing of barrier-rib paste, drying, pattern-transferring, and sintering. The pattern-transferring process with a soft mold also demonstrates that the disadvantages of the conventional mold pressing process with a hard mold can be overcome. Consequently, by using the pattern-transferring process with the silicone rubber mold transferred from the SU-8 master structure, the desired barrier-rib shapes can be realized with a high aspect ratio and various dimensions.

  3. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and kidney dysfunction in thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) workers. (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Bao, Bo-Ying


    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted during the manufacturing of thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCDs), exposure to some of which has been reported to be associated with kidney dysfunction, but whether such an effect exists in TFT-LCD industry workers is unknown. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the association between exposure to VOCs and kidney dysfunction among TFT-LCD workers. The results showed that ethanol (1811.0+/-1740.4 ppb), acetone (669.0+/-561.0 ppb), isopropyl alcohol (187.0+/-205.3 ppb) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) (102.9+/-102.0 ppb) were the four dominant VOCs present in the workplace. The 63 array workers studied had a risk of kidney dysfunction 3.21-fold and 3.84-fold that of 61 cell workers and 18 module workers, respectively. Workers cumulatively exposed to a total level of isopropyl alcohol, PGMEA and propylene glycol monomethyl ether> or =324 ppb-year had a significantly higher risk of kidney dysfunction (adjusted OR=3.41, 95% CI=1.14-10.17) compared with those exposed to LCD industry, and cumulative exposure to specific VOCs might be associated with kidney dysfunction. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Leaching of indium from obsolete liquid crystal displays: comparing grinding with electrical disintegration in context of LCA. (United States)

    Dodbiba, Gjergj; Nagai, Hiroki; Wang, Li Pang; Okaya, Katsunori; Fujita, Toyohisa


    In order to develop an effective recycling system for obsolete Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs), which would enable both the leaching of indium (In) and the recovery of a pure glass fraction for recycling, an effective liberation or size-reduction method would be an important pre-treatment step. Therefore, in this study, two different types of liberation methods: (1) conventional grinding, and (2) electrical disintegration have been tested and evaluated in the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). In other words, the above-mentioned methods were compared in order to find out the one that ensures the highest leaching capacity for indium, as well as the lowest environmental burden. One of the main findings of this study was that the electrical disintegration was the most effective liberation method, since it fully liberated the indium containing-layer, ensuring a leaching capacity of 968.5mg-In/kg-LCD. In turn, the estimate for the environmental burden was approximately five times smaller when compared with the conventional grinding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over C and method of fabrication (United States)

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Havens, John; Jones, Phil


    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

  6. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200 C and method of fabrication (United States)

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Havens, J.H.; Jones, P.


    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100 C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired. 12 figs.

  7. Design of 1-μm-pitch liquid crystal spatial light modulators having dielectric shield wall structure for holographic display with wide field of view (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo


    In the development of electronic holographic displays with a wide field of view, one issue is the realization of 1-μm-pitch spatial light modulators (SLMs) using liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) techniques. We clarified that it is necessary to suppress not only the leakage of fringe electric fields from adjacent pixels but also the effect of elastic forces in the liquid crystal to achieve full-phase modulation (2 π) in individual pixels. We proposed a novel LCOS-SLM with a dielectric shield wall structure, and achieved driving of individual 1-μm-pitch pixels. We also investigated the optimum values for width and dielectric constant of the wall structure when enlarging the area that can modulate light in the pixels. These results contribute to the design of 1-μm-pitch LCOS-SLM devices for wide-viewing-angle holographic displays.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov


    Full Text Available We consider evaluation problem of chromaticity coordinates increment for an image displayed by indicating means (liquid crystal panels and etc.. Display device profile set by the weight matrix for components of primary colors serves as basic data for quantitative calculation. Research results have the form of mathematical expressions allowing calculation of increment values of chromaticity coordinates of the image displayed on indicating means and histograms of increment distribution.

  9. Crystal structure of the Ig1 domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 displays domain swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kim Krighaar; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole


    The crystal structure of the first immunoglobulin (Ig1) domain of neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM) is presented at a resolution of 2.7 A. NCAM2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs). In the structure, two Ig domains interact by domain...

  10. Double-layered liquid crystal light shutter for control of absorption and scattering of the light incident to a transparent display device (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Yu, Byeong-Hun; Shin, Dong-Myung; Yoon, Tae-Hoon


    Recently, a transparent display has got much attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, active studies on a transparent display using organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are in progress. However, since it is not possible to obtain black color using a transparent OLED, it suffers from poor visibility. This inevitable problem can be solved by using a light shutter. Light shutter technology can be divided into two types; light absorption and scattering. However, a light shutter based on light absorption cannot block the background image perfectly and a light shutter based on light scattering cannot provide black color. In this work we demonstrate a light shutter using two liquid crystal (LC) layers, a light absorption layer and a light scattering layer. To realize a light absorption layer and a light scattering layer, we use the planar state of a dye-doped chiral nematic LC (CNLC) cell and the focal-conic state of a long-pitch CNLC cell, respectively. The proposed light shutter device can block the background image perfectly and show black color. We expect that the proposed light shutter can increase the visibility of a transparent display.

  11. Multipoint phase calibration for improved compensation of inherent wavefront distortion in parallel aligned liquid crystal on silicon displays


    Otón, Joaquín; Ambs, Pierre; María S. Millán; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet


    International audience; The inherent distortion of a reflective parallel aligned spatial light modulator (SLM) may need compensation not only for the backplane curvature but also for other possible nonuniformities caused by thickness variations of the liquid crystal layer across the aperture. First, we build a global look-up table (LUT) of phase modulation versus the addressed gray level for the whole device aperture. Second, when a lack of spatial uniformity is observed, we define a grid of ...

  12. A comparison of the suitability of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as visual stimulators in mfERG diagnostics. (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Christoph; Horn, Folkert K; Kremers, Jan; Juenemann, Anselm


    The aim of this study was to determine up to which extent the specific characteristics of cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors influence the retinal biosignal when used as stimulators in ocular electrophysiology. In a conventional CRT monitor, each pixel lights up only for a duration of a few milliseconds during each frame. In contrast, liquid crystal displays are quasi-static, i.e. each pixel has a constant luminance during the whole length of the frame, but lights up only with a certain delay after the trigger. These different display characteristics may affect the mfERG signal. The temporal and spatial luminance distributions of a CRT and an LCD monitor were measured in white flashes. The total amount of emitted light was calculated by integration of the intensity versus time curves. By means of an mfERG recording system (RETIsystem, Roland Consult, Brandenburg, Germany) first-order kernel (FOK) mfERG signals were computed and then analysed using customized MATLAB (TheMathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) software. With the two stimulator monitors, differences in the mfERG signal were observed. The latencies of mfERG responses recorded with the LCD monitor were significantly increased by 7.1 ms for N1 and 9.5 ms for P1 compared to the CRT. Due to a higher luminance, the N1 amplitude was significantly higher by approx. 2 dB in measurements with the LCD monitor while no significant difference could be detected with regard to the more contrast sensitive P1 amplitude. When using LCD monitors as stimulators the increase in latencies and differences in the luminance versus time profile must be taken into account. Prior to clinical application, the establishment of guidelines for the use of LCD monitors is recommended.

  13. Electro-opto-thermal addressing bistable and re-addressable display device based on gelator-doped liquid crystals in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) film-coated liquid crystal cell. (United States)

    Cheng, Ko-Ting; Tang, Yi; Liu, Cheng-Kai


    This paper reports an electro-opto-thermal addressing bistable and re-addressable display device based on gelator-doped liquid crystals (LCs) in a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) film-coated LC cell. The bistability and re-addressability of the devices were achieved through the formation of a rubbery LC/gel mixture at room temperature. The desired patterns were addressed, erased, and re-addressed by controlling the temperature, applied voltage, and UV light illumination. Moreover, grayscales were obtained by adjusting UV light intensity. The initiation, relaxation, rise, and fall times of photoconductive poly(N-vinylcarbazole) via UV light illumination of various intensities were also examined.

  14. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution]. (United States)

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi


    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (pLCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  15. The effect of UV intensities and curing time on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) display: A detailed analysis study (United States)

    Ahmad, Farzana; Jamil, Muhammad; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Seo Rok; Jeon, Young Jae


    In current study polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films whose composition based on nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and prepolymeric NOA65 were formed via the photo induced phase separation method, in a wide intensity range of the UV light ( I = 0.33-1.8 mW/cm2) and curing duration ( t = 120-600 sec). The PDLC characteristics were monitored by surface morphology, electro optical studies, as well as by phase separation process through measuring the FTIR absorption of the composite layers. Increase of curing light intensity accelerates the phase separation and drastically influences the final morphology of LC droplets inside PDLCs. Likewise by widening the curing duration the enhancement in phase separation was observed. Increase of light intensity from 0.89 mW/cm2 and duration t = 120-240 sec resulted into transition from large LC domains of irregular shape (due to aggregation of droplets) to fine mono dispersed LC droplets. This morphology caused increase in optical scattering on zero voltage and high driving voltage. However unexpectedly, this response was not directly related with the curing conditions (intensity and time). These findings extend the potential applications of thiol-ene based PDLCs.

  16. Crystal structure of the Ig1 domain of the neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM2 displays domain swapping. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kim K; Kulahin, Nikolaj; Kristensen, Ole; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Sigurskjold, Bent W; Kastrup, Jette S; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; Walmod, Peter S; Gajhede, Michael


    The crystal structure of the first immunoglobulin (Ig1) domain of neural cell adhesion molecule 2 (NCAM2/OCAM/RNCAM) is presented at a resolution of 2.7 A. NCAM2 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules (IgCAMs). In the structure, two Ig domains interact by domain swapping, as the two N-terminal beta-strands are interchanged. beta-Strand swapping at the terminal domain is the accepted mechanism of homophilic interactions amongst the cadherins, another class of CAMs, but it has not been observed within the IgCAM superfamily. Gel-filtration chromatography demonstrated the ability of NCAM2 Ig1 to form dimers in solution. Taken together, these observations suggest that beta-strand swapping could have a role in the molecular mechanism of homophilic binding for NCAM2.

  17. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason


    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  18. Electro-optical properties of liquid crystal displays based on the transparent zinc oxide films treated by using a rubbing method (United States)

    Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Eun-Mi; Heo, Gi-Seok; Jeong, Hae-Chang; Lee, Ju Hwan; Han, Jeong-Min; Kim, Tae Wan; Seo, Dae-Shik


    Liquid crystal (LC) alignment on inorganic films has been found to be affected by surface modification via ion-beam irradiation. In this study, ZnO films treated by rubbing with a velvet cloth were shown to be capable of aligning LC molecules in the direction of the rubbing. Uniform and homogeneous LC alignment was achieved on the rubbed ZnO films. By analysing the optical axes before and after the rubbing treatment, we confirmed an increase in the anisotropy of the ZnO films; this optical anisotropy contributed to the uniform orientation of LC molecules. Further, the electro-optical characteristics of the twisted nematic cells based on ZnO films were superior to those based on conventional polyimide layers. Our results indicate that the rubbing approach could be applied in the fabrication of high-performance LC displays.

  19. Fabrication of thin copper mesh for electromagnetic interference of display panel by pulse reverse current method and study on the microstructure by small angle neutron scattering (United States)

    Kim, Man; Lee, Joo-Yul; Choi, Yong


    A copper sheet with mesh was mass-produced by continuously combining three techniques, electroforming with pulse-reverse current, transfer technique onto a transparent polyimide (PI) film and oxidation processes. Thiourea as an organic additive in a modified copper sulfate bath changes the reduction potentials of copper complexes, which results in effectively controlling the crystal orientation, surface roughness and microstructure of the copper layer. An electroformed copper layer without thiourea has a relatively rough surface with an average surface roughness of about 144.7 nm, whereas, the copper layers with thiourea have a smooth surface with an average surface roughness in the range of 6.3 to 12.1 nm. The copper layers with thiourea have a preferred orientation of crystal structure such that Cu (111) peak intensity increases, whereas, Cu(220) peak intensity decreases with thiourea addition. Electroforming with a rectangular pulse current density including etching at +640 mAcm-2 for 1.8 msec and plating at -160 mAcm-2 for 4 msec in a modified copper sulfate bath with 200 ppm-thiourea at 25 °C is one of optimum conditions to massproduce a copper mesh sheet roll with 300 μm pitch, 10 μm mesh width and thickness, and 200 m long.

  20. Transparent image generator by using vertically aligned polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (VA-PSLC) for see-through display applications (United States)

    Wang, Mu-Hao; Choi, Wing-Kit; Su, Guo-Dung


    We demonstrate the feasibility of using a Vertically-Aligned Polymer-Stabilized Liquid Crystal (VA-PSLC) film, which is also known as LC gel, as a transparent image generator to form a see-through display system. This is achieved, in its simplest form, by projecting a collimated LED light source onto a transparent glass screen, with the image generated by the scattered light from the VA-PSLC. By moving the observer's head slightly away from the incident light specular reflection direction, a clear image can be observed on the transparent glass screen together with the background objects that are behind the screen. From our experimental results, this see-through display system using VA-PSLC transparent image generator can achieve a fast response time (with rise time of ~10 ms and fall time of ~5ms) and an acceptable contrast ratio (< ~100:1). The driving voltage is about 15~20V. Further improvements can be achieved by further optimizing the LC material/monomer parameters, device fabrication process/conditions and the optical system setup. In this system, polarizers are not required so that very high light efficiency can be obtained.

  1. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi


    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  2. After-effects of TFT-LCD display polarity and display colour on the detection of low-contrast objects. (United States)

    Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel


    Participants performed a word-non-word discrimination task within a car control display emulated on a thin film transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT-LCD). The task simulated an information read-out from a TFT-LCD-based instrument panel. Subsequently, participants performed a low-contrast object detection task that simulated the detection of objects during night-time driving. In experiment 1, words/non-words were presented black-on-white (positive polarity) or white-on-black (negative polarity). In experiments 2 and 3, display colour was additionally manipulated. A positive polarity advantage in the discrimination task was consistently observed. In contrast, positive displays interfered more than negative displays with subsequent detection. The detrimental after-effect of positive polarity displays was strong with white and blue, reduced with amber and absent with red displays. Subjective measures showed a preference for blue over red, but a slight advantage for amber over blue. Implications for TFT-LCD design are derived from the results. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: When using TFT-LCDs as car instrument panels, positive polarity red TFT-LCDs are very likely to lead to good instrument readability while at the same time minimising - relative to other colours - the negative effects of an illuminated display on low-contrast object detection during night-time driving.

  3. Metabolic Panel (United States)

    A metabolic panel is a group of tests that measures different chemicals in the blood. These tests are usually ... kidneys and liver. There are two types: basic metabolic panel (BMP) and comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). The ...

  4. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro


    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  5. Improving the luminance and luminous efficacy of miniature fluorescent lamps for liquid crystal display backlighting by using a double frequency drive (United States)

    Shiga, T.; Mikoshiba, S.; Curzon, F. L.; Shinada, S.


    A new method of driving miniature fluorescent tubes for liquid crystal display backlighting, with diameters as small as 2 mm, has been devised with the objective of improving the luminance and luminous efficacies of such lamps. The driver voltage wave form consists of high frequency oscillations at the leading and trailing edges of conventional square-wave form voltage pulses of relatively low frequency. The wave form is produced simply by inserting coils between low frequency square-wave pulse generators and the lamp electrodes. A lamp driven in this way operates in a different discharge mode from the conventional glow discharge obtained in the absence of the coils. The twofold intensity increase of visible emission from the positive column region indicates that the vacuum ultraviolet emission increases, enhancing the excitation of the phosphor in the lamp. There is evidence that the luminous efficacy is also increased by a factor of 2 as a result of more efficient use of the input energy. The minimum voltage needed to maintain a discharge is reduced.

  6. Military display market: update to fourth comprehensive edition (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study, an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to 10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of

  7. Pixel mask-based three-dimensional display with uniform resolution (United States)

    Zhao, Bai-Chuan; Lv, Guo-Jiao; Wu, Fei; Zhao, Wu-Xiang; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua


    A pixel mask-based three-dimensional (3-D) display with uniform resolution is proposed. This 3-D display consists of a reflected light source, a pixel mask, a liquid crystal display (LCD) panel, and a lenticular lens. The reflected light source is located on the bottom layer of the proposed 3-D display. It has a reflective structure to improve optical efficiency, so it can make up the brightness loss, which is caused by the pixel mask. The pixel mask is located between the reflected light source and the LCD panel, and is attached on the back surface of the LCD panel. This pixel mask is made of a reflective material, and some transparent areas are etched on it. The pixel mask redefines the pixels of the two-dimensional display panel located in front of it, so the size and location of redefined pixels depend on the transparent area of the pixel mask. The arrangement of the redefined pixels can increase the column numbers of synthetic images. Therefore, the synthetic images can make 3-D images have uniform resolution. A 4-view prototype of this display is developed and the experimental result shows the proposed method can improve resolution uniformity successfully.

  8. Implementation of PIC Based LED Displays


    Htet Htet Thit San; Chaw Myat Nwe; Hla Myo Tun


    This paper explains the project which is a special kind of LED Display Board for performing dance movement according to the rhythm of music. Nowadays, LED display boards are widely used in advertising and other applications. LED display boards can also be used indoors or outdoors. The objective of this system is to design a display panel by using several dozens of LED matrix display. The display pattern can desire to be changed easily and modified by the user. This LED display...

  9. Flat panel display characterization : a perceptual approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, C.


    Over the last decade, consumer television sets have substantially increased in screen size, with screen diagonals up to 65-inch and beyond. At the same time, their thickness has decreased to only a few centimeters. Right from the start, this combination has been highly appreciated by consumers,

  10. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  11. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh


    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...

  12. Advanced aerosense display interfaces (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.


    High-resolution display technologies are being developed to meet the ever-increasing demand for realistic detail. The requirement for evermore visual information exceeds the capacity of fielded aerospace display interfaces. In this paper we begin an exploration of display interfaces and evolving aerospace requirements. Current and evolving standards for avionics, commercial, and flat panel displays are summarized and compared to near term goals for military and aerospace applications. Aerospace and military applications prior to 2005 up to UXGA and digital HDTV resolution can be met by using commercial interface standard developments. Advanced aerospace requirements require yet higher resolutions (2560 X 2048 color pixels, 5120 X 4096 color pixels at 85 Hz, etc.) and necessitate the initiation of discussion herein of an 'ultra digital interface standard (UDIS)' which includes 'smart interface' features such as large memory and blazingly fast resizing microcomputer. Interface capacity, IT, increased about 105 from 1973 to 1998; 102 more is needed for UDIS.

  13. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina


    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  14. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  15. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng


    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  16. Liver Panel (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... GGT) – another enzyme found mainly in liver cells Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) – an enzyme released with cell damage; found ...

  17. Liver Panel (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Liver Panel Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Liver Profile Liver Function Tests LFTs Formal Name Hepatic ...

  18. A Laboratory-Based Course in Display Technology (United States)

    Sarik, J.; Akinwande, A. I.; Kymissis, I.


    A laboratory-based class in flat-panel display technology is presented. The course introduces fundamental concepts of display systems and reinforces these concepts through the fabrication of three display devices--an inorganic electroluminescent seven-segment display, a dot-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display, and a dot-matrix…

  19. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez


    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  20. LCD panel characterization by measuring full Jones matrix of individual pixels using polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy. (United States)

    Park, Jongchan; Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, YongKeun


    We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from which the full Jones matrix components of individual pixels are obtained. We also measure the changes in the Jones matrix of individual LCD pixels with respect to an applied bias. In addition, the complex optical responses of a LCD panel with respect to arbitrary polarization states of incident light were characterized from the measured Jones matrix.

  1. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi


    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  2. Potential see-through performance deficits in U.S. Army developmental helmet-mounted displays (United States)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.


    The U.S. Army has several helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) under development, all with unique characteristics and designs. For example, the now cancelled RAH-66 Comanche HIDSS (Helmet Integrated Display Sighting System) uses miniature liquid crystal displays as sources, and Microvision, Inc., of Bothel, Washington, is developing several prototype HMDs for the Army that incorporate a scanning laser or lasers as their source. Gone are new HMD designs that use cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as sources. A potential problem for see-through displays lies in the fact that the MTF (modulation transfer function) of flat panel displays is characterized by a good high-spatial frequency response. Although this seems counterintuitive, this high frequency response may impact the see-through detection and identification of high-spatial frequency targets because of visual masking and/or spatial frequency adaptation. A similar problem exists with the HMDs being developed by Microvision, Inc., where a high-spatial frequency noise pattern is present due to the inclusion of a diffractive exit pupil expander. Simple blurring of the HMD imagery would reduce this potential problem. In an earlier investigation, we found that a little blurring of flat panel displays does not affect small letter acuity even near threshold. Thus, it is possible to reduce the potential for see-through deficits while still maintaining maximum HMD fidelity.

  3. Chirality versus dichroism: Competition and role in conical diffraction displayed from the Nd:Bi2ZnOB2O6 acentric biaxial laser crystal (United States)

    Brenier, A.; Majchrowski, A.; Michalski, E.


    We have grown acentric chiral Nd-doped BZBO single crystals by the Kyropoulos method, cut perpendicular to the optical axis. With a focused beam at wavelengths in the spectral domain of transparency with various polarizations, the conoscopy patterns revealed the specific role of chirality: disappearance of the optical axis replaced by two C-directions, linear polarization rotation and spiral patterns. The specific rotatory power was measured. The output near field exhibits the influence of chirality on the conical diffraction. Going to wavelengths in the spectral domain of absorption corresponding to the 4I9/2 → 4F5/2 Nd3+ transition, we first studied the chirality/dichroism competition from propagation along the C-directions, characterizing the circular and elliptic eigen-modes. We exhibited the wavelengths at which the ellipse degenerates linearly, signature of the chirality/dichroism balancing. The second aspect is the existence of the optical axis which can be restored if the dichroism is high enough. In this case a singular Voigt wave can propagate. From the experimental determination of the optical parameters, a theoretical description has been proposed, leading to quite well agreement in the far field (conoscopy) and in the near field (conical diffraction).

  4. High-voltage (100 V ChipfilmTM single-crystal silicon LDMOS transistor for integrated driver circuits in flexible displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Burghartz


    Full Text Available System-in-Foil (SiF is an emerging field of large-area polymer electronics that employs new materials such as conductive polymers and electrophoretic micro-capsules (E-Ink along with ultra-thin and thus flexible chips. In flexible displays, the integration of gate and source drivers onto the flexible part increases the yield and enhances the reliability of the system. In this work we propose a high-voltage ChipfilmTM lateral diffused MOS transistor (LDMOS structure on ultra-thin single-crystalline silicon chips. The fabrication process is compatible with CMOS standard processing. This LDMOS structure proves to be well suited for providing adequately large switching voltages in spite of the thin (<10 μm substrate. A breakdown voltage of more than 100 volts with drain-to-source saturation current Ids(sat≈85 μA/μm for N-LDMOS and Ids(sat≈20 μA/μm for P-LDMOS is predicted through process and device simulations.

  5. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations. (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R


    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  6. Grayscale standard display function on LCD color monitors (United States)

    De Monte, Denis; Casale, Carlo; Albani, Luigi; Bonfiglio, Silvio


    Currently, as a rule, digital medical systems use monochromatic Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) monitors to ensure an accurate reproduction of the Grayscale Standard Display Function (GSDF) as specified in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard. As a drawback, special panels need to be utilized in digital medical systems, while it would be preferable to use regular color panels, which are manufactured on a wide scale and are thus available at by far lower prices. The method proposed introduces a temporal color dithering technique to accurately reproduce the GSDF on color monitors without losing monitor resolution. By exploiting the characteristics of the Human Visual System (HVS) the technique ensures that a satisfactory grayscale reproduction is achieved minimizing perceivable flickering and undesired color artifacts. The algorithm has been implemented in the monitor using a low-cost Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Quantitative evaluations of luminance response on a 3 Mega-pixel color monitor have shown that the compliance with the GSDF can be achieved with the accuracy level required by medical applications. At the same time the measured color deviation is below the threshold perceivable by the human eye.

  7. NIST display colorimeter calibration facility (United States)

    Brown, Steven W.; Ohno, Yoshihiro


    A facility has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide calibration services for color-measuring instruments to address the need for improving and certifying the measurement uncertainties of this type of instrument. While NIST has active programs in photometry, flat panel display metrology, and color and appearance measurements, these are the first services offered by NIST tailored to color-measuring instruments for displays. An overview of the facility, the calibration approach, and associated uncertainties are presented. Details of a new tunable colorimetric source and the development of new transfer standard instruments are discussed.

  8. Micromachined edge illuminated optically transparent automotive light guide panels (United States)

    Ronny, Rahima Afrose; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni; Tauhiduzzaman, Mohammed; Nikumb, Suwas


    Edge-lit backlighting has been used extensively for a variety of small and medium-sized liquid crystal displays (LCDs). The shape, density and spatial distribution pattern of the micro-optical elements imprinted on the surface of the flat light-guide panel (LGP) are often "optimized" to improve the overall brightness and luminance uniformity. A similar concept can be used to develop interior convenience lighting panels and exterior tail lamps for automotive applications. However, costly diffusive sheeting and brightness enhancement films are not be considered for these applications because absolute luminance uniformity and the minimization of Moiré fringe effects are not significant factors in assessing quality of automotive lighting. A new design concept that involves micromilling cylindrical micro-optical elements on optically transparent plastic substrates is described in this paper. The variable parameter that controls illumination over the active regions of the panel is the depth of the individual cylindrical micro-optical elements. LightTools™ is the optical simulation tool used to explore how changing the micro-optical element depth can alter the local and global luminance. Numerical simulation and microfabrication experiments are performed on several (100mmx100mmx6mm) polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) test samples in order to verify the illumination behavior.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov


    Full Text Available Subject of research. The problem of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates of liquid crystal panels is considered. A method of software-based compensation of technological variation in chromaticity coordinates is proposed. The method provides the color reproduction characteristics of the series-produced samples on-board indication equipment corresponding to the sample equipment, which is taken as the standard. Method. Mathematical calculation of the profile is performed for the given model of the liquid crystal panel. The coefficients that correspond to the typical values of the chromaticity coordinates for the vertices of the triangle color coverage constitute a reference mathematical model of the plate LCD panel from a specific manufacturer. At the stage of incoming inspection the sample of the liquid crystal panel, that is to be implemented within indication equipment, is mounted on the lighting test unit, where Nokia-Test control is provided by the formation of the RGB codes for display the image of a homogeneous field in the red, green, blue and white. The measurement of the (x,y-chromaticity coordinates in red, green, blue and white colors is performed using a colorimeter with the known value of absolute error. Instead of using lighting equipment, such measurements may be carried out immediately on the sample indication equipment during customizing procedure. The measured values are used to calculate individual LCD-panel profile coefficients through the use of Grassman's transformation, establishing mutual relations between the XYZ-color coordinates and RGB codes to be used for displaying the image on the liquid crystal panel. The obtained coefficients are to be set into the memory of the graphics controller together with the functional software and then used for image displaying. Main results. The efficiency of the proposed method of software-based compensation for technological variation of

  10. Panel discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No Author Given


    Panel discussion: summation and future projections. Introductory remarks by panelists followed by questions and comments from the floor. Panelists: Dr. Joseph Barnea (former director of Resources and Transport for the United Nations; energy consultant to the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)); the Honorable Clyde F. Bel, Jr. (member of the Louisiana House of Representatives representing District 90 and New Orleans); Dr. David Lombard (acting chief of the Advanced Systems Branch of the Division of Geothermal Energy Research and Technology, Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)); Fred C. Repper (vice-president of Central Power and Light Company in Corpus Christi, Texas); Dr. Hans Suter (environmental consultant in Corpus Christi, Texas; environmental columnist for the Corpus Christi Caller Times). Session chairman: Herbert Woodson.

  11. A Novel Approach to Surgical Instructions for Scrub Nurses by Using See-Through-Type Head-Mounted Display. (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Sasaki, Asami; Sato, Chikage; Yamazaki, Mutsuko; Takayasu, Junya; Tanaka, Naofumi; Okabayashi, Norie; Hirano, Hiromi; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori


    In order to facilitate assists in surgical procedure, it is important for scrub nurses to understand the operation procedure and to share the operation status with attending surgeons. The potential utility of head-mounted display as a new imaging monitor has been proposed in the medical field. This study prospectively evaluated the usefulness of see-through-type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses. From January to March 2014, scrub nurses who attended gasless laparoendoscopic single-port radical nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy wore the monocular see-through-type head-mounted display (AiRScouter; Brother Industries Ltd, Nagoya, Japan) displaying the instruction of the operation procedure through a crystal panel in front of the eye. Following the operation, the participants completed an anonymous questionnaire, which evaluated the image quality of the head-mounted display, the helpfulness of the head-mounted display to understand the operation procedure, and adverse effects caused by the head-mounted display. Fifteen nurses were eligible for the analysis. The intraoperative use of the head-mounted display could help scrub nurses to understand the surgical procedure and to hand out the instruments for the operation with no major head-mounted-display wear-related adverse event. This novel approach to support scrub nurses will help facilitate technical and nontechnical skills during surgery.

  12. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays (United States)

    Amundson, Karl


    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  13. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang


    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  14. Diagnostic performance of detecting breast cancer on computed radiographic (CR) mammograms: comparison of hard copy film, 3-megapixel liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitor and 5-megapixel LCD monitor. (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiko; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Takahashi, Shoki


    The purpose was to compare observer performance in the detection of breast cancer using hard-copy film, and 3-megapixel (3-MP) and 5-megapixel (5-MP) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors in a simulated screening setting. We amassed 100 sample sets, including 32 patients with surgically proven breast cancer (masses present, N = 12; microcalcifications, N = 10; other types, N = 10) and 68 normal controls. All the mammograms were obtained using computed radiography (CR; sampling pitch of 50 mum). Twelve mammographers independently assessed CR mammograms presented in random order for hard-copy and soft-copy reading at minimal 4-week intervals. Observers rated the images on seven-point (1 to 7) and continuous (0 to 100) malignancy scales. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis was performed, and the average area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each modality. The jackknife method with the Bonferroni correction was applied to multireader/multicase analysis. The average AUC values for the 3-MP LCD, 5-MP LCD, and hard-copy film were 0.954, 0.947, and 0.956 on the seven-point scale and 0.943, 0.923, and 0.944 on the continuous scale, respectively. There were no significant differences among the three modalities on either scale. Soft-copy reading using 3-MP and 5-MP LCDs is comparable to hard-copy reading for detecting breast cancer.

  15. Impact of food to microorganism (F/M) ratio and colloidal chemical oxygen demand on nitrification performance of a full-scale membrane bioreactor treating thin film transistor liquid crystal display wastewater. (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chang, Ming-Yu; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Lee, Ya-Chin; Cheng, Sheng-Shung; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Huey; Shen, Wason; Yang, Charn-Yi; Fu, Ryan; Tsai, Tsair-Yuan


    This study investigated impact of food to microorganism (F/M) ratio and colloidal chemical oxygen demand (COD) on nitrification performance in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating monoethanolamine (MEA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-containing thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater. Poor nitrification was observed under high organic loading and high colloidal COD conditions, suggesting that high F/M ratio and colloidal COD situations should be avoided to minimize their negative impacts on nitrification. According to the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) statistical analyses on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, the occurrence of Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was positively related to successful nitrification in the MBR systems, while Nitrosomonas europaea-like AOB was positively linked to nitrification rate, which can be attributed to the high influent total nitrogen condition. Furthermore, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were both abundant in the MBR systems, but the continuously low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat exchanger panel (United States)

    Warburton, Robert E. (Inventor); Cuva, William J. (Inventor)


    The present invention relates to a heat exchanger panel which has broad utility in high temperature environments. The heat exchanger panel has a first panel, a second panel, and at least one fluid containment device positioned intermediate the first and second panels. At least one of the first panel and the second panel have at least one feature on an interior surface to accommodate the at least one fluid containment device. In a preferred embodiment, each of the first and second panels is formed from a high conductivity, high temperature composite material. Also, in a preferred embodiment, the first and second panels are joined together by one or more composite fasteners.

  17. Universal Numeric Segmented Display


    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman


    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  18. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N


    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  19. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager


    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  20. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic ( ... or kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a ...

  1. Comprehensive metabolic panel (United States)

    Metabolic panel - comprehensive; Chem-20; SMA20; Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-20; SMAC20; Metabolic panel 20 ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - ... Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  2. Holographic Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals: Materials, Formation, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Liu


    Full Text Available By combining polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC and holography, holographic PDLC (H-PDLC has emerged as a new composite material for switchable or tunable optical devices. Generally, H-PDLC structures are created in a liquid crystal cell filled with polymer-dispersed liquid crystal materials by recording the interference pattern generated by two or more coherent laser beams which is a fast and single-step fabrication. With a relatively ideal phase separation between liquid crystals and polymers, periodic refractive index profile is formed in the cell and thus light can be diffracted. Under a suitable electric field, the light diffraction behavior disappears due to the index matching between liquid crystals and polymers. H-PDLCs show a fast switching time due to the small size of the liquid crystal droplets. So far, H-PDLCs have been applied in many promising applications in photonics, such as flat panel displays, switchable gratings, switchable lasers, switchable microlenses, and switchable photonic crystals. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art of H-PDLCs including the materials used to date, the grating formation dynamics and simulations, the optimization of electro-optical properties, the photonic applications, and the issues existed in H-PDLCs.

  3. Liquid crystal light shutters for simultaneous control of haze and transmittance (United States)

    Yoon, Tae-Hoon; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Hun; Huh, Jae-Won


    Recently, see-through displays have been attracted much attention as next-generation displays. There are two basic technologies by which we can realize a see-through display: organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal (LC) displays. The pixel structure of a see-through display includes a transparent window area through which the background image can be seen. Therefore, background images are always seen along with the displayed image. In addition, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide the black color. As a result, a see-thorough display exhibits poor visibility. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. Light shutter technology can be divided into two types; light absorption and light scattering. Light shutter based on light absorption can be used to control the transmittance, but it cannot block the object behind the display panel completely. Light shutters based on light scattering can be used to control the haze, but it cannot provide black color. To realize a high-visibility see-through display, we need a light shutter by which we can control haze and transmittance simultaneously. In this talk we would like to introduce technologies for LC light shutters by which we can block the background image and provide black color by utilizing light scattering and absorption effects simultaneously.

  4. Heath monitoring of a glass transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display using abnormal operating sounds based on wavelet packet transform and artificial neural network (United States)

    Kim, Eui-Youl; Lee, Young-Joon; Lee, Sang-Kwon


    This paper presents the fault detect method of a moving transfer robot in the mass production line of liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturers based on the wavelet packet transform (WPT) for feature extraction and the artificial neural network (ANN) for fault classification. Most of fault detection methods in a mechanical system have been researched based on the vibration signal. Unlike the existing methodologies, this study aims to minimize the uncertainty of a field engineer's decision making process for determining whether a fault is present or not based on the human auditory perception by developing a fault diagnosis system that uses the abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot as a source signal. Abnormal operating sound radiated from a moving transfer robot has been used for this work instead of other source signals such as vibration, acoustic emission, electrical signal, etc. Its advantage as a source signal makes it possible to monitor the status of multiple faults by using only a microphone despite a relatively low sensitivity. In the application of ANN, since it is important to minimize the error of trained ANN in terms of the accuracy of fault diagnosis logic, in the paper, the number of input and target data samples was increased through a regeneration process based on statistical properties, and then the uncorrelated nodes in the input vector were also removed to improve the orthogonality of the input vector based on the entropy based feature selection method. Consequently, it can be concluded that the abnormal operating sound is sufficiently useful as a source signal for the fault diagnosis of mechanical components as well as other source signals.

  5. Soft-Copy Reading in Digital Mammography of Microcalcifications: Diagnostic Performance of a 5-Megapixel Cathode Ray Tube Monitor versus a 3-Megapixel Liquid Crystal Display Monitor in a Clinical Setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, T.; Kasami, M.; Uchida, Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dept. of Pathology, and Breast Center, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Shizuoka (Japan)


    Background: A recent study using dedicated contrast-detail phantoms showed that the image quality of a 3-megapixel (M) monitor can approach that of a 5M monitor in digital mammography. Purpose: To compare a 5M cathode ray tube (CRT) monitor with a 3M liquid crystal display (LCD) monitor for soft-copy reading of digital mammography of microcalcifications in a clinical setting. Material and Methods: 100 screen-detected microcalcification lesions (34 malignant and 66 benign) without mass that had been evaluated with 11-gauge stereotactic vacuum-assisted breast biopsy or definitive surgery were recruited into the study. One radiologist analyzed the soft-copy mammograms on a 5M CRT monitor and a 3M LCD monitor with 5 months between interpretations and scored the likelihood of malignancy and calcification distribution on a five-point scale. Calcification morphology and breast density were scored on a four-point scale. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated on the basis of a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The interpretation time was also measured. Results: There was no significant difference in the likelihood of malignancy (P = 0.655), calcification morphology (P = 0.168), calcification distribution (P = 0.11), and breast density (P = 0.0608). The PPV and NPV of soft-copy reading on the 5M CRT monitor was 57% (30/53) and 91% (43/47), respectively, identical to the results using the 3M LCD monitor. The total interpretation time averaged 88 s for the 5M CRT monitor and 67 s for the 3M LCD monitor (P<0.0001). Conclusion: Soft-copy reading of a digital mammography of microcalcifications with a 3M LCD monitor was similar in diagnostic performance to a 5M CRT monitor in this study.

  6. Detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer on digital mammograms: comparison among hard-copy film, 3-megapixel liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors and 5-megapixel LCD monitors: an observer performance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Sakai, Shuji [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Fukuoka (Japan); Furuya, Akio [National Fukuoka-Higashi Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Koga (Japan); Ishii, Nobuhide [Fuji Film Medical Co., Ltd, Fukuoka (Japan)


    The purpose of the study was to compare observer performance in the detection of masses and microcalcifications of breast cancer among hard-copy reading and soft-copy readings using 3-megapixel (3M) and 5-megapixel (5M) liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors. For the microcalcification detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 40 surgically verified cancer cases and 60 normal cases. For the mass detection test, we prepared 100 mammograms: 50 cancer cases and 50 normal cases. After six readers assessed both microcalcifications and masses set for each modality, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. The average A{sub z}s for mass detection using a hard copy and 3M and 5M LCD monitors were 0.923, 0.927 and 0.920, respectively; there were no significant differences. The average A{sub z} for microcalcification detection using hard copy, 3M and 5M LCD monitors was 0.977, 0.954 and 0.972, respectively. There were no significant differences, but the P-values between the hard copy and 3M LCD monitor and that between the 3M and 5M LCD monitor were 0.08 and 0.09, respectively. In conclusion, the observer performances for detecting masses of breast cancers were comparable among the hard copy and two LCD monitors; however, soft-copy reading with a 3M LCD monitor showed slightly lower observer performance for detecting microcalcifications of breast cancers than hard-copy or 5M LCD monitor reading. (orig.)

  7. Improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing super-multiview display based on planar aligned OLED microdisplays. (United States)

    Teng, Dongdong; Pang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yueli; Wu, Dong; Wang, Jiahui; Liu, Lilin; Wang, Biao


    Through gating spectrum plane of multiple planar aligned OLED microdisplays by a timely sequential manner, a super-multiview (SMV) three-dimensional (3D) display based on spatiotemporal-multiplexing was developed in our previous paper. But an upper limit of the allowable sub-viewing-zones (SVZs) for an OLED microdisplay did exist in the previous system, even if microdisplays with very high frame rates could be commercially available. In this manuscript, an improved spatiotemporal-multiplexing SMV displays system is developed, which removes the above limitation through controllable fusing of light beams from adjacent OLED microdisplays. The employment of a liquid-crystal panel as the gating-aperture array allows the improved system to accommodate multiple rows of OLED microdisplays for denser SVZs. Experimentally, a prototype system is demonstrated by 24 OLED microdisplays, resulting in 120 SVZs with an interval small to 1.07mm.

  8. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps. (United States)

    Choi, Dongchul; Hong, Sung-Jei; Son, Yongkeun


    In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF) layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222) preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  9. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchul Choi


    Full Text Available In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222 preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  10. Thermotropic Ionic Liquid Crystals


    Sabine Laschat; Axenov, Kirill V


    The last five years’ achievements in the synthesis and investigation of thermotropic ionic liquid crystals are reviewed. The present review describes the mesomorphic properties displayed by organic, as well as metal-containing ionic mesogens. In addition, a short overview on the ionic polymer and self-assembled liquid crystals is given. Potential and actual applications of ionic mesogens are also discussed.

  11. Plastic Substrates for Flexible Displays (United States)

    Ito, Hisashi; Oka, Wataru; Goto, Hideki; Umeda, Hideo


    New flexible fibrous glass-reinforced plastic (FRP) substrates for flat panel displays were developed. Optimizing the composition of the FRP by adjusting the difference in refractive index between a matrix resin and a glass fiber enabled the coexistence of a high transparency and a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). An excellent smooth surface morphology was confirmed by the formulation of a coating resin. The stability of moisture impermeability depended on the surface smoothness and adhesion between a barrier layer and the coating layer. The moisture permeation rates of barrier substrates were below detection limits (<0.01 g m-2 day-1) on standard measurement equipment.

  12. Optical residual stress measurement in TFT-LCD panels (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chung; Sung, Po-Chi


    The residual stress of the glass substrate might be one of causes to produce the non-uniform light distribution defect, i.e. Mura, in thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) panels. Glass is a birefringent material with very low birefringence. Furthermore, the thinner and thinner thickness request from the market makes the traditional photoelasticity almost impossible to measure the residual stresses produced in thin glass plates. Recently, a low-level stress measurement method called transmissivity extremities theory of photoelasticity (TEToP) was successfully developed to measure the residual stress in glass plate. Besides, to measure the stress of the glass plate in the TFT-LCD panel whose rear surface may has different kinds of coatings, an advanced reflection photoelasticity was also developed. In this paper, three commercially available glass plates with 0.33mm nominal thickness and three glass circular disks with different coatings were inspected to verify the feasibility of the TEToP and the advanced reflection photoelasticity, respectively.

  13. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonash, S.J. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  14. Depth of Focus and Perceived Blurring of Simultaneously-Viewed Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterbottom, Marc D; Patterson, Robert; Pierce, Byron J; Covas, Christine; Winner, Jennifer


    .... This is now a concern as the Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System (JHMCS) is integrated with existing flat-panel display systems such as the Mobile Modular Display for Advanced Research and Training (M2DART...

  15. Photonic crystal light source (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM


    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  16. Maintenance Control and Display Panel (MCDP) Concept Formulation. (United States)


    to crew, maintenance, and supply are substantial. * Troubleshoot ing will he more accurate, penet rat Ing deeply into the "no evidence i! latiure...t----~t----t-~~--~--.t--t-- ~ -- ---.-- - -. ~R - -. .7 Addendum 2 MGDP Joint Working Group Participants A-5 *. .1 NAME 7 DDRESS TELEPHONE Charl

  17. Airplane-Acceleration Display For Low-Gravity Research (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.


    Bar-graph display facilitates precise control of trajectories. Overall display system includes accelerometer block, power-supply-and-interface box, thrust-axis display, and pitch-and-lateral-axes display. Accelerometer block includes three servoaccelerometers orthogonally mounted on adjustable triaxial base allowing fine alignment of accelerometers with respect to airplane. Accelerometer block and power-supply-and-interface box located near center of gravity of airplane in lugguage area. LED bar-graph displays take up less panel space and easier to align with axes represented. No moving parts and not subject to parallax. With help of display, pilot adheres to predetermined fraction of g, with minimal lateral acceleration.

  18. Digital Display Integration Project Project Online 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bardsley, J N


    The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...

  19. Fundamentals of liquid crystal devices

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Revised throughout to cover the latest developments in the fast moving area of display technology, this 2nd edition of Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices, will continue to be a valuable resource for those wishing to understand the operation of liquid crystal displays. Significant updates include new material on display components, 3D LCDs and blue-phase displays which is one of the most promising new technologies within the field of displays and it is expected that this new LC-technology will reduce the response time and the number of optical components of LC-modules. Prof. Yang is a pion

  20. BMP (Basic Metabolic Panel) (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Send Us Your Feedback Choose ... Screen Chem 7 SMA 7 SMAC7 Formal Name Basic Metabolic Panel This article was last reviewed on ...

  1. Hepatitis virus panel (United States)

    ... this page: // Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  2. Antinuclear antibody panel (United States)

    ... page: // Antinuclear antibody panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The antinuclear antibody panel is a blood test that looks at ...

  3. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices. (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo


    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  4. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications. (United States)


    cover can be controlled as function * of the background luminance level ( photochromic , electrochromic materials). But at very low light levels, where...UUAUITY DISPLAY (DLA Umask (Aperture pitch *GRAPHIC DISPLAY ROUNDOAPERTURE (Sn 0 03ia02(m MASK AND 00 Biack matrix (S11) pigmented IRS Electron beam gun... soluble in the liquid crystal host to give adequate absorption and contrast without risk of the segregation of dye particles at low temperatures

  5. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen


    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  6. Stereoscopic-3D display design: a new paradigm with Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology [IA-SIT (United States)

    Jain, Sunil


    Stereoscopic-3D (S3D) proliferation on personal computers (PC) is mired by several technical and business challenges: a) viewing discomfort due to cross-talk amongst stereo images; b) high system cost; and c) restricted content availability. Users expect S3D visual quality to be better than, or at least equal to, what they are used to enjoying on 2D in terms of resolution, pixel density, color, and interactivity. Intel Adaptive Stable Image Technology (IA-SIT) is a foundational technology, successfully developed to resolve S3D system design challenges and deliver high quality 3D visualization at PC price points. Optimizations in display driver, panel timing firmware, backlight hardware, eyewear optical stack, and synch mechanism combined can help accomplish this goal. Agnostic to refresh rate, IA-SIT will scale with shrinking of display transistors and improvements in liquid crystal and LED materials. Industry could profusely benefit from the following calls to action:- 1) Adopt 'IA-SIT S3D Mode' in panel specs (via VESA) to help panel makers monetize S3D; 2) Adopt 'IA-SIT Eyewear Universal Optical Stack' and algorithm (via CEA) to help PC peripheral makers develop stylish glasses; 3) Adopt 'IA-SIT Real Time Profile' for sub-100uS latency control (via BT Sig) to extend BT into S3D; and 4) Adopt 'IA-SIT Architecture' for Monitors and TVs to monetize via PC attach.

  7. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández


    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  8. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael


    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, socalled panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects. © 2010 ACM.

  9. Paneling architectural freeform surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Eigensatz, Michael


    The emergence of large-scale freeform shapes in architecture poses big challenges to the fabrication of such structures. A key problem is the approximation of the design surface by a union of patches, so-called panels, that can be manufactured with a selected technology at reasonable cost, while meeting the design intent and achieving the desired aesthetic quality of panel layout and surface smoothness. The production of curved panels is mostly based on molds. Since the cost of mold fabrication often dominates the panel cost, there is strong incentive to use the same mold for multiple panels. We cast the major practical requirements for architectural surface paneling, including mold reuse, into a global optimization framework that interleaves discrete and continuous optimization steps to minimize production cost while meeting user-specified quality constraints. The search space for optimization is mainly generated through controlled deviation from the design surface and tolerances on positional and normal continuity between neighboring panels. A novel 6-dimensional metric space allows us to quickly compute approximate inter-panel distances, which dramatically improves the performance of the optimization and enables the handling of complex arrangements with thousands of panels. The practical relevance of our system is demonstrated by paneling solutions for real, cutting-edge architectural freeform design projects.

  10. STS-39 MS Veach monitors AFP-675 panel on OV-103's aft flight deck (United States)


    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Charles L. Veach analyzes data displayed on Air Force Program 675 (APF-675) command and monitor panel on the aft flight deck payload station aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Just above Veach's head, Panel A3 closed circuit television (CCTV) screen A2 glows. At Veach's right is a portable laptop computer attached to panel L10.

  11. Micro-valve pump light valve display (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Chun


    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  12. A computer graphics display technique for the examination of aircraft design data (United States)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.


    An interactive computer graphics technique has been developed for quickly sorting and interpreting large amounts of aerodynamic data. It utilizes a graphic representation rather than numbers. The geometry package represents the vehicle as a set of panels. These panels are ordered in groups of ascending values (e.g., equilibrium temperatures). The groups are then displayed successively on a CRT building up to the complete vehicle. A zoom feature allows for displaying only the panels with values between certain limits. The addition of color allows a one-time display thus eliminating the need for a display build up.

  13. Recovery of valuable components from waste LCD panel through a dry physical method. (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; He, Yaqun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Guangwen


    A waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panel was recycled synthetically and cleanly by using dry physical methods, namely, mechanical exfoliation, dry crushing and vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed separation. Results of elemental and phase analyses show that indium and tin contents were enriched greatly in indium tin oxide concentrate obtained from colour filter and thin-film transistor glass. The results of crushing, ash content and scanning electron microscopic analyses show that when the LCD panel was crushed into particles smaller than 0.25mm, the polarizer film is nearly completely liberated from the glass. Moreover, the results of vibrated gas-solid fluidized bed separation show that gas velocity and separation time are the main factors influencing the separation. The vibration intensity of 6.8, gas velocity of 13.6cm/s and fluidizing time of 30s are the optimum operating parameters, and the degree of separation and recovery of polarizing film reached up to 37.69 and 72.3%, respectively. Based on these results, the combination of dry enrichment, dry crushing and dry separation in a flowsheet is proposed for recycling of waste LCD panel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A multiprimary display model combined with a spatio-temporal behavioral display model for display characterization by simulation (United States)

    Dolar, Carsten; Lebowsky, Fritz


    With the development of fast liquid crystal cells and with advent of backlight units with separate red, green and blue light emitting diodes also first commercial color sequential display emerge. Another technique in commercial application proposes implementing more than three subpixels and thus enhanced color gamut by using multiple color primaries. Also the combination of both color mixture techniques is possible. It is thus desirable to have a simulation workbench at hand that is flexible enough to adapt to the various possibilities of subpixel design and color sequences in display design to evaluate the displayed image in advance. The combination of a multiprimary display model, which can emulate a multiprimary display on a standard RGB LC display, and a spatio-temporal model, that describes LC pixel behavior to arbitrary input signals over time, provides means for simulating the perceived image of a color-sequential display behavior. This article describes the combined model and gives also simulation results that compare advanced displays to conventional vertical stripe RGB LC display.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  16. Lunar Sample Display Locations (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  17. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  18. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays (United States)


    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  19. Solar reflection panels (United States)

    Diver, Jr., Richard B.; Grossman, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Reshetnik, Michael [Boulder, CO


    A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front surface of the composite panel. The composite panel comprises a front sheet affixed to a surface of a core material, preferably a core material comprising a honeycomb structure, and a back sheet affixed to an opposite surface of the core material. The invention may further comprise a sealing strip, preferably comprising EPDM, positioned between the glass mirror and the front surface of the composite panel. The invention also is of methods of making such solar collectors.

  20. In-Flight Assessment of a Pursuit Guidance Display Format for Manually Flown Precision Instrument Approaches (United States)

    Moralez, Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Hindson, William S.; Frost, Chad R.; Hardy, Gordon H.


    In-flight evaluations of a pursuit guidance display system for manually flown precision instrument approaches were performed. The guidance system was integrated into the RASCAL JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The applicability of the pursuit guidance disp1aFs to the operation of Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) is made evident because the displays allow the pilot to fly a complex, multi-segment, descending, decelerating approach trajectory. The complex trajectory chosen for this in-flight assessment began from a downwind abeam position at 110 knots and was hand-flown to a 50 ft decision altitude at 40 knots using a rate-command/attitude-hold plus turn-coordination control system. The elements of the pursuit guidance format displayed on a 10-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel consisted of a flightpath vector and a "leader" aircraft as the pursuit guidance element. Approach guidance was based primarily on carrier-phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and secondarily on both medium accuracy inertial navigation unit states and air data computer states. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts were applied to the construction of display elements such as lateral/vertical deviation indicators and a tunnel that indicated to the pilot, in real-time, the performance with respect to RNP error bounds. The results of the flight evaluations of the guidance display show that precise path control for operating within tight RNP boundaries (RNP 0.007NM/24ft for initial approach, RNP 0.008NM/19ft for intermediate approach, and RNP 0.002NM/9ft for final approach) is attainable with minimal to moderate pilot workload.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la fabricación y el comportamiento mecánico de paneles a base de papel reciclado. El objetivo principal del proyecto es producir un prototipo de panel que emplee elementos provenientes de residuos sólidos (papel periódico y de un material conglomerante (cemento Portland blanco. El panel debe ser económico, debe tener buenas propiedades mecánicas y debe tener dimensiones comerciales para su uso en muros tabiques y en cielos falsos en la industria de la construcción. El Recipanel es un panel no estructural a base de papel reciclado. El Recipanel cumple las normas colombianas en lo relativo a los paneles de uso no estructural y presenta además unas excelentes características mecánicas.

  2. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia


    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  3. Development of visual-display aid to air navigation (United States)

    Matcovich, T. J.


    The developments are discussed in the design of a liquid-crystal, visual display, air navigation aid, which uses two VOR signals to locate the aircraft. The system concepts, liquid crystal materials, stability tests, and the electronic system are described. It is concluded that a navigational aid of this type is technically feasible, but not at the projected low cost.

  4. Make Your Own Solar Panel. (United States)

    Suzuki, David


    Presents an activity in which students make a simulated solar panel to learn about the principles behind energy production using solar panels. Provides information about how solar panels function to produce energy. (MCO)

  5. Keratinocyte specific markers isolated using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.B.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Ravn, P.


    Specific molecular markers for various normal and pathogenic cell states and cell types provide knowledge of basic biological systems and have a direct application in targeted therapy. We describe a proteomic method based on the combination of new and improved phage display antibody technologies...... display method was applied to analysis of human skin keratinocytes resulting in the isolation of a panel of antibodies. Fourteen of these antibodies were further characterized, half of which predominantly recognized keratinocytes in a screen of a range of different cell types. Three cognate keratinocyte...... antigens were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as laminin-5, plectin, and fibronectin. The combination of phage display technology with mass spectrometry methods for protein identification is a general and promising approach for proteomic analysis of cell surface complexity....

  6. Displaying Data As Movies (United States)

    Moore, Judith G.


    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  7. POPOVER Review Panel report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davito, A.; Baker, C.J.; King, C.J.; Costerus, B.; Nelson, T.; Prokosch, D.; Pastrnak, J.; Grace, P.


    The POPOVER series of high explosive (HE) certification tests was conducted at the Big Explosives Experimental Facility (BEEF) in Area 4 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The two primary objectives of POPOVER were to certify that: (1) BEEF meets DOE requirements for explosives facilities and is safe for personnel-occupied operations during testing of large charges of conventional HE. (2) Facility structures and equipment will function as intended when subjected to the effects of these charges. After careful analysis of test results, the POPOVER Review Panel concludes that the POPOVER series met both objectives. Further details on the Review Panel`s conclusions are included in Section 7--Findings and Recommendations.

  8. Advanced electronic displays and their potential in future transport aircraft (United States)

    Hatfield, J. J.


    It is pointed out that electronic displays represent one of the keys to continued integration and improvement of the effectiveness of avionic systems in future transport aircraft. An employment of modern electronic display media and generation has become vital in connection with the increases in modes and functions of modern aircraft. Requirements for electronic systems of future transports are examined, and a description is provided of the tools which are available for cockpit integration, taking into account trends in information processing and presentation, trends in integrated display devices, and trends concerning input/output devices. Developments related to display media, display generation, and I/O devices are considered, giving attention to a comparison of CRT and flat-panel display technology, advanced HUD technology and multifunction controls. Integrated display formats are discussed along with integrated systems and cockpit configurations.

  9. Real-Time Acquisition and Display of Data and Video (United States)

    Bachnak, Rafic; Chakinarapu, Ramya; Garcia, Mario; Kar, Dulal; Nguyen, Tien


    This paper describes the development of a prototype that takes in an analog National Television System Committee (NTSC) video signal generated by a video camera and data acquired by a microcontroller and display them in real-time on a digital panel. An 8051 microcontroller is used to acquire power dissipation by the display panel, room temperature, and camera zoom level. The paper describes the major hardware components and shows how they are interfaced into a functional prototype. Test data results are presented and discussed.

  10. Design and modelling of thermoformed displays for smart contact lenses


    Vasquez Quintero, Andrés Felipe; Verplancke, Rik; Vanfleteren, Jan; De Smet, Herbert


    This paper explores the challenges regarding the thermoforming of a deformable guest-host liquid crystal display within a smart contact lens. Focus was given to the finite element modelling of its thermoforming, to find respective design rules. Such displays are thought to be used in vision correction applications (i.e. artificial iris).

  11. [Development and research of temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display]. (United States)

    Fan, Shounian; Jiang, Chenxi; Cai, Yunchang; Pan, Yangzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Yaxi; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Shiying


    A temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display is introduced in this paper. Double way low-noise electrocardiosignal preamplifier, amplitude limiter, high and low pass filter, 50 Hz notch filter, TTL level generator and stimulating pulse formation circuit are components of the hardware electrocircuit. The demand pacing and the electrocardiosignal display are separately controlled by the software in which the double microcontrollers communications technique is used. In this study, liquid crystal display is firstly used in body surface electrocardiosignal display or intracardial electrophysiologic signal display when the temporary demand pacemaker is installed and put into use. The machine has proven clinically useful and can be of wide appliation.

  12. Blue Ribbon Panel Report (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog by the NCI acting director thanking the cancer community for contributing to the Cancer Moonshot Blue Ribbon Panel report, which was presented to the National Cancer Advisory Board on September 7.

  13. Autoimmune liver disease panel (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  14. Basic metabolic panel (United States)

    ... Sequential multi-channel analysis with computer-7; SMA7; Metabolic panel 7; CHEM-7 ... Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Endocrine and metabolic disorders. In: Bope ET, ... PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 5. Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation ...

  15. FIFRA Scientific Advisory Panel (United States)

    Experts on the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Scientific Advisory Panel provide independent scientific advice to the EPA on a wide range of health and safety issues related to pesticides.

  16. CF Mutation Panel (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... L. et. al. (2011 September 29). Kids in America Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis. Medscape Today News ...

  17. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  18. Effective Monitor Display Design. (United States)

    Harrell, William


    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  19. Jet printing flexible displays


    Street, R. A.; Wong, W S; Ready, S. E.; Chabinyc, M.L; Arias, A.C.; Limb, S.; Salleo, A; Lujan, R.


    Jet printing is an interesting patterning technique for electronic devices because it requires no physical mask, has digital control of ejection, and provides good layer-to-layer registration. It also has the potential to reduce display manufacturing costs and enable roll-to-roll processing. The technique is illustrated with examples of prototype printed displays using amorphous silicon and polymer semiconductors.

  20. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, J.; Spenkelink, G.P.J.


    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  1. Hexagon solar power panel (United States)

    Rubin, Irwin


    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  2. Hexagon solar power panel (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)


    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  3. Pop-Art Panels (United States)

    Alford, Joanna


    James Rosenquist's giant Pop-art panels included realistic renderings of well-known contemporary foods and objects, juxtaposed with famous people in the news--largely from the 1960s, '70s and '80s--and really serve as visual time capsules. In this article, eighth-graders focus on the style of James Rosenquist to create their own Pop-art panel that…

  4. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.


    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  5. Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility (United States)

    Gaudette, Claude


    As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

  6. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin


    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  7. Microlaser-based displays (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.


    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  8. Display characteristics: product differentiation and truth in advertising (United States)

    Bardsley, James N.


    The purpose of this paper is to review the important properties of electronic displays and to examine how these properties should be characterized. The adequacy of specifications used by vendors to describe the properties of flat panel displays is assessed, both from the perspective of manufacturers wishing to differentiate their products and of users trying to match their acquisitions to the demands of a particular application.

  9. System and Device with Three-Dimensional Image Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a binocular device (44) and a system (40) including a binocular device (44) configured for displaying one or more labels for an input device (2), such as a keyboard or a control panel, comprising a plurality of parts (4, 6) configured for activation and registration...... by depression. The binocular device (44) is configured for displaying a label of an activation part (4) as a three-dimensional label at the activation part (4)....

  10. Color Display Design Guide (United States)


    and G. M. Corso , "Color flcsearch for Visuz’l Displays, Technical Report No. ONH-CR2l3-102-3, July 1975, 108 pp. 45 1 Results of two code comparison...respective- ly. Since the display elements constitute routine or non-priority informatica , all display information would be coded green if the three-color...1963, with Amendment 1, 30 September 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. 27. Christ, R.E. and G.M. Corso . "Color Research for Visual

  11. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  12. OTFT backplanes for integration into flexible displays (United States)

    Cooke, Michael D.; McCall, Keri L.; Bird, David P.; Lee, Yong Uk; Pease, Tim; Chan, Sam Y. F.; Palumbo, Marco; McGloin, Steve; Ogier, Simon D.


    Recent developments in high performance organic semiconductor (OSC) materials have shown charge mobilities in the range of 2 to 5 cm2/Vs. We present our progress in fabricating organic thin film transistor (OTFT) backplanes using a low temperature process (100°C maximum) and the prospects for integration into flexible displays. Discussion is made of the fabrication process using typical flat panel display equipment as well as the possibility of further device enhancement using ink jet printing technologies. We show the feasibility of achieving an average panel mobility of >1 cm2/Vs on a range of transistor array sizes. Electrical data is presented to show how the parameters of interest, (mobility, on/off ratio, Vth), vary across an array as well as some of the scaling factors that will be important for the final device architecture. Finally, we discuss how these devices have the potential for integration into a range of displays (for example, e-paper and OLEDs) for commercial exploitation.

  13. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display (United States)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy


    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  14. Map display design (United States)

    Aretz, Anthony J.


    This paper presents a cognitive model of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a visual momentum map display to the traditional track-up and north-up approaches. The data show the advantage to a track-up map is its congruence with the ego-centered forward view; however, the development of survey knowledge is hindered by the inconsistency of the rotating display. The stable alignment of a north-up map aids the acquisition of survey knowledge, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for ego-centered tasks. The results also show that visual momentum can be used to reduce the mental rotation costs of a north-up display.

  15. Compressive light field displays. (United States)

    Wetzstein, Gordon; Lanman, Douglas; Hirsch, Matthew; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Raskar, Ramesh


    Light fields are the multiview extension of stereo image pairs: a collection of images showing a 3D scene from slightly different perspectives. Depicting high-resolution light fields usually requires an excessively large display bandwidth; compressive light field displays are enabled by the codesign of optical elements and computational-processing algorithms. Rather than pursuing a direct "optical" solution (for example, adding one more pixel to support the emission of one additional light ray), compressive displays aim to create flexible optical systems that can synthesize a compressed target light field. In effect, each pixel emits a superposition of light rays. Through compression and tailored optical designs, fewer display pixels are necessary to emit a given light field than a direct optical solution would require.

  16. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper


    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  18. Military display performance parameters (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick


    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  19. ORFeome Phage Display. (United States)

    Zantow, Jonas; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael


    ORFeome phage display allows the efficient functional screening of entire proteomes or even metaproteomes to identify immunogenic proteins. For this purpose, randomly fragmented, whole genomes or metagenomes are cloned into a phage-display vector allowing positive selection for open reading frames (ORF) to improve the library quality. These libraries display all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or a microbiome on the phage surface. Consequently, immunogenic proteins can be selected from these libraries using disease-related immunoglobulins from patient serum. ORFeome phage display in particular allows the identification of immunogenic proteins that are only expressed in the host-pathogen interaction but not in cultivation, as well as the detection of very low expressed and very small immunogens and immunogenic proteins of non-cultivable organisms. The identified immunogenic proteins are potential biomarkers for the development of diagnostic assays or vaccines. These articles will give an introduction to ORFeome phage-display technology and give detailed protocols to identify immunogenic proteins by phage display.

  20. Axion crystals (United States)

    Ozaki, Sho; Yamamoto, Naoki


    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity ɛ, permeability μ, and theta angle θ. Crystals with periodic ɛ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic θ (modulo 2 π) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent mass gap and nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems and high-energy physics.

  1. Advanced solar panel designs (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.


    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  2. Multi-Function Displays: A Guide for Human Factors Evaluation (United States)


    Karat , J., McDonald, J., Anderson, M. (1984) Reising, J. & Curry, D. (1987) Sirevaag, E. et al. (1993) 8 1.1.4. MFD Display Manipulation...01-5567). Warrendale, PA: SAE International. Karat , J., McDonald, J., & Anderson, M. (1984). A comparison of selection techniques: Touch panel

  3. Fiber optic high-definition large-screen display system (United States)

    Griffith, Lawrence L.; Reidinger, Michael J.; Feigles, Edward M.


    TRU-LYTE Systems, Inc. is developing an HDTV display that will exceed displays in the large screen display (LSD) market. Due to the present design and manufacturing techniques of LCDs, ELs, and CRTs there are limitations with LSD applications. One of the possible solutions is a hybrid of fiber optic technology and transmissive active matrix LCDs. In this design, multiple LCD modules are coupled with an equal number of fiber optic modules. These modules are designed so that strands of fiber optics are placed in a coherent manner from a rear panel to a predetermined spaced front panel. An image projected onto the rear panel will result in an enlarged image being displayed on the front panel. Imageboard modules would then be manufactured using this design of the building block method. The determining factors would include the desired output intensity, size restrictions, and cost factors. Research has also developed a technology that allows for consistent wide-angle viewing of the image displa'ed by the optical fibers. Applications for this product range from HDTV to stadium scoreboards.

  4. Information rich display design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein


    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles

  5. Panel 3 - characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, R.A.; Erdemir, A.; Janghsing Hsieh; Lee, R.H.; Xian Zheng Pan; Deming Shu [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Feldman, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Glass, J.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (United States); Kleimer, R. [Coors Ceramics Co., Golden, CO (United States); Lawton, E.A. [JPL/Caltech, Pasadena, CA (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)


    The task of this panel was to identify and prioritize needs in the area of characterization of diamond and diamond-like-carbon (DLC) films for use in the transportation industry. Until recent advances in production of inexpensive films of diamonds and DLC, it was not feasible that these materials could be mass produced. The Characterization Panel is restricting itself to identifying needs in areas that would be most useful to manufacturers and users in producing and utilizing diamond and DLC coatings in industry. These characterization needs include in-situ monitoring during growth, relation of structure to performance, and standards and definitions.

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of photovoltaic panels with a rotation mechanism for region of Republic Bashkortostan


    Yakupov, Aynur Makhmut; Ismagilov, Flur Rashitovich; Khayrullin, Irek Hanifovich; Vavilov, Vacheslav Evgenyevich; Bekuzin, Vladimir Igorevich


    This paper deals with evaluation of the effectiveness of using the solar panels in the Republic of Bashkortostan and with the issue of the efficient use of solar energy potential gained from photovoltaic panels via tracking the Sun’s trajectory. The study based on long-term measurements of the selected parameters, the efficiency of the installed system was evaluated in the static regime. We study two types of photovoltaic panels: micromorph and crystal. This article discusses the feasibility ...

  7. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K


    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  8. Survey of multi-function display and control technology (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Tonkin, M. H.


    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multi-function display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space and crew training time. The technology applicable to the development of a MFDCS for orbiter application is surveyed. Technology thought to be applicable presently or in the next five years is highlighted. Areas discussed include display media, data handling and processing, controls and operator interactions and the human factors considerations which are involved in a MFDCS design. Several examples of applicable MFDCS technology are described.

  9. Photovoltaic-Panel Laminator (United States)

    Keenan, R.


    Two-piece unit heats and presses protective layers to form laminate. Rubber diaphragm between upper and lower vacuum chambers alternates between neutral position and one that presses against solar-cell array, supplying distributed force necessary to press layers of laminate together. Encapsulation helps to protect cells from environment and to ensure long panel life while allowing efficient generation of electricity from Sunlight.

  10. Student Panels, Business Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten

    of MSc programmes, the MSc coordinator as well as the administrative secretary. A student panel meets with the department twice in the first year: Early in February to sum up experience from the first semester and in early in June to sum up experience from the second semester. At semester start each MSc...

  11. Dynamic plasmonic colour display (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na


    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  12. Stereo Painting Display Devices (United States)

    Shafer, David


    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  13. Aerial secure display by use of polarization-processing display with retarder film and retro-reflector (United States)

    Ito, Shusei; Uchida, Keitaro; Mizushina, Haruki; Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu


    Security is one of the big issues in automated teller machine (ATM). In ATM, two types of security have to be maintained. One is to secure displayed information. The other is to secure screen contamination. This paper gives a solution for these two security issues. In order to secure information against peeping at the screen, we utilize visual cryptography for displayed information and limit the viewing zone. Furthermore, an aerial information screen with aerial imaging by retro-reflection, named AIRR enables users to avoid direct touch on the information screen. The purpose of this paper is to propose an aerial secure display technique that ensures security of displayed information as well as security against contamination problem on screen touch. We have developed a polarization-processing display that is composed of a backlight, a polarizer, a background LCD panel, a gap, a half-wave retarder, and a foreground LCD panel. Polarization angle is rotated with the LCD panels. We have constructed a polarization encryption code set. Size of displayed images are designed to limit the viewing position. Furthermore, this polarization-processing display has been introduced into our aerial imaging optics, which employs a reflective polarizer and a retro-reflector covered with a quarter-wave retarder. Polarization-modulated light forms the real image over the reflective polarizer. We have successfully formed aerial information screen that shows the secret image with a limited viewing position. This is the first realization of aerial secure display by use of polarization-processing display with retarder-film and retro-reflector.

  14. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM. (United States)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Jeong, Mi-Kyung; Kilicaslan, M Fatih; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hong, Hyun-Seon; Hong, Soon-Jik


    In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Panel and planar experimental shear behavior of wood panels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Panel shear strength along the thickness and planar shear along the length of wood panels laminated softwood oriented OSB 10 mm thick, conditioned at different moisture contents (anhydrous medium, ambient temperature and humid medium) was measured on standardized test specimens, cut in half lengthwise panel ...

  16. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Ubaldini, Stefano [Institute of Environmental Geology and Geoengineering IGAG, National Research Council, Via Salaria km 29300, 00015 Montelibretti, Rome (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [ISL Kopacek KG, Beckmanngasse 51, 1140 Wien (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, 67100, Zona industriale di Pile, L’Aquila (Italy); Beolchini, Francesca, E-mail: [Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)


    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium

  17. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays. (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M


    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  18. FEMA DFIRM Panel Scheme Polygons (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer contains information about the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) panel areas. The spatial entities representing FIRM panels are polygons. The polygon for...

  19. Cross-current leaching of indium from end-of-life LCD panels. (United States)

    Rocchetti, Laura; Amato, Alessia; Fonti, Viviana; Ubaldini, Stefano; De Michelis, Ida; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca


    Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs represent a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2M sulfuric acid at 80°C for 10min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85-90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50-55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO2 (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90kg CO2-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Varrier autostereographic display (United States)

    Sandin, Daniel J.; Margolis, Todd; Dawe, Greg; Leigh, Jason; DeFanti, Thomas A.


    The goal of this research is to develop a head-tracked, stern virtual reality system utilizing plasma or LCD panels. This paper describes a head-tracked barrier auto-stereographic method that is optimized for real-time interactive virtual reality systems. In this method, virtual barrier screen is created simulating the physical barrier screen, and placed in the virtual world in front of the projection plane. An off- axis perspective projection of this barrier screen, combined with the rest of the virtual world, is projected from at least two viewpoints corresponding to the eye positions of the head- tracked viewer. During the rendering process, the simulated barrier screen effectively casts shadows on the projection plane. Since the different projection points cast shadows at different angles, the different viewpoints are spatially separated on the projection plane. These spatially separated images are projected into the viewer's space at different angles by the physical barrier screen. The flexibility of this computational process allows more complicated barrier screens than the parallel opaque lines typically used in barrier strip auto-stereography. In addition this method supports the focusing and steering of images for a user's given viewpoint, and allows for very wide angles of view. This method can produce an effective panel-based auto-stereo virtual reality system.

  1. Mounting clips for panel installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph


    A photovoltaic panel mounting clip comprising a base, central indexing tabs, flanges, lateral indexing tabs, and vertical indexing tabs. The mounting clip removably attaches one or more panels to a beam or the like structure, both mechanically and electrically. It provides secure locking of the panels in all directions, while providing guidance in all directions for accurate installation of the panels to the beam or the like structure.

  2. Rational Design of Composite Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen


    A non-linear structural model for composite panels is presented. The non-linear terms in the lateral displacements are modelled as an additional set of lateral loads acting on the panel. Hence the solution is reduced to that of an equivalent panel with small displacements In order to treat sandwich...

  3. Clinical Space Medicine Panel (United States)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)


    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  4. Display applications for holographic optical elements (United States)

    Gambogi, William J., Jr.; Armstrong, Mark L.; Hamzavy, Babak; Levin, Michael L.; Mackara, Steven R.; Molteni, William J., Jr.; Steijn, Kirk W.; Stevenson, Sylvia H.; Felder, Thomas C.; Heidt, Gerald L.; Miller, Douglas R.


    In the last several years, holographic elements have been introduced into a wide array of display applications. Holographic Reflectors are incorporated with liquid crystal displays to shift optimum viewing angle away form specular glare and raise brightness by concentrating light at a convenient viewing angle. Reflectors can be produced in blue, green, gold, red, or white colors. Denso GlassVision projection screens incorporate transmission holograms to efficiently direct projected light to the viewer in a screen that reverts to clear glass When the projection image is turned off. JVC has introduce da large-screen HDTV that uses a holographic color filter to separate blue, green, and red light from the illumination beam, and direct the sorted colors to the appropriate color pixel, raising brightness with a passive component. Most recently, HOE prototypes have been produced to improve the efficiency of portable liquid crystal color display. Front diffuser are affixed to the face of reflective color LCDs and direct output light from the LCD to the viewer at a convenient viewing angle in a concentrated view cone. Reflective Colors Filters are pixelated diffuse reflectors internal to the LCD structure and aligned to the LCD matrix. These reflective filters provide higher brightness, larger color gamut, and better color saturation including a holographic grating are under development to provide wider view angle in direct-view LCDs.

  5. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per


    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  6. Tactical Video Display. (United States)


    designed to extend the state-of-the-art in the area of thin film electroluminescent display systems. The program entails two major areas of efforts...the inclusion of the residual gases in thin film is very likely and dependent upon the concentrations of the gases and the reactive nature of the...reproducible films . Some exploratory work was also performed on the feasitility of applying a ZnTe /Te system black layer with TFEL structure. Pre

  7. Amplification of chirality in liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelkema, Rienk; Feringa, Ben L.


    The amplification of molecular chirality by liquid crystalline systems is widely applied in investigations towards enantioselective solvent - solute interactions, chiral supramolecular assemblies, smart materials, and the development of liquid crystal displays. Here we present an overview of recent

  8. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  9. Approach of organic light-emitting displays (OLED) to technology status (United States)

    Saini, Gurdial S.; Hopper, Darrel G.


    A display is an electronic component or subsystem used to convert electrical signals into visual imagery in real time suitable for direct interpretation by a human observer. Until recently, the cathode ray tube (CRT) has been the main source of displays. During the last twenty years, it has been determined that alternatives to CRT displays need to found. One of the alternatives was the introduction of flat-panel displays. The term 'flat-panel display' is more of a concept than a specific entity. It is a display which is flat and light and may not require a great deal of power. A flat-panel display is often defined in terms of the ideal display, that being: thin form, low volume, even surface, having high resolution, high contrast, sunlight readable, color, low power, and being solid-state, light weight, and low cost. This is easy to conceive but difficult to deliver. The objective is to develop displays with as many desirable characteristics as possible. Flat-panel displays are basically of two types: the light valve type (that needs an external source of light such as a backlight or arc-lamp) and the emissive type (that generate light at the display surface). The light emitting diode (LED) display is of the emissive type. Inorganic LED and electroluminescent (EL) displays have been in use for more than 25 years in one form or the other because of their 'inherent' ruggedness and operation over extremely wide temperature ranges. Because of certain limitations of inorganic materials (such as cost, power, and color), LED displays do not dominate the high information content flat- panel display market. A recent discovery of polymer and other organic materials has changed LED prospects. It may now be possible to make organic LED displays that are inexpensive, low-power, and at the same time provide high resolution and full color. If present research objectives are met, organic LEDs may revolutionize the flat-panel display market. This paper addresses the various aspects

  10. Panel data analysis using EViews

    CERN Document Server

    Agung, I Gusti Ngurah


    A comprehensive and accessible guide to panel data analysis using EViews software This book explores the use of EViews software in creating panel data analysis using appropriate empirical models and real datasets. Guidance is given on developing alternative descriptive statistical summaries for evaluation and providing policy analysis based on pool panel data. Various alternative models based on panel data are explored, including univariate general linear models, fixed effect models and causal models, and guidance on the advantages and disadvantages of each one is given. Panel Data Analysis

  11. Crystal rainbows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N. E-mail:; Petrovic, S


    This review is devoted to ion transmission through axial channels of thin crystals. In this process the rainbows occur. The effect is called the crystal rainbow effect. We shall describe its origin and present the experiments in which it has been observed. We shall explain also how the crystal rainbows can be classified using catastrophe theory. This classification has resulted in a universal, simple and accurate approximation to the continuum potential in the channels. Besides, the periodicity of the angular distributions of transmitted ions with the reduced crystal thickness will be considered. It will be introduced via the effect of zero-degree focusing of channeled ions. In addition, we shall mention the doughnut effect in ion channeling, which has proven to be the rainbow effect with tilted crystals. All these considerations will demonstrate clearly the usefulness of the theory of crystal rainbows, which is the proper theory of ion channeling in thin crystals00.

  12. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display (United States)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.


    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  13. Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) (United States)

    ... Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Comprehensive Metabolic Panel ( ... or kidneys) is working. What Is a Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP)? The comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a ...

  14. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark


    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  15. Which display technology is the winner in the battle for a big screen? (from the materials of the ASID'04 symposium on information displays) (United States)

    Tomilin, M. G.


    This paper presents information concerning direct-observation liquid-crystal and plasma displays used as big screens for high-definition television and home movies and the prospects for creating three-dimensional television. © 2004

  16. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features (United States)

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade


    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  17. Plasma-panel based detectors (United States)

    Friedman, Peter


    The plasma panel sensor (PPS) is a novel micropattern gas detector inspired by plasma display panels (PDPs), the core component of plasma-TVs. A PDP comprises millions of discrete cells per square meter, each of which, when provided with a signal pulse, can initiate and sustain a plasma discharge. Configured as a detector, a pixel or cell is biased to discharge when a free-electron is generated in the gas. The PPS consists of an array of small plasma discharge pixels, and can be configured to have either an ``open-cell'' or ``closed-cell'' structure, operating with high gain in the Geiger region. We describe both configurations and their application to particle physics. The open-cell PPS lends itself to ultra-low-mass, ultrathin structures, whereas the closed-cell microhexcavity PPS is capable of higher performance. For the ultrathin-PPS, we are fabricating 3-inch devices based on two types of extremely thin, inorganic, transparent, substrate materials: one being 8-10 µm thick, and the other 25-27 µm thick. These gas-filled ultrathin devices are designed to operate in a beam-line vacuum environment, yet must be hermetically-sealed and gas-filled in an ambient environment at atmospheric pressure. We have successfully fabricated high resolution, submillimeter pixel electrodes on both types of ultrathin substrates. We will also report on the fabrication, staging and operation of the first microhexcavity detectors (µH-PPS). The first µH-PPS prototype devices have a 16 by 16 matrix of closed packed hexagon pixels, each having a 2 mm width. Initial tests of these detectors, conducted with Ne based gases at atmospheric pressure, indicate that each pixel responds independent of its neighboring cells, producing volt level pulse amplitudes in response to ionizing radiation. Results will include the hit rate response to a radioactive beta source, cosmic ray muons, the background from spontaneous discharge, pixel isolation and uniformity, and efficiency measurements. This

  18. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.


    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  19. Image Descriptors for Displays (United States)


    the entire display could be changed as often as every 1/60 s (TV field rate). Scan interlace was not used on the monitor. The 1/60-s resolution of...of photons arriving at the retina. These contributions can be separated by examining the experimental mT(v) as a function of luminance. From... photon shot noise, was found to be negligible for luminance .al.•- above 4 iabout 10 mL. Thus, the function A(v) represents the m4(v) employed in the

  20. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel (United States)

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F


    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  1. Photovoltaic panel clamp (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm P.; Mittan, Margaret Birmingham; Miros, Robert H. J.; Stancel, Robert


    A photovoltaic panel clamp includes an upper and lower section. The interface between the assembled clamp halves and the module edge is filled by a flexible gasket material, such as EPDM rubber. The gasket preferably has small, finger like protrusions that allow for easy insertion onto the module edge while being reversed makes it more difficult to remove them from the module once installed. The clamp includes mounting posts or an integral axle to engage a bracket. The clamp also may include a locking tongue to secure the clamp to a bracket.

  2. Market trends in the projection display industry (United States)

    Dash, Sweta


    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  3. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska


    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  4. Protein Crystallization (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.


    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  5. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels. (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J


    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to broaden the impact of traditional speaker panels. The current investigation examined the influence of an interactive "virtual" gay and lesbian speaker panel on cognitive, affective, and behavioral homonegativity. Findings suggest the computer-administered panel is lowers homonegativity, particularly for affective experiential homonegativity. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Industrial resin inspection for display production using automated fluid-inspection based on multimodal optical detection techniques (United States)

    Wijesinghe, Ruchire Eranga; Park, Kibeom; Jung, Yeongri; Kim, Pilun; Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun


    The large-scale liquid-crystal display (LCD) industry requires an accurate inspection system for identifying defects, as the LCD quality can be drastically degraded because of defects. In particular, the refractive index of LCD panels can be changed by internal micrometer-range substances, which form as a result of defectiveness and the insufficient solidification of industrial liquid resins. Intrinsically, the defect inspection of the raw materials must be performed prior to the LCD manufacturing process. Thus, optical coherence tomography (OCT) based automated fluid-inspection (AFI) methodology was introduced to demarcate and enumerate the defects in industrial liquid resins and the final product (LCD smartphone). The accuracy of the method was enhanced by implementing an intensity-detection algorithm. Subsequently, the optimal solidification rates of liquid resins were investigated using a fluorescence sensor-based ultraviolet hardening method to prevent the formation of defects between the internal layers of the LCD panel. Therefore, AFI can be implemented as an effective and cost-saving method in the smartphone industry for improving the quality of the final product.

  7. Computational crystallization. (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H


    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations in performance of LCDs are still evident after DICOM gray-scale standard display calibration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lowe, Joanna M


    Quality assurance in medical imaging is directly beneficial to image quality. Diagnostic images are frequently displayed on secondary-class displays that have minimal or no regular quality assurance programs, and treatment decisions are being made from these display types. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of calibration on physical and psychophysical performance of liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and the extent of potential variance across various types of LCDs.

  9. Determining minimal display element requirements for surface map displays (United States)


    There is a great deal of interest in developing electronic surface map displays to enhance safety and reduce incidents and incursions on or near the airport surface. There is a lack of research, however, detailing the minimal display elements require...

  10. Secure information display with limited viewing zone by use of multi-color visual cryptography. (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Hayasaki, Yoshio; Nishida, Nobuo


    We propose a display technique that ensures security of visual information by use of visual cryptography. A displayed image appears as a completely random pattern unless viewed through a decoding mask. The display has a limited viewing zone with the decoding mask. We have developed a multi-color encryption code set. Eight colors are represented in combinations of a displayed image composed of red, green, blue, and black subpixels and a decoding mask composed of transparent and opaque subpixels. Furthermore, we have demonstrated secure information display by use of an LCD panel.

  11. Solar panel parallel mounting configuration (United States)

    Mutschler, Jr., Edward Charles (Inventor)


    A spacecraft includes a plurality of solar panels interconnected with a power coupler and an electrically operated device to provide power to the device when the solar cells are insolated. The solar panels are subject to bending distortion when entering or leaving eclipse. Spacecraft attitude disturbances are reduced by mounting each of the solar panels to an elongated boom made from a material with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, so that the bending of one panel is not communicated to the next. The boom may be insulated to reduce its bending during changes in insolation. A particularly advantageous embodiment mounts each panel to the boom with a single mounting, which may be a hinge. The single mounting prevents transfer of bending moments from the panel to the boom.

  12. Reliability Study in Solar Panels


    Español Lifante, Albert


    Crystalline silicon Modules are formed by single silicon photovoltaic cells. Since each one of these cells individually contributes to the overall electric power of the panel, the failure of one of them directly affects to its benefits and performance. To Minimize these negative effects, junction boxes with few bypass diodes are usually included in Photovoltaic Solar panels. A still experimental way to built solar panels is to integrate bypass diodes in every single cell, which would in...

  13. Modeling Power-Constrained Optimal Backlight Dimming for Color Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari


    In this paper, we present a framework for modeling color liquid crystal displays (LCDs) having local light-emitting diode (LED) backlight with dimming capability. The proposed framework includes critical aspects like leakage, clipping, light diffusion and human perception of luminance and allows...

  14. Desain Panel Absorpsi Difusor Bunu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indradjaja Makainas


    Full Text Available Panel Absorpsi Difusor Bunu adalah panel akustik yang berfungsi sebagai penyerap sekaligus pemencar bunyi yang terbuat dari sabut kelapa (bunu. Panel ini digunakan untuk mendapatkan Waktu Dengung (ReveberationTime sesuai standar kenyamanan pendengaran didalam ruang teater rumah (home theater, ruang karaoke, studio penyiaran radio, studio rekaman, ruang kelas/siding ,ruangi badah, auditorium. Bunu sebagai bahan yang melimpah di seluruh pelosok Nusantara yang dikenal dengan sebutan kepulauan Nyiur Melambai perlu dimaksimalkan pemanfaatannya. Didaerah umumnya bunu hanya dijadikan sebagai bahan bakar memasak, malah menjadi limbah dari hasil pengolahan kopra. Panel dikerjakan di AKAS desa Rantewringin kabupaten Kebumen provinsi Jawa Tengah dengan cara manua lkecual idalam menguraikan sabut kelapa menjadi serat (coirfibre dan serbuk (cocopeat. Bahan pembuat panel adalah seratnya yang disusun berlapis. Panel dibuat dalam 2 (dua jenis terdiri dari yang datar yang disebut panel indrabunu 01 dan piramida disebut indrabunu 02, untuk mendapatkan nilai koefisien serap αyang berbeda. Pengujian nilai α dari panel dilakukan di Laboratorium Akustik Pusat Penelitian Metrologi LIPI Serpong. Kata Kunci : bunu,panel,absorpsi,difusor

  15. ALDS 1978 panel review. [PNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, D.L. (ed.)


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is examining the analysis of large data sets (ALDS). After one year's work, a panel was convened to evaluate the project. This document is the permanent record of that panel review. It consists of edited transcripts of presentations made to the panel by the PNL staff, a summary of the responses of the panel to these presentations, and PNL's plans for the development of the ALDS project. The representations of the PNL staff described various aspects of the project and/or the philosophy surrounding the project. Supporting materials appear in appendixes. 20 figures, 4 tables. (RWR)

  16. Application of multi-function display and control technology (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.


    The NASA orbiter spacecraft incorporates a complex array of systems, displays, and controls. The incorporation of discrete dedicated controls into a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) offers the potential for savings in weight, power, panel space, and crew training time. Technology identified as applicable to a MFDCS is applied to the orbiter orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and the electrical power distribution and control system (EPDCS) to derive concepts for a MFDCS design. Several concepts of varying degrees of performance and complexity are discussed and a suggested concept for further development is presented in greater detail. Both the hardware and software aspects and the human factors considerations of the designs are included.

  17. Electro-optic bistability in organosiloxane bimesogenic liquid crystals (United States)

    Gardiner, D. J.; Davenport, C. J.; Newton, J.; Coles, H. J.


    In this paper we report the electro-optic characterization of two homologous series of low molar mass bimesogenic siloxane-containing liquid crystals. The materials used have two alkoxycyanobiphenyl mesogenic units with variable alkyl chain joined by a two- or five-siloxane moiety and all exhibit stable smectic A mesophases over wide temperature ranges (up to 100 °C wide). Due to their inherent ruggedness these materials have potential for use in polarizer-free, bistable, scattering display and storage devices. The bistable modes are at low and high frequencies. The low frequency mode (write) is a highly scattering focal conic texture resulting from electrohydrodynamic instabilities while the high frequency mode (erase) is a clear state due to dielectric reorientation of the material. Both modes are preserved upon removal of the applied electric field. We present threshold voltages as a function of temperature, frequency, and cell thickness and response times as a function of voltage for each of the bistable modes. We find reduced threshold voltages (5<=Vth<=12 V/μm) and response times that are strongly dependent on applied voltage (50 ms<=τ<=10 s). These operating conditions would suggest that these materials are particularly suitable for slow update, large area, low power information panels and displays.

  18. A Well Tempered Mammographic Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundel, Harold L


    This proposal addresses the development of a softcopy display for digital mammography that seeks to couple optimally the visual system to the displayed image without excessive human-machine interaction...

  19. New vacuum packaging method of field emission display (United States)

    Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Choi, Woo-Beom; Jeong, S. J.; Lee, Nam Young; Han, Jeong-In; Cho, K. I.; Oh, Myung-Hwan


    Two ITO-coated glass wafers are successfully bonded by the typical Si-Pyrex electrostatic bonding mechanism. Both Si- 7740 and Ti-(Li-doped SiO$02)) interlayer systems can be employed for the electrostatic bonding of 7059-7059 and 0080-0080 glass wafer pairs. This glass-to-glass electrostatic bonding process can be applied to the clean and tubeless packaging of field emission display panels.

  20. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.


    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  1. Extraction of indium-tin oxide from end-of-life LCD panels using ultrasound assisted acid leaching. (United States)

    Souada, Malika; Louage, Christophe; Doisy, Jean-Yves; Meunier, Ludivine; Benderrag, Abdelkader; Ouddane, Baghdad; Bellayer, Séverine; Nuns, Nicolas; Traisnel, Michel; Maschke, Ulrich


    In this report, indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-layer extraction from end-of-life (EOL) Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) was discussed by sulfuric acid leaching with simultaneous application of ultrasonication on the ITO-side of glass/ITO panels, exhibiting various dimensions. Applying this technique presents several advantages compared to the traditional leaching process such as fast and controllable kinetics, high extraction yield of indium and tin, selective recovery of these two metals possible, and the opportunity to recycle the neat glass separately avoiding additional separation processes. ITO-dissolution kinetics from EOL LCD panels were investigated as function of leaching time and acidity of sulfuric acid. At a temperature of 60°C, a nearly quantitative indium yield was obtained using an acid concentration of 18mol/L by simultaneous application of ultrasonication, whereas only 70% were recovered in the absence of ultrasound. Results from ICP-AES agreed well with SEM/BSE observations demonstrating the high efficiency of the ultrasound assisted process since only 3-4min were required to obtain maximum ITO recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal delivery in display advertising


    Mostagir, Mohamed


    In display advertising, a publisher targets a specific audience by displaying ads on content web pages. Because the publisher has little control over the supply of display opportunities, the actual supply of ads that it can sell is stochastic. We consider the problem of optimal ad delivery, where an advertiser requests a certain number of impressions to be displayed by the publisher over a certain time horizon. Time is divided into periods, and in the beginning of each period the publisher ch...

  3. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays (United States)

    Schor, Clifton


    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  4. Development of the style guide for DPPS FPD display design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon


    DPPS(Digital Plat Protection System) plays a role of generating the reactor trip signal and ESF(Engineered Safety Features) actuation signal when monitored plant processes reach the predefined limits. DPPS has 3 user interface system; RCM(Remote Control Modules) in MCB(Main Control Board), MTP(Maintenance and Test Panel) with main cabinets in MCR(Main Control Room) outer area, and RSP(Remote Shutdown Panel) near the plant. DPPS has been designed using analog displays and controls, a FPD(Flat Panel Display) in MTP is adopted firstly in Ulchin 5 and 6 plant. The FPD in Ulchin 5 and 6 has many screens to which the parts of analog displays and controls in the conventional MTP are transferred without many changes in appearance, thus there is no dedicated design guideline for the FPD in Ulchin 5 and 6. The adoption of FPD in subsequent DPPS is highly expected and so the guideline for FPD screen design is necessary. This report provides the styleguide applicable to design new FPD screens. This styleguide is developed on the basis of FPD screens in Ulchine 5 and 6 so that the satisfactory FPD screen design can be supported in case that the physical specification of new FPD is equal to that of Ulchine 5 and 6 FPD. However the sources related to each guide in the styleguide are described, thus the styleguide can be used to develop new styleguide for the different FPD specification.

  5. Liquid crystal dimers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar Pal, Santanu


    This book covers in-depth discussion of design principles, synthesis and thermal behavior of all types of liquid crystal (LC) dimers. The text presents recent advances in the field of LC dimers consisting of different mesogenic units such as calamitic, discotic and bent-core molecules. It starts with a chapter on the introduction of liquid crystal dimers, including their odd-even behavior, basic classification of dimers and common mesophases in dimers. The text shows how the molecular architectures are being used to develop new materials to study a range of interesting phenomena such as the biaxial nematic phase containing rod-like and disc-like mesogenic units. Finally, the text presents perspectives related to technological relevance of these dimers such as dopants in LC display mixtures exhibiting faster relaxation time, strong flexoelectric coupling and others to effect control over the properties of these materials.

  6. The sweet world of liquid crystals : The synthesis of non-amphiphilic carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E


    The research in carbohydrate-derived liquid crystals was initiated by a review article by Jeffrey in 1986. This is rather late if one considers that the research on liquid crystals underwent a revival already in the 1960s after the discovery of the liquid crystal display (LCD). Carbohydrates were

  7. Crystal growth and magnetic properties of GdFeO3 crystals by floating zone method (United States)

    Wu, Anhua; Wang, Zhanliang; Wang, Bo; Ban, Xiaolei; Jiang, Linwen; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Shujuan; Cao, Shixun


    GdFeO3 and other rare earth substituted crystals with distorted orthorhombic pervoskite-like structure (space group Pbnm) have attracted much attention due to their remarkable magnetic properties of primary significance for technological applications. In the present work, the floating zone growth of GdFeO3 crystals has been systematically investigated and high quality GdFeO3 crystal was obtained by optimized process. The intrinsic magnetic properties of GdFeO3 crystal were investigated. GdFeO3 crystal displayed paramagnetic characteristic at low temperature, as temperature increased, a transition from paramagnetism to antiferromagnetism was observed.

  8. Plane and parabolic solar panels


    Sales, J. H. O.; Suzuki, A. T.


    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  9. Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González, Andrés; Terasvirta, Timo; Dijk, Dick van

    We introduce the panel smooth transition regression model. This new model is intended for characterizing heterogeneous panels, allowing the regression coefficients to vary both across individuals and over time. Specifically, heterogeneity is allowed for by assuming that these coefficients are bou...

  10. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana


    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  11. Colorimetry for CRT displays. (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A


    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  12. Mounting clips for panel installation (United States)

    Cavieres, Andres; Al-Haddad, Tristan; Goodman, Joseph; Valdes, Francisco


    An exemplary mounting clip for removably attaching panels to a supporting structure comprises a base, spring locking clips, a lateral flange, a lever flange, and a spring bonding pad. The spring locking clips extend upwardly from the base. The lateral flange extends upwardly from a first side of the base. The lateral flange comprises a slot having an opening configured to receive at least a portion of one of the one or more panels. The lever flange extends outwardly from the lateral flange. The spring bonding flange extends downwardly from the lever flange. At least a portion of the first spring bonding flange comprises a serrated edge for gouging at least a portion of the one or more panels when the one or more panels are attached to the mounting clip to electrically and mechanically couple the one or more panels to the mounting clip.

  13. Crystal Dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Armstrong


    Full Text Available Crystal dislocations were invisible until the mid-20th century although their presence had been inferred; the atomic and molecular scale dimensions had prevented earlier discovery. Now they are normally known to be just about everywhere, for example, in the softest molecularly-bonded crystals as well as within the hardest covalently-bonded diamonds. The advent of advanced techniques of atomic-scale probing has facilitated modern observations of dislocations in every crystal structure-type, particularly by X-ray diffraction topography and transmission electron microscopy. The present Special Issue provides a flavor of their ubiquitous presences, their characterizations and, especially, their influence on mechanical and electrical properties.

  14. Liquid crystal tunable photonic crystal dye laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, Thomas; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Smith, Cameron


    We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium.......We present a dye-doped liquid crystal laser using a photonic crystal cavity. An applied electric field to the liquid crystal provides wavelength tunability. The photonic crystal enhances resonant interaction with the gain medium....

  15. Tiled++: an enhanced tiled hi-res display wall. (United States)

    Ebert, Achim; Thelen, Sebastian; Olech, Peter-Scott; Meyer, Joerg; Hagen, Hans


    In recent years, high-resolution displays have become increasingly important to decision makers and scientists because large screens combined with a high pixel count facilitate content rich, simultaneous display of computer-generated imagery and high-definition video data from multiple sources. Tiled displays are attractive due to their extended screen real estate, scalability, and low cost. LCD panels are usually preferred over projectors because of their superior resolution. One of the drawbacks of LCD-based tiled displays is the fact that users sometimes get distracted by the screens' bezels, which cause discontinuities in rendered images, animations, or videos. Most conventional solutions either ignore the bezels and display all pixels, causing objects to become distorted, or eliminate the pixels that would normally fall under the bezels, causing pixels to be missing in the display of static images. In animations, the missing pixels will eventually reappear when the object moves, providing an experience that is similar to looking through a French window. In this paper, we present a new scalable approach that leads neither to discontinuities nor to significant loss of information. By projecting onto the bezels, we demonstrate that a combination of LCD-based tiled displays and projection significantly reduces the bezel problem. Our technique eliminates ambiguities that commonly occur on tiled displays in the fields of information visualization, visual data analysis, human-computer interaction, and scientific data display. It improves the usability of multimonitor systems by virtually eliminating the bezels. We describe a setup and provide results from an evaluation experiment conducted on a 3 x 3 and on a 10 x 5 tiled display wall.

  16. Augmenting digital displays with computation (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  17. PACS displays: how to select the right display technology. (United States)

    Hirschorn, David S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Michael J


    The medical imaging display is a precision instrument with many features not found in commercial-grade displays. The more one understands what these features are and their corresponding clinical value, the better one can make a purchase decision. None of these displays maintain themselves for 5 years or more without some degree of automatic or manual performance testing. Routine calibration conformance checks are beginning to be mandated by the departments of health of many states. Most manufacturers provide mechanisms to perform these checks and keep track of their results, some more easily than others. A consistent display brightness of about 400 cd/m(2) and close conformance to the DICOM curve are the key components of a successful check. Displays are typically characterized by the number of pixels they contain, usually 2, 3, or 5 megapixels, but this is the least useful determinant of image quality. What matters most is the size of the pixels and the size of the whole display, which should be selected on the basis of the typical viewing distance. The farther one's eyes are from the display, the larger the pixels and the overall display size can be while still feeding the eye as much information as it can see. Care should be taken to use the appropriate display in a given setting for the clinical purpose at hand. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 7 CFR 1940.968 - Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel Grant). (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... of Certain Rural Development Programs § 1940.968 Rural Economic Development Review Panel Grant (Panel... associated with a State rural economic development review panel. (b) Objective. The objective of the Panel...

  19. Glass/Epoxy Door Panel for Automobiles (United States)

    Bauer, J. L. JR.


    Lightweight panel cost-effective. Integrally-molded intrusion strap key feature of composite outer door panel. Strap replaces bulky and heavy steel instrusion beam of conventional door. Standard steel inner panel used for demonstration purposes. Door redesigned to exploit advantages of composite outer panel thinner. Outer panel for automobilie door, made of glass/epoxy composite material, lighter than conventional steel door panel, meets same strength requirements, and less expensive.

  20. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS (United States)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt


    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  1. Texture-based correspondence display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. Texture-based correspondence display extends the effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data to the understanding and creation of visual representation models.

  2. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav


    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  3. Testing panels in shear and biaxial compression (United States)

    Neary, J. K.


    Hydraulic jacks simultaneously apply torsion, axial compression, and lateral compression to structural panels. Jacks are suitable for testing large panels used in aircraft, lightweight trucks, and buses.

  4. Third-Generation Display Technology: Nominally Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow


    Full Text Available Display technology is reshaping the consumer, business, government, and even not-for-profit markets in the midst of the digital convergence, coupled with recent smart phones led by Apple, Inc. First-Generation (1G display technology was dominated by the Cathode Ray Tubes, followed by Liquid Crystal Display and Plasma in 2G. A radically innovative shift as a disruptive technology is expected to follow in 3G to utilize virtually any transparent material, which wirelessly connects to portable access points. This paper studies the feasibility of the 3G Display Technology (DT with Technology S-Curves, and presents possible business models and technology strategies which may be generated from it. Additional subsets of business models may be derived for a wide range of industry applications.

  5. Separation and recovery of glass, plastic and indium from spent LCD panels. (United States)

    Ferella, Francesco; Belardi, Girolamo; Marsilii, Antonella; De Michelis, Ida; Vegliò, Francesco


    The present paper deals with physico-mechanical pre-treatments for dismantling of spent liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and further recovery of valuable fractions like plastic, glass and indium. After a wide experimental campaign, two processes were designed, tested and optimized. In the wet process, 20%, 15% and 40% by weight of the feeding panels are recovered as plastic, glass and indium concentrate, respectively. Instead, in the dry process, only two fractions were separated: around 11% and 85% by weight are recovered as plastic and glass/indium mixture. Indium, that concentrated in the -212μm fraction, was completely dissolved by sulphuric acid leaching (0.75molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, 80°C, 10%vol H 2 O 2 , pulp density 10%wt/vol, leaching time 3h). 100% of indium can be extracted from the pregnant solution with 5%wt/vol Amberlite™ resin, at room temperature and pH 3 in 24h. Indium was thus re-extracted from the resin by means of a 2molL -1 H 2 SO 4 solution, at room temperature and S/L of 40%wt/vol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System (United States)

    Geng, Jason


    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  7. Exascale Workshop Panel Report Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, Mohammad A.


    The Exascale Review Panel consists of 12 scientists and engineers with experience in various aspects of high-performance computing and its application, development, and management. The Panel hear presentations by several representatives of the workshops and town meetings convened over the past few years to examine the need for exascale computation capability and the justification for a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program to develop such capability. This report summarizes information provided by the presenters and substantial written reports to the Panel in advance of the meeting in Washington D.C. on January 19-20, 2010. The report also summarizes the Panel's conclusions with regard to the justification of a DOE-led exascale initiative.

  8. Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  9. Display Technology: An Annotated Bibliography. (United States)


    cockpit displays in future aircraft may be radically different from the present arrays of separate, single-purpose instruments. Many display ca - pabilities...Interna- tional Air Transport Association 15th Technical Conference, Lucerne , Switzer- land, April 1963. Engineering Paper No. 1583, Douglas Aircraft

  10. Cognitive Considerations in Display Design. (United States)

    Simcox, William

    This investigation of the encoding features of graphs begins with a description of a cognitive framework which allows designers to factor into the process of designing displays how people interpret the information found and what display properties are responsible for this interpretation. The framework also provides a performance measure for use in…

  11. Real Image Visual Display System (United States)


    Vol. 1457 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 11, 274-282 (February 1991). 15. Lucente, Marc . "Optimization of Hologram Computaion for Real-Time," SPIE Vol. 1667 Practical Holography VI, 32-43 (February 1992). 16. Marraud, A. and M. Bonnet . "Restitution of Stereoscopic Picture by Means

  12. Controlling Power Consumption for Displays With Backlight Dimming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantel, Claire; Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan


    Backlight dimming of Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technology which aims at saving power and improving visual quality. The evolution of energy standards and the increasing public expectations regarding power consumption have made it necessary for backlight systems to manage their power....... Such a control is challenging to implement, because for LCD displays quality and power are closely interlinked, and one cannot be modified without affecting the other. To address this issue, we present a framework for power controlled backlight dimming defining some key concepts. Two methods to obtain backlights...

  13. Electronic recording of holograms with applications to holographic displays (United States)

    Claspy, P. C.; Merat, F. L.


    The paper describes an electronic heterodyne recording which uses electrooptic modulation to introduce a sinusoidal phase shift between the object and reference wave. The resulting temporally modulated holographic interference pattern is scanned by a commercial image dissector camera, and the rejection of the self-interference terms is accomplished by heterodyne detection at the camera output. The electrical signal representing this processed hologram can then be used to modify the properties of a liquid crystal light valve or a similar device. Such display devices transform the displayed interference pattern into a phase modulated wave front rendering a three-dimensional image.

  14. Tactical cockpits: flat panel design imperatives (United States)

    Adam, Eugene C.


    A cockpit revolution is in the making. Many of the much ballyhooed, much promised, but little delivered technologies of the 70's and 80's will finally come of age in the 90's just in time to complement the data explosion coming from sensor and processing advances. Technologies such as helmet systems, large flat panel displays, speech recognition, color graphics, decision aiding and stereopsis, are simultaneously reaching technology maturities that promise big payoffs for the third generation cockpit and beyond. The first generation cockpit used round dials to help the pilot keep the airplane flying right side up. The second generation cockpit used Multifunction Displays and the HUD to interface the pilot with sensors and weapons. What might the third generation cockpit look like? How might it integrate many of these technologies to simplify the pilots life and most of all: what is the payoff? This paper will examine tactical cockpit problems, the technologies needed to solve them and recommend three generations of solutions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  16. Holographic display system for restoration of sight to the blind (United States)

    Goetz, G. A.; Mandel, Y.; Manivanh, R.; Palanker, D. V.; Čižmár, T.


    Objective. We present a holographic near-the-eye display system enabling optical approaches for sight restoration to the blind, such as photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, optogenetic and other photoactivation techniques. We compare it with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) or digital light processing (DLP)-based displays in terms of image quality, field of view, optical efficiency and safety. Approach. We detail the optical configuration of the holographic display system and its characterization using a phase-only spatial light modulator. Main results. We describe approaches to controlling the zero diffraction order and speckle related issues in holographic display systems and assess the image quality of such systems. We show that holographic techniques offer significant advantages in terms of peak irradiance and power efficiency, and enable designs that are inherently safer than LCD or DLP-based systems. We demonstrate the performance of our holographic display system in the assessment of cortical response to alternating gratings projected onto the retinas of rats. Significance. We address the issues associated with the design of high brightness, near-the-eye display systems and propose solutions to the efficiency and safety challenges with an optical design which could be miniaturized and mounted onto goggles.

  17. Holographic display system for restoration of sight to the blind. (United States)

    Goetz, G A; Mandel, Y; Manivanh, R; Palanker, D V; Čižmár, T


    We present a holographic near-the-eye display system enabling optical approaches for sight restoration to the blind, such as photovoltaic retinal prosthesis, optogenetic and other photoactivation techniques. We compare it with conventional liquid crystal displays (LCD) or digital light processing (DLP)-based displays in terms of image quality, field of view, optical efficiency and safety. We detail the optical configuration of the holographic display system and its characterization using a phase-only spatial light modulator. We describe approaches to controlling the zero diffraction order and speckle related issues in holographic display systems and assess the image quality of such systems. We show that holographic techniques offer significant advantages in terms of peak irradiance and power efficiency, and enable designs that are inherently safer than LCD or DLP-based systems. We demonstrate the performance of our holographic display system in the assessment of cortical response to alternating gratings projected onto the retinas of rats. We address the issues associated with the design of high brightness, near-the-eye display systems and propose solutions to the efficiency and safety challenges with an optical design which could be miniaturized and mounted onto goggles.

  18. An integrated impact assessment and weighting methodology: evaluation of the environmental consequences of computer display technology substitution. (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Schoenung, Julie M


    Computer display technology is currently in a state of transition, as the traditional technology of cathode ray tubes is being replaced by liquid crystal display flat-panel technology. Technology substitution and process innovation require the evaluation of the trade-offs among environmental impact, cost, and engineering performance attributes. General impact assessment methodologies, decision analysis and management tools, and optimization methods commonly used in engineering cannot efficiently address the issues needed for such evaluation. The conventional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) process often generates results that can be subject to multiple interpretations, although the advantages of the LCA concept and framework obtain wide recognition. In the present work, the LCA concept is integrated with Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a popular industrial quality management tool, which is used as the framework for the development of our integrated model. The problem of weighting is addressed by using pairwise comparison of stakeholder preferences. Thus, this paper presents a new integrated analytical approach, Integrated Industrial Ecology Function Deployment (I2-EFD), to assess the environmental behavior of alternative technologies in correlation with their performance and economic characteristics. Computer display technology is used as the case study to further develop our methodology through the modification and integration of various quality management tools (e.g., process mapping, prioritization matrix) and statistical methods (e.g., multi-attribute analysis, cluster analysis). Life cycle thinking provides the foundation for our methodology, as we utilize a published LCA report, which stopped at the characterization step, as our starting point. Further, we evaluate the validity and feasibility of our methodology by considering uncertainty and conducting sensitivity analysis.

  19. 7 CFR 2902.19 - Composite panels. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composite panels. 2902.19 Section 2902.19 Agriculture... Composite panels. (a) Definitions. (1) Plastic lumber composite panels. Engineered products suitable for non... composite panels. Engineered products designed for use as structural and sound deadening material suitable...

  20. Restraint Age Forming Of Machined Panels (United States)

    Wood, Rebecca


    Panels bent permanently without cracking. In restraint age forming, panel wrapped onto mandrel having necessary curved contour, restrained on mandrel clamps and vacuum, and heat treated. When panel released after end of heat treatment, retains contour of mandrel except for small springback. Process repeatable: panels subsequently processed under same mechanical and thermal conditions on same contour emerge with same final contour.

  1. Tone compatibility between HDR displays (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier


    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  2. Application of industrial robots in automatic disassembly line of waste LCD displays (United States)

    Wang, Sujuan


    In the automatic disassembly line of waste LCD displays, LCD displays are disassembled into plastic shells, metal shields, circuit boards, and LCD panels. Two industrial robots are used to cut metal shields and remove circuit boards in this automatic disassembly line. The functions of these two industrial robots, and the solutions to the critical issues of model selection, the interfaces with PLCs and the workflows were described in detail in this paper.

  3. Texture-Based Correspondence Display (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael


    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  4. High temperature structural sandwich panels (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  5. Phononic crystal slabs: fundamentals and applications


    Khelif, Abdelkrim


    International audience; We present in this paper theoretical and experimental studies of guided acoustic wave propagating in phononic crystal slabs. By the insertion of scatters or the deposition of pillars on slabs, we are able to built up these artificial crystals. With appropriate choice of the geometrical parameters, we show that these structures can display complete band gaps in silicone membrane based on a Bragg or a local resonance mechanism. Additionally, the introduction of defects i...

  6. 77 FR 30044 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: Social Security Administration... Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel (Panel) is a discretionary panel, established under the... Information Development Advisory Panel, Social Security Administration, 6401 Security Boulevard, Robert M...

  7. Visual ergonomic aspects of glare on computer displays: glossy screens and angular dependence (United States)

    Brunnström, Kjell; Andrén, Börje; Konstantinides, Zacharias; Nordström, Lukas


    Recently flat panel computer displays and notebook computer are designed with a so called glare panel i.e. highly glossy screens, have emerged on the market. The shiny look of the display appeals to the costumers, also there are arguments that the contrast, colour saturation etc improves by using a glare panel. LCD displays suffer often from angular dependent picture quality. This has been even more pronounced by the introduction of Prism Light Guide plates into displays for notebook computers. The TCO label is the leading labelling system for computer displays. Currently about 50% of all computer displays on the market are certified according to the TCO requirements. The requirements are periodically updated to keep up with the technical development and the latest research in e.g. visual ergonomics. The gloss level of the screen and the angular dependence has recently been investigated by conducting user studies. A study of the effect of highly glossy screens compared to matt screens has been performed. The results show a slight advantage for the glossy screen when no disturbing reflexes are present, however the difference was not statistically significant. When disturbing reflexes are present the advantage is changed into a larger disadvantage and this difference is statistically significant. Another study of angular dependence has also been performed. The results indicates a linear relationship between the picture quality and the centre luminance of the screen.

  8. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  9. Color speckle in laser displays (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo


    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  10. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  11. Solar Panel based Milk Pasteurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard


    This paper treats the subject of analysis, design and development of the control system for a solar panel based milk pasteurization system to be used in small villages in Tanzania. The analysis deals with the demands for an acceptable pasteurization, the varying energy supply and the low cost, low...... complexity, simple user interface and high reliability demands. Based on these demands a concept for the pasteurization system is established and a control system is developed. A solar panel has been constructed and the energy absorption has been tested in Tanzania. Based on the test, the pasteurization...... system is dimensioned. A functional prototype of the pasteurization facility with a capacity of 200 l milk/hour has been developed and tested. The system is prepared for solar panels as the main energy source and is ready for a test in Tanzania....

  12. Quality of Experience for Large Ultra-High-Resolution Tiled Displays with Synchronization Mismatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sachin


    Full Text Available This paper relates to quality of experience when viewing images, video, or other content on large ultra-high-resolution displays made from individual display tiles. We define experiments to measure vernier acuity caused by synchronization mismatch for moving images. The experiments are used to obtain synchronization mismatch acuity threshold as a function of object velocity and as a function of occlusion or gap width. Our main motivation for measuring the synchronization mismatch vernier acuity is its relevance in the application of tiled display systems, which create a single contiguous image using individual discrete panels arranged in a matrix with each panel utilizing a distributed synchronization algorithm to display parts of the overall image. We also propose a subjective assessment method for perception evaluation of synchronization mismatch for large ultra-high-resolution tiled displays. For this, we design a synchronization mismatch measurement test video set for various tile configurations for various interpanel synchronization mismatch values. The proposed method for synchronization mismatch perception can evaluate tiled displays with or without tile bezels. The results from this work can help during design of low-cost tiled display systems, which utilize distributed synchronization mechanisms for a contiguous or bezeled image display.

  13. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels (United States)

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.


    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer-delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to…

  14. Reduced complexity MPEG2 video post-processing for HD display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kamran; Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren


    This paper presents MPEG(2) decoder post-processing for high definition (HD) flat panel displays. The focus is to design efficient post-processing to reduce blocking and ringing artifacts. Standard deblocking modules are improved to obtain a significant load reduction through a new DCT based...

  15. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  16. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods (United States)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  17. Solar panel truss mounting systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Haddad, Tristan Farris; Cavieres, Andres; Gentry, Russell; Goodman, Joseph; Nolan, Wade; Pitelka, Taylor; Rahimzadeh, Keyan; Brooks, Bradley; Lohr, Joshua; Crooks, Ryan; Porges, Jamie; Rubin, Daniel


    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention provides a solar panel truss mounting system comprising a base and a truss assembly coupled to the base. The truss assembly comprises a first panel rail mount, second panel rail mount parallel to the first panel rail mount, base rail mount parallel to the first and second panel rail mounts, and a plurality of support members. A first portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first and second panel rail mounts. A second portion of the plurality of support members extends between the first panel rail mount and the base rail mount. A third portion of the plurality of support members extends between the second panel rail mount and the base rail mount. The system can further comprise a plurality of connectors for coupling a plurality of photovoltaic solar panels to the truss assembly.

  18. Performance analysis of multi-primary color display based on OLEDs/PLEDs (United States)

    Xiong, Yan; Deng, Fei; Xu, Shan; Gao, Shufang


    A multi-primary color display, such as the six-primary color format, is a solution in expanding the color gamut of a full-color flat panel display. The performance of a multi-primary color display based on organic/polymer light-emitting diodes was analyzed in this study using the fitting curves of the characteristics of devices (i.e., current density, voltage, luminance). A white emitter was introduced into a six-primary color format to form a seven-primary color format that contributes to energy saving, and the ratio of power efficiency of a seven-primary color display to that of a six-primary color display would increase from 1.027 to 1.061 by using emitting diodes with different electroluminescent efficiencies. Different color matching schemes of the seven-primary color format display were compared in a uniform color space, and the scheme of the color reproduction did not significantly affect the display performance. Although seven- and six-primary color format displays benefit a full-color display with higher quality, they are less efficient than three-primary (i.e., red (R), green (G), and blue (B), RGB) and four-primary (i.e., RGB+white, RGBW) color format displays. For the seven-primary color formats considered in this study, the advantages of white-primary-added display with efficiently developed light-emitting devices were more evident than the format without a white primary.

  19. Elucidating the effects of solar panel waste glass substitution on the physical and mechanical characteristics of clay bricks. (United States)

    Lin, Kae-Long; Huang, Long-Sheng; Shie, Je-Lueng; Cheng, Ching-Jung; Lee, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Tien-Chin


    This study deals with the effect of solar panel waste glass on fired clay bricks. Brick samples were heated to temperatures which varied from 700-1000 degrees C for 6 h, with a heating rate of 10 degrees C min(-1). The material properties of the resultant material were then determined, including speciation variation, loss on ignition, shrinkage, bulk density, 24-h absorption rate, compressive strength and salt crystallization. The results indicate that increasing the amount of solar panel waste glass resulted in a decrease in the water absorption rate and an increase in the compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass bricks. The 24-h absorption rate and compressive strength of the solar panel waste glass brick made from samples containing 30% solar panel waste glass sintered at 1000 degrees C all met the Chinese National Standard (CNS) building requirements for first-class brick (compressive strengths and water absorption of the bricks were 300 kg cm(-2) and 10% of the brick, respectively). The addition of solar panel waste glass to the mixture reduced the degree of firing shrinkage. The salt crystallization test and wet-dry tests showed that the addition of solar panel waste glass had highly beneficial effects in that it increased the durability of the bricks. This indicates that solar panel waste glass is indeed suitable for the partial replacement of clay in bricks.

  20. DNA Brick Crystals with Prescribed Depth (United States)

    Ke, Yonggang; Ong, Luvena L.; Sun, Wei; Song, Jie; Dong, Mingdong; Shih, William M.; Yin, Peng


    We describe a general framework for constructing two-dimensional crystals with prescribed depth and sophisticated three-dimensional features. These crystals may serve as scaffolds for the precise spatial arrangements of functional materials for diverse applications. The crystals are self-assembled from single-stranded DNA components called DNA bricks. We demonstrate the experimental construction of DNA brick crystals that can grow to micron-size in the lateral dimensions with precisely controlled depth up to 80 nanometers. They can be designed to display user-specified sophisticated three-dimensional nanoscale features, such as continuous or discontinuous cavities and channels, and to pack DNA helices at parallel and perpendicular angles relative to the plane of the crystals. PMID:25343605

  1. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.


    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  2. Panel: RFID Security and Privacy (United States)

    Fu, Kevin

    The panel on RFID security and privacy included Ross Anderson, Jon Callas, Yvo Desmedt, and Kevin Fu. Topics for discussion included the "chip and PIN" EMV payment systems, e-Passports, "mafia" attacks, and RFID-enabled credit cards. Position papers by the panelists appear in the following pages, and the RFID-enabled credit card work appears separately in these proceedings.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve DAPHIN TANGUY


    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology for extremal control of photovoltaic panels has been designed through the use of an embedded polynomial controller using robust approaches and algorithms. Also, a framework for testing solar trackers in a hard ware in the loop (HIL configuration has been established. Efficient gradient based optimization methods were put in place in order to determine the parameters of the employed photovoltaic panel, as well as for computing the Maximum Power Point (MPP. Further a numerical RST controller has been computed in order to allow the panel to follow the movement of the sun to obtain a maximum energetic efficiency. A robustness analysis and correction procedure has been done on the RST polynomial algorithm. The hardware in the loop configuration allows for the development of a test and development platform which can be used for bringing improvements to the current design and also test different control approaches. For this, a microcontroller based solution was chosen. The achieved performances of the closed loop photovoltaic panel (PP system are validated in simulation using the MATLAB / SIMULINK environment and the WinPim & WinReg dedicated software. As it will be seen further in this paper, the extremal control of this design resides in a sequential set of computations used for obtaining the new Maximum Power Point at each change in the system.

  4. Peg supported thermal insulation panel (United States)

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J.; Owens, William J.


    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  5. NAS Panel faults export controls (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A study prepared by a top-level panel says that current export controls on militarily sensitive U.S. technology may be “overcorrecting” previous weaknesses in that system, resulting in “a complex and confusing control system” that makes it more difficult for U.S. businesses to compete in international markets. Moreover, this control system has “an increasingly corrosive effect” on U.S. relations with allies. The panel recommended that the United States concentrate more effort on bringing about uniformity in the export control policies of countries belonging to the Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom), i.e., most of the member nations in NATO (the North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and Japan.The 21-member panel was appointed by the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP), a joint unit of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The panel, composed of administrators, researchers, and former government officials, was chaired by AGU member Lew Allen, Jr., director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (Pasadena, Calif.) and former chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. Their report was supported by NAS funds, by a number of private organizations (including AGU), by the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and State, by the National Science Foundation, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. ASIST 2003: Part II: Panels. (United States)

    Proceedings of the ASIST Annual Meeting, 2003


    Forty-six panels address topics including women in information science; users and usability; information studies; reference services; information policies; standards; interface design; information retrieval; information networks; metadata; shared access; e-commerce in libraries; knowledge organization; information science theories; digitization;…

  7. Mobile response in web panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijne, M.A.; Wijnant, A.


    This article investigates unintended mobile access to surveys in online, probability-based panels. We find that spontaneous tablet usage is drastically increasing in web surveys, while smartphone usage remains low. Further, we analyze the bias of respondent profiles using smartphones and tablets

  8. Humid free efficient solar panel (United States)

    Panjwani, Manoj Kumar; Panjwani, Suresh Kumar; Mangi, Fareed Hussain; Khan, Danish; Meicheng, Li


    The paper examines the impact of the humidity on the Solar panels which makes a space for the drastic variation in the power generated and makes the device less efficient. Humidity readily affects the efficiency of the solar cells and creates a minimal layer of water on its surface. It also decreases the efficiency by 10-20% of the total power output produced. Moreover, to handle this issue, all around characterized measures are required to be taken to guarantee the smooth working of the solar panels utilized in humid areas. In connection with this issue, Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan which is located near the costal line touching Arabian Sea, was taken as a reference city to measure the humidity range. In Karachi, the average humidity lies between 25-70% (as per Pakistan Meteorological Department PMD), that indirectly leads in decreasing power acquired from a Solar Panel and develops various complexities for the solar system. The system on average experiences stability issues, such as those of power fluctuations etc., due to which, the whole solar system installed observes abnormal variations in acquired power. Silica Gel was used as a desiccant material in order to assure dryness over the solar panel. More than four experiments were conducted with the usage of water absorbent to improve the efficiency and to make system more power efficient.

  9. Large Scale Glazed Concrete Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe


    and finally Lene Tranberg and Bøje Lungård’s Elsinore water purification plant. These buildings have qualities that I would like applied, perhaps transformed or most preferably, if possible, interpreted anew, for the large glazed concrete panels I shall develop. The article is ended and concluded...

  10. On-line data display (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli


    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  11. Three-dimensional display technologies (United States)

    Geng, Jason


    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  12. Potential and recycling strategies for LCD panels from WEEE


    Ueberschaar, Maximilian; Schlummer, Martin; Jalalpoor, Daniel; Kaup, Nora; Rotter, Vera Susanne


    Indium is one of the strategically important materials, which have been characterized as critical by various industrialized countries. Despite its high relevance, only low recycling rates are realized. Its main application is in indium tin oxide (ITO), which is used in the production of liquid crystal displays (LCD). However, recovery strategies for indium from LCDs are not yet being implemented in recycling practices. Although LCDs consist of a sandwich compound with additional materials suc...

  13. Stereoscopic imaging and display for a 3-D mobile phone. (United States)

    Park, Min-Chul; Park, Sang Ju; Son, Jung-Young


    There is growing interest in imaging and display of stereoscopic images on a mobile phone. Mobile phone users can capture a stereo image pair by taking two pictures, one after another, with a single camera at the left and right eye positions. Such a handheld setup makes it difficult to take the stereo image pair at the exact positions. In this respect, although either radial (toed-in) or parallel arrangements can be used, the former is better suited for a short distance subject, such as a self-portrait, because a single reference point can be placed at the center of two pictures. We describe the optimum distance of camera shifting in the horizontal direction, allowable differences of the radial arrangement for taking stereo images at a short distance, and the alignment procedure of viewing zone forming optics on the display panel through experiments and human subjective evaluation.

  14. Integration of electroluminescent displays on multilayer ceramic-on-metal circuit boards for application in military vehicles (United States)

    Riddle, George H. N.; Sreeram, A. N.; Staebler, David L.; Mahdi, Ken F.; Sun, Sey-Shing; Morton, David C.


    Display system requirements for deployment in military vehicles are very demanding. Multilayer ceramic-on-metal circuit board technology is being applied to enable the fabrication of electroluminescent displays with enhanced performance, ruggedness, and functionality. The circuit board is utilized as the display substrate. The metal core of the circuit board provides a highly rugged panel with excellent thermal dissipation. Display packaging is simplified and display system size and weight are reduced by integrating drivers onto the display. This approach enables increases in display brightness by addressing the EL display in multiple segments with conductive vias through the circuit board. System cost is reduced by eliminating flex-cable edge connectors and by simplifying the package. Display functionality can be extended by integrating related electronics onto the display panel. Monochrome display samples have been demonstrated with performance similar to samples fabricated on traditional glass substrates. Current efforts are directed toward demonstrating high-performance color EL, utilizing the ability of the ceramic substrates to accommodate high-temperature phosphor annealing required to fully activate blue phosphors.

  15. To 'display' or not to 'display'- that is the peptide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C


    Full Text Available Microbial cell surface display is the anchoring of a heterologous protein or peptide (passenger) to the outside of the cell wall as a fusion to a cell surface associated protein (carrier). This technology has been used extensively for both...

  16. 'No power' (green) electrowetting display (United States)

    Jentsch, Michael; Rawert, Juergen; Jerosch, Dieter; Blankenbach, Karlheinz


    Electrowetting displays were first reported in 1981, several approaches were examined. However, ADT's "Droplet- Driven-Displays" technology is the only bistable one which makes them very attractive for energy-saving systems. That means that the power supply can completely shut off after changing the content and it will keep its information for years. More features that make the ADT approach very unique are paper like white appearance (even in the powerless OFFstate) and the capability for backlighting (most of the other e-paper technologies like electrophoretics can not be backlighted). Further achievements are a white state reflectance of about 70% resulting in sunlight readability and a pixel size in the range from 0.3mm to 10mm. Summarizing, ADT's electrowetting technology is highly suitable for lowest power (means eco-friendly or "green") displays.

  17. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab


    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  18. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and...

  19. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not be...

  20. 21 CFR 352.50 - Principal display panel of all sunscreen drug products. (United States)


    ... the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). (b) For products that satisfy the water resistant... products. 352.50 Section 352.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SUNSCREEN DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE [STAYED...

  1. Alternative Voice Switching and Control System Display Panel Format Simulation and Evaluation. (United States)


    ground (G/G) calls or receive radio voice) were also identified and are listed in Table 2-3. No communications should be automatically disconnected--it...ON o Emergency frequency in use: OFF, ON o Main/Standby mode: OFF, ON o Transmit status: OFF, STEADY, FLUTTER o Receiver status: OFF, STEADY, SYLLABIC ...720/minute SYLLABIC FLUTTER assume same as flutter provide an overview of what may happen in response to the various actions, reflecting the nature of

  2. 76 FR 63657 - Certain Flat Panel Display Devices, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Commission... (United States)


    ... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Seoul, Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; AT&T, Inc. of Dallas, Texas (``AT&T''); Best Buy Co., Inc. of Richfield, Minnesota (``Best Buy...

  3. Plasma Panel Detectors for MIP Detection for the SLHC and a Test Chamber Design

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Robert; Etzion, Erez; Friedman, Peter S; Levin, Daniel S; Moshe, Meny Ben; Weaverdyck, Curtis; Zhou, Bing


    Performance demands for high and super-high luminosity at the LHC (up to 10^35 cm^(-2) sec^(-1) after the 2017 shutdown) and at future colliders demand high resolution tracking detectors with very fast time response and excellent temporal and spatial resolution. We are investigating a new radiation detector technology based on Plasma Display Panels (PDP), the underlying engine of panel plasma television displays. The design and production of PDPs is supported by four decades of industrial development. Emerging from this television technology is the Plasma Panel Sensor (PPS), a novel variant of the micropattern radiation detector. The PPS is fundamentally an array of micro-Geiger plasma discharge cells operating in a non-ageing, hermetically sealed gas mixture . We report on the PPS development program, including design of a PPS Test Cell.

  4. Retaining Ring Fastener for Solar Panels (United States)

    Wilson, A. H.


    Simple articulating linkage secures solar panels into supporting framework. Five element linkage collapses into W-shape for easy placement into framework, then expands to form rectangle of same dimensions as those of panel.

  5. El Salvador - Rural Electrification - Solar Panels (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This is a summative qualitative performance evaluation (PE) of the solar panel component of the solar panel component of the RE Sub-Activity. The final report will...

  6. Synthesis of SAPO-56 with controlled crystal size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting; Feng, Xuhui [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States); Carreon, Maria L. [University of Tulsa, Rusell School of Chemical Engineering (United States); Carreon, Moises A., E-mail: [Colorado School of Mines, Chemical and Biological Engineering Department (United States)


    Herein, we present the hydrothermal synthesis of SAPO-56 crystals with relatively controlled crystal/particle size. The effects of water content, aluminum source, gel composition, stirring, crystallization temperature and time, as well as the incorporation of crystal growth inhibitors during synthesis were systematically investigated. The synthesized SAPO-56 crystals displayed BET surface areas as high as ∼630 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} with relative narrow size distribution in the ∼5–60 μm range. Nitrogen BET surface areas in the 451 to 631 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} range were observed. Decreasing the crystallization temperature from 220 to 210 °C helped to decrease the average SAPO-56 crystal size. Diluted gel compositions promoted the formation of smaller crystals. Crystal growth inhibitors were found to be helpful in reducing crystal size and narrow the size distribution. Specifically, ∼5 μm SAPO-56 crystals displaying narrow size distribution were synthesized employing aluminum-tri-sec-butoxide as Al source, high water content, and high stirring rates.

  7. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia


    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  8. Real Time Sonic Boom Display (United States)

    Haering, Ed


    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  9. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua


    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  10. Solar active region display system (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.


    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  11. Grounds of two positions photovoltaic panels


    Castán Fortuño, Fernando


    The objective of this Master Thesis is to find the optimum positioning for a two positions photovoltaic panel. Hence, it will be implemented a model in order to optimize the energy of the sun that the photovoltaic panel is receiving by its positioning. Likewise this project will include the comparison with other photovoltaic panel systems as the single position photovoltaics panels. Ultimately, it is also going to be designed a system array for the optimized model of two positions photovoltai...

  12. PV panel model based on datasheet values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro


    This work presents the construction of a model for a PV panel using the single-diode five-parameters model, based exclusively on data-sheet parameters. The model takes into account the series and parallel (shunt) resistance of the panel. The equivalent circuit and the basic equations of the PV cell....... Based on these equations, a PV panel model, which is able to predict the panel behavior in different temperature and irradiance conditions, is built and tested....

  13. Lightweight composites for modular panelized construction (United States)

    Vaidya, Amol S.

    Rapid advances in construction materials technology have enabled civil engineers to achieve impressive gains in the safety, economy, and functionality of structures built to serve the common needs of society. Modular building systems is a fast-growing modern, form of construction gaining recognition for its increased efficiency and ability to apply modern technology to the needs of the market place. In the modular construction technique, a single structural panel can perform a number of functions such as providing thermal insulation, vibration damping, and structural strength. These multifunctional panels can be prefabricated in a manufacturing facility and then transferred to the construction site. A system that uses prefabricated panels for construction is called a "panelized construction system". This study focuses on the development of pre-cast, lightweight, multifunctional sandwich composite panels to be used for panelized construction. Two thermoplastic composite panels are proposed in this study, namely Composite Structural Insulated Panels (CSIPs) for exterior walls, floors and roofs, and Open Core Sandwich composite for multifunctional interior walls of a structure. Special manufacturing techniques are developed for manufacturing these panels. The structural behavior of these panels is analyzed based on various building design codes. Detailed descriptions of the design, cost analysis, manufacturing, finite element modeling and structural testing of these proposed panels are included in this study in the of form five peer-reviewed journal articles. The structural testing of the proposed panels involved in this study included flexural testing, axial compression testing, and low and high velocity impact testing. Based on the current study, the proposed CSIP wall and floor panels were found satisfactory, based on building design codes ASCE-7-05 and ACI-318-05. Joining techniques are proposed in this study for connecting the precast panels on the construction

  14. Precise and efficient antibody epitope determination through library design, yeast display and next-generation sequencing. (United States)

    Van Blarcom, Thomas; Rossi, Andrea; Foletti, Davide; Sundar, Purnima; Pitts, Steven; Bee, Christine; Melton Witt, Jody; Melton, Zea; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Shaughnessy, Lee; Telman, Dilduz; Zhao, Lora; Cheung, Wai Ling; Berka, Jan; Zhai, Wenwu; Strop, Pavel; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Shelton, David L; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind


    The ability of antibodies to bind an antigen with a high degree of affinity and specificity has led them to become the largest and fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Clearly identifying the epitope at which they bind their cognate antigen provides insight into their mechanism of action and helps differentiate antibodies that bind the same antigen. Here, we describe a method to precisely and efficiently map the epitopes of a panel of antibodies in parallel over the course of several weeks. This method relies on the combination of rational library design, quantitative yeast surface display and next-generation DNA sequencing and was demonstrated by mapping the epitopes of several antibodies that neutralize alpha toxin from Staphylococcus aureus. The accuracy of this method was confirmed by comparing the results to the co-crystal structure of one antibody and alpha toxin and was further refined by the inclusion of a lower-affinity variant of the antibody. In addition, this method produced quantitative insight into the epitope residues most critical for the antibody-antigen interaction and enabled the relative affinities of each antibody toward alpha toxin variants to be estimated. This affinity estimate serves as a predictor of neutralizing antibody potency and was used to anticipate the ability of each antibody to effectively bind and neutralize naturally occurring alpha toxin variants secreted by strains of S. aureus, including clinically relevant strains. Ultimately this type information can be used to help select the best clinical candidate among a set of antibodies against a given antigen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.


    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  16. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr


    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of

  17. 76 FR 56242 - Meetings of Humanities Panel (United States)


    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, The National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities. ACTION: Cancellation of panel meeting. Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the following meeting of the Humanities Panel at the Old...

  18. 77 FR 17102 - Meetings of Humanities Panel (United States)


    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES Meetings of Humanities Panel AGENCY: The National Endowment for the Humanities, National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities ACTION: Cancellation of Panel Meeting. Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the following meeting of the Humanities Panel at the Old Post...

  19. Panel 4 - applications to transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Au, J. [Sundstrand Aerospace, Rockford, IL (United States); Bhattacharya, R. [Universal Energy Systems, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Blunier, D. [Caterpillar, Inc., Peoria, IL (United States); Boardman, B. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Brombolich, L. [Compu-Tec Engineering, Chesterfield, MO (United States); Davidson, J. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Graham, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Hakim, N. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Harris, K. [Dubbeldee Harris Diamond Corp., Mt. Arlington, NJ (United States); Hay, R. [Norton Diamond Film, Northboro, MA (United States); Herk, L. [Southwest Research Inst., Southfield, MI (United States); Hojnacki, H.; Rourk, D. [Intelligent Structures Incorporated, Canton, MI (United States); Kamo, R. [Adiabatics, Inc., Columbus, IN (United States); Nieman, B. [Allied-Signal Inc., Des Plaines, IL (United States); O`Neill, D. [3M, St. Paul, MN (United States); Peterson, M.B. [Wear Sciences, Arnold, MD (United States); Pfaffenberger, G. [Allison Gas Turbine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Pryor, R.W. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Russell, J. [Superconductivity Publications, Inc., Somerset, NJ (United States); Syniuta, W. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States); Tamor, M. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States); Vojnovich, T. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Yarbrough, W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Yust, C.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    The aim of this group was to compile a listing of current and anticipated future problem areas in the transportation industry where the properties of diamond and DLC films make them especially attractive and where the panel could strongly endorse the establishment of DOE/Transportation Industry cooperative research efforts. This section identifies the problem areas for possible applications of diamond/DLC technology and presents indications of current approaches to these problems.

  20. Paneles de aluminio para cerramiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perraudin


    Full Text Available La sociedad suiza Grande Dixence, S. A., está construyendo una presa de gran altura, en alta montaña, que lleva el mismo nombre. A fin de acomodar al personal obrero al pie de obra se ha construido una estructura metálica de nueve plantas, cerrada por medio de paneles prefabricados, que, en la parte de fachada, llevan chapa ondulada de aluminio.

  1. 20020113: Rock (1), panel (1)




    Rock Art photograph, Panel 1, glyph [cam element='coordinate' qualifier='longitude']W 70deg34'55.9"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='latitude']S 32deg49'49.0"[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='altitude']924[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='bearing']125[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='inclination']0[/cam][cam element='coordinate' qualifier='cartesian'](1.950,1.640,2.190)[/cam

  2. Keuringspanele ("Screening Panels") as Gepaste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several objections have been raised by critics in this regard, for instance, a screening panel infringes on: the right of equal protection/the right of access to the courts/the right to a jury trial/the right to a due process as well as on the trias politica doctrine. These so-called infringements are attended to and eventually a positive ...

  3. Noise Reduction in Double‿Panel Structures by Cavity and Panel Resonance Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    This paper presents an investigation of the cavity and the panel resonance control in a double‿panel structure. The double‿panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its light weight and effective

  4. Comparisons between various cavity and panel noise reduction control in double-panel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    This paper presents comparisons between various panel and cavity resonance control methods to reduce the transmitted sound in a double-panel structure. The double-panel, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, has the advantages of low weight and effective transmission-loss at high

  5. Cavity Control and Panel Control Strategies in Double-Panel Structures for Transmitted Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Kalverboer, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    Investigation and comparisons of the cavity control and the panel control in a double-panel structure are presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which comprises two panels with air in the gap, provides the advantages of low sound-transmission at high frequency, low heat-transmission

  6. Panel Resonance Control and Cavity Control in Double-Panel Structures for Active Noise Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, J.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.


    An analytical and experimental investigation of panel resonance control and cavity control in a double-panel structure is presented in this paper. The double-panel structure, which consists of two panels with air in the gap, is widely adopted in many applications such as aerospace due to its low

  7. Panel urges cloning ethics boards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, E.


    A 7-month review of the system that guides U.S. policy on the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project has concluded that it is time for a radical overhaul. A report completed last month recommends that a high-level policy board be created in the office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to help develop policies on such sensitive issues as genetic privacy, antidiscrimination legislation, public education on genetic risks, and the regulation of genetic testing. If accepted, the proposal-from a review panel chaired by attorney Mark Rothstein of the University of Houston and geneticist M. Anne Spence of the University of California, Irvine-would create a new panel of 15 to 18 members to serve as {open_quotes}a public forum for discussion of ... critical issues.{close_quotes} This panel would replace the current advisory body, known as the ELSI Working Group, and end what the report calls a {open_quotes}discordance{close_quotes} between the broad scope of the Working Group and the {open_quotes}very limited focus{close_quotes} of the research program under which it operates.

  8. Crystallization process (United States)

    Adler, Robert J.; Brown, William R.; Auyang, Lun; Liu, Yin-Chang; Cook, W. Jeffrey


    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  9. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Phases from Anisotropic Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Dierking


    Full Text Available Liquid crystals are an integral part of a mature display technology, also establishing themselves in other applications, such as spatial light modulators, telecommunication technology, photonics, or sensors, just to name a few of the non-display applications. In recent years, there has been an increasing trend to add various nanomaterials to liquid crystals, which is motivated by several aspects of materials development. (i addition of nanomaterials can change and thus tune the properties of the liquid crystal; (ii novel functionalities can be added to the liquid crystal; and (iii the self-organization of the liquid crystalline state can be exploited to template ordered structures or to transfer order onto dispersed nanomaterials. Much of the research effort has been concentrated on thermotropic systems, which change order as a function of temperature. Here we review the other side of the medal, the formation and properties of ordered, anisotropic fluid phases, liquid crystals, by addition of shape-anisotropic nanomaterials to isotropic liquids. Several classes of materials will be discussed, inorganic and mineral liquid crystals, viruses, nanotubes and nanorods, as well as graphene oxide.

  10. Methods of space-group determination - a supplement dealing with twinned crystals and metric specialization. (United States)

    Flack, Howard D


    Tables for the determination of space group for single crystals, twinned crystals and crystals with a specialized metric are presented in the form of a spreadsheet for use on a computer. There are 14 tables, one for each of the Bravais-lattice types. The content of the tables is arranged so that at the intersection of rows, displaying the conditions for reflection, and of columns, displaying the Laue and crystal classes, one finds those space groups compatible with the observed Bravais-lattice type, the conditions for reflection and the Laue and crystal classes. The tables are intended to be of direct use to an experimentalist working with an unknown structure.

  11. Transparent stereoscopic display and application (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Seifert, Hagen; Gross, Markus


    Augmented reality has become important to our society as it can enrich the actual world with virtual information. Transparent screens offer one possibility to overlay rendered scenes with the environment, acting both as display and window. In this work, we review existing transparent back-projection screens for the use with active and passive stereo. Advantages and limitations are described and, based on these insights, a passive stereoscopic system using an anisotropic back-projection foil is proposed. To increase realism, we adapt rendered content to the viewer's position using a Kinect tracking system, which adds motion parallax to the binocular cues. A technique well known in control engineering is used to decrease latency and increase frequency of the tracker. Our transparent stereoscopic display prototype provides immersive viewing experience and is suitable for many augmented reality applications.

  12. Game engines and immersive displays (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc


    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  13. Human Vocabulary Use as Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Rosenberg


    Full Text Available The average human vocabulary consists of approximately 20,000 word families, yet only 6000-7000 word families are required to understand most communication. One possible explanation for this level of redundancy is that vocabulary size is selected as a fitness indicator and is used for display. Human vocabulary size correlates highly with measurable intelligence and when choosing potential mates individuals actively prefer other correlates of intelligence, such as education. Here we show that males used more low frequency words after an imaginary romantic encounter with a young female shown in a photograph relative to when they viewed photographs of older females. Females used fewer low frequency words when they imagined a romantic encounter with a young male shown in a photograph relative to when they viewed photographs of older males. These differences in male and female vocabulary displays may be related to sex differences in investment costs in offspring.

  14. Pixel size and pitch measurements of liquid crystal spatial light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a simple technique for the determination of pixel size and pitch of liquid crystal (LC) based spatial light modulator (SLM). The proposed method is based on optical diffraction from pixelated LC panel that has been modeled as a two-dimensional array of rectangular apertures. A novel yet simple, two-plane ...

  15. 77 FR 13172 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: Social Security Administration... Information Development Advisory Panel Chair and subcommittee reports; public comment; panel discussion and... Officer, Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel. BILLING CODE 4191-02-P ...

  16. 75 FR 41919 - Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting (United States)


    ... ADMINISTRATION Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel Meeting AGENCY: Social Security Administration... Information System Development (OID) project activities and the proposed integration with Panel milestones... further information should contact the Panel staff at: Occupational Information Development Advisory Panel...

  17. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Hou [Moraga, CA; Kim, Rosalind [Moraga, CA; Jancarik, Jamila [Walnut Creek, CA


    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  18. Preliminary display comparison for dental diagnostic applications (United States)

    Odlum, Nicholas; Spalla, Guillaume; van Assche, Nele; Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc; Marchessoux, Cédric


    The aim of this study is to predict the clinical performance and image quality of a display system for viewing dental images. At present, the use of dedicated medical displays is not uniform among dentists - many still view images on ordinary consumer displays. This work investigated whether the use of a medical display improved the perception of dental images by a clinician, compared to a consumer display. Display systems were simulated using the MEdical Virtual Imaging Chain (MEVIC). Images derived from two carefully performed studies on periodontal bone lesion detection and endodontic file length determination, were used. Three displays were selected: a medical grade one and two consumer displays (Barco MDRC-2120, Dell 1907FP and Dell 2007FPb). Some typical characteristics of the displays are evaluated by measurements and simulations like the Modulation Function (MTF), the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), backlight stability or calibration. For the MTF, the display with the largest pixel pitch has logically the worst MTF. Moreover, the medical grade display has a slightly better MTF and the displays have similar NPS. The study shows the instability effect for the emitted intensity of the consumer displays compared to the medical grade one. Finally the study on the calibration methodology of the display shows that the signal in the dental images will be always more perceivable on the DICOM GSDF display than a gamma 2,2 display.

  19. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.


    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  20. Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays. (United States)

    Guenther, William B.


    Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

  1. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and...

  2. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways except...

  3. Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Blinov, Lev M


    This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the firs...

  4. Organic Thin Film Devices for Displays and Lighting (United States)

    Weiss, Oliver J.; Krause, Ralf; Paetzold, Ralph

    Organic materials can be used for fabrication of, e.g., electronic circuits, solar cells, light sensors, memory cells and light emitting diodes. Especially organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are increasingly attractive because of their huge market potential. The feasibility of efficient OLEDs was first shown in 1987 [3]. Only about ten years later the first product, a display for car radios, entered the market. Today monochrome and full colour OLED-displays can be found in many applications replacing established flat panel display technologies like TFT-LCDs. This substitution is a consequence of the outstanding attributes of OLED technology: Organic light emitting displays are self-emissive, thin, video capable and in addition they show a wide temperature operation range and allow a viewing angle of nearly 180 degree in conjunction with a low power consumption. As performance has steadily increased over the last years, today OLEDs are also under investigation as next generation light source. In contrast to inorganic LEDs, they can be built as flat 2-dimensional light sources that are lightweight, colour tunable, and potentially cheap. This will open up new degrees of freedom in design leading also to completely new applications. In this contribution we will have a brief view on the history of organic electroluminescent materials before we introduce the basic principles of OLEDs with a focus on the physical processes leading to light generation in thin organic films. Along with an overview of different concepts and technologies used to build OLEDs, the current status of OLED development will be illustrated. The last part focuses on the challenges that have to be overcome to enable a sustainable success in the display and lighting markets.

  5. Report on Multiphase Flow Panel (United States)


    This paper presents viewgraphs on a multiphase flow panel. The topics include: 1) Discussion of Priorities; 2) Critical Issues Reduced Gravity Instabilities; 3) Severely Limiting Phase Separation; 4) Severely-Limiting Phase Change; 5) Enhancements; 6) Awareness Instabilities; 7) Awareness; 8) Methods of Resolution; 9) 2008 Space Flight; 10) 2003-2008 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 11) 2003-2008 Other; 12) 2009-2015 Space Flight; 13) 2009-2015 Ground-Based Microgravity Facilities; 14) 2009-2015 Other; and 15) 2016.

  6. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen


    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  7. Development of a Two-Dimensional Tracker with Plasma Panel Detector

    CERN Document Server


    Plasma panel sensors are micropattern gaseous radiation detectors which are based on the technology of plasma display panels. This thesis summarizes the research that had been done on commercially available plasma display panels that were converted to plasma panel sensor prototypes and describes the construction of a two-dimensional tracker consisting of four of those prototypes, with one-dimensional readout on each, used to detect tracks of cosmic muons. A large amount of 2-point as well as 3 and 4-point tracks were detected. Qualitative analyses as well as Pearson’s χ2 tests are performed on the track angular distribution and on a histogram of the linearity measure of 3-point tracks to reject the hypothesis that these tracks result from completely random panel hits. Some RF noise effects contributing to false positives are ruled out, while it is shown that other effects can be ruled out only with a high-intensity minimum ionizing particle source. A significant part of the tracker construction was the dev...

  8. Automated Intelligent Monitoring and the Controlling Software System for Solar Panels (United States)

    Nalamwar, H. S.; Ivanov, M. A.; Baidali, S. A.


    The inspection of the solar panels on a periodic basis is important to improve longevity and ensure performance of the solar system. To get the most solar potential of the photovoltaic (PV) system is possible through an intelligent monitoring & controlling system. The monitoring & controlling system has rapidly increased its popularity because of its user-friendly graphical interface for data acquisition, monitoring, controlling and measurements. In order to monitor the performance of the system especially for renewable energy source application such as solar photovoltaic (PV), data-acquisition systems had been used to collect all the data regarding the installed system. In this paper the development of a smart automated monitoring & controlling system for the solar panel is described, the core idea is based on IoT (the Internet of Things). The measurements of data are made using sensors, block management data acquisition modules, and a software system. Then, all the real-time data collection of the electrical output parameters of the PV plant such as voltage, current and generated electricity is displayed and stored in the block management. The proposed system is smart enough to make suggestions if the panel is not working properly, to display errors, to remind about maintenance of the system through email or SMS, and to rotate panels according to a sun position using the Ephemeral table that stored in the system. The advantages of the system are the performance of the solar panel system which can be monitored and analyzed.

  9. Optimal Backlight Modulation With Crosstalk Control in Stereoscopic Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Liangbao; Shu, Xiao; Cheng, Yong


    Crosstalk between the left-eye and right-eye images is one of the main artifacts affecting the visual quality of stereoscopic liquid crystal display (LCD) systems. In this paper, a novel technique, called Optimal Backlight Modulation (OBM), is proposed to reduce crosstalk by taking the advantage....... A simple closed-form approximation of the optimization problem can be easily employed and solved in real time on LCD control hardware. Simulation results show that the proposed OBM algorithm provides the same or higher luminance while reducing the crosstalk by 60% compared with the other tested methods....

  10. Optimum design of composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module. Absorbing effect of cooling panel; Hikari netsu fukugo panel no saiteki sekkei. Reikyaku panel no kyunetsu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Kikuchi, S.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K.; Imaizumi, H. [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The composite panel with photovoltaic-thermo module becomes higher in energy-saving than the conventional air-conditioning system by the independent radiational heating and cooling effect obtained when the generating panel using a solar cell module is combined with the heating and cooling panel using a thermo-element module. The output of a solar cell module can be directly used because the solar cell module operates in AC. This paper reports the relation between the absorbed value and power consumption of the cooling panel, while paying attention to the cooling panel. The performance coefficient of the maximum absorbed value from an non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 2 to 3. Assume that the cooling panel during non-adiabatic operation is operated using a solar cell module of 800 W/m{sup 2} in solar intensity and 15% in conversion efficiency. The cooling-surface temperature difference is 12.12 K, and the maximum absorbed value of a non-absorbing substance to a cooling panel is 39.12 W/m{sup 2}. The absorbed value of the outer temperature to the cooling panel is 74.4 W/m{sup 2}, and each performance coefficient is 3.26 and 0.62. The absorbed value must be calculated for evaluation from the cooling-surface temperature difference measured directly from the cooling panel. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Naturopathic Oncology Modified Delphi Panel. (United States)

    Hill, Jacob; Hodsdon, Wendy; Schor, Jacob; McKinney, Neil; Rubin, Daniel; Seely, Dugald; Parmar, Gurdev; Birdsall, Tim; Alschuler, Lise; Lamson, Davis; Birdsall, Shauna; Zwickey, Heather


    Naturopathic oncology is a relatively new and emerging field capable of providing professional integrative or alternative services to cancer patients. Foundational research is critical to identify topics in the clinical and research development of naturopathic oncology for future growth of the field. This study implements a modified Delphi protocol to develop expert consensus regarding ethics, philosophy, and research development in naturopathic oncology. The modified protocol implements a nomination process to select a panel of 8 physicians and to assist in question formulation. The protocol includes an in-person discussion of 6 questions with multiple iterations to maintain the concept of the Delphi methodology as well as a postdiscussion consensus survey. The protocol identified, ranked, and established consensus for numerous themes per question. Underlying key topics include integration with conventional medicine, evidence-based medicine, patient education, patient safety, and additional training requirements for naturopathic oncologists. The systematic nomination and questioning of a panel of experts provides a foundational and educational resource to assist in clarification of clinical ethics, philosophy, and research development in the emerging field of naturopathic oncology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Liquid crystal interfaces: Experiments, simulations and biosensors (United States)

    Popov, Piotr

    Interfacial phenomena are ubiquitous and extremely important in various aspects of biological and industrial processes. For example, many liquid crystal applications start by alignment with a surface. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular organization of liquid crystals at an interface are still under intensive study and continue to be important to the display industry in order to develop better and/or new display technology. My dissertation research has been devoted to studying how complex liquid crystals can be guided to organize at an interface, and to using my findings to develop practical applications. Specifically, I have been working on developing biosensors using liquid-crystal/surfactant/lipid/protein interactions as well as the alignment of low-symmetry liquid crystals for potential new display and optomechanical applications. The biotechnology industry needs better ways of sensing biomaterials and identifying various nanoscale events at biological interfaces and in aqueous solutions. Sensors in which the recognition material is a liquid crystal naturally connects the existing knowledge and experience of the display and biotechnology industries together with surface and soft matter sciences. This dissertation thus mainly focuses on the delicate phenomena that happen at liquid interfaces. In the introduction, I start by defining the interface and discuss its structure and the relevant interfacial forces. I then introduce the general characteristics of biosensors and, in particular, describe the design of biosensors that employ liquid crystal/aqueous solution interfaces. I further describe the basic properties of liquid crystal materials that are relevant for liquid crystal-based biosensing applications. In CHAPTER 2, I describe the simulation methods and experimental techniques used in this dissertation. In CHAPTER 3 and CHAPTER 4, I present my computer simulation work. CHAPTER 3 presents insight of how liquid crystal molecules are aligned by

  13. Panel presentation at international symposium for electronic art 'Waves of technology'


    Flaxton, T.


    This panel was formed to create a picture of, then interrogate the tsunami-like effect of the expanding capabilities of moving-image capture and display and place this within a reading of history that proposed that technology comes upon us insistently like waves upon the beach and that this situation is of our making. \\ud \\ud Panel Chair, Professor Terry Flaxton University of the West of England. Introduction 10 minutes: The concept of ‘Waves of technology’. Then part 2, 10 minutes: Examinati...

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang


    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings (United States)


    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  16. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here:

  17. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY


    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  18. A passive cooling system proposal for multifunction and high-power displays (United States)

    Tari, Ilker


    Flat panel displays are conventionally cooled by internal natural convection, which constrains the possible rate of heat transfer from the panel. On one hand, during the last few years, the power consumption and the related cooling requirement for 1080p displays have decreased mostly due to energy savings by the switch to LED backlighting and more efficient electronics. However, on the other hand, the required cooling rate recently started to increase with new directions in the industry such as 3D displays, and ultra-high-resolution displays (recent 4K announcements and planned introduction of 8K). In addition to these trends in display technology itself, there is also a trend to integrate consumer entertainment products into displays with the ultimate goal of designing a multifunction device replacing the TV, the media player, the PC, the game console and the sound system. Considering the increasing power requirement for higher fidelity in video processing, these multifunction devices tend to generate very high heat fluxes, which are impossible to dissipate with internal natural convection. In order to overcome this obstacle, instead of active cooling with forced convection that comes with drawbacks of noise, additional power consumption, and reduced reliability, a passive cooling system relying on external natural convection and radiation is proposed here. The proposed cooling system consists of a heat spreader flat heat pipe and aluminum plate-finned heat sink with anodized surfaces. For this system, the possible maximum heat dissipation rates from the standard size panels (in 26-70 inch range) are estimated by using our recently obtained heat transfer correlations for the natural convection from aluminum plate-finned heat sinks together with the surface-to-surface radiation. With the use of the proposed passive cooling system, the possibility of dissipating very high heat rates is demonstrated, hinting a promising green alternative to active cooling.

  19. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg


    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...... are not well suited for games on public displays. Instead, interruptions should be implicitly supported by the application design....

  20. Augmented reality glass-free three-dimensional display with the stereo camera (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Sang, Xinzhu; Chen, Duo; Xing, Shujun; Yu, Xunbo; Yan, Binbin; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu


    An improved method for Augmented Reality (AR) glass-free three-dimensional (3D) display based on stereo camera used for presenting parallax contents from different angle with lenticular lens array is proposed. Compared with the previous implementation method of AR techniques based on two-dimensional (2D) panel display with only one viewpoint, the proposed method can realize glass-free 3D display of virtual objects and real scene with 32 virtual viewpoints. Accordingly, viewers can get abundant 3D stereo information from different viewing angles based on binocular parallax. Experimental results show that this improved method based on stereo camera can realize AR glass-free 3D display, and both of virtual objects and real scene have realistic and obvious stereo performance.

  1. Optimal front light design for reflective displays under different ambient illumination (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Ting-Ting; Li, Chien-Ju; Bai, Yi-Ho; Hu, Kuo-Jui


    The goal of this study is to find out the optimal luminance and color temperature of front light for reflective displays in different ambient illumination by conducting series of psychophysical experiments. A color and brightness tunable front light device with ten LED units was built and been calibrated to present 256 luminance levels and 13 different color temperature at fixed luminance of 200 cd/m2. The experiment results revealed the best luminance and color temperature settings for human observers under different ambient illuminant, which could also assist the e-paper manufacturers to design front light device, and present the best image quality on reflective displays. Furthermore, a similar experiment procedure was conducted by utilizing new flexible e-signage display developed by ITRI and an optimal front light device for the new display panel has been designed and utilized.

  2. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.


    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  3. Development of Electrostatically Clean Solar Array Panels (United States)

    Stern, Theodore G.


    Certain missions require Electrostatically Clean Solar Array (ECSA) panels to establish a favorable environment for the operation of sensitive scientific instruments. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the feasibility of an ECSA panel that minimizes panel surface potential below 100mV in LEO and GEO charged particle environments, prevents exposure of solar cell voltage and panel insulating surfaces to the ambient environment, and provides an equipotential, grounded structure surrounding the entire panel. An ECSA panel design was developed that uses a Front Side Aperture-Shield (FSA) that covers all inter-cell areas with a single graphite composite laminate, composite edge clips for connecting the FSA to the panel substrate, and built-in tabs that interconnect the FSA to conductive coated coverglasses using a conductive adhesive. Analysis indicated the ability of the design to meet the ECSA requirements. Qualification coupons and a 0.5m x 0.5m prototype panel were fabricated and tested for photovoltaic performance and electrical grounding before and after exposure to acoustic and thermal cycling environments. The results show the feasibility of achieving electrostatic cleanliness with a small penalty in mass, photovoltaic performance and cost, with a design is structurally robust and compatible with a wide range of current solar panel technologies.

  4. Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) Decisions (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — This online collection includes documents decided upon by the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel (ISCAP) starting in Fiscal Year 2012. The documents...

  5. Orbiter radiator panel solar focusing test (United States)

    Howell, H. R.; Rankin, J. G.


    Test data are presented which define the area around the Orbiter radiator panels for which the solar reflections are concentrated to one-sun or more. The concave shape of the panels and their specular silver/Teflon coating causes focusing of the reflected solar energy which could have adverse heating effects on equipment or astronaut extravehicular activity (EVA) in the vicinity of the radiator panels. A room ambient test method was utilized with a one-tenth scale model of the radiator panels.

  6. Synthesis, crystal structure and photoluminescence study of green light emitting bis(1[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol Ni(II complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas


    Full Text Available Synthetically feasible and cost effective Ni(II complex phosphor (4 as green organic light emitting diode (OLED was prepared by using Schiff base 1-[(4-butylphenylimino]methyl naphthalen-2-ol (3. The single crystals of Ni(II complex were grown from chloroform and hexane (1:1 v/v solution. The green crystals of the complex were characterized by using single crystal XRD studies and were evaluated for their photophysical properties. From the Diffused Reflectance Spectrum of the complex, the measured band gap energy was found to be 1.83 eV and the PL spectrum of the complex showed emission peak at 519 nm. The excitation peaks at 519 nm were appeared at 394 nm and 465 nm. The Commission Internationale De L'Eclairage (CIE chromaticity diagram indicated that, the complex exhibit green color. Hence, Ni(II complex (4 could be a promising green OLED for developing strong electroluminescent materials for flat panel display applications.

  7. Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display

  8. Touchscreen everywhere: on transferring a normal planar surface to a touch-sensitive display. (United States)

    Dai, Jingwen; Chung, Chi-Kit Ronald


    We address how a human-computer interface with small device size, large display, and touch-input facility can be made possible by a mere projector and camera. The realization is through the use of a properly embedded structured light sensing scheme that enables a regular light-colored table surface to serve the dual roles of both a projection screen and a touch-sensitive display surface. A random binary pattern is employed to code structured light in pixel accuracy, which is embedded into the regular projection display in a way that the user perceives only regular display but not the structured pattern hidden in the display. With the projection display on the table surface being imaged by a camera, the observed image data, plus the known projection content, can work together to probe the 3-D workspace immediately above the table surface, like deciding if there is a finger present and if the finger touches the table surface, and if so, at what position on the table surface the contact is made. All the decisions hinge upon a careful calibration of the projector-camera-table surface system, intelligent segmentation of the hand in the image data, and exploitation of the homography mapping existing between the projector's display panel and the camera's image plane. Extensive experimentation including evaluation of the display quality, hand segmentation accuracy, touch detection accuracy, trajectory tracking accuracy, multitouch capability and system efficiency are shown to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed realization.

  9. Speedup of optimization-based approach to local backlight dimming of HDR displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burini, Nino; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Korhonen, Jari


    Local backlight dimming in Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a technique for reducing power consumption and simultaneously increasing contrast ratio to provide a High Dynamic Range (HDR) image reproduction. Several backlight dimming algorithms exist with focus on reducing power consumption, while...

  10. Minimalism context-aware displays. (United States)

    Cai, Yang


    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  11. Use of precast concrete deck panels : summary of research panel types I, II, and III. (United States)


    The objective of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using precast concrete deck panels in place of traditional formwork for AASHTO girder type bridges. The precast deck panels span between girders, support the weight of a topping sla...

  12. Simplified Night Sky Display System (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.


    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  13. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... to damage caused by unstable environmental conditions. Unfortunately, past structural interventions often caused significant damage due to insufficient knowledge of the behaviour of the wood panels, glue and paint layers. Over the last fifty years, the field has developed treatment strategies based...... on interdisciplinary collaboration and on the knowledge of specialist conservators. Most current conservation protocols rely on empirical knowledge of conservators and are not necessarily based on a scientific understanding of the nature and behaviour of wood and paint layers. In order to move the field forward...

  14. Three-dimensional display on computer screen free from accommodation-convergence conflict (United States)

    Sun, Deen; Wang, Chenxu; Teng, Dongdong; Liu, Lilin


    Existing commercial three dimensional (3D) display technologies for computer screens, such as stereoscopic and auto-stereoscopic methods, are based on binocular parallax theory. Due to the inherent accommodation-convergence conflict, (auto-) stereoscopic displays are always suffering the visual fatigue problem. Through sequentially gating two different segments of each eye's aperture of the viewer and refreshing the display contents simultaneously, a 3D display based on Super Multi-view technology for the computer screen is proposed in this paper, which is free from the accommodation-convergence conflict. Employing custom liquid-crystal-valve array for each eye, a proof-of-concept prototype is set up and a 3D display free from accommodation-convergence conflict gets demonstrated.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, D.J.; Bajorek, S.; Bakel, A.; Flanagan, G.; Mubayi, V.; Skarda, R.; Staudenmeier, J.; Taiwo, T.; Tonoike, K.; Tripp, C.; Wei, T.; Yarsky, P.


    Considerable interest has been expressed for developing a stable U.S. production capacity for medical isotopes and particularly for molybdenum- 99 (99Mo). This is motivated by recent re-ductions in production and supply worldwide. Consistent with U.S. nonproliferation objectives, any new production capability should not use highly enriched uranium fuel or targets. Conse-quently, Aqueous Homogeneous Reactors (AHRs) are under consideration for potential 99Mo production using low-enriched uranium. Although the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has guidance to facilitate the licensing process for non-power reactors, that guidance is focused on reactors with fixed, solid fuel and hence, not applicable to an AHR. A panel was convened to study the technical issues associated with normal operation and potential transients and accidents of an AHR that might be designed for isotope production. The panel has produced the requisite AHR licensing guidance for three chapters that exist now for non-power reactor licensing: Reac-tor Description, Reactor Coolant Systems, and Accident Analysis. The guidance is in two parts for each chapter: 1) standard format and content a licensee would use and 2) the standard review plan the NRC staff would use. This guidance takes into account the unique features of an AHR such as the fuel being in solution; the fission product barriers being the vessel and attached systems; the production and release of radiolytic and fission product gases and their impact on operations and their control by a gas management system; and the movement of fuel into and out of the reactor vessel.

  16. Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Frank, Russell; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis


    Dynamic, colour-changing surfaces have many applications including displays, wearables and active camouflage. Plasmonic nanostructures can fill this role by having the advantages of ultra-small pixels, high reflectivity and post-fabrication tuning through control of the surrounding media. However, previous reports of post-fabrication tuning have yet to cover a full red-green-blue (RGB) colour basis set with a single nanostructure of singular dimensions. Here, we report a method which greatly advances this tuning and demonstrates a liquid crystal-plasmonic system that covers the full RGB colour basis set, only as a function of voltage. This is accomplished through a surface morphology-induced, polarization-dependent plasmonic resonance and a combination of bulk and surface liquid crystal effects that manifest at different voltages. We further demonstrate the system's compatibility with existing LCD technology by integrating it with a commercially available thin-film-transistor array. The imprinted surface interfaces readily with computers to display images as well as video.

  17. Actively addressed single pixel full-colour plasmonic display (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Frank, Russell; Wu, Shin-Tson; Chanda, Debashis


    Dynamic, colour-changing surfaces have many applications including displays, wearables and active camouflage. Plasmonic nanostructures can fill this role by having the advantages of ultra-small pixels, high reflectivity and post-fabrication tuning through control of the surrounding media. However, previous reports of post-fabrication tuning have yet to cover a full red-green-blue (RGB) colour basis set with a single nanostructure of singular dimensions. Here, we report a method which greatly advances this tuning and demonstrates a liquid crystal-plasmonic system that covers the full RGB colour basis set, only as a function of voltage. This is accomplished through a surface morphology-induced, polarization-dependent plasmonic resonance and a combination of bulk and surface liquid crystal effects that manifest at different voltages. We further demonstrate the system's compatibility with existing LCD technology by integrating it with a commercially available thin-film-transistor array. The imprinted surface interfaces readily with computers to display images as well as video. PMID:28488671

  18. Repeated buckling of composite shear panels (United States)

    Singer, Josef; Weller, Tanchum


    Failures in service of aerospace structures and research at the Technion Aircraft Structures Laboratory have revealed that repeatedly buckled stiffened shear panels might be susceptible to premature fatigue failures. Extensive experimental and analytical studies have been performed at Technion on repeated buckling, far in excess of initial buckling, for both metal and composite shear panels with focus on the influence of the surrounding structure. The core of the experimental investigation consisted of repeated buckling and postbuckling tests on Wagner beams in a three-point loading system under realistic test conditions. The effects of varying sizes of stiffeners, of the magnitude of initial buckling loads, of the panel aspect ratio and of the cyclic shearing force, V sub cyc, were studied. The cyclic to critical shear buckling ratios, (V sub cyc/V sub cr) were on the high side, as needed for efficient panel design, yet all within possible flight envelopes. The experiments were supplemented by analytical and numerical analyses. For the metal shear panels the test and numerical results were synthesized into prediction formulas, which relate the life of the metal shear panels to two cyclic load parameters. The composite shear panels studied were hybrid beams with graphite/epoxy webs bonded to aluminum alloy frames. The test results demonstrated that composite panels were less fatigue sensitive than comparable metal ones, and that repeated buckling, even when causing extensive damage, did not reduce the residual strength by more than 20 percent. All the composite panels sustained the specified fatigue life of 250,000 cycles. The effect of local unstiffened holes on the durability of repeatedly buckled shear panels was studied for one series of the metal panels. Tests on 2024 T3 aluminum panels with relatively small unstiffened holes in the center of the panels demonstrated premature fatigue failure, compared to panels without holes. Preliminary tests on two graphite

  19. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  20. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...