WorldWideScience

Sample records for crystal creek timber

  1. Field performance of timber bridges. 5, Little Salmon Creek stress-laminated deck bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Ritter; J. A. Kainz; G. J. Porter

    The Little Salmon Creek bridge was constructed in November 1988 on the Allegheny National Forest in Pennsylvania. The bridge is a simple span, single-lane, stress-laminated deck superstructure that is approximately 26-ft long and 16-ft wide. The bridge is unique in that it is the first known stress-laminated timber bridge to be constructed of hardwood lumber. The...

  2. 75 FR 27507 - Safety Zone; Delaware River, Big Timber Creek, Westville, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... expect the economic impact of this proposed rule to be so minimal that a full Regulatory Evaluation is... made to the maritime community via marine information broadcasts and area newspapers so mariners can... is intended to temporarily restrict vessel traffic in the regulated area within Big Timber...

  3. Effects of timber harvesting on the lag time of Caspar Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Hardison Sendek

    1985-01-01

    Abstract - Hydrograph lag time was analyzed to determine changes after road construction and after selective, tractor-yarded logging in a Caspar Creek watershed, Mendocino County, California. The paired watershed technique was used. Hydrograph lag time for each storm was the time separation between the midpoint of precipitation and the time coordinate of the runoff...

  4. Field performance of timber bridges. 11, Spearfish Creek stress-laminated box-beam bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. P. Wacker; M. A. Ritter; K. Stanfill-McMillan

    The Spearfish Creek bridge was constructed in 1992 in Spearfish, South Dakota. It is a single-span, stress-laminated, box-beam superstructure. Performance of the bridge is being monitored for 5 years, beginning at installation. This report summarizes results for the first 3-1/2 years of monitoring and includes information on the design, construction, and field...

  5. Flood magnitude and frequency of Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate Route 295, Haddon Heights Township, Camden County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    The magnitude and frequency of floods at the Little Timber Creek at the culvert on Interstate 295, at milepost 28.9, in Haddon Heights Township, New Jersey, were determined by using the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Special Report 38 method. Flood-magnitude and -frequency estimates, as well as drainage-basin characteristics, are included in this report. The 100-year-flood estimate is 770 cubic feet per second.

  6. Evaluation of flood inundation in Crystal Springs Creek, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Hess, Glen

    2016-05-25

    Efforts to improve fish passage have resulted in the replacement of six culverts in Crystal Springs Creek in Portland, Oregon. Two more culverts are scheduled to be replaced at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard (Glenwood/Bybee project) in 2016. Recently acquired data have allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of the hydrology of the creek and the topography of the watershed. To evaluate the impact of the culvert replacements and recent hydrologic data, a Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System hydraulic model was developed to estimate water-surface elevations during high-flow events. Longitudinal surface-water profiles were modeled to evaluate current conditions and future conditions using the design plans for the culverts to be installed in 2016. Additional profiles were created to compare with the results from the most recent flood model approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for Crystal Springs Creek and to evaluate model sensitivity.Model simulation results show that water-surface elevations during high-flow events will be lower than estimates from previous models, primarily due to lower estimates of streamflow associated with the 0.01 and 0.002 annual exceedance probability (AEP) events. Additionally, recent culvert replacements have resulted in less ponding behind crossings. Similarly, model simulation results show that the proposed replacement culverts at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard will result in lower water-surface elevations during high-flow events upstream of the proposed project. Wider culverts will allow more water to pass through crossings, resulting in slightly higher water-surface elevations downstream of the project during high-flows than water-surface elevations that would occur under current conditions. For the 0.01 AEP event, the water-surface elevations downstream of the Glenwood/Bybee project will be an average of 0.05 ft and a maximum of 0.07 ft higher than current conditions. Similarly, for the 0

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands -- Impacts on plant communities: Little Timber Creek Crossing, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Topical report, August 1991--January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems; Van Dyke, G.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Center for Environmental Restoration Systems]|[Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents results of a survey conducted over the period of August 5--7, 1991, at the Little Timber Creek crossing in Gloucester County, New Jersey, where three pipelines, constructed in 1950, 1960, and 1990, cross the creek and associated wetlands. The old side of the ROW, created by the installation of the 1960 pipeline, was designed to contain a raised peat bed over the 1950 pipeline and an open-water ditch over the 1960 pipeline. The new portion of the ROW, created by installation of the 1990 pipeline, has an open-water ditch over the pipeline (resulting from settling of the backfill) and a raised peat bed (resulting from rebound of compacted peat). Both the old and new ROWs contain dense stands of herbs; the vegetation on the old ROW was more similar to that in the adjacent natural area than was vegetation in the new ROW. The ROW increased species and habitat diversity in the wetlands. It may contribute to the spread of purple loosestrife and affect species sensitive to habitat fragmentation.

  8. Timber Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    High timber costs and supply shortages leave China in a pinchWASTE NOT:One million cubic meters of timber and 40 million bamboo trees go into the production of 63 billion pairs of chopsticks every year in China.Most of that is thrown in the trash and little is recycled Zhang Chunyu,who had planned a home improvement project for his new aparment,recently discovered that prices for solid timber flooring and solid wood furniture had jumped during the Spring Festival."Prices for almost any brand of wood products have increased at least 10 percent,"Zhang said."Prices for mid-range furniture have gone up by as much as 20 percent.

  9. Age of the Lava Creek supereruption and magma chamber assembly at Yellowstone based on 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb dating of sanidine and zircon crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Naomi E.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    The last supereruption from the Yellowstone Plateau formed Yellowstone caldera and ejected the >1000 km3 of rhyolite that composes the Lava Creek Tuff. Tephra from the Lava Creek eruption is a key Quaternary chronostratigraphic marker, in particular for dating the deposition of mid Pleistocene glacial and pluvial deposits in western North America. To resolve the timing of eruption and crystallization history for the Lava Creek magma, we performed (1) 40Ar/39Ar dating of single sanidine crystals to delimit eruption age and (2) ion microprobe U-Pb and trace-element analyses of the crystal faces and interiors of single zircons to date the interval of zircon crystallization and characterize magmatic evolution. Sanidines from the two informal members composing Lava Creek Tuff yield a preferred 40Ar/39Ar isochron date of 631.3 ± 4.3 ka. Crystal faces on zircons from both members yield a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 626.5 ± 5.8 ka, and have trace element concentrations that vary with the eruptive stratigraphy. Zircon interiors yield a mean 206Pb/238U date of 659.8 ± 5.5 ka, and reveal reverse and/or oscillatory zoning of trace element concentrations, with many crystals containing high U concentration cores that likely grew from highly evolved melt. The occurrence of distal Lava Creek tephra in stratigraphic sequences marking the Marine Isotope Stage 16–15 transition supports the apparent eruption age of ∼631 ka. The combined results reveal that Lava Creek zircons record episodic heating, renewed crystallization, and an overall up-temperature evolution for Yellowstone's subvolcanic reservoir in the 103−104 year interval before eruption.

  10. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...

  11. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  12. 1974 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    The 1974 timber harvest of 6.88 billion board feet declined 933 million board feet (11.9 percent) below the record 1973 harvest. Decreases occurred in almost all owner groups. In western Washington the decline was 856 million board feet (13.0 percent). In eastern Washington the decline was 76 million board feet (6.3 percent).

  13. 1975 Washington timber harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Jr. Lloyd

    1977-01-01

    In 1975, the Washington timber harvest declined for the 2d year to 6.2 billion board feet, 10 percent below 1974, and the lowest level in 8 years. The decrease, which occurred on almost all ownerships, amounted to 561 million board feet in western Washington and 130 million board feet in eastern Washington.

  14. Availability and chemical quality of ground water in the Crystal River and Cattle Creek Drainage Basins near Glenwood Springs, west-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogden, Robert E.; Giles, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    Parts of the Crystal River and cattle Creek drainage basins near Glenwood Springs, Colo., have undergone rapid population growth in recent years. This growth has resulted in an increased demand for information for additional domestic, industrial, and municipal water supplies. A knowledge of the occurrence of ground water will permit a more efficient allocation of the resource. Aquifers in the two drainage basins include: alluvium, basalts, the Mesa Verde Formation, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Maroon Formation, Eagle Valley Evaporite, and undifferentiated formations. Except for aquifers in the alluvium, and basalt, well yields are generally low and are less than 25 gallons per minute. Well yields form aquifers in the alluvium and basalt can be as much as several hundred gallons per minute. Water quality is dependent of rock type. Calcium bicarbonate is the predominant type of water in the study area. However, calcium sulfate type water may be found in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite and in the alluvium where the alluvial material has been derived from the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Concentrations of selenium in excess of U.S. Public Health Service standards for drinking water can be found locally in aquifers in the Eagle Valley Evaporite. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Global sustainable timber supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2010-01-01

    Industrial timber use has provided timber revenue that has helped make timber supply and demand more sustainable in the leading timber producing regions of the world. Sustainable development implies not consuming more resources today than we can replace tomorrow, but sustainable forest management implies more than merely a non-declining supply of timber. Forests as a...

  16. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... were removed in some of the elements to simulate damaged vapour barriers. The condition of the wind barriers of elements with intact vapour barriers was inspected from the inside after four years of exposure. This paper presents results with emphasis on the moisture conditions behind the wind barrier....... It was found that the specific damages made to the vapour barrier as part of the test did not have any provable effect on the moisture content. In general elements with an intact vapour barrier did not show a critical moisture content at the wind barrier after four years of exposure....

  17. Portable reinforcing timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trukhin, P.M.; Kan, Ye.V.; Novikov, V.Ya.; Popov, K.P.; Rusyaykin, I.P.; Sardov, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve reliability and safety of the timbering. This goal is achieved because in the portable reinforcing timbering which contains a cross beam connected on the edges to the support elements interacting with the permanent timbering frames, hydrostands with supports, assemblies for connecting the hydrostands to the cross beam, the support elements are turned towards each other and are attached at the bottom by stands that rotate on the cross beam, while the connecting assemblies are made in the form of easily detachable clamps. The connecting assemblies of the hydrostands with cross beams are made in the form of a cantilever and walls interacting with the base of the cross beam through the vertical ribs with slits in the shape of the base of the cross beam and with the hydrostand by horizontal ribs, and among themselves by vertical ribs of the cantilever and vertical slits in the wall. In addition, the rapidly detachable connection of the cantilever to the wall is made in the form of a lever with short supports interacting with the vertical slits and the round openings in their upper section on the cantilever ribs, and the diameter of the lever axis and the round openings of the slits is greater than the diameter of the lever supports and the vertical slits of the cantilever, while the inner distance between the supports equals the outer distance between the vertical ribs of the cantilever.

  18. Implementation and Non-Destructive Evaluation of Composite Structural Shapes in the Tom's Creek Bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, M. D.; J. Haramis; Lesko, John J.; Cousins, Thomas E.; J.C.Duke; Weyers, Richard E.

    2000-01-01

    A bridge rehabilitation utilizing a hybrid fiber reinforced polymeric composite has been completed in Blacksburg, Virginia. This project involved replacing the superstructure in the Tom's Creek Bridge, a rural short-span traffic bridge with a timber deck and corroded steel girders, with a glue-laminated timber deck on composite girders. In order to verify the bridge design and to address construction issues prior to the rehabilitation, a full-scale mock-up of the bridge was built and tested i...

  19. Timber resource information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, A. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The investigators are convinced that high altitude photography when supported with ground measurements and existing surveys, contain all the resource data needed for overall land management planning. This overall planning would include land use classification, environmental impact statements, and similar documentation. First inspection of the RBV ERTS imagery on the Quinault Reservation shows that much of the cultural and resources detail can be identified. Of particular note, is the obvious contrast between recently harvested timber cutting blocks as opposed to those cut more than a year ago. The RBV color composite would have been of better definition if Band 3 had been excluded.

  20. Timber designers' manual

    CERN Document Server

    Ozelton, E C

    2008-01-01

    This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members.Available for the first time in paperback, the Third Edition was substantially revised to take account of the many changes since the previous edition was published in 1984. It is based on British Standard BS 5268-2: 2002, which brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5.Features of the Third Edition include:* information on bolt values including

  1. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research progr

  2. Fire safety of timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Štupnik, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this graduation thesis is to show procedures for calculating the fire safety of timber structures. Presented are proposals of improvements of calculations according to standard EN 1995-1-2, based on fire tests and described in European technical guideline. The practical calculations are shown on examples of timber structures of Kindergarten Preddvor.

  3. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  4. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from working group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55 – ‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental...... exposure scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  5. Probabilistic Modeling of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, J.D.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present pro...... probabilistic model for these basic properties is presented and possible refinements are given related to updating of the probabilistic model given new information, modeling of the spatial variation of strength properties and the duration of load effects.......The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) and of the COST action E24 'Reliability of Timber Structures'. The present...

  6. Compatability Determination for Timber Harvesting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a compliance document which pertains to allowing commercial and non-commercial timber harvesting to conserve, restore and rehabilitate forest ecosystems at...

  7. US Forest Service Timber Harvests

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www that depicts the area planned and accomplished acres treated as a part of the timber harvest program of work, funded through the budget...

  8. FRP reinforcement of timber structures

    OpenAIRE

    Schober, Kay-Uwe; Harte, Annette M.; Kliger, Robert; Jockwer, Robert; Xu, Qingfeng; Chen, Jian-fei

    2015-01-01

    Timber engineering has advanced over recent decades to offer an alternative to traditional materials and methods. The bonding of fibre reinforced plastics (FRP) with adhesives to timber structures for repair and strengthening has many advantages. However, the lack of established design rules has strongly restrained the use of FRP strengthening in many situations, where these could be a preferable option to most traditional techniques. A significant body of research has been carried out in rec...

  9. [Beaver Creek Project Flumes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pictures of installed Parshall flumes and structures for the Beaver Creek Project at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge for the Beaver Creek, Jarvie, DeJournette...

  10. Timber resource statistics for southwest Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978 timber-resource inventory of six counties in southwest Washington: Clark, Cowlitz, Lewis, Pacific, Skamania, and Wahkiakum. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  11. Timber resource statistics for eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1983-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1980 timber resource inventory of the 16 forested counties in Washington east of the crest of the Cascade Range. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  12. Computer Vision for Timber Harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg

    planning. The investigations in this thesis is done as initial work on a planning and logistic system for timber harvesting called logTracker. In this thesis we have focused on three methods for the logTracker project, which includes image segmentation, image classification, and image retrieval...... segments. The purpose of image segmentation is to make the basis for more advanced computer vision methods like object recognition and classification. Our second method concerns image classification and we present a method where we classify small timber samples to tree species based on Active Appearance...... to the logTracker project and ideas for further development of the system is provided. Building a complete logTracker system is a very demanding task and the conclusion is that it is important to focus on the elements that can bring most value to timber harvest planning. Besides contributing...

  13. Forest products—Non-timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F. Ros-Tonen

    2011-01-01

    The commercial exploitation of non-timber forest products—such as fibers, nuts, spices, medicinal plants, rubber, and rattan—was proposed in the 1990s as a strategy to reconcile conservation and development in tropical forests. Its economic benefits generally have been limited, however, due to sever

  14. Probabilistic modeling of timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Jochen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2007-01-01

    The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet Publ...... is presented and possible refinements are given related to updating of the probabilistic model given new information, modeling of the spatial variation of strength properties and the duration of load effects.......The present paper contains a proposal for the probabilistic modeling of timber material properties. It is produced in the context of the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) [Joint Committee of Structural Safety. Probabilistic Model Code, Internet...... and comments from participants of the COST E24 action and the members of the JCSS. The paper contains a description of the basic reference properties for timber strength parameters and ultimate limit state equations for timber components. The recommended probabilistic model for these basic properties...

  15. Forests, timber and rural livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariève; Marfo, Emmanuel;

    2015-01-01

    , environmental income (cash and subsistence) is the most important contributor to households’ total yearly net income. Fuelwood, bushmeat and wild foods from plants are the most important environmental products. The survey shows meagre income from timber and poles, but is likely to underreport this source due...

  16. Effectiveness of timber harvesting BMPs: monitoring spatial and temporal dynamics of dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus in a low-gradient watershed, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram DaSilva; Y. Jun Xu; George Ice; John Beebe; Richard Stich

    2012-01-01

    To test effectiveness of Louisiana’s voluntary best management practices (BMPs) at preventing water quality degradation from timber harvesting activities, a study with BACI design was conducted from 2006 through 2010 in the Flat Creek Watershed, north-central Louisiana. Water samples for nutrient analyses and measurements of stream flow and of in-stream dissolved...

  17. Collapse Analysis of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic based collapse analysis has been performed for a glulam frame structure supporting the roof over the main court in a Norwegian sports centre. The robustness analysis is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety...... of Structures and a probabilistic modelling of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). Due to the framework in the Danish Code the timber structure has to be evaluated with respect to the following criteria where at least one shall...... be fulfilled: a) demonstrating that those parts of the structure essential for the safety only have little sensitivity with respect to unintentional loads and defects, or b) demonstrating a load case with „removal of a limited part of the structure‟ in order to document that an extensive failure...

  18. System Reliability of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    For reduction of the risk of collapse in the event of loss of structural element(s), a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design a collapse-resistant structure that is insensitive to accidental circumstances e.g. by incorporating characteristics like redundancy, ties, ductility, key ...... elements, alternate load path(s) etc. in the structural design. In general these characteristics can have a positive influence on system reliability of a structure however, in Eurocodes ductility is only awarded for concrete and steel structures but not for timber structures. It is well......-know that structural systems can redistribute internal forces due to ductility of a connection, i.e. some additional loads can be carried by the structure. The same effect is also possible for reinforced concrete structures and structures of steel. However, for timber structures codes do not award that ductility...

  19. Tropical Timbers of the World,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    irritate skin and mucous membranes and even cause nosebleed and respiratory disorders. Timbers that are particularly toxic are noted. Woods with gummy ...cogs and shafts, barge and dock fenders, flooring, railroad crossties, pulpmill equipment, tool handles, bearings , turnery. A sub- stitute for...Characteristics: Heartwood light to dark red to reddish- or purlish-brown with characteristic dark gummy streaks; sharply demarcated from the narrow grayish- or

  20. The Timber Resource Inventory Model (TRIM): a projection model for timber supply and policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.L. Tedder; R.N. La Mont; J.C. Kincaid

    1987-01-01

    TRIM (Timber Resource Inventory Model) is a yield table projection system developed for timber supply projections and policy analysis. TRIM simulates timber growth, inventories, management and area changes, and removals over the projection period. Programs in the TRIM system, card-by-card descriptions of required inputs, table formats, and sample results are presented...

  1. Selection of Nepalese Timber for Small Wind Turbine Blade Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, R.; Acharya, Parash; Freere, Peter

    2010-01-01

    , weathering effect on coatings, price, growth and availability of the timber. Mechanical properties such as Young's modulus of elasticity, breaking strength, breaking strain and Brinell's hardness of selected Nepalese timbers are presented. The effects of weathering on timbers without coating...

  2. Composite timber-concrete road bridge structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojić Dragoslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents preliminary design of the road bridge made of laminated timber. The supporting system of the main bearing elements is made of the laminated timber in the system of arch with three joints; the bridge slab is designed as continuous slab, made of nine equal fields; each pair is made as composite timber-concrete beam, where the road slab is made of concrete and the needle pieces are made of timber. Fundament is based on HW piles. All the elements are designed to Eurocode.

  3. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of a Norwegian sports arena with a structural system of glulam frames. The robustness evaluation is based on the framework for robustness analysis introduced in the Danish Code of Practice for the Safety of Structures and a probabilistic modelling...... of the timber material proposed in the Probabilistic Model Code (PMC) of the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS). The results show that the requirements for robustness of the structure are highly related to the modelling of the snow load used on the structures when ‘removal of a limited part...

  4. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  5. timber joists subjected to creep-rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Several models were developed for the estimation of the reduction of load carrying capacity of timber with ... variation and statistical distribution models) of .... Dead to live load ration, α ... that timber joists with width b equal to 50mm, and depth.

  6. Timber resources of Douglas County, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1976-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1973 timber resource inventory of Douglas County, Oregon. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and cut are presented. A discussion of the present resource situation highlights the condition of cutover lands and the opportunities for silvicultural treatment.

  7. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  8. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  9. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  10. Priority List : Beaver Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Priority list of water rights at Beaver Creek owned by the State of Colorado or federal Fish and Wildlife. This document also has designs for Parshall flumes and...

  11. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  12. Cache Creek mercury investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cache Creek watershed is located in the California Coastal range approximately 100 miles north of San Francisco in Lake, Colusa and Yolo Counties. Wildlife...

  13. Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope The timber sector, i.e., forestry and timber industry, plays an important role in the socioeconomic development of Ghana through timber products export. Timber production in this sector is associated with increasing environmental burdens in terms of use of materials and en

  14. Reliability and Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizmar, Dean; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In the last few decades there have been intensely research concerning reliability of timber structures. This is primarily because there is an increased focus on society on sustainability and environmental aspects. Modern timber as a building material is also being competitive compared to concrete...... parameters is given. System models (series and parallel) are discused and methods for reliability calculation are given. Special attention is drawn upon brittle/ductile modelling of timber and connections. In chapter 2 robustness requirements implemended in codes are presented. State of the art definitions...

  15. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  16. 18 years of restoration on Codornices Creek

    OpenAIRE

    Fullmer, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Many restoration projects have taken place on Codornices Creek. This paper briefly compares Codornices Creek to Alameda Creek, another creek found in the East Bay area, to demonstrate that Codornices Creek is very well funded, even though it is a considerably smaller and less important creek than Alameda Creek. It then chronologically documents the goals, funding, and monitoring status of the known projects that have taken place on Codornices Creek. Through this study, the author is able to s...

  17. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    the country rock, suggesting that emplacement was controlled by preexisting structures in the country rock. On a gross scale, chemical equilibrium in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite is expressed by a near 1:1 ratio, or straight-line relationship in the distribution of iron, magnesium, and manganese in biotite and hornblende. General mineralogical trends in the Boulder Creek Granodiorite indicate that modal biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase tend to increase and quartz and microcline tend to decrease as CaO increases. These trends were not found in the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Differentiation is believed to have played a major role and assimilation a minor role in the development of the Boulder Creek batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite is of probable mantle or lower crust origin, and, based on the scant data available, the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite may be of crustal origin, but the magma was extensively altered by contaminants of ambiguous origin. Mafic inclusions, possibly derived from a dioritic magma which was an early differentiate associated temporally with the Boulder Creek Granodiorite and (or) the Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite, were in jected into the Boulder Creek Granodiorite during the mush stage and before the batholith was completely crystallized. Biotite, hornblende, and potassium feldspar were studied extensively. Their chemistry and petrology indicate a homogeneity throughout the batholith not believed possible by a casual observance of the batholithic rocks in the field. The accessory minerals, where investigated, also tend to indicate this same pervasive homogeneity.

  18. Development of Timber Property Classification Based on the End-Use with Reference to Twenty Sri Lankan Timber Species

    OpenAIRE

    ND Ruwanpathirana

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on selected 20 timber species of Sri Lanka to study different wood properties, i.e., wood density, modulus of rapture, modulus of elasticity, compression parallel to grain, shrinkage/movement, workability (sawing, nailing, sanding and finishing), treatability of preservative, timber durability, timber texture by vessel diameter and some gross properties, timber colour and present timber uses. Based on the results, an attempt was made to classify the studied ti...

  19. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge's timber resource is largely black oak, black jack oak, hickory, elm, swamp maple, pecan, cottonwood, sycamore, and willow....

  20. How Planer Settings Affect Timber Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Axelsson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are different reasons for planing timber. One is to adjust the cross-sectional dimensions of thickness and width. Another is to adjust the timber's outer shape, usually in order to reduce warp resulting from drying and having the forms of cup, twist, bow, and crook. The end-result depends on the properties of the timber before planing and on the planer design and settings. In the present work it was found that increasing or decreasing the forces exerted on the timber by a four-sided planer does not affect the cutting depth or the twist reduction. The pressure settings do not affect the rectangularity or the amount of unplaned areas on the surfaces either. The possibility to impact the result with this type of planer, apart from the cutting depth and planed dimensions, is slim to none.

  1. Framework for Robustness Assessment of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for the design and analysis of robustness of timber structures. This is actualized by a more4 frequent use of advanced types of timber structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in the case of failure. Combined with increased requirements...... are not specified in detail, which makes the practical use difficult. This paper describes a theoretical and risk based framework to form the basis for quantification of robustness and for pre-normative guidelines....

  2. Hanawaltite, Hg1+6Hg2+[Cl,(OH)]2O3 - A new mineral from the Clear Creek claim, San Benito County, California: Description and crystal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Grice, Joel D.; Gault, Robert A.; Criddle, A.J.; Erd, Richard C.

    1996-01-01

    Hanawaltite, ideally Hg1+6Hg2+O3Cl2, is orthorhombic, Pbma (57), with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a=11.790(3), b=13.881(4), c=6.450(2) A??, V=1055.7(6) A??3, a:b:c =0.8494:1:0.4647, Z=4. The strongest six lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(hkl)] are: 5.25 (80)(111), 3.164 (60)(231), 3.053 (100)(041), 2.954 (70)(141), 2.681 (50)(401), and 2.411 (50)(232,341). The mineral is an extremely rare constituent in a small prospect pit near the long-abandoned Clear Creek mercury mine, New Idria district, San Benito County, California. It was found on a single-fracture surface where it is intimately associated with calomel, native mercury, cinnabar, montroydite, and quartz. Individual crystals are subhedral to anhedral, platy to somewhat bladed, and average about 50 ??m in longest dimension. The largest known crystal is approximately 0.3??0.3 mm in size and is striated parallel [001]. Hanawaltite is opaque to translucent (on very thin edges), black to very dark brown-black in color, with a black to dark red-brown streak. Other physical properties include: metallic luster; cleavage {001} good; uneven fracture; brittle; nonfluorescent; Hcrystal structure was determined, the original microprobe value for Hg2O, 96.2, was partitioned in a ratio of 6Hg2O:HgO and (OH) was calculated, such that Cl+(OH)=2. The hanawaltite structure consists of undulatory [Hg-Hg]2+ ribbons which roughly parallel (100). The diatomic [Hg-Hg]2+ groups have anion tails which, in turn, serve as cross linkages between dimer ribbons through [Hg2+O2Cl2] planar rhombs. The structure is compared to that of other mercury oxychlorides and each is found to have its own unique structural features. This structural diversity is attributed to the inherent ability of mercury to adopt either metallic or ionic types of bonds. The mineral name honors the late Dr. J. D. (Don) Hanawalt (1903-1987), who was a pioneer in the field of X-ray powder diffraction. ?? 1996 International

  3. Timber and non-timber forest product extraction and management in the tropics: towards compatibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Nasi, R.; Sheil, D.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ndoye, O.; Ingram, V.; Shackleton, S.; Mitchell, D.; Shackleton, C.; Campbell, B.; Shanley, P.

    2009-01-01

    Tropical forests have the potential to satisfy multiple demands for goods and services. Yet integrated management approaches across multiple goods remain elusive. Here we consider selective harvesting of timber and non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction. We analyze the current status of this

  4. Timber products output and timber harvests in Alaska: projections for 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Brooks; Richard W. Haynes

    1997-01-01

    Projections of Alaska timber products output, the derived demand for raw material, and timber harvest by owner are developed from a trend-based analysis. These projections are revisions of projections made in 1990 and again in 1994, and reflect the consequences of recent changes in the Alaska forest sector and long-term trends in markets for Alaska products. With the...

  5. Michigan timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Reports forest-industry trends, production and receipts of industrial roundwood, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products for Michigan's timber industry in 2004. Also reports logging residue generated from timber harvest operations in Michigan as well as the generation and disposition of wood and bark residue generated by...

  6. Mtwapa Creek, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spratelloides delicatilus was a carnivore feeding only on zooplankton and zoobenthos, and had the lowest diet ... the time of feeding. The composition ... from the shoreline into the waters. It was then. Estuary of. Mtwapa Creek. N o 2 4 km. fizz“.

  7. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes types, processes and importance of rent-seeking in the allocation of timber rights in Ghana. It is based on an analysis of 30 interviews with large-, medium- and small-scale timber firms, as well as government officials and timber industry organizations in Ghana. The paper...... involving exchange of timber rights for political support and/or material, personal benefits. Second, timber rights are allocated to persons or firms outside the timber sector allegedly as payment for political support. The paper concludes that the Voluntary Partnership Agreement between Ghana and the EU...

  8. Persistence and Detectability of Hydrologic Changes Following Multiple Timber Harvest Entries in the Oregon Coast Range: Alsea Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stednick, J. D.; Ice, G. G.; Hale, V. C.

    2006-12-01

    The original Alsea Watershed Study (1959-1973) was a paired study in the Oregon Coast Range designed to assess the physical and biological effects of timber harvesting on water and salmonid resources. The 3 streams chosen for study, Deer Creek, Flynn Creek, and Needle Branch, are tributaries of Drift Creek, which flows into Alsea Bay. The watersheds lie about 16 km from the Pacific Ocean, and have a maritime climate, with mean annual precipitation approximately 250 cm, almost all of which falls as rain from October through March. Flynn Creek served as an undisturbed control watershed, Deer Creek had 3 patch cuts (25% of the watershed area) with a streamside vegetation buffer, and Needle Branch was clearcut (85%) with no streamside buffer. The results of the original Alsea Study showed an increase in annual water yield and 3-day peak flows for Needle Branch, and no significant change for any streamflow metric (annual yield, peak flow, or low flows) on Deer Creek. Because the watersheds "generally appear to be returning to pre-logging conditions" the authors of the original study believed hydrologic recovery had occurred. The streamflow gauging network was reestablished in 1990 as the New Alsea Watershed Study. Additional streamflow monitoring (1990-1996) suggested that the watersheds deemed to be "recovered" still showed departures from the pre-treatment relations. Streamflow monitoring from the same period suggested 24 years for vegetation regrowth to return to hydrologic functions similar to the pretreatment. A literature review of paired watershed studies suggested that in the Pacific Northwest at least 25% of the watershed area needed to be harvested to be detectable with streamflow monitoring. Flynn Creek was designated a long-term Research Natural Area by the USDA Forest Service in 1976, and remains an undisturbed temperate coniferous forested watershed. Deer Creek had a second timber harvesting entry in 1978 of 20 ha and two units of 14.5 and 8.4 ha were

  9. Reinforcement and recovery of timber structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alves Dias

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of timber structures is a reason for constant concern because their deterioration often involves compromising the historical patrimony, besides endangering the safety of the structure, and consequently, of their users. Many are the examples of churches, residences or other constructions where this manifestation is a fact. The technique of reinforcing structurally endangered pieces with the addition of natural or synthetic fibers, is an alternative that has been researched. In the group of synthetic fibers, fiberglass, carbon and aramid ones are included. On the other hand, it has been frequent in the restoration of old buildings, especially in Europe, the employment of materials that were not available in the past, aiming to achieve structural, acoustic and aesthetic benefits. On an existing timber structure floor, a concrete slab has been carried out, with an appropriate connection system among the parts, constituting the composite timber-concrete structures. This alternative has been considered as extraordinarily viable, because it gathers a series of convenience related with the durability and it presents better mechanic performance than conventional timber structures. In this work, the state-of-the-art of the use of fibers as structural reinforcement and of the timber-concrete composite structures, is presented.

  10. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  11. The Influence of Flame Retardant Treated Timber Density on Combustibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbignev Karpovič

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Timber is widely used as a construction material in the majority of countries. In most cases, timber is the main structural material. Timber and timber fabrics used in building structure elements have to fulfill the requirements of fire safety. This article presents factors affecting the combustibility of timber, mainly the influence of flame retardants on the combustion phase, timber density and moisture. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is analyzed in this paper. Research was performed according to the requirements of the standard LST ISO 5657:1999 “Reaction to fire tests – ignitibility of building products using a radiant heat source”. The influence of flame retardant treated timber density on combustibility is assessed according to duration up to the combustion of the specimen. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Investigation of timber harvesting mechanization progress in Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... This study was aimed at investigating different timber transportation methods and harvesting ... Timber harvesting machines amount was reduced to 20 tractors (4 x 4 and ... and ecological function of the majority of the world's.

  13. Industrialised timber frame housing:managing customisation, change, and information

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Max

    2004-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis is to develop an increased understanding of industrialised timber frame housing (timber frame housing construction fully or partially conducted in a controlled environment utilising industrial processes and machinery). Of specific interest is how industrialised timber frame housing companies manage customisation, change, and information. Three single case studies (at a medium-sized industrialised timber frame housing company), one multiple-case study, and one su...

  14. Recommendations for sustainable development of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gina H. Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    Non-timber forest products--or NTFPs--are considered here to be botanical products harvested or originating from forest-based species, but excluding primary timber products, industrial boards and composites, and paper products. A recent study of non-timber forest products in Ontario, Canada, identified at least 50 types of NTFPs and hundreds of specific products used...

  15. Import analysis of China's major timber products In 2004

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Baodong; Song Weiming; Tian Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Timber import is an important and integral part of China's timber trade.According to different kinds of product type,this paper analyzes its import in 2004 separately;based on the conditions of China's timber import trade in 2004,this paper finds out some existing problems and puts forward corresponding countermeasures.

  16. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April...

  17. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet in log scale measurement; linear estimates of pole timber, and amount of cord wood. The appraiser... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone §...

  18. 36 CFR 223.187 - Determinations of unprocessed timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage... instance, because the timber originates from private land from which timber may be exported. (2) Lumber... and substitution restrictions of the Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990...

  19. Safety of timber: An analysis of quality control options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovryga, A.; Stapel, P.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    The quality assurance of timber properties is important for the safety of timber structures. In the current study, the quality control options of timber are analysed under the prism of the different growth regions. Therefore, these options - machine and output control - are simulated in accordance w

  20. Timber Elements: Traditional and Modern Strengthening Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Hohan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper is to analyse the means for the rehabilitation of our cultural heritage timber structures. Several methods together with their application techniques are described, and also, the reasons for what these strengthening operations become imminent at a point. First of all, the necessity of the timber structural elements strengthening is explained through a short presentation of the factors which are degrading the material. Then, certain precautions and strengthening procedures are presented, all involving the usage of traditional materials like wood, metal, or concrete, and of modern materials like fiber reinforced polymeric composite.

  1. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    but also increase timbers competitiveness in the building industry. The paper is part of an ongoing research project aiming at providing tools for an integrated design process for timber structures. The focus of the paper is to identify how structure and its joints contributes to architecture and vice...... versa. Further, a method for how to design with structure and joints from the very early stage of design is proposed. The architectural/engineering model of the joints will later be incorporated in the digital design environment of the designer. In this way, the conceptual design phase will not only...

  2. Robustness Analysis of Timber Truss Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses robustness of structures in general and the robustness requirements given in the codes. Robustness of timber structures is also an issues as this is closely related to Working group 3 (Robustness of systems) of the COST E55 project. Finally, an example of a robustness...... evaluation of a widespan timber truss structure is presented. This structure was built few years ago near Zagreb and has a span of 45m. Reliability analysis of the main members and the system is conducted and based on this a robustness analysis is preformed....

  3. Experimental study of timber-to-timber composite beam using welded-through wood dowels

    OpenAIRE

    O'Loinsigh, Cian; Oudjene, M.; Ait-Aider, H.; Fanning, Paul; Pizzi, A.; Shotton, Elizabeth; Meghlat, E.-M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents exploratory research related to novel full-scale multi-layered timber beams with composite action achieved with welded-through wood dowels. Different multi-layer beam designs, where the timber layers were interconnected with welded wood dowels providing interlayer shear resistance, were tested in bending with different dowel densities. The main originality of this study is the achievement of dowel welds through greater depths of sections than has previously proved possible...

  4. Non-timber forest products in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katie Kamelamela; James B. Friday; Tamara Ticktin; Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forests provide a wide array of non-timber forest products for both traditional and modern uses. Flowers, vines, and ferns are collected for creating garlands or lei for hula dances and parades. Lei made from materials gathered in the forest are made for personal use and sold, especially during graduation times. Bamboo is harvested for structures and for...

  5. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario SASSONE

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...

  6. Pocket Checklists of Indonesian timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prawira, Soewanda A.; Tantra, I.G.M.; Whitmore, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Indonesia as yet does not have a comprehensive account of the forest trees which reach timber size (35 cm dbh = 14 inch or 105 cm gbh = 42 inch). A project has been started in August 1983 by the Botany Section of the Forest Research Institute in Bogor, Indonesia, to prepare pocket checklists of the

  7. Commercial lumber, round timbers, and ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Kretschmann

    2010-01-01

    When sawn, a log yields round timber, ties, or lumber of varying quality. This chapter presents a general discussion of grading, standards, and specifications for these commercial products. In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types...

  8. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  9. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  10. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bobette E; Krupa, Monika; Tate, Kenneth W

    2013-01-01

    The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010) involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i) Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii) Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii) Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S) showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management practices

  11. Aquatic ecosystem response to timber harvesting for the purpose of restoring aspen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobette E Jones

    Full Text Available The removal of conifers through commercial timber harvesting has been successful in restoring aspen, however many aspen stands are located near streams, and there are concerns about potential aquatic ecosystem impairment. We examined the effects of management-scale conifer removal from aspen stands located adjacent to streams on water quality, solar radiation, canopy cover, temperature, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and soil moisture. This 8-year study (2003-2010 involved two projects located in Lassen National Forest. The Pine-Bogard Project consisted of three treatments adjacent to Pine and Bogard Creeks: (i Phase 1 in January 2004, (ii Phase 2 in August 2005, and (iii Phase 3 in January 2008. The Bailey Project consisted of one treatment adjacent to Bailey Creek in September 2006. Treatments involved whole tree removal using track-laying harvesters and rubber tire skidders. More than 80% of all samples analyzed for NO₃-N, NH₄-N, and PO₄-P at Pine, Bogard, and Bailey Creeks were below the detection limit, with the exception of naturally elevated PO₄-P in Bogard Creek. All nutrient concentrations (NO₃-N, NH₄-N, PO₄-P, K, and SO₄-S showed little variation within streams and across years. Turbidity and TSS exhibited annual variation, but there was no significant increase in the difference between upstream and downstream turbidity and TSS levels. There was a significant decrease in stream canopy cover and increase in the potential fraction of solar radiation reaching the streams in response to the Pine-Bogard Phase 3 and Bailey treatments; however, there was no corresponding increase in stream temperatures. Macroinvertebrate metrics indicated healthy aquatic ecosystem conditions throughout the course of the study. Lastly, the removal of vegetation significantly increased soil moisture in treated stands relative to untreated stands. These results indicate that, with careful planning and implementation of site-specific best management

  12. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  14. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. An analysis of the timber situation in Alaska: 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes; David J. Brooks

    1990-01-01

    Current conditions in Alaska timber markets are reviewed relative to the past two decades. Major issues in the outlook for Alaska timber markets are considered. Recent studies are used to develop projections of Alaska timber products output, timber harvest, and timber harvest by owner. The assumptions these projections depend on include the level of harvest on Native...

  16. Wildlife Conservation in Bornean Timber Concessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Stanley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extensive review of the literature, and broad consultation with experts, we have assessed the sensitivity of Bornean vertebrates to the direct and indirect effects of timber harvest. Well-implemented selective logging has a relatively limited direct impact on wildlife populations: few species appear quite sensitive, some benefit, some decline. However, current management practices in Indonesian Borneo generally cause a decline in wildlife populations. Guidelines for sustainable forest management are primarily focused on trees, with few specific recommendations on how to sustainably manage wildlife populations in timber concessions. Based on our findings, we provide extensive wildlife management guidelines, pointing out the importance of maintaining understory vegetation and large trees for fruit, seed, dead wood, and tree hollow production, limiting canopy gaps, and reducing hunting and wildlife trade in concessions. In addition, we provide specific management advice on high priority species of Bornean vertebrates.

  17. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  18. Timber Curtain: Designing with material capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahmy, Maya; Larsen, Niels Martin

    2015-01-01

    Timber Curtain explores relations between digital precision and material indeterminacy. It is an installation engaging spatially through its presence as a 1:1 architectural component as well as it is exploring novel technologies in the architectural design process from the very beginning of the g...... of pinewood, processed with a 5-axis CNC router. The digital process generation and simulation is implemented with Rhinoceros 3D, Grasshopper and GHPython, and AlphaCAM was used for preparing the CNC-milling....

  19. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  20. Roof timber for fortifying mining works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Kuntsevich, V.IK.; Pishchulin, V.V.; Seryi, A.M.; Volkov, P.A.

    1981-05-15

    The roof timber for fortifying mining works includes spring-mounted hinged elements made from a special rolled metal. In order to increase the carrying capacity of the support by increasing the deformation threshold, the springs are mounted by their expanded section to the lower side of the hinge; their ends are connected in turn to the elements made from the special rolled metal on both sides of the hinge.

  1. Sectional timbering for ascending bed shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murzin, G.S.; Boldin, V.M.; D' yakov, B.V.; Dzyubenko, V.P.; Fayner, I.A.; Posokhov, G.Ye.; Smolin, M.M.

    1979-02-08

    The purpose of the invention is to improve reliability of timbering when coal or rock are lowered through the shaft. The purpose is achieved because each block is equipped with depressions on the radial edges, while a flexible linkage, for example, cable, is attached to the end of the block and is equipped on the end with a transverse rod which enters the depressions of the radial edges of the blocks.

  2. Mechanized timbering for faces with artificial Petrosani shield type roofing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koronka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new type of mechanized shield timbering is described for faces of continuous extraction which can be successfully used at coal mines of the Valya-Zhiuluy (Socialist Republic of Romania) coal beds in working bed 3. The component elements of the metal timbering section are: base frame, inclined curvilinear shield, 2-span curvilinear hinged beam, coupling, 2 extension support rods, hydraulic push rod for moving the main frame into the face and hydraulic cylinder for controlling the discharge coupling. The maximum height of the timbering section is 3.4, the minimum height is 2.7 m, the width of coverage of the section is 0.7 m, the carrier capacity of the section is 1600 kN, working pressure in the hydraulic system is 200 N/cm/sup 2/, the spacing of timbering feed is 0.8 m, natural weight of section 3.5 T. A plan is presented for geometric elements of the timbering and its assemblies with indication of their controllable movement. Results are reported on the experimental tests of the timbering in the mine shafts Lonea and the parameters for quantitative evaluation of the timbering achieved in this case, in particular, diagrams are presented for the change in pressure absorbed by the timbering and reaction of the supports changing with time. Experience has indicated that timbering of the Petrosani type is used efficiently together with extraction combines 2K-52, Ks 1 Kg, Ravageuse and others. The most effective is the use of the described timbering in faces of width 50-60 m. The obtained indicators in technical-economic parameters make it possible to evaluate the Petrosani type timbering on a higher operating level as compared to the imported types of timbering.

  3. Parametric study of the fire resistance of simple timber elements

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The graduation thesis presents the influence of fire development on fire resistance of simple timber bearing elements according to SIST EN 1991-1-2 and SIST EN 1995-1-2. The fire analysis of timber bearing elements is divided into three phases. Parametric analysis of influence of certain parameters on fire development is performed in the first phase. On the basis of acquired results second phase follows in which, thermal analysis of timber elements is conducted. Here, charring depths for timb...

  4. Seismic retrofitting of timber framed walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 1755 earthquake that destroyed Lisbon, an innovative anti-seismic structural system was developed consisting of a timber skeleton, that included timber framed masonry walls. After more than 250 years these structures need rehabilitation to face the present demands. The research presented in this paper aimed at experimentally characterizing the cyclic behaviour of timber framed walls reinforced with three different methods, namely: (i elastic-plastic dampers on diagonal braces, (ii reinforcement of timber connections with steel plates, (iii application of a reinforced rendering. The elastic-plastic damper showed an unsymmetrical behaviour and some difficulties to implement in practice. The strengthening with reinforced render led to an initial stiffness increase but showed a limited deformation capacity. The walls with reinforcing steel plates at the timber connections showed the best behaviour in terms of strength, stiffness and energy dissipation.Después del terremoto de 1755 que destruyó Lisboa, un sistema estructural antisísmico muy innovador fue desarrollado. El sistema consistió en un esqueleto de madera, que incluyó la construcción de muros de mampostería con un entramado de madera. Transcurridos más de 250 años, estas estructuras necesitan rehabilitación para poder hacer frente a los requisitos estructurales actuales. La investigación presentada en este trabajo tiene como objetivo caracterizar experimentalmente el comportamiento cíclico de los muros con entramado de madera reforzados con tres métodos diferentes: (i amortiguadores elasto-plásticos, (ii refuerzo de las conexiones de madera con placas de acero, (iii aplicación de un mortero reforzado. El amortiguador elasto-plástico mostró un comportamiento asimétrico y algunas dificultades para aplicarlo en la práctica. El refuerzo con mortero reforzado condujo a un aumento de la rigidez inicial, pero reveló una capacidad de deformación limitada. Los muros con

  5. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  6. Rattlesnake Creek management program proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Partnership has concentrated its efforts on a voluntary approach for lowering the total water use in the Rattlesnake Creek subbasin. This will occur through the...

  7. Environmentally sound timber extracting techniques for small tree harvesting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during skidding operations, introducing or applying the appropriate techniques of timber extracting could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting, particularly for thinning operations, were presented and introduced in this paper. The results of evaluation, test or practices indicated that these timber-extracting techniques are feasible, applicable and reasonable in small tree harvesting with a relatively low impact no environment and a moderate operation cost.

  8. Analysis and Forecast for Timber Supply and Demand in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the data from 2002 to 2010, the paper analyzed the situation of timber supply and demand in China, and concluded that supply-demand could be balanced basically if taking accounting of timber import. Based on the data from the Seventh National Forestry Inventory, the potential of providing timber from natural forest and plantation was analyzed. The paper also forecasted the future features and trend of timber supply and demand in China. In the end, strategic measures and technological and policy gua...

  9. Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.

  10. The economics of global timber markets. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert; Sedjo, Roger

    1997-09-02

    This paper develops a global timber market model which captures how timber supply reacts to future predicted increases in the demand for timber. Higher future demand is expected to increase prices, reflecting greater land scarcity. Investments in growing timber are also expected to increase, expanding output and tempering the price response. A greater reliance on plantations in productive regions is predicted to allow large areas of natural forest in low valued regions to remain largely intact. The quantitative results are sensitive to the rate demand increases, the cost of plantations, and access costs of natural forests.

  11. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  12. Landscape-scale quantification of fire-induced change in canopy cover following mountain pine beetle outbreak and timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, T. Ryan; Kolden, Crystal A.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M.S.; Kreitler, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    Across the western United States, the three primary drivers of tree mortality and carbon balance are bark beetles, timber harvest, and wildfire. While these agents of forest change frequently overlap, uncertainty remains regarding their interactions and influence on specific subsequent fire effects such as change in canopy cover. Acquisition of pre- and post-fire Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the 2012 Pole Creek Fire in central Oregon provided an opportunity to isolate and quantify fire effects coincident with specific agents of change. This study characterizes the influence of pre-fire mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) and timber harvest disturbances on LiDAR-estimated change in canopy cover. Observed canopy loss from fire was greater (higher severity) in areas experiencing pre-fire MPB (Δ 18.8%CC) than fire-only (Δ 11.1%CC). Additionally, increasing MPB intensity was directly related to greater canopy loss. Canopy loss was lower for all areas of pre-fire timber harvest (Δ 3.9%CC) than for fire-only, but among harvested areas, the greatest change was observed in the oldest treatments and the most intensive treatments [i.e., stand clearcut (Δ 5.0%CC) and combination of shelterwood establishment cuts and shelterwood removal cuts (Δ 7.7%CC)]. These results highlight the importance of accounting for and understanding the impact of pre-fire agents of change such as MPB and timber harvest on subsequent fire effects in land management planning. This work also demonstrates the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR as a tool for quantifying these landscape-scale interactions.

  13. Tensile properties of machine strength graded timber for glued laminated timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Lars; Hoffmeyer, Preben; Solli, Kjell-Helge

    1999-01-01

    Special setting values based on tensile properties of Norway spruce are established for four different strength grading machines. The machines included are Computermatic, Cook-Bolinder, Ersson and Dynagrade.The study shows that the yield of timber to be used in tension, such as laminations for gl...

  14. Import procedures for timber to the European Union : options for streamlining procedures for legal timber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, B.M.; Verwaart, D.

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a description of the institutions involved in timber import and an overview of import procedures and related documents in the Netherlands in the framework of the European Union Action Plan for Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT). FLEGT aims at establishing Volun

  15. Kansas timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Kansas forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  16. North Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Robert A. Harsel

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent North Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  19. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  20. Wisconsin timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  2. Nebraska timber Industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Dennis M. Adams

    2008-01-01

    Presents recent Nebraska forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, excelsior/shavings, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  3. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  4. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. Appropriateness of Probit-9 in development of quarantine treatments for timber and timber commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus Schortemeyer; Ken Thomas; Robert A. Haack; Adnan Uzunovic; Kelli Hoover; Jack A. Simpson; Cheryl A. Grgurinovic

    2011-01-01

    Following the increasing international phasing out of methyl bromide for quarantine purposes, the development of alternative treatments for timber pests becomes imperative. The international accreditation of new quarantine treatments requires verification standards that give confidence in the effectiveness of a treatment. Probit-9 mortality is a standard for treatment...

  6. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  7. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... an important role in the overall probabilistic modeling. Therefore a scheme for estimating the parameters of probability distribution parameters focusing on the tail behavior has been established using a censored Maximum Likelihood estimation technique. The proposed probabilistic models have been formulated...

  8. Non-timber forest products: alternatives for landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett

    2002-01-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been given to forest products that are plant-based but do not come from timber. These "alternative" products are found growing under the forest canopy as herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. Although they have been gathered for generations, non-timber forest products have had less attention than "more...

  9. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  10. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... further advertisement, at not less than appraised value, any timber previously advertised for...

  11. Rent-seeking and timber rights allocation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard

    2014-01-01

    documents that timber rights allocation is associated with both bureaucratic and political corruption. The latter comes in two forms. First, the findings suggest that well-established relationships exist between politicians and senior bureaucrats on the one side and large-scale timber firms on the other...

  12. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  13. Timber Production and Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Julia K.

    The supply of the nation's forests is very great, and of this supply, approximately 1 1/2 percent comes from American Indian forests. Timber resources are three-fold: the slash (unusable limbs, tops, and stumps), as well as the unmarketable trees, provide wood for fuel; the sale of timber provides tribal revenue from a renewable source; and the…

  14. Locally reinforced timber joints with expanded tube fasteners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The study presented focuses on the development of a novel timber joint. Traditional timber joints with mechanical fasteners, particular dowel type fasteners, such as bolts exhibit a low strength and an unreliable stiffness and ductility caused by the presence of hole clearance and the unpredictable

  15. Timber resources of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel D. Osward

    1972-01-01

    The findings of the first complete inventory of the timber resources of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties, California, indicate there is 19.1 billion board feet of sawtimber on 1,564,000 acres of unreserved commercial forest land in these two counties. Forest industries own about 34 percent of the commercial forest area and 37 percent of the timber volume; farm and...

  16. The Dendrochronological Dating of Timber Crossings in West Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...

  17. Chapter 2: Manufacturing Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjen Yeh; Dave Kretschmann; Brad (Jianhe) Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT) is defined as a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are laminated by gluing oflongitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof...

  18. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  19. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber

  20. Compatibility of timber and non-timber forest product management in natural tropical forests: perspectives, challenges, and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guariguata, M.R.; García-Fernández, C.; Shiel, D.; Nasi, R.; Herrero-Jáuregui, C.; Cronkleton, P.; Ingram, V.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forests could satisfy multiple demands for goods and services both for present and future generations. Yet integrated approaches to natural forest management remain elusive across the tropics. In this paper we examine one combination of uses: selective harvesting of timber and non-timber fo

  1. Bioassessment of Black Creek, Holmes County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at four stations on Black Creek and one station on Harland Creek (reference site), Holmes County, Mississippi were...

  2. Tracking sequestered carbon in the timber trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blundell, A.G. [US Agency for International Development, Washington, DC (United States). EGAT Forestry Team

    2002-07-01

    The most recent meeting discussing the Kyoto Protocol focused on market-based mechanisms to reduce greenhouse gases. This could pave the way for initiatives that allow polluters to offset their emissions if they buy carbon sequestered through reforestation (Sandalow and Bowles 2001). But rather than lose credit when the trees are harvested, investors must continue to track the sequestered carbon once trees become timber. I examined trade statistics for the best-tracked timber species, namely mahogany, Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae). Although mahogany is regulated by one of the most restrictive trade agreements, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), 1 found discrepancies in USA trade statistics of c. 30%, representing c. US$ 100 million over the last 4 years. For comparison, I also calculated differences in trade data for all sawnwood, according to the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO); discrepancies between USA and exporter reports were c. 38%. Large accounting problems must be solved before sequestered carbon should become a globally traded commodity. (author)

  3. The performance of regional timber industry complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Aleksandrovich Shishelov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the results of the economic evaluation of the performance of regional timber industry complex of the NorthWestern Federal District based on the calculation of the structural indicator. The position and the role of forestry in the economy are shown. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the regional forestry: volume of shipped products, industrial structure, product diversification, deep processing of wood is carried out. Structural economic performance timber for each subject Northwestern Federal District is designed the following factors that determine the high effectiveness of the system: the scale pulp and paper, wood diversification, export products are identified. The important methodological significance is the fact that the use of structural indicators will determine not only the effectiveness of forestry regions North-West in general, but their industries: forestry, woodworking, pulp and paper production, and the level of labor productivity and capital productivity. The presented results are of high practical and methodological value to determine the current state of forestry.

  4. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  5. North Fork Caspar Creek stream biology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheal S. Parker

    1991-01-01

    Timber harvesting is one of the most widespread land-uses in forested watersheds throughout western North America. It has long been recognized that timber removal, primarily through clearcutting, may have significant impacts on some environmental conditions within streams draining forested watersheds. It is also clear that logging related impacts are highly variable...

  6. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  7. Cutting drying costs by pre-grading green timber according to strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gard, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-grading of green timber can be used to reduce the costs of timber drying for applications where strong dry timber is required. An example is chosen (wood for glue lamination) where the potential drying cost saving from pre-sorting green timber is 35% of the total drying costs (or as much as 9% o

  8. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... increases competition for National Forest System timber sales, results in higher prices paid for such timber... hazardous fuels. On June 1, 2012, there were 98 National Forest System timber sales under contract in... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public...

  9. Exploring the future of timber resources in the high forest zone of Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.; Arts, B.J.M.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Kyereh, B.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ghana's forests, particularly the timber resources, face an uncertain future, because of high deforestation rate, a rapidly declining timber resource base, rapid population growth and increasing demand for timber. This paper explores the future development of timber resource in Ghana by constructing

  10. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  11. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...... communities. This is however mainly occurring in ‘‘ordinary’’ forest lands and not in formally gazetted forest lands. In this paper we briefly explore the major land-uses in the Congo Basin and their actual or potential for multiple-use. We then focus on the most extant production system (industrial logging...

  12. Robustness Issues for Design of Innovative Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2013-01-01

    large span timber structures are analyzed and based on these analyses the paper presents guidelines for the future development of innovative timber struc-tures which are robust with respect to design and execution errors, unforeseen degradation and other potential hazards.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious conse-quences in case of failure. The present paper summaries issues with respect to robustness of timber structures. Two different...

  13. Reliability Analysis of Timber Structures through NDT Data Upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    for reliability calculation. In chapter 4, updating methods are conceptualized and defined. Special attention is drawn upon Bayesian methods and its implementation. Also a topic for updating based in inspection of deterioration is provided. State of the art definitions and proposed measurement indices......The first part of this document presents, in chapter 2, a description of timber characteristics and common used NDT and MDT for timber elements. Stochastic models for timber properties and damage accumulation models are also referred. According to timber’s properties a framework is proposed...

  14. Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures with Ductile Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Cizmar, D.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper considers robustness evaluation of timber structures where the ductile behavior of joints of timber material is taken into account. The robustness analysis is based on the structural reliability framework used on a simplified mechanical system modelling a structural timber system...... as a parallel system. A measure of ductile behaviour is introduced. For different values of this measure the system reliability is estimated based on Monte Carlo simulation where correlation between the strength of structural elements and load models for permanent and live load are introduced. The results...

  15. LINCOLN CREEK ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; Stebbins, Scott A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, the Lincoln Creek Roadless Area, Nevada was determined to have little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral resources. Geologic terrane favorable for the occurrence of contact-metasomatic tungsten deposits exists, but no evidence for this type of mineralization was identified. The geologic setting precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified.

  16. 新的Timber Expo展会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管宁

    2010-01-01

    英国:英国木业将于2011年9月27—28日在考文垂(Coventry)举办一个新的Timber Expo展会。该展会将有4000-6000m2的展区,争取吸引最少100家参展商和5000位来访者。目前已有近50个公司预定了展台。主办者称,展会将使来访者获得信息和创新的灵感,将成为创新产品的橱窗,从地板、

  17. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull....... The statistical fits have generally been made using all data and the lower tail of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. The results show that the 2-parameter Weibull distribution gives the best...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...

  18. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull....... The statistical fits have generally been made using all data (100%) and the lower tail (30%) of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. 8 different databases are analysed. The results show that 2......-parameter Weibull (and Normal) distributions give the best fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the LogNormal distribution generally gives poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used....

  19. Architectural and structural qualities in timber joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Thøger; Christensen, Mogens Fiil; Damkilde, Lars

    2016-01-01

    versa. Further, a method for how to design with structure and joints from the very early stage of design is proposed. The architectural/engineering model of the joints will later be incorporated in the digital design environment of the designer. In this way, the conceptual design phase will not only......Design of joints in timber structures is crucial to reach both elegant and structural efficient designs. Design of joints should therefore be an integral part of the conceptual design phase. Traditionally this is not the case, and joints are often solely designed and analysed in the engineering...... design phase. The result is joints that function structurally but do not add value to the design, and may even compromise the architectural ideas. With an approach, integrating both structural and architectural design from the beginning, one should not only gain better structures and architecture...

  20. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    The common thread through this thesis is the aim of bringing the aesthetic, poetic and sensuous qualities of materials into focus. This is done with the belief that materials are more than merely the means of construction, i.e. more than a building system. The thesis takes its point of departure...... in the great importance wood has had as a building material throughout history as a naturally occurring, strong, light and workable construction material with various multi-sensuous qualities and great applicability. Over the last two decades, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus, partly due...... an undefined aesthetic potential that may innovate how we construct and perceive timber architecture, the overall aim of the thesis is to inquire into the architectural and aesthetic qualities of CLT. Through three chapters this thesis examines and discusses 1) the architectural qualities of CLT, 2...

  1. Reliability Analysis of Structural Timber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2000-01-01

    characteristics of the load-bearing capacity is estimated in the form of a characteristic value and a coefficient of variation. These two values are of primary importance for codes of practice based on the partial safety factor format since the partial safety factor is closely related to the coefficient...... the above stochastic models, statistical characteristics (distribution function, 5% quantile and coefficient of variation) are determined. Generally, the results show that taking the system effects into account the characteristic load bearing capacity can be increased and the partial safety factor decreased...... of variation. In the paper a stochastic model is described for the strength of a single piece of timber taking into account the stochastic variation of the strength and stiffness with length. Also stochastic models for different types of loads are formulated. First, simple representative systems with different...

  2. A Timber Management Plan : Mingo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. A history and...

  3. Determinants of market participation in non-timber forest products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of market participation in non-timber forest products among the rural ... The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, budgetary analysis, probit and ... The result showed that household size, income from other occupation, ...

  4. Modeling the Effects of Knots in Structural Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foley, Christina

    was established, which describes variations of radial growth direction and fiber orientation related to knots in timber. The adaptability of the paradigm allows practically any softwood knot and its effect on surrounding wood material to be modeled with an accuracy that is limited only by input data. The knot......The main purpose of the pursued research presented in this thesis is to increase knowledge of the effects of knots in structural timber so that characteristics of weaker timber may be determined and applied to improve current grading techniques. In the process, a three-dimensional fiber paradigm...... are given to Shigo's knot formation theory, and thus predicts two separate patterns of fiber direction within annual growth layers related to live knots. In order to determine the possibility to practically and non destructively predict local material directions in structural timber with the three...

  5. SURVEY ON NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS IN BAUCHI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A survey on Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in Bauchi South Senatorial Districts. (Alkaleri, Bauchi ... study local government areas. All data ... medicinal plants, and bush meat (Andel,. 2006). ..... agrees with the report by Timko et al.,.

  6. Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some Guidelines For Reduced Impact Timber Harvesting Practices In Miombo ... in terms of food, direct revenues, employment, forage for animals, tourism, fuel, ... contributed to eroding the environmental importance and ecological diversity of ...

  7. Timber Inventory for the James River National Wildlife Refuge 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A timber cruise of selected young pine tree plantations was conducted during the summer of 2006 at the James River National Wildlife Refuge. The purpose of this...

  8. Influence of Compression Stresses on Timber Potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan, using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). ANOVA ... highly significant while region/location interaction also revealed significant differences. Similarly ... because, unlike other materials, timber is significantly.

  9. St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge : Timber Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Timber Management Plan for St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge describes how forest management techniques will be used to fulfill refuge objectives. Two types...

  10. Timbered masonry for earthquake resistance in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutu, A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Europe is a continent that is subject to significant seismic activity. Thus, the buildings’ seismic behaviour must be analysed, including not only the new structures, designed under more rigorous codes, but also older ones. This article examines a traditional type of building that uses timber frame/masonry, which is found in Portugal, Turkey, France, England, Greece, Romania, Italy, Spain, Germany and Scandinavia. Although the structures differ in terms of construction details, their structural system is basically the same: the wooden structural system bears mainly the horizontal loads while the masonry supports the gravity loads. The study includes a brief report on the seismicity of each country where this traditional type of building made of timbered framed masonry is found, together with the description of these buildings’ constructive systems.

    Europa es un continente que está sujeto a una significativa actividad sísmica. Por esta razón, se debe analizar el comportamiento sísmico, no sólo de las nuevas estructuras, diseñadas sobre la base de códigos más exigentes, sino también de los diversos tipos de estructuras antiguas. En este artículo se analizan las estructuras constituidas por mampostería y madera, que se pueden encontrar en Portugal, Turquía, Francia, Inglaterra, Grecia, Rumania, Italia, España, Alemania y Escandinavia. Aunque estas estructuras presentan diferencias en cuanto a detalles constructivos, su sistema estructural es idéntico: el sistema estructural de madera absorbe principalmente las cargas horizontales, mientras que la mampostería garantiza la resistencia a la acción de la gravedad. El estudio presentado incluye un breve informe acerca de la sismicidad de los países en que existe el tipo de construcción mencionado, conjuntamente con la descripción de los sistemas constructivos específicos de cada país.

  11. Codornices Creek Corridor: Land Use Regulation, Creek Restoration, and their Impacts on the Residents’ Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Stokenberga, Aiga; Sen, Arijit

    2013-01-01

    The Codornices Creek, an ecological corridor located in the northern part of Berkeley, California, is among the most visible, publicly accessible, and socio-economically diverse creeks in the East Bay. The current study examinesthe comparative influence of individual-level socio-economic conditions, involvementin Creek restoration activities, and the existing Creek-related land useregulations on the area residents’ sense of community and perception of areaecology. Based on the data collected ...

  12. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  13. Aesthetic Qualities of Cross Laminated Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Anne Kirkegaard

    The common thread through this thesis is the aim of bringing the aesthetic, poetic and sensuous qualities of materials into focus. This is done with the belief that materials are more than merely the means of construction, i.e. more than a building system. The thesis takes its point of departure ...... of the material, and by clarifying and articulating its qualities that are related to how it is perceived, it is possible to achieve a pragmatic yet poetic and sensuous future timber architecture.......The common thread through this thesis is the aim of bringing the aesthetic, poetic and sensuous qualities of materials into focus. This is done with the belief that materials are more than merely the means of construction, i.e. more than a building system. The thesis takes its point of departure...... in the great importance wood has had as a building material throughout history as a naturally occurring, strong, light and workable construction material with various multi-sensuous qualities and great applicability. Over the last two decades, wood as a building material has gained renewed focus, partly due...

  14. Dynamics of Timber Market Integration in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Chandr Jaunky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the performance of the timber markets (Scots pine, Pinus silvestris L. and Norway spruce, Picea abies (L. Karst. by evaluating the order of market integration in three Swedish regions (Central, Northern, and Southern. Quarterly data of delivery prices are employed over the period 1999Q1–2012Q4. Various unit root and cointegration tests have been computed. The results indicate that the variables are integrated of first order and co-integrated, especially after controlling for structural breaks. This supports the law-of-one-price hypothesis (LOP. However, the effects of structural shocks on forestry are arguably significant and these are controlled for while performing a vector error-correction mechanism (VECM-based Granger-causality test. Bi-directional causality between the Northern and central markets is uncovered in the short-run. In the long-run, a similar causal effect is detected between Northern and Southern markets while the central market emerges as the price leader. Further investigation is carried out using variance decompositions and impulse response functions and these approaches also tend to confirm the existence of a single market well, as price interdependence between markets.

  15. DTM models to enhance planning of timber harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuka Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the applicability of DTM with the resolution of 4 × 4 m for the analysis of macro-topographic factors (terrain slope, aspect, terrain ruggedness index and one part of micro-topographic factors (occasional and constant streams as features important for vehicle mobility during timber skidding. The analysis of directions of timber extraction in relation to the spatial position of primary forest traffic infrastructure of the study area was conducted in order to determine from which forest areas timber will be extracted up or down the slope (moving of loaded vehicle. Determination of water bodies (streams and the surrounding sensitive areas was carried out using GIS tool TauDEM. Unevenness of the terrain was determined based on the Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI which showed moderately to very rugged terrain on 60.1% of the research area where vehicle mobility could be difficult (if not impossible i.e. the necessity of a secondary forest road network is clear. DTM analysis of study area regarding vehicle (skidder mobility and possible planning of timber extraction indicated different availability and quality of data. Digital terrain models present a good basis for the analysis of key constraints for forestry vehicles mobility or terrain trafficability (slope and direction of timber extraction. Using DTM of higher resolution (e.g. LiDAR images, will increase the accuracy of the results and the quality of the analysis.

  16. Supply Chain Planning for a Timber Harvesting Plus Sale Tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Czech State Forest Enterprise has been inviting timber-harvesting tenders while insisting on the forestry company purchasing the timber from the felled trees as well. To win, a tender must offer the greatest difference between the price of the timber purchased and the cost of the operations. Thus, the forest companies are now facing new problem: apart from minimizing the logging costs they are searching for a cross-cutting and mill-distribution strategy that maximizes the selling price of the harvested timber. The optimization model devised by the present paper provides support for finding an optimal timber selling strategy and, as an important contribution, include a detailed plan for cross-cutting the logs and assign them to the particular customers. We keep the support accessible via common office software and the cross-cutting and customer-assigning problem is formulated as a linear programming model for EXCEL, a particular real-world problem is solved and, using expert comparison, the model appears to provide very good results.

  17. Timber Harvest Change in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1995 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Using available aerial photos from approximately a 15-year period, changes in timber harvest were mapped in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Timber...

  18. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695...

  19. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  20. 33 CFR 117.741 - Raccoon Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raccoon Creek. 117.741 Section 117.741 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.741 Raccoon Creek. (a) The draw of...

  1. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  2. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  3. Currents and siltation at Dharamtar creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Kolhatkar, V.M.; Fernandes, A.A.

    of suspended sediment load in relation to the tide showed that the rate of siltation in the Creek is not very high owing to the high rate of flushing. The areas south of Dharamtar Creek appeared to be prone to higher siltation...

  4. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  5. 33 CFR 117.571 - Spa Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spa Creek. 117.571 Section 117.571 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.571 Spa Creek. The S181 bridge, mile 4.0, at...

  6. 33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false College Creek. 117.555 Section 117.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.917 - Battery Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Battery Creek. 117.917 Section 117.917 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements South Carolina § 117.917 Battery Creek. The draw of...

  8. Modular long-span timber structures:a systematic framework for buildable construction

    OpenAIRE

    Björnfot, Anders

    2004-01-01

    One of the identified reasons for the low amount of timber construction in Sweden is a general lack of knowledge about timber engineering and how timber can be used to its full advantage. One way for increased timber construction is the development of a cost-efficient and easy to comprehend building system. Efficiency in construction has recently been under hot debate following the success of lean production in the manufacturing industry. Therefore, the attention of construction has been dire...

  9. Risks, Information and Short-Run Timber Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rinaldi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to increase wood mobilization have highlighted the need to appraise drivers of short-run timber supply. The current study aims to shed further light on harvesting decisions of private forest owners, by investigating optimal harvesting under uncertainty, when timber revenues are invested on financial markets and uncertainty is mitigated by news releases. By distinguishing between aggregate economic risk and sector specific risks, the model studies in great detail optimal harvesting-investment decisions, with particular emphasis on the non-trivial transmission of risk on optimal harvesting, and on the way private forest owners react to news and information. The analysis of the role played by information in harvesting decisions is a novelty in forest economic theory. The presented model is highly relevant from a policy—information is a commonly used forest policy instrument—as well as a practical perspective, since the mechanism of risk transmission is at the basis of timber pricing.

  10. Independent review of timber royalty rates in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This review of timber royalty rates was conducted to establish a long-term, stable relationship between royalty rates and stumpage prices in British Columbia. The review first examines the history of the timber license royalty issue describes the review process. It then compares the positions taken on royalty rates by three classes of forest industry companies and considers the matter of royalties received for timber harvested from Dominion Patent Lands. The review discusses the fundamental issues from historical perspectives, identifies and reviews the arguments for establishing royalty rates at the same or at different levels than the stumpage prices, evaluates the merits of these arguments. Finally, it makes recommendations on stumpage appraisals, development costs and transitional arrangements, benchmarking royalties to the stumpage system, forest practices, acreage-based tenures, and the compensation issue.

  11. How might FIA deliver more information on status and trends of non-timber forest products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program (including the Timber Products Output portion) are critical for assessing the sustainability of US timber production. Private sector users of this information rely on it for strategic planning, and their strong support of the FIA program has helped to ensure funding and program viability. Non-timber forest products...

  12. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... timber less than three inches diameter at breast height, cutting is allowed unless restricted by the... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at...

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment to enhance the sustainability of the timber sector in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The timber sector, i.e. forestry and timber industry, is an important industry in Ghana. It provides a significant contribution to Ghana’s foreign exchange earnings through wood products export, provides jobs and incomes for numerous local economies and communities. The timber production in Gh

  14. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  15. Forensic timber identification: It's time to integrate disciplines to combat illegal logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleanor E. Dormontt; Markus Boner; Birgit Braun; Gerhard Breulmann; Bernd Degen; Edgard Espinoza; Shelley Gardner; Phil Guillery; John C. Hermanson; Gerald Koch; Soon Leong Lee; Milton Kanashiro; Anto Rimbawanto; Darren Thomas; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Yafang Yin; Johannes Zahnen; Andrew J. Lowe

    2015-01-01

    The prosecution of illegal logging crimes is hampered by a lack of available forensic timber identification tools, both for screening of suspectmaterial and definitive identification of illegally sourcedwood. Reputable timber traders are also struggling to police their own supply chains and comply with the growing requirement for due diligence with respect to timber...

  16. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.24 Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Wild Land Recreation. The cutting, sale, or removal of timber...

  17. Federal timber restrictions, interregional spillovers, and the impact on US softwood markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Brian C. Murray

    2004-01-01

    An econometric model of the US softwood lumber and timber markets is estimated and used to simulate the price, trade, and welfare effects of reductions in federal timber sales in the western US commencing in the late 1980s. Results indicate that the timber sale reductions increased lumber prices by roughly 15 percent in the mid-1990s. Lumber consumers were the...

  18. Wood waste minimization in the timber sector of Ghana: a systems approach to reduce environmental impact.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshun, J.F.; Potting, J.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of minimizing wood waste to reduce the environmental impact in the timber sector i.e. forestry and timber industry subsystem of Ghana. This study is a follow up of 3 earlier studies on the timber sector. These studies consistently identified minimizing wood waste as

  19. Finite element study of growth stress formation in wood and related distortion of sawn timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Johansson, M.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of straightness in timber is the most frequent complaint regarding solid (and laminated) timber products worldwide. Nowadays, customers demand higher quality in the shape stability of wood products than they did earlier. The final distortion of timber boards is caused mostly by moisture...

  20. An analysis of the timber situation in the United States: 1952 to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Haynes

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century, national assessments of supply and demand trends for timber have helped shape perceptions of future commodity consumption and resource trends. These perceptions have guided forest policy. Since 1952, U.S. timber harvest has risen by nearly 67 percent, accompanied by growing timber inventories on both public and private lands, but there has been...

  1. Robustness Analysis of Typologies of Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2013-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern buildi...... to the future development of typologies of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kinds of structures can have a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies....

  2. Pre-Stressing Timber-Based Plate Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Andreas; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Tensile structures occur in numerous varieties utilising combinations of tension and compression. Introducing structural plates in the basic tensegrity unit and tensegric assemblies varies the range of feasible topologies and provides the structural system with an integrated surface. The present...... paper considers the concept of plate tensegrity based on CLT plates (cross-laminated timber). It combines the principles of tensegrity with the principles of plate shells and is characterised by a plate shell stabilised by struts and cables. The paper deals with material aspects and robustness of timber......-based plate shells and outlines needs, methods and effects of controlling cable stresses for secured capacity, form and function of plate tensegrity....

  3. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    . The paper reports on a investigation of the relation between degree of damage and mechanical proper-ties of sawn timber from wind damaged Norway spruce. The project included about 250 bolts from wind damaged trees. The majority of bolts were cut to deliver a full-diameter plank containing the pith...... taken to bending failure and the relations between compression damage and bending strength and stiffness were established. The results showed that significant reductions of bending strength of dry timber are only caused by such wind induced compression damages that are easily recognised at a planed...

  4. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades...... models for the representation of damage accumulation in timber are considered. The parameters of these models are calibrated by the use of test data whereas uncertainties associated with the model formulation and limited sample size are considered. The DOL effect is usually taken into account in code...

  5. The Dendrochronological Dating of Timber Crossings in West Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife

    2006-01-01

    The dendrochronological analyses of a large number of timbers from two sites are described. Nybro causeway in west Jutland, Denmark, which was built in the 8th century AD, consists of numerous phases, identifiable due to the large number of dendrochronologically dated timbers, of which many had...... complete sapwood, to bark edge, preserved. Skjern Bridge, across the Skjern River and also in west Jutland, is medieval in date, with phases from the 12th to 14th centuries. The bridge is one element in a complex of activity by the river including an earlier ford, a fish weir contemporary with the bridge...

  6. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  7. A Probabilistic Approach for Robustness Evaluation of Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    to criteria a) and b) the timber frame structure has one column with a reliability index a bit lower than an assumed target level. By removal three columns one by one no significant extensive failure of the entire structure or significant parts of it are obatined. Therefore the structure can be considered...... to behave robust according to the sued probabilistic approach. However, the present probabilistic approach for robustness evaluation has to be further developed for a general application to timber systems, and a simplified approache suitable for day-to-day engineering purposes must be identified....

  8. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Channel 258A can be allotted at Willow Creek, consistent... of FM Allotments under California, is amended by adding Channel 258A at Willow Creek....

  9. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  10. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  11. Relationships between harvest of American ginseng and hardwood timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Prisley; James Chamberlain; Michael McGuffin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to quantify the relationship between American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) and timber inventory and harvest. This was done through compilation and analysis of county-level data from public datasets: ginseng harvest data from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service (USFS) forest inventory and analysis (FIA)...

  12. Feasibility Investigation into Strengthening of Timber Bridge Stringers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    14 3 Experimental Program ...was conducted by personnel of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tulane University, under contract DACA 42-03-P-0212, and of the...repairing timber stringers that show signs of horizontal splitting along the length of the member. An experimental program was conducted in order to examine

  13. 76 FR 9962 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and other public and private entities that manage forests, may permit the harvesting of timber in exchange for the payment of an agreed upon sum of... conditions associated with forest management, such as the protection of natural resources, soil,...

  14. Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter

    of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...

  15. Timber market research, private forests, and policy rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2004-01-01

    The development of the profession and practice of forestry in the United States can be linked to urgent concerns regarding timber shortages in the late 19th century (Williams 1989). These were based largely on perceived failures of forest landowners to protect or invest enough in the productive capacity of their forests (Manthy 1977). The South, as the only major...

  16. Spatial pattern of standing timber value across the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    The Amazon is a globally important system, providing a host of ecosystem services from climate regulation to food sources. It is also home to a quarter of all global diversity. Large swathes of forest are removed each year, and many models have attempted to predict the spatial patterns of this forest loss. The spatial patterns of deforestation are determined largely by the patterns of roads that open access to frontier areas and expansion of the road network in the Amazon is largely determined by profit seeking logging activities. Here we present predictions for the spatial distribution of standing value of timber across the Amazon. We show that the patterns of timber value reflect large-scale ecological gradients, determining the spatial distribution of functional traits of trees which are, in turn, correlated with timber values. We expect that understanding the spatial patterns of timber value across the Amazon will aid predictions of logging movements and thus predictions of potential future road developments. These predictions in turn will be of great use in estimating the spatial patterns of deforestation in this globally important biome.

  17. The timber resources of the Inland Empire area, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hal A. Arbogast

    1974-01-01

    The latest inventory of the timber resources of the Inland Empire area of Washington indicates there are 24 billion board feet of sawtimber on 3.9 million acres of commercial forest land. Public agencies administer about 56 percent of the area and 70 percent of the sawtimber volume, farmer and miscellaneous private ownerships account for 37 percent of the area but only...

  18. Exact Stability Calculation for Timber Beams and Columns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Put, T.A.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    A derivation is given of simplified, exact stability design rules according to limit analysis, applied to timber beam-columns. These rules are lacking but are necessary to be able to provide real and calculable reliability as is required according to European pacts and laws. Necessary therefore are

  19. Veneer, 1980--A periodic assessment of regional timber output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Nevel

    1983-01-01

    Evaluates regional timber output based on a canvass of the veneer plants in the Northeast and contains statistics for 1980 on the veneer-log production and receipts by states and species, log shipments between states and regions, and the disposition of manufacturing residues. Between 1976 and 1980, veneer log production jumped 19 percent and northeastern veneer plant...

  20. structural reliability of the nigerian grown abura timber bridge beam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENGR. J. I. AGUWA

    2013-07-02

    Jul 2, 2013 ... Structural reliability analysis was carried out on the Nigerian grown Abura timber, to ascertain its structural ... wall sheeting, formwork and furniture. The ... reinforced concrete members. ... fulfill certain performance criteria related to safety and ..... Plastic Structures” First Edition, Mir Publishers. Moscow ...

  1. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  3. State of Further Processing of Tropical Timber in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper, from the development of Chinese economy and forest resources as well as the fast-growing and high-yield timber plantation development program and harvesting policies of plantation, analyses the Eucalypt planting, processing, utilization and developing prospect in tropical area.

  4. Effect of Load Duration on Timber Structures in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela; Svensson, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    . The parameters in these models are fitted by the Maximum Likelihood Method using data relevant for Danish structural timber and the statistical uncertainty is quantified. The reliability is evaluated using representative shortand long-term limit states, and the load duration factor kmod is estimated using...

  5. Harvest choice and timber supply models for forest forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym Polyakov; David N Wear

    2010-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modeled using aggregate data, whereas individual harvest choices have been shown to be sensitive to the vintage and condition of forest capital stocks. In this article, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products in a seven-state region of the US South directly from stand-level harvest choice models applied to...

  6. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason P. Brandt; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Jon M. Songster; Timothy P. Spoelma; Larry T. DeBlander

    2012-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho's 2006 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; describes the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Wood products industry historical trends and changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales are also examined...

  7. Idaho's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric A. Simmons; Steven W. Hayes; Todd A. Morgan; Charles E. Keegan; Chris Witt

    2014-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Idaho’s 2011 timber harvest through the primary industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Idaho’s industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry trends are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production, employment, and sales.

  8. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... valuation and accounting. (1) With a view to logical and reasonable valuation of timber, the taxpayer shall... or shares, royalties and rentals, valuation for local or State taxation, partnership accountings... approved, except in the case of misrepresentation or fraud or gross error as to any facts known on the...

  9. A two-phase method for timber supply analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Smith

    1978-01-01

    There is an increasing need to clarify the long-term wood supply implications of current harvesting rates. To assess the wood supply and to set timber production objectives, different linear programming techniques are applied to the short and long term. The transportation method is applied to the short term and the B. C. Forest Service computer-assisted resource...

  10. Forest soil biology-timber harvesting relationships: a perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. F. Jurgensen; M. J. Larsen; A. E. Harvey

    1979-01-01

    Timber harvesting has a pronounced effect on the soil microflora by wood removal and changing properties. This paper gives a perspective on soil biology-harvesting relationships with emphasis on the northern Rocky Mountain region. Of special significance to forest management operations are the effects of soil micro-organisms on: the availability of soil nutrients,...

  11. How to establish, maintain and use timber depletion accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel

    2001-01-01

    Section 1221 of the Internal Revenue Code defines capital expenditures. In general, these are amounts spent to acquire real estate or equipment, or to make improvements that increase the value of real estate or equipment already owned. Forestry examples include land, buildings, standing timber, reforestation costs, and tractors and trucks. Property owners who incur...

  12. 78 FR 20146 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming... in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium at the Lost Creek Project in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ADDRESSES.... Introduction Lost Creek ISR, LLC (LCI) is proposing to install two rotary vacuum dryers in the...

  13. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  14. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  15. WATER QUALITY MODELING OF SUZHOU CREEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality models are important tools for improving river environment. In this paper, the project "Water Quality Modeling of the Suzhou Creek" was briefly described, including the choice and the principle of the model, the model study and methods, the calibration and verification of the stream model. A set of parameters about water environmental characteristic of the Suzhou Creek were put forward in the period of the third water dispatch experiment in 1999. It is necessary to point out that these parameters will change with the rehabilitation and construction of the Suzhou Creek.

  16. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  17. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  18. Small wind turbines with timber blades for developing countries: Materials choice, development, installation and experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Freere, Peter; Sinha, Rakesh;

    2011-01-01

    coatings and blades as well as installation and practical experience with wooden wind turbines in Nepal. The recommendations on the optimal choice of Nepali timber and coatings for low cost wind blades are summarized. The timber wood blades were designed and tested. On the basis of the recommendations......The low cost wind turbines with timber blades represent a good solution for the decentralized energy production in off-grid regions of developing countries. This paper summarizes the results of investigations on the mechanical testing and choice of timber for wind blades, testing of different......, the wind turbines with timber (lakuri) wind blades were produced, and tested. The turbines with timber wind blades were installed on several locations around Nepal, and their usability was studied. It was demonstrated that the appropriate choice of timber and coatings ensures necessary reliability...

  19. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  20. Use of timber in shipbuilding industry: Identification and analysis of timber from shipwrecks off Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Sujatha, M.; Rao, R.V.; Rao, K.S.

    of artifice) composed by the king Bhoja of Dhar (11th century AD) gives a detailed account of boats, ships and the variety of wood used for their construction and classification of ships. Further, the text also mentions the quality of timber that is required...

  1. Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP)...

  2. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  3. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  5. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  6. Land Cover Classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  7. Sign Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  8. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  9. Exit Creek Water Surface Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from a longitudinal profile of water surface surveyed June 23-24, 2013 at Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai...

  10. Exit Creek Transect Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from transects surveyed June 10-12, 2013 along Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska....

  11. Exit and Paradise Creek Fluvial Features, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset presents delineations of the braid plains of Exit and Paradise Creeks in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska for 2012 conditions. A braid plain can be...

  12. Exit and Paradise Creek Fluvial Features, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset presents a delineation of the maximum extent of fluvial occupation detectable from vegetation patterns at Exit and Paradise Creeks in Kenai Fjords...

  13. Exit Creek Particle Size, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset presents particle size data collected at the surface of gravel bars along Exit Creek, a stream draining Exit Glacier in Kenai Fjords National Park,...

  14. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  15. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  16. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  17. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  18. Stream Centerline for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  19. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  20. Active Channel for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  1. Water sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  2. Solid sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  3. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  4. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  5. Fish Creek, South Fork Koyukuk, Koyukuk

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The intent of this study was to gather general information on the wildlife, human use, and terrain in the Fish Creek (east boundary) to Koyukuk (west boundary)...

  6. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  7. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  9. Rattlesnake Creek Management Program 12-year review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rattlesnake Creek Partnership (Partnership) was formed over 18 years ago to cooperatively develop and implement solutions to water resource problems within the...

  10. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation deals with the employment of timber skeleton structure and the local seismic culture. After the 1755 earthquake in the reconstruction of Lisbon a type of building with timber skeleton and masonry infill called "gaiola pombalina" was promoted, since this was designed to better resists earthquakes. "Gaiola" means cage, and it was also named after the Marques de Pombal who introduced it in the reconstruction following the earthquake. The „gaiola pombalina" presents a timber skeleton with Saint Andrew crosses in the interior walls with masonry infill and thick masonry load bearing walls loosing in thickness to the upper floors in the exterior walls. The masonry can fall out during earthquakes but the building remains staying given the interior timber skeleton. The type of buildings with timber structure and (masonry) infill behaved well in earthquakes in various parts of the earth, like Nepal (the dhaji dewary type), Pakistan, Turkey (the himiş type after the 1999 earthquake) [both latter types were researched by Langenbach, www.conservationtech.com and www.traditional-is-modern.net] and also in Germany after the 1356 earthquake (the Southern German subtype of Fachwerk). Also in Italy a subtype called "casa baraccata" was promoted in a construction code to a similar time (following the 1783 earthquake in Southern Italy, see Tobriner 1983) as that of the "gaiola pombalina", the time of the Baroque, when town planning acquired another status. Unlike at the "gaiola pombalina" the "casa baraccata" the timber skeleton is at the exterior walls. For this reason this type of buildings is considered to be an expression of the local seismic culture. However, this type of buildings is common also for areas where seismic risk is not an issue, like half-timbered in England and the northern subtype of Fachwerk in Northern Germany, and in some high seismic risk regions with mountains and timber resources like Romania is not spread. Given these premises the author

  11. THE POSSIBILITY OF USING TIMBER FROM PLANTATION FOREST TREATED WITH PLASTIC AND CCB FOR MARINE CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Muslich

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, timber  estate or plantation forest plays an important role on wooden based industries.  However, the  plantation timber  quality is relatively low.  Some treatments  have been developed to improve  its low quality, such as preservation with CCB (Chromate Copper Boron and impregnation with plastic compounds. This study is to compare the durability of timber treated with  plastic and CCB,  non-treated from plantation forest timber  as well  as from natural  forest. The plantation timber  studied were  jeungjing  (Paraserianthes falcataria, damar  (Agathis sp., pinus  (Pinus merkusii, and rubberwood (Hevea brasilliensis. Non-treated timbers that usually used for marine construction were ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri, jati/teak  (Tectona grandis, laban (Vitex pubescens and merbau  (Instia bijuga. After  6 and 12 months,  the results showed that CCB  preserved  timber  were  more durable  than plastic  impregnated timber  and non- treated timber. Wood samples were mostly attacked by marine borer organisms from the family of  Pholadidae  and Teredinidae. The experiment results revealed the possibility of using those plantation forest timber species for marine construction purposes.

  12. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.

  13. Effects of timber harvesting on the lag time of a Caspar Creek watershed...a study in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen D. Hardison

    1982-01-01

    Researchers are not agreed on the effects of logging on lag time. Numerous studies have shown that the use of heavy equipment in logging operations can cause soil compaction. Also, associated roads alter natural drainage patterns by concentrating runoff and interrupting subsurface flow. As a result these researchers say, less infiltration into the soil takes place...

  14. Erosion Rates Over Millennial and Decadal Timescales: Measurements at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, K. L.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    Erosion rate measurements are essential for modeling landscape evolution and for discerning how sediment loading affects stream ecosystems. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be in stream sediments can be used to measure whole-catchment erosion rates averaged over thousands of years, a timescale that is unobservable by other methods. Comparing long-term erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclides with short-term sediment yields can shed light on erosional processes and on the effects of land use on sediment delivery to streams. Using cosmogenic 10Be, we measured erosion rates averaged over the past several thousand years at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek in Northern California. Sediment yields have also been measured at Caspar Creek since 1963 using sediment trapping and gauging methods, and sediment yield data have been collected at Redwood Creek since 1974. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Caspar Creek sediments indicates an average erosion rate of 0.13 mm/yr, which agrees with the short-term sediment yield data within error. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Redwood Creek sediments implies an average long-term erosion rate of 0.3 mm/yr, which is in rough agreement with traditional measurements of stream sediment flux. These results imply that the rate of sediment delivery to Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek over the past few decades is broadly consistent with the long-term average rate of sediment production in these watersheds.

  15. Theory of timber connections with slender dowel type fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    A theory on the lateral load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners is presented. The base of the theory is the coupled mechanical phenomena acting in the connection, while the wood and the slender fastener deform and yield prior to failure. The objective is to derive...... a sufficient description of actions and responses which have determining influence on the load-carrying capacity of timber connections with slender fasteners. Model assumptions are discussed and made, but simplifications are left out. Even so, simple mathematical equations describing the lateral capacity...... are derived from mechanical equilibrium of the deformed fastener. The herein proposed theory is verified against tests. The tests were designed to vary the influence of isolated mechanical phenomenon as much as possible. The theory shows a very high accuracy and precision when predicting the load-carrying...

  16. Multi-Scalar Modelling for Free-form Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poinet, Paul; Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual and computational framework that employs Multi-Scalar Modelling techniques (Weinan [22]) in order to overcome the problem of big data management and to enable a more integrative digital workflow during the geometrical discretization of spatial structures.......The research explores the design probe of free-form structures composed of glue-laminated timber beams and looks at the different types of data that need to be shared among each discipline and across multiple scales from which different levels of resolution can be defined. A particular focus lies...... in the segmentation strategy of glue-laminated timber structures that depend on structural requirements and the different types of constraints related to fabrication, transportation and assembly. Where current working practices decouple segmentation processes within a discrete digital workflow, this research aims...

  17. Performance of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talukdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to investigate the use of Sprayed Fiber Reinforced Polymer (SFRP for retrofit of timber beams. A total of 10-full scale specimens were tested. Two different timber preservatives and two different bonding agents were investigated. Strengthening was characterized using load deflection diagrams. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance load-carrying capacity and energy absorption characteristics using the technique of SFRP. Of the two types of preservatives investigated, the technique appears to be more effective for the case of creosote-treated specimens, where up to a 51% improvement in load-carrying capacity and a 460% increase in the energy absorption capacity were noted. Effectiveness of the bonding agent used was dependent on the type of preservative the specimen had been treated with.

  18. Baseline Characteristics of Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Randy H.; Neal, Edward G.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations historically have found healthy habitat in Jordan Creek, Juneau, Alaska. Concern regarding potential degradation to the habitat by urban development within the Mendenhall Valley led to a cooperative study among the City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, and the U.S. Geological Survey, that assessed current hydrologic, water-quality, and physical-habitat conditions of the stream corridor. Periods of no streamflow were not uncommon at the Jordan Creek below Egan Drive near Auke Bay stream gaging station. Additional flow measurements indicate that periods of no flow are more frequent downstream of the gaging station. Although periods of no flow typically were in March and April, streamflow measurements collected prior to 1999 indicate similar periods in January, suggesting that no flow conditions may occur at any time during the winter months. This dewatering in the lower reaches likely limits fish rearing and spawning habitat as well as limiting the migration of juvenile salmon out to the ocean during some years. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations may not be suitable for fish survival during some winter periods in the Jordan Creek watershed. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured as low as 2.8 mg/L at the gaging station and were measured as low as 0.85 mg/L in a tributary to Jordan Creek. Intermittent measurements of pH and dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the mid-reaches of Jordan Creek were all within acceptable limits for fish survival, however, few measurements of these parameters were made during winter-low-flow conditions. One set of water quality samples was collected at six different sites in the Jordan Creek watershed and analyzed for major ions and dissolved nutrients. Major-ion chemistry showed Jordan Creek is calcium bicarbonate type water with little variation between sampling sites.

  19. Plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix

    OpenAIRE

    García-Velázquez, Ángel; Amado-Moreno, María Guadalupe; Campbell-Ramírez, Héctor Enrique; Brito-Páez, Reyna Arcelia; Toscano-Palomar, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the research was to develop plastic timber with wheat straw and polymer matrix. In the Mexicali Valley in Baja California, Mexico, the agricultural activities and the maquiladora industry are the main source of income in the region.  However, agricultural activities generate wastes that contribute heavily to pollution of Mexicali and its valley. The burning of agricultural waste is a traditional practice in the Valley, and is done in order to prepare the soil for the next cro...

  20. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Efi Yuliati Yovi; Suryaningsih Suryaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise) produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance ...

  1. boreal forest when timber prices and tree growth are stochastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timo Pukkala

    2015-01-01

    Background:Decisions on forest management are made under risk and uncertainty because the stand development cannot be predicted exactly and future timber prices are unknown. Deterministic calculations may lead to biased advice on optimal forest management. The study optimized continuous cover management of boreal forest in a situation where tree growth, regeneration, and timber prices include uncertainty. Methods:Both anticipatory and adaptive optimization approaches were used. The adaptive approach optimized the reservation price function instead of fixed cutting years. The future prices of different timber assortments were described by cross-correlated auto-regressive models. The high variation around ingrowth model was simulated using a model that describes the cross-and autocorrelations of the regeneration results of different species and years. Tree growth was predicted with individual tree models, the predictions of which were adjusted on the basis of a climate-induced growth trend, which was stochastic. Residuals of the deterministic diameter growth model were also simulated. They consisted of random tree factors and cross-and autocorrelated temporal terms. Results:Of the analyzed factors, timber price caused most uncertainty in the calculation of the net present value of a certain management schedule. Ingrowth and climate trend were less significant sources of risk and uncertainty than tree growth. Stochastic anticipatory optimization led to more diverse post-cutting stand structures than obtained in deterministic optimization. Cutting interval was shorter when risk and uncertainty were included in the analyses. Conclusions:Adaptive optimization and management led to 6%–14%higher net present values than obtained in management that was based on anticipatory optimization. Increasing risk aversion of the forest landowner led to earlier cuttings in a mature stand. The effect of risk attitude on optimization results was small.

  2. WELFARE IMPLICATIONS OF TIMBERLAND OWNERSHIP CHANGES IN THE U.S. TIMBER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahfuzur Rahman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, many forest product firms in the U.S. either divested their timberlands to timber investment management organizations (TIMOs and conservation organizations or converted their corporate structures from C corporations to real estate investment trusts (REITs. All landowners sold smaller timberland tracts for nonforestry uses. Reduced timber supplies from conservation organizations and timberland loss to other nonforestry uses have consequences on producer and consumer surpluses in the U.S. timber markets. Equilibrium displacement model has been employed to evaluate the welfare changes in U.S. timber markets attributed to timberland ownership changes. Net reduction of timber supply contributed to the reduction of social surplus by $43 million in 2006. Compared to the $33 billion plus U.S. timber markets, this welfare reduction was small. Overall, this article explains the shifts of economic surpluses among producers and net surplus reduction for the society attributed to timberland ownership changes in the United States.

  3. The effects of the Euro adoption on the timber market in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Antonoaie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential effects of adopting the Euro currency in Romania on the timber prices. We begin from the current situation of Romanian wood auctions (starting price, selling price, timber type, volume auctioned, volume sold and compare it to the situation in Slovakia. In this case, an in depth analysis on the effects of the currency change will be presented, focusing on the changes that have occurred in the prices of general goods and materials, especially on the timber market, taking into account the changes that have taken place on the Slovakian timber market. We will apply the same trend to Romania and set up a forecasting model and study the potential effects, both immediate and long term of adopting the Euro currency for the timber market (variation in price and timber volume.

  4. Numerical simulation on behaviour of timber-concrete composite beams in fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hao; Hu, Xiamin; Zhang, Bing; Minli, Yao

    2017-08-01

    This paper established sequentially coupled thermal-mechanical models of timber--concrete composite (TCC) beams by finite element software ANSYS to investigate the fire resistance of TCC beam. Existing experimental results were used to verify the coupled thermal-mechanical model. The influencing parameters consisted of the width of timber beam, the thickness of the concrete slab and the timber board. Based on the numerical results, the effects of these parameters on fire resistance of TCC beams were investigated in detail. The results showed that modeling results agreed well with test results, and verified the reliability of the finite element model. The width of the timber beam had a significant influence on the fire resistance of TCC beams. The fire resistance of TCC beams would be enhanced by increasing the width of timber beam, the thickness of concrete slab and the timber board.

  5. Bond Strength of Composite CFRP Reinforcing Bars in Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Corradi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of near-surface mounted (NSM fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP bars is an interesting method for increasing the shear and flexural strength of existing timber members. This article examines the behaviour of carbon FRP (CFRP bars in timber under direct pull-out conditions. The objective of this experimental program is to investigate the bond strength between composite bars and timber: bars were epoxied into small notches made into chestnut and fir wood members using a commercially-available epoxy system. Bonded lengths varied from 150 to 300 mm. Failure modes, stress and strain distributions and the bond strength of CFRP bars have been evaluated and discussed. The pull-out capacity in NSM CFRP bars at the onset of debonding increased with bonded length up to a length of 250 mm. While CFRP bar’s pull-out was achieved only for specimens with bonded lengths of 150 and 200 mm, bar tensile failure was mainly recorded for bonded lengths of 250 and 300 mm.

  6. Sustainability and Security: Timber Certification in Asia-Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Ivanova

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of sustainable development initiatives since the 1990’s reflected an emphasis on integrated solutions to economic development, socio-political stability and environmental health in the global community. In the same context the traditional concept of security needed to be open in two directions. First, the notion of security should no longer be applied only to the military realm, but also to the economic, the societal, the environmental, and the political fields. Second, the referent object of the “security” should not be conceptualized solely in terms of the state, but should embrace the individual below the state, and the international system above it. The forests industry timber certification in Asia-Pacific region has been selected as a case study because it is an excellent example to illustrate the links between the sustainable development and the environmental security, including also certain elements of economic security. This article is presenting a critical overview of the forest industry and the status of timber certification globally, with an emphasis on Asia – Pacific countries applying the Systemic Thinking approach. In conclusion, an outlook is presented concerning the future of timber certification and possible impacts on security and sustainable development.

  7. A cut above: building the market for fair trade timber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2008-02-15

    Unlike coffee and cotton, timber has yet to become a fair trade commodity. But now its time has come. Rights over forest resources are increasingly ceded to small-scale community forest enterprises (CFEs), as large-scale industrial logging is now largely discredited in the sustainable development context. The fair trade emphasis on just pricing for poorer producers is exactly what CFEs need as incentive to invest in sustainable forest management — and secure environmental and poverty reduction benefits at one stroke. With fair trade timber, CFEs could boost their entrepreneurial capacity using democratic business models with in-built social and environmental responsibility. The Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International and Forest Stewardship Council are exploring the ways and means through a new partnership, but more is needed. Consumers must be made aware of why paying higher prices is key to creating CFE incentives for sustainable forest management and poverty reduction. Time and money are needed for consumer education and installing fair trade timber in producer country forest policies, market segregation and procurement policies at all levels.

  8. Characterization and mapping of the Browns Creek rhyolite: Western Snake River Plain, ID, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippinger, D. T.; Boroughs, S.; Bonnichsen, B.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to map and characterize the geologic units that comprise the Brown's Creek region of the western Snake River Plain, with a focus on the eruptive behavior and physical characteristics of the exposed rhyolite. Located near Oreana ID, southeast of the Owyhee Front, the rhyolite in Browns Creek and adjacent rocks has never been mapped in detail. The volcanics in the Browns Creek area are predominantly comprised of low to high silica rhyolite (73%-78% SiO2), and a previously published 40Ar/39Ar date returned an age of 11.20 ± .02 Ma. The rhyolites have phenocryst assemblages of Na-plagioclase, quartz, K-feldspar, pyroxene, oxides, and zircon. Both phenocryst content and crystal size vary widely from approximately 15-50% and 1-10 mm respectively. The rhyolite in the Browns Creek region has a δ18O value of 8.5‰ and marks a very sharp boundary (Owyhee Front.

  9. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antwi-Boasiako

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.

  10. IMPACT OF THE EU TIMBER REGULATION ON RUSSIAN COMPANIES EXPORTING WOOD AND WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    NESHATAEVA ELENA V.; KARJALAINEN TIMO

    2015-01-01

    The problem of illegal logging forced EU, which is one of the major consumers of wood in the world, to develop legislation aimed at termination of supplies of illegally harvested wood and wood-based products into EU. EU Timber Regulation №995 is applicable for any company placing wood or wood-based products on the EU market. Russia ranks first in illegally harvested timber export into EU markets, therefore EU Timber Regulation should influence substantially on Russian companies. Possible infl...

  11. Timber vs. composite/plastic pile fender systems in Pearl Harbor maintenance cost comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Alling, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    CIVINS The Navy has traditionally used treated timber materials for fender systems for piers and wharves in Pearl Harbor. In recent years, the costs associated with the use of timber have escalated and the Navy has begun to use plastic piles at installations around the world to replace timber fender systems. Plastic fender systems are more expensive, but have greater energy absorption capabilities and are more resilient to environmental decay. To determine whether plastic piles are a cost ...

  12. Load-carrying capacity test of a long-span timber truss

    OpenAIRE

    Branco, Jorge M.; Varum, Humberto; Ramisote, Vitor; Costa, Aníbal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the behavior of existing timber trusses in order to improve the knowledge that may support engineers in the definition of more adequate restoration interventions in old buildings, particularly of long-span timber structures, as industrial or monumental constructions. For this purpose, a cyclic load-carrying test was carried out on a full-scale timber planar truss rescued from an old industrial roof structure. Before the tests, an accurate geometrical characte...

  13. The Elk Creek Carbonatite Complex, Nebraska (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, R. M.; Blessington, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Elk Creek carbonatite complex (ECCC) is a large Early Cambrian carbonatite-alkaline syenite complex located in SE Nebraska (USA). The carbonatite and related rocks are buried by more than 200 m of Pennsylvanian marine sedimentary rocks and Quaternary till. The pre-Pennsylvanian sub-crop is crudely circular in plan-view and exceeds 30 km2, making it one of the larger carbonatite complexes in North America. The rocks of the complex were intruded in Precambrian granite and gneiss on the eastern margin of the Mid-Continent rift where it has been offset by one of a series of southeasterly trending structures. The primary rock type in the ECCC is dolomite carbonatite. The dolomite carbonatite ranges from fine-grained flow-banded dolomite to a coarse-grained rock comprising large prismatic dolomite crystals. The central portion of the complex comprises a pipe-like intrusion of magnetite dolomite carbonatite and magnetite dolomite carbonatite breccia. Magnetite dolomite carbonatite is typically fine-grained and contains angular or rounded elongate fragments of dolomite carbonatite. Fragments of magnetite dolomite carbonatite are also included in dolomite carbonatite and other carbonatite rocks in the complex. Emplacement of a discreet pulse of reduced, iron-rich carbonatite magma was, therefore, a likely early event in the evolution of the ECCC. The magnetite is altered locally to hematite and other iron oxides. The oxidation ranges from a dusting of hematite to pervasive alteration to hematite and ferric oxyhydroxides and occurs to depths as much as 630 m below the modern land surface. Other volumetrically important rock types include apatite dolomite carbonatite and barite dolomite carbonatite. Both of these rock types are localized largely along fractures, occur later in the intrusive sequence, and may reflect exsolution of phosphates and sulfates with decreasing temperatures. The magnetite dolomite carbonatite hosts significant pyrochlore mineralization. Microprobe

  14. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  15. Exit and Paradise Creek Drainage Area Boundaries, Alaska, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset contains drainage area boundaries for Exit Creek and Paradise Creek in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska. A drainage area boundary identifies the land...

  16. Copepod composition, abundance and diversity in Makupa Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daisy Ouya

    were analysed from monthly zooplankton samples collected in Makupa creek and ..... genera (30) compared to the present study. Time series of 24 hr surveys within Mombasa Harbour, ..... estuarine creek systems of Mombasa, Kenya.

  17. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  18. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  19. Plug shear failure in nailed timber connections:avoiding brittle and promoting ductile failures

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Helena

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical timber connections can fail both in a brittle and a ductile manner depending on the joint layout. Plug shear failure in nailed timber connections is a brittle failure mode, which shall be avoided in timber structures. This failure mode occurs in nailed connections loaded in tension parallel to the grain, for instance in the lower chord of a timber truss. The failure mode is not described in the Swedish building code of today, but there is an informative annex in the upcoming Euroco...

  20. Communicating long-span timber structures with 3D computer visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Janols, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    One of the reasons for the low amount of timber in construction is a general lack of knowledge about timber engineering and how timber can be used to its full advantage. In this thesis the focus is 3D computer visualisation (3D VIZ) of non-residential long-span timber structures, used for storage, industry and sports where 3D VIZ is defined as a process where a 3D-model is enhanced with environmental information e.g. texture maps and realistic light effects. An area of interest is the possibi...

  1. Stora Enso Timber rajab Imaverre uue tehase Jaapani turu tarvis / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2004-01-01

    Metsatööstuskontsern Stora Enso Timber ehitab Imaverre liimpuidutehase, mis hakkab tootma liimpuittalasid peamiselt Jaapani turu jaoks. Diagramm. Lisa: Pankurid peavad Stora Enso sammu Eestile kasulikuks

  2. Timber Regulation and Value Chain in Community-Based Timber Enterprise and Smallholder Forestry in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Pulhin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reform has no doubt attained significant gains in promoting social justice and equity in the forest sector, through legal recognition of the communities’ property rights over forest lands in many developing countries. This includes the right to harvest and market trees that the communities planted. Along these lines, the Philippines’ community-based forest management (CBFM and smallholder forestry have the potential to meet the country’s wood demand and contribute to its poverty alleviation goal. Realities on the ground, however, make this lofty aspiration seems too far-fetched. Formal and informal barriers along the timber value chain restrict the growth and obstruct opportunities for community-based timber enterprises (CBTEs and smallholder forestry. Using the case of CBFM and smallholder forestry in the Visayas and Mindanao Islands in the Philippines, respectively, this paper examines the hurdles posed by regulations and informal practices, such as restrictive policies and increased transaction costs, through a segment analysis of the timber value chain. It argues that failure to address these barriers would lead to the decline of CBTEs and smallholder enterprises, thus undermining the merits of the forest tenure reform.

  3. Steel Creek water quality: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Kretchmer, D.W.; Chimney, M.J. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet envirorunental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  5. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  6. 78 FR 28897 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no...

  7. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  8. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... allotment of FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Petitioner, the auction winner and permittee of Channel 253A, Willow Creek, has submitted an application to specify operation of the station on...

  9. 75 FR 1705 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... operation of the I695 Bridge across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. The deviation is necessary to... section of Curtis Creek and the bridge will not be able to open in the event of an emergency. Coast...

  10. 75 FR 52463 - Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ AGENCY: Coast... specified waters of Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of... intended to restrict vessel access in order to protect mariners in a portion of Raccoon Creek. DATES: This...

  11. 78 FR 64189 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek, Bridgeport, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Raccoon Creek... proposes to modify the operating schedule that governs the U.S. Route 130 lift Bridge over Raccoon Creek at... marine traffic transits Raccoon Creek during the summer months. To better align the operating schedule to...

  12. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  13. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. 334... and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian Head Division, Indian Head, Md. (a...

  14. Effects of Forest Management and Roads on Runoff, Erosion, and Water Quality: the Judd Creek Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, L. H.; James, C.

    2012-12-01

    The effects of forest management have long been a concern for land managers, and California has instituted particularly strict best management practices (BMPs) to minimize the potential adverse impacts of timber harvest on water quality and fisheries. This paper presents the results of the long-term study of Judd Creek, a 17.6 km2 watershed in the volcanic terrane of northeastern California. Runoff and turbidity monitoring began in late 2001 at five stations spaced along the main stem. In 2007 extensive road work was conducted in preparation for timber harvest, and this included abandoning 2.4 km of existing roads and constructing 4.23 km of new roads. In summer 2009 16% of the watershed was clearcut in 34 units that were 8-12 ha each. In 2011 detailed assessments were conducted on selected harvest units, 43 landings, streamside protection zones below clearcut units, and 23 km of roads; 30 sediment fences were installed to measure road sediment production. Elevations range from 970 to 1680 m, and mean annual precipitation is about 1200 mm. The clearcut units had little or no evidence of surface erosion, and this was attributed to the ripping and high surface cover from logging slash, rocks, and regrowth. Landings generated only eight rills or sediment plumes; none of these were longer than 24 m long and none were connected to a stream. Mean road sediment production in the relatively dry winter of 2011-12 was less than 10 Mg ha-1. Twenty-eight percent of the abandoned roads were connected to the streams, while only 7% of the new roads were connected. Mean daily turbidity values exceeded 25 NTU only 1.2% of the time, and single highest mean daily value was only slightly greater than 200 NTU. Runoff and turbidity levels are controlled primarily by the interannual variations in precipitation, and there was no evidence of a management impact on either runoff, turbidities, or suspended sediment concentrations. The combination of high infiltration rates, relatively

  15. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  16. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years. Long-term monitoring will be necessary to understand the full impacts of forest management on terrestrial salamanders.

  17. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami E MacNeil

    Full Text Available Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m. Small harvests (<4 ha and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple

  18. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  19. Exit Creek Bank Height Survey, June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of survey data from bank profiles surveyed June 12 and June 24-26, 2013 at the edge of the active braid plain of Exit Creek, a stream draining...

  20. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  1. Parlin Creek large woody debris placement project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry W. Collins

    1999-01-01

    In August 1996 the Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JSDF) completed a fish habitat rehabilitation project in a 2.5 mile reach of Parlin Creek, a tributary to the Noyo River in Mendocino County, California. The purse of the project was to introduce large woody material to the stream channel to determine if higher quality habitat could be produced for anadromous...

  2. Chelsea Sandwich, LLC (MA0003280) | Chelsea Creek ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-10

    EPA and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP) have developed final National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits for seven bulk petroleum storage facilities located along Chelsea River (Creek) in Chelsea and Revere, Massachusetts to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act.

  3. Tidal mixing in Dahej creek waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Sarma, R.V.

    Mixing characteristics of a tidal inlet near Dahej at the mouth of Narmada River, Gujarat, India are examined in terms of tides, currents and bathymetry. The dilution potential of the Dahej Creek waters during a tidal march for a given rate...

  4. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  5. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  6. Oxalic acid as an assisting agent for the electrodialytic remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Mateus, Eduardo P.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber.......The electrodialytic process is proposed as a technique for the remediation of chromated copper arsenate treated timber waste, using oxalic acid as assisting agent. The method prowed succesfull 93% Cu, 95% Cr and 99% As was removed from the timber....

  7. Multi-Scalar Modelling for Free-form Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poinet, Paul; Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new conceptual and computational framework that employs Multi-Scalar Modelling techniques (Weinan [22]) in order to overcome the problem of big data management and to enable a more integrative digital workflow during the geometrical discretization of spatial structures.......The research explores the design probe of free-form structures composed of glue-laminated timber beams and looks at the different types of data that need to be shared among each discipline and across multiple scales from which different levels of resolution can be defined. A particular focus lies...

  8. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  9. Mechanical properties of timber from wind damaged Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2003-01-01

    A storm may subject a tree to such bending stresses that extensive compression damage develops in the lee side. The tree may survive the wind load or it may be thrown. However, the damage is inherent and it may be of a magnitude to influence the mechanical properties of boards sawn from the stem...... taken to bending failure and the relations between compression damage and bending strength and stiffness were established. The results showed that significant reductions of bending strength of dry timber are only caused by such wind induced compression damages that are easily recognised at a planed...

  10. Modeling Forest Timber Productivity in the South: Where Are We Today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Clark Baldwin; Quang V. Cao

    1999-01-01

    The current southern species growth and yield prediction capability, new techniques utilized, and modeling trends over the last 17 years, were examined. Changing forest management objectives that emphasize more non-timber resources may have contributed to the continuing genetii lack of emphasis in modeling the timber productivity of the South's largest forest...

  11. Managing national forests of the eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Robert J. Bush; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the economic and ecological potential of non-timber forest products. In the United States, much of this increased interest stems from drastic changes in forest practices and policies in the Pacific Northwest region, a region that produces many non-timber forest products. The forests of the eastern United States...

  12. The mangement of national forests of eastern United States for non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2000-01-01

    Many products are harvested fiom the forests of the United States in addition to timber. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are plants, parts of plants, or fungi that are harvested from within and on the edges of natural, disturbed or managed forests. Often, NTFPs are harvested from public forests for the socio-economic benefit they provide to rural collectors....

  13. Russian Timber for Reconstruction of Quake-leveled Houses in Guangyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>On January 22, a special train carrying timber from Russia and bringing the Russian people’s profound friendship with it, slowly approached the Guangyuan Railway Station. This batch of quality timber came from Irkutsk and Krasnoyarsk, and its

  14. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National Forest System lands in Alaska may not be exported from the... export of timber, consideration will be given to, among other things, whether such export will: (a... minor species of little importance to local industrial development, or (e) Provide material required...

  15. Analysis of timber and coating material on an iron anchor recovered off Aguada Bay, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Rao, B.R.; Shashikala, S.; Rao, R.V.; Khedekar, V.D.

    is 4.37 m and is made of two timbers joined together with nine nails (pins) (Figure 3). The thickness of each timber varies from 20 to 30 cm. Inci- dentally the length of the stock is much longer than the anchor. A well-preserved uniform thin layer...

  16. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Materials, Equipment and Construction, by codifying specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers and pole keys, and for quality control and... Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service Electric...

  17. Market of innovative timber products in Europe and Serbia and their contribution to climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows results of researching the market of glued laminated timber as the most frequent innovative timber product in constructing timber framed residential facilities in Europe and Serbia. The research included the development of production, consumption and trade flows for the most significant countries in the European Union and Serbia. Additionally, the paper gives characteristics of this innovative timber product regarding dimensions, allowed deviations of dimensions defined in adequate European standard, wood species it is made of and fire resistance. The last part of the paper shows results of econometric modeling of the impact of building timber-framed houses on the consumption of glued laminated timber in Austria as one of the countries belonging to the group of the largest consumers of this innovative timber product in Europe. Taking into consideration that the substitution of classic building materials, primarily concrete, steel and aluminum, with glued laminated timber in residential construction contributes to the reduction of carbon-dioxide emission and climate change mitigation, research results of the effects of such substitution are presented in the last chapter in this paper. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu: praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje

  18. Snag density varies with intensity of timber harvest and human access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Lisa J. Bate

    2008-01-01

    Many species of vertebrates depend on snags (standing dead trees) for persistence, and limited research suggests that snag density is lower in areas of intensive timber harvest and increased human access. While intensive timber harvest is one source of potential snag loss, ease of human access to forest stands may also facilitate loss via firewood cutting of snags....

  19. Clustering Timber Harvests and the Effects of Dynamic Forest Management Policy on Forest Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    1998-01-01

    To integrate multiple uses (mature forest and commodity production) better on forested lands, timber management strategies that cluster harvests have been proposed. One such approach clusters harvest activity in space and time, and rotates timber production zones across the landscape with a long temporal period (dynamic zoning). Dynamic zoning has...

  20. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting... or designated by forest officers may be cut and removed for personal use for domestic...

  1. Wildlife Linkages: Volumes and Values of Residual Timber in Riparian Zones in Eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry Allen Burns; R. Montague Whiting; George M. LeGrande; James G. Dickson

    1999-01-01

    In regenerating southern pine, maintenance of riparian zones (RZs)is a major land concession for soil and water protection and wildlife habitat enhancement. However, there are few data quantifying the volume and value of residual timber in such areas. We inventoried merchantable timber in nine RZs of three widths in sapling-class East Texas pine plantations. Present,...

  2. Fluctuations in national forest timber harvest and removals: the southern regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; Mike Howell; James W. Bentley

    2009-01-01

    Here, we examine fluctuations in timber harvest and removals on National Forest System (NFS) lands of the Southern Region in light of changing societal values and administrative policies. We also present timber product utilization information based on multiple data sources, examine NFS removals in the context of standing volume, and compare NFS removals with removals...

  3. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  4. Social Networks of Corruption in the Vietnamese and Lao Cross-Border Timber Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    To, P.X.; Mahanty, S.; Dressler, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Although corruption is a core issue in discourses on Southeast Asian states and the region's illegal timber trade, its specific meanings, characteristics, and role are poorly understood. Our ethnographic study of corruption and timber trade in the lower Mekong uncovers the relationships, dealings, a

  5. 78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal, Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau... Statement (EIS) for the Owyhee Field Office Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit... Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal Final EIS are available for public inspection at Owyhee...

  6. Alternative silvicultural practices in Appalachian forest ecosystems: implications for species diversity, ecosystem resilience, and commercial timber production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Fox; Carola A. Haas; David W. Smith; David L. Loftis; Shepard M. Zedaker; Robert H. Jones; A.L. Hammett

    2007-01-01

    Increasing demands for timber and non-timber forest products often conflict with demands to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem processes. To examine tradeoffs between these goals, we implemented six alternative management systems using a stand-level, replicated experiment. The treatments included four silvicultural regeneration methods designed to sustain timber...

  7. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  8. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized....

  9. Investigation and Situation of Timber Harvesting Mechanization of Turkey and the Usage of Tractors in Timber Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Demir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study is to summarize usage of tractors in timber extraction and major problems of mechanized timber harvesting in Turkey. Timber harvesting in Turkey is still carried out by manual methods due to economical, social and environmental constraints. Almost 80% of harvesting activities are mechanized in many developed countries while this value is only 5% in Turkey. Overall ratio of mechanization is relatively low. Approximately percentage of man power, animal power, machine power and skyline harvesting are 72, 15, 8 and 5%, respectively. Turkish General Directorate of Forestry's mechanical park total amount is 457 in 2004. Mechanical park amount has been reduced to 19 tractors (4x4 and assembled shovel, 169 skidding winches, 6 tractors with equipment of snow cleaner, 46 forklifts, 26 loaders, 32 skylines, 65 agricultural tractors, 88 trucks, 4 agricultural tractors with shovel, 2 barking machines as of 2004. Approximate percentages of skidders, trucks, 4x2 tractors, forklifts, skylines, loaders, 4x4 tractors and barking machines are 36.9, 19.3, 16.4, 10, 7, 5.7, 4.2 and 0.5% in 2004. 4x2 and 4x4 tractors total amount has been reached to 41.7% in 1982, but this percentage has been reduced to 20.6% in 2004. Total machine park amount has been reduced 41.4% between years 1998-2004 in Turkey. In spite of existence of substantial number of harvesters, the amount of modern harvesting processor in Turkey is not sufficient. Different type and marked machine hasn't taken into consideration to improve mechanization and a poor standardization in harvesting is another problem in Turkey.

  10. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  11. Synergistic Study on the Effect of Flame Retardants on Timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwajiobi, C.C

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available the fire characteristic proportion of Halleacilliata has been carried out. The timber was treated with different concentrations of ammonium chloride (0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.50, and 0.55 mol/dm3 and borax (0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, 0.10, and 0.12 mol/dm3 . Flammability tests such as ignition time, flame propagation rate and after-glow time were carried out and the results showed that the flame retardants drastically reduced the flame propagation rate and after-glow time while ignition time and percentage add-on (% increased. Synergy was observed when the two flame retardants were mixed at different concentrations which gave better retarding properties than when treated individually. These results are interpreted as arising from the fact that on heating, these flame retardants evolve molecules that interfere with the chemistry and pyrolysis of combustion of timber.

  12. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  13. Standards guidelines for human comfort tested on timber footbridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutemberg de Alcântara Segundinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Activities such as walking, running and jumping can produce undesirable dynamic excitations, which are a phenomenon that occurs due to pedestrian-induced dynamic forces whenever a footbridge features a natural frequency within stepping frequency ranges. Dynamic evaluations of timber footbridges are necessary to verify the level of human comfort and the suitability of the bridges when subjected to human traffic. The objective of this paper is to present a bibliography review on the standards guidelines contained in international codes BS 5400, SIA 160, OHBDC, CEB, EUROCODE 5, AASHTO, BRO and ISO 10137 as well as in studies by various researchers, in order to verify the serviceability limit state for vibrations. In Brazil, codes ABNT NBR 7190 and ABNT NBR 7188 set the sizing criteria for timber footbridges considering the ultimate and serviceability limit states, with the latter ignoring human comfort with regard to vibrations. Thus, the information contained in this study can contribute to the refinement of Brazilian code ABNT NBR 7190, as it takes into account human comfort in pedestrian-induced vibrations on footbridges.

  14. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport along Hunter Creek, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary assessment of (1) bed-material transport in the Hunter Creek basin, (2) historical changes in channel condition, and (3) supplementary data needed to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel extraction revealed the following: Along the lower 12.4 km (kilometers) of Hunter Creek from its confluence with the Little South Fork Hunter Creek to its mouth, the river has confined and unconfined segments and is predominately alluvial in its lowermost 11 km. This 12.4-km stretch of river can be divided into two geomorphically distinct study reaches based primarily on valley physiography. In the Upper Study Reach (river kilometer [RKM] 12.4-6), the active channel comprises a mixed bed of bedrock, boulders, and smaller grains. The stream is confined in the upper 1.4 km of the reach by a bedrock canyon and in the lower 2.4 km by its valley. In the Lower Study Reach (RKM 6-0), where the area of gravel bars historically was largest, the stream flows over bed material that is predominately alluvial sediments. The channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments. The primary human activities that likely have affected bed-material transport and the extent and area of gravel bars are (1) historical and ongoing aggregate extraction from gravel bars in the study area and (2) timber harvest and associated road construction throughout the basin. These anthropogenic activities likely have varying effects on sediment transport and deposition throughout the study area and over time. Although assessing the relative effects of these anthropogenic activities on sediment dynamics would be challenging, the Hunter Creek basin may serve as a case study for such an assessment because it is mostly free of other alterations to hydrologic and geomorphic processes such as flow regulation, dredging, and other navigation improvements that are common in many Oregon coastal basins. Several datasets are available that may support a more detailed physical assessment

  15. Can Structural Timber Foster Short Procurement Chains within Mediterranean Forests? A Research Case in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fragiacomo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present the idea of a timber short procurement chain as a means to provide an increased value to Mediterranean forests. It is based on the evidence that timber buildings are increasingly used for a number of reasons including sustainability, the speed of erection, and excellent structural and seismic performance. However, most of the timber currently used around the Mediterranean is imported from outside this area. Materials and Methods: The idea is to use the best part of the tree to produce timber boards, while all the remaining part of the tree including the production waste is used for energy production. Important issues to address are the generally low mechanical properties of locally-grown timber such as maritime pine in Sardinia, which would make some wood-based products such as glue-laminated timber not technically viable. Cross-laminated timber panels are a possible solution to this problem because this wood-based product is manufactured in such a way that even with low-quality timber boards it is possible to obtain a medium quality panel. The panel is made of layers of timber boards with the adjacent layers glued under pressure at a right angle. Another issue is the need to grade the local timber, for which a number of specimens must be tested to destruction in order to identify a visual or a machine-stress grading procedure. Last but not least, the panels must be tested to destruction to correlate their mechanical properties to the properties of the boards. Results: The preliminary mechanical tests carried out on Sardinia maritime pine confirm that the material is low-grade because it is characterized by large knots and a significant grain deviation. Nevertheless, when used in the cross-laminated panels, the properties are significantly improved due to the layout of the panel which reduces the influence of defects in the boards on the mechanical properties of the panel. Conclusions

  16. Why Do Farmers Choose to Harvest Small-Sized Timber? A Survey in YenBai Province, Northern Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Nghia Bien

    2006-01-01

    Market for timber in YenBai province is quite clearly defined with two major products: small timber for pulp and wood-chips and large-sized timber for furniture to be consumed either domestically or internationally. A financial analysis shows the obvious economic advantage of growing large-sized timber over small one. However, most of private forest growers have chosen to grow small timber. The study identifies a number of factors affecting forest growers' decision to cut early their trees wh...

  17. Understanding the relationships between American ginseng harvest and hardwood forests inventory and timber harvest to improve co-management of the forests of eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Stephen Prisley; Michael McGuffin

    2013-01-01

    The roots of American ginseng have been harvested from the hardwood forests of eastern United States, along-side timber, since the mid-1700s. Very little is known about this non-timber commodity relative to timber, although significant volumes of ginseng root have been harvested from the same forests along with timber. The harvest of ginseng correlated positively and...

  18. Eliminating Illegal Timber Consumption or Production: Which Is the More Economical Means to Reduce Illegal Logging?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Illegal logging, with its related trade of illegally harvested timber, is one of the main environmental and economic problems worldwide. Eliminating illegal timber consumption and production are two practical means to reduce illegal logging. However, the problem of determining which of the two means is more economical remains to be analyzed. In this study, an input–output analysis was conducted to evaluate the consumption and production of illegal timber in different countries. The Global Forest Products Model (GFPM was employed to analyze the effects of eliminating illegal timber consumption and production on the added value of the forest sector at global and national levels. Results indicated that eliminating illegal timber production is more economical than eliminating consumption at the global level. The former is estimated to decrease the added value of the global forest sector only by 3.37% compared to 7.31% by the latter in 2030. Eliminating the production of illegal timber will result in uneven distribution of social wealth in the forest sector, and will pass the cost of reducing illegal logging onto developing countries. Developed countries would gain more added value and market scale than the global average, whereas developing countries would suffer a loss if illegal timber production is eliminated. Hence, developed countries are encouraged to provide financial support to help developing countries reduce illegal logging.

  19. Determination of timber assortments obtainable from coppice chestnut stands (Susa Valley, Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosenzo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut (Castanea sativa L. coppice stands currently cover about 195.000 ha of Piedmont (North-Western Italy surface, corresponding to 22.4 % of the overall forested area in the region. Most of these forest stands are usually older than the typical rotation period. As a consequence from these stands timber assortments with a higher value could be obtained. The purpose of this study is to assess the amount of timber assortments and to propose a sorting methodology based on measurements on standing trees within these chestnut stands.Five study areas were selected in the Susa Valley, where forest measurements were realized within sampling plots. Timber assortments obtainable from each coppice shoot were then determined by means of the Bitterlich’s relascope. More than 1.000 timber logs were measured. The data elaboration allowed to assess the timber assortment production of the investigated stands. The proposed methodology makes it possible to better exploit timber assortments. In fact, while usually the whole production from chestnut coppices is directly destined to secondary products, the subdivision into assortments could result in a 20 % of products with higher commercial value. It is important to notice that within these stands no tending operation is currently realized. The definition of qualitative features to classify timber assortments can provide useful suggestions on the main yield targets that could be reached through silvicultural management.

  20. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-02

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon.

  1. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  2. Probabilistic Robustness Analysis of Timber Structures—Results from EU COST Action E55:WG3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    The present paper outlines results from Working Group 3 (WG3) in the EU COST Action E55—‘Modelling of the performance of timber structures’. The objectives of the project are related to the three main research activities: the identification and modelling of relevant load and environmental exposure...... scenarios, the improvement of knowledge concerning the behaviour of timber structural elements and the development of a generic framework for the assessment of the life-cycle vulnerability and robustness of timber structures....

  3. CONTRIBUTION TO THE POTENTIAL OF USING FRP MATERIALS IN THE REHABILITATION AND STABILIZATION OF TIMBERED BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Čejka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden log, timbered perimeter and interior walls ranked among the most common building constructions used from the Early Middle Ages. In most cases, the local natural resources, i.e. wood, clay, straw and stone, were used for building houses with wooden framing. This article outlines typical defects and failures of timbered houses, “classic” techniques for the rehabilitation of these defects and failures indicating the potential of using composite materials based on high- strength fibres and epoxy resin in the rehabilitation and strengthening of timbered buildings.

  4. Phytoplankton Community of Elechi Creek, Niger Delta, Nigeria-A Nutrient-Polluted Tropical Creek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Davies

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Elechi Creek of the Upper Bonny Estuary in the Niger Delta contributes to the Rivers State Fish resources. It is a sink receiving organic anthropogenic wastes from Diobu, Eagle Island and waterfront dwellers of Diobu areas. Fishing, car washing, bathing, swimming and other human activities are constantly going on within and around this creek. Based on these activities, there is urgent need to study the phytoplankton community that supports its fisheries. Approach: The study investigated the phytoplankton composition, diversity, abundance and distribution as well as surface water physico-chemical parameters. Phytoplankton and surface water samples were collected bi-monthly from October 2007-March 2008 at high tide from five stations according to APHA methods. These were analyzed for temperature, transparency, dissolved oxygen, salinity, alkalinity, chloride and nutrients. Phytoplankton was identified microscopically. Species diversity was calculated using standard indices. Results: A total of 169 species of phytoplankton, based on cell counts, was dominated by diatoms, 33255 counts mL-1 (36% and blue-green algae, 32909 counts mL-1 (35.7% were identified. The abundance of phytoplankton decreased downstream of this creek (1>2>3>4 except in station 5 with the highest phytoplankton abundance (23938 counts mL-1. There was slight fluctuation in the measured physico-chemical parameters. The results of this study indicated the characteristic species and distribution of phytoplankton in Elechi Creek during the dry months. Conclusion/Recommendation: The high level of phosphate above the permissive limit showed that this creek is hypereutrophic and organic polluted. The high nutrients status favors the high abundance of phytoplankton. The municipal effluents (especially raw human and animal faces discharges must be discontinued. Detergents with low concentration of phosphate are recommended for manufacturing and use. Municipal wastes must

  5. Using certified timber extraction to benefit jaguar and ecosystem conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisar, John; de Thoisy, Benoit; Rumiz, Damián I; Santos, Fabricio Díaz; McNab, Roan Balas; Garcia-Anleu, Rony; Ponce-Santizo, Gabriela; Arispe, Rosario; Venegas, Claudia

    2017-09-01

    The jaguar Panthera onca requires large areas of relatively intact habitats containing adequate amounts of prey to survive. Since a substantial portion of jaguar range occurs outside of strict protected areas, there is a need for economic incentives for habitat conservation, which carefully managed selective logging can provide. Forest Stewardship Council and Pan European Forest Council certifications intended to regulate wood extraction to maintain the ecological functions of forests require evidence of biodiversity and ecosystem conservation. We draw on twelve surveys across four countries and a range of biomes to present evidence that adequate logging management can maintain jaguar populations, but that they are at risk without efficient control of secondary impacts of access and hunting. Where resident, the presence of jaguars can serve as an indication that the ecological requirements of certified timber extraction are being met. We present a gradient of rigor for monitoring, recommending cost-effective options.

  6. Conservation Genetics of Threatened Dalbergia Timber Species in Indochina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Ida

    Tropical forests all over the world are disappearing at high rates primarily due to anthropogenic ecosystem changes. A high number of tropical tree species is threatened with extinction due to deforestation and unsustainable levels of logging, and the implementation of effective conservation plans...... is often hindered by the lack of basic knowledge of their biology. This study represents the first region-wide analysis of population genetic diversity for tree species in Indochina and provides valuable knowledge on how threatened tree species are affected by landscape features, ancient or recent habitat...... changes and logging. Molecular tools in the form of DNA barcoding and population genetic markers were applied to two threatened Dalbergia timber species from Indochina, D. cochinchinensis and D. oliveri (Fabaceae), in order to provide knowledge on species delimitation, genetic structure and mating systems...

  7. Outlook for Cross-Laminated Timber in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laguarda Mallo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cross-laminated timber (CLT is a building system based on the use of massive, multi-layered solid wood panels. Although CLT as a construction system has been successful in Europe, only a handful of CLT projects have been built in the U.S. This manuscript presents the results from qualitative research, carried out with the objective of assessing the market potential and barriers to the adoption of CLT in the U.S. Insights from national and international experts were collected using semi-structured interviews. Topics included perceived benefits and disadvantages of CLT as a construction system, major barriers to its adoption in the U.S., and level of awareness about CLT among the architecture community.

  8. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  9. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  10. Creep Properties of Walikukun (Schouthenia ovata Timber Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Awaludin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of creep constants of Walikukun (Schoutheniaovata timber beams when rheological model of four solid elements, which is obtained byassembling Kelvin and Maxwell bodies in parallel configuration, was adopted. Creep behaviorobtained by this method was further discussed and compared with creep behavior developedusing phenomenological model of the previous study. Creep data of previous study was deformationmeasurement of Walikukun beams having cross-section of 15 mm by 20 mm with a clearspan of 550 mm loaded for three weeks period under two different room conditions: with andwithout Air Conditioner. Creep behavior given by both four solid elements model and phenomenological(in this case are power functions had good agreement during the period of creepmeasurement, but they give different prediction of creep factor beyond this period. The powerfunction of phenomenological model could give a reasonable creep prediction, while for the foursolid elements model a necessary modification is required to adjust its long-term creep behavior.

  11. The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a younger bimodal suite composed of garnet-bearing metagabbronorite and coarse-grained granitic gneiss. Zircons U-Pb ages from the Big Creek Gneiss demonstrate that: (1) the average age of detrital zircons in the supracrustal rocks is ~1805 Ma, requiring a significant source of 1805-Ma (or older) detritus during deposition, possibly representing an older phase of arc magmatism; (2) the older bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1780 Ma, correlative with arc-derived rocks of the Green Mountain Formation; (3) the younger bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1763 Ma, coeval with the extensional(?) Horse Creek anorthosite complex in the Laramie Mountains and Sierra Madre Granite batholith in the southwestern Sierra Madre; (4) Big Creek Gneiss rocks were tectonically buried, metamorphosed, and partially melted at ~1750 Ma, coeval with the accretion of the Green Mountain arc to the Wyoming province along the Cheyenne belt; (5) the posttectonic granite and pegmatite bodies throughout the Big Creek Gneiss crystallized at ~1630 Ma and are correlative with the 'white quartz monzonite' of the south-central Sierra Madre. Geochemical analysis of the ~1780-Ma bimodal plutonic suite demonstrates a clear arc-affinity for the mafic rocks, consistent with a subduction environment origin. The granodioritic rocks of this suite were not derived by fractional crystallization from coeval mafic magmas, but are instead interpreted as melts of lower-crustal mafic material. This combination of mantle

  12. What do matrix population models reveal about the sustainability of non-timber forest product harvest?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabel B. Schmidt; Lisa Mandle; Tamara Ticktin; Orou G. Gaoue

    2011-01-01

    1. Understanding how management activities impact plant population dynamics is necessary to conserve at-risk species, control invasive species and sustainably harvest non-timber forest products (NTFP...

  13. Amendment No. 2 to Hunting and Fishing Plan : Big Timber-Louisa-Keithsburg Divisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains amendments to the Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge Hunting and Fishing Plan for the Big Timber Division, the Louisa Division, and the...

  14. [Forest management and timber sales on Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains plans, maps, data tables, and journal articles related to forest management and timber sales on Clarence Cannon NWR and the surrounding area....

  15. Predicting moisture state of timber members in a continuously varying climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan; Turk, Goran; Hozjan, Tomaz

    2011-01-01

    the realizations were made, are based on a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood. A format containing required information suitable for assessing the “moisture” action on timber members is proposed. In addition it is illustrated how a model of high......A prerequisite for a sensible estimate of moisture induced stresses in timber members is an accurate prediction of the members’ moisture states during their service life. There are, however, an infinite number of possible moisture states for an arbitrary timber member in a natural varying climate....... The naturally varying humidity is possible to describe as harmonic cycles, with different periods, superimposed. This work presents realizations of envelop curves over the possible moisture states in a timber member for some carefully chosen harmonic humidity variations. The calculations, on which...

  16. Treatment of timber products with gaseous borate esters, Part 1: factors influencing the treatment process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, P

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Several factors which influence the treatment of timber products with vapour phase preservatives such as borate esters are considered. Gas flow rate through the substrate was found to be a significant factor limiting both preservative penetration...

  17. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge: Big Timber Division: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge, Big Timber summarizes Refuge activities during the 1980 calendar year for the Complex...

  18. Topology Optimization and Robotic Fabrication of Advanced Timber Space-frame Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Asbjørn; Amir, Oded; Eversmann, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for integrated topology optimization and fabrication of advanced timber space-frame structures. The method, developed in research collaboration between ETH Zürich, Aarhus School of Architecture and Israel Institute of Technology, entails the coupling of truss......-based topology optimization with digital procedures for rationalization and robotic assembly of bespoke timber members, through a procedural, cross-application workflow. Through this, a direct chaining of optimization and robotic fabrication is established, in which optimization data is driving subsequent...... processes solving timber joint intersections, robotically controlling member prefabrication, and spatial robotic assembly of the optimized timber structures. The implication of this concept is studied through pilot fabrication and load-testing of a full scale prototype structure....

  19. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  20. Engineering evaluation of 55-year-old timber columns recycled from an industrial military building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; David Green; Douglas Rammer; Scott F. Lantz

    2000-01-01

    A large sample of timber was collected from a 548,000-ft.2 (50,900-m2) World War II era industrial military building containing approximately 1, 875,000 board feet (4,400 m3) of lumber and timber. Sixty 12-foot- (3.6-m-) long, nominal 8- by 8-inches (190-by 190-mm) Douglas-fir columns were tested at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, and the results...

  1. Minimizing Empty Truck Loads in Round Timber Transport with Tabu Search Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    In Central Europe transportation accounts for an estimated 30% of the total costs of round timber and is an essential element of cost. In this paper, Tabu Search based methods for solving the Timber Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (TTVRP) are presented. The TTVRP uses solutions of preceding optimization problems as input that are obtained with standard solver software. The presented methods differ with respect to the considered neighborhood and the static or dynamic setting of their paramet...

  2. Forest Resources and Timber Production of Ghana : Current Instruments for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Aferdi, Dadebo; Takeo, Shinohara; United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima Universlty; Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus

    1999-01-01

    The decline of the natural tropical high forest has reached a critical stage in Ghana's forestry history. Timber resources are overexploited, degraded and further production prospects are questionable and of concern to forest management. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the institutional measures and development instruments being taken in Ghana towards the feasibility of achieving sustainable management of the high forest for timber and other commodity products, as well as co...

  3. Thermal Performance of Low-carbon Prefabricated Timber Housing in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Adekunle, Timothy Oluseun

    2014-01-01

    The research investigates thermal performance of prefabricated timber housing in the UK due to a growing concern regarding the increase in summertime temperatures, which are expected to occur regularly as global temperatures increase. Furthermore, modern houses are built to meet improved regulations with additional insulation and are more sensitive to potential summertime overheating than older houses. This study examines three UK prefabricated timber housing developments (Bridport, Oxley Woo...

  4. The finding of a paleo-spruce timber in Hunshandak sandy land and its paleoecological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔海亭; 刘鸿雁; 腰希申

    1997-01-01

    A paleo-sprucc (Picea jezoensis) timber dated to (10 040 + 100) a B. P. was found in the Hunshan-dak sandy land, Inner Mongolia, which is also one of the oldest timber found in China. Pollen and mammal fossil further evidence that theropencedrymion dominated by birch and spruce existed in this area in the late period of the earlier Holocene. This finding has great significance for the analysis of paleoclimate, paleovegetation and landscape development in this area.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  6. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  7. Joint production of timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat in the Canadian boreal plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarney, G.R.; Adamowicz, W.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Rural Economy; Armstrong, G.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Renewable Resources

    2008-06-15

    The relationships between forest carbon management, sustained timber yield, and the maintenance of wildlife habitats in the Canadian Boreal plain region were investigated. The aim of the study was to provide an estimation of the costs and challenges faced by forest managers in Canada's Boreal mixedwood region. The study used a model that previously analyzed the joint production of timber supplies and wildlife habitats using a natural disturbance model. A carbon budget model was used to separate biomass and dead organic matter carbon pools for individual forest cover types. An extensive marginal cost analysis of the production trade-offs between timber, carbon, and wildlife habitat was conducted. Results were used to demonstrate the potential for cost thresholds in timber supply and carbon sequestration. Thresholds were linked to switch-points in multiple use and specialized land management practices. Results showed that the optimal allocation of sequestered carbon across forest cover type differed with habitat constraints versus timber and carbon management alone. Results indicated that national policy discussions concerning carbon market regulations may wish to consider the potential for thresholds in production cost. Benefits of the management approach were influenced by ecological parameters, harvest flow regulations, and financial incentives for timber supply. 54 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  8. Survival costs associated with wood frog breeding migrations: effects of timber harvest and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D; Thompson, Frank R

    2009-06-01

    Migration presents a trade-off for individuals between the potential fitness benefits of reaching high-quality habitat vs. the potential costs of migration. Within an information-theoretic framework, we examined the costs of migration for adult wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) in response to timber harvest and annual weather conditions using Cox proportional-hazard estimates of survival. In 2004 prior to timber harvest, survival did not differ between the inside (0.75, SE = 0.078) and outside (0.73, SE = 0.235) of the circular timber harvest arrays (each 164 m radius). Following timber harvest, survival inside arrays in both 2005 and 2006 (0.22, SE = 0.065; 0.42, SE = 0.139) was lower than survival outside of the arrays and prior to harvest. Sources of mortality included predation in all years and desiccation in the drought year of 2005. The most-supported models for explaining both predation and desiccation risks reflected behaviors as opposed to timber harvest or weather conditions. Both predation and desiccation risks increased when frogs made frequent movements or were located near breeding ponds. Optimal behaviors for reducing predation and desiccation risks were the same before and after timber harvest; however, the survival consequences for not adopting these behaviors were more severe following harvest. Our results provide empirical evidence for (1) the ecological pressures that influence migratory behavior and (2) differential survival in relation to migratory behavior which reveals why frogs move relatively long distances away from breeding sites.

  9. Innovative Use and Characterization of Polymers for Timber-Related Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Evernden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Timber gridshells have become a very popular, efficient, sustainable and beautiful structural application of timber. However, given the slender laths involved in this form of construction, there is concern over the durability of timber for this purpose, and Glass FRP (GFRP laths have been proposed as a possible substitution. This paper considers this possibility. It goes on to look at the possible use of Basalt FRP (BFRP for the same purpose, from the perspective of its creep characteristics. It is shown that the use of GFRP gridshells is a viable form of construction, and that enhanced durability characteristics of BFRP could lead to their adoption for gridshells, given that the creep characteristics of basalt fibres presented here are comparable to those of glass fibres. An altogether different form of timber construction is that of joist-and-floorboard. In the UK, there are thousands of historic buildings which use this floor construction, and a sizeable proportion of this building stock now requires upgrade, strengthening and/or stiffening to allow these buildings to be fit for purpose into the future. This paper goes on to consider the possible use of Carbon FRP (CFRP to strengthen and stiffen such timber floors. It is shown that such strengthening and stiffening is entirely feasible, offering the potential for greatly enhanced stiffness, in particular. Further, it is shown that mechanical shear connection between CFRP and timber is best conducted using perpendicular-positioned screws, rather than raked screws.

  10. Surface waters of North Boggy Creek basin in the Muddy Boggy Creek basin in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis of short-term streamflow data in North Boggy Creek basin indicates that the average runoff in this region is substantial. The streamflow is highly variable from year to year and from month to month. The estimated total yield from the North Boggy Creek watershed of 231 square miles averages 155,000 acre-feet annually, equivalent to an average runoff depth of 12 1/2 inches. Almost a fourth of the annual volume is contributed by Chickasaw Creek basin, where about 35,000 acre-feet runs off from 46 square miles. Two years of records show a variation in runoff for the calendar year 1957 in comparison to 1956 in a ratio of 13 to 1 for the station on North Boggy Creek and a ratio of 18 to 1 for the station on Chickasaw Creek. In a longer-term record downstream on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris, the corresponding range was 17 to 1, while the calendar years 1945 and 1956 show a 20-fold variation in runoff. Within a year the higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, April to June, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for at least half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is relatively small in the summer. Records for the gaging stations noted indicate that there is little or no base flow in the summer, and thus there will be periods of no flow at times in most years. The variation in runoff during a year is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the reference station on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris. Although the mean flow at that site is 955 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is only 59 cfs and the lowest 30-day flow in a year will average less than 1 cfs in 4 out of 10 years on the average. The estimated mean flow on North Boggy Creek near Stringtown is 124 cfs, but the estimated median daily flow is only 3 1/2 cfs. Because of the high variability in streamflow, development of storage by impoundment will be necessary to attain maximum utilization of the

  11. Water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessment of Gallinas Creek, San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, H.S.; Jacobi, G.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Gallinas Creek in north-central New Mexico serves as the public water supply for the City of Las Vegas. The majority of this 84-square-mile watershed is within national forest lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. In 1985, the Forest Service planned to conduct timber harvesting in the headwaters of Gallinas Creek. The City of Las Vegas was concerned about possible effects from logging on water quality and on water-supply treatment costs. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 1987 to (1) assess the baseline water-quality characteristics of Gallinas Creek upstream from the Las Vegas water-supply diversion, (2) relate water quality to State water- quality standards, and (3) determine possible causes for spatial differences in quality. During 1987-90, water-quality constituents and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed at five sampling sites in the watershed. Specific conductance, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations increased in a downstream direction, probably in response to differences in geology in the watershed. The water-quality standard for temperature was exceeded at the two most downstream sites probably due to a lack of riparian vegetation and low streamflow conditions. The standards for pH and turbidity were exceeded at all sites except the most upstream one. Concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus generally were small at all sites. The maximum total nitrogen concentration of 2.1 milligrams per liter was at the mouth of Porvenir Canyon; only one sample at this site exceeded the water-quality standard for total inorganic nitrogen. At each of the sites, 10 to 15 percent of the samples exceeded the total phosphorus standard of less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Except for aluminum and iron, almost all samples tested for trace elements contained concentrations less than the laboratory detection limit. No trace-element concentrations exceeded the State standard for domestic

  12. 77 FR 12476 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore..., across Curtis Creek, mile 1.0, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation allows the bridge to operate on...

  13. 75 FR 54069 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... (75 FR 30747-30750). The rulemaking concerned eliminating the need for a bridge tender by allowing the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625--AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... Avenue Bridge, at mile 0.9, across Curtis Creek at Baltimore, MD. The requested change would have...

  14. 75 FR 50707 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... operation of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. This deviation... vessels bound for the Coast Guard Yard at Curtis Bay, as well as a significant amount of commercial...

  15. Zooplankton composition in Dharamtar creek adjoining Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V

    Dharamtar creek (Bombay, India) creek maintained rich zooplankton standing stock (av. 30.3 ml 100 m/3) with peak production during August-November. Zooplankton production rate for the entire system amounted to 10.32 mg C.100 m/3 d/1 with an annual...

  16. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  17. 33 CFR 117.153 - Corte Madera Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corte Madera Creek. 117.153 Section 117.153 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements California § 117.153 Corte Madera Creek. The draw of...

  18. 33 CFR 117.705 - Beaver Dam Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beaver Dam Creek. 117.705 Section 117.705 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.705 Beaver Dam Creek. The draw of...

  19. 33 CFR 117.800 - Mill Neck Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mill Neck Creek. 117.800 Section 117.800 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.800 Mill Neck Creek. The draw of...

  20. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  1. The Timber Resources of Delaware. A Report on tbe Forest survey made by the U.S. Forest Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Roland H. Ferguson

    1959-01-01

    This is a report on the findings of the first comprehensive survey of the timber resources of Delaware. It describes, as of 1957, the area and condition of the forest land, the volume of standing timber, the annual growth and mortality of the forest growing stock, and the extent of timber cutting. The survey made by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture,...

  2. Hoe Creek 1990 quarterly sampling cumulative report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crader, S.E.; Huntington, G.S.

    1991-03-01

    Groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for benzene and for total phenols three times during 1990. This report summarizes the results of these sampling events and compares the results with those obtained in previous years. Possible further options for remediation of the Hoe Creek site was addressed. Three underground coal gasification (UCG) burns were performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in 1976, 1977, and 1979 at the Hoe Creek site, which is about 20 miles south of Gillette, Wyoming. As a result of these burns, there has been considerable contamination of groundwater by various organic compounds. There have been three efforts at remediating this situation. In 1986 and again in 1987, contaminated water was pumped out, treated, and reinjected. In 1989, the water was pumped, treated, and sprayed into the atmosphere. Benzene and total phenols have been monitored at various monitoring wells as the site during 1990. The highest detected benzene concentration in 1990 was 220 {mu}g/L, and the highest total phenols concentration was 430 {mu}g/L. It is apparent that contamination is still above baseline levels, although the concentration of total phenols is far less than immediately after the burns. The burned coal seams are still releasing organic compounds into the groundwater that passes through them.

  3. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  4. Sources of baseflow for the Minnehaha Creek Watershed, Minnesota, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieber, J. L.; Moore, T. L.; Gulliver, J. S.; Magner, J. A.; Lahti, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    Minnehaha Creek is among the most valued surface water features in the Minneapolis, MN metro area, with a waterfall as it enters the Minnehaha Creek park. Flow in Minnehaha Creek is heavily dependent on discharge from the stream's origin, Lake Minnetonka, the outlet of which is closed during drought periods to maintain water elevations in the lake resulting in low- (or no-) flow conditions in the creek. Stormwater runoff entering directly to the creek from the creek's largely urbanized watershed exacerbates extremes in flow conditions. Given the cultural and ecological value of this stream system, there is great interest in enhancing the cultural and ecosystem services provided by Minnehaha Creek through improvements in streamflow regime by reducing flashiness and sustaining increased low-flows. Determining the potential for achieving improvements in flow requires first that the current sources of water contributing to low-flows in the creek be identified and quantified. Work on this source identification has involved a number of different approaches, including analyses of the streamflow record using a hydrologic system model framework, examination of the Quaternary and bedrock geology of the region, estimation of groundwater-surface water exchange rates within the channel using hyporheic zone temperature surveys and flux meter measurements, and analyses of the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in samples of stream water, groundwater, and rainfall. Analysis of baseflow recessions using the method of Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) indicates that only a small portion of the catchment, probably the riparian zone, contributes to baseflows. This result appears to be supported by the observation that the limestone/shale bedrock layer underlying the surficial aquifer has a non-zero permeability, and in a significant portion of the watershed the layer has been eroded away leaving the surficial aquifer ';bottomless' and highly susceptible to vertical (down) water loss

  5. 75 FR 21577 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Contribute to a predictable and sustainable level of timber commodities and human and economic dimensions. In... Strategy Objectives; Minimize adverse effects, including cumulative effects, on all other...

  6. Madagascar rosewood, illegal logging and the tropical timber trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. Innes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Although deforestation rates in the tropics are reportedly slowing, the loss of both forest area and forest quality remains a significant issue for many countries. This is particularly true of Madagascar, where recent government instability has enabled a significant increase in the incidence of illegal logging of Dalbergia species from National Parks such as Marojejy and Masoala. The logs are exported with relative ease as export permits are being made available. While attempts have been made to improve the management of tropical forests, in 2005, the International Tropical Timber Organization considered that only 7 % of tropical production forests were being managed sustainably. Given the challenges associated with halting illegal logging at source, emphasis has shifted to the control of the trade in forest products. The Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species provides a mechanism to restrict such trade, but the Madagascan Dalbergia species are not listed. In the USA, the recent amendments to the ‘Lacey Act’ could provide a significant disincentive to the import of illegally logged wood products, but it remains to be seen whether this Act can be enforced effectively.

  7. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K.; Tabor, Dennis; Yonker, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas-fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, filter-based metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled to determine emission factors, the amount of pollutant formed per amount of biomass burned. The effect on emissions from covering the piles with polyethylene (PE) sheets to prevent fuel wetting versus uncovered piles was also determined. Results showed that the uncovered ("wet") piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emission factors for VOCs, PM2.5, PCDD/PCDF, and PAHs. Removal of the PE prior to ignition, variation of PE size, and changing PE thickness resulted in no statistical distinction between emissions. Results suggest that dry piles, whether covered with PE or not, exhibited statistically significant lower emissions than wet piles due to better combustion efficiency.

  8. CONTEMPORARY CONSTRUCTIONS OF TIMBER PASSIVE HOUSES IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Kitek Kuzman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is essential in the efforts to achieve a 20% reduction of primary power consumption by 2020. It is widely recognized that the potential of energy saving in buildings is large. Considering the tendencies of energy production and price, it is becoming urgent to reduce energy consumption in buildings. The choice of materials for a building with a high energy efficiency becomes much more important and strategies for reducing the use of primary energy for the production of materials and components becomes key. Renewable building materials should already be integrated into the early phases of building planning. The positive trend towards wooden construction is dictated by international guidelines, where a wooden building is an important starting point, not only for low-energy, but also lowemission building with exceptional health and safety aspects. In Europe, the most comprehensive and widely used is a concept of ultralow energy house, more precisely, the passive house concept. Most Slovenian buildings combine contemporary styling with a degree of energy efficiency that comes close to passive house standards. It is widely recognized that the Slovenian construction industry is relatively advanced in the field of low energy buildings. In the light of the growing importance of energy-efficient building methods, it could be said that timber passive house would play an increasingly important role in the future.

  9. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  10. Survey of the Pagoda Timber Roof in Derneburg Castle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perria, E.; Sieder, M.; Hoyer, S.; Krafczyk, C.

    2017-05-01

    The work analyses the historical roof of Derneburg Castle, in the municipality of Holle, Hildesheim's district, Lower Saxony, Germany. The roof is assembled according to Laves Balken's system (Laves beam's system), developed by the architect Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves (1788-1864). The system has the peculiarity to consist of beams that are split along the half of the cross section, and maintained diverged by wooden wedges, distributed along the length of the beam. The system increases the height of the beam, and elevates the bending capacity of it (Weber, 1964). The work has been developed in the frame of an interdisciplinary project in the fields of architecture, engineering and photogrammetry. Main aim of the project is the developing of a structural model to understand the load-carrying capacity of Laves Balken's system from the laser-scanning model. For this reason, extensive surveys and photo documentation were collected on three areas of the roof construction, characterized by three peculiar usage of Laves Balken's system. The work presents the survey of the pagoda-roof that covers the tower of the castle, and problems that can be encountered during the survey of very complex timber constructions.

  11. Cultural Resources Investigation: Boscobel Flood Control Project along Sanders Creek, Grant County, Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-19

    6 4. Stone-Arch Bridge over Sanders Creek at Bluff Street .... 8 5. Oak Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey...Unit 1)....................................... 8 6. Oak Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey Unit 2...9 7. Superior Street Footbridge over Sanders Creek and Flood Area (Survey Unit 3) ............................... 9 8. LaBelle Street

  12. 75 FR 3195 - Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Forest Service Ochoco National Forest, Lookout Mountain Ranger District; Oregon; Mill Creek; Allotment... Mountain Ranger District. These four allotments are: Cox, Craig, Mill Creek, and Old Dry Creek. The... responsible official will decide whether and how to reissue grazing permits in the Cox, Craig, Mill Creek...

  13. +2 Valence Metal Concentrations in Lion Creek, Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, P.; Zedd, T.; Chagolla, R.; Dutton-Starbuck, M.; Negrete, A.; Jinham, M.; Lapota, M.

    2012-12-01

    Seven major creeks exist within the City of Oakland, California. These creeks all flow in the southwest direction from forested hills down through densely populated streets where they become susceptible to urban runoff. Lion Creek has been diverted to engineered channels and underground culverts and runs directly under our school (Roots International) before flowing into the San Leandro Bay. One branch of the creek begins near an abandoned sulfur mine. Previous studies have shown that extremely high levels of lead, arsenic and iron exist in this portion of the creek due to acid mine drainage. In this study +2 valence heavy metals concentration data was obtained from samples collected from a segment of the creek located approximately 2.8 miles downstream from the mine. Concentrations in samples collected at three different sites along this segment ranged between 50 ppb and 100 ppb. We hypothesize that these levels are related to the high concentration of +2 valence heavy metals at the mining site. To test this hypothesis, we have obtained samples from various locations along the roughly 3.75 miles of Lion Creek that are used to assess changes in heavy metals concentration levels from the mining site to the San Leandro Bay.

  14. Ecological impact of Mahshahr petrochemical activities on abundance and diversity of macrobenthic fauna in Zangi Creek (Persian Gulf)

    OpenAIRE

    Manuchehri, Hamed

    2007-01-01

    The Moosa Creek extends from its opening into the Persian Gulf, with some sub narrow creeks leading to it. Zangi creek is one of the main branches of Moosa creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution, including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. After establishing the Petrochemical special Economic Zone (PETZONE) in 1997 near to the Zangi Creek, the pipelines, streets and railway made it distinct from eastern and western parts of this creek. Industrial acti...

  15. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  16. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  17. Legality Constraints: The Emergence of a Dual Market for Tropical Timber Products?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Masiero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Union (EU, the United States of America (USA, and Australia have adopted specific measures to avoid the placing of illegal timber on their markets. These measures might encourage the diversion of timber products from traditional large importers to destinations with a less stringent regulatory framework. During 2001–2013, the international trade in tropical primary timber products (logs; sawnwood; veneers and plywood decreased by 13% in volume and increased by almost 5% in value. Imports by Australia, the EU, and the USA halved, while those by emerging economies such as China and India initially remained stable and later increased. Tropical timber products—mostly logs and sawnwood—might have been diverted towards emerging economies over the period considered. This general trend is confirmed when analyzing imports from countries that are implementing voluntary partnership agreements (VPA within the EU Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT Action Plan. Several factors might influence these market dynamics, including changes induced by the 2008 financial crisis and the increasing domestic demand for timber products by emerging nations. The effects of legality measures on market trends are still unclear. Nonetheless, they might have encouraged uncertainty with regards to traditional importers and favored emerging ones.

  18. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  19. Smallholders and communities in timber markets: Conditions shaping diverse forms of engagement in tropical Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pacheco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reforms have granted smallholders and communities formal rights to land and forest resources. This article explores the various ways in which these local actors engage with timber markets in the context of such reforms. I argue that the economic benefits that communities can capture from the use of forest resources, mainly timber, are mediated by two sets of factors that are beyond the process of tenure reform. The first set of factors relate to communities′ capacity to interact with other actors-intermediaries and companies-in timber markets, and the second to specific conditions of market development. Interactions between community capacity and market conditions shape the ways in which smallholders and communities engage with timber markets, thereby influencing the benefits they can obtain from commercial use of their timber forests. This article focuses on forest communities that have acquired legal tenure rights in Latin America; specifically four communities located in tropical landscapes in Bolivia, Brazil, and Nicaragua. The types of engagement revealed by the analysis should be taken into account in differentiated public policies in order to improve the outcomes of forest tenure reforms.

  20. 云南沉香和白木香的木材结构比较解剖学研究%Preliminary Study on Timber Structure of Aquilaria yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏娟; 刘钊; 李荣春; 任春琼; 杨晓君

    2016-01-01

    通过显微和亚显微解剖观察方法,对云南沉香和白木香的木材结构进行初步研究.结果表明,云南沉香的木材由内函韧皮部、 木射线、 管孔、 木纤维等组成.内函韧皮部呈岛式均匀分布,可见大量的长方体晶体;管孔以复管孔、 单管孔的形式存在;木射线为异性Ⅲ型.说明云南沉香与白木香的木材结构基本一致.%Taking Aquila ria yunnanensis and A. sinensis wood as experimental material, through microscopic and submicroscopic anatomical observation, their timber structure was studied. The result shows that the timber structure of A. yunnanensis is consist of the included phloem, wood ray, pipe hole and wood fiber. A transverse section shows that the many of the included phloem (foraminate type) is scattered in the xylem, There are lots of rectangular crystals in the included phloem; Tube holes can be divided the multiple pores, single hole two kinds; The xylem rays is belonged to heterogeneous Ⅲ. This study shows that the timber structure of A. yunnanensis and A. sinensis is similar basically.

  1. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  2. On the use of NDT Data for Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    is performed using First Order Reliability Methods (FORM). The results show that different degrees of belief in the updating data may significantly influence the reliability level. The updating data to be used are NDT results obtained with ultrasound, resistance drilling and pin penetration equipments......The objective of this paper is to address the possibilities of using non-destructive testing (NDT) data for updating information and obtaining adequate characterization of the reliability level of existing timber structures and, also, for assessing the evolution in time of performance...... of these structures when exposed to deterioration. By improving the knowledge upon the mechanical properties of timber, better and more substantiated decisions after a reliability safety assessment are aimed at. Bayesian methods are used to update the mechanical properties of timber and reliability assessment...

  3. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  4. Trends in economic scarcity of U. S. timber commodities. Forest Service Resource Bulletin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.; Risbrudt, C.

    1982-04-01

    Scarcity of natural resources has been of concern to industrial societies since Malthus developed his theory of population growth and resource use in the late 18th century. Barnett and Morse, in 1963, tested the widely held premise that natural resource commodities are becoming more economically scarce. They concluded that of all major natural resource commodities-agricultural, mineral, and timber-only timber commodities were increasing in economic scarcity. In particular, sawlogs have shown consistent increases in economic scarcity since the late 1800's. Data were prepared for the Barnett and Morse study by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Potter and Christy and subsequently updated by Manthy to 1973. This paper extends and expands these data series on timber commodities. Specifically, information will be presented on one indicator of economic scarcity-trends in real prices (prices deflated by the general producer price index).

  5. Analysis of the connection of the timber-fiber concrete composite structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holý, Milan; Vráblík, Lukáš; Petřík, Vojtěch

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with an implementation of the material parameters of the connection to complex models for analysis of the timber-fiber concrete composite structures. The aim of this article is to present a possible way of idealization of the continuous contact model that approximates the actual behavior of timber-fiber reinforced concrete structures. The presented model of the connection was derived from push-out shear tests. It was approved by use of the nonlinear numerical analysis, that it can be achieved a very good compliance between results of numerical simulations and results of the experiments by a suitable choice of the material parameters of the continuous contact. Finally, an application for an analytical calculation of timber-fiber concrete composite structures is developed for the practical use in engineering praxis. The input material parameters for the analytical model was received using data from experiments.

  6. An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff timber connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Blond, Mette

    2012-01-01

    An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff metal dowel-type timber connections is presented, a method based on use of three-dimensional finite element simulations of timber connections subjected to moment action. The study that was carried out aimed at determining how...... the slip modulus varies with the angle between the direction of the dowel forces and the fibres in question, as well as how the orthotropic stiffness behaviour of the wood material affects the direction and the size of the forces. It was assumed that the force distribution generated by the moment action...... taking place strives to minimize the slip rotation between the separate members of a given timber connection. The results of modified hand calculations based on the finite element calculations carried out were found to differ appreciably from the results of conventional hand calculations....

  7. An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff timber connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Blond, Mette

    2012-01-01

    An improved method for calculating force distributions in moment-stiff multi-dowel timber connections is presented, a method based on use of three-dimensional finite element simulations of timber connections subjected to moment action. The study that was carried out aimed at determining how...... the slip modulus varies with the angle between the direction of the dowel forces and the fibres in question, as well as how the orthotropic stiffness behaviour of the wood material affects the direction and the size of the forces. It was assumed that the force distribution generated by the moment action...... taking place strives to minimize the slip rotation between the separate members of a given timber connection. The results of modified hand calculations and of the corresponding finite element calculations that were performed were found to agree rather closely, and to differ remarkably from the results...

  8. Comparison of vibrational comfort assessment criteria for design of timber floors among the European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Binsheng; Rasmussen, Birgit; Jorissen, André

    2013-01-01

    floors with respect to vibrational serviceability criteria, including those for fundamental frequency, unit point load deflection and unit impulse velocity, in up to thirteen European countries have been gathered and their differences been further assessed by analysing flooring systems constructed......As part of the research work carried out by the Working Group 3 of COST Action FP0702, the need for vibrational comfort design for buildings and current regulations for comfort assessment of structural vibrations of timber floors in Europe have been summarised. Also the design practices of timber......, followed by Italy, the Netherlands, Austria and Norway, while Denmark, the UK and Ireland are the most generous. Even though EN 1995-1-1 has given general criteria for vibrational serviceability design of timber floors, the variations in the design equations and design limits are still large...

  9. Low-frequency footfall noise in multi-storey timber frame buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hveem, S.; Homb, A.; Hagberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    The report presents an overview of the acoustic problems related to light-weight timber floors as they are typically found in modern buildings in the Nordic countries. After a review of recently published literature on the topic, a number of current projects in the Nordic countries are presented........ It is concluded that the frequency range for measurements should be extended below 100 Hz, at least down to 50 Hz and preferably down to 20 Hz. It is found that deflection and vibration of the floor are often evaluated as a problem in timber floor constructions........ 17 examples of current timber floor constructions are described and measuring results are given as well as subjective judgements of the acoustic quality.The relation between annoyance and impact sound level is analysed on the basis of a number of field investigations found in the literature...

  10. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... area over the joint lines. The finite-element model is based on the Foschi model, but with further improvements. After the theory of the model is described, results from experimental tests with two types of nail plate joints are compared with predictions given by the model. The model estimates...

  11. 2nd International Conference on Historic Earthquake-Resistant Timber Frames in the Mediterranean Area

    CERN Document Server

    Machado, José; Costa, Alfredo; Candeias, Paulo; Ruggieri, Nicola; Catarino, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a selection of the best papers from the HEaRT 2015 conference, held in Lisbon, Portugal, which provided a valuable forum for engineers and architects, researchers and educators to exchange views and findings concerning the technological history, construction features and seismic behavior of historical timber-framed walls in the Mediterranean countries. The topics covered are wide ranging and include historical aspects and examples of the use of timber-framed construction systems in response to earthquakes, such as the gaiola system in Portugal and the Bourbon system in southern Italy; interpretation of the response of timber-framed walls to seismic actions based on calculations and experimental tests; assessment of the effectiveness of repair and strengthening techniques, e.g., using aramid fiber wires or sheets; and modelling analyses. In addition, on the basis of case studies, a methodology is presented that is applicable to diagnosis, strengthening and improvement of seismic performance ...

  12. Connecting non-timber forest products stakeholders to information and knowledge: A case study of an Internet web site

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Chamberlain; Matt Winn; A.L. Hammett

    2009-01-01

    Many products are harvested from forests that are not timber-based but are based on plant materials. These non-timber forest products (NTFPs) have not been fully incorporated into economic development programs, yet they provide significant monetary benefits for rural entrepreneurs. Interest in NTFPs as alternative forest enterprises and sources of additional income has...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if section...

  14. 36 CFR 251.14 - Conditions, rules and regulations to govern exercise of timber rights reserved in conveyance to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... locality for sales of similar National Forest timber and timber products. (4) Slash and debris resulting... facilities shall be of sufficient size and design to provide unobstructed flow of water. Equipment will not... perform currently as weather and soil conditions permit, the following erosion control work on portions...

  15. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood preserving, and the manufacture of lumber and wood related products such as veneer, plywood, hardboard... sales or leases of Government-owned timber? 121.506 Section 121.506 Business Credit and Assistance...

  16. Applicability of various wood species in glued laminated timber: Parameter study on delamination resistance and shear strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Schaffrath, J.; Knorz, M.; Winter, S.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    In a current research project the gluability of four European timber species and their applicability in glued laminated timber is investigated. The influence of different processing parameters on the adhesive bonding is assessed with regard to shear strength and delamination resistance. Furthermore,

  17. Silver mirror reaction as an approach to construct a durable, robust superhydrophobic surface of bamboo timber with high conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Chunde; Li, Jingpeng [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China); Han, Shenjie; Wang, Jin; Yao, Qiufang [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Sun, Qingfeng, E-mail: zafuqfsun@163.com [School of Engineering, Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin’an 311300 (China); Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Technology, Zhejiang Province (China)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Ag NPs were deposited onto the surface of bamboo timber by silver mirror reaction. • The Ag NPs made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber have a high conductivity. • The modified surfaces displayed superhydrophobicity even for corrosive solutions. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were successfully in situ deposited onto the surface of the bamboo timber through a simple silver mirror reaction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the surface of the bamboo timber was densely covered with the uniform Ag NPs, which made the intrinsic insulating bamboo timber conductive. With further modification by fluoroalkylsilane (FAS), the Ag NPs-covered bamboo timber showed superhydrophobicity with the water contact angle (WCA) of 155°. Simultaneously, the modified bamboo timber displayed a durable and robust superhydrophobic property even under corrosive solutions including acidic, alkali and NaCl solutions with different molar concentrations. Especially in harsh conditions of boiling water or intense water stirring, the modified bamboo timber remained superhydrophobicity and high conductivity.

  18. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cutting contract. 1.631-2 Section 1.631-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. (a) In general. (1) If an owner disposes of... deemed to be the date such timber is cut. However, if payment is made to the owner under the contract...

  19. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or...

  20. Implementation of fully coupled heat and mass transport model to determine the behaviour of timber elements in fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pečenko, Robert; Huč, Sabina; Turk, Goran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of timber beam exposed to fire. The numerical procedure is divided into two physically separated but closely related phases. In the first phase coupled problem of moisture and heat transfer over the timber beam is numerically solved using the...

  1. Condition Assessment of the Timber Structures of a Century-Old Industrial Building Using a Nondestructive Inspection Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Marko Teder; James Wacker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an in situ inspection project conducted on heavy timber structures of a century-old industrial building at a paper manufacturing facility. A nondestructive inspection procedure was employed to evaluate the true condition of the heavy timbers that serve as the main framing structure of the building. The on-site investigation involved monitoring of the...

  2. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two

  3. 36 CFR 223.118 - Appeal process for small business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. 223.118 Section 223.118 Parks... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. (a) Decisions subject to appeal. The... of the comment period, the Responsible Official shall make a decision on the small business...

  4. Empowering Women and Ethnic Minority Groups to Collectively Market non Timber Forest Products from Community Forests in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van Judith; Mala, William Armand; Ingram, V.J.; Belibi, M.B.

    2016-01-01

    Community forestry (CF) was introduced in Cameroon in 1994 as a way to reduce poverty and enhance sustainable forest management. CF activities have primarily focused on timber exploitation rather than non-timber forest product (NTFP) collection processing or marketing. The study reports on a two yea

  5. 1966 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Habitat Management Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern...

  7. [Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: September - December, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  8. St. Catherine Creek NWR Hunting Season Harvest Totals

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data summaries from hunting that occurs on St. Catherine Creek NWR. Reports include summarized harvest and hunter effort data and basic analysis of these data.

  9. The Trail Inventory of Pendills Creek NFH [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Pendills Creek National Fish Hatchery. Trails in this inventory are...

  10. Recreational Fishing Plan : Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Recreational Fishing Plan for Cypress Creek NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, information about conformance with statutory...

  11. Ecology of phytoplankton from Dharmatar Creek, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tiwari, L.R.; Nair, V.R.

    Phytoplankton pigment, cell count and species diversity wee studied at five locations in Dharamtar Creek during September 1984 to November 1985. Chemical parameters indicated a healthy system free of any environmental stress. The water...

  12. 1965 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. 1964 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1964 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 1998. The report begins with an...

  15. 1984 Cropland Management Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Cropland Management Plan focuses on the production of supplemental grain and browse foods to maintain wildlife populations...

  16. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: September - December, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by...

  17. Hatchery update 2010: Spring Creek National Fish Hatchery

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The document summarizes the location, funding, goals, returning fish, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), and visitor facilities at Spring Creek National...

  18. Fish Creek Federally Endangered Freshwater Mussel Impact Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment toxicity was evaluated for one site upstream and three sites downstream of a diesel fuel spill that occurred in Fish Creek (OH and IN) in September 1993...

  19. Bacteriological water quality of Elechi creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological water quality of Elechi creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... the possible influence and sources of contamination around each zone. ... contamination of the water body with pathogenic bacteria; hence the water is of low quality and ...

  20. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal Year 1996/1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the 1996-1997 fiscal year annual narrative report for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge). The report...

  1. BackscatterA [8101]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  2. Cross Creeks National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cross Creeks NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  3. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold...

  4. St. Catherine Creek NWR Bird Point Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data collected during bird point counts at St. Catherine Creek NWR using the Lower Mississippi Valley Joint Venture protocol for forest dwelling birds.

  5. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  6. St. Catherine Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on St. Catherine Creek NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  7. Geology and geomorphology--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  8. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: May - August 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May - August of 1957. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : September - December 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1958. The report begins by...

  10. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May - August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  12. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge : May - August 31, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: January - April 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1957. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: September - December 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  15. Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge [Narrative report: January - April 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1956. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge Water Infrastructure Assessment Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a visit to Bitter Creek NWR on October 15th-18th, 2012, to locate and GPS water structures, springs, and other water sources. This report also...

  17. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: September - December, 1957

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1957. The report begins by...

  18. Fishery Management Plan for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Progress report outlining potential management efforts to improve fishery conditions at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. The plan discusses multiple methods for...

  19. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification; NPRA, Alaska, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  20. BackscatterB [7125]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  1. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January - April, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1954. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. BackscatterC [SWATH]--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as three separate...

  3. [Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Snake Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September - December of 1955. The report begins by summarizing...

  4. Preliminary Chemical and Biological Assessment of Ogbe Creek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    organic pollution and nutrient enrichment of the creek. A high .... rainfall and salinity, as determining the hydro-climate of the coastal lagoons of south-western Nigeria. Rains .... Cumulative impact of effluents on dynamics of Awba Dam.

  5. 1967 Narrative report: Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: January through April, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1958. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Exit and Paradise Creek Braid Plain Kilometers, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of points designating braid plain kilometers, or distance along the braid plain centerline, for the 2012 active braid plain of Exit Creek and...

  8. Erosion and deposition for Fanno Creek, Oregon 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the sources and sinks of organic matter in Fanno Creek, a tributary of the Tualatin River, Oregon....

  9. Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge : Interim hunting plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim hunting plan for Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge (formerly Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge) outlines hunting guidelines for the Refuge....

  10. Diurnal variation of zooplankton in Malad creek, Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Variation in zooplankton biomass and composition in relation to the prevailing hydrographical conditions was studied for 24 h in Malad Creek, Bombay, Maharashtra, India, which was highly polluted by sewage. The adverse effect of pollution was more...

  11. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  12. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  13. Channel centerline for Hunter Creek, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hunter Creek is an unregulated system that drains 115 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean south of the town of Gold Beach,...

  14. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: September - December, 1956

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1956. The report begins by...

  15. Narrative report Squaw Creek Refuge: May - August, 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1958. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Welcome to the Walnut Creek Nonbreeding Bird Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of the bird monitoring project at Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge). The refuge is divided into 28...

  17. Inventory and Monitoring Plan for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Inventory and Monitoring Plan (IMP) documents the inventory and monitoring surveys that will be conducted at Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge (CCNWR) from...

  18. Bowdoin NWR : Information on Beaver Creek flow 1936-1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides a timeline of Beaver Creek flows, near Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge, from 1936 to 1986. Parts Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge lie within...

  19. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  20. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 2000. The report begins with an...