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Sample records for crystal box experiment

  1. Complementary experiments for hydraulic modeling of multi-box culverts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, H.-C; Muste, M; Plenner, S; Firoozfar, A.R

    2013-01-01

    ... flow–sediment interaction. This paper reports results from a series of laboratory experiments aimed at understanding the hydro and morpho-dynamic changes occurring in the vicinity of a three-box culvert...

  2. A Lithium Vapor Box similarity experiment employing water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ja; Jagoe, C.; Goldston, Rj; Jaworski, Ma

    2016-10-01

    Handling high power loads and heat flux in the divertor is a major challenge for fusion power plants. A detached plasma will likely be required. However, hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to X-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize the gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux, and so avoid those difficulties. In order to design such a box first the vapor without plasma must be simulated. The density of vapor required can be estimated using the SOL power, major radius, poloidal box length, and cooling energy per lithium atom. For an NSTX-U-sized machine, the Knudsen number Kn spans 0.01 to 1, the transitional flow regime. This regime cannot handled by fluid codes or collisionless Monte Carlo codes, but can be handled by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) codes. To validate a DSMC model, we plan to build a vapor box test stand employing more-convenient water vapor instead of lithium vapor as the working fluid. Transport of vapor between the chambers at -50C will be measured and compared to the model. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Lab-in-a-box @ school: Exiting hands-on experiments in soft matter physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin; Brinkmann, Martin; Müller, Frank

    2015-03-01

    Soft materials like liquids and polymers are part of everyday life, yet at school, this topic is rarely touched. Within the priority program SPP 1064 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation, we designed an outreach project that allows pupils (age 14 to 18) to perform hands-on experiments (www.labinabox.de). The experiments allow them e.g. to feel viscosity and viscoelasticity, experience surface tension or see structure formation. We call the modus operandi 'subjective experiments' to contrast them with the scientifically objective experiments, which pupils often describe as being boring. Over a dozen different experiments under the topic 'physics of fluids' are collected in a big box that travels to the school. Three other topics of boxes are available, 'physics of light, 'physics of liquid crystals', and 'physics of adhesion and friction'. Each experiment can be performed by 1-3 pupils within 10 - 20 min. That way, each scholar can perform 6 to 8 different small experiments within one topic. 'Subjective experiments' especially catch the attention of girls without disadvantaging boys. Both are fascinated by the hands-on physics experience and are therefore eager to perform also 'boring' objective experiments. Morover, before/after polls reveal that their interest in physics has greatly advanced. The project can easily be taken over and/or adapted to other topics in the natural sciences. Financial support of the German Science Foundation DFG is acknowledged.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Khalid; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas (222Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the 222Rn concentrations (Bq/m3) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter's dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (ηint) and alpha hit efficiency (ηhit). The ηint depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and ηhit depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper explains that how radon concentration from the

  5. Monte Carlo simulation experiments on box-type radon dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Khalid, E-mail: kjamil@comsats.edu.pk; Kamran, Muhammad; Illahi, Ahsan; Manzoor, Shahid

    2014-11-11

    Epidemiological studies show that inhalation of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) may be carcinogenic especially to mine workers, people living in closed indoor energy conserved environments and underground dwellers. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to measure the {sup 222}Rn concentrations (Bq/m{sup 3}) in indoors environments. For this purpose, box-type passive radon dosimeters employing ion track detector like CR-39 are widely used. Fraction of the number of radon alphas emitted in the volume of the box type dosimeter resulting in latent track formation on CR-39 is the latent track registration efficiency. Latent track registration efficiency is ultimately required to evaluate the radon concentration which consequently determines the effective dose and the radiological hazards. In this research, Monte Carlo simulation experiments were carried out to study the alpha latent track registration efficiency for box type radon dosimeter as a function of dosimeter’s dimensions and range of alpha particles in air. Two different self developed Monte Carlo simulation techniques were employed namely: (a) Surface ratio (SURA) method and (b) Ray hitting (RAHI) method. Monte Carlo simulation experiments revealed that there are two types of efficiencies i.e. intrinsic efficiency (η{sub int}) and alpha hit efficiency (η{sub hit}). The η{sub int} depends upon only on the dimensions of the dosimeter and η{sub hit} depends both upon dimensions of the dosimeter and range of the alpha particles. The total latent track registration efficiency is the product of both intrinsic and hit efficiencies. It has been concluded that if diagonal length of box type dosimeter is kept smaller than the range of alpha particle then hit efficiency is achieved as 100%. Nevertheless the intrinsic efficiency keeps playing its role. The Monte Carlo simulation experimental results have been found helpful to understand the intricate track registration mechanisms in the box type dosimeter. This paper

  6. Crystal activation experiment MA-151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombka, J. I.; Eller, E. L.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Dyer, C. S.; Reedy, R. C.; Barr, D. W.; Gilmore, J. S.; Prestwood, R. J.; Bayhurst, B. P.; Perry, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The crystal activation experiment consisted of two sample packages that were flown in the command module and returned to earth for analysis of the radioactivity induced in them during the flight. The objective of the experiment was to define the background caused by detector activation that interferes when gamma radiation is measured in the 0.02- to 10-megaelectronvolt range from earth orbit. Preliminary results show that the activation of the NaI(Tl) crystal was a factor of 3 below that from a similar measurement on Apollo 17. The identification of certain species and the level of activation observed show an important contribution from the interactions of thermal and energetic neutrons produced as secondaries in the spacecraft. That the activation was reduced by only a factor of 3 compared with the Apollo 17 experiment, despite the geomagnetically shielded orbit, possibly indicates more efficient secondary neutron production by the more energetic cosmic rays.

  7. Numerical analysis of biological clogging in two-dimensional sand box experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildsgaard, J.; Engesgaard, Peter Knudegaard

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional models for biological clogging and sorptive tracer transport were used to study the progress of clogging in a sand box experiment. The sand box had been inoculated with a strip of bacteria and exposed to a continuous injection of nitrate and acetate. Brilliant Blue was regularly...... with the assumed linear constant Kd behaviour. It is demonstrated that the dimensionality of sand box experiments in comparison to column experiments results in a much lower reduction in hydraulic conductivity Žfactor of 100. and that the bulk hydraulic conductivity of the sand box decreased only slightly. However...

  8. Crystal structure of the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hong-Mei; Wang, Tao; Quan, Jun-Min

    2015-01-16

    Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2) is a crucial regulator in cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and neuronal activity. PLK2 is characterized by the conserved N-terminal kinase domain and the unique C-terminal polo-box domain (PBD). The PBD mediates diverse functions of PLK2 by binding phosphorylated Ser-pSer/pThr motifs of its substrates. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the PBD of PLK2. The overall structure of the PLK2 PBD is similar to that of the PLK1 PBD, which is composed by two polo boxes each contain β6α structures that form a 12-stranded β sandwich domain. The edge of the interface between the two polo boxes forms the phosphorylated Ser-pSer/pThr motifs binding cleft. On the hand, the peripheral regions around the core binding cleft of the PLK2 PBD is distinct from that of the PLK1 PBD, which might confer the substrate specificity of the PBDs of the polo-like kinase family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Developing Independent Learners: The Box Hill School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Box Hill School is an independent school in Surrey, England. In 2008 the English curriculum was abandoned in favour of the International Baccalaureate Diploma (IBD). A library is a statutory requirement of the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) endorsement who also recommend this be managed by a qualified teacher-librarian. In May…

  10. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: Hydraulic conductivity reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could...... and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996......) that makes no assumption on biomass distribution, the plug formation model of Thullner et al. (2002a), and the biofilm-plug formation model of Vandevivere (1995). The plug formation and biofilm-plug formation models both match the observed changes between the hydraulic conductivity of the sand box...

  11. Nine optical black-box experiments for lower-secondary students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Henning; Friege, Gunnar

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a sequence of nine, easy to manufacture optical black-box experiments with increasing levels of difficulty, and supportive frameworks for physics classes are introduced. They have been evaluated in a lower-secondary school at the end of optics lessons. A black-box is a kind of experimental task where the inner structure is not visible to the experimenter. Using mirrors, beam-splitters, and blockers in a black-box to manipulate the light beam’s direction through this specific experiment, students are instructed to vary input and observe the output of light to get an idea of the possible inner structure. The presented sequence of black-box experiments requires a basic knowledge of the linear propagation of light and is suitable for beginner physics. Furthermore a framework for concrete implementation to physics classes is given, which covers suitable structure of class, examples for helpful worksheets, and authentic students’ solutions. The difficulty of the specific black-box experiments is given by the students’ success within observing input-output correlation and conclusion of an inner structure. The experiments’ implementation to physics classes may cover elaboration, practice, and aspects of the nature of science even in a beginner’s class. Evaluation has been conducted with students of young age (11-12 years old), however they are suitable for older students also. Although dealing with a time extensive sequence of experiments, students showed a high level of motivation throughout. Overall, implementing this sequence of black-box experiments is seen as valuable and helpful for physics classes.

  12. Optimal experiment design for identification of grey-box models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadegh, Payman; Melgaard, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    Optimal experiment design is investigated for stochastic dynamic systems where the prior partial information about the system is given as a probability distribution function in the system parameters. The concept of information is related to entropy reduction in the system through Lindley's measure...... estimation results in a considerable reduction of the experimental length. Besides, it is established that the physical knowledge of the system enables us to design experiments, with the goal of maximizing information about the physical parameters of interest....

  13. Plasma crystals: experiments and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Dusty plasmas are a well accessible system to study crystallization of charged-particle systems at room temperature. The large mass compared to atomic particles dramatically slows down the particle velocities. The high transparency of the system allows to trace simultaneously the motion of all particles with quasi-atomic resolution. After a brief overview, the progress in this field is exemplified by studies of spherical three-dimensional plasma crystals, the so-called Yukawa balls. The static structure and eigenmodes are explained in simple terms. It is shown that shielding modifies the expansion of a Yukawa ball from a self-similar explosion to a continuous ablation process that starts at the surface. The experimental progress with three-dimensional diagnostics and laser heating and sophisticated methods for visualising the order inside the shell structure are described. Together with quantifying the diffusion coefficient these investigations reveal the details of the solid-liquid phase transition. Besides thermodynamic aspects, the liquid phase of dusty plasmas also gives access to hydrodynamic phenomena at the individual particle scale.

  14. Vapor Crystal Growth (VCG) experiment Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The image shows a test cell of Crystal Growth experiment inside the Vapor Crystal Growth System (VCGS) furnace aboard the STS-42, International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), mission. The goal of IML-1, a pressurized marned Spacelab module, was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. More than 200 scientists from 16 countires participated in the investigations.

  15. Sand box experiments with bioclogging of porous media: hydraulic conductivity reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Dorte; Engesgaard, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Tracer experiments during clogging and de-clogging experiments in a 2D sand box were via an image analysis used to establish a data set on the relation between changes in hydraulic conductivity (K) and relative porosity (β). Clogging appears to create a finger-like tracer transport, which could be caused by an initial heterogeneous distribution of biomass in the sand box. De-clogging occurs at a slower rate possibly due to the presence of inert biomass that is not affected by the starvation conditions by sudden removal of the substrate source. The tracer front was observed to get disturbed closer and closer to the substrate source during the experiments suggesting that the zone of clogging moved upstream. Three clogging models, K(β), from the literature were tested for their ability to describe the temporal changes in clogging at the scale of the sand box; the model of Clement et al. (1996) that makes no assumption on biomass distribution, the plug formation model of Thullner et al. (2002a), and the biofilm-plug formation model of Vandevivere (1995). The plug formation and biofilm-plug formation models both match the observed changes between the hydraulic conductivity of the sand box and the relative porosity. Unfortunately our experiments did not reach low relative porosities where the two models predict different behaviors. The model by Clement et al. (1996) underestimates clogging.

  16. MyCrystals - a simple visual data management program for laboratory-scale crystallization experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Løvgreen, Mikkel; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2009-01-01

    MyCrystals is designed as a user-friendly program to display crystal images and list crystallization conditions. The crystallization conditions entry fields can be customized to suit the experiments. MyCrystals is also able to sort the images by the entered crystallization conditions, which...

  17. Laparoscopic surgical box model training for surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Nagendran, Myura; Toon, Clare D; Davidson, Brian R

    2014-03-01

    Surgical training has traditionally been one of apprenticeship, where the surgical trainee learns to perform surgery under the supervision of a trained surgeon. This is time consuming, costly, and of variable effectiveness. Training using a box model physical simulator is an option to supplement standard training. However, the value of this modality on trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience is unknown. To compare the benefits and harms of box model training for surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience versus standard surgical training or supplementary animal model training. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to May 2013. We planned to include all randomised clinical trials comparing box model trainers versus other forms of training including standard laparoscopic training and supplementary animal model training in surgical trainees with limited prior laparoscopic experience. We also planned to include trials comparing different methods of box model training. Two authors independently identified trials and collected data. We analysed the data with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using Review Manager 5. For each outcome, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), mean difference (MD), or standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis whenever possible. We identified eight trials that met the inclusion criteria. One trial including 17 surgical trainees did not contribute to the meta-analysis. We included seven trials (249 surgical trainees belonging to various postgraduate years ranging from year one to four) in which the participants were randomised to supplementary box model training (122 trainees) versus standard training (127 trainees). Only one trial (50 trainees) was at low risk of bias. The box trainers used in all the seven trials were video trainers. Six trials were

  18. Liquid crystal interfaces: Experiments, simulations and biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Piotr

    Interfacial phenomena are ubiquitous and extremely important in various aspects of biological and industrial processes. For example, many liquid crystal applications start by alignment with a surface. The underlying mechanisms of the molecular organization of liquid crystals at an interface are still under intensive study and continue to be important to the display industry in order to develop better and/or new display technology. My dissertation research has been devoted to studying how complex liquid crystals can be guided to organize at an interface, and to using my findings to develop practical applications. Specifically, I have been working on developing biosensors using liquid-crystal/surfactant/lipid/protein interactions as well as the alignment of low-symmetry liquid crystals for potential new display and optomechanical applications. The biotechnology industry needs better ways of sensing biomaterials and identifying various nanoscale events at biological interfaces and in aqueous solutions. Sensors in which the recognition material is a liquid crystal naturally connects the existing knowledge and experience of the display and biotechnology industries together with surface and soft matter sciences. This dissertation thus mainly focuses on the delicate phenomena that happen at liquid interfaces. In the introduction, I start by defining the interface and discuss its structure and the relevant interfacial forces. I then introduce the general characteristics of biosensors and, in particular, describe the design of biosensors that employ liquid crystal/aqueous solution interfaces. I further describe the basic properties of liquid crystal materials that are relevant for liquid crystal-based biosensing applications. In CHAPTER 2, I describe the simulation methods and experimental techniques used in this dissertation. In CHAPTER 3 and CHAPTER 4, I present my computer simulation work. CHAPTER 3 presents insight of how liquid crystal molecules are aligned by

  19. Crystal structure of the shrimp proliferating cell nuclear antigen: structural complementarity with WSSV DNA polymerase PIP-box.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus S Carrasco-Miranda

    Full Text Available DNA replication requires processivity factors that allow replicative DNA polymerases to extend long stretches of DNA. Some DNA viruses encode their own replicative DNA polymerase, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV that infects decapod crustaceans but still require host replication accessory factors. We have determined by X-ray diffraction the three-dimensional structure of the Pacific white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (LvPCNA. This protein is a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, that binds DNA replication and DNA repair proteins through a motif called PIP-box (PCNA-Interacting Protein. The crystal structure of LvPCNA was refined to a resolution of 3 Å, and allowed us to determine the trimeric protein assembly and details of the interactions between PCNA and the DNA. To address the possible interaction between LvPCNA and the viral DNA polymerase, we docked a theoretical model of a PIP-box peptide from the WSSV DNA polymerase within LvPCNA crystal structure. The theoretical model depicts a feasible model of interaction between both proteins. The crystal structure of shrimp PCNA allows us to further understand the mechanisms of DNA replication processivity factors in non-model systems.

  20. The Snowden Archive-in-a-Box: A year of travelling experiments in outreach and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Light

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Snowden Archive-in-a-Box is an offline wireless network and web server providing private access to a replica of the Snowden Digital Surveillance Archive. The online version is hosted by Canadian Journalists for Free Expression. A work-in-development since April 2015, the Archive-in-a-Box is both a research tool and a tool for public education on data surveillance. The original version is powered with battery packs and housed in a 1960s spy style briefcase. When it is turned on, anybody in the vicinity can access the archive by connecting their wireless device to the Snowden Archive WiFi network and browsing to a website. Open the briefcase up and one finds a wood panel with a flatscreen inset, playing back the IP traffic of the archive's current users. Thus, while an audience such as a class of students or workshop group can access the Snowden documents and learn about mass surveillance from primary materials, they are also shown what data surveillance ‘looks like’. This Commentary explores my experiences during the first year of the Snowden Archive-in-a-Box. I examine my experiences as an international traveller carrying a suspicious briefcase of Top Secret materials and this project's reception by certain audiences. The project is still a prototype, yet it is quickly gathering a following and a number of permanent installations around the world. What could this mean for the future of surveillance education and leaks-enabled research?

  1. Thermal and Mechanical Testing of Neoprene Gloves Used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Neoprene gloves are used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box (MGBX) experiment. In 1999, significant corrosion was observed in the work area and on the outer surface of the left glove ring. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that they contained chlorine. The Neoprene gloves used in this glove box were obtained in 1995, with a recommended shelf life of 3 years. After storage of these gloves in a cabinet drawer until 1999, significant signs of corrosion were also observed in the drawer. Mechanical and thermal properties were determined on samples cut from the finger and sleeve areas of the "good" and "bad" gloves. This data showed significant aging of the left-hand glove, particularly in the sleeve area. Thermal analysis data by DSC and TGA was complimentary to tensile data in showing this aging. However, this test data did not pinpoint the cause of the left-hand glove aging, or of the corrosion products.

  2. Tea boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Tea Boxing Blow is a term in boxing for a punch that makes contact, and suggests a fist has landed on an opponent to bring the applier closer to victory. Boxing is a tense and often exhilarating experience: the punch, the tension of anticipation, the adrenalin from delivering and receiving, the bell dinging, the ring, and the bay of the crowd. Occasionally however, the blow of the punch does not make contact. It becomes an impossible proposition, a never to be seen, an experience left to ...

  3. Polydispersed Gravity Currents Along a V-Shaped Valley: Experiments and Box Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriaux, C. A. M. D.; Besson, C. K.

    2014-12-01

    Turbidity currents, which occur at the continental margins and transport sediments along submarines canyons are particulate gravity currents made of poorly sorted particles. In such currents, the flow is to a large extent controlled by the grain size distribution of the particles at the source. Here we present the combined results of a box model and lock-exchange experiments of particulate gravity currents at small volumetric concentrations of particles (Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) under Project Pest-OE/CTE /LA0019/2013-2014.

  4. WEB - A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason William

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  5. Web: A Wireless Experiment Box for the Dextre Pointing Package ELC Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, Leor Z.; Marrero-Fontanez, Victor J.; Sparacino, Pietro A.; Moreau, Michael C.; Mitchell, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wireless Experiment Box (WEB) was proposed to work with the International Space Station (ISS) External Wireless Communication (EWC) system to support high-definition video from the Dextre Pointing Package (DPP). DPP/WEB was a NASA GSFC proposed ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) payload designed to flight test an integrated suite of Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking (AR&D) technologies to enable a wide spectrum of future missions across NASA and other US Government agencies. The ISS EWC uses COTS Wireless Access Points (WAPs) to provide high-rate bi-directional communications to ISS. In this paper, we discuss WEB s packaging, operation, antenna development, and performance testing.

  6. Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The Crystal Barrel Collaboration

    1991-10-09

    The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p{bar p}-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2{sup ++} resonance decaying into {pi}{degrees}{pi}{degrees}at a mass of 1515 {plus_minus} 10 MeV with a width of 120 {plus_minus} 10 MeV has been seen in a 3{pi}{degrees} final state.

  7. Recent results from the Crystal Barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-09

    The Crystal Barrel experiment has been constructed and installed at the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. It has been fully operational since late 1989. In this talk, recent results of meson spectroscopy in p[bar p]-annihilations are presented. The main emphasis is on all-neutral annihilations, the study of the strange quark content of the proton, and the investigation of the decay mode of il particles. A 2[sup ++] resonance decaying into [pi][degrees][pi][degrees]at a mass of 1515 [plus minus] 10 MeV with a width of 120 [plus minus] 10 MeV has been seen in a 3[pi][degrees] final state.

  8. Crystal-structure prediction via the Floppy-Box Monte Carlo algorithm: Method and application to hard (non)convex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, J.; Filion, L.C.; Marechal, M.A.T.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Dijkstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the way to set up the floppy-box Monte Carlo (FBMC) method [L. Filion, M. Marechal, B. van Oorschot, D. Pelt, F. Smallenburg, and M. Dijkstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188302 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.188302] to predict crystal-structure candidates for colloidal particles

  9. The second space experiment of protein crystallization with domestic facilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀萍; 潘冀燊; 牛秀田; 周元聪; 华子千; 徐谦; 吴伸; 韩青; 李宏民; 刘延顺; 滕脉坤; 何海辉; 林胜祥; 毕汝昌

    1996-01-01

    The second experiment of protein crystallization was performed on domestic re-entry satelliteFSW-2 in 1994-07. The results are superior to the ones of the first mission in 1992: 9 of 10 different proteins were crystallized in space, and 70% of the total 48 samples yielded single crystals. Besides hen egg-white lysozyme which grew high-quality crystals on the first mission, an acidic phospholipase A2(aPLA2) from snake venom and hemoglobin from Anser Indicus produced good-quality crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analyses. The positive effect of microgravity on protein crystal growth is verified again at this time.

  10. Carboxylic acids in crystallization of macromolecules: learning from successful crystallization experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; He, John Z; Mank, Nicholas J; Booth, William T; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2014-03-01

    The production of macromolecular crystals suitable for structural analysis is one of the most important and limiting steps in the structure determination process. Often, preliminary crystallization trials are performed using hundreds of empirically selected conditions. Carboxylic acids and/or their salts are one of the most popular components of these empirically derived crystallization conditions. Our findings indicate that almost 40 % of entries deposited to the Protein Data Bank (PDB) reporting crystallization conditions contain at least one carboxylic acid. In order to analyze the role of carboxylic acids in macromolecular crystallization, a large-scale analysis of the successful crystallization experiments reported to the PDB was performed. The PDB is currently the largest source of crystallization data, however it is not easily searchable. These complications are due to a combination of a free text format, which is used to capture information on the crystallization experiments, and the inconsistent naming of chemicals used in crystallization experiments. Despite these difficulties, our approach allows for the extraction of over 47,000 crystallization conditions from the PDB. Initially, the selected conditions were investigated to determine which carboxylic acids or their salts are most often present in crystallization solutions. From this group, selected sets of crystallization conditions were analyzed in detail, assessing parameters such as concentration, pH, and precipitant used. Our findings will lead to the design of new crystallization screens focused around carboxylic acids.

  11. Bonn eXperimental System (BoXS): An open-source platform for interactive experiments in psychology and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seithe, Mirko; Morina, Jeronim; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-12-01

    The increased interest in complex-interactive behavior on the one hand and the cognitive and affective processes underlying behavior on the other are a challenge for researchers in psychology and behavioral economics. Research often necessitates that participants strategically interact with each other in dyads or groups. At the same time, to investigate the underlying cognitive and affective processes in a fine-grained manner, not only choices but also other variables such as decision time, information search, and pupil dilation should be recorded. The Bonn eXperimental System (BoXS) introduced in this article is an open-source platform that allows interactive as well as non-interactive experiments to be conducted while recording process measures very efficiently and completely browser-based. In the current version, BoXS has particularly been extended to enable conducting interactive eye-tracking and mouse-tracking experiments. One core advantage of BoXS is its simplicity. Using BoXS does not require prior installation for both experimenters and participants, which allows for running studies outside the laboratory and over the internet. Learning to program for BoXS is easy even for researchers without previous programming experience.

  12. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  13. Educating the Public about Meteorites and Impacts through Virtual Field Trips and Classroom Experience Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Teresa; Hines, R.; Minitti, M.; Taylor, W.; Morris, M. A.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-01-01

    With specimens representing over 2,000 individual meteorites, the Center for Meteorite Studies (CMS) at Arizona State University (ASU) is home to the world's largest university-based meteorite collection. As part of our mission to provide educational opportunities that expand awareness and understanding of the science of meteoritics, CMS continues to develop new ways to engage the public in meteorite and space science, including the opening of a new Meteorite Gallery, and expansion of online resources through upgrades to the CMS website, meteorites.asu.edu. In 2008, CMS was the recipient of a philanthropic grant to improve online education tools and develop loanable modules for educators. These modules focus on the origin of meteorites, and contain actual meteorite specimens, media resources, a user guide, and lesson plans, as well as a series of engaging activities that utilize hands-on materials geared to help students develop logical thinking, analytical skills, and proficiency in STEM disciplines. In 2010, in partnership with the ASU NASA Astrobiology Institute team, CMS obtained a NASA EPOESS grant to develop Virtual Field Trips (VFTs) complemented by loanable “Experience Boxes” containing lesson plans, media, and hands-on objects related to the VFT sites. One VFT-Box pair focuses on the record of the oldest multicellular organisms on Earth. The second VFT-Box pair focuses on the Upheaval Dome (UD) structure, a meteorite impact crater in Utah’s Canyonlands National Park. UD is widely accepted as the deeply eroded remnant of a ~5 kilometer impact crater (e.g. Kriens et al., 1999). The alternate hypothesis that the Dome was formed by the upwelling of salt from a deposit underlying the region (e.g. Jackson et al., 1998) makes UD an ideal site to learn not only about specific scientific principles present in the Next Generation Science Standards, but also the process of scientific inquiry. The VFTs are located on an interactive website dedicated to VFTs, vft

  14. Optical experiments on 3D photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, F.; Vos, W.

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystals are optical materials that have an intricate structure with length scales of the order of the wavelength of light. The flow of photons is controlled in a manner analogous to how electrons propagate through semiconductor crystals, i.e., by Bragg diffraction and the formation of band

  15. An Experiment with Manifold Purposes: The Chemical Reactivity of Crystal Defects upon Crystal Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Annaluisa Fantola; Lazzarini, Ennio

    1983-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for an experiment designed to introduce (1) crystal defects and their reactivity upon crystal dissolution; (2) hydrates electron and its reactivity; (3) application of radiochemical method of analysis; and (4) the technique of competitive kinetics. Suggested readings and additional experiments are…

  16. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  17. Cavity QED experiments with ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Peter Fønss; Dantan, Aurélien; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained.......Cavity QED experimental results demonstrating collective strong coupling between ensembles of atomic ions cooled into Coulomb crystals and optical cavity fields have been achieved. Collective Zeeman coherence times of milliseconds have furthermore been obtained....

  18. Einstein's Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Norsen, T

    2005-01-01

    At the 1927 Solvay conference, Einstein presented a thought experiment intended to demonstrate the incompleteness of the quantum mechanical description of reality. In the following years, the thought experiment was picked up and modified by Einstein, de Broglie, and several other commentators into a simple scenario involving the splitting in half of the wave function of a single particle in a box. In this paper we collect together several formulations of this thought experiment from the existing literature; analyze and assess it from the point of view of the Einstein-Bohr debates, the EPR dilemma, and Bell's theorem; and generally lobby for Einstein's Boxes taking its rightful place alongside similar but historically better-known quantum mechanical thought experiments such as EPR and Schroedinger's Cat.

  19. Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latal Jan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.

  20. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giguere, Anik; Légaré, France; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Haynes, R Brian; Cauchon, Michel; Rousseau, François; Alvarez Argote, Juliana; Labrecque, Michel

    2012-08-03

    This project engages patients and physicians in the development of Decision Boxes, short clinical topic summaries covering medical questions that have no single best answer. Decision Boxes aim to prepare the clinician to communicate the risks and benefits of the available options to the patient so they can make an informed decision together. Seven researchers (including four practicing family physicians) selected 10 clinical topics relevant to primary care practice through a Delphi survey. We then developed two one-page prototypes on two of these topics: prostate cancer screening with the prostate-specific antigen test, and prenatal screening for trisomy 21 with the serum integrated test. We presented the prototypes to purposeful samples of family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and patients distributed in four focus groups. We used the User Experience Honeycomb to explore barriers and facilitators to the communication design used in Decision Boxes. All discussions were transcribed, and three researchers proceeded to thematic content analysis of the transcriptions. The coding scheme was first developed from the Honeycomb's seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible, and findable), and included new themes suggested by the data. Prototypes were modified in light of our findings. Three rounds were necessary for a majority of researchers to select 10 clinical topics. Fifteen physicians and 33 patients participated in the focus groups. Following analyses, three sections were added to the Decision Boxes: introduction, patient counseling, and references. The information was spread to two pages to try to make the Decision Boxes less busy and improve users' first impression. To try to improve credibility, we gave more visibility to the research institutions involved in development. A statement on the boxes' purpose and a flow chart representing the shared decision-making process were added with the intent of clarifying the tool

  1. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  2. A Physical Chemistry Experiment in Polymer Crystallization Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singfield, Kathy L.; Chisholm, Roderick A.; King, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment currently used in an undergraduate physical chemistry lab to investigate the rates of crystallization of a polymer is described. Specifically, the radial growth rates of typical disc-shaped crystals, called spherulites, growing between microscope glass slides are measured and the data are treated according to polymer…

  3. Phoenito experiments: combining the strengths of commercial crystallization automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Janet; Pham, Tam M; Peat, Thomas S

    2008-11-01

    The use of crystallization robots for initial screening in macromolecular crystallization is well established. This paper describes how four general optimization techniques, growth-rate modulation, fine screening, seeding and additive screening, have been adapted for automation in a medium-throughput crystallization service facility. The use of automation for more challenging optimization experiments is discussed, as is a novel way of using both the Mosquito and the Phoenix nano-dispensing robots during the setup of a single crystallization plate. This dual-dispenser technique plays to the strengths of both machines.

  4. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Geetha Balakrishnan

    2008-10-01

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis will be placed on the crystal growth of various oxides (superconductors and magnetic materials), borides and carbides using the image furnaces at Warwick. The floating zone method of crystal growth used in these furnaces produces crystals of superior quality, circumventing many of the problems associated with, for example, flux growth from the melt. This method enables the growth of large volumes of crystal, a prerequisite especially for experiments using neutron beams. Some examples of experimental results from crystals grown at Warwick, selected from numerous in-house studies and our collaborative research projects with other UK and international groups will be discussed.

  5. Decision boxes for clinicians to support evidence-based practice and shared decision making: the user experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This project engages patients and physicians in the development of Decision Boxes, short clinical topic summaries covering medical questions that have no single best answer. Decision Boxes aim to prepare the clinician to communicate the risks and benefits of the available options to the patient so they can make an informed decision together. Methods Seven researchers (including four practicing family physicians selected 10 clinical topics relevant to primary care practice through a Delphi survey. We then developed two one-page prototypes on two of these topics: prostate cancer screening with the prostate-specific antigen test, and prenatal screening for trisomy 21 with the serum integrated test. We presented the prototypes to purposeful samples of family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and patients distributed in four focus groups. We used the User Experience Honeycomb to explore barriers and facilitators to the communication design used in Decision Boxes. All discussions were transcribed, and three researchers proceeded to thematic content analysis of the transcriptions. The coding scheme was first developed from the Honeycomb’s seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible, and findable, and included new themes suggested by the data. Prototypes were modified in light of our findings. Results Three rounds were necessary for a majority of researchers to select 10 clinical topics. Fifteen physicians and 33 patients participated in the focus groups. Following analyses, three sections were added to the Decision Boxes: introduction, patient counseling, and references. The information was spread to two pages to try to make the Decision Boxes less busy and improve users’ first impression. To try to improve credibility, we gave more visibility to the research institutions involved in development. A statement on the boxes’ purpose and a flow chart representing the shared decision

  6. Skylab experiments on semiconductors and alkali halides. [single crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    The space processing experiments performed during the Skylab missions included one on single crystal growth of germanium selenide and telluride, one on pure and doped germanium crystals, two on pure and doped indium antimonide, one on gallium-indium-antimony systems, and one on a sodium chloride-sodium fluoride eutectic. In each experiment, three ampoules of sample were processed in the multipurpose electric furnace within the Skylab Materials Processing Facility. All were successful in varying degrees and gave important information about crystal growth removed from the effects of earth surface gravity.

  7. Investigation of wrinkling failure mechanics in metal spinning by Box-Behnken design of experiments using finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, M.; Van Long, H.; Lu, B

    2014-01-01

    An investigation into material wrinkling failure mechanics of conventional metal spinning and the effects of process parameters and material properties are presented in this paper. By developing finite element (FE) models using the Box-Behnken design of experiments, the effects of six key process and material parameters on the start of material wrinkling have been investigated. These key factors include roller feed per pass, feed rate, blank thickness, tool path profile, material Young’s modu...

  8. Locating and Visualizing Crystals for X-Ray Diffraction Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Kissick, David J; Ogata, Craig M

    2017-01-01

    Macromolecular crystallography has advanced from using macroscopic crystals, which might be >1 mm on a side, to crystals that are essentially invisible to the naked eye, or even under a standard laboratory microscope. As crystallography requires recognizing crystals when they are produced, and then placing them in an X-ray, electron, or neutron beam, this provides challenges, particularly in the case of advanced X-ray sources, where beams have very small cross sections and crystals may be vanishingly small. Methods for visualizing crystals are reviewed here, and examples of different types of cases are presented, including: standard crystals, crystals grown in mesophase, in situ crystallography, and crystals grown for X-ray Free Electron Laser or Micro Electron Diffraction experiments. As most techniques have limitations, it is desirable to have a range of complementary techniques available to identify and locate crystals. Ideally, a given technique should not cause sample damage, but sometimes it is necessary to use techniques where damage can only be minimized. For extreme circumstances, the act of probing location may be coincident with collecting X-ray diffraction data. Future challenges and directions are also discussed.

  9. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data......, making them different from typical, existing box shaping techniques. The basis of the proposed techniques is a new algorithm for constructing a full box from just three of its corners. The evaluation of the new techniques compares their precision and completion times in a 9 degree-of-freedom (Do......F) docking experiment against an existing technique, which requires the user to perform the rotation and scaling of the box explicitly. The precision of the users' box construction is evaluated by a novel error metric measuring the difference between two boxes. The results of the experiment strongly indicate...

  10. Neutron Transmission through Sapphire Crystals: Experiments and Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Rantsiou, Emmanouela; Filges, Uwe; Panzner, Tobias; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2013-01-01

    Sapphire crystals are excellent filters of fast neutrons, while at the same time exhibit moderate to very little absorption at smaller energies. We have performed an extensive series of measurements in order to quantify the above effect. Alongside our experiments, we have performed a series of simulations, in order to reproduce the transmission of cold neutrons through sapphire crystals. Thosesimulations were part of the effort of validating and improving the newly developed interface between...

  11. New results in meson spectroscopy from the crystal barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Recent observations by the Crystal Barrel experiment of two scalar resonances, f{sub o}(1365) and a{sub o}(1450) have allowed the authors to clarify the members of the scalar nonet. In addition, a third scalar, f{sub o}(1500), appears to be supernumerary, and is a candidate for the scalar glueball expected near 1500 MeV.

  12. Improving Student Results in the Crystal Violet Chemical Kinetics Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Nathanael; Vander Griend, Douglas A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite widespread use in general chemistry laboratories, the crystal violet chemical kinetics experiment frequently suffers from erroneous student results. Student calculations for the reaction order in hydroxide often contain large asymmetric errors, pointing to the presence of systematic error. Through a combination of "in silico"…

  13. Two crystal x-ray spectrometers for OMEGA experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, C.; Casner, A.; Girard, F.; Lecherbourg, L.; Loupias, B.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.

    2016-11-01

    Two x-ray spectrometers have been built for x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas on OMEGA at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) by Commissariat a ̀ l'Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA). The accessible photon energy range is from 1.5 to 20 keV. The first spectrometer, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer with a Charge-Injection Device (XCCS-CID), records three spectra with three crystals coupled to a time integrated CID camera. The second one, called X-ray CEA Crystal Spectrometer (XCCS) with a framing camera, is time resolved and records four spectra with two crystals on the four frames of a framing camera. Cylindrical crystals are used in Johan geometry. Each spectrometer is positioned with a ten-inch manipulator inside the OMEGA target chamber. In each experiment, after choosing a spectral window, a specific configuration is designed and concave crystals are precisely positioned on a board with angled wedges and spacers. Slits on snouts enable 1D spatial resolution to distinguish spectra emitted from different parts of the target.

  14. Crystal-structure prediction via the Floppy-Box Monte Carlo algorithm: Method and application to hard (non)convex particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Joost; Filion, Laura; Marechal, Matthieu; van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the way to set up the floppy-box Monte Carlo (FBMC) method [L. Filion, M. Marechal, B. van Oorschot, D. Pelt, F. Smallenburg, and M. Dijkstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 188302 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.188302] to predict crystal-structure candidates for colloidal particles. The algorithm is explained in detail to ensure that it can be straightforwardly implemented on the basis of this text. The handling of hard-particle interactions in the FBMC algorithm is given special attention, as (soft) short-range and semi-long-range interactions can be treated in an analogous way. We also discuss two types of algorithms for checking for overlaps between polyhedra, the method of separating axes and a triangular-tessellation based technique. These can be combined with the FBMC method to enable crystal-structure prediction for systems composed of highly shape-anisotropic particles. Moreover, we present the results for the dense crystal structures predicted using the FBMC method for 159 (non)convex faceted particles, on which the findings in [J. de Graaf, R. van Roij, and M. Dijkstra, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 155501 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.155501] were based. Finally, we comment on the process of crystal-structure prediction itself and the choices that can be made in these simulations.

  15. Virtual box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Malthe Kirkhoff

    2007-01-01

    . This paper reports on the design, implementation and initial evaluation of Virtual Box. Virtual Box attempts to create a physical and engaging context in order to support reciprocal interactions with expressive content. An implemented version of Virtual Box is evaluated in a location-aware environment...

  16. Optimization of light collection from crystal scintillators for cryogenic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F.A., E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kobychev, R.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 03056 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine); Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kraus, H. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Mikhailik, V.B. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Mokina, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2014-04-21

    High light collection efficiency is an important requirement in any application of scintillation detectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility for improving this parameter in cryogenic scintillation bolometers, which can be considered as promising detectors in experiments investigating neutrinoless double beta decay and dark matter. Energy resolutions and relative pulse amplitudes of scintillation detectors using ZnWO{sub 4} scintillation crystals of different shapes (cylinder ∅ 20×20 mm and hexagonal prism with diagonal 20 mm and height 20 mm), reflector materials and shapes, optical contact and surface properties (polished and diffused) were measured at room temperature. Propagation of optical photons in these experimental conditions was simulated using Geant4 and ZEMAX codes. The results of the simulations are found to be in good agreement with each other and with direct measurements of the crystals. This could be applied to optimize the geometry of scintillation detectors used in the cryogenic experiments.

  17. Sand box experiments to evaluate the influence of subsurface temperature probe design on temperature based water flux calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Munz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of subsurface water fluxes based on the one dimensional solution to the heat transport equation depends on the accuracy of measured subsurface temperatures. The influence of temperature probe setup on the accuracy of vertical water flux calculation was systematically evaluated in this experimental study. Four temperature probe setups were installed into a sand box experiment to measure temporal highly resolved vertical temperature profiles under controlled water fluxes in the range of ±1.3 m d−1. Pass band filtered time series provided amplitude and phase of the diurnal temperature signal varying with depth depending on water flux. Amplitude ratios of setups directly installed into the saturated sediment significantly varied with sand box hydraulic gradients. Amplitude ratios provided an accurate basis for the analytical calculation of water flow velocities, which matched measured flow velocities. Calculated flow velocities were sensitive to thermal properties of saturated sediment and to probe distance, but insensitive to thermal dispersivity equal to solute dispersivity. Amplitude ratios of temperature probe setups indirectly installed into piezometer pipes were influenced by thermal exchange processes within the pipes and significantly varied with water flux direction only. Temperature time lags of small probe distances of all setups were found to be insensitive to vertical water flux.

  18. Opening the Black Box: The Experiences and Lessons From the Public Hospitals Autonomy Policy in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Jafari, Mehdi; Takian, Amirhossein; Ravaghi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Policy formulation and adoption often happen in a black box. Implementation challenges affect and modify the nature of a policy. We analyzed hospitals' autonomy policy in Iran that was intended to reduce hospitals' financial burden on government and improve their efficiency. We followed a retrospective case-study methodology, involving inductive and deductive analyses of parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, gray literature, published papers and interview transcripts. We analyzed data to develop a policy map that included important dates and events leading to the policy process milestones. We identified four time-periods with distinctive features: 'moving toward the policy' (1989 - 1994), disorganized implementation' (1995 - 1997), 'continuing challenges and indecisiveness in hospitals financing' (1998 - 2003), and 'other structural and financial policies in public hospitals' (2004 to date). We found that stakeholders required different and conflicting objectives, which certainly resulted in an unsatisfactory implementation process. The policy led to long-lasting and often negative changes in the hospital sector and the entire Iranian health system. Hospital autonomy appeared to be an ill-advised policy to remedy the inefficiency problems in low socioeconomic areas of the country. The assumption that hospital autonomy reforms would necessarily result in a better health system, may be a false assumption as their success relies on many contextual, structural and policy implementation factors.

  19. Characterization and comparison of seismic signals emitted during field scale sheer box experiments and artificially induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yfantis, Georgios; Martinez Carvajal, Hernan Eduardo; Pytharouli, Stella; Lunn, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    The identification and detection of landslide induced seismic signals, recorded by deployed seismometers on active landslides has been the subject of many studies. The most commonly faced problem is the uncertainty in identifying which of the recorded signals are representing a movement or a failure in the landslide's body. In this paper we present two novel experimental campaigns; 1) field scale laboratory experiments of a 65cm diameter sheer box, 2) artificially induced failure of two, two-meter high vertical soil slopes. Using a field scale sheer box we recorded seismic signals emitted during soil slippage events, a phenomenon observed at a landslide's failure plain. This was implemented by displacing, a few centimeters at a time (1-10cm), a concrete cylinder filled with soil along a corridor free from vegetation. The field scale sheer box methodology allows control over a large number of parameters that affect a landslide. For example, it is possible to control soil saturation thus simulating different rain events or control the stress field on the soil's slippage surface simulating displacement events at different depths. More than 40 displacement events were induced under four different loading conditions between 472kg to 829kg. All soil slippage events were recorded above the levels of background seismic noise. Repetition of the methodology under the same experimental conditions resulted in similar seismic signals allowing us to define a 'characteristic seismic response' for soils. In the second experimental campaign, two controlled landslides were experimentally induced by increasing the vertical load on top of a 2m soil scarp. We were able to detect from 1 to 10 centimeter wide crack propagations and displacements, and approximately 20x20x10cm to 100x50x20cm block failure events based on microseismic recordings, field notes, video recordings and displacement measurements of the landslide's crown that failed during the experiments. Direct correlation

  20. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  1. A Strange Box and a Stubborn Brit: Rutherford's Experiments with Alpha Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses 5 innovative experiments conducted by Rutherford in early 1900s utilizing the 30 milligrams of radium salt he personally carried from Europe to Canada in 1903. Traces his work with alpha particles from his original results which determined their nature, charge, and mass, to his technique of backscattering which helped to advance…

  2. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  3. Bento Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Bento boxes are common objects in Japanese culture, designed to hold enough lunch for one person. They have individual compartments and sometimes multiple tiers for rice, vegetables, and other side dishes. They are made of materials ranging from wood, cloth, aluminum, or plastic. In general, the greater the number of foods, the better the box is…

  4. Shock compression experiments on Lithium Deuteride single crystals.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Lemke, Raymond W.

    2014-10-01

    S hock compression exper iments in the few hundred GPa (multi - Mabr) regime were performed on Lithium Deuteride (LiD) single crystals . This study utilized the high velocity flyer plate capability of the Sandia Z Machine to perform impact experiments at flyer plate velocities in the range of 17 - 32 km/s. Measurements included pressure, density, and temperature between %7E200 - 600 GPa along the Principal Hugoniot - the locus of end states achievable through compression by large amplitude shock waves - as well as pressure and density of re - shock states up to %7E900 GPa . The experimental measurements are compared with recent density functional theory calculations as well as a new tabular equation of state developed at Los Alamos National Labs.

  5. Ampoule failure sensor development for semiconductor crystal growth experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watring, Dale A.; Johnson, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Currently there are no devices to detect an ampoule failure in semiconductor crystal growth experiments. If an ampoule fails, it will go undetected until the containing cartridge is breached due to chemical degradation. The experiment will then be terminated resulting in a failed experiment and a loss of data. The objective of this research was to develop a reliable failure sensor that would detect a specific liquid or vapor material before the metallic cartridge is degraded and the processing furnace contaminated. The sensor is a chemical fuse made from a metal with which the semiconductor material reacts more rapidly than it does with the containing cartridge. Upon ampoule failure, the sensor is exposed to the vapor or liquid semiconductor and the chemical reaction causes a resistance change in the sensor material. The sensor shows a step change in resistance on the order of megohms when exposed to mercury zinc telluride (HgZnTe), mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe), or gallium arsenide (GaAs). This ampoule failure sensor is being tested for possible use on the second United States Microgravity Mission (USML-2) and is the subject of a NASA patent application.

  6. Biaxial nematic liquid crystals theory, simulation and experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Luckhurst, Geoffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Liquid Crystals are a state of matter that have properties between those of conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. Thermotropic liquid crystals react to changes in temperature or, in some cases, pressure. The reaction of lyotropic liquid crystals, which are used in the manufacture of soaps and detergents, depends on the type of solvent they are mixed with. Since the accidental discovery of the chiral nematic (ordered) phase in 1888 many liquid crystal phases have been found, sometimes by chance and sometimes by design. The existence of one such phase was predicted by Freiser in 197

  7. Crystal Clear - New crystals for LHC experiments help to improve PET scanners Exhibition LEPFest 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Better resolution through smaller crystals Better images through higher light yieldHigh efficiency, stability and gain by using avalanche photodiodes and low noise electronics Reduced cost of crystals (1/10) through mass production

  8. Synthesis of Bis(1,2-Dimethylimidazole)Copper(I)Hexafluorophosphate: An Experiment Using a Glove Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewahner, J. H.; Walters, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed description of the synthesis of bis(1,2-dimethylimidazole)copper(I) hexafluorophosphate by using techniques in a glove box is presented. The results shows that the synthesis of the copper complex has a distinct color change indicating by-product oxidation by oxygen.

  9. The peculairities of material crystallization experiments in the CF-18 centrifuge under high gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdin, B. V.; Regel, L. L.; Turchaninov, A. M.; Shumaev, O. V.

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents data on the crystallization of various materials using the CF-18 centrifuge at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Center. The geometry and equipment are described. Consideration is given to some peculiarities of preparing and conducting crystal growth experiments in this centrifuge. Vibration in a coordinate system fixed to the crystal growth equipment and the reasons for its initiation are shown. From the results of experiments conducted during the last 10 years, it was concluded that there are many possibilities of using various classes of model materials to study crystal growth processes under high gravity conditions.

  10. Opening the black box of collaborative writing: experiences from a teamwork-based course in industrial management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Uppvall

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we discuss the introduction of collaborative writing (CW tools in a course designed with learning activities based on problem-based learning (PBL, authentic case methodology, and teamwork. We argue that CW is a vital, but poorly understood, part of teamwork, and a black-box activity. Our ambition is to open the black box of CW and discuss how CW concepts can enrich teamwork activities. We build on our students’ reflections on challenges linked to CW in a teamwork setting. In total the data consisted of 77 individual reflection papers, which were analyzed using constructs from prior literature on CW. Our results show that our students actively used CW tools and strategies and that CW had a large impact—and, in fact, enhanced teamwork management. The CW tools also helped in creating sustainable teamwork in the sense that they enhanced the three criterions of team performance: productivity, cohesion, and learning.

  11. BLACK BOX MODEL OF EDFA′S AND ITS VERIFICATION IN VIRTUAL EXPERIMENT ENVIRONMENT%EDFA黑盒模型及其虚拟实验验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓东; 曾庆济; 徐捷; 金耀辉

    2001-01-01

    首先根据EDFA两能级放大模型推导出黑盒模型;其次,采用虚拟实验方法,分析了黑盒模型在不同条件下计算的精度;最后分别模拟放大系统采用黑盒模型和两能级模型,有八个WDM光信号输入时,放大后的光谱图.结果表明两者十分一致.%In this paper,first,the black box model for an erbium-dopedamplifier was derived from the two-level amplified model.Then adopting the so-called virtual experiment,it is analyzed the computation accuracy of the black box model in verified conditions.Finally,when there were eight WDM optical input signals,using the black box model and two-level model respectively,we simulated the amplified optical spectrum.The results agreed with each other very well.

  12. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei, E-mail: mywaters@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Koschny, Thomas [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Soukoulis, C.M. [Ames Laboratory - U.S. DOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Institute of Electronic Structure and Lasers (IESL), FORTH, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2012-10-15

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two subwavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths. The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young's experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  13. Young's double-slit experiment in photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lei; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-10-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the transmission of a photonic crystal perforated by two sub-wavelength slits, separated by two wavelengths.The experimental near-field image of the double-slit design of the photonic crystal shows an interference pattern, which is analogous to Young’s experiment. This interference arises as a consequence of the excitation of surface states of the photonic crystals and agrees very well with the simulations.

  14. Propagation optical quarks after an uniaxial crystal: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Yu. A.; Konovalenko, V. L.; Zinovev, A. O.; Anischenko, P. M.; Glumova, M. V.

    2013-12-01

    There is a lots of different papers reporting about the propagation of the different types of an optical beams in a uniaxial crystals are known by that time. This beams are: Lager-Gaussian and Bessel- Gaussian beams. It is common for all this types of beams, that if propagation axis and crystal axis coincides, and accident beam had a circular polarization, are can get type spiral type degenerated umbilici, which corresponds to the charge 2 optical vortex in the orthogonal polarized beam component, generated by crystal [1] (Fig 1). This generation accurse due to total angular momentum conservation law symmetry axis of the crystal. One to the changing of the spin momentum which is associated with the beam polarization, this leads to the orbital momentum changes that associated with topological charge of formed orthogonal circular component. Double charged optical vortex could be easily perturbed by tilting beam axis with respect to the crystal axis. If the tilt angles are small (<0.1°) central umbilici splits on two lemons and the surrounding ring umbilici splits on two pairs of monster-star. The further increasing of the tilt angle leads to the topological charge of circular components becomes, equal, and additional orbital moment correspond to the beam mass center displacement.

  15. Ignition and growth modeling of detonation reaction zone experiments on single crystals of PETN and HMX

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Bradley W.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that detonating single crystals of solid explosives have much larger failure diameters than those of heterogeneous charges of the same explosive pressed or cast to 98 - 99% theoretical maximum density (TMD). In 1957, Holland et al. demonstrated that PETN single crystals have failure diameters of about 8 mm, whereas heterogeneous PETN charges have failure diameters of less than 0.5 mm. Recently, Fedorov et al. quantitatively determined nanosecond time resolved detonation reaction zone profiles of single crystals of PETN and HMX by measuring the interface particle velocity histories of the detonating crystals and LiF windows using a PDV system. The measured reaction zone time durations for PETN and HMX single crystal detonations were approximately 100 and 260 nanoseconds, respectively. These experiments provided the necessary data to develop Ignition and Growth (I&G) reactive flow model parameters for the single crystal detonation reaction zones. Using these parameters, the calculated unconfined failure diameter of a PETN single crystal was 7.5 +/- 0.5 mm, close to the 8 mm experimental value. The calculated failure diameter of an unconfined HMX single crystal was 15 +/- 1 mm. The unconfined failure diameter of an HMX single crystal has not yet been determined precisely, but Fedorov et al. detonated 14 mm diameter crystals confined by detonating a HMX-based plastic bonded explosive (PBX) without initially overdriving the HMX crystals.

  16. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  17. Complementarity in the Einstein-Bohr photon box

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieks, D.G.B.J.; Lam, S

    2008-01-01

    The Bohr-Einstein photon box thought experiment is a forerunner of the EPR experiment: a packet of radiation escapes from a box, and the box-plus-radiation state remains entangled. Hence, a measurement on the box makes a difference for the state of the far-away radiation long after its escape. This

  18. Ionization annealing of semiconductor crystals. Part two: the experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garkavenko A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a conception that irradiation of semiconductor crystals with high energy electrons (300 keV results in a significant and irreversible deterioration of their electrical, optical and structural properties. Semiconductors are typically irradiated by low voltage electron accelerators with a continuous flow, the current density in such accelerators is 10–5—10–6 A/cm2, the energy — 0,3—1 MeV. All changes in the properties after such irradiation are resistant at room temperature, and marked properties recovery to baseline values is observed only after prolonged heating of the crystals to a high temperature. In contrast, the authors in their studies observe an improvement of the structural properties of semiconductor crystals (annealing of defects under irradiation with powerful (high current pulsed electron beams of high energy (E0 = 0,3–1 MeV, t = 0,1—10 ns, Ω = 1—10 Hz, j = 20—300 A/cm2. In their previous paper, the authors presented theoretical basis of this effect. This article describes an experimental study on the influence of high-current pulsed electron beams on the optical homogeneity of semiconductor GaAs and CdS crystals, confirming the theory put forward earlier.

  19. Experience with CsI(Na) crystals for calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulchenko, V.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Baibusinov, B.O. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Baldin, E.M. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Bondar, A.E. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Gaidarev, P.B. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Kuzmin, A.S. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Leontiev, L.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Oreshkin, S.B. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Ovechkin, R.P. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki; Shwartz, B.A. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1996-09-21

    The performance of cesium iodide doped with sodium is studied. The design and parameters of a CsI(Na) endcap calorimeter for the KEDR detector are presented. Also reported are the results of the study of a calorimeter element consisting of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a vacuum phototriode. (orig.).

  20. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  1. 电子电路实验与考核"黑箱"系统%A'Black Box'system for electronics and circuit experiment and examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王松武; 王伞

    2011-01-01

    In open-style experimental teaching, training and examining students' experimental skills have become new problems, and are difficulties in experimental teaching as well. Due to the open-style of the experiment environments and contents, supervision should be taken into the experimental process to prevent plagiarism. Making the experimental contents or parameters different between each others is a practical solution. A Black Box system has provided a new method for experimenting and examining. With a Black Box system, one can verify the theories, design testing circuits, and apply electronic measurement skills synthetically. Therefore, the Black Box system has the features of verifying, designing, synthesizing, and researching.%在开放式实验教学中,对学生实验技能训练与考核成为新问题,也是实验教学的难点.由于实验环境和内容的开放,需要对实验过程进行监管,防止相互抄袭实验数据,较好的解决办法就是每人的实验内容或实验参数不同.黑箱为电子电路实验与考核提供了新途径,既能验证理论,又能设计测试电路,还能综合运用电子测量技能,因此兼有验证性、设计性、综合性、研究性实验的特征.

  2. Experience with the UHV box coater and the evaporation procedure for VUV reflective coatings on the HADES RICH mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Maier-Komor, P; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A

    1999-01-01

    An UHV box coater was set up for the deposition of highly reflective layers in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength range on large-area mirror substrates. The VUV mirrors are needed for the ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector of the high-acceptance di-electron spectrometer (HADES). The complete dry vacuum system is described. The spatial deposition distribution from the evaporation sources was measured. The reflectivity of the Al mirror layer was optimized for the wavelength range of 145-210 nm by varying the thickness of the MgF sub 2 protective layer. The setup for measuring the reflectivity in the VUV range is described and reflectivity data are presented.

  3. Experiments testing the abatement of radiation damage in D-xylose isomerase crystals with cryogenic helium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, B Leif; Harp, Joel M; Kirschbaum, Kristin; Schall, Constance A; DeWitt, Ken; Howard, Andrew; Pinkerton, A Alan; Bunick, Gerard J

    2002-11-01

    Helium is a more efficient cryogen than nitrogen, and for macromolecular data collection at high-flux beamlines will deliver lower temperatures. An open-flow helium cryostat developed at the University of Toledo (the Pinkerton Device) has been used for macromolecular data collection. This device differs from standard commercial He cryostats by having a much narrower aperture providing a high velocity stream of He around the crystal that maximizes convective and conductive heat exchange between the crystal and the cryogen. This paper details a series of experiments conducted at the IMCA-CAT 17ID beamline using one crystal for each experimental condition to examine whether helium at 16 K provided better radiation-damage abatement compared with nitrogen at 100 K. These studies used matched high-quality crystals (0.94 A diffraction resolution) of D-xylose isomerase derived from the commercial material Gensweet SGI. Comparisons show that helium indeed abates the indicators of radiation damage, in this case resulting in longer crystal diffractive lifetimes. The overall trend suggests that crystals maintain order and that high-resolution data are less affected by increased radiation load when crystals are cooled with He rather than N(2). This is probably the result of a lower effective temperature at the crystal with concomitant reduction in free-radical diffusion. Other features, such as an apparent phase transition in macromolecular crystals at lower temperatures, require investigation to broaden the utility of He use.

  4. On Slip Transmission Criteria in Experiments and Crystal Plasticity Models

    CERN Document Server

    Bayerschen, E; Reddy, B D; Böhlke, T

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive overview is given on the slip transmission criteria for grain boundaries in the experimental literature, with a focus on slip system and grain boundary orientation. The use of these geometric criteria in continuum crystal plasticity models is briefly discussed. Perspectives on additional experimentally motivated criteria used in computational simulations are given. The theoretical framework of Gurtin (2008, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 56, p. 640) is reviewed for the single slip case with the aim of showing explicitly the connections to the experimentally developed criteria for slip transmission that are not discussed in the work itself.

  5. New results from the CERN-SPS beam deflection experiments with bent crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Kirsebom, K.; Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Worm, T.; Uggerhøj, E.; Mikkelsen, U.; Graftström, P.; Gatignon, L.; Elsener, K.; Doble, N.; Biino, C.; Freund, A.; Vilakazi, Z.; Hage-Ali, M.; Siffert, P.; Clément, M.

    1996-10-01

    Results from five distinct bending experiments performed recently in the H8 beam at CERN are presented. Firstly, deflection of a positive pion beam at 200 GeV/c is compared to the "standard" 450-GeV/c proton beam for a bending angle of 3.1 mrad along the (111) plane in a 50 mm silicon crystal. Second, deflection of negative pions at 200 GeV/c is investigated for the same crystal, for incidence along the (111) plane as well as the axis. Small deflection effects are seen, but no negative particles are bent through the full bending angle of the crystal. Third, the first results from beam deflection at high energy using a germanium crystal are shown. Slightly higher deflection efficiencies than for silicon are seen for large bending angles, but significantly smaller than expected for such a crystal with higher atomic number. Fourth, deflection efficiencies using a strongly irradiated silicon crystal have been measured for the first time, and a small reduction in efficiency is seen in the irradiated region. Finally, deflection of positive particles using axial alignment of a bent silicon crystal has been investigated at 450 GeV/c. Qualitatively similar behaviour as in previous experiments at 12 GeV/c is seen; the beam splits into several beams corresponding to the different planes, and even weak planes are observed.

  6. Characterization of PbWO4 crystals for high-energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M. J.; Park, H.; Kim, H. J.

    2016-09-01

    High-energy physics (HEP) experiments have employed many new types of scintillators. Specifically, bismuth germanate, thallium-doped cesium iodide, and lead tungstate (PbWO4, PWO) have been used for the L3 experiment; CLEO II, Belle and BES-III; and CMS, respectively. PWO has particularly beneficial properties, such as high density, fast decay time, short radiation length and radiation hardness. In this study, we tested the PWO crystals at low temperatures to determine their applicability in future calorimeters. Various crystals from the Proton Antiproton Annihilations at Darmstadt (PANDA) experiment in Giessen, the Bogoroditsk Techno-Chemical Plant (BTCP) in Russia and by Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS) in China were investigated. We studied the scintillation properties of PWO crystals, such as their X-ray luminescence, relative light yields, absolute light yields, energy resolutions, decay times and longitudinal uniformities of their light yields. In addition, we measured the temperature dependences of the light yields and decay times by using a 137Cs γ-ray source. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals consisted of a broad band from 350 nm to 700 nm, and the peak emission wavelength in each spectrum was 420 nm. The emission spectra of the PWO crystals from SICCAS were slightly shifted to longer wavelengths compared with those of the crystals from the other institutions.

  7. A new disaster victim identification management strategy targeting "near identification-threshold" cases: Experiences from the Boxing Day tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kirsty; Mundorff, Amy; Chaseling, Janet; Forrest, Alexander; Maguire, Christopher; Crane, Denis I

    2015-05-01

    The international disaster victim identification (DVI) response to the Boxing Day tsunami, led by the Royal Thai Police in Phuket, Thailand, was one of the largest and most complex in DVI history. Referred to as the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification operation, the group comprised a multi-national, multi-agency, and multi-disciplinary team. The traditional DVI approach proved successful in identifying a large number of victims quickly. However, the team struggled to identify certain victims due to incomplete or poor quality ante-mortem and post-mortem data. In response to these challenges, a new 'near-threshold' DVI management strategy was implemented to target presumptive identifications and improve operational efficiency. The strategy was implemented by the DNA Team, therefore DNA kinship matches that just failed to reach the reporting threshold of 99.9% were prioritized, however the same approach could be taken by targeting, for example, cases with partial fingerprint matches. The presumptive DNA identifications were progressively filtered through the Investigation, Dental and Fingerprint Teams to add additional information necessary to either strengthen or conclusively exclude the identification. Over a five-month period 111 victims from ten countries were identified using this targeted approach. The new identifications comprised 87 adults, 24 children and included 97 Thai locals. New data from the Fingerprint Team established nearly 60% of the total near-threshold identifications and the combined DNA/Physical method was responsible for over 30%. Implementing the new strategy, targeting near-threshold cases, had positive management implications. The process initiated additional ante-mortem information collections, and established a much-needed, distinct "end-point" for unresolved cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New states as observed by the Crystal Barrel experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, I.; Amsler, C.; Baker, C.A.; Barnett, B.M.; Batty, C.J.; Beuchert, K.; Birien, P.; Bistirlich, J.; Bluem, P.; Bossingham, R.; Bossy, H.; Braune, K.; Brose, J.; Bugg, D.V.; Burchell, M.; Case, T.; Chung, S.U.; Cooper, A.; Crowe, K.M.; Dietz, H.P.; Dombrowski, S. v.; Doser, M.; Duennweber, W.; Engelhardt, D.; Englert, M.; Faessler, M.A.; Felix, C.; Folger, G.; Hackmann, R.; Haddock, R.P.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidas, P.; Illinger, P.; Jamnik, D.; Javorfi, Z.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kaemmle, B.; Kiel, T.; Kisiel, J.; Klempt, E.; Kobel, M.; Koch, H.; Kolo, C.; Koenigsmann, K.; Kunze, M.; Landua, R.; Luedemann, J.; Matthaey, H.; Merkel, M.; Merlo, J.P.; Meyer, C.A.; Meyer-Berkhout, U.; Montanet, L.; Noble, A.; Peters, K.; Pinter, G.; Ravndal, S.; Sanjari, A.H.; Schaefer, E.; Schmid, B.; Schmidt, P.; Spanier, S.; Strassburger, C.; Strohbusch, U.; Suffert, M.; Urner, D.; Voelcker, C.; Walter, F.; Walther, D.; Wiedner, U.; Winter, N.; Zoll, J.; Zupancic, C. (Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany; Crystal Barrel Collaboration

    1993-06-07

    The Crystal Barrel Detector has been in operation since October 1989. Results on the analysis of the annihilation of protonium at rest into three pseudoscalars is presented. The [pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0] final state confirms the existence of f[sub 2](1520)[yields][pi][sup 0][pi][sup 0]. In the [eta][eta] system of the [pi][sup 0][eta][eta] final state an isoscalar J[sup PC]=0[sup ++] resonance with a mass of 1560 MeV/c[sup 2] and a width of 245 MeV/c[sup 2] is observed. The identification with f[sub 0](1590) is doubtful since the [eta][eta]' decay is not observed with the corresponding strength. Our analysis yields an upper limit for the relative branching ratio BR(f[sub 0](1560)[yields][eta][eta]')/(f[sub 0](1560)[yields][eta][eta])<0.24. (orig.)

  9. Smectic and columnar liquid crystals concepts and physical properties illustrated by experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Oswald, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics. Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The book examines lamellar (smectic) and columnar liquid crystals, which, in addition to orientational order, possess 1D, 2D or 3D positional order. This volume illustrates original physical concepts using methodically numerous experiments, theoretical developments, and diagrams. Topics include rheology and plasticity, ferroelectricity, analogies with superconductors, hexatic order and 2D-melting, equilibrium shapes, facetting, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability, as well as phase transitions in free films and membrane vibration...

  10. Next-Generation Analysis of Deep Sequencing Data: Bringing Light into the Black Box of SELEX Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Michael

    2016-01-01

    In silico analysis of next-generation sequencing data (NGS; also termed deep sequencing) derived from in vitro selection experiments enables the analysis of the SELEX procedure (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) in an unprecedented depth and improves the identification of aptamers. Besides quality control and optimization of starting libraries, advanced screening strategies for difficult targets or early identification of rare but high quality aptamers which are otherwise lost in the in vitro selection experiments become possible. The high information content of sequence data obtained from selection experiments is furthermore useful for subsequent lead optimization.

  11. Lessons from high-throughput protein crystallization screening: 10 years of practical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR, Luft; EH, Snell; GT, DeTitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction X-ray crystallography provides the majority of our structural biological knowledge at a molecular level and in terms of pharmaceutical design is a valuable tool to accelerate discovery. It is the premier technique in the field, but its usefulness is significantly limited by the need to grow well-diffracting crystals. It is for this reason that high-throughput crystallization has become a key technology that has matured over the past 10 years through the field of structural genomics. Areas covered The authors describe their experiences in high-throughput crystallization screening in the context of structural genomics and the general biomedical community. They focus on the lessons learnt from the operation of a high-throughput crystallization screening laboratory, which to date has screened over 12,500 biological macromolecules. They also describe the approaches taken to maximize the success while minimizing the effort. Through this, the authors hope that the reader will gain an insight into the efficient design of a laboratory and protocols to accomplish high-throughput crystallization on a single-, multiuser-laboratory or industrial scale. Expert Opinion High-throughput crystallization screening is readily available but, despite the power of the crystallographic technique, getting crystals is still not a solved problem. High-throughput approaches can help when used skillfully; however, they still require human input in the detailed analysis and interpretation of results to be more successful. PMID:22646073

  12. Perspectives for nEDM Search by Crystal Diffraction. Test Experiment and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, V.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Jentschel, M. [Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Kuznetsov, I.A.; Lapin, E.G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lelievre-Berna, E.; Nesvizhevsky, V.; Petoukhov, A. [Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Semenikhin, S.Yu. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Soldner, T. [Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Voronin, V.V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)], E-mail: vvv@pnpi.spb.ru; Braginetz, Yu.P. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    An experiment searching for the neutron electric dipole moment by measuring spin-rotations in a non-centrosymmetric crystal was carried out to investigate the statistical sensitivity and systematic effects of the method. The preliminary result of this experiment is d{sub n}=(2.5{+-}6.5).10{sup -24} e.cm. The performance was essentially limited by the low luminosity of the prototype setup. With a dedicated setup and a large quartz crystal, the expected accuracy is {approx}2.10{sup -26} e.cm for 100 days of data collection.

  13. Inverse-problem approach to designing photonic crystals for cavity QED experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, J M; Williams, Jon; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2002-12-01

    Photonic band gap (PBG) materials are attractive for cavity QED experiments because they provide extremely small mode volumes and are monolithic, integratable structures. As such, PBG cavities are a promising alternative to Fabry-Perot resonators. However, the cavity requirements imposed by QED experiments, such as the need for high Q (low cavity damping) and small mode volumes, present significant design challenges for photonic band gap materials. Here, we pose the PBG design problem as a mathematical inversion and provide an analytical solution for a two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We then address a planar (2D crystal with finite thickness) structure using numerical techniques.

  14. Channeling of high-energy particles in bent crystals - Experiments at the CERN SPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurichter, A.; Biino, C.; Clément, M.; Doble, N.; Elsener, K.; Fidecaro, G.; Freund, A.; Gatignon, L.; Grafström, P.; Gyr, M.; Hage-Ali, M.; Herr, W.; Keppler, P.; Kirsebom, K.; Klem, J.; Major, J.; Medenwaldt, R.; Mikkelsen, U.; Møller, S. P.; Siffert, P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Vilakazi, Z. Z.; Weisse, E.

    2000-04-01

    During the latest decade, experiments have been performed at the CERN SPS to investigate the use of high-energy channeled nuclei in bent crystals for extraction, beam splitting and beam bending. An understanding of channeling in a bent crystal with extraction and deflection efficiencies for different energies, crystal types and ions has been developed. Furthermore, the long-standing question of radiation damage has been addressed with encouraging outcome. This makes extrapolations possible for the construction of, e.g., an extraction device for the LHC at CERN, RHIC at Brookhaven or new splitting elements in high-energy beams.We present the main results obtained and discuss existing and future applications of bent crystals in high-energy physics.

  15. Proton and Pb ion beam extraction experiments with bent crystals at the CERN-SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Klem, J T; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of particle beams from the CERN-SPS using bent silicon crystals is described. A summary of the early results is given. Emphasis is on the recent experiments, in particular on the energy dependence of proton extraction at 14, 120 and 270 GeV. 'U-shaped' crystals of different thickness and with a different miscut angle have been compared at 120 GeV. Non-linear excitation of the beam was used in one experiment, with the aim to achieve larger impact parameters - the results show a particular behaviour in the tails of the beam. Finally, the first experimental result on extraction of a 22 TeV fully stripped Pb ion beam with a bent crystal is also described.

  16. Analysis of the Fall-1989 two-meter box test bed experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. O.; Drischler, J. D.; Barnes, J. M.

    This report summarizes the results of a benchmark analysis of the Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System (MASH) against a series of experiments performed at the Army Pulse Radiation Facility (APRF) in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The series of experiments was performed in the Fall of 1989 and involved experimentalists from APRF; the Defense Research Establishment Ottawa, Canada (DREO); Bubble Technology Industries, Canada, (BTI); and the Establishment Technique Central de l'Armement, France (ETCA). The 'benchmark' analysis of MASH is designed to determine the capability of MASH to reproduce the measured neutron and gamma ray integral and differential (spectral) data. Results of the 'benchmark' analysis are to be used in the recommendations to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Panel 7 Ad Hoc Group of Shielding Experts for replacing the Vehicle Code System (VCS) with MASH as the reference code of choice for armored vehicle nuclear vulnerability calculations.

  17. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  18. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment II: Measuring Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Various water-alcohol and alcohol-alcohol based experiments are used to demonstrate how the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique is used for measuring the viscosity of a system. The technique is very advantageous, as it is inexpensive and provides digital output.

  19. Advantages of ice crystal growth experiments in a low gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, V. W.; Hallett, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of convective fluid motions and mechanical supports on ice crystal growth in experiments conducted on earth can be inferred from studies conducted in their absence in a low-gravity environment. Current experimental results indicate the effects may be significant.

  20. What did we learn from the extraction experiments with bent crystals at the CERN SPS?

    CERN Document Server

    Elsener, K; Gyr, Marcel; Herr, Werner; Klem, J T; Mikkelsen, U; Weisse, E

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility and properties of particle extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal were studied extensively at the CERN SPS. The main results of the experiments are presented. This includes the evidence for multipass extraction of heavy ions. These results are compared with theoretical expectations and computer simulations.

  1. Changes in position and quality of preferred nest box: effects on nest box use by laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2013-01-01

    Using laying hens, we investigated whether position of a nest box, both within the pen and relative to other nest boxes, influenced the preference for a nest box, and how a sudden and marked change to the preferred box influenced the use of nest boxes by the hens. Groups (n=12) of 15 Isa Warren...... revealed that some hens were location conservative, i.e. continued laying in a corner location (or as close to that as possible), whereas others were isolation conservative, i.e. continued laying in the most isolated nest box despite it being positioned in a different area of the pen....... hens were housed in pens, each with five identical nest boxes in different positions: Two single (in a corner or not) and a triplet of nest boxes (one of which in a corner). The use of nest boxes was determined by the number of eggs laid daily in each box. Three experiments, each lasting 10 days, were...

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiment of nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Yasuhide; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Chiba-Kamoshida, Kaori; Naito, Sawa; Ohsugi, Tadanori; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Ichiro; Morimoto, Yukio

    2010-12-01

    Nattokinase is a single polypeptide chain composed of 275 amino acids (molecular weight 27,724) which displays strong fibrinolytic activity. Moreover, it can activate other fibrinolytic enzymes such as pro-urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator. In the present study, native nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis natto was purified using gel-filtration chromatography and crystallized to give needle-like crystals which could be used for X-ray diffraction experiments. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a=74.3, b=49.9, c=56.3 Å, β=95.2°. Diffraction images were processed to a resolution of 1.74 Å with an Rmerge of 5.2% (15.3% in the highest resolution shell) and a completeness of 69.8% (30.0% in the highest resolution shell). This study reports the first X-ray diffraction analysis of nattokinase.

  3. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  4. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  5. Air conditioning boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-11-01

    Technical data, layout and function of air conditioning boxes by 6 German producers are described. The boxes cover a volume flow range of 1000 to 100000 m/sup 3//h. All boxes are equipped with heat exchangers, moisturizers, filters, and control elements.

  6. BOX: One Minute Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Rose

    2009-01-01

    BOX is a digital short originally developed in 2004 documented on a 1920’s box camera. This early moving image work formed the basis of a practice which interrogates our experience of moving image through the remediation of analogue technology with new media. In 2009 it was included in One Minute Volume 3; a programme of artists moving image curated by Kerry Baldry including work by: Tony Hill, Tina Keane, Katherine Meynell, Kayla Parker and Stuart Moore, Dave Griffiths, Marty St Jam...

  7. Kinematic analysis and parameter optimized experiment of garlic box putting process%蒜种盒机械投放过程运动学分析与参数优化试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿爱军; 张兆磊; 宋占华; 杨建宁; 李汝莘; 侯加林; 刘世琦

    2016-01-01

    plate and conveying belt to the one with the tilt angle of 16° between garlic box and ground. The result of single-factor experiment showed the test bed could work accurately and reliably, and it could satisfy the requirements of garlic box dropping; the tilt angle of belt and the velocity of test bed had effects on the clearance of adjacent garlic boxes, and the fluctuation range of the clearance of garlic boxes was very small ( running speed of test bed, and the best test combination for garlic box dropping was the angle of tilt conveying belt of 30° and the velocity of test bed of 0.75 km/h, under which the clearance of adjacent garlic boxes was 20.4 mm; the garlic boxes could be well connected as they were subtracted by 10 mm at the 2 ends of the box.%针对种盒式大蒜播种方案,为检验倾斜输送带式蒜种盒投放方式的可行性,设计了预植蒜种的可降解蒜种盒和输送带式种盒投放试验台。对蒜种盒投放过程进行了运动学分析,建立了蒜种盒运动速度、输送带倾角与投放后相邻蒜种盒间隙等相关参数间的数学模型,明确了蒜种盒投放间隙的影响因素及变化规律。通过蒜种盒投放过程的受力分析,确定了蒜种盒触地后不与地面产生滑动的条件和方法。为了验证理论分析结果和大蒜播种方案的可行性,进行了输送带倾角、行驶速度等单因素试验和正交试验,结果显示,输送带倾角为30°、试验台运动速度为0.75 km/h,投放效果较好。输送带倾角对前后蒜种盒投放后的间隙影响显著,通过优化蒜种盒长度两端尺寸,可有效消除投放后蒜种盒衔接间隙,保持播种株距稳定。

  8. Performance study of single undoped CsI crystals for the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Donghia, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims to measure the charged lepton flavor violating neutrinoless muon to electron conversion. The goal of the experiment is to reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 x 10^{-17}, to set an upper limit on the muon conversion rate at 6.7 x 10^{-17} in a three years run. For this purpose, the Mu2e detector is designed to identify electrons from muon conversion and reduce the background to a negligible level. It consists of a low mass straw tracker and a pure CsI crystal calorimeter. In this paper, the performance of undoped CsI single crystal is reported. Crystals from many vendors have been characterized by determining their Light Yield (LY) and Longitudinal Response Uniformity (LRU), when read with a UV extended PMT, and their time resolution when coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier. The crystals show a LY of ~ 100 photoelectrons per MeV when wrapped with Tyvek and coupled to the PMT without optical grease. The LRU is well represented by a linear slope that is on average 0.6%/c...

  9. Preparation and characterization of single crystal samples for high-pressure experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, D; Antonangeli, D; Aracne, C; Benterou, J

    2005-10-26

    To date, most research utilizing the diamond anvil cell (DAC) has been conducted with polycrystalline samples, thus the results are limited to addressing average bulk properties. However, experiments on single crystals can yield data on a range of orientation dependent properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, elasticity and plasticity. Here we report new procedures to produce extremely high-quality metallic single crystal samples of size compatible with DAC experiments in the Mbar range. So far, we have produced samples of zinc, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, cobalt, molybdenum and cerium, and have evaluated the quality of the finished samples with white-light interferometry, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and inelastic x-ray scattering.

  10. CdWO4 crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for double beta decay experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Poda, D V; Belli, P; Bernabei, R; Boiko, R S; Brudanin, V B; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Castellano, S; Cerulli, R; Chernyak, D M; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Degoda, V Ya; Di Vacri, M L; Dossovitskiy, A E; Galashov, E N; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Konovalov, S I; Kovtun, G P; Laubenstein, M; Mikhlin, A L; Mokina, V M; Nikolaiko, A S; Nisi, S; Podviyanuk, R B; Polischuk, O G; Shcherban, A P; Shlegel, V N; Solopikhin, D A; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vasiliev, Ya V; Virich, V D

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in 106Cd and 116Cd were developed. The produced scintillators exhibit good optical and scintillation properties, and a low level of radioactive contamination. Experiments to search for double beta decay of 106Cd and 116Cd are in progress at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories of the INFN (Italy). Prospects to further improve the radiopurity of the detectors by recrystallization are discussed.

  11. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 °C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 °C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 °C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been

  12. Deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic single crystals: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z. Y.; Huang, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Small-sized crystals generally show deformation behaviour distinct from their bulk counterparts. In addition to dislocation slip, deformation twinning in small-sized face-centred cubic (FCC) single crystals has been reported to follow a different mechanism which involves coherent emission of partial dislocations on successive { 111 } planes from free surface. The present work employed a twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steel with a low stacking fault energy to systematically investigate the twin evolution in small-sized FCC single crystals. Micrometre-sized single crystal pillars of TWIP steel were fabricated by focus ion beam and then strained to different levels by compression experiments. Detailed transmission electron microscopy characterization was carried out to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the deformation twins, which contribute to most of the plastic strain. Emissions of partial dislocations from free surface (surface sources) and pre-existing perfect dislocations inside the pillar (inner sources) are found as the essential processes for the formation of deformation twins. Accordingly, a physically-based model, which integrates source introduction methods and source activation criterions for partial dislocation emission, is developed to quantitatively predict the twin evolution. The model is able to reproduce the experimental twin evolution, in terms of the total twin formation, the twin morphology and the occurrence of twinning burst.

  13. Effect of crystal shape on neutron rocking curves of perfect single crystals designed for ultra-small-angle scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, A. K.; Rehm, C.

    2014-07-01

    The present study has been conducted in the framework of the channel-cut crystal design for the Kookaburra ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) instrument to be installed at the OPAL reactor of ANSTO. This facility is based on the classical Bonse-Hart method that uses two multiple-reflection crystal systems. The dynamical theory of diffraction by perfect crystals distinguishes two cases: the Darwin case applying to infinitely thick crystals and the Ewald solution for very small absorption taking into account the reflection from the rear face of a plane-parallel crystal reflecting in Bragg geometry. The former is preferable because it yields narrower rocking curves. To prevent the neutrons to "see" the rear face, grooves were machined into the backside of perfect Si test crystals for single reflection and filled with neutron absorbing material. These samples were examined at the S18 instrument of the Institut Laue-Langevin. Unexpectedly the crystals with empty slots showed an increase of the rocking curve width. When filling the slots with an absorber the widths decreased, but without reaching that of the Darwin curve. Understanding the results and achieving a successful crystal design call for the development of a theory that permits to describe neutron diffraction from crystals with a structured back face.

  14. CMS Pixel Telescope Addition to T-980 Bent Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Ryan; Johnson, Todd; Kwan, Simon; Lundberg, Carl; Still, Dean; Prosser, Alan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zagel, Jim; Zvodaya, Viktoriya

    2012-01-01

    An enhancement to the T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has been completed. The enhancement was the installation of a pixel telescope inside the vacuum-sealed beam pipe of the Tevatron. The telescope is comprised of six CMS PSI46 pixel plaquettes, arranged as three stations of horizontal and vertical planes, with the CAPTAN system for data acquisition and control. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure beam profiles produced by bent crystals under various conditions. The telescope electronics inside the beam pipe initially were not adequately shielded from the image current of the passing beams. A new shielding approach was devised and installed, which resolved the problem. The noise issues encountered and the mitigating techniques are presented herein, as well as some preliminary results from the telescope.

  15. CMS Pixel Telescope Addition to T-980 Bent Crystal Collimation Experiment at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, Ryan; Annala, Jerry; Johnson, Todd; Kwan, Simon; Lundberg, Carl; Still, Dean; Prosser, Alan; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Zagel, Jim; Zvodaya, Viktoriya; /Fermilab

    2011-09-14

    An enhancement to the T-980 bent crystal collimation experiment at the Tevatron has been completed. The enhancement was the installation of a pixel telescope inside the vacuum-sealed beam pipe of the Tevatron. The telescope is comprised of six CMS PSI46 pixel plaquettes, arranged as three stations of horizontal and vertical planes, with the CAPTAN system for data acquisition and control. The purpose of the pixel telescope is to measure beam profiles produced by bent crystals under various conditions. The telescope electronics inside the beam pipe initially were not adequately shielded from the image current of the passing beams. A new shielding approach was devised and installed, which resolved the problem. The noise issues encountered and the mitigating techniques are presented herein, as well as some preliminary results from the telescope.

  16. Formation of Cosmic String network from black holes: Implications from liquid crystal experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, A M

    2006-01-01

    We present observation of large, expanding string loops forming around a heated wire tip embedded in a nematic liquid crystal sample. Loops expand due to convective stretching. This observation leads to a new insight into phenomena which could occur in the early universe. We show that local heating of plasma in the early universe by evaporating primordial black holes can lead to formation of large, expanding cosmic string loops, just as observed in the liquid crystal experiment. Intercommutation of string loops from neighboring black holes can lead to percolation, thereby forming an infinite string network. This is remarkable as such an infinite string network is thought to arise only when the entire universe undergoes phase transition.

  17. Application of PbWO4 crystal scintillators in experiment to search for double beta decay of 116Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Danevich, F A; Kobychev, V V; Kropivyansky, B N; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S; Grinyov, B V; Nagornaya, L L; Pirogov, E N; Ryzhikov, V D; Brudanin, V B; Fedorov, M; Korzhik, M; Lobko, A; Miussevitch, O; Solsky, I M

    2004-01-01

    PbWO4 crystal scintillators are discussed as an active shield and light-guides in 116Cd double beta decay experiment with CdWO4 scintillators. Scintillation properties and radioactive contamination of PbWO4 scintillators were investigated. Energy resolution of CdWO4 detector, coupled to PbWO4 crystal as a light-guide, was tested. Efficiency of PbWO4-based active shield to suppress background from the internal contamination of PbWO4 crystals was calculated. Using of lead tungstate crystal scintillators as high efficiency 4-pi active shield could allow to build sensitive double beta experiment with 116CdWO4 crystal scintillators.

  18. Does the Well-Being of Individuals with Down Syndrome and Dementia Improve When Using Life Story Books and Rummage Boxes? A Randomized Single Case Series Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Nicola; Adams, Malcolm; Shorten, Nicola; Langdon, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether a personalized life story book and rummage box enhanced well-being and led to changes in behaviour for people with Down syndrome (DS) who have dementia. Materials and Methods: A randomized single case series design was used with five participants who had DS and a diagnosis of dementia. Participants were…

  19. PKE-Nefedov: plasma crystal experiments on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, Anatoli P [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Morfill, Gregor E [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Fortov, Vladimir E [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thomas, Hubertus M [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Rothermel, Hermann [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hagl, Tanja [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Ivlev, Alexei V [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Zuzic, Milenko [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Klumov, Boris A [Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Lipaev, Andrey M [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Molotkov, Vladimir I [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Russian Academy of Sciences, 127412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Gidzenko, Yuri P [Y Gagarin Cosmonauts Training Centre, 141160 Star City, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Krikalev, Sergey K [SP Korolev RSC Energia, Korolev 141070, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shepherd, William [Expedition 1 Crew, International Space Station (ISS) (Country Unknown)] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The plasma crystal experiment PKE-Nefedov, the first basic science experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), was installed in February 2001 by the first permanent crew. It is designed for long-term investigations of complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. 'Complex plasmas' contain ions, electrons, neutrals and small solid particles - normally in the micrometre range. These microparticles obtain thousands of elementary charges and interact with each other via a 'screened' Coulomb potential. Complex plasmas are of special interest, because they can form liquid and crystalline states (Thomas et al 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 652-5, Chu and I 1994 Phys. Rev. Lett. 72 4009-12) and are observable at the kinetic level. In experiments on Earth the microparticles are usually suspended against gravity in strong electric fields. This creates asymmetries, stresses and pseudo-equilibrium states with sufficient free energy to readily become unstable. Under microgravity conditions the microparticles move into the bulk of the plasma (Morfill et al 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 1598), experiencing much weaker volume forces than on Earth. This allows investigations of the thermodynamics of strongly coupled plasma states under substantially stress-free conditions. In this first paper we report our results on plasma crystals, in particular the first experimental observations of bcc lattice structures.

  20. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  1. The mirror box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Gene; Mathieson, Don

    2001-11-01

    The mirror box is an old standby in magic shows and an impressive demonstration of the law of reflection for the physics instructor. The box creates the illusion of an object floating in space by the use of a plane mirror.

  2. Straw in a Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Richard; Schneider, Joel; Smallberg, Ralph; Wetzel, John

    2006-01-01

    A problem on a state's high school exit exam asked for the longest straw that would fit in a box. The examiners apparently wanted the length of a diagonal of the box, but the figure accompanying the question suggested otherwise--that the radius of the straw be considered. This article explores that more general problem.

  3. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  4. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  5. Single-photon experiments with liquid crystals for quantum science and quantum engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.; Liapis, Andreas C.; Bissell, Luke J.; Gehring, George M.; Winkler, Justin M.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2015-03-01

    We present here our results on using liquid crystals in experiments with nonclassical light sources: (1) single-photon sources exhibiting antibunching (separation of all photons in time), which are key components for secure quantum communication systems, and (2) entangled photon source with photons exhibiting quantum interference in a Hong-Ou- Mandel interferometer. In the first part, cholesteric liquid crystal hosts were used to create definite circular polarization of antibunched photons emitted by nanocrystal quantum dots. If the photon has unknown polarization, filtering it through a polarizer to produce the desired polarization for quantum key distribution with bits based on polarization states of photons will reduce by half the efficiency of a quantum cryptography system. In the first part, we also provide our results on observation of a circular polarized microcavity resonance in nanocrystal quantum dot fluorescence in a 1-D chiral photonic bandgap cholesteric liquid crystal microcavity. In the second part of this paper with indistinguishable, time-entangled photons, we demonstrate our experimental results on simulating quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip (quantum interference effect) is shifted when a phase change was introduced on the way of one of entangled photons in pair (one arm of the interferometer) by inserting in this arm an electrically controlled planar-aligned nematic liquid crystal layer between two prisms in the conditions close to a frustrated total internal reflection. By applying different AC-voltages to the planar-aligned nematic layer and changing its refractive index, we can obtain various conditions for incident photon propagation - from total reflection to total transmission. Measuring changes of tunnelling times of photon through this structure with femtosecond resolution permitted us to answer some unresolved questions in quantum-mechanical barrier tunnelling phenomena.

  6. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27

    Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation sites for spinel crystallization.

  7. Protein crystallization under microgravity conditions. Analysis of the results of Russian experiments performed on the International Space Station in 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, K. M.; Timofeev, V. I.; Samygina, V. R.; Kuranova, I. P.; Popov, V. O.; Koval'chuk, M. V.

    2016-09-01

    Conditions of mass transport to growing crystals have a considerable effect on the crystal size and quality. The reduction of convective transport can help improve the quality of crystals for X-ray crystallography. One approach to minimizing convective transport is crystallization in a microgravity environment, in particular, in space. The data obtained by our research team in protein crystallization experiments on the International Space Station are surveyed and analyzed.

  8. The Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to the extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the much large energy density available in the heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC should be enough to create the quark-gluon plasma (QGP); a new state of matter in form plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new matter discovered at RHIC is a ''nearly perfect'' fluid rather than a plasma. The shear viscosity is too small. We should then ask about the theoretical and phenomenological consequences and why we simply assumed that the deconfined hadronic matter should be an ideal gas. Finally, I will address five questions; about the properties of the new phases at high temperatures and the orders of phase transitions. Before we clarify such questions, the QGP will remain a kind of black box. One sends a signal via new experiments or simulations and gets another one out if it. Then one try to explain what is going on. I will show that some promising ideas already have been suggested long time ago, but it seems that community didn't care. Is ...

  9. Black Box QGP

    CERN Document Server

    Tawfik, A

    2006-01-01

    According to extensive ab initio calculations of lattice QCD, the very large energy density available in heavy-ion collisions at SPS and now at RHIC must be sufficient to generate quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a new state of matter in the form of plasma of free quarks and gluons. The new state of matter discovered at RHIC seems to be perfect fluid rather than free plasma. Its shear viscosity is assumed to be almost zero. In this work, I first considered the theoretical and phenomenological consequences of this discovery and finally asked questions about the nature of phase transition and properties of matter. It is important to answer these questions, otherwise QGP will remain a kind of black box; one sends a signal via new experiments or simulations or models and gets another one from it. I will show that some promising ideas have already been suggested a long time ago. I will also suggest a new phase diagram with separated deconfinement and freeze-out boundaries and a mixed state of thermal quark matter and bub...

  10. Voice box (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The larynx, or voice box, is located in the neck and performs several important functions in the body. The larynx is involved in swallowing, breathing, and voice production. Sound is produced when the air which ...

  11. Pion in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Horsley, R; Nakamura, Y; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Zanotti, J M

    2010-01-01

    The residual mass of the pion in a finite spatial box at vanishing quark masses is computed with two flavors of dynamical clover fermions. The result is compared with predictions of chiral perturbation theory in the delta regime.

  12. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, G H; Cooper, M D; Hart, G W; Hoffman, C M; Hogan, G E; Hughes, E B; Matis, H S; Rolfe, J; Sandberg, V D; Williams, R A; Wilson, S; Zeman, H

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle angular modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor-changing decays of the muon. A beam of up to 10/sup 6/ muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor. Further reduction to <1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor-based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic logic. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex ...

  13. Boxes and Shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Dean

    2008-01-01

    The Boxes and Shelves series from 2008 are are all made from the backing card from discarded writing pads. Boxes and Shelves extended my investigation of quotidian materials and their relationship to the origins of creative toil. Since 1996 my research has sought to identify and locate instances where the 'unmeasurable' meets the measurable. I have consistently employed a range of utilitarian materials such as bus seats, bus tickets, puddles, A4 writing paper, to present a series of 'problem ...

  14. Box Culvert Design

    OpenAIRE

    Susong, John; Beakley, Josh; Smart, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Precast box culverts can be used to quickly solve many challenging drainage problems. This presentation will review how box culverts are specified and designed. Various examples will be used to demonstrate the proper installation techniques and multiple applications for a successful project. Topics will include standard specifications; considerations for live, dead and construction loadings; installation (site preparation, bedding, placement, joint treatment and backfill); and applications (c...

  15. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).

  16. Infectious disease and boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Osric S

    2009-10-01

    There are no unique boxing diseases but certain factors contributing to the spread of illnesses apply strongly to the boxer, coach, and the training facility. This article examines the nature of the sport of boxing and its surrounding environment, and the likelihood of spread of infection through airborne, contact, or blood-borne routes of transmission. Evidence from other sports such as running, wrestling, and martial arts is included to help elucidate the pathophysiologic elements that could be identified in boxers.

  17. Nonneurologic emergencies in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Domenic F

    2009-10-01

    Professional boxing has done an admirable job in promoting safety standards in its particular sport. However, injuries occur during the normal course of competition and, unfortunately, an occasional life-threatening emergency may arise. Although most common medical emergencies in boxing are injuries from closed head trauma, in this article those infrequent but potentially catastrophic nonneurologic conditions are reviewed along with some less serious emergencies that the physician must be prepared to address.

  18. 简直转连续斜箱梁桥单梁静载试验分析%PRESTRESSED REINFORCED CONCRETE SIMPLY SUPPORTED-CONTINUOUS BOX GIRDER SINGLE STATIC LOAD EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏祥; 曹岩

    2013-01-01

    The single static load experiment is one of the important means to identify whether the bridges can be normal operationed or not during the normal operation period. We can detect whether single static structure performance meets the requirements of design documents and specifications and guarantee the safety of bridge after the completion of the bridge by the single static load experiment This paper unifies some prestressed reinforced concrete box example. It introduced the experiment examination content, the testing sequence, and the test result analysis of the prestressed reinforced concrete box girder simply supported - continuous static load testing. We can make a correct evaluation of prestressed reinforced concrete box girder, and provide the basis for future tests by summarizing the results of static loading test%单梁静载试验是检验桥梁在正常运营期间能否保证桥梁正常运营的一个重要手段,通过对单梁静载试验,检测单梁的结构性能是否达到设计文件和规范要求,保证成桥后桥梁的安全.结合某预应力混凝土斜箱梁实例,介绍预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续单梁静载试验的检测内容、试验步骤和试验结果分析.总结单梁静载试验结果,对预应力钢筋混凝土简直转连续梁桥作出正确的质量评估,为以后的试验提供理论依据.

  19. Realization of hydrodynamic experiments on quasi-2D liquid crystal films in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Noel A.; Eremin, Alexey; Glaser, Matthew A.; Hall, Nancy; Harth, Kirsten; Klopp, Christoph; Maclennan, Joseph E.; Park, Cheol S.; Stannarius, Ralf; Tin, Padetha; Thurmes, William N.; Trittel, Torsten

    2017-08-01

    Freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals are unique examples of quasi two-dimensional fluids. Mechanically stable and with quantized thickness of the order of only a few molecular layers, smectic films are ideal systems for studying fundamental fluid physics, such as collective molecular ordering, defect and fluctuation phenomena, hydrodynamics, and nonequilibrium behavior in two dimensions (2D), including serving as models of complex biological membranes. Smectic films can be drawn across openings in planar supports resulting in thin, meniscus-bounded membranes, and can also be prepared as bubbles, either supported on an inflation tube or floating freely. The quantized layering renders smectic films uniquely useful in 2D fluid physics. The OASIS team has pursued a variety of ground-based and microgravity applications of thin liquid crystal films to fluid structure and hydrodynamic problems in 2D and quasi-2D systems. Parabolic flights and sounding rocket experiments were carried out in order to explore the shape evolution of free floating smectic bubbles, and to probe Marangoni effects in flat films. The dynamics of emulsions of smectic islands (thicker regions on thin background films) and of microdroplet inclusions in spherical films, as well as thermocapillary effects, were studied over extended periods within the OASIS (Observation and Analysis of Smectic Islands in Space) project on the International Space Station. We summarize the technical details of the OASIS hardware and give preliminary examples of key observations.

  20. Rapid crystallization during recycling of basaltic andesite tephra: timescales determined by reheating experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deardorff, Nicholas; Cashman, Katharine

    2017-04-12

    Microcrystalline inclusions within microlite-poor matrix are surprisingly common in low intensity eruptions around the world, yet their origin is poorly understood. Inclusions are commonly interpreted as evidence of crystallization along conduit margins. Alternatively, these clasts may be recycled from low level eruptions where they recrystallize by heating within the vent. We conducted a series of experiments heating basaltic andesite lapilli from temperatures below the glass transition (~690 °C) to above inferred eruption temperatures (>1150 °C) for durations of 2 to >60 minutes. At 690 °C  800 °C, crystallization occurs in active submarine volcano NW Rota-1, Mariana arc and subaerial volcano Stromboli suggest that characteristic signatures of clast recycling are different in the two environments. Specifically, chlorine assimilation provides key evidence of recycling in submarine samples, while bands of oxides bordering microcrystalline inclusions are unique to subaerial environments. Correct identification of recycling at basaltic vents will improve (lower) estimates of mass eruption rate and help to refine interpretations of eruption dynamics.

  1. Applying shot boundary detection for automated crystal growth analysis during in situ transmission electron microscope experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeglein, W. A.; Griswold, R.; Mehdi, B. L.; Browning, N. D.; Teuton, J.

    2017-01-03

    In-situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) is being developed for numerous applications in the study of nucleation and growth under electrochemical driving forces. For this type of experiment, one of the key parameters is to identify when nucleation initiates. Typically the process of identifying the moment that crystals begin to form is a manual process requiring the user to perform an observation and respond accordingly (adjust focus, magnification, translate the stage etc.). However, as the speed of the cameras being used to perform these observations increases, the ability of a user to “catch” the important initial stage of nucleation decreases (there is more information that is available in the first few milliseconds of the process). Here we show that video shot boundary detection (SBD) can automatically detect frames where a change in the image occurs. We show that this method can be applied to quickly and accurately identify points of change during crystal growth. This technique allows for automated segmentation of a digital stream for further analysis and the assignment of arbitrary time stamps for the initiation of processes that are independent of the user’s ability to observe and react.

  2. Single ice crystal measurements during nucleation experiments with the depolarization detector IODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficiency of aerosol particles of several types to nucleate ice, an Ice Optical DEpolarization detector (IODE was developed to distinguish between water droplets and ice crystals in ice nucleation chambers. A laser beam polarized linearly (power: 50 mW, wavelength: 407 nm is directed through the chamber. The scattered light intensity from particles is measured at a scattering angle of Θ=175° in both polarization components (parallel and perpendicular. The ratio between the perpendicular intensity over the total one gives the depolarization ratio δ. Single particle detection is possible, using a peak detection algorithm. For high particle concentrations, a real-time signal averaging method can also be run simultaneously. The IODE detector was used in connection with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber during the ICIS 2007 workshop where ice nucleation experiments were performed with several aerosol types. In presence of ice crystals, peaks were detected in both channels, generating depolarization signals. Mean values of δ ranged from 0.24 to 0.37.

  3. Single ice crystal measurements during nucleation experiments with the depolarization detector IODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nicolet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficiency of different aerosol particles to nucleate ice, an Ice Optical DEpolarization detector (IODE was developed to distinguish between water droplets and ice crystals in ice nucleation chambers. A laser beam polarized linearly (power: 50 mW, wavelength: 407 nm is directed through the chamber. The scattered light intensity from particles is measured at a scattering angle of Θ=175° in both polarization components (parallel and perpendicular. The ratio between the perpendicular intensity over the total one yields the depolarization ratio δ. Single particle detection is possible, using a peak detection algorithm. For high particle concentrations, a real-time signal averaging method can also be run simultaneously.

    The IODE detector was used in connection with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber during the ICIS 2007 workshop where ice nucleation experiments were performed with several aerosol types. In presence of ice crystals, a depolarization ratio could be measured on a particle-by-particle basis. Mean values of δ ranged from 0.24 to 0.37 and agree well with theoretical calculations.

  4. Single ice crystal measurements during nucleation experiments with the depolarization detector IODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, M.; Stetzer, O.; Lüönd, F.; Möhler, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine the efficiency of different aerosol particles to nucleate ice, an Ice Optical DEpolarization detector (IODE) was developed to distinguish between water droplets and ice crystals in ice nucleation chambers. A laser beam polarized linearly (power: 50 mW, wavelength: 407 nm) is directed through the chamber. The scattered light intensity from particles is measured at a scattering angle of Θ=175° in both polarization components (parallel and perpendicular). The ratio between the perpendicular intensity over the total one yields the depolarization ratio δ. Single particle detection is possible, using a peak detection algorithm. For high particle concentrations, a real-time signal averaging method can also be run simultaneously. The IODE detector was used in connection with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber during the ICIS 2007 workshop where ice nucleation experiments were performed with several aerosol types. In presence of ice crystals, a depolarization ratio could be measured on a particle-by-particle basis. Mean values of δ ranged from 0.24 to 0.37 and agree well with theoretical calculations.

  5. Flight Experiments of Physical Vapor Transport of ZnSe: Growth of Crystals in Various Convective Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). The flight experiment will conduct crystal growths of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT). The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, especially the effects of different growth orientations related to gravity direction on the grown crystals.

  6. Demonstration of simultaneous experiments using thin crystal multiplexing at the Linac Coherent Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Y; Alonso-Mori, R; Barends, T R M; Blank, V D; Botha, S; Chollet, M; Damiani, D S; Doak, R B; Glownia, J M; Koglin, J M; Lemke, H T; Messerschmidt, M; Nass, K; Nelson, S; Schlichting, I; Shoeman, R L; Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Sikorski, M; Song, S; Stoupin, S; Terentyev, S; Williams, G J; Zhu, D; Robert, A; Boutet, S

    2015-05-01

    Multiplexing of the Linac Coherent Light Source beam was demonstrated for hard X-rays by spectral division using a near-perfect diamond thin-crystal monochromator operating in the Bragg geometry. The wavefront and coherence properties of both the reflected and transmitted beams were well preserved, thus allowing simultaneous measurements at two separate instruments. In this report, the structure determination of a prototypical protein was performed using serial femtosecond crystallography simultaneously with a femtosecond time-resolved XANES studies of photoexcited spin transition dynamics in an iron spin-crossover system. The results of both experiments using the multiplexed beams are similar to those obtained separately, using a dedicated beam, with no significant differences in quality.

  7. Cable Tester Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Cables are very important electrical devices that carry power and signals across multiple instruments. Any fault in a cable can easily result in a catastrophic outcome. Therefore, verifying that all cables are built to spec is a very important part of Electrical Integration Procedures. Currently, there are two methods used in lab for verifying cable connectivity. (1) Using a Break-Out Box and an ohmmeter this method is time-consuming but effective for custom cables and (2) Commercial Automated Cable Tester Boxes this method is fast, but to test custom cables often requires pre-programmed configuration files, and cables used on spacecraft are often uniquely designed for specific purposes. The idea is to develop a semi-automatic continuity tester that reduces human effort in cable testing, speeds up the electrical integration process, and ensures system safety. The JPL-Cable Tester Box is developed to check every single possible electrical connection in a cable in parallel. This system indicates connectivity through LED (light emitting diode) circuits. Users can choose to test any pin/shell (test node) with a single push of a button, and any other nodes that are shorted to the test node, even if they are in the same connector, will light up with the test node. The JPL-Cable Tester Boxes offers the following advantages: 1. Easy to use: The architecture is simple enough that it only takes 5 minutes for anyone to learn how operate the Cable Tester Box. No pre-programming and calibration are required, since this box only checks continuity. 2. Fast: The cable tester box checks all the possible electrical connections in parallel at a push of a button. If a cable normally takes half an hour to test, using the Cable Tester Box will improve the speed to as little as 60 seconds to complete. 3. Versatile: Multiple cable tester boxes can be used together. As long as all the boxes share the same electrical potential, any number of connectors can be tested together.

  8. A methodology to determine boundary conditions from forced convection experiments using liquid crystal thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study to estimate the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient using liquid crystal thermography and Bayesian inference in a heat generating sphere, enclosed in a cubical Teflon block. The geometry considered for the experiments comprises a heater inserted in a hollow hemispherical aluminium ball, resulting in a volumetric heat generation source that is placed at the center of the Teflon block. Calibrated thermochromic liquid crystal sheets are used to capture the temperature distribution at the front face of the Teflon block. The forward model is the three dimensional conduction equation which is solved within the Teflon block to obtain steady state temperatures, using COMSOL. Match up experiments are carried out for various velocities by minimizing the residual between TLC and simulated temperatures for every assumed loss coefficient, to obtain a correlation of average Nusselt number against Reynolds number. This is used for prescribing the boundary condition for the solution to the forward model. A surrogate model obtained by artificial neural network built upon the data from COMSOL simulations is used to drive a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Metropolis Hastings algorithm to generate the samples. Bayesian inference is adopted to solve the inverse problem for determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient from the measured temperature field. Point estimates of the posterior like the mean, maximum a posteriori and standard deviation of the retrieved heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient are reported. Additionally the effect of number of samples on the performance of the estimation process has been investigated.

  9. A methodology to determine boundary conditions from forced convection experiments using liquid crystal thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakkareddy, Pradeep S.; Balaji, C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental study to estimate the heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient using liquid crystal thermography and Bayesian inference in a heat generating sphere, enclosed in a cubical Teflon block. The geometry considered for the experiments comprises a heater inserted in a hollow hemispherical aluminium ball, resulting in a volumetric heat generation source that is placed at the center of the Teflon block. Calibrated thermochromic liquid crystal sheets are used to capture the temperature distribution at the front face of the Teflon block. The forward model is the three dimensional conduction equation which is solved within the Teflon block to obtain steady state temperatures, using COMSOL. Match up experiments are carried out for various velocities by minimizing the residual between TLC and simulated temperatures for every assumed loss coefficient, to obtain a correlation of average Nusselt number against Reynolds number. This is used for prescribing the boundary condition for the solution to the forward model. A surrogate model obtained by artificial neural network built upon the data from COMSOL simulations is used to drive a Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Metropolis Hastings algorithm to generate the samples. Bayesian inference is adopted to solve the inverse problem for determination of heat flux and heat transfer coefficient from the measured temperature field. Point estimates of the posterior like the mean, maximum a posteriori and standard deviation of the retrieved heat flux and convective heat transfer coefficient are reported. Additionally the effect of number of samples on the performance of the estimation process has been investigated.

  10. Use of crystal methamphetamine among male adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa: Caregivers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Kwaku Oppong; Lentoor, Antonio G

    2017-03-27

    Against the background that crystal methamphetamine (colloquially known as "tik") is extensively used by the emerging working class Coloured youth in Cape Town, South Africa, this exploratory qualitative study was conducted to explore the experience of mothers whose children use methamphetamine. The researchers conducted one-to-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with sixteen (16) purposively selected caregivers (mothers) whose sons use methamphetamine. Interviews were recorded and simultaneously translated and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to the experiences of caregivers of youth with methamphetamine problems. Findings showed that youth misbehaviour provided a context that led to feelings of shame and embarrassment. Participants also experienced personal challenges which included emotional problems, fear and self-blame. Participants also expressed family disruptions and financial drain as adverse experiences as a results of their sons' misbehaviour. The study results highlight the psychosocial challenges for caregivers of children who use methamphetamine. These findings underscore the need for effort to be directed at the development of formal support interventions for mothers of youth who are troubled with addiction.

  11. Experiments and PIC simulations on liquid crystal plasma mirrors for pulse contrast enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, G. E.; Poole, P. L.; Krygier, A.; Foster, P. S.; Scott, G. G.; Wilson, L. A.; Bailey, J.; Bourgeois, N.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Heery, R.; Purcell, J.; Neely, D.; Rajeev, P. P.; Freeman, R. R.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    High pulse contrast is crucial for performing many experiments on high intensity lasers in order to minimize modification of the target surface by pre-pulse. This is often achieved through the use of solid dielectric plasma mirrors which can limit laser shot rates. Liquid crystal films, originally developed as variable thickness ion acceleration targets, have been demonstrated as effective plasma mirrors for pulse cleaning, reaching peak reflectivities over 70%. These films were used as plasma mirrors in an ion acceleration experiment on the Scarlet laser and the resultant increase in peak proton energy and change in acceleration direction will be discussed. Also presented here are novel 2D3V, LSP particle-in-cell simulations of dielectric plasma mirror operation. By including multiphoton ionization and dimensionality corrections, an excellent match to experiment is obtained over 4 decades in intensity. Analysis of pulse shortening and plasma critical surface behavior in these simulations will be discussed. Formation of thin films at 1.5 Hz will also be presented. Performed with support from the DARPA PULSE program through AMRDEC, from NNSA, and from OSC.

  12. TrMADS3, a new MADS-box gene, from a perennial species Taihangia rupestris (Rosaceae) is upregulated by cold and experiences seasonal fluctuation in expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqiu; Xiao, Qiying; Zhao, Ran; Wu, Feng; Xu, Qijiang; Chong, Kang; Meng, Zheng

    2008-06-01

    In many temperate perennial plants, floral transition is initiated in the first growth season but the development of flower is arrested during the winter to ensure production of mature flowers in the next spring. The molecular mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood with few well-characterized regulatory genes. Here, a MADS-box gene, named as TrMADS3, was isolated from the overwintering inflorescences of Taihangia rupestris, a temperate perennial in the rose family. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that TrMADS3 is more closely related to the homologs of the FLOWERING LOCUS C lineage than to any of the other MIKC-type MADS-box lineages known from Arabidopsis. The TrMADS3 transcripts are extensively distributed in inflorescences, roots, and leaves during the winter. In controlled conditions, the TrMADS3 expression level is upregulated by a chilling exposure for 1 to 2 weeks and remains high for a longer period of time in warm conditions after cold treatment. In situ hybridization reveals that TrMADS3 is predominantly expressed in the vegetative and reproductive meristems. Ectopic expression of TrMADS3 in Arabidopsis promotes seed germination on the media containing relatively high NaCl or mannitol concentrations. These data indicate that TrMADS3 in a perennial species might have its role in both vegetative and reproductive meristems in response to cold.

  13. Dynamic crystallization experiments bearing on the origin of textures in impact-generated liquids. [for lunar rock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Dynamic crystallization experiments on a synthetic glass of 14310 composition show that the density and distribution of crystals present at the initiation of cooling can drastically affect the texture of the crystallized product. Experiments were performed in one-atmosphere gas-mixing furnaces at an oxygen fugacity slightly below iron-wustite, and precooling crystallization, cooling history, and melt history were systematically varied. When cooled from a complete liquid, the experimental charges were porphyritic with 1-2 mm phenocrysts set in a very fine-grained matrix (less than 0.1 mm). This result suggests that 14310 did not cool from a complete melt. When cooled from a crystal-liquid mixture, the experimental charges had widely varying textures depending on the density and distribution of crystals that act as nucleation sites. It is suggested that the close spatial association of widely divergent textures in the matrices of some breccias and rocks might arise in this manner; local variations in cooling rates are not required.

  14. The BOXES Methodology Black Box Dynamic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David W

    2012-01-01

    Robust control mechanisms customarily require knowledge of the system’s describing equations which may be of the high order differential type.  In order to produce these equations, mathematical models can often be derived and correlated with measured dynamic behavior.  There are two flaws in this approach one is the level of inexactness introduced by linearizations and the other when no model is apparent.  Several years ago a new genre of control systems came to light that are much less dependent on differential models such as fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms. Both of these soft computing solutions require quite considerable a priori system knowledge to create a control scheme and sometimes complicated training program before they can be implemented in a real world dynamic system. Michie and Chambers’ BOXES methodology created a black box system that was designed to control a mechanically unstable system with very little a priori system knowledge, linearization or approximation.  All the method need...

  15. First experiences with semi-autonomous robotic harvesting of protein crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Robert; Walsh, Jace; Melka, Alex; Womack, Wesley; Murphy, Sean; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Rupp, Bernhard

    2011-07-01

    The demonstration unit of the Universal Micromanipulation Robot (UMR) capable of semi-autonomous protein crystal harvesting has been tested and evaluated by independent users. We report the status and capabilities of the present unit scheduled for deployment in a high-throughput protein crystallization center. We discuss operational aspects as well as novel features such as micro-crystal handling and drip-cryoprotection, and we extrapolate towards the design of a fully autonomous, integrated system capable of reliable crystal harvesting. The positive to enthusiastic feedback from the participants in an evaluation workshop indicates that genuine demand exists and the effort and resources to develop autonomous protein crystal harvesting robotics are justified.

  16. 基于LH-M10实验箱的模拟智能家居控制系统%Simulate Control System of Smart Home Based on LH-M10 Experiment Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒展

    2016-01-01

    智能家居是家庭自动化的高级阶段,是科技发展的必然结果。基于LH-M10实验箱的模拟智能家居控制系统的设计与开发,设计利用LH-M10实验箱的硬件设备,涵盖了信息数据采集、信息数据处理和信息数据反馈等多个方面,从原理层面实现了智能家居系统中具有代表性的模块展示,并结合智能家居的发展趋势,对此系统后续的研发拓展进行了展望。%Smart homewhich is the advanced stage of Home Automation, is the inevitable result of the development of science and technology. The design and development of this system which named simulate control system of smart home based on LH-M10 experiment box, is using LH-M10 experiment box hardware, and is the demo implement of the typical modules in smart home system. Also this system coversinformation data collection, procession, and feedback. After considering the trend of smart home, the further researching plan has been prospected.

  17. X-ray Imaging of MagLIF Experiments Using a Spherically-Bent Crystal Optic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, E. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Jennings, C. A.; Knapp, P. F.; Slutz, S. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Awe, T. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Peterson, K. J.; Hahn, K. D.; McBride, R. D.; Rochau, G. A.; Sinars, D. B.; Golovkin, I.

    2015-11-01

    The recent Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) experiments performed on Sandia's Z-machine produced significant thermonuclear DD fusion yields that were accompanied by observable x-ray emission [M.R. Gomez et. al., PRL (2014)]. The MagLIF experiments relied on a spherically-bent crystal optic to image portions of the x-ray continuum that were generated by the hot stagnation plasma. The images of stagnation show a long (6 to 8 mm) and narrow (~100 micron) column of x-ray emission with structure in both directions. This structure may be caused by variations in the electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) , as well as opacity variations in the surrounding Be pusher. Here we investigate the possible contributions from each of these effects. We will also discuss the development of a diagnostic technique in which Te and ne of the DD fuel are inferred from spectra emitted by Fe impurities that become ionized to a He-like charge state. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  19. Depth in box spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Sylvia C; Nefs, Harold T; van Doorn, Andrea J; Wijntjes, Maarten W A; Te Pas, Susan F; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J

    2012-01-01

    Human observers adjust the frontal view of a wireframe box on a computer screen so as to look equally deep and wide, so that in the intended setting the box looks like a cube. Perspective cues are limited to the size-distance effect, since all angles are fixed. Both the size on the screen, and the viewing distance from the observer to the screen were varied. All observers prefer a template view of a cube over a veridical rendering, independent of picture size and viewing distance. If the rendering shows greater or lesser foreshortening than the template, the box appears like a long corridor or a shallow slab, that is, like a 'deformed' cube. Thus observers ignore 'veridicality'. This does not fit an 'inverse optics' model. We discuss a model of 'vision as optical user interface'.

  20. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Oberthuer

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  1. Monitoring and scoring counter-diffusion protein crystallization experiments in capillaries by in situ dynamic light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberthuer, Dominik; Melero-García, Emilio; Dierks, Karsten; Meyer, Arne; Betzel, Christian; Garcia-Caballero, Alfonso; Gavira, Jose A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using in situ Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) to monitor counter-diffusion crystallization experiments in capillaries. Firstly, we have validated the quality of the DLS signal in thin capillaries, which is comparable to that obtained in standard quartz cuvettes. Then, we have carried out DLS measurements of a counter-diffusion crystallization experiment of glucose isomerase in capillaries of different diameters (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mm) in order to follow the temporal evolution of protein supersaturation. Finally, we have compared DLS data with optical recordings of the progression of the crystallization front and with a simulation model of counter-diffusion in 1D.

  2. The Role of Geometrically Necessary Dislocations in Cantilever Beam Bending Experiments of Single Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Husser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of single crystalline, micro-sized copper is investigated in the context of cantilever beam bending experiments. Particular focus is on the role of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs during bending-dominated load conditions and their impact on the characteristic bending size effect. Three different sample sizes are considered in this work with main variation in thickness. A gradient extended crystal plasticity model is presented and applied in a three-dimensional finite-element (FE framework considering slip system-based edge and screw components of the dislocation density vector. The underlying mathematical model contains non-standard evolution equations for GNDs, crystal-specific interaction relations, and higher-order boundary conditions. Moreover, two element formulations are examined and compared with respect to size-independent as well as size-dependent bending behavior. The first formulation is based on a linear interpolation of the displacement and the GND density field together with a full integration scheme whereas the second is based on a mixed interpolation scheme. While the GND density fields are treated equivalently, the displacement field is interpolated quadratically in combination with a reduced integration scheme. Computational results indicate that GND storage in small cantilever beams strongly influences the evolution of statistically stored dislocations (SSDs and, hence, the distribution of the total dislocation density. As a particular example, the mechanical bending behavior in the case of a physically motivated limitation of GND storage is studied. The resulting impact on the mechanical bending response as well as on the predicted size effect is analyzed. Obtained results are discussed and related to experimental findings from the literature.

  3. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration; Welch, Steven; Smith, Dale Shane; Che, Siinn; Gan, K.K.; Boyd, George Russell Jr

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm^3. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  4. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  5. Rheology of crystal-bearing natural magmas: Torsional deformation experiments at 800 °C and 100 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Satoshi; Kushnir, Alexandra R. L.; Martel, Caroline; Champallier, Rémi; Thibault, Quentin; Takeuchi, Shingo

    2016-12-01

    Rheological behavior of crystal-bearing magma is a controlling factor of magma flow dynamics and hence the style of volcanic eruptions. In this study, we performed torsional deformation experiments to determine the viscosity of crystal-bearing rhyolitic and dacitic magmas. The experiments were conducted at a temperature of 800 °C and under confining and pore fluid pressures of 100 and 80 MPa, respectively, by using an internally heated gas-medium deformation apparatus. To simulate the rheology of natural magma, we deformed volcanic rocks with 16 and 45 vol% crystallinities and gas bubbles. These rocks have different crystal and bubble shape and size, which appear to influence magma rheology. By using the mechanical data obtained, we calculated flow indices and viscosities for these magmas. For magma with 16 vol% crystallinity, the flow index showed good agreement with previous data obtained from experiments on synthetic magma analogues and model predictions. In contrast, the flow index was smaller than those obtained from previous experiments and model predictions at 45 vol% crystallinity, which may be explained by considering that natural magma contains crystals with different shapes and sizes. We also found that the apparent viscosity of the magma increased when sample-scale fractures were observed in run products. This means that the heterogeneity of natural magma causes locally stiff regions within the sample owing to crystal interaction. Our data indicate that the viscosity of crystal-rich magma is strongly dependent on the strain rate. This implies that magma ascending in a volcanic conduit shows a plug-type flow because the viscosity decreases near the conduit rim where the strain rate is high. Additionally, if shear localises near the rim, a currently unrecognised mechanism may contribute to outgassing from the central portion of the conduit because outgassing is difficult to facilitate without shear deformation.

  6. Development of CaMoO4 crystal scintillators for double beta decay experiment with 100-Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, A N; Danevich, F A; Georgadze, A S; Kim, S K; Kim, H J; Kim, Y D; Kobychev, V V; Kornoukhov, V N; Korzhik, M; Lee, J I; Missevitch, O; Mokina, V M; Nagorny, S S; Nikolaiko, A S; Poda, D V; Podviyanuk, R B; Sedlak, D J; Shkulkova, O G; So, J H; Solsky, I M; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S

    2007-01-01

    Energy resolution, alpha/beta ratio, pulse-shape discrimination for gamma rays and alpha particles, temperature dependence of scintillation properties, and radioactive contamination were studied with CaMoO4 crystal scintillators. A high sensitivity experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of 100-Mo by using CaMoO4 scintillators is discussed.

  7. Ground based experiments on the growth and characterization of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. M.; Cao, C.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.; Mookherji, T. K.

    1991-01-01

    L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP) is a new nonlinear optical material with higher efficiency for harmonic generation compared to KDP. Crystals of LAP were grown in the laboratory from supersaturated solutions by temperature lowering technique. Investigations revealed the presence of large dislocation densities inside the crystals which are observed to produce refractive index changes causing damage at high laser powers. This is a result of the convection during crystal growth from supersaturated solutions. It is proposed to grow these crystals in a diffusion controlled growth condition under microgravity environment and compare the crystals grown in space with those grown on ground. Physical properties of the solutions needed for modelling of crystal growth are also presented.

  8. Laser-induced breakdown and damage generation by nonlinear frequency conversion in ferroelectric crystals: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hatano, Hideki; Kitamura, Kenji [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2013-11-28

    Using our experimental data for ns pulsed second harmonic generation (SHG) by periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO{sub 3} (PPSLT) crystals, we consider in detail the mechanism underlying laser-induced damage in ferroelectric crystals. This mechanism involves generation and heating of free electrons, providing an effective kinetic pathway for electric breakdown and crystal damage in ns pulsed operation via combined two-photon absorption (TPA) and induced pyroelectric field. In particular, a temperature increase in the lattice of ≈1 K induced initially by ns SHG and TPA at the rear of operating PPSLT crystal is found to induce a gradient of spontaneous polarization generating a pyroelectric field of ≈10 kV/cm, accelerating free electrons generated by TPA to an energy of ≈10 eV, followed by impact ionization and crystal damage. Under the damage threshold for ns operation, the impact ionization does not lead to the avalanche-like increase of free electron density, in contrast to the case of shorter ps and fs pulses. However, the total number of collisions by free electrons, ≈10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} (generated during the pulse and accelerated to the energy of ≈10 eV), can produce widespread structural defects, which by entrapping electrons dramatically increase linear absorption for both harmonics in subsequent pulses, creating a positive feedback for crystal lattice heating, pyroelectric field and crystal damage. Under pulse repetition, defect generation starting from the rear of the crystal can propagate towards its center and front side producing damage tracks along the laser beam and stopping SHG. Theoretical analysis leads to numerical estimates and analytical approximation for the threshold laser fluence for onset of this damage mechanism, which agree well with our (i) experiments for the input 1064 nm radiation in 6.8 kHz pulsed SHG by PPSLT crystal, (ii) pulsed low frequency 532 nm radiation transmission experiments, and also (iii) with the data

  9. Teaching with Box Tops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiser, Lynne; D'Zamko, Mary Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Using environmental materials (such as the phone book and placemats from fast food restaurants) can be a motivating way to teach learning disabled students skills and concepts, as shown in an approach to reading, math, science and nutrition, and social studies instruction using a JELL-O brand gelatin box. (CL)

  10. Hydrophobic, Porous Battery Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Bobby J.; Casey, John E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Boxes made of porous, hydrophobic polymers developed to contain aqueous potassium hydroxide electrolyte solutions of zinc/air batteries while allowing air to diffuse in as needed for operation. Used on other types of batteries for in-cabin use in which electrolytes aqueous and from which gases generated during operation must be vented without allowing electrolytes to leak out.

  11. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  12. Mystery Box Marvels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joel; Centurio, Tina

    2012-01-01

    What happens in the first week of school could very well set the stage for the rest of the school year. Setting high standards for science activities based in inquiry can start on the first day of science class and develop as the year unfolds. With the use of simple, readily available, inexpensive materials, an efficient mystery box lesson can be…

  13. 小提琴共鸣箱振动特性的有限元仿真与实验研究%Research on Vibration Behavior of Violin Sounding Box with Finite Element Numerical Simulation Method and Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张承忠; 叶邦彦; 曹云凤; 梁立东; 赵学智

    2014-01-01

    小提琴共鸣箱作为小提琴发声系统最为核心的部分,其振动状态对小提琴的声学特性起着重要作用。首先对提琴共鸣箱系统进行受力分析并建立其精确模型,然后通过有限元仿真,分析了不同结构参数的小提琴共鸣箱的振动模态及频率响应,并将其与文献中的实验结果进行比较。仿真结果表明,小提琴共鸣箱面板和背板的一些参数,如琴板厚薄、拱高、拱形变化、低音梁和音柱状况及接触刚度等,对共鸣箱振动特征影响大。最后设计了基于加速度传感器的振动测量系统和采用滑弦激励方法,对小提琴共鸣箱的振动特性和频率响应等进行了实验,其结果符合共鸣箱振动有限元仿真和数值分析的结论。该研究为提琴制作者通过琴板几何形状和音柱等调整,改善小提琴共鸣箱振动特性提供了理论参考。%As the core of violin system, the vibration state of violin sounding box plays a decisive role in acoustic characteristics of violin.In this paper, firstly, an accurate model is established according to the force analysis of vi-olin box, and then vibration mode and frequency response of the whole violin box are analyzed by means of geomet-ric modeling and Finite Element Numerical Simulation.Besides, those results are compared with the results of other researchers.It shows that some of the parameters of violin front plate and back plate of sounding box, such as the thickness, the distribution and change of the height and shape of arch in front plate geometry, status of bass bar and sound-post have great influence on vibration characteristics of violin sounding box.Finally, vibration experiment system based on acceleration sensor is designed.The vibration characteristics and frequency response of violin sounding box while sliding the finger in the fingerboard are measured and analyzed.The results are compared with the one of the finite element

  14. Ocular complications of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A S; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P F

    2005-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15-36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p< or =0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance.

  15. Ocular complications of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, M; Vaiano, A; Colella, F; Coccimiglio, F; Moscetti, M; Palmieri, V; Focosi, F; Zeppilli, P; Vinger, P

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of ocular injuries in a large population of boxers over a period of 16 years, in particular, the most severe lesions that may be vision threatening. Methods: Clinical records of the medical archive of the Italian Boxing Federation were analysed. A total of 1032 boxers were examined from February 1982 to October 1998. A complete ophthalmological history was available for 956, who formed the study population (a total of 10 697 examinations). The following data were collected: age when started boxing; duration of competitive boxing career (from the date of the first bout); weight category; a thorough ocular history. The following investigations were carried out: measurement of visual acuity and visual fields, anterior segment inspection, applanation tonometry, gonioscopy, and examination of ocular fundus. Eighty age matched healthy subjects, who had never boxed, formed the control group. Results: Of the 956 boxers examined, 428 were amateur (44.8%) and 528 professional (55.2%). The median age at first examination was 23.1 (4.3) years (range 15–36). The prevalence of conjunctival, corneal, lenticular, vitreal, ocular papilla, and retinal alterations in the study population was 40.9% compared with 3.1% in the control group (p⩽0.0001). The prevalence of serious ocular findings (angle, lens, macula, and peripheral retina alterations) was 5.6% in boxers and 3.1% in controls (NS). Conclusions: Boxing does not result in a higher prevalence of severe ocular lesions than in the general population. However, the prevalence of milder lesions (in particular with regard to the conjunctiva and cornea) is noteworthy, justifying the need for adequate ophthalmological surveillance. PMID:15665199

  16. Recent progress in oxide scintillation crystals development by low-thermal gradient Czochralski technique for particle physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlegel, V. N.; Borovlev, Yu. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Grigorieva, V. D.; Danevich, F. A.; Ivannikova, N. V.; Postupaeva, A. G.; Vasiliev, Ya. V.

    2017-08-01

    Modern particle physics experiments call for high performance scintillation detectors with unique properties: radiation-resistant in high energy and astrophysics, highly radiopure, containing certain elements or enriched isotopes in astroparticle physics. The low-thermal gradient Czochralski (LTG CZ) crystal growth technique provides excellent quality large volume radiopure crystal scintillators. Absence of thermoelastic stress in the crystal and overheating of the melt in the LTG CZ method is particularly significant in production of crystalline materials with strong thermal anisotropic properties and low mechanical strength, with a very high yield of crystalline boules and low losses of initial charge, crucially important in production of crystal scintillators from enriched isotopes for double beta decay experiments. Here we discuss progress in development of the well known scintillators (Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO), CdWO4, ZnWO4, CaMoO4, PbMoO4), as well as R&D of new materials (ZnMoO4, Li2MoO4, Na2Mo2O7) for the next generation experiments in particle physics.

  17. Assessment of non-marital sexual behaviours of men in Bangladesh: a methodological experiment using a modified confidential ballot-box method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, M E; Alam, N; Anwar, I; Ahmed, A; Saidel, T; Mallick, P S; Kelly, R; Streatfield, P K

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a modified ballot-box method (MBBM) in eliciting non-marital sexual behaviours compared with face-to-face interview (FTFI). A cross-sectional survey collected data from men aged 18-49 years in Bangladesh using a multistage cluster sampling method. In total, 3499 and 3623 respondents were interviewed by MBBM and FTFI, respectively. In the MBBM, pre-recorded questions were administered using a portable audio-cassette player with two pairs of headphones used concurrently by the respondent and the interviewer. Overall, 18% of the respondents had non-marital sexual exposure in the past year. The MBBM elicited higher responses of non-marital sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 1.5) compared with FTFI. The interview methods did not, however, revealed significant differences in response to condom-use rates and the number of non-marital sexual partners. The MBBM is more effective than the FTFI method in eliciting higher responses rates of non-marital sexual contacts and may be recommended for reliable estimates of sexual behaviours.

  18. Getting started with Oracle VM VirtualBox

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Pradyumna

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step guide that will show you how to install, configure, and manage VirtualBox.This book is for system administrators, technical architects, and virtualization enthusiasts who want to learn how to set up a virtual machine. Knowledge of the Linux environment is expected. Prior experience with VirtualBox or knowledge of virtualization is not required.

  19. Primitive SNC parent magmas and crystallization: Low PH2O experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, D. J.; Rutherford, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    SNC meteorites are generally believed to present one of the best opportunities to study the composition and petrogenesis of Mars magmas. The crystallization ages, noble gas content, oxygen isotopic composition, and shocked minerals of the meteorites are consistent with a Martian origin. The samples range from dunite to clinopyroxenite to microgabbro. Efforts by researchers to determine parental magmas for the more primitive SNC meteorites have been complicated by crystal accumulation and possible melt segregation and removal. This has resulted in a range of parent magma estimates, although all appear to be Fe-rich and Al-poor. One major objective is to refine the Chassigny parent magma estimate by forcing olivine + clinopyroxene saturation upon the proposed melt composition. EETA 79001 magma compositions are also being investigated to determine the parent magma and the origin of the coarse-grained olivine and orthopyroxene megacrysts. Low pressure experiments with small but finite P(sub H2O) are being utilized to facilitate equilibrium, and to simulate the H2O indicated for these magmas. The presence of small (0.5-1.0 wt percent) amounts of H2O in SNC magmas appears to be required by the occurrence of hydrous minerals and textures in melts trapped by growing phenocrysts. This evidence for hydrous melts occurs in all SNC's except EETA 79001 and ALHA 77005, where the inclusion textures were obscured by shock effects. The lack of hydrous minerals or low temperature melts in the intercumulus regions of these rocks suggests that final emplacement was sufficiently close to the surface to allow degassing as the magma equilibrated with the low P atmosphere. Any H2O left in intercumulus phases would also tend to be lost during impact heating. Thus, although the bulk H2O of SNC's is very low, it is believed that this is explained by the near Mars surface emplacement of SNC magmas and by shock effects. Magmatic processes involving H2O need to be examined in order to

  20. Parametric X-ray radiation in crystals theory, experiments and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G; Ulyanenkov, Alexander P

    2005-01-01

    This systematic and comprehensive monograph is devoted to parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). This radiation is generated by the motion of electrons inside a crystal, whereby the emitted photons are diffracted by the crystal and the radiation intensity critically depends on the parameters of the crystal structure. Nowadays PXR is the subject of numerous theoretical and experimental studies throughout the world. The first part of the book is a theoretical treatment of PXR, which includes a new approach to describe the radiation process in crystals. The second part is a survey of PXR experimental results and the possible applications of PXR as a tool for crystal structure analysis and a source of tunable X-ray radiation.

  1. Making Connections with Memory Boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatley, April

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of children's literature within the social studies classroom on the topic of memory boxes. Includes discussions of four books: (1) "The Littlest Angel" (Charles Tazewell); (2) "The Hundred Penny Box" (Sharon Bell Mathis); (3) "Wilfrid Gordon McDonald Partridge" (Mem Fox); and (4) "The Memory Box" (Mary Bahr). (CMK)

  2. 桥面铺装与小箱梁的共同作用试验%Experiment of Coaction of Bridge Deck Pavement and Small Box Girder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱寅泉; 周正茂; 袁桂芳; 王素娟

    2012-01-01

    Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with thickness of 8 cm, the thickness of the pavement in coaction could be taken as 60% or 3 cm in thickness could be substracted from the pavement in design; (3 ) the pavement could improve the uniformity of the transverse load distribution. Load tests on a single small box girder and a bridge were carried out to evaluate the effects of deck pavement by comparing the deflections of the girders before and after the pavement surfaced. The comprehensive elastic modulus was obtained from the test before pavement surfaced, and the coaction degree of the bridge deck pavement and the girders was obtained by comparing the flexural inertia moment corresponding to the deflection in the test after pavement surfaced with the theoretical flexural inertia moment corresponding to the supposed thickness of the pavement in work. The results from these tests show that (1) the rough interface could greatly improve the coaction degree of bridge deck pavement with girders, which could reach 100% ; (2) in general cases, the extent of the coaction of bridge deck pavement with girders could reach 70% , and for a pavement with

  3. Opto-Box

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The opto-box is a custom mini-crate for housing optical modules, which process and transfer optoelectronic data. Many novel solutions were developed for the custom design and manufacturing. The system tightly integrates electrical, mechanical, and thermal functionality into a small package of size 35x10x8 cm$^{3}$. Special attention was given to ensure proper shielding, grounding, cooling, high reliability, and environmental tolerance. The custom modules, which incorporate Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), were developed through a cycle of rigorous testing and redesign. In total, fourteen opto-boxes have been installed and loaded with modules on the ATLAS detector. They are currently in operation as part of the LHC run 2 data read-out chain.

  4. Continuous-wave, two-crystal, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, G K; Aadhi, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2013-04-22

    We present theoretical and experimental study of a continuous-wave, two-crystal, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (T-SRO) comprising two identical 30-mm-long crystals of MgO:sPPLT in a four- mirror ring cavity and pumped with two separate pump beams in the green. The idler beam after each crystal is completely out-coupled, while the signal radiation is resonant inside the cavity. Solving the coupled amplitude equations under undepleted pump approximation, we calculate the maximum threshold reduction, parametric gain acceptance bandwidth and closest possible attainable wavelength separation in arbitrary dual-wavelength generation and compare with the experimental results. Although the T-SRO has two identical crystals, the acceptance bandwidth of the device is equal to that of a single-crystal SRO. Due to the division of pump power in two crystals, the T-SRO can handle higher total pump power while lowering crystal damage risk and thermal effects. We also experimentally verify the high power performance of such scheme, providing a total output power of 6.5 W for 16.2 W of green power at 532 nm. We verified coherent energy coupling between the intra-cavity resonant signal waves resulting Raman spectral lines. Based on the T-SRO scheme, we also report a new technique to measure the temperature acceptance bandwidth of the single-pass parametric amplifier across the OPO tuning range.

  5. Benchmark of the FLUKA model of crystal channeling against the UA9-H8 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoofs, P.; Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Smirnov, G.

    2015-07-01

    Channeling in bent crystals is increasingly considered as an option for the collimation of high-energy particle beams. The installation of crystals in the LHC has taken place during this past year and aims at demonstrating the feasibility of crystal collimation and a possible cleaning efficiency improvement. The performance of CERN collimation insertions is evaluated with the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, which is capable to simulate energy deposition in collimators as well as beam loss monitor signals. A new model of crystal channeling was developed specifically so that similar simulations can be conducted in the case of crystal-assisted collimation. In this paper, most recent results of this model are brought forward in the framework of a joint activity inside the UA9 collaboration to benchmark the different simulation tools available. The performance of crystal STF 45, produced at INFN Ferrara, was measured at the H8 beamline at CERN in 2010 and serves as the basis to the comparison. Distributions of deflected particles are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data. Calculated dechanneling lengths and crystal performance in the transition region between amorphous regime and volume reflection are also close to the measured ones.

  6. Boxed Permutation Pattern Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amit, Mika; Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the goal is to only find the boxed subsequences of T that are order-isomorphic to P. This problem was introduced by Bruner and Lackner who showed that it can be solved in O(n3) time. Cho et al. [CPM 2015] gave an O(n2m) time algorithm and improved it to O(n2 logm). In this paper we present a solution...

  7. The Box Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactor...... description of this momentum flow. The Box Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  8. The Electronic Battle Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, Denis; Turcotte, Guy; Lebel, Eric; Gilbert, Annie

    2000-08-01

    The Electronic Battle Box is an integrated suite of planning and decision-aid tools specially designed to facilitate Canadian Armed Force Officers during their training and during their tasks of preparing and conducting military operations. It is the result of a collaborative effort between the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, the Directorate of Army Doctrine (DAD), the Directorate of Land Requirements (DLR), the G4 staff of 1Cdn Div HQ and CGI Information and Management Consultants Inc. Distributed on CD-ROM, the Electronic Battle Box contains efficient and user-friendly tools that significantly reduce the planning time for military operations and ensure staff officers a better focus on significant tasks. Among the tools are an OrBat Browser and an Equipment Browser allowing to view and edit military organizations, a Task Browser providing facilities to prepare plans using Gantt charts, a Logistic Planner allowing to estimate supply requirements applying complex calculations, and Road, Air and Rail Movement Planners. EBB also provides staff officers with a large set of doctrinal documents in an electronic format. This paper provides an overview of the various tools of the Electronic Battle Box.

  9. Preformed beading and boxing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J Sashi Deepth; Padmanabhan, T V; Veerareddy, Chandrika; Chandrasekhar, M; Narendra, R

    2013-03-01

    Conventional beading and boxing procedure is time consuming and involves application of heat that might distort green stick compound used for border molding. Earlier studies regarding beading and boxing methods have shown usage of various materials that were disposable and that cannot be recycled. To reduce the time consumed for beading and boxing procedure and to make this procedure cost-effective by using recyclable beading material, "Preformed boxing appliance" with moldable clay meant for beading the secondary impression was used. Secondary impression was supported by 3 studs provided on the floor of the boxing appliance. The cast was poured. The duration for the entire procedure was much less than the conventional procedure.

  10. Step density waves on growing vicinal crystal surfaces - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, Bogdan; Müller, Pierre; Metois, Jean-Jacques; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) theory plays a key conceptual role in understanding and modeling the crystal growth of vicinal surfaces. In BCF theory the adatom concentration on a vicinal surface obeys to a diffusion equation, generally solved within quasi-static approximation where the adatom concentration at a given distance x from a step has a steady state value n (x) . Recently, we show that going beyond this approximation (Ranguelov and Stoyanov, 2007) [6], for fast surface diffusion and slow attachment/detachment kinetics of adatoms at the steps, a train of fast-moving steps is unstable against the formation of steps density waves. More precisely, the step density waves are generated if the step velocity exceeds a critical value related to the strength of the step-step repulsion. This theoretical treatment corresponds to the case when the time to reach a steady state concentration of adatoms on a given terrace is comparable to the time for a non-negligible change of the step configuration leading to a terrace adatom concentration n (x , t) that depends not only on the terrace width, but also on its "past width". This formation of step density waves originates from the high velocity of step motion and has nothing to do with usual kinetic instabilities of step bunching induced by Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, surface electromigration and/or the impact of impurities on the step rate. The so-predicted formation of step density waves is illustrated by numerical integration of the equations for step motion. In order to complete our previous theoretical treatment of the non-stationary BCF problem, we perform an in-situ reflection electron microscopy experiment at specific temperature interval and direction of the heating current, in which, for the first time, the step density waves instability is evidenced on Si(111) surface during highest possible Si adatoms deposition rates.

  11. Skylab experiments. Volume 3: Materials science. [Skylab experiments on metallurgy, crystal growth, semiconductors, and combustion physics in weightless environment for high school level education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The materials science and technology investigation conducted on the Skylab vehicle are discussed. The thirteen experiments that support these investigations have been planned to evaluate the effect of a weightless environment on melting and resolidification of a variety of metals and semiconductor crystals, and on combustion of solid flammable materials. A glossary of terms which define the space activities and a bibliography of related data are presented.

  12. Growth experiment of narrow band-gap semiconductor PbSnTe single crystals in space (M-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tomoaki

    1993-01-01

    An experiment on crystal growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te in microgravity is planned. This material is an alloy of the compound semiconductors PbTe and SnTe. It is a promising material for infrared diode lasers and detectors in the wavelength region between 6 and 30 micron. Since the electrical properties of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te depend greatly on the Pb/Sn ratio and crystalline defects as well as impurity concentration, homogeneous, defect-free, high-quality crystals are anticipated. Although many growth methods, such as the pulling method, the Bridgman method, the vapor growth method, etc., have been applied to the growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te, large, homogeneous, low-defect-density crystals have not yet been grown on Earth. The unsuccessful results were caused by buoyancy-driven convection in the fluids induced by the specific gravity difference between heated and cooled fluids on Earth. A crystal is grown by cooling the melt from one end of the ampoule. In crystal growth from the melt, about 30 percent of the SnTe in the melt is rejected at the solid-liquid interface during solidification. On Earth, the rejected SnTe is completely mixed with the remaining melt by convection in the melt. Therefore, SnTe concentration in the melt, and accordingly in the crystal, increases as the crystal grows. In the microgravity environment, buoyancy-driven convection is suppressed because the specific gravity difference is negligible. In that case, the rejected SnTe remains at the solid-liquid interface and its concentration increases only at the interface. If the growth rate is higher than the PbTe-SnTe interdiffusion rate, the amount of SnTe which diffuses from the interface into the melt increases as SnTe piles up at the interface, and finally it balances the amount of rejected SnTe during solidification, resulting in steady-state SnTe transportation at the interface. By using this principle, compositionally homogeneous crystals can be grown. Furthermore, low-defect-density crystals will be

  13. On the facet-skeletal transition of snow crystals - Experiments in high and low gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, T.; Hallett, J.; Saunders, C. P. R.

    1990-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the influence of air velocity on the growth of columnar ice crystals from the vapor over the range -3 to -5 C shows that the linear growth velocity increases and that columns transform to sheath crystals or needles as air velocity increases from a few cm/s to 40 cm/s. Comparison with a similar transition of plates to dendrites shows that, macroscopically, in both cases the facets sprout rounded tips at a critical velocity which is lower for higher ambient supersaturation. Studies in low gravity show that chamber scale convection under normal gravity may have significant influence on growth even in the absence of an imposed air velocity. Falling snow crystals become more skeletal in shape as they grow and fall with increasing velocity. This development depends critically on temperature (+ or - 0.5 C) and demonstrates that the snow crystal shape is even more dependent on environmental growth conditions that previously thought.

  14. Electronic properties of single crystal CVD diamond and its suitability for particle detection in hadron physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomorski, Michal

    2008-08-07

    This work presents the study on the suitability of single-crystal CVD diamond for particle-detection systems in present and future hadron physics experiments. Different characterization methods of the electrical and the structural properties were applied to gain a deeper understanding of the crystal quality and the charge transport properties of this novel semiconductor material. First measurements regarding the radiation tolerance of diamond were performed with sensors heavily irradiated with protons and neutrons. Finally, detector prototypes were fabricated and successfully tested in various experiments as time detectors for minimum ionizing particles as well as for spectroscopy of heavy ions at the energy ranges available at the SIS and the UNILAC facilities of GSI. (orig.)

  15. Development of CaMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators for a double beta decay experiment with {sup 100}Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annenkov, A.N.; Buzanov, O.A. [Moscow Steel and Alloy Institute, 119049 Moscow (Russian Federation); Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Georgadze, A.Sh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kim, S.K. [DMRC and School of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.J. [Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kornoukhov, V.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Korzhik, M. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Lee, J.I. [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Missevitch, O. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220030 Minsk (Belarus); Mokina, V.M.; Nagorny, S.S.; Nikolaiko, A.S.; Poda, D.V.; Podviyanuk, R.B.; Sedlak, D.J.; Shkulkova, O.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, MSP 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); So, J.H. [Physics Department, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2008-01-11

    We have studied the energy resolution, {alpha}/{beta} ratio, temperature dependence of the scintillation properties, and the radioactive contamination of CaMoO{sub 4} crystal scintillators. We have also examined the use of pulse-shape discrimination to distinguish {gamma} rays and {alpha} particles. A high sensitivity experiment to search for the 0{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 100}Mo using CaMoO{sub 4} scintillators is discussed.

  16. Densification and crystalization kinetics of mullite diphasic gels from non_isothermal dilatometry experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgaz, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mullite (3 AI2O3_2 SiO2 was processed by mixing silica and alumina colloids at pH below 3 in a high shear blender. The gels were sieved to ‹ 125 microns and cold isostatically pressed to form rods. The various processes involved during the sintering process such as condensation-polymerization and the competition between mullite crystallization and densification were analysed from constant heating rate equations and rate controlled sintering dilatometer experiments. Changes in the slopes permitted the identification of such processes and the activation energy for mullitization was calculated. Fast firing (20-30 K/min in the critical mullitization temperature range of 1230-1505ºC and low heating rates (2-3 K/min in the viscous flow densification intervals of below 1230ºC and higher than 1505 gives rise to near full density and fine grain microstructures of sintered mullite. Fast firing and high (0.5 to 1 % /min densification rate controlled processes seem to be the most suitable approaches to high density gel processed mullite. Amorphous silica is the rate controlling mechanism for the viscous flow densification process before alumina is solved and nucleation and crystallization of mullite appears. Deviations from the linear Frenkel model for viscous flow are also observed.

    Mullita de composición (3Al2O3 -2 SiO2 ha sido preparada mezclando coloides de sílice y alúmina en un mezclador de alta velocidad a pH inferior a 3. Los geles formados eran secados, tamizados por debajo de 125 micras y prensados isostáticamrente para formar varillas de unos 6 mm de diámetro. Los diferentes procesos que ocurren durante el proceso de sinterización, tales como polimerización- condensación y la competición entre cristalización y densificación, han sido analizados utilizando las ecuaciones de ecuaciones de velocidad de calentamiento constantte y experimentos

  17. Interactions of carbon nanotubes in a nematic liquid crystal. II. Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hakam; Galerne, Yves

    2016-04-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotube (CNT) colloids with different anchoring conditions are dispersed in pentyl-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), a thermotropic liquid crystal (LC) that exhibits a room-temperature nematic phase. The experiments make use of CNTs treated for strong planar, homeotropic, or Janus anchorings. Observations with a polarizing microscope show that the CNTs placed in a uniform nematic field stabilize parallel or perpendicular to n depending on their anchoring conditions. In the presence of a splay-bend disclination line, they are first attracted toward it and ultimately, they get trapped on it. Their orientation relative to the line is then found to be parallel or perpendicular to it, again depending on the anchoring conditions. When a sufficient number of particles are deposited on a disclination line, they form a micro- or nanonecklace in the shape of a thin thread or of a bottle brush, with the CNTs being oriented parallel or perpendicular to the disclination line according to the anchoring treatment. The system exhibits a rich versatility, even if until now the weak anchorings appear to be difficult to control. In a next step, the necklaces may be glued by means of pyrrole electropolymerization. In this manner, we realize a true materialization of the disclination lines, and we obtain nanowires capable of conducting the electricity in the place of the initial disclinations that just worked as templates. The advantage of the method is that it finally provides nanowires that are automatically connected to predesignated three-dimensional (3D) electrodes. Such a 3D nanowiring could have important applications, as it could allow one to develop electronic circuits in the third dimension. They could thus help with increasing the transistor density per surface unit, although downsizing of integrated circuits will soon be limited to atomic sizes or so. In other words, the predicted limitation to Moore's law could be avoided. For the moment, the nanowires that we obtain

  18. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, David K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full-scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  19. ZnWO_4 crystals as detectors for double beta decay and dark matter experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Danevich, F A; Nagorny, S S; Poda, D V; Tretyak, V I; Yurchenko, S S; Zdesenko, Y G; Zdesenko, Yu.G.

    2004-01-01

    Energy resolution, alpha/beta ratio, and the pulse shape discrimination ability of the ZnWO_4 crystal scintillators were studied. The radioactive contamination of a ZnWO_4 crystal was investigated in the Solotvina Underground Laboratory. Possibilities to apply ZnWO_4 crystals for the dark matter and double beta decay searches are discussed. New improved half-life limits on double beta decay in zinc isotopes were established, in particular, for EC\\beta^+ decay of 64-Zn as: T_1/2^2nu > 8.9 10^18 yr and T_1/2^0nu > 3.6 10^18 yr, both at 68% CL.

  20. ZnWO{sub 4} crystals as detectors for 2{beta} decay and dark matter experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Nagorny, S.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Yurchenko, S.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Zdesenko, Yu.G. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2005-06-01

    Energy resolution, {alpha}/{beta} ratio, and the pulse shape discrimination ability of the ZnWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators were studied. The radioactive contamination of a ZnWO{sub 4} crystal was investigated in the Solotvina Underground Laboratory. Possibilities to apply ZnWO{sub 4} crystals for the dark matter and double beta decay searches are discussed. New improved half-life limits on double beta decay in zinc isotopes were established, in particular, for -bar {beta}{sup +} decay of {sup 64}Zn as: T{sub 1/2}{sup 2{nu}}>=8.9x10{sup 18} years and T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}}>=3.6x10{sup 18} years, both at 68% CL.

  1. Crystallization in high level waste (HLW) glass melters: Savannah River Site operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2015-06-12

    This paper provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed for design input to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with prototype melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. A review of the crystallization observed with the prototype melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2) is included. Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for a waste treatment and immobilization plant.

  2. Projection optics box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.

    2000-01-01

    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  3. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...... buffer material to stabilize the internal RH, a more recent box containing no added buffer material, and, in recent times, boxes with an altered gas content. Another concern is the appearance (aesthetics) of the box....

  4. ExBox: a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon scavenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jonathan C; Juríček, Michal; Strutt, Nathan L; Frasconi, Marco; Sampath, Srinivasan; Giesener, Marc A; McGrier, Psaras L; Bruns, Carson J; Stern, Charlotte L; Sarjeant, Amy A; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2013-01-09

    A template-directed protocol, which capitalizes on donor-acceptor interactions, is employed to synthesize a semi-rigid cyclophane (ExBox(4+)) that adopts a box-like geometry and is comprised of π-electron-poor 1,4-phenylene-bridged ("extended") bipyridinium units (ExBIPY(2+)). ExBox(4+) functions as a high-affinity scavenger of an array of different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), ranging from two to seven fused rings, as a result of its large, accommodating cavity (approximately 3.5 Å in width and 11.2 Å in length when considering the van der Waals radii) and its ability to form strong non-covalent bonding interactions with π-electron-rich PAHs in either organic or aqueous media. In all, 11 PAH guests were observed to form inclusion complexes with ExBox(4+), with coronene being the largest included guest. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for the 11 inclusion complexes ExBox(4+)⊂PAH as well as UV/vis spectroscopic data for 10 of the complexes provide evidence of the promiscuity of ExBox(4+) for the various PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetric analyses of 10 of the inclusion complexes are employed to further characterize the host-guest interactions in solution and determine the degree with which ExBox(4+) binds each PAH compound. As a proof-of-concept, a batch of crude oil from Saudi Arabia was subjected to extraction with the water-soluble form of the PAH receptor, ExBox·4Cl, resulting in the isolation of different aromatic compounds after ExBox·4Cl was regenerated.

  5. The application of time-dependent ice crystal trajectory and growth model for the evaluation of cloud seeding experiment using liquid carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, K.; Wakimizu, K.; Maki, T.; Suzuki, Y.; Morita, O.; Tomine, K.

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the results of cloud seeding experiment conducted on 17th January, 2008, in western Kyushu, Japan, using simplified time-dependent ice crystal growth and trajectory cloud model, which is characterized by 1) depositional diffusion growth process only of an ice crystal, and 2) the pursuit of the growing ice crystal based on wind field and ice crystal terminal velocity. For the estimation of the ice crystal growth and trajectory, the model specifies ice supersaturation ratio that expresses the degree of competition growth among ice crystals formed by LC seeding for existing water vapor, assuming no effect of natural ice crystals. The model is based on ice crystal growth along a- and c-axes depending on air temperature and ice supersatuation, according to Chen and Lamb (1994). The cloud seeding experiment was conducted by applying homogeneous nucleation (rapid cooling of air mass and subsequent formation of many ice crystals~1013/g LC) of Liquid Carbon (LC) dioxide seeding under typical winter-type snowfall-inducing weather situation characterized by the outbreak of cold air masses from the Siberia. The result of aircraft horizontally-penetrating seeding of LC into lower layer (-2 degree C) of supercooled convective cloud with 1km thickness above the freezing level led to the formation of an artificially-induced 'isolated' radar echo (the left figures of Fig. 1) in dominant 'no-natural radar echo region'. In other words, natural biases were eliminated by the formation of the isolated radar echo. This fact provides the shortcut for evaluating the result of cloud seeding experiment. In the next, the observed cloud seeding results were evaluated by estimating the trajectory of artificially-induced growing ice crystal. The results show that the trajectory of artificial ice crystals depends on the degree of completion growth mode. Free growth brings rapid growth of an ice crystal and, therefore, the ice crystal falls into lower layers for a short time

  6. Fourier series analysis of fractal lenses: theory and experiments with a liquid-crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey A; Sigarlaki, Sean P; Craven, Julia M; Calvo, María Luisa

    2006-02-20

    We report on a Fourier series approach that predicts the focal points and intensities produced by fractal zone plate lenses. This approach allows us to separate the effects of the fractal order from those of the lens aperture. We implement these fractal lenses onto a liquid-crystal display and show experimental verification of our theory.

  7. Switching characteristics of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity: Experiment and theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Yi; Palushani, Evarist; Heuck, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The dynamical properties of an InP photonic crystal nanocavity are experimentally investigated using pump-probe techniques and compared to simulations based on coupled-mode theory. Excellent agreement between experimental results and simulations is obtained when employing a rate equation model co...

  8. Small core Chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber for midinfrared wavelength conversion: experiment and design

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Sida; Grassani, Davide; Kharitonov, Svyatoslav; Billat, Adrien; Brès, Camille-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Kerr index and dispersion parameter of a small core chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber are estimated via four-wave mixing near 2μm. From these values, new fiber design is proposed to efficiently generate idlers in mid-infrared.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments of arylmalonate decarboxylase from Alcaligenes bronchisepticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakasako, Masayoshi, E-mail: nakasako@phys.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); The RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Obata, Rika; Okubo, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Shyuichi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Kenji; Ohta, Hiromichi [Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Crystals of arylmalonate decarboxylase from A. bronchisepticus were obtained which diffracted X-rays to a resolution of at least 3.0 Å. Arylmalonate decarboxylase catalyses the enantioselective decarboxylation of α-aryl-α-methylmalonates to produce optically pure α-arylpropionates. The enzyme was crystallized with ammonium sulfate under alkaline pH conditions with the aim of understanding the mechanism of the enantioselective reaction. X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at cryogenic temperature showed that the crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.13, b = 99.62, c = 139.64 Å. This suggested that the asymmetric unit would contain between four and six molecules. Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed that the enzyme exists as a monomer in solution. Thus, the assembly of molecules in the asymmetric unit was likely to have been induced during the crystallization process.

  10. Integration and use of Microgravity Research Facility: Lessons learned by the crystals by vapor transport experiment and Space Experiments Facility programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heizer, Barbara L.

    1992-01-01

    The Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE) and Space Experiments Facility (SEF) are materials processing facilities designed and built for use on the Space Shuttle mid deck. The CVTE was built as a commercial facility owned by the Boeing Company. The SEF was built under contract to the UAH Center for Commercial Development of Space (CCDS). Both facilities include up to three furnaces capable of reaching 850 C minimum, stand-alone electronics and software, and independent cooling control. In addition, the CVTE includes a dedicated stowage locker for cameras, a laptop computer, and other ancillary equipment. Both systems are designed to fly in a Middeck Accommodations Rack (MAR), though the SEF is currently being integrated into a Spacehab rack. The CVTE hardware includes two transparent furnaces capable of achieving temperatures in the 850 to 870 C range. The transparent feature allows scientists/astronauts to directly observe and affect crystal growth both on the ground and in space. Cameras mounted to the rack provide photodocumentation of the crystal growth. The basic design of the furnace allows for modification to accommodate techniques other than vapor crystal growth. Early in the CVTE program, the decision was made to assign a principal scientist to develop the experiment plan, affect the hardware/software design, run the ground and flight research effort, and interface with the scientific community. The principal scientist is responsible to the program manager and is a critical member of the engineering development team. As a result of this decision, the hardware/experiment requirements were established in such a way as to balance the engineering and science demands on the equipment. Program schedules for hardware development, experiment definition and material selection, flight operations development and crew training, both ground support and astronauts, were all planned and carried out with the understanding that the success of the program science

  11. The Classroom Animal: Box Turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic information on the anatomy, physiology, behaviors, and distribution patterns of the box turtle. Offers suggestions for the turtle's care and maintenance in a classroom environment. (ML)

  12. Boxing-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarao, Mayur; Chin, Lawrence S; Cantu, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Fatalities in boxing are most often due to traumatic brain injury that occurs in the ring. In the past 30 years, significant improvements in ringside and medical equipment, safety, and regulations have resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fatality rate. Nonetheless, the rate of boxing-related head injuries, particularly concussions, remains unknown, due in large part to its variability in clinical presentation. Furthermore, the significance of repeat concussions sustained when boxing is just now being understood. In this article, we identify the clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, and management of boxing-related head injuries, and discuss preventive strategies to reduce head injuries sustained by boxers.

  13. The Influence of Crystal Size Distributions (CSD) on the Rheology of Magma: New Insights from Analogue Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, J.; Mueller, S.; Castro, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Knowing the flow properties, or rheology, of magma is of great importance for volcanological research. It is vital for understanding eruptive and depositional features, modelling magma flow rates and distances, interpreting pre-eruptive volcanic unrest and earthquakes, and ultimately predicting volcanic hazards related to magma motion. Despite its key role in governing volcanic processes, magma rheology is extremely difficult to constrain in time and space within a natural volcanic system, because it is dependent upon so many variables. Therefore, both analogue and experimental studies of permissible yet simplified scenarios are needed to isolate different rheological influences. Despite significant progress in understanding the rheological properties of silicate melts and two-phase mixtures (e.g. melt + crystals), as well as the impact of the volume fraction (e.g. Pinkerton & Stevenson, 1992; Caricchi et al., 2007; Mueller et al., 2010) and shape (Mueller et al., 2011) of crystals on magma rheology, the effect of the crystal size distribution (CSD) is still poorly constrained. A highly disperse CSD (i.e., a great variety of different crystal sizes) leads to a much more efficient packing of crystals in a flowing magma which predominantly controls the rheological behavior of magma in a sheared particle Accounting for, or neglecting, the size distribution of crystals can therefore make a considerable difference in magma flow models. We present the results of systematic rheometric experiments using multimodal analogue particle suspensions of well-defined size fractions of micrometer-sized glass beads in silicone oil as magma-analogue material. Starting with simple bimodal distributions (i.e. particles of two distinct sizes), the complexity of the samples' particle size distribution has been successively increased and evaluated towards tetramodal distributions (four distinct size fractions). Statistical values of the given suspensions have been calculated and

  14. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  15. The photon tagging facility for the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA; Die Photonenmarkierungsanlage fuer das Crystal-Barrel/TAPS-Experiment an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet-Ponse, Kathrin

    2009-11-15

    With the CBELASA/TAPS experiment in the framework of the SFB/TR 16 measurements of single- and double-polarization observables in the photoporoduction were performed. The energy of the high-energetic, polarized photon beams required for this, is determined by means of a so-called tagging system. In the framework of this thesis such a tagging system was constructed. It allows the energy tagging of the photons in an energy range from 0.021.E{sub 0} to 0.871.E{sub 0} with a time resolution of {sigma}=0.240 ns and an energy resolution from 0.1%.E{sub 0} to 0.4%.E{sub 0}. The reached time resolution allows to use the tagging system as time reference for the remaining experimental components. For the calculation of cross sections the knowledge of the photon flux at the experimental target is necessary. Thereby the photon definition probability P{sub {gamma}} plays a central role, which indicates, with which probability for a signal from the tagging system the corresponding photon in the {gamma} beam at the production target is present. It could be found a prescription for the determination of P{sub {gamma}}, which yields at tagging rates from 1 MHz to 10 MHz consistent results. A relative systematic error for P{sub {gamma}} was determined. Furthermore the effects of collimation and divergence of the photon beam on the number of the really in the experiment available photons and by this on the maximally reachable P{sub {gamma}} were extensively studied and experimental observations explained. [German] Mit dem CBELSA/TAPS-Experiment werden im Rahmen des SFB/TR 16 Messungen von Einfach- und Doppelpolarisationsobservablen in der Photoproduktion durchgefuehrt. Die hochenergetischen, polarisierten Photonenstrahlen werden ueber den Bremsstrahlungsprozess erzeugt. Die Energie der Photonen bestimmt sich aus der Differenz zwischen der Elektronenergie vor (E{sub 0}) und nach (E{sub e{sup -}}) dem Bremsstrahlungsprozess. Dies erfordert den Nachweis der Sekundaerelektronen mit Hilfe

  16. ACSYS in a box

    CERN Document Server

    Briegel, C; Hendricks, B; King, C; Lackey, S; Neswold, R; Nicklaus, D; Patrick, J; Petrov, A; Rechenmacher, R; Schumann, C; Smedinghoff, J

    2012-01-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a "box" such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the "online" control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  17. ACYSYS in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briegel, C.; Finstrom, D.; Hendricks, B.; King, C.; Lackey, S.; Neswold, R.; Nicklaus, D.; Patrick, J.; Petrov, A.; Rechenmacher, R.; Schumann, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    The Accelerator Control System at Fermilab has evolved to enable this relatively large control system to be encapsulated into a 'box' such as a laptop. The goal was to provide a platform isolated from the 'online' control system. This platform can be used internally for making major upgrades and modifications without impacting operations. It also provides a standalone environment for research and development including a turnkey control system for collaborators. Over time, the code base running on Scientific Linux has enabled all the salient features of the Fermilab's control system to be captured in an off-the-shelf laptop. The anticipated additional benefits of packaging the system include improved maintenance, reliability, documentation, and future enhancements.

  18. Polymers in Curved Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Yaman, K; Solis, F J; Witten, T A

    1996-01-01

    We apply results derived in other contexts for the spectrum of the Laplace operator in curved geometries to the study of an ideal polymer chain confined to a spherical annulus in arbitrary space dimension D and conclude that the free energy compared to its value for an uncurved box of the same thickness and volume, is lower when $D < 3$, stays the same when $D = 3$, and is higher when lowers the effective bending elasticity of the walls, and might induce spontaneous symmetry breaking, i.e. bending. (Actually, the above mentioned results show that {\\em {any}} shell in $D = 3$ induces this effect, except for a spherical shell). We compute the contribution of this effect to the bending rigidities in the Helfrich free energy expression.

  19. Influence of substitution on the optical properties of functionalized pentacene monomers and crystals: Experiment and theory

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Yasir

    2013-10-01

    The influence of solubilizing substitutional groups on the electronic structure of prototypical functionalized pentacene molecules and crystals is studied by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We experimentally establish characteristic effects of substituents on the electronic structure and relate those to theoretical optical spectra in order to explain the experimental results and provide a comprehensive picture of the substitution effects. Bands associated to C/Si atoms connecting the functional side group to the pentacene in the (6,13)-positions are the main contributors to the optical transitions. The amplitude of the redshift between the crystals and molecules provides insight in the packing structure. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. T1-relaxation of 129Xe on metal single crystal surfaces—multilayer experiments on iridium and monolayer considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Dirk; Mannstadt, Wolfgang; Gerhard, Peter; Koch, Matthias; Jänsch, Heinz J.

    2002-11-01

    The surface of a typical laboratory single crystal has about 10 15 surface atoms or adsorption sites, respectively, and is thus far out of reach for conventional NMR experiments using thermal polarization. It should however be in reach for NMR of adsorbed laser polarized (hyperpolarized) 129Xe, which is produced by spin transfer from optically pumped rubidium. With multilayer experiments of xenon adsorbed on an iridium surface we do not only demonstrate that monolayer sensitivity has been obtained, we also show that such surface experiments can be performed under ultra high vacuum conditions with the crystal being mounted in a typical surface analysis chamber on a manipulator with far-reaching sample heating and cooling abilities. With only four spectra summed up we present an NMR signal from at most 4×10 14 atoms of 129Xe, four layers of naturally abundant xenon, respectively. The fact that no monolayer signal has been measured so far is explained by a fast Korringa relaxation due to the Fermi contact interaction of the 129Xe nuclei with the electrons of the metal substrate. T1-relaxation times in the order of several ms have been calculated using all electron density functional theory for several metal substrates.

  1. Experiment study of wavelength conversion in a dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiuguo Wang; Bojun Yang; Lan Zhang; Hu Zhang; Li He

    2007-01-01

    @@ Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing (FWM) has been demonstrated using a 40-m dispersion flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF). A conversion efficiency of -26 dB for a pump power of 19.5 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 28 nm have been obtained, which are limited by the continuous wave (CW) laser wavelength range and tunability of optical band pass filters (OBPFs).

  2. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  3. Three Nucleons in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Luu, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    I calculate finite-volume effects for three identical spin-1/2 fermions in a box assuming short-ranged repulsive interactions of `natural size'. This analysis employs standard perturbation theory in powers of 1/L, where L^3 is the volume of the box. I give results for the ground states in the A_1, T_1, and E cubic representations.

  4. A comparison between experiment and theory on few-quantum-dot nanolasing in a photonic-crystal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jin; Ates, Serkan; Lorke, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present an experimental and theoretical study on the gain mechanism in a photonic-crystal-cavity nanolaser with embedded quantum dots. From time-resolved measurements at low excitation power we find that four excitons are coupled to the cavity. At high excitation power we observe a smooth low......-threshold transition from spontaneous emission to lasing. Before lasing emission sets in, however, the excitons are observed to saturate, and the gain required for lasing originates rather from multi-excitonic transitions, which give rise to a broad emission background. We compare the experiment to a model of quantum...

  5. A proof-of-principle experiment of EIT with gamma radiation in FePSe{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Hisakazu, E-mail: hmurama@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Shinshu University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education (Japan); Nakajo, S.; Nakagami, K.; Nagata, K. [Shinshu University, Graduate School of Education (Japan); Mochizuki, S.; Suzuki, H. [Shinshu University, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    From a series of Moessbauer measurements performed on a single crystal of FePSe{sub 3}, we have observed the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a second nuclear system, after a first experiment using the mineral siderite FeCO{sub 3}. When the condition of nuclear level crossing was fulfilled, an obvious deficit in absorption was observed at the point of level crossing. This reduced absorption cannot be ascribed to saturation effects because of the specific geometry of the measurement. We conclude that the observed deficit in absorption is due to coherence and interference effects.

  6. Characteristics of Heavy Snowfall and Snow Crystal Habits in the ESSAY (Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong) Campaign in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Yeongdong region in Korea has frequent heavy snowfall in winter, which usually results in societal and economic damages such as collapses of the greenhouse and the temporary building due to heavy snowfall weights and traffic accidents due to snow-slippery road condition. Therefore we have conducted an intensive measurement campaign of `Experiment on Snow Storms At Yeongdong (ESSAY)' using radiosonde soundings, several remote sensors and a digital camera with a magnifier for taking a photograph of snowfall crystals in the region. The analysis period is mainly limited to every winter from 2014 to 2016The typical synoptic situation for the heavy snowfall is Low pressure system passing by the far South of the Korean peninsula along with the Siberian High extending to northern Japan, leading to the northeasterly or easterly flows frequently accompanied by the long-lasting snowfall in the Yeongdong region. The snow crystal habits observed in the ESSAY campaign are mainly dendrite, consisting of about 70% of the entire habits, indicative of relatively warmer East Sea effect. Meanwhile, the rimed habits are frequently captured specifically when two-layered clouds are observed. The homogeneous habit such as dendrite is shown in case of shallow clouds with its thickness below 500 m, whereas various habits are captured such as graupel, dendrites, rimed dendrites, etc in the thicker cloud with its thickness greater than 1.5 km. The association of snow crystal habits with temperature and supersaturation in the cloud will be more discussed.

  7. Two high-mobility group box domains act together to underwind and kink DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Giraldo, R.; Acosta-Reyes, F. J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Malarkey, C. S. [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Saperas, N. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Churchill, M. E. A., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Campos, J. L., E-mail: mair.churchill@ucdenver.edu [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-06-30

    The crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an unmodified AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. A new mode of DNA recognition for HMG box proteins is found in which two box A domains bind in an unusual configuration generating a highly kinked DNA structure. High-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) is an essential and ubiquitous DNA architectural factor that influences a myriad of cellular processes. HMGB1 contains two DNA-binding domains, box A and box B, which have little sequence specificity but have remarkable abilities to underwind and bend DNA. Although HMGB1 box A is thought to be responsible for the majority of HMGB1–DNA interactions with pre-bent or kinked DNA, little is known about how it recognizes unmodified DNA. Here, the crystal structure of HMGB1 box A bound to an AT-rich DNA fragment is reported at a resolution of 2 Å. Two box A domains of HMGB1 collaborate in an unusual configuration in which the Phe37 residues of both domains stack together and intercalate the same CG base pair, generating highly kinked DNA. This represents a novel mode of DNA recognition for HMGB proteins and reveals a mechanism by which structure-specific HMG boxes kink linear DNA.

  8. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  9. Jamin-interferometer-setup for the determination of concentration and temperature dependent face-specific crystal growth rates from a single experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, Cornelia; Choscz, Carsten; Müller, Vesna; Briesen, Heiko

    2015-09-01

    An interference technique that permits the investigation of the crystal growth from a temperature controlled solution is presented. Contrary to Mach-Zehnder- or Michelson-type interferometers, the Jamin-interferometer applied in this work is characterized by improved thermal and long-time stability. In consequence a single experiment may comprise several temperature steps leading to significant changes in the bulk concentration. A procedure for the automated analysis of the acquired sequence of interference patterns is presented. Within this evaluation procedure the position of the selected crystal face, the bulk concentration and the vertical concentration distribution above the crystal are determined simultaneously. Long-term single crystal growth experiments in the range from 20 to 60 °C with sucrose and lactose crystals are used to test the method. The exact bulk concentration is determined by the interferometer. The obtained results for the growth rate of sucrose are consistent with values given in the literature. The vertical concentration distribution above the two saccharide crystals differs clearly indicating that the diffusion strongly limits the sucrose growth but not the growth of the lactose crystal. The major benefit of the described setup is that the data of a single experiment are sufficient to deduce the parameters of the model equation for the growth rate as a function of temperature and supersaturation.

  10. Experiments with phase transitions at very high pressure. [compressed solidifed gases, semiconductors, superconductors, and molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, I. L.

    1983-01-01

    Diamond cells were constructed for use to 1 Mbar. A refrigerator for cooling diamond cells was adapted for studies between 15 and 300 K. A cryostat for superconductivity studies between 1.5 to 300 K was constructed. Optical equipment was constructed for fluorescence, transmission, and reflectance studies. X-ray equipment was adapted for use with diamond cells. Experimental techniques were developed for X-ray diffraction studies using synchrotron radiation. AC susceptibility techniques were developed for detecting superconducting transitions. The following materials were studied: compressed solidified gases (Xe, Ar), semiconductors (Ge, Si, GaAs), superconductors (Nb3Ge, Nb3Si, Nb3As, CuCl), molecular crystals (I).

  11. Search for double beta decay of $^{116}$Cd with enriched $^{116}$CdWO$_4$ crystal scintillators (Aurora experiment)

    CERN Document Server

    Danevich, F A; Belli, P; Bernabei, R; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Chernyak, D M; d'Angelo, S; Incicchitti, A; Kobychev, V V; Konovalov, S I; Laubenstein, M; Mokina, V M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Shlegel, V N; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I

    2016-01-01

    The Aurora experiment to investigate double beta decay of $^{116}$Cd with the help of 1.162 kg cadmium tungstate crystal scintillators enriched in $^{116}$Cd to 82\\% is in progress at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory. The half-life of $^{116}$Cd relatively to the two neutrino double beta decay is measured with the highest up-to-date accuracy $T_{1/2}=(2.62\\pm0.14)\\times10^{19}$ yr. The sensitivity of the experiment to the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{116}$Cd to the ground state of $^{116}$Sn is estimated as $T_{1/2} \\geq 1.9\\times10^{23}$ yr at 90\\% CL, which corresponds to the effective Majorana neutrino mass limit $\\langle m_{\

  12. Characterization of scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals for the CRESST experiment using two-photon excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampf, Raphael; Dandl, Thomas; Muenster, Andrea; Oberauer, Lothar; Roth, Sabine; Schoenert, Stefan; Ulrich, Andreas [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85747 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In the CRESST experiment for direct dark matter search, phonon and photon signals from cryogenic CaWO{sub 4} crystals are used to search for WIMP-induced nuclear recoil events. We present a novel table-top setup in which the scintillation of CaWO{sub 4} is induced by 0.7 ns laser pulses of 355 nm wavelength. The excitation occurs via two-photon absorption in the bulk material. The scintillation light is observed by time resolved optical spectroscopy. By varying the focusing of the laser-beam the excitation density can be made high enough to study quenching effects due to exciton-exciton annihilation. This allows to perform experiments to test models for the quenching factors of different ionizing projectiles in CaWO{sub 4} which are used to identify these projectiles on an event by event basis.

  13. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-12-17

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  14. Design and implementation of M-learning teaching experiment box based on embedded system%基于嵌入式的移动学习教学实验箱设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑世珏; 卢强

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication technology and handheld devices, taking smart phones as the representative, M-learning is becoming a hot topic of research in recent years. Aiming at the present situation that domestic universities lack of M-learning teaching equipment in domestic universities, a set of M-Learning teaching experiment box is designed based on the embedded system, so as to serve the teaching and research of the learning environment. This equipment has characteristics of good expansibility and free mobility. It can complete a few of experiment teaching tasks for relevant courses such as the Embedded System and Computer Network.%随着无线通信技术和以智能手机为代表的移动终端的飞速发展,移动学习成为近年来研究的一个热点.针对目前国内高校移动学习教学实验设备缺乏的现状,设计和实现了一套基于嵌入式系统的移动学习教学实验箱,讨论了设计中的关键技术.该设备具有良好的扩展性和自由的移动性等特点,可以完成嵌入式系统、计算机网络、移动学习等相关课程的多个实验的教学任务.

  15. Extra-large crystal emulsion detectors towards future large-scale experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ariga, T; Kuwabara, K; Morishima, K; Moto, M; Nishio, A; Scampoli, P; Vladymyrov, M

    2015-01-01

    Photographic emulsion is a particle tracking device which features the best spatial resolution among particle detectors. Some applications of such a detector, for example the imaging of large object with cosmic-ray muons (muon radiography) or the detection of neutrinos, require large-scale detectors. Therefore, a huge amount of detector area has to be analyzed by means of automated optical microscopes. An improvement of the readout speed is then a crucial point to make these applications possible and one way to pursue it is the availability of new type of photographic emulsions featuring a bigger silver crystal size. This would allow a lower magnification for the microscopes, a consequent larger field of view and then a faster data analysis. In this framework, we developed new types of emulsion detectors with a crystal size of 600-1000 nm, namely 3-5 times larger than the conventional ones. This would allow a 25 times faster data readout. These new photographic emulsions have shown a sufficient sensitivity an...

  16. Computing out of the Box

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Baidu unveils "box computing/’ which it hopes will lead to a number of innovations on the InternetBaidu, China’s most popular search engine, held its Technology Innovation Conference 2009 at the China World

  17. Energy expenditure in women boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, P; Banerjee, A K; Majumdar, P; Chatterjee, P

    2006-01-01

    Women boxing have got recognition recently and so far no work has been reported on energy expenditure of national women boxers in India. This study was aimed to estimate the energy expenditure in Indian female boxers during sparring. A total of 20 female boxers were subjected. Energy expenditure was estimated using the same individual's HR-VO2 regression equation. Heart rate was recorded through radiotelemetry. Results reveal that average and maximum energy expenditure considering the total duration of boxing are 12.7 +/- 1.3 and 14.4 +/- 1.6 kcal/min. It is concluded that depending on the severity of energy expenditure female boxing comes under heavy category and as it is a pioneer attempt in India, further studies in this aspect are really required which will guide the coaches regarding the energy expenditure pattern in women boxing.

  18. First results of the experiment to search for double beta decay of 106Cd with 106CdWO4 crystal scintillator in coincidence with four crystals HPGe detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyak, V I; Bernabei, R; Brudanin, V B; Cappella, F; Caracciolo, V; Cerulli, R; Chernyak, D M; Danevich, F A; d'Angelo, S; Incicchitti, A; Laubenstein, M; Mokina, V M; Poda, D V; Polischuk, O G; Podviyanuk, R B; Tupitsyna, I A

    2013-01-01

    An experiment to search for double beta processes in 106Cd by using cadmium tungstate crystal scintillator enriched in 106Cd (106CdWO4) in coincidence with the four crystals HPGe detector GeMulti is in progress at the STELLA facility of the Gran Sasso underground laboratory of INFN (Italy). The 106CdWO4 scintillator is viewed by a low-background photomultiplier tube through a lead tungstate crystal light-guide produced from deeply purified archaeological lead to suppress gamma quanta from the photomultiplier tube. Here we report the first results of the experiment after 3233 hours of the data taking. A few new improved limits on double beta processes in 106Cd are obtained, in particular T1/2(2nuECb+) > 8.4e20 yr at 90% C.L.

  19. Computational crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altan, Irem; Charbonneau, Patrick; Snell, Edward H

    2016-07-15

    Crystallization is a key step in macromolecular structure determination by crystallography. While a robust theoretical treatment of the process is available, due to the complexity of the system, the experimental process is still largely one of trial and error. In this article, efforts in the field are discussed together with a theoretical underpinning using a solubility phase diagram. Prior knowledge has been used to develop tools that computationally predict the crystallization outcome and define mutational approaches that enhance the likelihood of crystallization. For the most part these tools are based on binary outcomes (crystal or no crystal), and the full information contained in an assembly of crystallization screening experiments is lost. The potential of this additional information is illustrated by examples where new biological knowledge can be obtained and where a target can be sub-categorized to predict which class of reagents provides the crystallization driving force. Computational analysis of crystallization requires complete and correctly formatted data. While massive crystallization screening efforts are under way, the data available from many of these studies are sparse. The potential for this data and the steps needed to realize this potential are discussed.

  20. Effect of heterogeneity of nest boxes on occurrence of gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tina; Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting, where hens select already occupied nest boxes even when other nest boxes are unoccupied, is an unwanted behaviour in laying hens that may reduce animal welfare and pose a financial cost to the producer. It has been suggested that gregarious nesting is caused by the difficulties...... experienced by hens in distinguishing between nest boxes in long rows of identical boxes. Heterogeneity of nest boxes has therefore been suggested as a method to reduce gregarious nesting. To test this hypothesis two experiments were performed. Twelve groups of 13–15 ISA Warren hens 27 weeks of age were...... nesting was higher in experimental groups compared to control groups (P laying period did not differ between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.41). Numbers of visits to and eggs laid in nest boxes positioned either left or right were higher compared to nest boxes positioned...

  1. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Elze

    Full Text Available Liquid crystal displays (LCD are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary neutron diffraction experiment of human farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase complexed with risedronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Takeshi; Ostermann, Andreas; Mizuguchi, Mineyuki; Niimura, Nobuo; Schrader, Tobias E; Tanaka, Ichiro

    2014-04-01

    Nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs), such as risedronate and zoledronate, are currently used as a clinical drug for bone-resorption diseases and are potent inhibitors of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). X-ray crystallographic analyses of FPPS with N-BPs have revealed that N-BPs bind to FPPS with three magnesium ions and several water molecules. To understand the structural characteristics of N-BPs bound to FPPS, including H atoms and hydration by water, neutron diffraction studies were initiated using BIODIFF at the Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ). FPPS-risedronate complex crystals of approximate dimensions 2.8 × 2.5 × 1.5 mm (∼3.5 mm(3)) were obtained by repeated macro-seeding. Monochromatic neutron diffraction data were collected to 2.4 Å resolution with 98.4% overall completeness. Here, the first successful neutron data collection from FPPS in complex with N-BPs is reported.

  3. Temporal properties of liquid crystal displays: implications for vision science experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, Tobias; Tanner, Thomas G

    2012-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCD) are currently replacing the previously dominant cathode ray tubes (CRT) in most vision science applications. While the properties of the CRT technology are widely known among vision scientists, the photometric and temporal properties of LCDs are unfamiliar to many practitioners. We provide the essential theory, present measurements to assess the temporal properties of different LCD panel types, and identify the main determinants of the photometric output. Our measurements demonstrate that the specifications of the manufacturers are insufficient for proper display selection and control for most purposes. Furthermore, we show how several novel display technologies developed to improve fast transitions or the appearance of moving objects may be accompanied by side-effects in some areas of vision research. Finally, we unveil a number of surprising technical deficiencies. The use of LCDs may cause problems in several areas in vision science. Aside from the well-known issue of motion blur, the main problems are the lack of reliable and precise onsets and offsets of displayed stimuli, several undesirable and uncontrolled components of the photometric output, and input lags which make LCDs problematic for real-time applications. As a result, LCDs require extensive individual measurements prior to applications in vision science.

  4. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  5. Plate forming and break down pizza box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantisano, Frank; Devine, Scott M.

    1992-01-01

    A standard corrugated paper pizza box is provided with slit cuts cut through the top panel of the pizza box in a shape to form four circular serving plates with a beveled raised edge and cross slit cuts through the bottom panel of the pizza box separating the box into four essentially equal portions for easy disposal.

  6. 30 CFR 57.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 57.12006 Section 57.12006... and Underground § 57.12006 Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a... deenergized, and the distribution box shall be labeled to show which circuit each device controls....

  7. ArduiPod Box: a low-cost and open-source Skinner box using an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineño, Oskar

    2014-03-01

    This article introduces the ArduiPod Box, an open-source device built using two main components (i.e., an iPod Touch and an Arduino microcontroller), developed as a low-cost alternative to the standard operant conditioning chamber, or "Skinner box." Because of its affordability, the ArduiPod Box provides an opportunity for educational institutions with small budgets seeking to set up animal laboratories for research and instructional purposes. A pilot experiment is also presented, which shows that the ArduiPod Box, in spite of its extraordinary simplicity, can be effectively used to study animal learning and behavior.

  8. Injury risk in professional boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohu; Levy, Fred

    2005-10-01

    Although a popular endeavor, boxing has fallen under increased scrutiny because of its association with traumatic brain injury. However, few studies have investigated the overall epidemiology of boxing injuries from representative samples, and no study has ever documented the incidence of injuries in female boxers. This study is a review of professional boxing data from the state of Nevada from September 2001 through March 2003. Medical and outcome data for all professional boxing matches occurring in Nevada between September 2001 and March 2003 (n = 524 matches) were analyzed on the basis of a pair-matched, case-control design. Cases were boxers who received an injury during the boxing matches. Boxers who were not injured served as control subjects. Both conditional and unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for injury. The overall incidence rate of injury was 17.1 per 100 boxer-matches, or 3.4 per 100 boxer-rounds. Facial laceration accounted for 51% of all injuries, followed by hand injury (17%), eye injury (14%), and nose injury (5%). Male boxers were significantly more likely than female boxers to receive injuries (3.6 versus 1.2 per 100 boxer-rounds, P = 0.01). Male boxing matches also ended in knockouts and technical knockouts more often than did female matches (P boxing matches is high, particularly among male boxers. Superficial facial lacerations are the most common injury reported. Male boxers have a higher rate of knockout and technical knockouts than female boxers. Further research is necessary to determine the outcomes of injury, particularly the long-term neurologic outcome differences between sexes.

  9. Underwater boom box

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. Catherine

    So far, there is no evidence that humpback whales are negatively affected by noise emitted from underwater speakers that may one day be used to measure warming in the oceans. A group of independent biologists from Cornell University monitored the behavior of the whales before, during, and after a scaled-down version of the controversial Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) experiment off the coast of Hawaii. In 84 trials from February through March, they “saw no overt response from the whales.” Previous observations of similar sound transmissions at California's Pioneer Seamount, the other site planned for the experiment, also found no sign of disturbance among marine mammals, including elephant seals and several whale species. More observations are needed, however, before the experiment can be deemed safe, the Cornell biologists advised.

  10. Design, R&D and status of the crystal calorimeter for the Mu2e experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The Mu2e Experiment at Fermilab will search for coherent, neutrinoless conversion of muons into electrons in the field of a nucleus, with a sensitivity improvement of a factor of 10^4 over previous experiments. Such a charged lepton flavor-violating reaction probes new physics at a scale inaccessible with direct searches at either present or planned high energy colliders. The conversion electron is mono-energetic with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass. If no events are observed in three years of running, Mu2e will set a limit on the ratio between the conversion rate and the capture rate, R_{\\mu e}, of < 6 x 10^{-17} (@ 90% CL). In this paper, the physics motivation for Mu2e and the current status of the electromagnetic calorimeter project are briefly presented.

  11. Hard x-ray transmission curved crystal spectrometers(10–100 keV) for laser fusion experiments at the ShenGuang-Ⅲ laser facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hai Yu; Guang-yue Hu; Ning An; Feng Qian; Yu-chi Wu; Xiao-ding Zhang; Yu-qiu Gu; Qiu-ping Wang; Jian Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Two transmission curved crystal spectrometers are designed to measure the hard x-ray emission in the laser fusion experiment of Compton radiography of implosion target on ShenGuang-III laser facility in China. Cylindrically curvedα-quartz(10–11) crystals with curvature radii of 150 and 300 mm are used to cover spectral ranges of 10–56 and17–100 ke V, respectively. The distance between the crystal and the x-ray source can be changed over a broad distance from 200 to 1500 mm. The optical design, including the integral reflectivity of the curved crystal, the sensitivity, and the spectral resolution of the spectrometers, is discussed. We also provide mechanic design details and experimental results using a Mo anode x-ray source. High-quality spectra were obtained. We confirmed that the spectral resolution can be improved by increasing the working distance, which is the distance between the recording medium and the Rowland circle.

  12. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas P. Braun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU(5 by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  13. Box graphs and resolutions I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas P.; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2016-04-01

    Box graphs succinctly and comprehensively characterize singular fibers of elliptic fibrations in codimension two and three, as well as flop transitions connecting these, in terms of representation theoretic data. We develop a framework that provides a systematic map between a box graph and a crepant algebraic resolution of the singular elliptic fibration, thus allowing an explicit construction of the fibers from a singular Weierstrass or Tate model. The key tool is what we call a fiber face diagram, which shows the relevant information of a (partial) toric triangulation and allows the inclusion of more general algebraic blowups. We shown that each such diagram defines a sequence of weighted algebraic blowups, thus providing a realization of the fiber defined by the box graph in terms of an explicit resolution. We show this correspondence explicitly for the case of SU (5) by providing a map between box graphs and fiber faces, and thereby a sequence of algebraic resolutions of the Tate model, which realizes each of the box graphs.

  14. First-aid boxes - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    With a view to ensuring optimum use of the first-aid boxes on the CERN site, we should like to remind you of various changes introduced in March 2009: The TSO of the buildings concerned is responsible for the first-aid boxes, including checking their contents.   First-aid boxes may be restocked ONLY at the CERN stores (SCEM No. 54.99.80). This is no longer possible at the Infirmary. The associated cost is charged to the Departments.   First-aid boxes should be used only for mild injuries. All other cases should be referred to the Medical Service Infirmary (Bldg. 57 – ground-floor, tel. 73802) between 8.00 a.m. and 5.30 p.m. or to the Fire and Rescue Service (tel. 74444). N.B.: This information does not apply to the red emergency first-aid boxes in the underground areas or to the emergency kits for use in the event of being splashed with hydrofluoric acid.

  15. Opening Pandora's Box. Keynote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Bruce

    In this keynote address, the speaker draws upon his own experiences in education. He begins with his observation that the outcomes of the conference invite change which he applauds. However, he notes that change is always accompanied by fear, and fear has a habit of closing the lid on change. He speculates upon the possibilities were he to have…

  16. Medical and Safety Reforms in Boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The continued existence of boxing as an accepted sport in civilized society has been long debated. The position of the American Medical Association (AMA) has evolved from promoting increased safety and medical reform to recommending total abolition of both amateur and professional boxing. In response to the AMA opposition to boxing, the boxing community has attempted to increase the safeguards in amateur and professional boxing. The United States of America Amateur Boxing Federation, which is the national regulatory agency for all amateur boxing in the United States, has taken several actions to prevent the occurrence of acute brain injury and is currently conducting epidemiologic studies to assess the long-term neuropsychologic consequences of amateur boxing. In professional boxing, state regulatory agencies such as the New York State Athletic Commission have introduced several medical interventions to prevent and reduce neurologic injury. The lack of a national regulatory agency to govern professional boxing has stimulated the formation of the Association of Boxing Commissions and potential legislation for the federal regulation of professional boxing by a federally chartered organization called the United States Boxing Commission. The AMA's opposition to boxing and the medical and safety reforms implemented by the proponents of boxing are discussed. PMID:3385788

  17. Baryon Spectroscopy - Recent results from the Crystal Barrel Experiment at ELSA -*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt C.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the spectrum and the properties of baryon resonances, the CBELSA/TAPS experiment investigates the photoproduction off the nucleon using linearly, circularly polarized or unpolarized photons impinging on a polarized or unpolarized target. Preliminary results on first double polarization observables have been obtained for the reactions $vec{gamma}{p}$ → pπ0 and $vec{gamma}{p}$ → pη using both circular and linear polarized photons on a longitudinally polarized target. This data will finally provide important information for the partial wave analyzes used to extract the resonances from the data.

  18. Results from a compound semiconductor crystal growth experiment in a low gravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Roger K.; Fripp, Archibald L.; Debnam, William J.; Woodell, Glenn A.; Clark, Ivan O.

    1987-01-01

    A directional solidification experiment in the compound semiconductor lead tin telluride has been carried out in a low-gravity environment on board the Space Shuttle during a flight in October, 1985. Optical etching techniques and concentration profiles from wavelength dispersive electron microscopy indicate that there was a significant amount of convection during the solidifcation of the sample. A preliminary hypothesis of this result, that even at gravity levels on the order of 0.0001 g, the convective forces can be significant compared to mass transport due to diffusion, is being tested.

  19. Crystal accumulation in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant high level waste melter: Summary of FY2016 experiements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fowley, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Miller, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Five experiments were completed with the full-scale, room temperature Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) high-level waste (HLW) melter riser test system to observe particle flow and settling in support of a crystal tolerant approach to melter operation. A prototypic pour rate was maintained based on the volumetric flow rate. Accumulation of particles was observed at the bottom of the riser and along the bottom of the throat after each experiment. Measurements of the accumulated layer thicknesses showed that the settled particles at the bottom of the riser did not vary in thickness during pouring cycles or idle periods. Some of the settled particles at the bottom of the throat were re-suspended during subsequent pouring cycles, and settled back to approximately the same thickness after each idle period. The cause of the consistency of the accumulated layer thicknesses is not year clear, but was hypothesized to be related to particle flow back to the feed tank. Additional experiments reinforced the observation of particle flow along a considerable portion of the throat during idle periods. Limitations of the system are noted in this report and may be addressed via future modifications. Follow-on experiments will be designed to evaluate the impact of pouring rate on particle re-suspension, the influence of feed tank agitation on particle accumulation, and the effect of changes in air lance positioning on the accumulation and re-suspension of particles at the bottom of the riser. A method for sampling the accumulated particles will be developed to support particle size distribution analyses. Thicker accumulated layers will be intentionally formed via direct addition of particles to select areas of the system to better understand the ability to continue pouring and re-suspend particles. Results from the room temperature system will be correlated with observations and data from the Research Scale Melter (RSM) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  20. Twin migration in Fe-based bcc crystals: theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, A.; Sehitoglu, H.; Patriarca, L.; Maier, H. J.

    2014-06-01

    We establish an overall energy expression to determine the twin migration stress in bcc metals. Twin migration succeeds twin nucleation often after a load drop, and a model to establish twin migration stress is of paramount importance. We compute the planar fault energy barriers and determine the elastic energies of twinning dislocations including the role of residual dislocations (br) and twin intersection types such as ?1 1 0?, ?1 1 3? and ?2 1 0?. The energy expression derived provides the twin migration stress in relation to the twin nucleation stress with a ratio of 0.5-0.8 depending on the resultant residual burgers vector and the intersection types. Utilizing digital image correlation, it was possible to differentiate the twin nucleation and twin advancement events experimentally, and transmission electron microscopy observations provided further support to the modelling efforts. Overall, the methodology developed provides an enhanced understanding of twin progression in bcc metals, and most importantly the proposed model does not rely on empirical constants. We utilize Fe-50at.%Cr in our experiments, and subsequently predict the twin migration stress for pure Fe, and Fe-3at.%V from the literature showing excellent agreement with experiments.

  1. Asymptotic Symmetries from finite boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    It is natural to regulate an infinite-sized system by imposing a boundary condition at finite distance, placing the system in a "box." This breaks symmetries, though the breaking is small when the box is large. One should thus be able to obtain the asymptotic symmetries of the infinite system by studying regulated systems. We provide concrete examples in the context of Einstein-Hilbert gravity (with negative or zero cosmological constant) by showing in 4 or more dimensions how the Anti-de Sitter and Poincar\\'e asymptotic symmetries can be extracted from gravity in a spherical box with Dirichlet boundary conditions. In 2+1 dimensions we obtain the full double-Virasoro algebra of asymptotic symmetries for AdS$_3$ and, correspondingly, the full Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) algebra for asymptotically flat space. In higher dimensions, a related approach may continue to be useful for constructing a good asymptotically flat phase space with BMS asymptotic symmetries.

  2. Identifying competencies of boxing coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tasiopoulos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the management skills required by boxing coaches to administrate their clubs. For the purposes of this study a scale was constructed which was answered by 98 boxing coaches. Explanatory factor analysis revealed seven factors: Communication-public relations (5 items, event management (4 items, management techniques (4 items, new technologies (4 items, prevention-safety (2 items, sport (5 items and sports facilities (2 items. The Cronbach of the scale was 0.85. The five competencies that rated by the coaches were: Supervisors of the area of training, maintaining excellent communication with athletes, using new technologies (e-mail, internet, handling disciplinary matters, accidents, complaints and reports on some sporting games and promoted harmony among athletes. We concluded that boxing coaches understand that the competencies required for meeting their obligations, were related to sports, prevention, safety and communications-public relations.

  3. First spin-resolved electron distributions in crystals from combined polarized neutron and X-ray diffraction experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Deutsch

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s it has been possible to probe crystallized matter, thanks to X-ray or neutron scattering techniques, to obtain an accurate charge density or spin distribution at the atomic scale. Despite the description of the same physical quantity (electron density and tremendous development of sources, detectors, data treatment software etc., these different techniques evolved separately with one model per experiment. However, a breakthrough was recently made by the development of a common model in order to combine information coming from all these different experiments. Here we report the first experimental determination of spin-resolved electron density obtained by a combined treatment of X-ray, neutron and polarized neutron diffraction data. These experimental spin up and spin down densities compare very well with density functional theory (DFT calculations and also confirm a theoretical prediction made in 1985 which claims that majority spin electrons should have a more contracted distribution around the nucleus than minority spin electrons. Topological analysis of the resulting experimental spin-resolved electron density is also briefly discussed.

  4. Neurochemical aftermath of amateur boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Hietala, M Albert; Jonsson, Michael; Andreasen, Niels; Styrud, Ewa; Karlsson, Ingvar; Edman, Ake; Popa, Cornel; Rasulzada, Abdullah; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Mehta, Pankaj D; Rosengren, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Wallin, Anders

    2006-09-01

    Little solid information is available on the possible risks for neuronal injury in amateur boxing. To determine whether amateur boxing and severity of hits are associated with elevated levels of biochemical markers for neuronal injury in cerebrospinal fluid. Longitudinal study. Referral center specializing in evaluation of neurodegenerative disorders. Fourteen amateur boxers (11 men and 3 women) and 10 healthy male nonathletic control subjects. The boxers underwent lumbar puncture 7 to 10 days and 3 months after a bout. The control subjects underwent LP once. Neurofilament light protein, total tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated tau, and beta-amyloid protein 1-40 (Abeta([1-40])) and 1-42 (Abeta([1-42])) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid were measured. Increased levels after a bout compared with after 3 months of rest from boxing were found for 2 markers for neuronal and axonal injury, neurofilament light protein (mean +/- SD, 845 +/- 1140 ng/L vs 208 +/- 108 ng/L; P = .008) and total tau (mean +/- SD, 449 +/- 176 ng/L vs 306 +/- 78 ng/L; P = .006), and for the astroglial injury marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (mean +/- SD, 541 +/- 199 ng/L vs 405 +/- 138 ng/L; P = .003). The increase was significantly higher among boxers who had received many hits (>15) or high-impact hits to the head compared with boxers who reported few hits. In the boxers, concentrations of neurofilament light protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein, but not total tau, were significantly elevated after a bout compared with the nonathletic control subjects. With the exception of neurofilament light protein, there were no significant differences between boxers after 3 months of rest from boxing and the nonathletic control subjects. Amateur boxing is associated with acute neuronal and astroglial injury. If verified in longitudinal studies with extensive follow-up regarding the clinical outcome, analyses of cerebrospinal fluid may provide a scientific basis for

  5. Impurity effects on the band structure of one-dimensional photonic crystals: Experiment and theory

    CERN Document Server

    Luna-Acosta, G A; Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H -J

    2007-01-01

    We study the effects of single impurities on the transmission in microwave realizations of the photonic Kronig-Penney model, consisting of arrays of Teflon pieces alternating with air spacings in a microwave guide. As only the first propagating mode is considered, the system is essentially one dimensional obeying the Helmholtz equation. We derive analytical closed form expressions from which the band structure, frequency of defect modes, and band profiles can be determined. These agree very well with experimental data for all types of single defects considered (e. g. interstitial, substitutional) and shows that our experimental set-up serves to explore some of the phenomena occurring in more sophisticated experiments. Conversely, based on the understanding provided by our formulas, information about the unknown impurity can be determined by simply observing certain features in the experimental data for the transmission. Further, our results are directly applicable to the closely related quantum 1D Kronig-Penn...

  6. Impurity effects on the band structure of one-dimensional photonic crystals: experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Acosta, G A [Instituto de Fisica, BUAP Apartado Postal J-48, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Schanze, H; Kuhl, U; Stoeckmann, H-J [Fachbereich Physik der Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Renthof 5, D-35032 (Germany)], E-mail: gluna@sirio.ifuap.buap.mx

    2008-04-15

    We study the effects of single impurities on the transmission in microwave realizations of the photonic Kronig-Penney model, consisting of arrays of Teflon pieces alternating with air spacings in a microwave guide. As only the first propagating mode is considered, the system is essentially one-dimensional (1D) obeying the Helmholtz equation. We derive analytical closed form expressions from which the band structure, frequency of defect modes and band profiles can be determined. These agree very well with experimental data for all types of single defects considered (e.g. interstitial and substitutional) and show that our experimental set-up serves to explore some of the phenomena occurring in more sophisticated experiments. Conversely, based on the understanding provided by our formulae, information about the unknown impurity can be determined by simply observing certain features in the experimental data for the transmission. Further, our results are directly applicable to the closely related quantum 1D Kronig-Penney model.

  7. Black holes in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gualtieri, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Sapienza' and Sezione INFN Roma1, P.A. Moro 5, 00185, Roma (Italy); Herdeiro, Carlos; Zilhao, Miguel [Centro de Fisica do Porto e Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Sperhake, Ulrich, E-mail: helvi.witek@ist.utl.p, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.p, E-mail: Leonardo.Gualtieri@roma1.infn.i, E-mail: crherdei@fc.up.p, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.p, E-mail: sperhake@tapir.caltech.ed, E-mail: mzilhao@fc.up.p [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The evolution of BHs in 'confining boxes' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics some aspects of anti-de Sitter spacetimes. These admit no Cauchy surface and are a simple example of a non-globally hyperbolic spacetime. We are here interested in the potential role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a BH system. For that, we imprison a binary BH in a box, at which boundary we set mirror-like boundary conditions.

  8. A Comparative Study of White Box, Black Box and Grey Box Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Ehmer Khan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Software testing is the process to uncover requirement, design and coding errors in the program. It is used to identify the correctness, completeness, security and quality of software products against a specification. Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. It exhibits all mistakes, errors and flaws in the developed software. There are many approaches to software testing, but effective testing of complex product is essentially a process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following route procedure. It is not possible to find out all the errors in the program. This fundamental problem in testing thus throws an open question, as to what would be the strategy we should adopt for testing. In our paper, we have described and compared the three most prevalent and commonly used software testing techniques for detecting errors, they are: white box testing, black box testing and grey box testing.

  9. A novel F-box protein CaF-box is involved in responses to plant hormones and abiotic stress in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rugang; Guo, Weili; Yin, Yanxu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2014-02-10

    The F-box protein family is characterized by an F-box motif that has been shown to play an important role in regulating various developmental processes and stress responses. In this study, a novel F-box-containing gene was isolated from leaves of pepper cultivar P70 (Capsicum annuum L.) and designated CaF-box. The full-length cDNA is 2088 bp and contains an open reading frame of 1914 bp encoding a putative polypeptide of 638 amino acids with a mass of 67.8 kDa. CaF-box was expressed predominantly in stems and seeds, and the transcript was markedly upregulated in response to cold stress, abscisic acid (ABA) and salicylic acid (SA) treatment, and downregulated under osmotic and heavy metal stress. CaF-box expression was dramatically affected by salt stress, and was rapidly increased for the first hour, then sharply decreased thereafter. In order to further assess the role of CaF-box in the defense response to abiotic stress, a loss-of-function experiment in pepper plants was performed using a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technique. Measurement of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and electrolyte leakage revealed stronger lipid peroxidation and cell death in the CaF-box-silenced plants than in control plants, suggesting CaF-box plays an important role in regulating the defense response to abiotic stress resistance in pepper plants.

  10. Reference: AT1BOX [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AT1BOX Ueda T, Pichersky E, Malik VS, Cashmore AR The level of expression of the to...mato rbcs-3A gene is modulated by a far-upstream promoter element in a developmentary regulated manner. Plant Cell 1:217-227 (1989) PubMed: 2535544; GenBank: S44160; ...

  11. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century. The...

  12. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  13. On the Dirichlet's Box Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kin-Keung; Shiu, Wai-Chee

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we will focus on several applications on the Dirichlet's box principle in Discrete Mathematics lesson and number theory lesson. In addition, the main result is an innovative game on a triangular board developed by the authors. The game has been used in teaching and learning mathematics in Discrete Mathematics and some high schools in…

  14. EPA-Expo-Box Terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases,

  15. A Box Full of Kisses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔增印

    2008-01-01

    The story goes that some time ago,a man pun- ished his 3-year-old daughter for wasting a roll of gold wrapping paper.Money was tight and he became infuriated when the child tried to decorate a box to put under the Christmas tree.Nevertheless,the little girl brought the gift to

  16. The Bird Box Survey Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    When high school students are asked what's the best part of science class, many will say it's the field trips. Students enjoy engaging in authentic, community-based science outside the classroom. To capitalize on this, Patrick Willis created the Bird Box Survey Project for his introductory field biology class. The project takes students…

  17. Back office to box office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haigh, Matthew

    sees a mounting unsecured debt where its members see practical value. Between the two, a steward who may not profit from its office delegates it to back-office agents whose fiduciary management is engendered by box office-sized bonuses. Standard theorisation has foundered. The architecture...

  18. Expo-Box Contact Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  19. Breaking Out of the Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    2000-01-01

    Deplores inconsistencies between the realities of today's technologically driven, information-age world and the static, constraining boxes in which state-initiated, accountability- focused reforms hold American education. We must reconceptualize schooling, curriculum content, time, grade levels, and achievement to allow more informal,…

  20. The Ion Wakefield Inside a Glass Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mudi; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-10-01

    The formation of an ion wakefield downstream of dust particles in a complex plasma sheath has long been understood to have strong implications on their structure, stability and dynamics . The presence of the ion wake introduces interesting phenomena such as charge reduction on downstream particles and asymmetric interaction forces between upstream and downstream particles. Many of the self-ordered dust particle structures observed in complex plasma experiments are the result of the combination of the ion-wakefield and the external confinement; unfortunately, few experimental measurements isolating the effect of the wakefield have been conducted. In this experiment, 1-D dust particle structures (i.e., vertically aligned particle chains) are formed in a GEC RF reference cell within a glass box sitting on the powered lower electrode. A diode pumped, solid-state laser is used to perturb individual particles within the particle chain, allowing a map of the ion wakefield inside the glass box to be generated. The implications of these results will be discussed. NSF / DOE funding is gratefully acknowledged - PHY1414523 & PHY1262031.

  1. 预应力活性粉末混凝土箱梁抗弯性能试验%Experiment on Flexural Behaviors of Prestressed Reactive Powder Concrete Box Girders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志; 刘明; 郑辉

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the mechanical behavior of prestressed reactive powder concrete (RPC) box girders ,the flexural behavior tests of two prestressed RPC box girders were carried out .T he force characteristic of RPC box girders and the influence of transverse prestressing force to its flexural performance were studied .The results show that the prestressed RPC box girders display a good deformation capacity ,with a maximal deflection of 1/50 of its span .The crack width and the short‐time stiffness of the RPC box girders can be calculated according to the formula in Technical Specif ication for Fiber Reinforced Concrete Structures (CECS 38 :2004) , with a coefficient of 0 .4 and 0 .2 considering influence from steel fiber , respectively . The transverse prestressing force in the top plate of RPC box girders has little influence on the flexural bearing capacity , but the force can make a more uniform strain distribution of the compressive concrete so as to reduce the shear‐lag effect and increase the ductility of the specimen .By applying a transverse prestressing force of 2 .95 M Pa (only 3 .1% of the RPC prism compressive strength of 94 MPa) at the top plate ,the effective distribution width of box girder increases by 10% ,and ductility index of specimen increases by 3% .The calculated formula to evaluate the cracking moment and the ultimate moment of a prestressed RPC box girders is proposed and verified by the experimental results .%为研究预应力活性粉末混凝土(RPC )箱梁的正截面受力性能,进行了2片预应力RPC箱梁的抗弯性能试验,研究了RPC箱梁的受力变形特征以及顶板横向预应力对其抗弯性能的影响。结果表明:预应力RPC箱梁具有良好的变形能力,其极限变形可超过跨径的1/50;RPC箱梁正常使用阶段的裂缝宽度和短期刚度可参照《纤维混凝土结构技术规程》(CECS 38:2004)的相应公式计算,其中的钢纤维影响系数可分别取为0

  2. Experiences of Health Professionals Caring for People Presenting to the Emergency Department After Taking Crystal Methamphetamine ("ICE").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Jackson, Debra; Woods, Cindy; Kornhaber, Rachel; Sayers, Jan; Usher, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Globally, addiction to "ICE" (crystal methamphetamine) is increasing and presents emergency health care services personnel with a number of challenges. This paper reports the first of two major themes arising from a qualitative study investigating health professionals' experiences' managing people presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) after taking "ICE." The theme "Caring for people who use 'ICE' when presenting to EDs" comprises five subthemes. These are: (a) expecting the unexpected: "they're just off their heads"; (b) complexity of care: "underlying trauma and emotional dysregulation"; (c) connecting and relationships: "engaging in a calm and helpful way"; (d) coordinating care and teamwork: "keeping them quiet and away from everybody" and (e) learning and reflection: "we need to rethink our treatment options." These findings highlight the complexity and resource-intensity associated with providing emergency care to persons affected by ICE, and the need for thoughtful strategies that can further develop the capacity and capability of health professionals to provide optimal care to people using ICE.

  3. A device for the application of uniaxial strain to single crystal samples for use in synchrotron radiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannon, L. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford Physics Department, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Bosak, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Burkovsky, R. G. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Politekhnicheskaya, 195251, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Nisbet, G.; Hoesch, M., E-mail: Moritz.Hoesch@diamond.ac.uk [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 ODE (United Kingdom); Petrović, A. P. [DPMC-MaNEP, Université de Genève, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 24, 1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We present the design, construction, and testing of a straining device compatible with many different synchrotron radiation techniques, in a wide range of experimental environments (including low temperature, high field and ultra-high vacuum). The device has been tested by X-ray diffraction on single crystal samples of quasi-one-dimensional Cs{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6} and K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}, in which microscopic strains up to a Δc/c = 0.12% ± 0.01% change in the c lattice parameters have been achieved. We have also used the device in an inelastic X-ray scattering experiment, to probe the strain-dependent speed of sound ν along the c axis. A reduction Δν/ν of up to −3.8% was obtained at a strain of Δc/c = 0.25% in K{sub 2}Mo{sub 6}Se{sub 6}.

  4. A novel technique for measuring stress-corrosion crack-growth rates in single-crystal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichter, B.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)]|[Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Flanagan, W.F. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Crack-growth occurs discontinuously in oriented copper-gold single-crystals during slow-strain rate experiments performed under anodic polarization in aqueous NaCl solutions. Crack advance between major crack arrests is accompanied by load-drops and current-transients which can be quantitatively related to the length of the advance as well as yielding the average instantaneous rate of advance. Two independent but self-consistent methods are used: (1) mechanical analysis of the load-drops, taking into account the elastic displacement of the load-train and of the specimen, due to both the load and the crack advance, and (2) analysis of the current-transients in which it is argued that the current is proportional to the rate of new surface production. Results show that the crack velocity is on the order of 50--400{mu}/s, depending on the environment and potential, too slow to be explained by a running brittle crack, and too fast to be explained by Faradaic dissolution.

  5. Development with age of nest box use and gregarious nesting in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2010-01-01

    Use of nest boxes is an important part of the behavioural repertoire of laying hens kept under commercial conditions. A special form of nest box use is gregarious nesting, which occurs when a hen given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site...... experiences in selection of nest locations, causing the found decrease in frequency of gregarious nesting after age 20 weeks. A general preference for corner and end nest boxes is suggested to have triggered the initial use of the left nest box by the first hens coming into lay and to have maintained...... risk of broken or dirty eggs. The main objectives were to investigate the use of nest boxes according to their position and the occurrence of gregarious nesting with age. Twelve groups of 15 Isa Warren hens were housed in pens each containing three adjacent roll-out nest boxes only differing...

  6. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  7. Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...

  8. Dynamic Crystallization Experiments Using Conventional and Solar Furnace Techniques--implications For The Formation of Refractory Forsterite In Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, A.; Sauerborn, M.; Klerner, S.; Palme, H.; Neumann, A.; Seboldt, W.

    A distinct generation of forsteritic olivine (Mg2SiO4) grains (RF) with unusually high concentrations of refractory components including CaO (0.7 wt.%), Al2O3 (0.4 wt.%), V, Sc, and REEs occurs in unequilibrated chondrites, including ordinary, carbonaceous, and the highly oxidized Rumurutiites. Contents of siderophile elements like FeO (1 wt.%), Ni, or Mn are extremly low in RF. It is inferred that formation of RF pre-dates the formation of chondrules and matrix as well as formation of the different types of parent bodies (CCs, OCs, oxidized R-chondrites). Hence, RF can help us to better understand the processes in the early stage of the solar system in the time between formation of CAIs and Si,Mg-chondrules. However, formation of RF is not well understood. Crystallization of RF in chon- drules requires chondrule melts with ca. 20 wt.% CaO. Most chondrules have typically <4 wt.% CaO (max. ca. 10 wt.% CaO). We have conducted dynamic crystallization experiments using a conventional furnace (1.5...1000 K·min-1) and the DLR solar furnace (approx. 100000 K·min-1) in order to test if rapid cooling of a chondrule- like melt would produce high CaO in RF. We demostrate that Ca-partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is only weakly influenced by rapid cooling even at extremly high cooling rates in the range of 105 K·min-1 as obtained in the solar furnace ex- periments. At a bulk composition of the starting melt of 7.5 wt.% CaO, no deviation from equilibrium fractionation was observed (T/t = 1.5 . . . 105 K·min-1). At a ol/melt bulk content of 17.5 wt.% CaO, in increase in DCa of approximately 10...20% was observed. Chondrules with CaO contents in the range of 10 wt.% (upper limit of CaO in chondrules) thus cannot be regarded to be the host of RF. Hence, there must have been an early generation of extremly CaO-rich chondrules (20 wt.% CaO). Alternatively, RF may have formed by other processes, e. g. direct condensation from the solar nebula.

  9. Main: BOX2PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PSGS2 S000204 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi Box 2 in glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene in pea (P.s.); Repeated in tandem with a partial palindrome located between the repeats; Located at ca. -300 of pea GS...2; Box 2; glutamine synthetase; GS2; pea (Pisum sativum); TCTAAGCAAAG ...

  10. Main: BOX2PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX2PVCHS15 S000209 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 2 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 2; chs; chs1

  11. Main: BOX3PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX3PVCHS15 S000210 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Box 3 of bean (P.v.) chs15 pro...moter; SBF-1 binding site; For a compilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); Box 3; chs; chs1

  12. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  13. 30 CFR 56.12006 - Distribution boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distribution boxes. 56.12006 Section 56.12006... Distribution boxes. Distribution boxes shall be provided with a disconnecting device for each branch circuit... visual observation when such a device is open and that the circuit is deenergized, the distribution...

  14. Fighting Form: Boxing and the Aesthetic Containment of Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Costantino, Jesse David

    2011-01-01

    At the height of its popularity in the United States, the sport of boxing promised to satisfy the desire for an unmediated vision of social experience. Within the ring, race and class difference could be seen in the mutual violence of two bare bodies. New media technologies that emerged from the era--including film, radio, and television--picked up on the ring's peculiar claim to phenomenal reality, and long-established media like literature and the fine arts also turned to boxing and boxers ...

  15. Illumination box and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  16. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account.

  17. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  18. Broken links and black boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2013-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper argues...... observable distributions and patterns of association in the archaeological record. In formal terms this is not a problem of network analysis, but network synthesis: the classic problem of cracking codes or reconstructing black-box circuits....

  19. Application of PbWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators in experiment to search for 2{beta} decay of {sup 116}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danevich, F.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine)]. E-mail: danevich@kinr.kiev.ua; Georgadze, A.Sh. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Kobychev, V.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Kropivyansky, B.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Nagorny, S.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Nikolaiko, A.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Poda, D.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Vyshnevskyi, I.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Yurchenko, S.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Prospekt Nauki 47, MSP 03680 Kiev (Ukraine); Grinyov, B.V. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Nagornaya, L.L. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Pirogov, E.N. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Ryzhikov, V.D. [Institute for Scintillation Materials, 61001 Kharkov (Ukraine); Brudanin, V.B. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Vylov, Ts. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Fedorov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Korzhik, M. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Lobko, A. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Missevitch, O. [Institute for Nuclear Problems, 220050 Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-01-01

    Lead tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}) crystal scintillators are discussed as an active shield and light guides in {sup 116}Cd double-beta decay experiment with Cadmium tungstate (CdWO{sub 4}) scintillators. Scintillation properties and radioactive contamination of PbWO{sub 4} scintillators were investigated. Energy resolution of CdWO{sub 4} detector, coupled to PbWO{sub 4} light guide, was tested. Efficiency of PbWO{sub 4}-based active shield to suppress background from the internal contamination of PbWO{sub 4} crystals, as well as possible contribution from radioactivity of copper shield and phototubes were calculated. Using of lead tungstate crystal scintillators as high-efficiency 4{pi} active shield could allow to build sensitive 2{beta} experiment (T{sub 1/2}{sup 0{nu}}{sup 2{beta}}{approx}10{sup 26}yr) to search for 0{nu}2{beta} decay of {sup 116}Cd with {sup 116}CdWO{sub 4} crystal scintillators.

  20. Main: BOX1PSGS2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BOX1PSGS2 S000222 19-August-2004 (last modified) kehi Box 1 element in pea (P.s.) glutamine synthetase (GS...2) gene; An element in a 33-bp AT-rich sequence (box 1) of the 5' end of a GS2 promot...er; Located at -837 to -827 of pea GS2; Multimer of box 1 element was used to isolate a cDNA encoding an AT-...rich DNA binding protein (ATBP-1) (Tjaden & Coruzzi, 1994); Box 1; glutamine synthetase; GS2; ATBp; ATBP-1; pea (Pisum sativum) ATAGAAATCAA ...

  1. Crystals in the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Bent crystals can be used to deflect charged particle beams. Their use in high-energy accelerators has been investigated for almost 40 years. Recently, a bent crystal was irradiated for the first time in the HiRadMat facility with an extreme particle flux, which crystals would have to withstand in the LHC. The results were very encouraging and confirmed that this technology could play a major role in increasing the beam collimation performance in future upgrades of the machine.   UA9 bent crystal tested with a laser. Charged particles interacting with a bent crystal can be trapped in channelling states and deflected by the atomic planes of the crystal lattice (see box). The use of bent crystals for beam manipulation in particle accelerators is a concept that has been well-assessed. Over the last three decades, a large number of experimental findings have contributed to furthering our knowledge and improving our ability to control crystal-particle interactions. In modern hadron colliders, su...

  2. Stig Sundell at the bent crystal X-ray spectrometer for the X-ray shift experiment.

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The bent crystal X-ray spectrometer is being used to measure small shifts in the frequencies of X-rays emitted from the lower electron energy levels, in order to learn about the size of the nuclei concerned

  3. Technology for Obtaining Large Size Complex Oxide Crystals for Experiments on Muon-Electron Conversion Registration in High Energy Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasymov, Ya.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Technological approaches for qualitative large size scintillation crystals growing based on rare-earth silicates are proposed. A method of iridium crucibles charging using eutectic phase instead of a oxyorthosilicate was developed.

  4. On the Lower Limit of Chondrule Cooling Rates: The Significance of Iron Loss in Dynamic Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paque, Julie M.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    1998-01-01

    It is unlikely that the presence of chondrules, and thus their formation, within the protoplanetary nebula would be predicted if it were not for their ubiquitous presence in most chondritic meteorites. The study of these enigmatic, igneous objects has a direct influence on how meteoritic and solar system researchers model the processes operating and the materials present within our protoplanetary nebula. Key to understanding chondrule formation is a determination of constraints on their thermal histories. The three important variables in this history are their peak melting temperatures, the duration of their melting at peak temperatures, and the rate at which these object cool. Although these three variables are interdependent, it is cooling rate that provides the most powerful constraint. Cooling rate has a direct affect on the development of both crystal morphology and the elemental distributions within these grains. To date, experiments have indicated that chondrule cooling rates are in the range of 10's to 100's of degrees per hour for porphyritic chondrules (the most abundant type). The cooling rate for radial and barred chondrules is thought to be more rapid. To generate these cooling rates (rapid relative to the cooling of the nebula as a whole, but slow compared to simple black body radiation) the environment of chondrule formation must have been localized, and the abundance of solid materials must have been greatly enhanced above a gas of solar composition. Thus accurate determinations of chondrule cooling rates is critical in understanding both their formation and the nebular environment in which they formed. In a quest to more accurately determine the lower limit on cooling rates and to determine in more detail the effects of Fe loss from a molten sample to Pt wire loops, Weinbruch et al. have explored this issue experimentally and reevaluated the findings of Radomsky and Hewins in light of their new results. The basic conclusions of their paper are an

  5. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shefali; Garg, Vanika; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L.) seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  6. A new set of ESTs from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. embryo reveals two novel F-box genes, CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM, with potential roles in seed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shefali Gupta

    Full Text Available Considering the economic importance of chickpea (C. arietinum L. seeds, it is important to understand the mechanisms underlying seed development for which a cDNA library was constructed from 6 day old chickpea embryos. A total of 8,186 ESTs were obtained from which 4,048 high quality ESTs were assembled into 1,480 unigenes that majorly encoded genes involved in various metabolic and regulatory pathways. Of these, 95 ESTs were found to be involved in ubiquitination related protein degradation pathways and 12 ESTs coded specifically for putative F-box proteins. Differential transcript accumulation of these putative F-box genes was observed in chickpea tissues as evidenced by quantitative real-time PCR. Further, to explore the role of F-box proteins in chickpea seed development, two F-box genes were selected for molecular characterization. These were named as CarF-box_PP2 and CarF-box_LysM depending on their C-terminal domains, PP2 and LysM, respectively. Their highly conserved structures led us to predict their target substrates. Subcellular localization experiment revealed that CarF-box_PP2 was localized in the cytoplasm and CarF-box_LysM was localized in the nucleus. We demonstrated their physical interactions with SKP1 protein, which validated that they function as F-box proteins in the formation of SCF complexes. Sequence analysis of their promoter regions revealed certain seed specific cis-acting elements that may be regulating their preferential transcript accumulation in the seed. Overall, the study helped in expanding the EST database of chickpea, which was further used to identify two novel F-box genes having a potential role in seed development.

  7. Organization of the production of 100 tons of lead tungstate crystals for the CMS experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The CMS collaboration at CERN has undertaken at the end of 1994 an ambitious R&D program on Lead Tugstate scintillating crystals for its electromagnetic calorimeter. All the parameters of this crystal have been extensively studied in order to optimize its performances in the context of the Large Hadron Collider. Full size crystals (23 cm in length, up to 2.5 multiplied by 2.5 cm**2 in section) with the desired trapezoidal geometry can now be grown and mechanically processed with a yield in excess of 80%. A thorough investigation of the raw material preparation and of the growing conditions has led to a significant improvement in the optical transparency and in the light yield of the crystals. A detailed understanding of the light emission mechanism was 1995. A systematic analysis of the parameters influencing the structural quality of the crystals was at the origin of a considerable improvement of the radiation hardness of full size crystals. All these progress will be illustrated by results of measuremen...

  8. Understanding internal backgrounds in NaI(Tl) crystals toward a 200 kg array for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, P.; Adhikari, G.; Oh, S.Y. [Sejong University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.; Joo, H.W.; Kim, K.W.; Kim, S.K. [Seoul National University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, C.; Jeon, E.J.; Kang, W.G.; Kim, H.O.; Kim, N.Y.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.H.; Lee, M.H.; Leonard, D.S.; Li, J.; Olsen, S.L.; Park, H.K.; Park, K.S.; So, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S. [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hahn, I.S. [Ewha Womans University, Department of Science Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.J. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.D. [Sejong University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y.H. [Institute for Basic Science, Center for Underground Physics, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, H.S. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has developed low-background NaI(Tl) crystals that are suitable for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. Building on experience accumulated during the KIMS-CsI programs, the KIMS-NaI experiment will consist of a 200 kg NaI(Tl) crystal array surrounded by layers of shielding structures and will be operated at the Yangyang underground laboratory. The goal is to provide an unambiguous test of the DAMA/LIBRA annual modulation signature. Measurements of six prototype crystals show progress in the reduction of internal contamination from radioisotopes. Based on our understanding of these measurements, we expect to achieve a background level in the final detector configuration that is less than 1 count/day/keV/kg for recoil energies around 2 keV. The annual modulation sensitivity for the KIMS-NaI experiment shows that an unambiguous 7σ test of the DAMA/LIBRA signature would be possible with a 600 kg year exposure with this system. (orig.)

  9. Understanding internal backgrounds of NaI(Tl) crystals toward a 200~kg array for the KIMS-NaI experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, P; Choi, S; Ha, C; Hahn, I S; Jeon, E J; Joo, H W; Kang, W G; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, K W; Kim, N Y; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Kim, Y H; Lee, H S; Lee, J H; Lee, M H; Leonard, D S; Li, J; Oh, S Y; Olsen, S L; Park, H K; Park, H S; Park, K S; So, J H; Yoon, Y S

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) collaboration has developed low-background NaI(Tl) crystals that are suitable for the direct detection of WIMP dark matter. With experience built on the KIMS-CsI programs, the KIMS-NaI experiment will consist of a 200~kg NaI(Tl) crystal array surrounded by layers of shielding structures and will be operated at the Yangyang underground laboratory. The goal is to provide an unambiguous test of the DAMA/LIBRA's annual modulation signature. Measurements of six prototype crystals show progress in the reduction of internal contaminations of radioisotopes. Based on our understanding of these measurements, we expect to achieve a background level in the final detector configuration that is less than 1~count/day/keV/kg for recoil energies around 2~keV. The annual modulation sensitivity for the KIMS-NaI experiment shows that an unambiguous 7$\\sigma$ test of the DAMA/LIBRA signature would be possible with a 600~kg$\\cdot$year exposure with this system.

  10. Surrogate Seeds For Growth Of Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Larger crystals of higher quality grown. Alternative method for starting growth of crystal involves use of seed crystal of different material instead of same material as solution. Intended for growing single-crystal proteins for experiments but applicable in general to growth of crystals from solutions and to growth of semiconductor or other crystals from melts.

  11. Box-Behnken实验设计法优化荚蒾果中绿原酸的提取工艺%Optimization of Extraction Process of Chlorogenic Acid in Viburnum Sargenti Koehne by Box-Behnken Centre-united Experiment Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 李洪阳; 祝天恩; 肖光玲; 李彦冰

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the extraction condition of chlorogenic acid in Viburnum sargenti Koehne .Methods: The condition for the extraction technique of chlorogenic acid in by response surface method was optimized based on the single factor tests, with the extraction rate of chlorogenic acid as the response value.Results: The optimal extraction process was as follows:extraction time 70 min,ratio of solid to liquid 1:14 and two time of extraction .Conclusion:The study provides a theoretical basis for the industri-alized production of chlorogenic acid in Viburnum sargenti Koehne.%目的:优选鸡树条芙蒾果实中有效成分绿原酸的最佳提取工艺。方法:采用Box-Behnken的实验设计,利用响应面法对荚蒾果中绿原酸的水提工艺进行优化,以绿原酸的含量为考察指标,采用紫外分光光度法进行测定。结果:最佳提取工艺为以14倍量的水提取2次,每次70分钟。结论:该工艺方法对有效成分提取率较高,合理,可行,为荚蒾果绿原酸的工业化生产提供一定的理论依据。

  12. The Lithium Vapor Box Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, Robert; Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Gregory; Jaworski, Michael; Myers, Rachel; Schwartz, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    Projections of scrape-off layer width to a demonstration power plant suggest an immense parallel heat flux, of order 12 GW/m2, which will necessitate nearly fully detached operation. Building on earlier work by Nagayama et al. and by Ono et al., we propose to use a series of differentially pumped boxes filled with lithium vapor to isolate the buffering vapor from the main plasma chamber, allowing stable detachment. This powerful differential pumping is only available for condensable vapors, not conventional gases. We demonstrate the properties of such a system through conservation laws for vapor mass and enthalpy, and then include plasma entrainment and ultimately an estimate of radiated power. We find that full detachment should be achievable with little leakage of lithium to the main plasma chamber. We also present progress towards solving the Navier-Stokes equation numerically for the chain of vapor boxes, including self-consistent wall boundary conditions and fully-developed shocks, as well as concepts for an initial experimental demonstration-of-concept. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Quartz dissolution. I - Negative crystal experiments and a rate law. II - Theory of rough and smooth surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Bird, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The range of the measured quartz dissolution rates, as a function of temperature and pOH, extent of saturation, and ionic strength, is extended to cover a wider range of solution chemistries, using the negative crystal methodology of Gratz et al. (1990) to measure the dissolution rate. A simple rate law describing the quartz dissolution kinetics above the point of zero charge of quartz is derived for ionic strengths above 0.003 m. Measurements were performed on some defective crystals, and the mathematics of step motion was developed for quartz dissolution and was compared with rough-face behavior using two different models.

  14. Understanding Recommender Dynamics driving Box Office Revenues

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, C H; Jin, C -H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a simple model to investigate the underlying dynamics driving movie box office. Without an explicit reliance on time, the box office of movies evolves naturally by movie-movie competition through reviews listed on a centralized recommender system. A simple mean-field approximation is employed which assumes an average interaction between the competing movies, and describes the interesting box office dynamics. Box office hits are found for movies with quality beyond a critical value, leading to booms in gross box office. Such critical value is dependent on the reviewing behaviors, intention of movie goers for new movies, and the quality of the peer competing movies. Finally we compare our analytical results with simulations and real system and obtain qualitative agreements, suggesting the present model in describing the fundamental dynamics of box office.

  15. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  16. Quantitative determination of zero-gravity effects on electronic materials processing germanium crystal growth with simultaneous interface demarcation. Experiment MA-060

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Experiment MA-060 was designed to establish the crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero-g conditions. The interface demarcation technique was incorporated into the experiment since it constitutes a unique tool for recording the morphology of the growth rate throughout solidification, and for establishing an absolute time reference framework for all stages of the solidification process. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. There was no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground-based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

  17. Impact Characteristic According to the Structure of Crash Box at the Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min B.S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The crash box between a bumper and a car body in automobiles can reduce impacts for car bodies with a bumper at a low-speed collision by preventing the shocks. Also, this crash box is the part playing a very important role for the safety of vehicle and the reduction of repair cost, and many studies have been investigated for the performance. In this study, aluminum foam was inserted in an aluminum crash box to analyze the relationships of deformation, stress and internal energy. The compression characteristics are compared with six cases. In addition, the load due to displacement at experiment for a case is verified by modeling with finite elements and performing the structural analysis. As these study results for investigating characteristics of the crash box, it is thought that the effective designs of crash box to enhance the durability for collision are made possible.

  18. Are All Obsidians Super-Heated? Insights from Observations of Crystallization Kinetics in Experiments on Glass Mountain Obsidians (Long Valley, CA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L.; Andrews, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Glass Mountain obsidians (Long Valley, CA) are crystal-poor (obsidians, if the mineral assemblage is phenocrystic. Results of high-resolution SEM mapping and electron microprobe analysis of a Glass Mountain sample reveal that the obsidian is saturated in nine phases (sanidine + quartz + plagioclase + ilmenite + titanomagnetite + zircon + apatite + allanite + biotite). Sanidine (Or78-Or35) and quartz occur in the largest abundances, and plagioclase (obsidians, requires that the mechanism that produced these obsidians have an associated kinetic effect that strongly hinders nucleation. Decompression and cooling experiments, conducted in this study and from the literature, demonstrate that the simplest way to hinder nucleation is to initiate degassing or cooling from super-liquidus conditions. Therefore, the Glass Mountain obsidians were super-heated prior to crystallization, achieved either by fluid under-saturated decompression from a crystalline mush or H2O-saturated partial melting.

  19. Study of CdMoO4 crystal for a neutrinoless double beta decay experiment with 116Cd and 100Mo nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ming-Xuan; Zhang, Yun-Long; Peng, Hai-Ping; Xu, Zi-Zong; Wang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-04-01

    The scintillation properties of a CdMoO4 crystal have been investigated experimentally. The fluorescence yields and decay times measured from 22 K to 300 K demonstrate that CdMoO4 crystal is a good candidate for an absorber for a bolometer readout, for both heat and scintillation signals. The results from Monte Carlo studies, taking the backgrounds from 2ν2β of and internal trace nuclides 214Bi and 208Tl into account, show that the expected sensitivity of a CdMoO4 bolometer for neutrinoless double beta decay experiments with an exposure of 100 kg·years is one order of magnitude higher than those of the current sets of the of and Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11275199)

  20. Characterization of x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for high-resolution spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering measurements in shock-compressed experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Pablant, N. A.; Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Efthimion, P. C.; Lee, H. J.; Zastrau, U.

    2017-01-01

    We have proposed, designed and built a dual-channel x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) for spectrally- and spatially-resolved x-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) measurements in the Matter in Extreme Conditions (MEC) end station at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). This spectrometer employs two spherically-bent germanium (Ge) 220 crystals, which are combined to form a large aperture dispersive element with a spectral bandwidth of 300 eV that enables both the elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering peaks to be simultaneously measured. The apparatus and its characterization are described. A resolving power of 1900 was demonstrated and a spatial resolution of 12 μm was achieved in calibration tests. For XRTS measurements, a narrow-bandwidth (ΔE/Ecarbon plasma produced in shock-compressed samples of different forms of carbon. Preliminary results of the scattering experiments from Pyrolytic Graphite samples that illustrate the utility of the instrument are presented.

  1. Experiences in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine use and associated depression in gay men and HIV positive men: in-depth interviews with general practitioners in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Deborah C; Newman, Christy E; Mao, Limin; Kippax, Susan C; Kidd, Michael R

    2008-08-15

    This paper describes the experiences of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in managing problematic crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) use among two groups of male patients: gay men and HIV positive men. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with GPs with HIV medication prescribing rights were conducted in Sydney, Adelaide and a rural-coastal town in New South Wales between August and October 2006. Participants were recruited from practices with high caseloads of gay and HIV positive men. Sixteen GPs were recruited from seven practices to take part in interviews. Participants included 14 male GPs and two female GPs, and the number of years each had been working in HIV medicine ranged from two to 24. Eleven of the GPs who were based in Sydney raised the issue of problematic crystal meth use in these two patient populations. Five key themes were identified: an increasing problem; associations with depression; treatment challenges; health services and health care; workforce issues. Despite study limitations, key implications can be identified. Health practitioners may benefit from broadening their understandings of how to anticipate and respond to problematic levels of crystal meth use in their patients. Early intervention can mitigate the impact of crystal meth use on co-morbid mental illness and other health issues. Management of the complex relationships between drug use, depression, sexuality and HIV can be addressed following a 'stepped care' approach. General practice guidelines for the management of crystal meth use problems should address specific issues associated with gay men and HIV positive men. GPs and other health practitioners must appreciate drug use as a social practice in order to build trust with gay men to encourage full disclosure of drug use. Education programs should train health practitioners in these issues, and increased resourcing provided to support the often difficult task of caring for people who use crystal meth. Greater

  2. High-throughput crystallization screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarina, Tatiana; Xu, Xiaohui; Evdokimova, Elena; Savchenko, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    Protein structure determination by X-ray crystallography is dependent on obtaining a single protein crystal suitable for diffraction data collection. Due to this requirement, protein crystallization represents a key step in protein structure determination. The conditions for protein crystallization have to be determined empirically for each protein, making this step also a bottleneck in the structure determination process. Typical protein crystallization practice involves parallel setup and monitoring of a considerable number of individual protein crystallization experiments (also called crystallization trials). In these trials the aliquots of purified protein are mixed with a range of solutions composed of a precipitating agent, buffer, and sometimes an additive that have been previously successful in prompting protein crystallization. The individual chemical conditions in which a particular protein shows signs of crystallization are used as a starting point for further crystallization experiments. The goal is optimizing the formation of individual protein crystals of sufficient size and quality to make them suitable for diffraction data collection. Thus the composition of the primary crystallization screen is critical for successful crystallization.Systematic analysis of crystallization experiments carried out on several hundred proteins as part of large-scale structural genomics efforts allowed the optimization of the protein crystallization protocol and identification of a minimal set of 96 crystallization solutions (the "TRAP" screen) that, in our experience, led to crystallization of the maximum number of proteins.

  3. IMPROVED, FAVORABLE FOR ENVIRONMENT POLYURETHANE COLD-BOX-PROCESS (COLD BOX «HUTTENES-ALBERTUS» .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sergini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the laboratory and industrial investigations, the purpose of which is improvement of the classical Cold-box-process, i.e. the process of the slugs hardening in cold boxes, are presented.

  4. Demonstration of Crystal Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Joseph P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment where equal parts of copper and aluminum are heated then cooled to show extremely large crystals. Suggestions are given for changing the orientation of crystals by varying cooling rates. Students are more receptive to concepts of microstructure after seeing this experiment. (DH)

  5. VO₂ requirements of boxing exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseneau, Eric; Mekary, Saïd; Léger, Luc A

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological requirements of various boxing exercises such as sparring, pad work, and punching bag. Because it was not possible to measure the oxygen uptake (VO₂) of "true" sparring with a collecting gas valve in the face, we developed and validated a method to measure VO₂ of "true" sparring based on "postexercise" measurements. Nine experienced male amateur boxers (Mean ± SD: age = 22.0 ± 3.5 years, height = 176.0 ± 8.0 cm, weight = 71.4 ± 10.9 kg, number of fights = 13.0 ± 9.5) of regional and provincial level volunteered to participate in 3 testing sessions: (a) maximal treadmill test in the LAB, (b) standardized boxing training in the GYM, and (c) standardized boxing exercises in the LAB. Measures of VO₂, heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration [LA], rated perceived exertion level, and punching frequencies were collected. VO₂ values of 43.4 ± 5.9, 41.1 ± 5.1, 24.7 ± 6.1, 30.4 ± 5.8, and 38.3 ± 6.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹ were obtained, which represent 69.7 ± 8.0, 66.1 ± 8.0, 39.8 ± 10.4, 48.8 ± 8.5, and 61.7 ± 10.3%VO₂peak for sparring, pad work, and punching bag at 60, 120, and 180 b·min⁻¹, respectively. Except for lower VO₂ values for punching the bag at 60 and 120 b·min⁻¹ (p < 0.05), there was no VO₂ difference between exercises. Similar pattern was obtained for %HRmax with respective values of 85.5 ± 5.9, 83.6 ± 6.3, 67.5 ± 3.5, 74.8 ± 5.9, and 83.0 ± 6.0. Finally, sparring %HRmax and [LA] were slightly higher in the GYM (91.7 ± 4.3 and 9.4 ± 2.2 mmol·L⁻¹) vs. LAB (85.5 ± 5.9 and 6.1 ± 2.3 mmol·L⁻¹). Thus, in this study simulated LAB sparring and pad work required similar VO₂ (43-41 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹, respectively), which corresponds to ~70%VO₂peak. These results underline the importance of a minimum of aerobic fitness for boxers and draw some guidelines for the intensity of training.

  6. Optical vortex conversion in the elliptic vortex-beam propagating orthogonally to the crystal optical axis: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Bogdan; Kudryavtseva, Maria; Zinovyev, Alexey; Konovalenko, Victor; Rubass, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally analyzed the topological reactions occurred in the elliptic vortex-beam transmitting orthogonally to the optical axis of the SiO2 crystal. We have revealed that the oscillations of the polarization state when propagating the beam are accompanied by reconstruction of the polarization singularities at the beam cross-section that, in turn, entails the reconstruction of the wavefront in each circularly polarized beam component. Both synchronic oscillations of the spin angular momentum and the sign of the vortex topological charge are expressing in a field structure as birth and annihilation of topological dipoles. Also periodical conversion of the vortex ellipticity along the crystal length z and huge splash of spin angular momentum were analysed. The run of the dislocation reactions in the beam component results in converting the sign of the topological charge in the centered optical vortex, the distance of the vortex conversion being about 0.05 of the wavelength.

  7. Trial manufacture of portable type `WISH BOX`; Kahangata WISH BOX no shisaku kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiyama, I.; Sakuma, H.; Qin, W. [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Tochigi (Japan); Onai, Y.

    1996-10-27

    This paper proposes the small portable type power source `WISH BOX` (wind and solar hybrid) composed of a small wind power generator and solar cell panels. Since solar radiation and wind power are complementary to each other in seasons, day and night, and fine and cloudy weather, WISH BOX is useful for standalone power source in non-power areas of developing countries, life spot in disasters, and outdoor leisure. The most small light-weight high-performance AIR303 produced by Southwest Windpower Co., USA is used as wind power generator, and two 50W solar cell panels HSC-5010-S produced by Daido Hokusan Co. is used. Sealed lead storage batteries (12V, 20Ah each) are also connected to cope with load fluctuation. In comparison with conventional portable gasoline engine generators, this environment-friendly generator is featured by fuel-free, no emission of gases, no noises and no fire occurrence, and can also supply stable power with small batteries even in the nighttime and cloudy weather by combining wind power. The generator of 400,000 yen is now in field experiment. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Efficient ASK-assisted system for expression and purification of plant F-box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiou; Yao, Ruifeng; Ma, Sui; Hu, Shuai; Li, Suhua; Wang, Yupei; Yan, Chun; Xie, Daoxin; Yan, Jianbin

    2017-09-05

    Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation plays an essential role in plant growth and development as well as responses to environmental and endogenous signals. F-box protein is one of the key components of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which recruit specific substrate proteins for subsequent ubiquitination and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation to regulate developmental processes and signaling networks. However, it is not easy to obtain purified F-box proteins with high activity due to their unstable protein structures. Here, we found that Arabidopsis SKP-like proteins (ASKs) can significantly improve soluble expression of F-box proteins and maintain their bioactivity. We established an efficient ASK-assisted method to express and purify plant F-box proteins. The method meets a broad range of criteria required for the biochemical analysis or protein crystallization of plant F-box proteins. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 49 CFR 38.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fare box. 38.33 Section 38.33 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 38.33 Fare box. Where provided, the farebox shall be located as far forward as...

  10. 36 CFR 1192.33 - Fare box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fare box. 1192.33 Section 1192.33 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Buses, Vans and Systems § 1192.33 Fare box. Where...

  11. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  12. Modern biotechnology Panacea or new Pandora's box?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2011-01-01

    According to Greek mythology Pandora was sent down to earth upon the orders of Zeus. She was given a mysterious box which she was not allowed to open. However, Pandora was very curious and when she arrived on earth she couldn?t help taking a peek inside the box. She saw that it was filled with gifts

  13. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  14. Boxing Injuries from an Instructional Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the safeguards as well as the injury pattern of the boxing program at the US Military Academy at West Point from 1983 to 1985. About 2,100 cadets received boxing instruction during this period with an injury rate of less than four percent. (Author/MT)

  15. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  16. Memories in Drosophila Heat-box Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putz, Gabriele; Heisenberg, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Learning and memory processes of operant conditioning in the heat-box are analyzed. In a search for conditioning parameters leading to high retention scores, intermittent training is shown to give better results than those of continuous training. Immediate retention tests contain two memory components, a spatial preference for one side of the chamber and a “stay-where-you-are-effect.” Intermittent training strengthens the latter. In the second part, memory dynamics is investigated. Flies are trained in one chamber and tested in a second one after a brief reminder training. With this direct transfer, memory scores reflect an associative learning process in the first chamber. To investigate memory retention after extended time periods, indirect transfer experiments are performed. The fly is transferred to a different environment between training and test phases. With this procedure, an aftereffect of the training can still be observed 2 h later. Surprisingly, exposure to the chamber without conditioning also leads to a memory effect in the indirect transfer experiment. This exposure effect reveals a dispositional change that facilitates operant learning during the reminder training. The various memory effects are independent of the mushroom bodies. PMID:12359842

  17. Twin-box ITER joints under electromagnetic transient loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Boris, E-mail: boris.stepanov@psi.ch; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; March, Stephen; Sedlak, Kamil

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ITER “twin-box” joint design. • Dependence of the joint resistance on current. • Resistance change under the transient electromagnetic load. • Breakdown of the contributions to the joint resistance. • Field dump and conductor performance behind the twin-box joint. - Abstract: The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) coil winding packs are designed to be wound in double-pancakes. The twin-box joint provides the electrical pancake-to-pancake connection between the two Nb{sub 3}Sn 68 kA conductors and electrical coil-to-bus bar connection between the TF coil terminations and NbTi 68 kA bus bars conductors. The twin-box full size joint sample connecting two Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors (pancake-to-pancake joint) was prepared in order to qualify the TF joint assembly in SULTAN Test Facility. The original goal of the test program was the measurement of joint resistance at different operating conditions. The accidental dump of the SULTAN background field caused a noticeable increase of resistance due to the induced electromagnetic transient load. The TF joint test was continued in order to investigate a change of joint resistance following electromagnetic transient loading which was triggered by intentional dump of the background field. Also, a dependence of the joint resistance on current was observed; in order to explore the origin of resistance change, additional experiments were performed with a modified (artificially degraded) TF twin-box joint. The test results of a TF twin-box joint after electromagnetic transient loading and performance of the joint after a modification are presented in this paper. The performance of Nb{sub 3}Sn 68 kA conductor observed during those tests is highlighted as well.

  18. An accidental statistician the life and memories of George E. P. Box

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P

    2013-01-01

    Celebrating the life of an admired pioneer in statisticsIn this captivating and inspiring memoir, world-renowned statistician George E. P. Box offers a firsthand account of his life and statistical work. Writing in an engaging, charming style, Dr. Box reveals the unlikely events that led him to a career in statistics, beginning with his job as a chemist conducting experiments for the British army during World War II. At this turning point in his life and career, Dr. Box taught himself the statistical methods necessary to analyze his own findings when there were no statist

  19. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  20. NC INCREMENTAL SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS AND VERTICAL WALL SQUARE BOX FORMING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Liuru; Mo Jianhua; Xiao Xiangzhi

    2004-01-01

    The forming principle and deformation analysis of NC incremental sheet metal forming process as well as the process planning, experiment and key process parameters of vertical wall square box forming are presented. Because the deformation of sheet metal only occurs around the tool head and the deformed region is subjected to stretch deformation, the deformed region of sheet metal thins, and surface area increases. Sheet metal forming stepwise is to lead to the whole sheet metal deformation. The forming half-apex angle θ and corner radius R are the main process parameters in NC incremental forming of vertical wall square box. According to sine law, a vertical wall square box can't be formed by NC incremental sheet metal forming process in a single process, rather, it must be formed in multi processes. Thus, the parallel line type tool path process method is presented to form the vertical wall square box, and the experiment and analysis are made to verify it.

  1. A RESEARCH ON HEALTHY LIVING BEHAVIORS OF ARCHERY COACHES AND BOXING COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Bahadır

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to assess healthy living behaviors of archery coaches and boxing coaches in terms of sportive branch, sportive experience and gender. The study was conducted with boxing coaches (n=119 and archery coaches (n=131. As the data collection tool; “ The Health - Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP - II which was developed by Walker et al . and validity and reliability tests of which were performed by Bahar et al . (2008 was employed. In the study; it was found out that mean score of boxing coaches on P hysical activity subscale was higher than archery coaches . Besides; no statistically significant difference s existed between archery coaches and boxing coaches in terms of gender and sportive experience.

  2. Ratio of the contributions real and virtual photons diffraction in thin perfect crystals. Comparison of calculation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goponov, Yu. A.; Laktionova, S. A.; Sidnin, M. A.; Vnukov, I. E.

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate and improve the previously proposed method of calculating diffracted photon yields in thin perfect crystals, a comparison between calculated and experimental results in wide range of photons and electrons energy was carried out. It is shown that the proposed method describes all investigated experimental results for bremsstrahlung diffraction and transition radiation one with an error less than ten-fifteen percent. Consequently, the method may be used for calculation of the electron beam divergence influence on the diffracted transition radiation angular distribution.

  3. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  4. Influence of non steady gravity on natural convection during micro-gravity solidification of semiconductors. I - Time scale analysis. II - Implications for crystal growth experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, P. R.; Motakef, S.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of temporal variations in the magnitude of gravity on natural convection during unidirectional solidification of semiconductors. It is shown that the response time to step changes in g at low Rayleigh numbers is controlled by the momentum diffusive time scale. At higher Rayleigh numbers, the response time to increases in g is reduced because of inertial effects. The degree of perturbation of flow fields by transients in the gravitational acceleration on the Space Shuttle and the Space Station is determined. The analysis is used to derive the requirements for crystal growth experiments conducted on low duration low-g vehicles. Also, the effectiveness of sounding rockets and KC-135 aircraft for microgravity experiments is examined.

  5. Influence of non steady gravity on natural convection during micro-gravity solidification of semiconductors. I - Time scale analysis. II - Implications for crystal growth experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, P. R.; Motakef, S.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of temporal variations in the magnitude of gravity on natural convection during unidirectional solidification of semiconductors. It is shown that the response time to step changes in g at low Rayleigh numbers is controlled by the momentum diffusive time scale. At higher Rayleigh numbers, the response time to increases in g is reduced because of inertial effects. The degree of perturbation of flow fields by transients in the gravitational acceleration on the Space Shuttle and the Space Station is determined. The analysis is used to derive the requirements for crystal growth experiments conducted on low duration low-g vehicles. Also, the effectiveness of sounding rockets and KC-135 aircraft for microgravity experiments is examined.

  6. Quantum irreversible decoherence behaviour in open quantum systems with few degrees of freedom. Application to 1H NMR reversion experiments in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Segnorile, H H

    2013-01-01

    An experimental study of NMR spin decoherence in nematic liquid crystals is presented. The outcome of the experiments are analyzed in the framework of a theory that considers the spins as an open quantum system coupled to a quantum molecular environment, presented by the authors recently. Decoherence dynamics can be put in evidence by means of refocusing experiments of the dipolar interactions. The experimental technique used in this work is based on the MREV8 pulse sequence. Non-idealities of the experimental setting, like external field inhomogeneity, pulse misadjustments and the presence of non-reverted spin interaction terms are analysed in detail and their effects on the observed signal decay are estimated. It is found that, though all these non-idealities could in principle affect the evolution of the spin dynamics, their influence can be mitigated and they do not present the characteristic behaviour of the irreversible spin decoherence. As unique characteristic of decoherence, the experimental results ...

  7. Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box field test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangiacomo, L.A.

    1999-05-28

    The Hydro-Balanced Stuffing Box is a seal assembly for polished rod pumping installations commonly used in oil and gas pumping well installations to contain produced well fluids. The improved stuffing box was developed and patented by Harold H. Palmour of The Palmour Group of Livingston, TX. The stuffing box is designed to reduce the incidence of seal leakage and to utilize an environmentally safe fluid, so that if there is any leakage, environmental damage is reduced or eliminated. The unit was tested on two wells at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center. During the test period, the performance of the stuffing box was measured by monitoring the pressure on the tubing and the inner chamber with a Barton Two-pen recorder. The amount of safe fluid consumed, fluid leakage at the top of the stuffing box, pressure supplied from the nitrogen bottle, ambient temperature, and polish rod temperature was recorded. The stuffing box is capable of providing a better seal between well fluids an d the environment than conventional stuffing boxes. It allows the polished rod to operate cooler and with lubrication, extending the life of the packing elements, and reducing the amount of attention required to prevent leakage.

  8. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  9. Examination of a Junction-Box Adhesion Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp heat' IEC qualification test is proposed to verify the basic robustness of its adhesion system. The details of the proposed test will be described, in addition to the preliminary results obtained using representative materials and components. The described discovery experiments examine moisture-cured silicone, foam tape, and hot-melt adhesives used in conjunction with PET or glass module 'substrates.' To be able to interpret the results, a set of material-level characterizations was performed, including thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and dynamic mechanical analysis. PV j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then placed inside an environmental chamber (at 85C, 85% relative humidity). Some systems did not remain attached through the discovery experiments. Observed failure modes include delamination (at the j-box/adhesive or adhesive/substrate interface) and phase change/creep. The results are discussed in the context of the application requirements, in addition to the plan for the formal experiment supporting the proposed modification to the qualification test.

  10. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  11. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  12. CMS lead tungstate crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    These crystals are made from lead tungstate, a crystal that is as clear as glass yet with nearly four times the density. They have been produced in Russia to be used as scintillators in the electromagnetic calorimeter on the CMS experiment, part of the LHC project at CERN. When an electron, positron or photon passes through the calorimeter it will cause a cascade of particles that will then be absorbed by these scintillating crystals, allowing the particle's energy to be measured.

  13. Crystals in crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus H.; Schmidt, I.; Carlsson, A.;

    2005-01-01

    A major factor governing the performance of catalytically active particles supported on a zeolite carrier is the degree of dispersion. It is shown that the introduction of noncrystallographic mesopores into zeolite single crystals (silicalite-1, ZSM-5) may increase the degree of particle dispersion...... of the zeolite particles, particularly after thermal treatment. When using mesoporous zeolites, the particles were evenly distributed throughout the mesopore system of the zeolitic support, even after calcination, leading to nanocrystals within mesoporous zeolite single crystals....

  14. Automation in biological crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw Stewart, Patrick; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given. PMID:24915074

  15. Automation in biological crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Patrick Shaw; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization remains the bottleneck in the crystallographic process leading from a gene to a three-dimensional model of the encoded protein or RNA. Automation of the individual steps of a crystallization experiment, from the preparation of crystallization cocktails for initial or optimization screens to the imaging of the experiments, has been the response to address this issue. Today, large high-throughput crystallization facilities, many of them open to the general user community, are capable of setting up thousands of crystallization trials per day. It is thus possible to test multiple constructs of each target for their ability to form crystals on a production-line basis. This has improved success rates and made crystallization much more convenient. High-throughput crystallization, however, cannot relieve users of the task of producing samples of high quality. Moreover, the time gained from eliminating manual preparations must now be invested in the careful evaluation of the increased number of experiments. The latter requires a sophisticated data and laboratory information-management system. A review of the current state of automation at the individual steps of crystallization with specific attention to the automation of optimization is given.

  16. Characteristics of wind power on Savonius rotor using a guide-box tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irabu, Kunio; Roy, Jitendro Nath [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru-1, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    This study investigates to improve and adjust the output power of Savonius rotor under various wind power and suggests the method of prevention the rotor from strong wind disaster. In this study, as the appropriate device to achieve the purpose of it, a guide-box tunnel is employed. The guide-box tunnel is like a rectangular box as wind passage in which a test rotor is included. The area ratio between the inlet and exit of it is variable to adjust the inlet mass flow rate or input power. At first, the experiment was conducted to find the adequate configuration which would provide the best relative performance. The present experiment, however, does not include the test to retain the guide-box tunnel from the strong wind. The experiments include the static torque test of the fixed rotor at any phase angle and the dynamic torque test at rotation of them. Consequently, it was found that the maximum rotor rotational speed was achieved in the range of the guide-box area ratio between 0.3 and 0.7 and the value of the output power coefficient of the rotor with guide-box tunnel of the area ratio 0.43 increases about 1.5 times with three blades and 1.23 times with two blades greater than that without guide-box tunnel, respectively. It seemed that the performance of Savonius rotor within the guide-box tunnel is comparable enough with other methods for augmentation and control of the output. (author)

  17. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  18. Indentation Pileup Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: Experiments and Nonlocal Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fengbo; Tang, Bin; Yan, Xu; Peng, Yifei; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Deng, Ying; Feng, Yong

    2017-04-01

    This study reports on the indentation pileup behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Berkovich nanoindentation was performed on a specimen with equiaxed microstructure. The indented area was characterized by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) to obtain the indented grain orientations. Surface topographies of several indents were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The pileup patterns on the indented surfaces show significant orientation dependence. Corresponding nonlocal crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) simulations were carried out to predict the pileup patterns. Analysis of the cumulative shear strain distributions and evolutions for different slip systems around the indents found that the pileups are mainly caused by prismatic slip. The pileup patterns evolve with the loading and unloading process, and the change in pileup height due to the elastic recovery at unloading stage is significant. The density distributions of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) around the indent were predicted. Simulation of nanoindentation on a tricrystal model was performed.

  19. Packing a cake into a box

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-05-01

    Given a triangular cake and a box in the shape of its mirror image, how can the cake be cut into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has icing, so we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V. G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to be put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to Boltyansky\\'s question. We also give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces. © THE MATHEMATICAL ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA.

  20. Packing a cake into a box

    CERN Document Server

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    Given a cake in form of a triangle and a box that fits the mirror image of the cake, how to cut the cake into a minimal number of pieces so that it can be put into the box? The cake has an icing, so that we are not allowed to put it into the box upside down. V.G. Boltyansky asked this question in 1977 and showed that three pieces always suffice. In this paper we provide examples of cakes that cannot be cut into two pieces to put into the box. This shows that three is the answer to V.G. Boltyansky's question. Also we give examples of cakes which can be cut into two pieces.

  1. Starling nest box monitoring [Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document described the standard operating procedures for observing and recording data collected from starling nest box monitoring at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal....

  2. Light Therapy Boxes for Seasonal Affective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and style are important considerations. ...

  3. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cubomedusae, or box jellyfish, are renowned for their immense stinging power, but another truly remarkable feature is their visual system. They have four sensory structures called rhopalia, and each of the rhopalia contains six eyes of four morphological types. These eyes support a range of behav......Cubomedusae, or box jellyfish, are renowned for their immense stinging power, but another truly remarkable feature is their visual system. They have four sensory structures called rhopalia, and each of the rhopalia contains six eyes of four morphological types. These eyes support a range...... of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...

  4. Black-Box Search by Unbiased Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    The complexity theory for black-box algorithms, introduced by Droste, Jansen, and Wegener (Theory Comput. Syst. 39:525–544, 2006), describes common limits on the efficiency of a broad class of randomised search heuristics. There is an obvious trade-off between the generality of the black-box model...... and the strength of the bounds that can be proven in such a model. In particular, the original black-box model provides for well-known benchmark problems relatively small lower bounds, which seem unrealistic in certain cases and are typically not met by popular search heuristics.In this paper, we introduce a more...... restricted black-box model for optimisation of pseudo-Boolean functions which we claim captures the working principles of many randomised search heuristics including simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, randomised local search, and others. The key concept worked out is an unbiased variation operator...

  5. The Spectra of Des S-Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    function takes an n-bit ciphertext with a k-bit key and maps the combination into an n-bit plaintext. In traditional math lingo , E and D undo each... analysis went into the selection of the eight S-Boxes. Yet, a randomly designed S-Box can often achieve an adequate level of resistance to attacks...argues that IBM knew of this technique and purposely designed the algorithm to defeat this technique. Regardless, differential crypt- analysis is

  6. A look inside the actuarial black box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, S E; Youngerman, H

    1992-12-01

    Hospital executives often rely on actuaries (and their "black boxes") to determine self-insurance program liabilities and funding contributions. Typically, the hospital supplies the actuary with a myriad of statistics, and eventually the hospital receives a liability estimate and recommended funding level. The mysterious actuarial calculations that occur in between data reporting and receipt of the actuary's report are akin to a black box--a complicated device whose internal mechanism is hidden from or mysterious to the user.

  7. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  8. BOX-DEATH HOLLOW ROADLESS AREA, UTAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon W.; Lane, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, and a search for prospects and mineralized rock in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area, Utah indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Additional exploratory drilling by industry seems warranted if wells elsewhere in the region find oil or gas in strata as yet untested in the Box-Death Hollow Roadless Area.

  9. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  10. Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël

    We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....

  11. LA VIGA HUECA HABITABLE Y OTRAS EXPERIENCIAS DE PREFABRICACIÓN EN VIVIENDA DE GO–DB / The habitable box beam and other housing prefabrication experiences in GO-DB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cortina Maruenda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En los albores de la industria aplicada a la arquitectura en España, el estudio GO-DB Arquitectos Asociados, realizó 8 viviendas experimentales (1967-1969 como cierre a una primera etapa de investigación propia. Inspiradas en las dovelas de los puentes de hormigón prefabricado, haciendo suya la idea de Le Corbusier de que los ingenieros construyen en su tiempo, realizaron una serie de ensayos que concluyó con las 8 viviendas que protagonizan este artículo. Con un presupuesto muy ajustado consiguieron realizar una pequeña factoría "in situ" para por medio de una cadena de montaje, producir los Elementos Modulares que bajo el concepto de la Viga Hueca Habitable conformarían cada una de las viviendas. Cada cinco horas se podía montar una vivienda de diez módulos, casi como aparcar coches o hacer una construcción con los bloques de madera de arce de Froebel a los que Wright fue tan aficionado. Este artículo, explicará además, basándose en las publicaciones y escritos del propio estudio, cual fue el proceso y las ideas teóricas que sustentaron este proyecto que abonó el campo para posteriores investigaciones en prefabricación. SUMMARY At the dawn of the industry applied to architecture in Spain, the studio of GO-DB Associated Architects constructed eight experimental dwellings (1967-1969 as the finalization of a first stage of their research. Inspired by the sections of precast concrete bridges, adopting the idea of Le Corbusier that engineers built in his era, the studio completed a series of trials that ended with the eight dwellings featured in this article.With a very tight budget they made a small "in-situ" factory which, by means of an assembly line, produced the Modular Elements that, under the concept of The Habitable Box Beam, made up each of the homes. A dwelling of ten modules could be assembled every five hours, almost like parking cars or making a construction with the Froebel maple blocks so beloved by Wright

  12. OZSPEC-2: an improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeter, R F; Anderson, S G; Booth, R; Brown, G V; Emig, J; Fulkerson, S; McCarville, T; Norman, D; Schneider, M B; Young, B K F

    2008-10-01

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 microm resolution over a 1500 microm field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/DeltaE>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  13. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  14. Assimilating Ferry Box data into the Aegean Sea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, G.; Ntoumas, M.; Potiris, M.; Petihakis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational monitoring and forecasting of marine environmental conditions is a necessary tool for the effective management and protection of the marine ecosystem. It requires the use of multi-variable real-time measurements combined with advanced physical and ecological numerical models. Towards this, a FerryBox system was originally installed and operated in the route Piraeus-Heraklion in 2003 for one year. Early 2012 the system was upgraded and moved to a new high-speed ferry traveling daily in the same route as before. This route is by large traversing the Cretan Sea being the largest and deepest basin (2500 m) in the south Aegean Sea. The HCMR Ferry Box is today the only one in the Mediterranean and thus it can be considered as a pilot case. The analysis of FerryBox SST and SSS in situ data revealed the presence of important regional and sub-basin scale physical phenomena, such as wind-driven coastal upwelling and the presence of a mesoscale cyclone to the north of Crete. In order to assess the impact of the FerryBox SST data in constraining the Aegean Sea hydrodynamic model which is part of the POSEIDON forecasting system, the in situ data were assimilated using an advanced multivariate assimilation scheme based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, a simplified square-root extended Kalman filter that operates with low-rank error covariance matrices as a way to reduce the computational burden. Thus during the period mid-August 2012-mid January 2013 in addition to the standard assimilating parameters, daily SST data along the ferryboat route from Piraeus to Heraklion were assimilated into the model. Inter-comparisons between the control run of the system (model run that uses only the standard data set of observations) and the experiment where the observational data set is augmented with the FerryBox SST data produce interesting results. Apart from the improvement of the SST error, the additional assimilation of daily of FerryBox SST

  15. HYDROGEN AND VOC RETENTION IN WASTE BOXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PACE ME; MARUSICH RM

    2008-11-21

    The Hanford Waste Management Project Master Documented Safety Analysis (MDSA) (HNF-14741, 2003) identifies derived safety controls to prevent or mitigate the risks of a single-container deflagration during operations requiring moving, venting or opening transuranic (TRU)-waste containers. The issue is whether these safety controls are necessary for operations involving TRU-waste boxes that are being retrieved from burial at the Hanford Site. This paper investigates the potential for a deflagration hazard within these boxes and whether safety controls identified for drum deflagration hazards should be applied to operations involving these boxes. The study evaluates the accumulation of hydrogen and VOCs within the waste box and the transport of these gases and vapors out of the waste box. To perform the analysis, there were numerous and major assumptions made regarding the generation rate and the transport pathway dimensions and their number. Since there is little actual data with regards to these assumptions, analyses of three potential configurations were performed to obtain some indication of the bounds of the issue (the concentration of hydrogen or flammable VOCs within a waste box). A brief description of each of the three cases along with the results of the analysis is summarized.

  16. Amateur boxing: physical and physiological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabène, Helmi; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Franchini, Emerson; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Amara, Samiha; Chaabène, Raja Bouguezzi; Hachana, Younés

    2015-03-01

    Boxing is one of the oldest combat sports. The aim of the current review is to critically analyze the amateur boxer's physical and physiological characteristics and to provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research. High-level male and female boxers show a propensity for low body fat levels. Although studies on boxer somatotypes are limited, the available information shows that elite-level male boxers are characterized by a higher proportion of mesomorphy with a well-developed muscle mass and a low body fat level. To help support the overall metabolic demands of a boxing match and to accelerate the recovery process between rounds, athletes of both sexes require a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness. International boxers show a high peak and mean anaerobic power output. Muscle strength in both the upper and lower limbs is paramount for a fighter's victory and is one of the keys to success in boxing. As boxing punches are brief actions and very dynamic, high-level boxing performance requires well-developed muscle power in both the upper and lower limbs. Albeit limited, the available studies reveal that isometric strength is linked to high-level boxing performance. Future investigations into the physical and physiological attributes of boxers are required to enrich the current data set and to help create a suitable training program.

  17. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, S.; Herrera, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. 


 PMID:10597855

  18. Systematic identification of crystallization kinetics within a generic modelling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Meisler, Kresten Troelstrup; Gernaey, Krist

    2012-01-01

    A systematic development of constitutive models within a generic modelling framework has been developed for use in design, analysis and simulation of crystallization operations. The framework contains a tool for model identification connected with a generic crystallizer modelling tool-box, a tool...

  19. Analysis of Tendencies Towards Changes in Temperatures of Railway Vehicle Axle Boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Lunys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes variations in the temperature of axle-box heating of railroad rolling stock considering two modes of the train - driving and parking position. Additionally, the article describes the influence of the axle load and season on the heat of the axle-box, forecasts intolerable residual resources and explains a possibility of detecting likely breakage at the very beginning of defects. The paper also deals with scientific literature related to axle-box heating and focuses on the conducted practical and theoretical experiments. The carried out research has established the rates of operating heating and critical heating. The application of numerical values for the algorithm of automatic control devices could help with detecting the breakdowns of the axle-box before they reach a critical state and assist in forecasting residual operating resources.

  20. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  1. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  2. The development of a reliable amateur boxing performance analysis template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Edward; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to devise a valid performance analysis system for the assessment of the movement characteristics associated with competitive amateur boxing and assess its reliability using analysts of varying experience of the sport and performance analysis. Key performance indicators to characterise the demands of an amateur contest (offensive, defensive and feinting) were developed and notated using a computerised notational analysis system. Data were subjected to intra- and inter-observer reliability assessment using median sign tests and calculating the proportion of agreement within predetermined limits of error. For all performance indicators, intra-observer reliability revealed non-significant differences between observations (P > 0.05) and high agreement was established (80-100%) regardless of whether exact or the reference value of ±1 was applied. Inter-observer reliability was less impressive for both analysts (amateur boxer and experienced analyst), with the proportion of agreement ranging from 33-100%. Nonetheless, there was no systematic bias between observations for any indicator (P > 0.05), and the proportion of agreement within the reference range (±1) was 100%. A reliable performance analysis template has been developed for the assessment of amateur boxing performance and is available for use by researchers, coaches and athletes to classify and quantify the movement characteristics of amateur boxing.

  3. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  4. Quasi-periodic Fibonacci and periodic one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystals of porous silicon: Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Gazi N., E-mail: g.aliev@bath.ac.uk; Goller, Bernhard [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-07

    A one-dimensional Fibonacci phononic crystal and a distributed Bragg reflector were constructed from porous silicon. The structures had the same number of layers and similar acoustic impedance mismatch, and were electrochemically etched in highly boron doped silicon wafers. The thickness of the individual layers in the stacks was approximately 2 μm. Both types of hypersonic band gap structure were studied by direct measurement of the transmittance of longitudinal acoustic waves in the 0.1–2.6 GHz range. Acoustic band gaps deeper than 50 dB were detected in both structures. The experimental results were compared with model calculations employing the transfer matrix method. The acoustic properties of periodic and quasi-periodic structures in which half-wave retarding bi-layers do not consist of two quarter-wave retarding layers are discussed. The strong correlation between width and depth of gaps in the transmission spectra is demonstrated. The dominant mechanisms of acoustic losses in porous multilayer structures are discussed. The elastic constants remain proportional over our range of porosity, and hence, the Grüneisen parameter is constant. This simplifies the expression for the porosity dependence of the Akhiezer damping.

  5. 49 CFR 178.517 - Standards for plastic boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for plastic boxes. 178.517 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.517 Standards for plastic boxes. (a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes: (1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and (2) 4H2 for...

  6. 49 CFR 230.101 - Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. 230.101... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.101 Steam locomotive driving journal boxes. (a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not...

  7. Exergaming boxing versus heavy-bag boxing: are these equipotent for individuals with spinal cord injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Rosly, Maziah; Mat Rosly, Hadi; Hasnan, Nazirah; Davis, Glen M; Husain, Ruby

    2017-08-01

    Current strategies for increased physical activity and exercise in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) face many challenges with regards to maintaining their continuity of participation. Barriers cited often include problems with accessing facilities, mundane, monotonous or boring exercises and expensive equipment that is often not adapted for wheelchair users. To compare the physiological responses and user preferences between conventional heavy-bag boxing against a novel form of video game boxing, known as exergaming boxing. Cross-sectional study. Exercise laboratory setting in a university medical center. Seventeen participants with SCI were recruited, of which sixteen were male and only one female. Their mean age was 35.6±10.2 years. All of them performed a 15-minute physical exercise session of exergaming and heavy-bag boxing in a sitting position. The study assessed physiological responses in terms of oxygen consumption, metabolic equivalent (MET) and energy expenditure between exergaming and heavy-bag boxing derived from open-circuit spirometry. Participants also rated their perceived exertion using Borg's category-ratio ratings of perceived exertion. Both exergaming (MET: 4.3±1.0) and heavy-bag boxing (MET: 4.4±1.0) achieved moderate exercise intensities in these participants with SCI. Paired t-test revealed no significant differences (P>0.05, Cohen's d: 0.02-0.49) in the physiological or perceived exertional responses between the two modalities of boxing. Post session user survey reported all the participants found exergaming boxing more enjoyable. Exergaming boxing, was able to produce equipotent physiological responses as conventional heavy-bag boxing. The intensity of both exercise modalities achieved recommended intensities for health and fitness benefits. Exergaming boxing have the potential to provide an enjoyable, self-competitive environment for moderate-vigorous exercise even at the comfort of their homes.

  8. Macromolecular crystallization in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Edward H [Biophysics Group, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Code XD42, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Helliwell, John R [Department of Chemistry, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of growing crystals are greatly reduced when crystallization takes place in a reduced gravity environment. In the case of macromolecular crystallography a crystal of a biological macromolecule is used for diffraction experiments (x-ray or neutron) so as to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal then the greater the molecular structure detail that can be extracted. It is this structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences, with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyse the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural advances. Finally, limitations and alternatives to microgravity and future directions for this research are covered. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry and mathematics meet to enable insight to the fundamentals of life. As the reader will see, there is a great deal of physics involved when the microgravity environment is applied to crystallization, some of it known, and undoubtedly much yet to

  9. Evaluation of Pre-marketing Factors to Predict Post-marketing Boxed Warnings and Safety Withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Andreas; Miller, Kathleen L; Lanthier, Michael; Dal Pan, Gerald; Nardinelli, Clark

    2017-06-01

    An important goal in drug regulation is understanding serious safety issues with new drugs as soon as possible. Achieving this goal requires us to understand whether information provided during the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug review can predict serious safety issues that are usually identified after the product is approved. However, research on this topic remains understudied. In this paper, we examine whether any pre-marketing drug characteristics are associated with serious post-marketing safety actions. We study this question using an internal FDA database containing every new small molecule drug submitted to the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) on or after November 21, 1997, and approved and commercially launched before December 31, 2009. Serious post-marketing safety actions include whether these drugs ever experienced either a post-marketing boxed warning or a withdrawal from the market due to safety concerns. A random effects logistic regression model was used to test whether any pre-marketing characteristics were associated with either post-marketing safety action. A total of 219 new molecular entities were analyzed. Among these drugs, 11 experienced a safety withdrawal and 30 received boxed warnings by July 31, 2016. Contrary to prevailing hypotheses, we find that neither clinical trial sample sizes nor review time windows are associated with the addition of a post-marketing boxed warning or safety withdrawal. However, we do find that new drugs approved with either a boxed warning or priority review are more likely to experience post-marketing boxed warnings. Furthermore, drugs approved with boxed warnings tend to receive post-marketing boxed warnings resulting from new safety information that are unrelated to the original warning. Drugs approved with a boxed warning are 3.88 times more likely to receive a post-marketing boxed warning, while drugs approved with a priority review are 3.51 times more likely to receive a post

  10. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  11. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic expl...

  12. 变速器副箱锁销同步器结构改进的经验探讨%Discussion on the Improvement of the Transmission Side Box Latch Synchronizer Structure of Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟嘉强

    2015-01-01

    Pin type synchronizer for a transmission auxiliary automobile transmission complete shift ,can make smooth shift ,in-crease driving comfort ,is widely used in the automotive transmission .In this paper ,the fault type for pin type synchronizer relat-ed analysis and discussion ,to share with you the improvement experience .%锁销同步器作为辅助汽车变速器完成换挡的一种变速器零部件,可以使换挡平顺,增加驾驶舒适性,在汽车变速器上被广泛应用。针对锁销式同步器的故障类型进行相关分析讨论,探讨改进经验。

  13. CRYSTAL GROWTH OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS IN CLOSED SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Remarkable improvements have been made on the crystal growth of rare earth pnictides and chalchogenides by the development of new growth technique and the construction of several new equipments for the crystal growth such as electron beam welding system of tungsten crucible provided with large glove box and vacuum HF furnace. This system has really worked on obtaining excellent quality of single crystals and made easier to explore unknown materials of rare earth compounds. Interesting and att...

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Horizontally Curved Thin-Walled Box-Girder Bridge due to Moving Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nallasivam

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on curved box-girder bridges due to vehicle moving across rough bridge deck have been analyzed using bridge-vehicle coupled dynamics. The bridge deck unevenness has been assumed to be a homogeneous random process in space specified by a PSD function. The analysis incorporates the effect of centrifugal forces due to vehicle moving on curved bridge. The curved box-girder bridge has been numerically modeled using computationally efficient thin-walled box-beam finite elements which take into account the torsional warping, distortion and distortional warping, that are important features of thin-walled box girders. Rigid vehicle with longitudinal and transverse input to the wheels giving rise to heave-pitch-roll degrees of freedom has been considered. The theoretical bridge model used in simulation study has been validated by a free vibration experiment using impact excitation. The impact factors for several response parameters such as bending moment, shear force, torsional moment, torsional bi-moment, distortional moment, distortional bi-moment and vertical deflections have been obtained for various bridge-vehicle parameters. Both constant velocity and forward acceleration of the vehicle have been considered to examine impact factor. The results highlighted that the impact factors of a curved box girder bridge corresponding to torsion, distortion and their corresponding bimoments have been observed to be generally very high, while those of the other responses are also relatively higher than that of corresponding straight box girder bridge.

  15. Combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Hua; Xu, Rong-Mei; Zhang, Quan-Hai; Shen, Guo-Qing; Ma, Ming; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Guo, Yan-Hua; Wang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To observe the combined effects of astragalus soup and persistent Taiji boxing on improving the immunity of women of advanced years. 120 elderly women lacking daily exercise were chosen as the study subjects. By using the table of random numbers, they were then divided into the control group and the experiment group, consisting of 60 each. The control group practiced Taiji boxing for 45 minutes twice a day. The experiment group did the same, and, in addition, took astragalus soup after each boxing. Indexes related to physical immunity of the two groups were observed and compared when they were first chosen, when the alternative treatment was applied three, six and twelve months later, respectively. The two groups demonstrated no significant differences in general data and research indexes when chosen (P > 0.05). Three months after the two groups were chosen and treated differently, the control group demonstrated no significant improvement while most indexes of the experiment group improved considerably (P > 0.05). After six months, the related indexes of both groups improved substantially (P boxing produces no noticeable effect on the improvement of immunity in elderly women. However, when they resume the exercise for another three months and longer, Taiji boxing has a noticeable advantage and the effect is the most favorable when it is combined with astragalus soup.

  16. Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn

    The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...... the lack of fit in state space formulation, and further support decisions for a model expansion. By using stochastic differential equations to formulate the dynamics of the hydrological system, either the complexity of the model can be increased by including the necessary hydrological processes...... in the model, or formulation of process noise can be considered so that it meets the physical limits of the hydrological system and give an adequate description of the embedded uncertainty in model structure. The thesis consists of two parts: a summary report and a part which contains six scientific papers...

  17. General Analysis Tool Box for Controlled Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Osbild, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of reliable and efficient geometric algorithms is a challenging task. The reason is the following conflict: On the one hand, computing with rounded arithmetic may question the reliability of programs while, on the other hand, computing with exact arithmetic may be too expensive and hence inefficient. One solution is the implementation of controlled perturbation algorithms which combine the speed of floating-point arithmetic with a protection mechanism that guarantees reliability, nonetheless. This paper is concerned with the performance analysis of controlled perturbation algorithms in theory. We answer this question with the presentation of a general analysis tool box. This tool box is separated into independent components which are presented individually with their interfaces. This way, the tool box supports alternative approaches for the derivation of the most crucial bounds. We present three approaches for this task. Furthermore, we have thoroughly reworked the concept of controlled per...

  18. Advances in the theory of box integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, J.M.; Crandall, R.E.

    2009-06-25

    Box integrals - expectations <|{rvec r}|{sup s}> or <|{rvec r}-{rvec q}|{sup s}> over the unit n-cube (or n-box) - have over three decades been occasionally given closed forms for isolated n,s. By employing experimental mathematics together with a new, global analytic strategy, we prove that for n {le} 4 dimensions the box integrals are for any integer s hypergeometrically closed in a sense we clarify herein. For n = 5 dimensions, we show that a single unresolved integral we call K{sub 5} stands in the way of such hyperclosure proofs. We supply a compendium of exemplary closed forms that naturally arise algorithmically from this theory.

  19. Crystal ball single event display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Allgower, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.; Alyea, J. [Valparaiso Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). High Energy Physics Div.

    1997-10-15

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about {pi}{sup o}`s and {eta}`s formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer.

  20. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  1. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Diane J; Crandall, Aaron S; Thomas, Brian L; Krishnan, Narayanan C

    2013-07-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS "smart home in a box", a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and implementing smart home technologies.

  2. A white box perspective on behavioural adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application and adap......We present a white-box conceptual framework for adaptation developed in the context of the EU Project ASCENS coordinated by Martin Wirsing. We called it CoDA, for Control Data Adaptation, since it is based on the notion of control data. CoDA promotes a neat separation between application...

  3. Design Research: Six Views in a Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Association. Future designers need competence in co-design. Just as important is the need to establish various formats for how to maintain the research results and make these a valuable asset for further inquiry. Thus, the outcome of the class is a box that can be used by Johnson & Johnson and other...... professional organizations in a user-driven approach to explore and learn what it means to identify and admit that a person has Alzheimer’s. Apart from making contributions to the common box, the students have written reports in which they reflect on their work both in relation to the design research process...

  4. A crystal barrel

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The production of crystals for the barrel of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed. This is an important milestone for the experiment, which received the last of its 62,960 crystals on 9 March. The members of the team responsible for the crystal acceptance testing at CERN display the last crystal for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter barrel. From left to right: Igor Tarasov, Etiennette Auffray and Hervé Cornet.One of the six machines specially developed to measure 67 different parameters on each crystal. Igor Tarasov is seen inserting the last batch of crystals into the machine. The last of the 62,960 CMS barrel crystals arrived at CERN on 9 March. Once removed from its polystyrene protection, this delicate crystal, like thousands of its predecessors, will be inserted into the last of the 36 supermodules of the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter in a few days' time. This marks the end of an important chapter in an almost 15-year-long journey by the CMS crystals team, some of whose member...

  5. Investigation on features and tendencies of axle-box heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas LUNYS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes if not detected in due time may cause a rail accident or disaster. At present, a lot of advanced technologies, modern equipment and devices, which “recognizes” faulty axle-boxes when the train is in motion, have been implemented. However, the timely identification of breakdown of rolling stock axle-boxes still is an acute problem, the initial stage of damage emergence being especially problematic. Presently, rolling stock axle-box breakdown is determined according to the higher than permissible temperature of the axle-box body. The article provides statistical data of dangerously heated axle-boxes, determined train delay durations, the number of delayed trains by danger level, and dependence of damage on the season. After systematization of data on axle-box damage and heating temperatures of broken axle-boxes, heating tendencies of axle-boxes of freight wagons are described. Finally, basic conclusions are given.

  6. The spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C'/D' RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of the eukaryotic box C/D snoRNP nucleotide modification complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guosheng; van Nues, Rob W; Watkins, Nicholas J; Maxwell, E Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Box C/D ribonucleoprotein particles guide the 2'-O-ribose methylation of target nucleotides in both archaeal and eukaryotic RNAs. These complexes contain two functional centers, assembled around the C/D and C'/D' motifs in the box C/D RNA. The C/D and C'/D' RNPs of the archaeal snoRNA-like RNP (sRNP) are spatially and functionally coupled. Here, we show that similar coupling also occurs in eukaryotic box C/D snoRNPs. The C/D RNP guided 2'-O-methylation when the C'/D' motif was either mutated or ablated. In contrast, the C'/D' RNP was inactive as an independent complex. Additional experiments demonstrated that the internal C'/D' RNP is spatially coupled to the terminal box C/D complex. Pulldown experiments also indicated that all four core proteins are independently recruited to the box C/D and C'/D' motifs. Therefore, the spatial-functional coupling of box C/D and C'/D' RNPs is an evolutionarily conserved feature of both archaeal and eukaryotic box C/D RNP complexes.

  7. Nanoindentation Induced Deformation and Pop-in Events in a Silicon Crystal: Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiapeng, Sun; Cheng, Li; Han, Jing; Ma, Aibin; Fang, Liang

    2017-08-31

    Silicon has such versatile characteristics that the mechanical behavior and deformation mechanism under contact load are still unclear and hence are interesting and challenging issues. Based on combined study using molecular dynamics simulations and experiments of nanoindentation on Si(100), the versatile deformation modes, including high pressure phase transformation (HPPT), dislocation, median crack and surface crack, were found, and occurrence of multiple pop-in events in the load-indentation strain curves was reported. HPPTs are regard as the dominant deformation mode and even becomes the single deformation mode at a small indentation strain (0.107 in simulations), suggesting the presence of a defect-free region. Moreover, the one-to-one relationship between the pop-in events and the deformation modes is established. Three distinct mechanisms are identified to be responsible for the occurrence of multiple pop-in events in sequence. In the first mechanism, HPPTs from Si-I to Si-II and Si-I to bct5 induce the first pop-in event. The formation and extrusion of α-Si outside the indentation cavity are responsible for the subsequent pop-in event. And the major cracks on the surface induces the pop-in event at extreme high load. The observed dislocation burst and median crack beneath the transformation region produce no detectable pop-in events.

  8. Low temperature EPR investigation of Co2+ ion doped into rutile TiO2 single crystal: Experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerentürk, A.; Açıkgöz, M.; Kazan, S.; Yıldız, F.; Aktaş, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present the results of X-band EPR spectra of Co2+ ion doped rutile (TiO2) which is one of the most promising memristor material. We obtained the angular variation of spectra in three mutually perpendicular planes at liquid helium (7-13 K) temperatures. Since the impurity ions have ½ effective spin and 7/2 nuclear spin, a relatively simple spin Hamiltonian containing only electronic Zeeman and hyperfine terms was utilized. Two different methods were used in theoretical analysis. Firstly, a linear regression analysis of spectra based on perturbation theory was studied. However, this approach is not sufficient for analyzing Co+2 spectra and leads to complex eigenvectors for G and A tensors due to large anisotropy of eigenvalues. Therefore, all spectra were analyzed again with exact diagonalization of spin Hamiltonian and the high accuracy eigenvalues and eigenvectors of G and A tensors were obtained by taking into account the effect of small sample misalignment from the exact crystallographic planes due to experimental conditions. Our results show that eigen-axes of g and A tensors are parallel to crystallographic directions. Hence, our EPR experiments proves that Co2+ ions substitute for Ti4+ ions in lattice. The obtained principal values of g tensor are gx=2.110(6), gy=5.890(2), gz=3.725(7) and principal values of hyperfine tensor are Ax=42.4, Ay=152.7, Az=26 (in 10-4/cm).

  9. One-dimensional oscillator in a box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (UNLP, CCT La Plata-CONICET), Division Quimica Teorica, Blvd 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: paolo@ucol.mx, E-mail: fernande@quimica.unlp.edu.ar

    2010-01-15

    We discuss a quantum-mechanical model of two particles that interact by means of a harmonic potential and are confined to a one-dimensional box with impenetrable walls. We apply perturbation theory to the cases of different and equal masses and analyse the symmetry of the states in the latter case. We compare the approximate perturbation results with accurate numerical ones.

  10. Main: BOX1PVCHS15 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ression in plant development; Functions as a transcriptional silencer in electroporated protoplasts derived ...e Villain et al. (1996); Box 1; chs; chs15; CHS; SBF-1; silencer; organ-specific; Gt; GT-1; GT; bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) TAAAAGTTAAAAAC ...

  11. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  12. Cereal Box Design: An Interdisciplinary Graphics Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Tsosie, Teri

    2012-01-01

    The cereal box design activity is intriguing both for its simplicity and the resourcefulness that it can generate in young people. Also, it lends itself to a variety of curriculums. It covers both consumerism and Design for the Environment (DfE) concepts broadly and in depth. The activity introduces a wide range of topics. They include graphic…

  13. Hadron scattering in an asymmetric box*

    Science.gov (United States)

    China Lattice QCD Collaboration; Li, Xin; Chen, Ying; Meng, Guo-Zhan; Feng, Xu; Gong, Ming; He, Song; Li, Gang; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Yu-Bin; Ma, Jian-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Shen, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bo

    2007-06-01

    We propose to study hadron-hadron scattering using lattice QCD in an asymmetric box which allows one to access more non-degenerate low-momentum modes for a given volume. The conventional Lüscher's formula applicable in a symmetric box is modified accordingly. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, pion-pion elastic scattering phase shifts in the I = 2, J = 0 channel are calculated within quenched approximation using improved gauge and Wilson fermion actions on anisotropic lattices in an asymmetric box. After the chiral and continuum extrapolation, we find that our quenched results for the scattering phase shifts in this channel are consistent with the experimental data when the three-momentum of the pion is below 300MeV. Agreement is also found when compared with previous theoretical results from lattice and other means. Moreover, with the usage of asymmetric volume, we are able to compute the scattering phases in the low-momentum range (pion three momentum less than about 350MeV in the center of mass frame) for over a dozen values of the pion three-momenta, much more than using the conventional symmetric box with comparable volume.

  14. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.MADHUSEKHAR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  15. Using Story Boxes in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Story boxes and story bags are containers for holding realia that are used to enhance reading and provide a variety of activities for encouraging language acquisition and use. Whatever the packaging, these are good ways to develop students' interest in books. Using realia, or real-life objects, to teach a foreign language is not a novel concept.…

  16. Box of Ideal Gas in Free Fall

    CERN Document Server

    Kothawala, Dawood

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with centre 4-velocity u^a. Using perturbed energy eigenvalues to evaluate the canonical partition function, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities such as mean energy, entropy and specific heat include a very specific, sub-dominant term characterized by the dimensionless quantity, X = R_00 q^2, where R_00 = R_ab u^a u^b and q = \\beta \\hbar c. This X-contribution does not depend on kinematic details of the system such as box dimensions and mass of particles, and in particular leads to S_X = (1/2) \\beta U_X (see text), a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics. What is curious is that our result depends crucially on quantum mechanics since, in effect, the gas is allowed to "feel" the presence of the box through use of unperturbed wave function satisfying appropriate boundary conditions at the box walls. This is the feature which a classical an...

  17. Argon purge gas cooled by chill box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, L. W.

    1966-01-01

    Cooling argon purge gas by routing it through a shop-fabricated chill box reduces charring of tungsten inert gas torch head components. The argon gas is in a cooled state as it enters the torch and prevents buildup of char caused by the high concentrations of heat in the weld area during welding operations.

  18. Fast box-counting algorithm on GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, J; Ruiz de Miras, J

    2012-12-01

    The box-counting algorithm is one of the most widely used methods for calculating the fractal dimension (FD). The FD has many image analysis applications in the biomedical field, where it has been used extensively to characterize a wide range of medical signals. However, computing the FD for large images, especially in 3D, is a time consuming process. In this paper we present a fast parallel version of the box-counting algorithm, which has been coded in CUDA for execution on the Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). The optimized GPU implementation achieved an average speedup of 28 times (28×) compared to a mono-threaded CPU implementation, and an average speedup of 7 times (7×) compared to a multi-threaded CPU implementation. The performance of our improved box-counting algorithm has been tested with 3D models with different complexity, features and sizes. The validity and accuracy of the algorithm has been confirmed using models with well-known FD values. As a case study, a 3D FD analysis of several brain tissues has been performed using our GPU box-counting algorithm.

  19. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary…

  20. Expo-Box: Submit Tool Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA-Expo-Box is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases, mode

  1. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2009-01-01

      We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastruc- ture. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) ”boxes” annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryp...

  2. Piracy and Box Office Movie Revenues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peukert, Christian; Claussen, Jörg; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate the heterogeneous effects of online copyright enforcement. We ask whether the unexpected shutdown of the popular file hosting platform Megaupload had a differential effect on box office revenues of wide-release vs. niche movies. Identification comes from a comparison...

  3. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  4. Covering Points by Disjoint Boxes with Outliers

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Hee-Kap; Demaine, Erik D; Demaine, Martin L; Kim, Sang-Sub; Korman, Matias; Reinbacher, Iris; Son, Wanbin

    2009-01-01

    For a set of n points in the plane, we consider the axis--aligned (p,k)-Box Covering problem: Find p axis-aligned, pairwise-disjoint boxes that together contain n-k points. In this paper, we consider the boxes to be either squares or rectangles, and we want to minimize the area of the largest box. For general p we show that the problem is NP-hard for both squares and rectangles. For a small, fixed number p, we give algorithms that find the solution in the following running times: For squares we have O(n+k log k) time for p=1, and O(n log n+k^p log^p k time for p = 2,3. For rectangles we get O(n + k^3) for p = 1 and O(n log n+k^{2+p} log^{p-1} k) time for p = 2,3. In all cases, our algorithms use O(n) space.

  5. Experiência de manejo de aves em áreas antrópicas, com a utilização de caixas de madeira como locais para nidificação Experimental birds managment in anthropic areas, using nest-boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Octavio Marcondes-Machado

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of nest-boxes for management of cavity nesting birds in anthropic areas can give good results. In November 1987, data collection begun in UNICAMP, Campinas (São Paulo, with the objective of favouring establishment and increase in urban bird communities. The House Wren (Troglodytes aedon Viellot. 1807 and House Sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus, 1758 used the nest boxes for reproduction. Nests were collected and analysed (weight, used materials, incubation chamber materials, nest form. House Sparrow used thin materials, like straw, paper and plastic, while house wren used heavy materials, like sticks, wire and tabs of soff drink cans. The nest-boxes offered favorable conditions to bird reproduction and protection in disturbed areas, and showed signs of leading to increase in diversity of species, that might use this nest-boxes for reproduction in the future.

  6. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  7. Large-scale single-crystal growth of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 for neutron scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Garam; Oh, In-Hwan; Park, J. M. Sungil; Park, Seong-Hun; Hong, Chang Seop; Lee, Kwang-Sei

    2016-05-01

    Neutron scattering studies on low-dimensional quantum spin systems require large-size single-crystals. Single-crystals of (CH3)2NH2CuCl3 showing low-dimensional magnetic behaviors were grown by a slow solvent evaporation method in a two-solvent system at different temperature settings. The best results were obtained for the bilayer solution of methanol and isopropanol with a molar ratio of 2:1 at 35 °C. The quality of the obtained single-crystals was tested by powder and single-crystal X-ray diffraction and single-crystal neutron diffraction. In addition, to confirm structural phase transitions (SPTs), thermal analysis and single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 300 K and 175 K, respectively, were conducted, confirming the presence of a SPT at Tup=288 K on heating and Tdown=285 K on cooling.

  8. box modeling of the eastern mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, Y.; Stone, P. H.

    2003-04-01

    Recently (~1990) a new source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was found in the southern part of the Aegean sea. Till then, the only source of deep water formation in the Eastern Mediterranean was in the Adriatic sea; the rate of the deep water formation of the new Aegean source is 1Sv=10^6m^3/s, three times larger then the Adriatic source. We develop a simple 3 box-model to study the stability of the thermohaline circulation of the Eastern Mediterranean sea. The 3 boxes represent the Adriatic sea, Aegean sea, and the Ionian sea. The boxes exchange heat and salinity and may be described by a set of nonlinear differential equations. We analytically analyze these equations and find that the system may have one, two, or four stable flux states. We consider two cases for which the temperatures of the boxes are (i) fixed or (ii) variable. After setting the parameters to correspond to the Eastern Mediterranean we find that the system has two stable states, one with (i) two thermally dominant sources of deep water formation in the Adriatic and Aegean and the other with (ii) a salinity dominant source of deep water formation in the Adriatic and a thermally dominant source in the Aegean. While the Adriatic thermally dominant source is comparable to the observed flux of 0.3Sv the Aegean source has much smaller flux than the observed value. This situation is analogous to the state of the thermohaline circulation pre 1990 where the only source of deep water formation was in the Adriatic. If we decrease the atmospheric temperature of the Aegean box by 2C in accordance with recent observations, we find that the deep water formation of the Aegean increases significantly to a value comparable to the recently observed flux.

  9. Can the design of glove dispensing boxes influence glove contamination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, O; Leaper, D J; Kramer, A; Ousey, K J

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have explored the microbial contamination of glove boxes in clinical settings. The objective of this observational study was to investigate whether a new glove packaging system in which single gloves are dispensed vertically, cuff end first, has lower levels of contamination on the gloves and on the surface around the box aperture compared with conventional glove boxes. Seven participating sites were provided with vertical glove dispensing systems (modified boxes) and conventional boxes. Before opening glove boxes, the surface around the aperture was sampled microbiologically to establish baseline levels of superficial contamination. Once the glove boxes were opened, the first pair of gloves in each box was sampled for viable bacteria. Thereafter, testing sites were visited on a weekly basis over a period of six weeks and the same microbiological assessments were made. The surface near the aperture of the modified boxes became significantly less contaminated over time compared with the conventional boxes (Pcontamination around the aperture. Overall, gloves from modified boxes showed significantly less colony-forming unit contamination than gloves from conventional boxes (Pcontamination. This simple improvement to glove box design reduces contamination of unused gloves. Such modifications could decrease the risk of microbial cross-transmission in settings that use gloves. However, such advantages do not substitute for strict hand hygiene compliance and appropriate use of non-sterile, single-use gloves. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  10. HMG-box sequences from microbats homologous to the human SOX30 HMG-box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullejos, M; Díaz de la Guardia, R; Barragán, M J; Sánchez, A

    2000-01-01

    SOX genes are a family of genes that encode for proteins which are characterised by the presence of a HMG-domain related to that of the mammalian sex-determining gene (SRY). By definition, the DNA binding domain of SOX genes is at least 50% identical to the 79 amino acid HMG domain of the SRY gene. We report here two HMG-box sequences from two microbat species (R. ferrumequinum and P. Pipistrellus) which were PCR amplified using a primer pair specific to the mouse Sry HMG-box. The high percentage of identity of this sequences with the human and mouse SOX30 HMG-box suggests that they are the SOX30 HMG-box for these two bat species.

  11. Contaminants in ventilated filling boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolster, D. T.; Linden, P. F.

    While energy efficiency is important, the adoption of energy-efficient ventilation systems still requires the provision of acceptable indoor air quality. Many low-energy systems, such as displacement or natural ventilation, rely on temperature stratification within the interior environment, always extracting the warmest air from the top of the room. Understanding buoyancy-driven convection in a confined ventilated space is key to understanding the flow that develops with many of these modern low-energy ventilation schemes. In this work we study the transport of an initially uniformly distributed passive contaminant in a displacement-ventilated space. Representing a heat source as an ideal sourced of buoyancy, analytical and numerical models are developed that allow us to compare the average efficiency of contaminant removal between traditional mixing and modern low-energy systems. A set of small-scale analogue laboratory experiments was also conducted to further validate our analytical and numerical solutions.We find that on average traditional and low-energy ventilation methods are similar with regard to pollutant flushing efficiency. This is because the concentration being extracted from the system at any given time is approximately the same for both systems. However, very different vertical concentration gradients exist. For the low-energy system, a peak in contaminant concentration occurs at the temperature interface that is established within the space. This interface is typically designed to sit at some intermediate height in the space. Since this peak does not coincide with the extraction point, displacement ventilation does not offer the same benefits for pollutant flushing as it does for buoyancy removal.

  12. Correction of the equilibrium temperature caused by slight evaporation of water in protein crystal growth cells during long-term space experiments at International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takahisa; Suzuki, Yoshihisa; Yoshizaki, Izumi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Murayama, Kenta; Fukuyama, Seijiro; Hosokawa, Kouhei; Oshi, Kentaro; Ito, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Tachibana, Masaru; Miura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The normal growth rates of the {110} faces of tetragonal hen egg-white lysozyme crystals, R, were measured as a function of the supersaturation σ parameter using a reflection type interferometer under μG at the International Space Station (NanoStep Project). Since water slightly evaporated from in situ observation cells during a long-term space station experiment for several months, equilibrium temperature T(e) changed, and the actual σ, however, significantly increased mainly due to the increase in salt concentration C(s). To correct σ, the actual C(s) and protein concentration C(p), which correctly represent the measured T(e) value in space, were first calculated. Second, a new solubility curve with the corrected C(s) was plotted. Finally, the revised σ was obtained from the new solubility curve. This correction method successfully revealed that the 2.8% water was evaporated from the solution, leading to 2.8% increase in the C(s) and C(p) of the solution.

  13. Comparison between experiment and theory in the temperature variation of film tension above the bulk isotropic transition in free-standing liquid-crystal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veum, M; Duelge, L; Droske, J; Nguyen, H T; Huang, C C; Mirantsev, L V

    2009-09-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry, the transition enthalpies and temperatures for the bulk smectic-isotropic phase transition have been measured for a series of liquid-crystal compounds. For five compounds, those values were used as parameters in a microscopic mean-field model to predict the temperature dependence of the difference in free-energy density between a sample of material in a free-standing smectic film and that in the bulk. The model predicts a weak temperature dependence below the bulk clearing point and a pronounced monotonic increase with temperature above the transition temperature. The compounds used in this study were chosen specifically because they were also the subject of a previous independent experimental study [M. Veum, Phys. Rev. E 74, 011703 (2006)] that demonstrated a sudden monotonic increase in the free-standing film tension with temperature, which is qualitatively consistent with the predictions of the above-mentioned mean-field model. This study presents a direct and quantitative comparison between the predictions of the mean-field model and the results from previous tension experiments.

  14. Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162873.html Artificial 'Voice Box' Implant Helps Cancer Patient Speak New device ... WEDNESDAY, Jan. 4, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An artificial "voice box" has provided long-term relief for a ...

  15. Simulation of the Test Method "L-Box" for Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm; Szabo, Peter; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2004-01-01

    Both filling and passing ability are important properties to be considered for self-compacting concrete. This paper presents simulations of the L-box test and corresponding experiments. The assumption of a continuum mechanical approach, where the fluid rheology is described by the Bingham model...

  16. Conceptual design and optimization methodology for box wing aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Jemitola, Paul Olugbeji

    2012-01-01

    A conceptual design optimization methodology was developed for a medium range box wing aircraft. A baseline conventional cantilever wing aircraft designed for the same mis- sion and payload was also optimized alongside a baseline box wing aircraft. An empirical formula for the mass estimation of the fore and aft wings of the box wing aircraft was derived by relating conventional cantilever wings to box wing aircraft wings. The results indicate that the fore and aft wings would ...

  17. Application of Defense Technology Commonly Used in Boxing Match

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixiao Li[1; Jianjun Liu[2

    2015-01-01

    Boxing defense technology is a kind of techniques to prevent the opponent from attacking successfully. Boxing is a kind of sports that needs close cooperation between attack and defense. Attack is used for defense, where there is no attack, there will be no defense, and vice versa. Defense technology is the foundation of attack technology, therefore, defense is of vital importance in boxing match.

  18. 47 CFR 90.241 - Radio call box operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... remains on for a period in excess of three minutes. The automatic cutoff system must be designed so the... Safety Pool for highway call box systems subject to the following requirements: (1) Call box transmitters... effective radiated power (ERP). (3) The height of a call box antenna may not exceed 6.1 meters (20...

  19. Clocks, Cameras, and Chatter, Chatter, Chatter: Activity Boxes as Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Diane; Kittel, Jeanie

    1989-01-01

    Describes activity boxes which can be used in early childhood classrooms to further curriculum and development goals. Activity boxes are containers filled with related objects categorized by color, shape, or material which encourage children to explore, sort, and manipulate real things. Discusses goals and lists contents for 24 activity boxes.…

  20. Using Origami Boxes to Explore Concepts of Geometry and Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this classroom note is to provide an example of how a simple origami box can be used to explore important concepts of geometry and calculus. This article describes how an origami box can be folded, then it goes on to describe how its volume and surface area can be calculated. Finally, it describes how the box could be folded to…

  1. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and...

  2. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition....

  3. Axion Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Ozaki, Sho

    2016-01-01

    The low-energy effective theories for gapped insulators are classified by three parameters: permittivity $\\epsilon$, permeability $\\mu$, and theta angle $\\theta$. Crystals with periodic $\\epsilon$ are known as photonic crystals. We here study the band structure of photons in a new type of crystals with periodic $\\theta$ (modulo $2\\pi$) in space, which we call the axion crystals. We find that the axion crystals have a number of new properties that the usual photonic crystals do not possess, such as the helicity-dependent photonic band gaps and the nonrelativistic gapless dispersion relation at small momentum. We briefly discuss possible realizations of axion crystals in condensed matter systems as well as high-energy physics.

  4. Beyond the Black Box Approach to Ethics!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In the editorial published in this journal, Daniels and colleagues argue that his and Sabin’s accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework should be used to handle ethical issues in the health technology assessment (HTA)-process, especially concerning fairness. In contrast to this suggestion, it is argued that such an approach risks suffering from the irrrelevance or insufficiency they warn against. This is for a number of reasons: lack of comprehensiveness, lack of guidance for how to assess ethical issues within the "black box" of A4R as to issues covered, competence and legitimate arguments and finally seemingly accepting consensus as the final verdict on ethical issues. We argue that the HTA community is already in a position to move beyond this black box approach PMID:27285520

  5. Choreographies with Secure Boxes and Compromised Principals

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Marco; 10.4204/EPTCS.12.1

    2009-01-01

    We equip choreography-level session descriptions with a simple abstraction of a security infrastructure. Message components may be enclosed within (possibly nested) "boxes" annotated with the intended source and destination of those components. The boxes are to be implemented with cryptography. Strand spaces provide a semantics for these choreographies, in which some roles may be played by compromised principals. A skeleton is a partially ordered structure containing local behaviors (strands) executed by regular (non-compromised) principals. A skeleton is realized if it contains enough regular strands so that it could actually occur, in combination with any possible activity of compromised principals. It is delivery guaranteed (DG) realized if, in addition, every message transmitted to a regular participant is also delivered. We define a novel transition system on skeletons, in which the steps add regular strands. These steps solve tests, i.e. parts of the skeleton that could not occur without additional regu...

  6. Box of ideal gas in free fall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kothawala, Dawood, E-mail: dawood@physics.iitm.ac.in [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2013-03-26

    We study the quantum partition function of non-relativistic, ideal gas in a (non-cubical) box falling freely in arbitrary curved spacetime with center 4-velocity u{sup a}. When perturbed energy eigenvalues are properly taken into account, we find that corrections to various thermodynamic quantities include a very specific, sub-dominant term which is independent of kinematic details such as box dimensions and mass of particles. This term is characterized by the dimensionless quantity, Ξ=R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}Λ{sup 2}, where R{sub 0{sup ^}0{sup ^}}=R{sub ab}u{sup a}u{sup b} and Λ=βℏc, and, quite intriguingly, produces Euler relation of homogeneity two between entropy and energy – a relation familiar from black hole thermodynamics.

  7. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  8. Fatal exit the automotive black box debate

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalick, Tom

    2005-01-01

    "Fatal Exit: The Automotive Black Box Debate cuts through thirty years of political wrangling and institutional biases to provide an argument for the Motor Vehicle Event Data Recorder (MVEDR). This automotive equivalent of an airplane's flight recorder or black box is intended to solve the mysteries of car crashes and improve the safety of our roads. The reader is taken inside the automotive industry and the government highway safety establishment to foster an understanding of the politics and the positions on all sides of this safety debate. The author takes an unbiased approach, chronologically presenting each argument and uncovering the agendas and mandates of each of the stakeholders." "This publication is essential reading for all consumers who need to have their voices heard on this critical issue, as well as for attorneys, public safety advocates, public policy administrators, engineers, automotive professionals, journalists, and insurance executives."--Jacket.

  9. Fast adaptive elliptical filtering using box splines

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kunal Narayan; Unser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to filter an image with an elliptic window of varying size, elongation and orientation with a fixed computational cost per pixel. Our method involves the application of a suitable global pre-integrator followed by a pointwise-adaptive localization mesh. We present the basic theory for the 1D case using a B-spline formalism and then appropriately extend it to 2D using radially-uniform box splines. The size and ellipticity of these radially-uniform box splines is adaptively controlled. Moreover, they converge to Gaussians as the order increases. Finally, we present a fast and practical directional filtering algorithm that has the capability of adapting to the local image features.

  10. Box-constrained Total-variation Image Restoration with Automatic Parameter Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chuan; HU Chang-Hua; ZHANG Wei; SHI Biao

    2014-01-01

    The box constraints in image restoration have been arousing great attention, since the pixels of a digital image can attain only a finite number of values in a given dynamic range. This paper studies the box-constrained total-variation (TV) image restoration problem with automatic regularization parameter estimation. By adopting the variable splitting technique and introducing some auxiliary variables, the box-constrained TV minimization problem is decomposed into a sequence of subproblems which are easier to solve. Then the alternating direction method (ADM) is adopted to solve the related subproblems. By means of Morozov0s discrepancy principle, the regularization parameter can be updated adaptively in a closed form in each iteration. Image restoration experiments indicate that with our strategies, more accurate solutions are achieved, especially for image with high percentage of pixel values lying on the boundary of the given dynamic range.

  11. Monitoring Instrument for X-Ray Box

    CERN Document Server

    Cifuentes Ospina, Alberto; Kuehn, Susanne; Schaepe, Steffen; CERN. Geneva. EP Department

    2017-01-01

    A humidity and temperature readout instrument has been designed and implemented in order to monitor the X-Ray Box used for testing the silicon detectors prototypes of the ITk. The sensors are connected to an Arduino Mega board equipped with 16 analog inputs and a serial port to a computer. A user-friendly software has been also designed in order to give an easy access to all measurements.

  12. PCB-Based Break-Out Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.

    2011-01-01

    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  13. Masking a Compact AES S-box

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-07

    Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 309–18, 2001. [2] D. Canright. A very compact S-box for AES. In CHES2005, volume 3659 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages...et al., editor, CHES2003, volume 2779 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science , pages 319–333. Springer, 2003. [4] Jovan Dj. Golić and Christophe Tymen...Multiplicative masking and power analysis of AES. In CHES 2002, volume 2523 of Lecture

  14. The gradient flow in a twisted box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-08-15

    We study the perturbative behavior of the gradient flow in a twisted box. We apply this information to define a running coupling using the energy density of the flow field. We study the step-scaling function and the size of cutoff effects in SU(2) pure gauge theory. We conclude that the twisted gradient flow running coupling scheme is a valid strategy for step-scaling purposes due to the relatively mild cutoff effects and high precision.

  15. Cardiovascular issues in boxing and contact sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stephen A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the inherent risks associated with exercise in general and boxing in particular, the sport has had a limited number of catastrophic cardiovascular events. Screening should be based on risks involved and become more extensive with the advancement of the athlete. Anatomic and electrophysiologic risks need to be assessed and may preclude participation with resultant life style and economic complications. There should be adequate preparation for the rare potential cardiovascular complication at all events, with the ability to rapidly assess and treat arrhythmias.

  16. Acute subdural hematoma because of boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushi, Hidehiko; Saito, Takeshi; Sakagami, Yuichiro; Ohtsuki, Jyoji; Tanjoh, Katsuhisa

    2009-02-01

    To identify factors determining the clinical characteristics and prognosis of acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) arising from boxing injuries by comparing with ASDH due to any nonboxing cause. Two groups were selected for this study: 10 patients with ASDH because of boxing injuries and 26 patients with nonboxer ASDH. All of the patients underwent neurologic examination by neurosurgeons. Primary resuscitation and stabilization as well as operative therapy were performed to all patients according to the European Brain Injury Consortium Guidelines. Two groups were compared in terms of age, the Glasgow Coma Scale at admission, neurologic findings, craniogram and brain computed tomography scan findings, operative findings, and prognosis. As potential prognostic indicators for boxers, the time interval until surgery, the Glasgow Outcome Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and the site of bleeding were analyzed. The characteristics of patients because of boxing injuries are that patients were younger, had lucid interval, and had no cerebral contusion or contralateral brain injury. There was no significant difference in initial Glasgow Coma Scale, hematoma thickness, midline shift, and their prognosis. The most peculiar clinical presentation of boxers' ASDH was that all bleedings were limited from "bridging veins" or "cortical veins." The prognosis of boxers was most closely correlated with the site of bleeding (r2 = 0.81; p = 0.0001) and the midline shift (r2 = 0.67; p = 0.007). Our study shows that ASDH because of boxing is characterized by bleeding from bridging or cortical veins, and that the site of bleeding is a significant determinant of their prognosis.

  17. The Heart Rate Response to Nintendo Wii Boxing in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Pamela R.; Poloni, Joseph; Thornton, Andrew; Lynskey, James V.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To determine if 30 minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides cardiorespiratory benefits and contributes to the daily exercise recommendations for healthy young adults. Methods Twenty healthy 23- to 27-year-olds participated in two sessions to measure maximum heart rate (HRmax) via a treadmill test and heart rate (HR) response to 30 minutes of Wii Sports boxing. Heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) was measured continuously, and exercise intensity during each minute of play was stratified as a percentage of HRmax. Mixed designs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson product moment correlations were used to analyze the data. Results Mean (SD) HR response to boxing was 143 (15) bpm or 77.5% (10.0%) of HRmax. The mean HR response for experienced participants was significantly lower than inexperienced participants, P = .007. The ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between experience and time spent at various intensities, P = .009. Experienced participants spent more time in light to vigorous intensities, inexperienced participants in moderate to very hard intensities. Fitness was not correlated with mean HR response to boxing, P = .49. Conclusion Thirty minutes of Nintendo Wii Sports boxing provides a moderate to vigorous aerobic response in healthy young adults and can contribute to daily recommendations for physical activity. PMID:22833705

  18. Does box model training improve surgical dexterity and economy of movement during virtual reality laparoscopy? A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevin, Lotte; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic box model trainers have been used in training curricula for a long time, however data on their impact on skills acquisition is still limited. Our aim was to validate a low cost box model trainer as a tool for the training of skills relevant to laparoscopic surgery. Randomised, controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). University Hospital. Sixteen gynaecologic residents with limited laparoscopic experience were randomised to a group that received a structured box model training curriculum, and a control group. Performance before and after the training was assessed in a virtual reality laparoscopic trainer (LapSim and was based on objective parameters, registered by the computer system (time, error, and economy of motion scores). Group A showed significantly greater improvement in all performance parameters compared with the control group: economy of movement (p=0.001), time (p=0.001) and tissue damage (p=0.036), confirming the positive impact of box-trainer curriculum on laparoscopic skills acquisition. Structured laparoscopic skill training on a low cost box model trainer improves performance as assessed using the VR system. Trainees who used the box model trainer showed significant improvement compared to the control group. Box model trainers are valid tools for laparoscopic skills training and should be implemented in the comprehensive training curricula in gynaecology.

  19. Adaptive Techniques to find Optimal Planar Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Barbay, J; Pérez-Lantero, P

    2012-01-01

    Given a set $P$ of $n$ planar points, two axes and a real-valued score function $f()$ on subsets of $P$, the Optimal Planar Box problem consists in finding a box (i.e. axis-aligned rectangle) $H$ maximizing $f(H\\cap P)$. We consider the case where $f()$ is monotone decomposable, i.e. there exists a composition function $g()$ monotone in its two arguments such that $f(A)=g(f(A_1),f(A_2))$ for every subset $A\\subseteq P$ and every partition $\\{A_1,A_2\\}$ of $A$. In this context we propose a solution for the Optimal Planar Box problem which performs in the worst case $O(n^2\\lg n)$ score compositions and coordinate comparisons, and much less on other classes of instances defined by various measures of difficulty. A side result of its own interest is a fully dynamic \\textit{MCS Splay tree} data structure supporting insertions and deletions with the \\emph{dynamic finger} property, improving upon previous results [Cort\\'es et al., J.Alg. 2009].

  20. A Few Good Crystals Please

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.

    1999-01-01

    Part of the challenge of macromolecular crystal growth for structure determination is obtaining an appropriate number of crystals with a crystal volume suitable for X-ray analysis. In this respect an understanding of the effect of solution conditions on macromolecule nucleation rates is advantageous. This study investigated the effects of solution conditions on the nucleation rate and final crystal size of two crystal systems; tetragonal lysozyme and glucose isomerase. Batch crystallization plates were prepared at given solution concentration and incubated at set temperatures over one week. The number of crystals per well with their size and axial ratios were recorded and correlated with solution conditions. Duplicate experiments indicate the reproducibility of the technique. Results for each system showing the effect of supersaturation, incubation temperature and solution pH on nucleation rates will be presented and discussed. In the case of lysozyme, having optimized solution conditions to produce an appropriate number of crystals of a suitable size, a batch of crystals were prepared under exactly the same conditions. Fifty of these crystals were analyzed by x-ray techniques. The results indicate that even under the same crystallization conditions, a marked variation in crystal properties exists.

  1. A large area multitechnique experiment for hard X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.; Dean, A. J.; Dipper, N.; Barbaglia, G.; Boella, G.; Bussini, A.; Carzaniga, A.; Ferrandi, G.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.

    A balloon-borne multitechnique large-area experiment comprising two co-aligned detectors (3200 sq cm NaI and 1800 sq cm multiwire proportional counters) is described. The NaI array is an actively shielded scintillation device designed to operate over photon energies of 20 to 300 keV. The telescope comprises eight modules, each consisting of a 6-mm-thick NaI crystal that is actively shielded over the lower 2 pi steradians by a 5-cm-thick NaI(Tl) crystal. The two crystals are optically isolated and the scintillation light from the primary crystal is collected by means of a diffusive light collection system that is approximately 10 cm high and is set below the collimators. It is noted that each diffusion box is viewed by two photomultipliers set in electronic coincidence. This minimizes the effects of tube noise and raises the uniformity of response and the energy resolution of the unit. In addition, the shape of the diffusion box is designed to maximize the energy resolution of the telescope so that a typical value at 60 keV is 25 percent FWHM.

  2. Sequence, structure, and stacking: specifics of tRNA anchoring to the T box riboswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Jason C; Ke, Ailong

    2013-12-01

    The term riboswitch usually refers to small molecule sensing regulatory modules in the 5' untranslated regions of a mRNA. They are typically comprised of separate ligand binding and regulatory domains. The T box riboswitch is unique from other identified riboswitches because its effector is an essential macromolecule, tRNA. It senses the aminoacylation state of tRNA to regulate genes involved in a variety of functions relating to amino acid metabolism and tRNA aminoacylation. T box riboswitches performs an intuitively simple process using a complex structured RNA element and, until recently, the underlying mechanisms were poorly understood. Only two sequence-specific contacts had been previously identified: (1) between the specifier sequence (codon) and the tRNA anticodon and (2) between an anti-terminator stem loop and the tRNA acceptor arm CCA tail. tRNA aminoacylation blocks the latter interaction and therefore serves as the switch between termination and anti-termination. Outside of these two contacts, the structure and functions of T box riboswitches have come to light in some recent studies. We recently described the X-ray crystal structure of the highly conserved T box riboswitch distal Stem I region and demonstrated that this region interacts with the tRNA elbow to anchor it to the riboswitch. Independently, Lehmann et al. used sequence homology search to arrive at a similar model for Stem I-tRNA interactions. The model was further supported by two recent structures of the Stem I-tRNA complex, determined independently by our group and by Zhang and Ferré-D'Amaré. This article highlights some of these contributions to synthesize an updated model for tRNA recognition by the T box riboswitch.

  3. Effectiveness of box trainers in laparoscopic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhariwal Anender

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives: Various devices are used to aid in the education of laparoscopic skills ranging from simple box trainers to sophisticated virtual reality trainers. Virtual reality system is an advanced and effective training method, however it is yet to be adopted in India due to its cost and the advanced technology required for it. Therefore, box trainers are being used to train laparoscopic skills. Hence this study was undertaken to assess the overall effectiveness of the box-training course. Study Procedure: The study was conducted during six-day laparoscopic skills training workshops held during 2006. Twenty five surgeons; age range of 26 to 45 years, of either sex, who had not performed laparoscopic surgery before; attending the workshop were evaluated. Each participant was given a list of tasks to perform before beginning the box-training course on day one and was evaluated quantitatively by rating the successful completion of each test. Evaluation began when the subject placed the first tool into the cannula and ended with task completion. Two evaluation methods used to score the subject, including a global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. After the subject completed all sessions of the workshop, they were asked to perform the same tasks and were evaluated in the same manner. For each task completed by the subjects, the difference in the scores between the second and first runs were calculated and interpreted as an improvement as a percentage of the initial score. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon matched-paired signed-ranks test was applied to find out the statistical significance of the results obtained. Results: The mean percentage improvement in scores for both the tasks, using global rating scale, was 44.5% + 6.930 (Mean + SD. For task 1, using the global rating scale mean percentage improvement was 49.4% + 7.948 (Mean + SD. For task 2, mean percentage improvement using global rating scale was 39.6% + 10.4 (Mean

  4. Prohibiting Headgear for Safety in Amateur Boxing? Opinion of the Canadian Boxing Community: an Online Poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Philip; Rempel, Philip

    In 2013, the Amateur International Boxing Association (AIBA) introduced a rule banning headgear for male-senior open class boxers during competition. The AIBA has defended the rule change as motivated by safety and supported by internal unpublished studies. As a result, in 2018, the AIBA plans to universally prohibit headgear in competition: for all competitors (male and female), all ages and all levels. Within Canada, this ruling has generated controversy in the boxing community, yet there has been no overall measure of opinion. To address this, we instituted a voluntary, anonymous, online open-access poll to allow members of the boxing community to express their stance on headgear use in competition. In total, 636 responses were received. A total of 71.5 % of Canadian respondents believed headgear should be mandatory at all levels. Only 5.8 % agreed that headgear should be prohibited, as planned for 2018. Estimating results on a representative breakdown of boxing membership in Canada, a similar pattern emerged, whereby 68.2 % concurred with mandatory headgear while only 4.95 % supported its prohibition. Parents of boxers were almost unanimously against banning headgear, stating they would change sports as a result. Similarly, only 1.7 % of women believed headgear should be prohibited. The consensus of the Canadian boxing community largely opposes the rule changes that the AIBA has implemented. The results highlight risks posed to the long-term viability of the sport, if significant grassroots safety concerns are disregarded.

  5. The fluid phenomena in the crystallization of the protein crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Li; Kang Qi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports that an optical diagnostic system consisting of Maeh-Zehnder interferometer with a phase shift device and image processor has been used for study of the kinetics of protein crystal growing process. The crystallization process of protein crystal by vapour diffusion is investigated. The interference fringes are observed in real time. The present experiment demonstrates that the diffusion and the sedimentation influence the crystallization of protein crystal which grows in solution, and the concentration capillary convection associated with surface tension occurs at the vicinity of free surface of the protein mother liquor, and directly affects on the outcome of protein crystallization. So far the detailed analysis and the important role of the fluid phenomena in protein crystallization have been discussed a little in both space- and ground-based crystal growth experiments. It is also found that these fluid phenomena affect theoutcome of protein crystallization, regular growth, and crystal quality. This may explain the fact that many results of space-based investigation do not show overall improvement.

  6. Policy statement—Boxing participation by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; LeBlanc, Claire M A

    2011-09-01

    Thousands of boys and girls younger than 19 years participate in boxing in North America. Although boxing provides benefits for participants, including exercise, self-discipline, and self-confidence, the sport of boxing encourages and rewards deliberate blows to the head and face. Participants in boxing are at risk of head, face, and neck injuries, including chronic and even fatal neurologic injuries. Concussions are one of the most common injuries that occur with boxing. Because of the risk of head and facial injuries, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society oppose boxing as a sport for children and adolescents. These organizations recommend that physicians vigorously oppose boxing in youth and encourage patients to participate in alternative sports in which intentional head blows are not central to the sport.

  7. RNA Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  8. Crystal Electrostatic Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchin, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that to calculate the parameters of the electrostatic field of the ion crystal lattice it sufficient to take into account ions located at a distance of 1-2 lattice spacings. More distant ions make insignificant contribution. As a result, the electrostatic energy of the ion lattice in the alkaline halide crystal produced by both positive and negative ions is in good agreement with experiment when the melting temperature and the shear modulus are calculated. For fcc and bcc metals the ion lattice electrostatic energy is not sufficient to obtain the observed values of these parameters. It is possible to resolve the contradiction if one assumes that the electron density is strongly localized and has a crystal structure described by the lattice delta - function. As a result, positive charges alternate with negative ones as in the alkaline halide crystal. Such delta-like localization of the electron density is known as a model of nearly free electrons.

  9. A resting box for outdoor sampling of adult Anopheles arabiensis in rice irrigation schemes of lower Moshi, northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Msangi Shandala

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria vector sampling is the best method for understanding the vector dynamics and infectivity; thus, disease transmission seasonality can be established. There is a need to protecting humans involved in the sampling of disease vectors during surveillance or in control programmes. In this study, human landing catch, two cow odour baited resting boxes and an unbaited resting box were evaluated as vector sampling tools in an area with a high proportion of Anopheles arabiensis, as the major malaria vector. Methods Three resting boxes were evaluated against human landing catch. Two were baited with cow odour, while the third was unbaited. The inner parts of the boxes were covered with black cloth materials. Experiments were arranged in latin-square design. Boxes were set in the evening and left undisturbed; mosquitoes were collected at 06:00 am the next morning, while human landing catch was done overnight. Results A total of 9,558 An. arabiensis mosquitoes were collected. 17.5% (N = 1668 were collected in resting box baited with cow body odour, 42.5% (N = 4060 in resting box baited with cow urine, 15.1% (N = 1444 in unbaited resting box and 24.9% (N = 2386 were collected by human landing catch technique. In analysis, the house positions had no effect on the density of mosquitoes caught (DF = 3, F = 0.753, P = 0.387; the sampling technique had significant impact on the caught mosquitoes densities (DF = 3, F 37. 944, P Conclusion Odour-baited resting boxes have shown the possibility of replacing the existing traditional method (human landing catch for sampling malaria vectors in areas with a high proportion of An. arabiensis as malaria vectors. Further evaluations of fermented urine and longevity of the urine odour still need to be investigated.

  10. Measurement of beam asymmetries in the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} with the Crystal Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutz, Eric Paul-Maria

    2011-07-01

    The photoproduction of mesons off the nucleon provides an excellent tool to gain further insight into the structure of baryons and their excitation spectrum. A large number of final states yielding various resonance contributions are accessible in photoproduction experiments. Especially in the regime of high-lying resonances, the photoproduction of multi-meson final states is of increasing importance, giving access to sequential decays of such resonances via e.g. {delta}(1232)P{sub 33} or N(1535)S{sub 11} in the intermediate state. For a complete understanding of the processes involved, however, it is insufficient to measure only unpolarized total and differential cross sections. The extraction of polarization observables from data obtained using polarized beams and targets is mandatory to constrain theoretical models and analyses and to uniquely determine the amplitudes participating in a given process. This work presents the analysis of data taken with the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at the accelerator facility ELSA in Bonn, using a linearly polarized photon beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The detector system is optimized for the detection of multi-photon final states. The data has been selected for the reaction {gamma}p {yields} p{pi}{sup 0}{eta} {yields} p4{gamma} for an incoming photon energy range of 970 MeV to 1650 MeV. In this range, photon polarizations of up to 50% have been achieved. From this data, all polarization observables accessible with a linearly polarized photon beam and an unpolarized target have been extracted. This includes the beam asymmetry sum, determined as a function of various invariant masses and angles using a quasi two-body approach, along with the three-body asymmetries I{sup c} and I{sup s}. The latter two observables are unique to the acoplanar kinematics of multi-meson final states and have been measured for the first time within this work. The comparison of the results to solutions derived from various theoretical

  11. Numerical Simulation and Experiment on Material Flow Regulation During Superplastic Forming Process of Box-Shaped Part%盒形件超塑成形过程中材料流动规律的数值模拟与实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段奇锐; 原晓明

    2012-01-01

    利用有限元软件MSC.Marc2010对钛合金盒形件超塑成形过程进行了有限元模拟,控制目标应变速率,得到优化的压力-时间曲线,并据此进行实验研究,沿实验曲线分别加裁至6个不同的标定压力值(分别为0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.3和2.5 MPa)得到成形过程中的零件.测量6个实验零件的外形轮廓和厚度,并分剐与相对应的模拟结果进行对比,验证实验与模拟的一致性,并分析整个成形过程中的材料流动规律,得出在自由胀形、底部贴模、充填圆角3阶段盒形件不同区域的应力、应变和变薄率分布,为复杂零件的起塑成形工艺的制定奠定了一定的理论基础.%The superplastic forming process of the box-shaped part is simulated by using finite element software MSC. Marc2010 to optimize the curve of pressure-time under the control of the target strain rate. The fitted curve used in the experiment is based on the simulated pressure-time (p-t) curve. The six parts are obtained along the same optimal experiment p-t curve at six selected pressure respectively (0- 5, 1.0, 1-5, 2. 0, 2. 3 and 2. 5 MPa). By measuring the outline and thickness of the six parts, the experimental result is compared with the numerical simulation result to verify if they agree with each other, and the material flow regulation can be analyzed. The distribution results of stress, strain and reduction rate of the three periods of free bulging, closing up to the cavity and corner fiuing are obtained, which lays the theoretical foundation for the superplastic forming process design of complex parts.

  12. Shaped Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatartchenko, Vitali A.

    Crystals of specified shape and size (shaped crystals) with controlled crystal growth (SCG) defect and impurity structure have to be grown for the successful development of modern engineering. Since the 1950s many hundreds of papers and patents concerned with shaped growth have been published. In this chapter, we do not try to enumerate the successful applications of shaped growth to different materials but rather to carry out a fundamental physical and mathematical analysis of shaping as well as the peculiarities of shaped crystal structures. Four main techniques, based on which the lateral surface can be shaped without contact with the container walls, are analyzed: the Czochralski technique (CZT), the Verneuil technique (VT), the floating zone technique (FZT), and technique of pulling from shaper (TPS). Modifications of these techniques are analyzed as well. In all these techniques the shape of the melt meniscus is controlled by surface tension forces, i.e., capillary forces, and here they are classified as capillary shaping techniques (CST). We look for conditions under which the crystal growth process in each CST is dynamically stable. Only in this case are all perturbations attenuated and a crystal of constant cross section shaping technique (CST) grown without any special regulation. The dynamic stability theory of the crystal growth process for all CST is developed on the basis of Lyapunov's dynamic stability theory. Lyapunov's equations for the crystal growth processes follow from fundamental laws. The results of the theory allow the choice of stable regimes for crystal growth by all CST as well as special designs of shapers in TPS. SCG experiments by CZT, VT, and FZT are discussed but the main consideration is given to TPS. Shapers not only allow crystal of very complicated cross section to be grown but provide a special distribution of impurities. A history of TPS is provided later in the chapter, because it can only be described after explanation of the

  13. DFBX boxes - electrical and cryogenic distribution boxes for the superconducting magnets in the LHC straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    Zbasnik, J P; Gourlay, S A; Green, M A; Hafalia, A Q; Kajiyama, Y; Knolls, M J; La Mantia, R F; Rasson, J E; Reavill, D; Turner, W C

    2003-01-01

    DFBX distribution boxes provide cryogenic and electrical services to superconducting quadrupoles and to a superconducting dipole at either end of four of the long straight sections in the LHC. The DFBX boxes also provide instrumentation and quench protection to the magnets. Current for the quadrupole and the dipole magnet is delivered through leads that combine HTS and gas cooled leads. Current for the 600 A and 120 A correction magnets is provided by pure gas-cooled leads. The bus bars from the leads to the magnets pass through low leak-rate lambda plugs between 1.8 K and 4.4 K. The heat leak into the 1.9 K region from the liquid helium tank is determined by the design of the lambda plugs. This paper describes the DFBX boxes and their function of delivering current and instrumentation signals to the magnets. (2 refs).

  14. Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorber layers obtained through sulphurization of metallic precursors: Graphite box versus sulphur flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, M.G., E-mail: martasousa@ua.pt [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Cunha, A.F. da [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salomé, P.M.P. [Angstrom Solar Center, Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Angstrom Laboratory PO Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Fernandes, P.A. [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Teixeira, J.P.; Leitão, J.P. [I3N and Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-05-01

    In this work we employed a hybrid method, combining RF-magnetron sputtering with evaporation, for the deposition of tailor made metallic precursors, with varying number of Zn/Sn/Cu (ZTC) periods and compared two approaches to sulphurization. Two series of samples with 1 ×, 2 × and 4 × ZTC periods have been prepared. One series of precursors was sulphurized in a tubular furnace directly exposed to a sulphur vapour and N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} flux at a pressure of 5.0 × 10{sup +4} Pa. A second series of identical precursors was sulphurized in the same furnace but inside a graphite box where sulphur pellets have been evaporated again in the presence of N{sub 2} + 5% H{sub 2} and at the same pressure as for the sulphur flux experiments. The morphological and chemical analyses revealed a small grain structure but good average composition for all three films sulphurized in the graphite box. As for the three films sulphurized in sulphur flux grain growth was seen with the increase of the number of ZTC periods whilst, in terms of composition, they were slightly Zn poor. The films' crystal structure showed that Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is the dominant phase. However, in the case of the sulphur flux films SnS{sub 2} was also detected. Photoluminescence spectroscopy studies showed an asymmetric broad band emission which occurs in the range of 1–1.5 eV. Clearly the radiative recombination efficiency is higher in the series of samples sulphurized in sulphur flux. We have found that sulphurization in sulphur flux leads to better film morphology than when the process is carried out in a graphite box in similar thermodynamic conditions. Solar cells have been prepared and characterized showing a correlation between improved film morphology and cell performance. The best cells achieved an efficiency of 2.4%. - Highlights: ► Precursors deposited by a hybrid method with n × zinc tin copper (ZTC) periods ► Achieved good reproducibility in the deposition of metallic

  15. Cooking Food in Bogota Using a Box Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alejandro Jiménez Castellanos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the transient temperature field of a basic box type solar cooker (without attachments such as double glazing, internal reflectors, external reflectors, steam relief line, etc. for Bogotá – Colombia climate conditions, in order to determine if this device can cook on its town. The methodology consisted of three main stages: the development of a physical – mathematical model for heating process, based on energy balances for each of its components: glass container lid, container, absorber wall and fluid, the development of a computational experiment in the software Autodesk Algor Simulation and the comparison of the results. The final water temperature obtained by the physical - mathematical model was 81.85 ℃, and the maximum obtained with the thermal simulation was 79.60 ℃. From the results, it can be concluded that conditions in Bogotá DC are not appropriate to cook with a device of this kind.

  16. A Body that Matters: Tom Kilroy's Talbot's Box

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Poulain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at Tom Kilroy’s play Talbot Box, and argues that it resorts to the tropes of the Passion narrative, revisited by ex-centric mystic Matt Talbot, to expose the homogenising, normalising and exploitative efforts of the Catholic Church, a powerful institution which is shown to work in collusion with the forces of capitalism. Using a grotesque, often farcical dramaturgy, the play displays the joint attempts of ecclesiastical and temporal powers to appropriate Matt Talbot’s private performance of the Christian Passion for their own purposes, as well as the ways in which he resists instrumentalization by submitting himself to a radical form of bodily exposure. The play thus invents its own version of a theatre of cruelty in order to accommodate a mystical experience which lies beyond the reach of realistic representation. 

  17. Experimental Study on Performance of a Box Solar Cooker with Flat Plate Collector to Boil Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitepu, T.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, D. M.; Ambarita, H.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Ronowikarto, A. D.

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a flat plate type solar cooker is tested by exposing in solar irradiation. The objective is to examine the performance of solar cooker in boiling water. The solar cooker is a box type with collector area and height are 100 × 100 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Vessel for water is made of aluminum plate with diameter and height of 22 cm and 15 cm. The experiments are performed by varying mass of the water. It is 2 kg and 4 kg, respectively. Every experiment starts from 10:00 AM until the boiling temperature is reached. The parameters measured are radiance intensity, ambient and solar box cooker temperatures, and wind speed. The results show that the duration of water heating up to 100°C with water mass 2 kg within 2 hours 45 minutes and water mass 4 kg within 3 hours 17 minutes. The maximum temperatur of solar box cooker is 117°C at 12:56 PM and maximum efficiency is 46.30%. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a simple solar box cooker can be used to boil water.

  18. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  19. Adaptation of Black-Box Software Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the software market leads to crucial problems for software companies. More competition between software companies arises and leads to the force on companies to develop ever newer software products in ever shortened time interval. Therefore the time to market for software systems is shortened and obviously the product life cycle is shortened too. Thus software companies shortened the time interval for research and development. Due to the fact of competition between software companies software products have to develop low-priced and this leads to a smaller return on investment. A big challenge for software companies is the use of an effective research and development process to have these problems under control. A way to control these problems can be the reuse of existing software components and adapt those software components to new functionality or accommodate mismatched interfaces. Complete redevelopment of software products is more expensive and time consuming than to develop software components. The approach introduced here presents novel technique together with a supportive environment that enables developers to cope with the adaptability of black-box software components. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components with the assistance of their specifications. Generated adapter software components can take over the part of adaptation and advance the functionality. Besides, a pool of software components can be used to compose an application to satisfy customer needs. Certainly this pool of software components consists of black-box software components and adapter software components which can be connected on demand.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  1. Boxing headguard performance in punch machine tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Patton, Declan A

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents a novel laboratory method for assessing boxing headguard impact performance. The method is applied to examine the effects of headguards on head impact dynamics and injury risk. A linear impactor was developed, and a range of impacts was delivered to an instrumented Hybrid III head and neck system both with and without an AIBA (Association Internationale de Boxe Amateur)-approved headguard. Impacts at selected speeds between 4.1 and 8.3 m/s were undertaken. The impactor mass was approximately 4 kg and an interface comprising a semirigid 'fist' with a glove was used. The peak contact forces were in the range 1.9-5.9 kN. Differences in head impact responses between the Top Ten AIBA-approved headguard and bare headform in the lateral and forehead tests were large and/or significant. In the 8.3 m/s fist-glove impacts, the mean peak resultant headform accelerations for bare headform tests was approximately 130 g compared with approximately 85 g in the forehead impacts. In the 6.85 m/s bare headform impacts, mean peak resultant angular head accelerations were in the range of 5200-5600 rad/s(2) and almost halved by the headguard. Linear and angular accelerations in 45° forehead and 60° jaw impacts were reduced by the headguard. The data support the opinion that current AIBA headguards can play an important role in reducing the risk of concussion and superficial injury in boxing competition and training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Experimental Study on Stability of Breakwaters with Penetrating Box Foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    别社安; 李伟; 李增志; 任增金; 及春宁

    2003-01-01

    The breakwater with top-sealed, shallow and wide penetrating box foundations is a new type of structure, applicable to deep water and soft seabed. The relations of horizontal and vertical bearing capacities of the box foundation structure as well as the instability-induced failure modes to its dimensions and external loads are discussed through static model tests and wave tests. The mechanical properties of the stability of the box foundation are similar to those of embedded rigid foundations, i.e. the vertical stresses at the bottom of the box are distributed in a linear pattern under the action of vertical loads, and passive and active soil pressures are developed at the front and back sides of the box under the action of horizontal loads; there are two instability-induced failure modes of the foundation structure-horizontal slide along the box base and tilting due to insufficient local vertical bearing capacity of the soil beneath the box base. The stability of box foundations can be analyzed by use of the methods applied to analysis of the embedded rigid foundations. To increase the width of the box is the most effective way to improve the stability of box foundations.

  3. Crystal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 3 NIST Crystal Data (PC database for purchase)   NIST Crystal Data contains chemical, physical, and crystallographic information useful to characterize more than 237,671 inorganic and organic crystalline materials. The data include the standard cell parameters, cell volume, space group number and symbol, calculated density, chemical formula, chemical name, and classification by chemical type.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the DDX3 RNA helicase domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; Montoya, Guillermo

    2007-04-01

    DDX3 is a human RNA helicase that is involved in RNA processing and important human diseases. This enzyme belongs to the DEAD-box protein family, the members of which are characterized by the presence of nine conserved motifs including the Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp motif that defines the family. DDX3 has two distinct domains: an ATP-binding domain in the central region of the protein and a helicase domain in the carboxy-terminal region. The helicase domain of DDX3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Crystallization experiments yielded crystals that were suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. The final crystallization conditions were a reservoir solution consisting of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M imidazole pH 6.4 plus 5 mM spermine tetrahydrochloride and a protein solution containing 10 mM HEPES, 500 mM ammonium sulfate pH 8.0. The crystals of the helicase domain belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.85, b = 60.72, c = 88.39 A, alpha = gamma = 90, beta = 101.02 degrees , and contained three molecules per asymmetric unit. These crystals diffracted to a resolution limit of 2.2 A using synchrotron radiation at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS).

  5. LHC Crab Cavity Coupler Test Boxes

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, James; Burt, Graeme; Calaga, Rama; Macpherson, Alick; Montesinos, Eric; Silva, Subashini; Tutte, Adam; Xiao, Binping

    2016-01-01

    The LHC double quarter wave (DQW) crab cavities have two different types of Higher Order Mode (HOM) couplers in addition to a fundamental power coupler (FPC). The FPC requires conditioning, so to achieve this we have designed a radio-frequency (RF) quarter wave resonator to provide high transmission between two opposing FPCs. For the HOM couplers we must ensure that the stop-band filter is positioned at the cavity frequency and that peak transmission occurs at the same frequencies as the strongest HOMs. We have designed two test boxes which preserve the cavity spectral response in order to test the couplers.

  6. Box model for channels of human migration

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a mathematical model of migration channel based on the truncated Waring distribution. The truncated Waring distribution is obtained for a more general model of motion of substance through a channel containing finite number of boxes. The model is applied then for case of migrants moving through a channel consisting of finite number of countries or cities. The number of migrants in the channel strongly depends on the number of migrants that enter the channel through the country of entrance. It is shown that if the final destination country is very popular then large percentage of migrants may concentrate there.

  7. CASAS: A Smart Home in a Box

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Diane J.; Crandall, Aaron S.; Thomas, Brian L.; Krishnan, Narayanan C.

    2012-01-01

    While the potential benefits of smart home technology are widely recognized, a lightweight design is needed for the benefits to be realized at a large scale. We introduce the CASAS “smart home in a box”, a lightweight smart home design that is easy to install and provides smart home capabilities out of the box with no customization or training. We discuss types of data analysis that have been performed by the CASAS group and can be pursued in the future by using this approach to designing and...

  8. Smart Distribution Boxes, Complete Energy Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platise, Uros

    2010-09-15

    Present households demand side management implementations are turning conventional appliances into smart ones to support auto demand (AutoDR) response function. Present concept features a direct link between the power meters and appliances. In this paper new concept and example of implementation of a so-called Smart Distribution Box (SmartDB) is represented for complete energy and power management. SmartDBs, as an intermediate layer, are extending smart grid power meter functionality to support AutoDR with fast and guaranteed response times, distributed power sources, and besides provide full control over energy management and extra safety functions to the consumers.

  9. Test procedure for boxed waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-12-07

    This document, prepared by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s NMT-4 group, details the test methodology and requirements for Acceptance/Qualification testing of a Boxed Waste Assay System (BWAS) designed and constructed by Pajarito Scientific Corporation. Testing of the BWAS at the Plutonium Facility (TA55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory will be performed to ascertain system adherence to procurement specification requirements. The test program shall include demonstration of conveyor handling capabilities, gamma ray energy analysis, and imaging passive/active neutron accuracy and sensitivity. Integral to these functions is the system`s embedded operating and data reduction software.

  10. Determinants of Box Products of Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Pragel, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Suppose that G is the graph obtained by taking the box product of a path of length n and a path of length m. Let M be the adjacency matrix of G. If n=m, H.M. Rara showed in 1996 that det(M)=0. We extend this result to allow n and m to be any positive integers, and show that, if gcd(n+1,m+1)>1, then det(M)=0; otherwise, if gcd(n+1,m+1)=1, then det(M)=(-1)^(nm/2).

  11. An Architectural Alternative to the Big Box

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Kristen Faye

    2008-01-01

    Wal-Mart has plans to open a store in the town of Blacksburg, Virginia. The fact that there is already a Wal-Mart store, in the town of Christiansburg, just four miles away from the proposed location makes this idea ridiculous for some. A large group of Blacksburg residents are opposed to the idea of a Wal-Mart in their town. The usual complaints are about how it will affect small businesses and traffic. The core concept of the â big boxâ store is not the problem. The idea of being abl...

  12. Keller-box method and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Kerehalli V

    2014-01-01

    Most of the problems arising in science and engineering are nonlinear. They are inherently difficult to solve. Traditional analytical approximations are valid only for weakly nonlinear problems, and often break down for problems with strong nonlinearity. This book presents the current theoretical developments and applications of Keller-Box method to nonlinear problems. The first half of the bookaddresses basic concepts to understand the theoretical framework for the method. In the second half of the book, the authorsgive a number of examples of coupled nonlinear problems that have been solved

  13. Computer-assisted Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeister, Joseph J., Jr.; Dowden, Edward

    1989-01-01

    To avoid a tedious task for recording temperature, a computer was used for calculating the heat of crystallization for the compound sodium thiosulfate. Described are the computer-interfacing procedures. Provides pictures of laboratory equipment and typical graphs from experiments. (YP)

  14. Numerical adiabatic potentials of orthorhombic Jahn-Teller effects retrieved from ultrasound attenuation experiments. Application to the SrF2:Cr crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhevstovskikh, I. V.; Bersuker, I. B.; Gudkov, V. V.; Averkiev, N. S.; Sarychev, M. N.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Yasin, S.; Shakurov, G. S.; Ulanov, V. A.; Surikov, V. T.

    2016-06-01

    A methodology is worked out to retrieve the numerical values of all the main parameters of the six-dimensional adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) of a polyatomic system with a quadratic T-term Jahn-Teller effect (JTE) from the ultrasound experiments. The method is based on a verified assumption that ultrasound attenuation and speed encounter anomalies when the direction of propagation and polarization of its wave of strain coincides with the characteristic directions of symmetry breaking in the JTE. For the SrF2:Cr crystal, employed as a basic example, we observed anomaly peaks in the temperature dependence of attenuation of ultrasound at frequencies of 50-160 MHz in the temperature interval of 40-60 K for the wave propagating along the [110] direction, for both the longitudinal and the shear modes, the latter with two polarizations along the [001] and [1 1 ¯ 0 ] axes, respectively. We show that these anomalies are due to the ultrasound relaxation by the system of non-interacting Cr2+ JT centers with orthorhombic local distortions. The interpretation of the experimental findings is based on the T2 g⊗(eg+t2 g) JTE problem including the linear and the quadratic terms of vibronic interactions in the Hamiltonian and the same-symmetry modes reduced to one interaction mode. Combining the experimental results with a theoretical analysis, we show that on the complicated six-dimensional APES of this system with three tetragonal, four trigonal, and six orthorhombic extrema points, the latter are global minima, while the former are saddle points, and we estimate numerically all the main parameters of this surface, including the linear and quadratic vibronic coupling constants, the primary force constants, the coordinates of all the extrema points and their energies, the energy barrier between the orthorhombic minima, and the tunneling splitting of the ground vibrational states. To our knowledge, such a based-on-experimental-data numerical reconstruction of the APES

  15. Reconciling White-Box and Black-Box Perspectives on Behavioral Self-adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Roberto; Corradini, Andrea; Gadducci, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect to an environ......This paper proposes to reconcile two perspectives on behavioral adaptation commonly taken at different stages of the engineering of autonomic computing systems. Requirements engineering activities often take a black-box perspective: A system is considered to be adaptive with respect...... to an environment whenever the system is able to satisfy its goals irrespectively of the environment perturbations. Modeling and programming engineering activities often take a white-box perspective: A system is equipped with suitable adaptation mechanisms and its behavior is classified as adaptive depending...... on whether the adaptation mechanisms are enacted or not. The proposed approach reconciles black- and white-box perspectives by proposing several notions of coherence between the adaptivity as observed by the two perspectives: These notions provide useful criteria for the system developer to assess...

  16. Teaching Outside the Box: ARL Librarians' Integration of the "One- Box" into Student Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Christina; McCain, Cheryl; Scrivener, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey that targeted reference and instruction librarians who work at libraries that are members of the Asso- ciation of Research Libraries (ARL). Respondents were asked to indicate whether or not they teach students to use the one-box tool, and why or why not. Based on the responses of the 352 librarians who…

  17. Quantitative determination of zero-gravity effects on electronic materials processing germanium crystal growth with simultaneous interface demarcation experiment MA-060, section 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, H. C.; Witt, A. F.; Lichtensteiger, M.; Herman, C. J.

    1982-01-01

    The crystal growth and segregation characteristics of a melt in a directional solidification configuration under near zero g conditions were investigated. The germanium (doped with gallium) system was selected because it was extensively studied on Earth and because it lends itself to a very detailed macroscopic and microscopic characterization. An extensive study was performed of the germanium crystals grown during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. It was found that single crystal growth was achieved and that the interface demarcation functioned successfully. On the basis of the results obtained to date, there is no indication that convection driven by thermal or surface tension gradients was present in the melt. The gallium segregation, in the absence of gravity, was found to be fundamentally different in its initial and its subsequent stages from that of the ground based tests. None of the existing theoretical models for growth and segregation can account for the observed segregation behavior in the absence of gravity.

  18. Heart Rate and Liking During "Kinect Boxing" Versus "Wii Boxing": The Potential for Enjoyable Vigorous Physical Activity Videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gabriel J; Peacock, Corey A; Barkley, Jacob E; Gish, Brian; Brock, Scott; Volpenhein, Josh

    2015-08-01

    Nintendo(®) (Kyoto, Japan) "Wii™ Sports Boxing" ("Wii Boxing") and Xbox(®) (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) "Kinect(®) Sports Boxing" ("Kinect Boxing") are both boxing simulation videogames that are available for two different active videogame (AVG) systems. Although these AVGs are similar, the style of gameplay required is different (i.e., upper body only versus total body movements) and may alter physical activity intensity and one's preference for playing one game over the other. AVGs that elicit the greatest physiologic challenge and are preferred by users should be identified in an effort to enhance the efficacy of physical activity interventions and programs that include AVGs. The mean heart rate (HRmean) and peak heart rate (HRpeak) for 27 adults (22.7±4.2 years old) were recorded during four 10-minute conditions: seated rest, treadmill walking at 3 miles/hour, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing." Upon completion of all four conditions, participants indicated which condition they preferred, and HRmean and HRpeak were calculated as a percentage of age-predicted maximum heart rate to classify physical activity intensity for the three activity conditions (treadmill, "Wii Boxing," and "Kinect Boxing"). "Kinect Boxing" significantly (PBoxing" was great enough to be considered a vigorous-intensity physical activity. There was no difference (P=0.55) in percentage HRmean between "Wii Boxing" and treadmill walking. Participants also preferred "Kinect Boxing" (PBoxing," n=1; treadmill n=0). "Kinect Boxing" was the most preferred and the only condition that was physiologically challenging enough to be classified as a vigorous-intensity physical activity.

  19. Hairy Black Holes in a Box

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Pallab; Subramanian, P N Bala

    2016-01-01

    We do a systematic study of the phases of gravity coupled to an electromagnetic field and charged scalar in flat space, with box boundary conditions. The scalar-less box has previously been investigated by Braden, Brown, Whiting and York (and others) before AdS/CFT and we elaborate and extend their results in a language more familiar from holography. The phase diagram of the system is analogous to that of AdS black holes, but we emphasize the differences and explain their origin. Once the scalar is added, we show that the system admits both boson stars as well as hairy black holes as solutions, providing yet another way to evade flat space no-hair theorems. Furthermore both these solutions can exist as stable phases in regions of the phase diagram. The final picture of the phases that emerges is strikingly similar to that found recently for holographic superconductors in global AdS, arXiv: 1602.07211. Our construction lays bare certain previously unnoticed subtleties associated to the definition quasi-local c...

  20. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.