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Sample records for cryptotermes brevis isoptera

  1. NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORD OF Cryptotermes brevis (ISOPTERA, KALOTERMITIDAE IN ARGENTINA

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    Juan Manuel Coronel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The first record of the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 in the city of Corrientes (Argentina is reported. Several C. brevis  colonies were detected inside a local deposit, from wooden crates used for carrying fresh fruits. The observed damage consisted of small rounded holes, partially hollowed wood pieces and presence of debris. The importance of weather factors and the type of material of vegetable and fruit containers in the colonization and dispersion of C. brevis  in this region of Argentina are discussed. Illustrations of soldiers and reproductive C. brevis , and an updated map of the distribution of this termite in Argentina are given.Nuevo registro de distribución de Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae en Argentina Se presenta el primer registro de Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 en la ciudad de Corrientes (Argentina. Se detectaron varias colonias de esta termita dentro de un edificio en contenedores de madera empleados para el transporte de fruta fresca. Los daños observados consistieron en orificios redondos, piezas de madera parcialmente excavadas y presencia de debris fecales. Se discute la importancia de factores climatológicos y del tipo de material de contenedores de fruta, en la colonización y dispersión de C. brevis  en esta región de Argentina. Se presentan ilustraciones de soldados y reproductores de C. brevis  y un mapa actualizado de la distribución de esta termita en Argentina

  2. Potential distribution and cost estimation of the damage caused by Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores.

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    Guerreiro, O; Cardoso, P; Ferreira, J M; Ferreira, M T; Borges, P A V

    2014-08-01

    In the Azores archipelago, a significant proportion of buildings are infested with the urban exotic drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), causing major economical and patrimonial losses. This work aims to understand the potential spread of this termite species in the Azores and estimate the costs for both treatment and reconstruction of infested buildings in the entire archipelago. A maximum entropy niche modeling process was used to determine the potential occurrence of the species on each island. Different scenarios were built using independent global and regional incidence and environmental data. Both projections reveal the same pattern. Generally, the probability of occurrence is higher near the coast line, where, in Azores, the majority of the towns and villages are located. We also predict that the infestation has potential to spread to yet unaffected towns and islands. It is estimated that the cost of treating all currently infested buildings in the archipelago is Euro 51 million, while reconstruction of the same buildings would rise the costs to Euro 175 million. We predict that the absence of a control strategy will cause a further expansion of the pest to more localities in the Azores. An estimate to future scenarios implies higher costs, with treatment and rebuilding values rising up to eight times the current values.

  3. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  4. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

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    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  5. Cryptotermes colombianus a new drywood termite and distribution record of Cryptotermes in Colombia.

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    Casalla, Robin; Scheffrahn, Rudolf; Korb, Judith

    2016-01-01

    A new species of drywood termite (Kalotermitidae), Cryptotermes colombianus, is described and new records for Cryptotermes cylindroceps and Cryptotermes mangoldi are presented from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Cryptotermes colombianus is described from two soldiers and genetic sequences. This unusual species differs noticeably from other regional Cryptotermes species for its weak and inconspicuous definition of the frontal and genal horns and its acute angle of the frons with respect to the vertex. Cryptotermes colombianus clustered with species from the Ethiopian and Oriental region and it is closely related to Cryptotermes havilandi. Cryptotermes cylindroceps is widely distributed along the Colombian Caribbean coast, commonly associated with dead wood in mangrove habitats. It also is commonly found in wooden furniture, constituting an important household pest. Cryptotermes mangoldi is reported from the Caribbean mainland for the first time. With these new records, there are now five Cryptotermes species for Colombia, including the pest species Cryptotermes brevis and Cryptotermes dudleyi. This new description raises the numbers of Neotropical Cryptotermes to a total of 34 species, of which 2 are fossils, 4 introduced, and 28 endemic.

  6. Cryptotermes colombianus a new drywood termite and distribution record of Cryptotermes in Colombia

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    Casalla, Robin; Scheffrahn, Rudolf; Korb, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of drywood termite (Kalotermitidae), Cryptotermes colombianus, is described and new records for Cryptotermes cylindroceps and Cryptotermes mangoldi are presented from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Cryptotermes colombianus is described from two soldiers and genetic sequences. This unusual species differs noticeably from other regional Cryptotermes species for its weak and inconspicuous definition of the frontal and genal horns and its acute angle of the frons with respect to the vertex. Cryptotermes colombianus clustered with species from the Ethiopian and Oriental region and it is closely related to Cryptotermes havilandi. Cryptotermes cylindroceps is widely distributed along the Colombian Caribbean coast, commonly associated with dead wood in mangrove habitats. It also is commonly found in wooden furniture, constituting an important household pest. Cryptotermes mangoldi is reported from the Caribbean mainland for the first time. With these new records, there are now five Cryptotermes species for Colombia, including the pest species Cryptotermes brevis and Cryptotermes dudleyi. This new description raises the numbers of Neotropical Cryptotermes to a total of 34 species, of which 2 are fossils, 4 introduced, and 28 endemic. PMID:27408575

  7. Cryptotermes colombianus a new drywood termite and distribution record of Cryptotermes in Colombia

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    Casalla, Robin; Scheffrahn,Rudolf; Korb, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of drywood termite ( Kalotermitidae ), Cryptotermes colombianus , is described and new records for Cryptotermes cylindroceps and Cryptotermes mangoldi are presented from the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Cryptotermes colombianus is described from two soldiers and genetic sequences. This unusual species differs noticeably from other regional Cryptotermes species for its weak and inconspicuous definition of the frontal and genal horns and its acute angle of the frons with ...

  8. Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome.

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    SERRATRICE, G.; Azulay, J.P.; Serratrice, J; Pouget, J

    1995-01-01

    Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome is a rare and benign condition of localised muscular hyperactivity. In five men, the hypothenar eminence underwent spontaneous, irregular, tonic contractions of the palmaris brevis muscle. An EMG showed spontaneous high frequency discharges of normal motor units, without evidence of neuropathy or of nerve compression. This syndrome resembles other restricted muscle hyperactivity syndromes although there are some differences. Curiously, the palmaris brevis muscle...

  9. Mathematical models for Isoptera (Insecta mound growth

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    MLT. Buschini

    Full Text Available In this research we proposed two mathematical models for Isoptera mound growth derived from the Von Bertalanffy growth curve, one appropriated for Nasutitermes coxipoensis, and a more general formulation. The mean height and the mean diameter of ten small colonies were measured each month for twelve months, from April, 1995 to April, 1996. Through these data, the monthly volumes were calculated for each of them. Then the growth in height and in volume was estimated and the models proposed.

  10. Pheromones and exocrine glands in Isoptera.

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    Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria; Haifig, Ives

    2010-01-01

    Termites are eusocial insects that have a peculiar and intriguing system of communication using pheromones. The termite pheromones are composed of a blend of chemical substances and they coordinate different social interactions or activities, including foraging, building, mating, defense, and nestmate recognition. Some of these sociochemicals are volatile, spreading in the air, and others are contact pheromones, which are transmitted by trophallaxis and grooming. Among the termite semiochemicals, the most known are alarm, trail, sex pheromones, and hydrocarbons responsible for the recognition of nestmates. The sources of the pheromones are exocrine glands located all over the termite body. The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal, and tergal glands. The frontal gland is the source of alarm pheromone and defensive chemicals, but the mandibular secretions have been little studied and their function is not well established in Isoptera. The secretion of salivary glands involves numerous chemical compounds, some of them without pheromonal function. The worker saliva contains a phagostimulating pheromone and probably a building pheromone, while the salivary reservoir of some soldiers contains defensive chemicals. The sternal gland is the only source of trail-following pheromone, whereas sex pheromones are secreted by two glandular sources, the sternal and tergal glands. To date, the termite semiochemicals have indicated that few molecules are involved in their chemical communication, that is, the same compound may be secreted by different glands, different castes and species, and for different functions, depending on the concentration. In addition to the pheromonal parsimony, recent studies also indicate the occurrence of a synergic effect among the compounds involved in the chemical communication of Isoptera. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genes identification in Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera, Rhinotermitidae)

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    Flavia Costa Leonardo

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: Coptotermes gestroi é um inseto pertencente à Ordem Isoptera. Como qualquer organismo desempenha um papel fundamental para o meio ambiente, sendo importante agente de degradação de madeira e compostos celulósicos em geral, implicado na ciclagem de nutrientes nos ecossistemas, alem de exercer influência benéfica no solo. Entretanto, esta espécie se instala no solo ou no interior de edificações comprometendo toda a sua estrutura, sendo responsável por prejuízos de milhões de dólares no ...

  12. [Demodex folliculorum and demodex brevis].

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    Marcinowska, Zuzanna; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Czepita, Damian; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Demodex are cosmopolitan mites occurring in many species of mammals. Two morphologically distinct Demodex species parasitize on humans: Demodexfolliculorum (Simon, 1842) and Demodex brevis (Akbulatova, 1963). Until recently, these species have been regarded as commensals; now they are considered as parasitic organisms. In people, Demodex spp. can be found mainly in the sebaceous glands of the skin (mainly in the area of the forehead, cheeks, nose, behind ears and neck), in hearing aids, and on the scalp, covered with hair. Infection with demodex happens through direct contact with infected bed linen, towels, creams and other cosmetics. Despite the high prevalence of Demodex spp. in the human population, symptoms of demodecosis are not common, and can be found mainly in people with weakened immune systems due to aging or a number of diseases.

  13. Storage features of Lactobacillus Brevis strain 9

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    Utemurat Sagyndykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current article presents the results of the research conducted on storing lactic bacteria. On the basis of results of experiments on liophilization of the culture of lactic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis strain №9, it has been concluded that the optimum way of storing the given culture is the method of liophilic drying with the vacuum soldering.

  14. Pengaruh Ekstrak Tembakau terhadap Serangan Rayap Kayu Kering Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light pada Bambu Apus (Gigantochloa apus Kurz

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    Sutjipto A Hadikusumo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Tobacco Extracts on   Apus Bamboo (Gigantochloa apus Kurz  resistance  against  Drywood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light (Gigantochloa apus Kurz Attacks Bamboo is one of community forest products and people use it for many purposes. Due to insect attack such as termite, the life time of bamboo product is short. To avoid chemical pollution in bamboo preservation process, tobacco extract was used. Tobacco was extracted in water, in the amounts of 100, 150 and 200 g in 1 l of water, at  temperature of 70-80°C for 3 hours. Bamboo trees were cut, the bottom parts were soaked in tobacco extract solution for 1, 3 and 5 days. Samples were cut into 5 cm x 3 cm x bamboo thickness at the bottom, middle and upper parts of the bamboo tree. After being air dried, each sample was exposed to 50 dry wood termites in a small glass tube for two months. The results showed that bamboo preservation by diffusion with high concentration of tobacco extract (200 g tobacco extracted in 1 l of water resulted in 61% termite mortality.

  15. The Efficacy of Organo-Complex-Based Wood Preservative Formula Against Dry-Wood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light

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    Khoirul Himmi Setiawan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of pesticides often leaves residues which potentially pollute the environment. This journal issue has been encouraging some researchers to find an environmentally friendly insecticide by a cheaper wood preservative method. The International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 15 (ISPM 15 [1] that is adopted in wood packaging protection in Europe is not suitable for tropical countries like Indonesia. Therefore, the treatment by Organo-Complex-based wood preservation, which consists of copper chromium combined with natural organic compounds, is proposed for effective treatment at a lower cost. The bioassay test was subjected to dry wood termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. The result showed that wood materials treated by 10 ppm Organo-Complex formula gave good results which were indicated by the low consumption and the fast termination of the termites. The toxicity analysis of C-C organic compound solution is classified as grade IV (WHO, 2003 [2], or not harmful. Analysis of the residual content four weeks after the spraying treatment showed a significant reduction in the inorganic content (copper chromate complex, in the range of 35%, and in extracts of natural materials (natural extracts, above 80%.

  16. Pengaruh Ekstrak Tembakau terhadap Serangan Rayap Kayu Kering Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light pada Bambu Apus (Gigantochloa apus Kurz

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    Sutjipto A Hadikusumo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Tobacco Extracts on   Apus Bamboo (Gigantochloa apus Kurz  resistance  against  Drywood Termite Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light (Gigantochloa apus Kurz Attacks Bamboo is one of community forest products and people use it for many purposes. Due to insect attack such as termite, the life time of bamboo product is short. To avoid chemical pollution in bamboo preservation process, tobacco extract was used. Tobacco was extracted in water, in the amounts of 100, 150 and 200 g in 1 l of water, at  temperature of 70-80°C for 3 hours. Bamboo trees were cut, the bottom parts were soaked in tobacco extract solution for 1, 3 and 5 days. Samples were cut into 5 cm x 3 cm x bamboo thickness at the bottom, middle and upper parts of the bamboo tree. After being air dried, each sample was exposed to 50 dry wood termites in a small glass tube for two months. The results showed that bamboo preservation by diffusion with high concentration of tobacco extract (200 g tobacco extracted in 1 l of water resulted in 61% termite mortality.

  17. Bioprospecting of Brevibacillus brevis isolated from soil.

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    Samrot, Antony V; Prasad, Rejin J J; Rio, Antony J; Sneha, Sahaya J

    2015-01-01

    It is obviously essential to find new compounds that possess industrial and medicinal importance and potential to improve the lifestyle of human population. Bioprospecting these compounds from natural resources has additional benefits since they are less toxic as well as biocompatible. In this study, Brevibacillus brevis was isolated from soil and its enzymes production, antibacterial activity and anticancer activity were assessed. The organism was found to be a promising source of amylase enzymes, antibacterial as well as anticancer compounds.

  18. Pengawetan Kayu Gubal Jati Secara Rendaman Dingin dengan Pengawet Boron untuk Mencegah Serangan Rayap Kayu Kering (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.

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    Afif Sumaryanto

    2015-10-01

    The utilization of younger teakwood has a disadvantage, which is the sapwood is more susceptible to dry wood termites as it has less natural durability. Boric acid and borax are inexpensive preservatives, which contain boron as the active material. Those preservatives are also easy to be obtained as well as do not produce smells and the wood discoloration. The experiment materials were the sapwood parts from teak boards obtained from the felled trees in the community forest of Kali Bawang, Kulon Progo. A complete randomized block design was arranged in a factorial with two factors, which were the type of preservatives (boric acid and borax in 5% concentration and duration of cold soaking (12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. To examine the durability of sample, dry wood termites (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light were used. The results showed that the average values of absorption, retention, and depth of penetration were 33.09 to 70.77 kg/m3, 3.81 to 10.77 kg/m3, and 2.34 to 3.86 mm, respectively. The average values of termite mortality during 2 weeks and 4 weeks were 46.33 to 53 %, 82.67 to 94.33 %. Weight reduction and degree of the damage were, 560 to 570 mg, and 30.34 to 31.27 %, respectively. By analysis of variance, there was an interaction between the type of preservatives and the duration of cold soaking factors, which affected significantly the termite mortality. Type of preservative affected significantly the absorption and penetration. Further, the duration of cold soaking affected significantly the level of absorption, retention and penetration. The application of preservatives could reduce the mass loss of specimens until 70 % as well as to give higher levels of mortality rate (87-92 % compared to that of untreated one.

  19. Caste biology and behaviour of Bulbitermes sarawakensis (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae) in Malaysia

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    Lommen, S.T.E.; Huis, van A.; Sajap, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Morphometrics, caste composition and behaviour were studied in Bulbitermes sarawakensis (Isoptera; Nasutitermitinae) in Malaysia. Morphometric studies displayed two larval stages, a presoldier and a soldier caste, two worker castes and different nymphal stages. Four different nymphs with long wings

  20. DOUBLE-BELLIED EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS

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    Lydia S. Quadros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the anatomical variations are noted during the cadaveric dissections. A rare variation of the Extensor digitorum brevis manus was observed on the dorsal aspect of the right hand of a 69-year-old male cadaver. This atavistic muscle had two bellies which originated from the dorsal aspect of the lower end of radius and the capsule of the wrist joint respectively. The two bellies fused to form a single tendon which inserted into the ulnar side of the dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Posterior interosseous nerve innervated the two bellies. This muscle may be involved in the wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a ganglion or a nodule upon radiological examination. This muscle may be used for reconstructive purposes.

  1. Arginine specific aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus brevis

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    Arya Nandan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the development of flavor during the ripening of cheese through the generation of short peptides and free amino acids, which directly or indirectly act as flavor precursors. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as those procured from culture collection centers were screened for the production of various substrate specific aminopeptidases. Among all the strains screened, L. brevis (NRRL B-1836 was found to produce quantifiable amount of intracellular arginine specific aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.6. The productivity of arginine aminopeptidase in 5 L fermentor was 36 IU/L/h. The Luedeking and Piret model was tested for intracellular production of aminopeptidase and the data seemed to fit well, as the correlation coefficient was 0.9964 for MRS. The αAP and βAP was 0.4865 and 0.0046, respectively in MRS medium indicating that the yield was predominantly depended on growth. The culture produced lactic acid and also tolerated pH 2.0-3.0 and 0.3-0.5% bile salts, the most important probiotic features.

  2. Identifying possible sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera: a combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of Dictyoptera.

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    Djernæs, Marie; Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Termites (Isoptera) offer an alternative model for the development of eusociality which is not dependent on a high degree of relatedness as found between sisters in hymenopterans (bees, wasps, ants). Recent phylogenetic studies have established that termites belong within the cockroaches as sister to the subsocial Cryptocercidae. Cryptocercidae shares several important traits with termites, thus we need to understand the phylogenetic position of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to determine how these traits evolved. However, placement of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is still uncertain. We used both molecular (12S, 16S, COII, 18S, 28S, H3) and morphological characters to reconstruct the phylogeny of Dictyoptera. We included all previously suggested sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera as well as taxa which might represent additional major cockroach lineages. We used Bayes factors to test different sister groups for Cryptocercidae+Isoptera and assessed character support for the consensus tree based on morphological characters and COII amino acid data. We used the molecular data and fossil calibration to estimate divergence times. We found the most likely sister groups of Cryptocercidae+Isoptera to be Tryonicidae, Anaplecta or Tryonicidae+Anaplecta. Anaplecta has never previously been suggested as sister group or even close to Cryptocercidae+Isoptera, but was formerly placed in Blaberoidea as sister to the remaining taxa. Topological tests firmly supported our new placement of Anaplecta. We discuss the morphological characters (e.g. retractable genitalic hook) that have contributed to the previous placement of Anaplecta in Blaberoidea as well as the factors that might have contributed to a parallel development of genitalic features in Anaplecta and Blaberoidea. Cryptocercidae+Isoptera is placed in a clade with Tryonicidae, Anaplecta and possibly Lamproblattidae. Based on this, we suggest that wood-feeding, and the resultant need to conserve nitrogen, may have been an important

  3. Zooplankton and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico

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    Lester, Kristen M.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Neely, Merry B.; Spence, Danylle N.; Murasko, Susan; Hopkins, Thomas L.; Sutton, Tracey T.; Burghart, Scott E.; Bohrer, Richard N.; Remsen, Andrew W.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis are common in the Gulf of Mexico, yet no in situ studies of zooplankton and K. brevis have been conducted there. Zooplankton abundance and taxonomic composition at non-bloom and K. brevis bloom stations within the Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) study area were compared. At non-bloom stations, the most abundant species of zooplankton were Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oithona colcarva, and Paracalanus quasimodo at the 5-m isobath and P. quasimodo, O. colcarva, and Oikopleura dioica at the 25-m isobath. There was considerable overlap in dominance of zooplankton species between the 5 and 25-m isobaths, with nine species contributing to 90% of abundance at both isobaths. At stations within K. brevis blooms however, Acartia tonsa, Centropages velificatus, Temora turbinata, Evadne tergestina, O. colcarva, O. dioica, and P. crassirostris were dominant. Variations in abundance between non-bloom and bloom assemblages were evident, including the reduction in abundance of three key species within K. brevis blooms.

  4. Transfer of chlorfenapyr among workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory

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    Thomas G. Shelton; Joseph E. Mulroonery; Terence L. Wagner

    2006-01-01

    The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipeS(Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0,50,100,250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI] /wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to...

  5. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

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    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for biotechnologica

  6. Pengaruh Pemberian Daun Mengkudu Dan Daun Nimba Terhadap Rayap (Coptotermes curvignathus) (Isoptera; Rhinotermi) Di Laboratorium

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    Ribka, Dewi

    2011-01-01

    Dewi Ribka, “ The Effect of Fragrant Grass for Mortality of Flea Rice Coptotermes curvignathus H (Isoptera: Rhinotermi) In Laboratory”. It was supervised by Ir. Mena Uly Tarigan, MS and Ir. Syahrial Oemry, MS. This research used randomized complete design non factorial with four treatments and three replication. The result showed that the giving of fragrant grass flour on each treatment has significant effect for each observation. The highest mortality percentage of C. curvinagthus was 62,67%...

  7. Chromatophore motor fields in the squid, Lolliguncula brevis

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    Graham, P. F.; Frank, M M; Pinsker, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Chromatophore motoneurones in Lolliguncula brevis are known to originate in the suboesophageal lobes of the brain and to project directly to the mantle and fin through bilateral stellate ganglia and fin nerves. The chromatophore motor fields of stellar and fin nerves were investigated by stimulation of the cut end of individual nerves in a semi-intact preparation. This elicited expansion of yellow and brown chromatophores in distinct motor fields. Brown chromatophores extended over the entire...

  8. FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

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    In the Gulf of Mexico, recurring algal blooms, caused by Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve), have significant adverse health and economic impacts. K. brevis is one member of a small group of dinoflagellates, related morphologically and by DNA-based phylogenetic ...

  9. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  10. THE RESISTANCE OF WOOD PLASTIC COMPOSITE TO THE DRY-WOOD TERMITE Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light. AND THE SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren INFESTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasni Jasni

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood  plastic  composites   (WPC were made  by impregnating  monomer   and  vinyl acetate monomer  with addition  of  terbutyl peroxide  catalyst. This laboratory  scale experiment  aimed at looking into  the durability of  WPC polymerized  at varying mixture  ratios between  styrene and vinyl acetate monomers,  compared  to the natural   durability of  the corresponding   wood  treated with impralit CKB.  In this  regard,  wood  samples were dried until 10 % moisture  content,   and then  they were put in the tank under  20 mm Hg vacuum was being released.   Styrene  monomer with vinyl acetate  addition was flown to the tank, and the wood  samples were immersed  in the monomer   for  24 hours.   Furthermore,   the wood  samples  were taken  out,  and  wrapped  with aluminum  foil, and then were   put in the oven for 24 hours at 60° C. The  wraps were opened, and the samples were  conditioned.   The  samples were tested  to dry wood  termite  (Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light.,  and the Subterranean  termite (Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren..  Investigated factors were (i wood species consisting of sengon, pine, and rubber wood, and (ii ratio of styrene to vinyl acetate. i.e.  90/10;  80/20;  70/30;  and 60/40.   For comparison,  each wood samples  treated with  Impralit  CKB  3% and untreated   (unpolymerized    wood  samples  (a control  were  also prepared.  The  results showed  that polymer  loadings  in the  sengon, pine and rubber  wood were 118 %, 72 % and  44%  respectively. Increasing  of  vinyl acetate  to styrene  tended  to decrease polymer loading,  the addition  of  10% gave 96% polymer  loading,  20% gave 108%,  30% gave 71 %, and 30% gave 38 % respectively.  It appeared that treatment  of styrene with low vinyl acetate additions  (60:40 had resulted  in consecutively  95.67%  and 97.75 % mortality  of  the dry

  11. Extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallusis brevis transplantation for treatment of long-standing facial pa-ralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-qing; FANG Bai-rong; FANG Xue-quan; WANG Chang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of free transplan-tation of denervated muscles and vessels in the treatment of long-standing facial paralysis.Methods: A total of 26 patients with facial paralysis (10 males and 16 females, aged 16-65 years, mean: 47 years) were enrolled in this study to receive transplantation of denervated extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) and extensor hallusis brevis (EHB). The muscle tendon was slung to the ala nasi, the middle point of the nasolabial sulcus, the angu-lus otis and the chin to correct the nasal and oral deformity. The muscle belly was buried around the nerves that inner-vated the masseter muscle. Microsurgery was applied to anastomosing the tarsus lateral vessels to the superficial temporalis vessels.Results: After operation, all the patients immediately obtained satisfied static appearance. The movement of the paralyzed comer of the mouth could be obtained one month later and the smile of the paralyzed side could be restored after 3 months of training. And 88% patients achieved per-fect results, 8% obtained satisfactory results, and 4% got improvement 6 months after operation according to Stennert's paresis scoring system.Conclusions: Free transplantation of denervated muscles and vessels for the treatment of long-standing fa-cial paralysis, which seldom causes atrophy or liquefaction of the transferred muscles, can maintain muscle viability and induce reliable nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is a safe and efficient treatment method for the patients suffer-ing from facial paralysis.

  12. Unusual origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingerter, S; Gupta, S; Le, S; Shamasunder, S; Bernstein, R; Rabitaille, W; Kukuyeva, Y; Downie, S

    2003-11-01

    An unusual origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle of the right hand was discovered during cadaveric dissection. The muscle originated from the anterior aspect of the transverse fibers of the distal antebrachial fascia and inserted onto the base of the fifth proximal phalanx. When traction was applied to the proximal portion of the muscle, flexion was produced at the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. Other intrinsic muscles of the hand and the muscles of the flexor forearm compartment had normal morphology. Although muscular anomalies in the hypothenar region have been described, the muscular variant described here was distinct in its origin and size from those previously reported. Knowledge of anomalous muscles in the hand has important clinical significance in routine surgery and in determining associated pathology.

  13. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: Its clinical significance and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolla SR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous muscles are often a matter of concern to clinicians as they mislead the diagnosis. Knowledge of such variant muscles is important clinically to avoid misdiagnosis. In this report we present an anomalous muscle on the dorsum of hand, extensor digitorum brevis manus an uncommon variation present as a swelling on the dorsum. It is originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger, this variant muscle often cause dorsal wrist pain and often confused as ganglion, soft tissue tumor, synovial cyst or tenovaginitis. The presence of such variant muscles on dorsum of hand, their clinical significance and literature has been reviewed.

  14. Modified Evans peroneus brevis lateral ankle stabilization for balancing varus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, I have described a modification of the Evans peroneus brevis tendon lateral ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis is then transferred either to the anterior distal tibia concomitantly with total ankle replacement or through the tibia when performed after total ankle replacement and secured with plate and screw fixation. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon is useful in providing lateral ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  15. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  16. Florida Red Tide: Inhalation Toxicity of Karenia brevis Extract in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, J M; Hahn, F F; Tibbetts, B.M.; Bowen, L.E.; March, T.F.; Langley, R. J.; Murray, T.F.; Bourdelais, A.J.; Naar, J.; Zaias, J.; Baden, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    Brevetoxins are neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Histopathologic examination of marine mammals dying following repeated exposure of brevetoxins during red tide events suggests that the respiratory tract, nervous, hematopoietic, and immune systems are potential targets for toxicity in repeatedly exposed individuals. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of K. brevis extract on these potential target systems in rats. M...

  17. PCR amplification of microsatellites from single cells of Karenia brevis preserved in Lugol's iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, D W; Renshaw, M A; Santamaria, C A; Richardson, B; Gold, J R; Campbell, L

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective protocol is described for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of single cells of Karenia brevis. The protocol requires minimum processing, avoids additions that might dilute target DNA template, and can be used on cells preserved in Lugol's iodine preservative. Destaining of Lugol's-preserved cells with sodium thiosulfate allowed successful amplification of single-copy, nuclear-encoded microsatellites in single cells of K. brevis that have been preserved for up to 6 years.

  18. Intra- and interspecific agonistic behavior of the subterranean termite Microcerotermes crassus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the intra- and interspecific agonistic behaviors exhibited by the worker and soldier castes of the subterranean termite Microcerotermes crassus Snyder (Isoptera: Termitidae). Aggression between M. crassus colonies from different field locations and also against three termite species--Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), Globitermnes sulphureus Haviland, and Odontotermes sp.--were observed in the laboratory. Termite responses were tested in paired combination of castes (soldiers versus soldiers, soldiers versus workers, and workers versus workers) consisting of 10 individuals each. Significant agonistic behaviors were observed only in encounters between pairings of different termite species. M. crassus was aggressive toward individuals from different species but not toward individuals from different M. crassus colonies. Mortality of M. crassus reached 100% in most of the interspecific encounters. However, no or low mortality was recorded in the intraspecific pairings.

  19. Chroniodiplogaster formosiana sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) from Chinese populations of Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Meikle, William; Mercadier, Guy

    2006-06-01

    Chroniodiplogaster formosiana sp. n. (Rhabditida: Diplogastridae) is described from a population of Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Termitidae) collected from dead (unidentified) wood at Dinghu Park, China. Characters of C. formosiana which separate it from C. aerivora (Cobb) are a longer tail, the presence of four micropapillae (quadriform condition), and the adjacent position of the second and third macropapillae on the male tail. The diplogasterid Pristionchus uniformis Fedorko & Stanuszek, which is transferred to Chroniodiplogaster, can be distinguished from both C. formosiana and C. aerivora by the position of its excretory pore. Variable results in experimental infection trials suggest that some still unknown factor or factors are important in the infection process. Further studies are necessary to better define these factors before C. formosiana can be considered as a biological control agent of the Formosan termite.

  20. Toxicity and transmission of thiamethoxam in the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity and horizontal transmission of thiamethoxam was evaluated in the workers of the Asian subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Brief exposure to sand treated with thiamethoxam at concentration ranging from 0.25 to 50 µg/ml resulted in a dose-dependent mortality in C. gestroi. Sand treated with 50 µg/ml thiamethoxam resulted in very high mortality within 30-60 min of exposure. Termites exposed to sand treated with 0.25-25 µg/ml exhibited delayed toxicity and nonrepellency in C. gestroi. A horizontal transmission study using 25 µg/ml of thiamethoxam at donor-recipient ratio of at least 2:5 (treated:untreated) indicated that thiamethoxam can be transferred between exposed and unexposed workers, resulting in significant termite mortality in unexposed termites within 1-3 d post exposure.

  1. Characteristics of surface layer proteins from two new and native strains of Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak Qamsari, Elahe; Kasra Kermanshahi, Rouha; Erfan, Mohammad; Ghadam, Parinaz; Sardari, Soroush; Eslami, Neda

    2017-02-01

    In this work, some important characteristics of surface layer (S-layer) proteins extracted from two new and native Lactobacillus strains, L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7, were investigated. The presence of S-layer on the external surface of L.brevis KM3 was displayed by thin sectioning and negative staining. SDS-PAGE analysis were shown same dominant protein bands approximately around 48kDa for both S-layer proteins. Moreover, the S-layer reappeared when LiCl treated cells were allowed to grow again. Protein secondary structure and thermal behavior were evaluated by using circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Both S-layer proteins had high content of β-sheet and low amount of α-helix. The thermograms of lyophilized S-layer proteins of L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7 showed one transition peak at 67.9°C and 59.14°C, respectively. To determine monodispersity of extracted S-layer proteins, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. The results indicated that the main population of S-layer molecules in two tested lactobacillus strains were composed of monomer with an expected diameter close to 10nm. Furthermore, Zeta potential measurements were showed positive potential for both S-layer proteins, as expected. Our results could be used as the basis for biotechnological applications of these two new S-layer proteins.

  2. Empedobacter brevis Bacteremia in a Patient Infected with HIV: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by Empedobacter brevis (E. brevis is very rare. We report the first case of E. brevis bacteremia in a patient with HIV and review the current literature. A 69-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 count of 319 presented with chief complaints of black tarry stools, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. Physical exam was significant for abdominal pain on palpation with no rebound or guarding. His total leukocyte count was 32,000 cells/μL with 82% neutrophils and 9% bands. Emergent colonoscopy and endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed esophageal candidiasis, a nonbleeding gastric ulcer, and diverticulosis. Blood cultures drawn on days 1, 2, and 3 of hospitalization grew E. brevis. Patient improved with intravenous antibiotics. This case is unusual, raising the possibility of gastrointestinal colonization as a source of the patient’s bacteremia. In conclusion, E. brevis is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious health care associated infections.

  3. Biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by Bacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, S; Shah, A K

    2000-02-01

    A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.

  4. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis.

  5. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  6. Reverse Evans peroneus brevis medial ankle stabilization for balancing valgus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Medial ankle instability secondary to deltoid ligament insufficiency is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, we describe a "reverse" Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction for medial ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis tendon is brought through a drill hole in the talus from laterally to medially, aiming for the junction of the talar neck and body plantar to the midline. The tendon is the brought superiorly and obliquely to the anterior medial aspect of the distal tibia where it is secured under a plate and screw construct. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction is useful in providing medial ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  7. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added...... xylose in untreated HH after wet-oxidation, showed no inhibition on the lactic acid production by either Lb. pentosus or Lb. brevis. Lb. pentosus produced lactate corresponding to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield regardless of the hydrolysis method, whereas Lb. brevis produced 51% and 61......% of the theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...

  8. Lactic acid production from corn stover using mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yebo; Wan, Caixia

    2011-01-01

    Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis was studied for improving utilization of both cellulose- and hemicellulose-derived sugars from corn stover for lactic acid production. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of NaOH-treated corn stover by the mixed cultures, a lactic acid yield of 0.70 g/g was obtained, which was about 18.6% and 29.6% higher than that by single cultures of L. rhamnosus and L. brevis, respectively. Our results indicated that lactic acid yield from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by mixed cultures of L. rhamnosus and L. brevis was comparable to that from pure sugar mixtures (0.73 g/g of glucose/xylose mixture at 3:1 w/w). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foukia E. Mouafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate and validate a statistical model for maximizing biosurfactant productivity by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. In this respect, twenty bacterial isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity, oil spreading technique, and emulsification index (E24. The most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterium (B. brevis was used for construction of the statistical response surface model. The optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by B. brevis were: 33 °C incubation temperature at pH 8 for 10 days incubation period and 8.5 g/L glucose concentration as a sole carbon source. The produced biosurfactant (BS (73% exhibited foaming activity, thermal stability in the range 30–80 °C for 30 min., pH stability, from 4 to 9 and antimicrobial activity against (Escherichia coli. The BS gave a good potential application as an emulsifier.

  10. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Soni, Priyanka; Sharma, Pradeep; Gupta, Basudev

    2016-01-01

    Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis. PMID:27648334

  11. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

  12. Vertical migration of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico observed from glider measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Qi, Lin; Lembke, Chad; English, David

    2016-09-01

    The toxic marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (the species responsible for most of red tides or harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico), is known to be able to swim vertically to adapt to the light and nutrient environments, nearly all such observations have been made through controlled experiments using cultures. Here, using continuous 3-dimensional measurements by an ocean glider across a K. brevis bloom in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico between 1 and 8 August 2014, we show the vertical migration behavior of K. brevis. Within the bloom where K. brevis concentration is between 100,000 and 1,000,000cellsL(-1), the stratified water shows a two-layer system with the depth of pycnocline ranging between 14-20m and salinity and temperature in the surface layer being 28°C, respectively. The bottom layer shows the salinity of >36 and temperature of <26°C. The low salinity is apparently due to coastal runoff, as the top layer also shows high amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the top layer, chlorophyll-a fluorescence shows clear diel changes in the vertical structure, an indication of K. brevis vertical migration at a mean speed of 0.5-1mh(-1). The upward migration appears to start at sunrise at a depth of 8-10m, while the downward migration appears to start at sunset (or when surface light approaches 0) at a depth of ∼2m. These vertical migrations are believed to be a result of the need of K. brevis cells for light and nutrients in a stable, stratified, and CDOM-rich environment.

  13. Isolated bilateral absence of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 21-year-old man with a bilateral absence of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles, which has not been previously reported. He presented with weakness in both of his hands. On physical examination there was atrophy on the thenar eminences of both of his hands and there was an absence of gross functional impairment in his hand functions. On magnetic resonance imaging, abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles were bilaterally absent. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 29-31

  14. Cell cycle behavior of laboratory and field populations of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Kamykowski, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    As a component of the ECOHAB Florida Regional Field Program, this study addresses cell cycle behavior and its importance to bloom formation of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. The cell cycle of K. brevis was first studied by flow cytometry in laboratory batch cultures, and a laboratory mesocosm column, followed by field populations over the 5-year course of the ECOHAB program. Under all conditions studied, K. brevis displayed diel phased cell division with S-phase beginning a minimum of 6 h after the onset of light and continuing for 12-14 h. Mitosis occurred during the dark, and was generally completed by the start of the next day. The timing of cell cycle phases relative to the diel cycle did not differ substantially in bloom populations displaying radically different growth rates ( μmin 0.17-0.55) under different day lengths and temperature conditions. The rhythm of cell cycle progression is independent from the rhythm controlling vertical migration, as similar cell cycle distributions are found at all depths of the water column in field samples. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of our current understanding of the dinoflagellate cell cycle and the development of improved models for K. brevis bloom growth.

  15. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria.

  16. Cloning and sequencing the degS-degU operon from an alkalophilic Bacillus-brevis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available at the amino acid level to the B. subtilis degS-degU genes showed 74% and 84% similarity, respectively. On a multicopy vector the B. brevis degS-degU genes were found to cause hypersecretion of several extracellular enzymes in a B. subtilis rec (-) strain...

  17. Transferof chlorfenapyr among workers of Reticulitermnes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Thomas G; Mulrooney, Joseph E; Wagner, Terence L

    2006-06-01

    The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI]/wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to interact with untreated nestmates for 14 d, after which mortality was assessed. The three colonies responded differently to the treatments in this experiment. For two colonies, donor exposure rates of 500 ppm (as well as 250 ppm for colony B) chlorfenapyr resulted in significantly greater recipient mortality than controls. For colony C, donor chlorfenapyr exposure did not significantly influence recipient mortality. In a second experiment examining donor mortality over time, donor termites exposed to all test concentrations of chlorfenapyr (except for 0 ppm) suffered 100% mortality within 5 d. Analysis of donor termite body washes using gas chromatography indicated a linear uptake of chlorfenapyr by termites over the concentration range studied. Thus, for this concentration range, no upper limit (saturation plateau) of termite uptake for chlorfenapyr was reached.

  18. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera fauna from natural parks of the northeast region of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffont Enrique Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of insect biodiversity in natural areas of Argentina is limited, and termites are among the understudied taxa. In order to assess the diversity of Isoptera in some protected areas of the country, termite sampling within three National Parks of the Northeast region of Argentina was developed during 1995-1999. The results presented in this paper correspond to the Chaco National Park (Province of Chaco, Iguassu National Park (Province of Misiones and Mburucuya National Park (Province of Corrientes. Among the four termite families recorded from Argentina, the family Termitidae was the best represented at the three sampled areas. The recorded genera (15 were: Rugitermes Holmgren and Tauritermes Krishna (Kalotermitidae, Heterotermes Frogatt (Rhinotermitidae, Cornitermes Wasmann, Cortaritermes Mathews, Diversitermes Holmgren, Nasutitermes Dudley, Velocitermes Holmgren (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes Silvestri, Microcerotermes Silvestri, Neocapritermes Holmgren, Termes Linné (Termitinae, Anoplotermes Müller, Aparatermes Fontes and Ruptitermes Mathews (Apicotermitinae (Termitidae. None of the collected termite species was common to the three National Parks, and only four of them were detected at two of the reserves. Due to the particular assemblage of termites found at each park, these three natural protected areas could be considered important reserves for the conservation of the termite fauna from the Northeast region of Argentina.

  19. The potential and limits of termites (Isoptera) as decomposers of waste paper products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Michael; Lee, Chow-Yang; Lacey, Michael J; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Tsunoda, Kunio

    2011-02-01

    Termites (Isoptera) have often been proposed as decomposers oflignocellulosic waste, such as paper products, while termite biomass could be harvested for food supplements. Groups of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes speratus (Kolbe) were kept for 4 and 8 wk, respectively, in the laboratory and given up to 10 different types of paper as their food source. Paper consumption, survival, caste composition, and lipid content were recorded. Corrugated cardboard was by far the most consumed paper product, although survival on it was not necessarily favorable. In R. speratus, lipid reserves and neotenic numbers were quite high, but no breeding occurred. Cardboard may be the "junk food" equivalent for termites. Within the tested period, termites did not perform well on paper products that form the bulk of waste paper--corrugated cardboard, newsprint, and pamphlets and magazines. On all paper products (except recycled office paper), neotenic reproductives were formed, but larvae were observed only on kraft pulp and tissue paper. That all waste paper products contain lignocellulosic fibers does not automatically make them suitable for decomposition by termites. Each paper product has to be assessed on its own merit to see whether termites can reproduce on this diet, if it were to be a candidate for sustainable "termidegradation" and termite biomass production.

  20. The first report of gynandromorphy in termites (Isoptera; Kalotermitidae; Neotermes koshunensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguni, Yasushi; Nozaki, Tomonari; Yashiro, Toshihisa

    2017-08-01

    This is the first report of gynandromorphy in Isoptera. An Asian dry-wood termite, Neotermes koshunensis (Shiraki) [Kalotermitidae], possessing both male and female phenotypic characteristics, was found on Okinawa Island, Japan. This deformed individual showed morphological and anatomical hermaphroditism in the abdomen. The right side of the seventh sternite was the female form and contained an ovary, while the left side was the male form and contained a testis. Genotypic analysis revealed that this individual was a genotypic bilateral chimera. These results suggested that the termite was a bilateral gynandromorph with a male left side and a female right side. As reported previously in other insects, double fertilization (by two sperms, one with an X and one with a Y chromosome) of a binucleate egg is the most likely mechanism that generated this genotypic bilateral chimera. N. koshunensis has the ability to reproduce through parthenogenesis, in which the secondary polar body is likely to be used for nuclear phase recovery. If the second polar body in this mechanism has high fertility and healthy embryogenic potential, like an egg nucleus, some of gynandromorphs might be produced by a side effect of parthenogenetic ability.

  1. Chemical Recruitment for Foraging in Ants (Formicidae and Termites (Isoptera: A Revealing Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Jaffe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All termites secrete trail pheromones from their sternal gland, whereas ants use a variety of glands for this purpose. This and the diversity of chemical compounds that serve as trail pheromones among ants, and the uniformity of chemicals among termite trails, suggest a different evolutionary historical dynamics for the development of chemical mass recruitment in both taxa. Termites in addition show pheromonal parsimony. This suggest a single evolutionary origin of pheromone trails in Isoptera, whereas chemical mass recruitment among Formicidae seems to have evolved many times and in different ways. Despite these very different evolutionary histories, both taxa evolved chemical recruitment systems involving attractants and orientation signals, and at least two divergent decision making system for recruitment. This evolutionary analogy suggests that chemical mass recruitment is constraint by fundamental physical dynamic laws. Artificial intelligence including “mass intelligence” and “ant intelligence”, emulates mass recruitment in interacting virtual agents in search of optimal solutions. This approach, however, has copied only the “Democratic” recruitment dynamics with a single compound pheromone. Ant and termite evolution shows more sophisticated recruitment dynamics which, if understood properly, will improve our understanding of nature and applications of artificial “swarm intelligence”.

  2. ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    repeated until a constant mass of residual insect material was achieved after .... limiting amino-acid when groundnuts are fed to white rats (Pieterse 1963). ..... Mean level of protein intake. excretion and protein digestibility by groups of ... It is possible that the seven-day feeding period, using a test diet, prior to the recording.

  3. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 using fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, and has several well-known physiological functions. Lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. Therefore, using lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid production is a fascinating project and opens up a vast range of prospects for making use of GABA and LAB. We previously screened a high GABA-producer Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 and optimized its fermentation medium composition. The results indicated that the strain showed potential in large-scale fermentation for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. To increase the yielding of GABA, further study on the fermentation process is needed before the industrial application in the future. In this article we investigated the impacts of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, pH, temperature and initial glutamate concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 in flask cultures. According to the data obtained in the above, a simple and effective fed-batch fermentation method was developed to highly efficiently convert glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Results Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate did not affect the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. Temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration had significant effects on the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. The optimal temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were 30-35°C, 5.0 and 250-500 mM. In the following fed-batch fermentations, temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were fixed as 32°C, 5.0 and 400 mM. 280.70 g (1.5 mol and 224.56 g (1.2 mol glutamate were supplemented into the bioreactor at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Under the selected fermentation conditions, gamma-aminobutyric acid was rapidly produced at the first 36 h and almost not

  4. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas;

    2013-01-01

    fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199......A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus......) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coil was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis...

  5. Effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on larval development in three species of bivalve mollusc from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverone, Jay R; Blake, Norman J; Pierce, Richard H; Shumway, Sandra E

    2006-07-01

    The effects of Karenia brevis (Wilson clone) on larval survival and development of the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica and bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, were studied in the laboratory. Larvae were exposed to cultures of whole and lysed cells, with mean total brevetoxin concentrations of 53.8 and 68.9 microgL(-1), respectively. Survival of early (3-day-old) larvae was generally over 85% for all shellfish species at K. brevis densities of 100 cells ml(-1) or less, and not significantly different between whole and lysed culture. At 1000 cells ml(-1), survival was significantly less in lysed culture than whole culture for both M. mercenaria and C. virginica. Survival of late (7-day-old) larvae in all three species was not significantly affected by K. brevis densities of 1000 cells ml(-1) or less. At 5000 cells ml(-1), however, survival was reduced to 37%, 26% and 19% for A. irradians, M. mercenaria and C. virginica, respectively. Development of C. virginica and M. mercenaria larvae was protracted at K. brevis densities of 1000 cells ml(-1). These results suggest that blooms of K. brevis, and particularly their associated brevetoxins, may have detrimental consequences for Florida's shellfisheries by disrupting critical larval processes. Special attention should be paid to blooms of K. brevis where these shellfish occur naturally or where aquaculture and restoration activities are either ongoing or planned.

  6. Effect of wood hardness and secondary compounds on feeding preference of Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasseney, Boris Dodji; Deng, Tianfu; Mo, Jianchu

    2011-06-01

    Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is one of the most destructive plant pests in China, which control relies mainly on baits strategies. Baits made from the wood of eight different tree species were used to study the feeding preference of this termite, and conversely wood protection strategies of the tree species. Three bait types were used to identify wood protection strategies: solid wood (physical and chemical protection), crude flour (chemical protection) made from ground wood, and extracted flour (no protection) made by extracting crude flour with ethanol and toluene. Feeding preference was influenced by wood species and bait type. For solid wood, Magnolia denudata Desr (75%) and Elaeocarpus glabripetalus Merr (41%) were most preferred; for crude flour, E. glabripetalus (97%) and Quercus variabilis Blume (92%) were most preferred; and for extracted flour, there were no significant differences between wood species, demonstrating the influence of chemical defense. The greatest contrast between bait types was for Platanus orientalis L, the least preferred as solid wood and crude flour, suggesting that chemical defense compounds are particularly important in this species. Solid wood consumption was inversely correlated with wood density. Extracted flour consumption was positively correlated with glucose concentration. There was no direct effect of holocellulose and other components tested. O. formosanus preferred to fed on soft wood with low chemical protection (M. denudata); conversely trees protected their wood either physically [e.g., E. glabripetalus, Q. variabilis, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl, and Ligustrum lucidum Aiton] or chemically (Populus bonati Levl) or a combination of both strategies (Liquidamba formosana Hance and P. orientalis).

  7. Investigation of the physiology and genetics of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu

    . In conclusion, this PhD project provides new insight into how beer isolated bacteria respond to brewing-associated stresses at the single cell level. Additionally, the micro-colony based method, as well as the increased knowledge on beer-spoilage genes, could be further utilised for detection of beer spoilage......Beer is a very harsh environment for bacterial growth due to various inhibitory factors. Hop compounds are believed to be the key stress factor, with additional stress from alcohol, low pH and lack of nutrients. However, a few specialist microorganisms, in particular Lactobacillus brevis, possess...... to prevent biological contaminations in breweries. The present PhD thesis has explored the physiological response of L. brevis towards oxidizing disinfectants and beerassociated stress (mainly hop stress) at the single cell level, as well as the genetic difference between beer tolerant and sensitive strains...

  8. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  9. Investigation of the physiology and genetics of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu

    to prevent biological contaminations in breweries. The present PhD thesis has explored the physiological response of L. brevis towards oxidizing disinfectants and beerassociated stress (mainly hop stress) at the single cell level, as well as the genetic difference between beer tolerant and sensitive strains....... The first study was devoted to developing a rapid colony-based method for investigating the influence of oxidizing disinfectants on hop tolerant L. brevis strains. The method was based on an automated microscope, combined with the membrane impermanent dye (propidium iodide, PI). It provided comparable......, the addition of PI to the agar showed that PAA does not destroy the cell membrane. Furthermore, the dead cells appeared randomly within a micro-colony during growth. This novel approach allowed the rapid analysis of bacterial viability after a disinfectant treatment, and potentially the method could be applied...

  10. Probing the structure of 16 S ribosomal RNA from Bacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, J; Kopylov, A M; Magrum, L; Siegel, R; Gupta, R; Woese, C R; Noller, H F

    1984-12-25

    A majority (approximately 89%) of the nucleotide sequence of Bacillus brevis 16 S rRNA has been determined by a combination of RNA sequencing methods. Several experimental approaches have been used to probe its structure, including (a) partial RNase digestion of 30 S ribosomal subunits, followed by two-dimensional native/denatured gel electrophoresis, in which base-paired fragments were directly identified; (b) identification of positions susceptible to cleavage by RNase A and RNase T1 in 30 S subunits; (c) sites of attack by cobra venom RNase on naked 16 S rRNA; and (d) nucleotides susceptible to attack by bisulfite in 16 S rRNA. These data are discussed with respect to a secondary structure model for B. brevis 16 S rRNA derived by comparative sequence analysis.

  11. Longitudinal split tear of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonen, Leo T; Ferguson, Christopher; Ketschke, Rhett A

    2015-02-01

    Two patients presented with radial-sided wrist pain and longitudinal split tears of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Surgical debridement and repair was performed on the first patient with good results. Early diagnosis in the second patient led to successful treatment with immobilization alone. If diagnostic maneuvers for de Quervain tenosynovitis produce pain in a location other than the radial styloid, advanced imaging should be considered to identify other anatomic causes for the pain.

  12. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  13. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Osmotic stress does not trigger brevetoxin production in the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, William G; Burleson, Cheska; Hardison, D Ransom; Morey, Jeanine S; Wang, Zhihong; Wolny, Jennifer; Corcoran, Alina A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2013-06-18

    With the global proliferation of toxic harmful algal bloom species, there is a need to identify the environmental and biological factors that regulate toxin production. One such species, Karenia brevis, forms nearly annual blooms that threaten coastal regions throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This dinoflagellate produces brevetoxins, which are potent neurotoxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory illness in humans, as well as massive fish kills. A recent publication reported that a rapid decrease in salinity increased cellular toxin quotas in K. brevis and hypothesized that brevetoxins serve a role in osmoregulation. This finding implied that salinity shifts could significantly alter the toxic effects of blooms. We repeated the original experiments separately in three different laboratories and found no evidence for increased brevetoxin production in response to low-salinity stress in any of the eight K. brevis strains we tested, including three used in the original study. Thus, we find no support for an osmoregulatory function of brevetoxins. The original publication also stated that there was no known cellular function for brevetoxins. However, there is increasing evidence that brevetoxins promote survival of the dinoflagellates by deterring grazing by zooplankton. Whether they have other as-yet-unidentified cellular functions is currently unknown.

  15. Biosorption and biodegradation of pyrene by Brevibacillus brevis and cellular responses to pyrene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liping; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jinshao; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Zhichen

    2015-05-01

    Biodegradation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove pyrene, however, the information regarding cellular responses to pyrene treatment is limited thus far. In this study, the biodegradation and biosorption of pyrene by Brevibacillus brevis, along with cellular responses caused by pollutant were investigated by means of flow cytometry assay and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that pyrene was initially adsorbed by B. brevis and subsequently transported and intracellularly degraded. During this process, pyrene removal was primarily dependent on biodegradation. Cell invagination and cell surface corrugation occurred due to pyrene exposure. Nevertheless, cell regrowth after 96h treatment was observed, and the proportion of necrotic cell was only 2.8% after pyrene exposure for 120h, confirming that B. brevis could utilize pyrene as a sole carbon source for growth. The removal and biodegradation amount of pyrene (1mg/L) at 168h were 0.75 and 0.69mg/L, respectively, and the biosorption amount by inactivated cells was 0.41mg/L at this time.

  16. Sequence analysis of a few species of termites (Order: Isoptera) on the basis of partial characterization of COII gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh

    2009-11-01

    The present study was aimed to get the nucleotide sequences of a part of COII mitochondrial gene amplified from individuals of five species of Termites (Isoptera: Termitidae: Macrotermitinae). Four of them belonged to the genus Odontotermes (O. obesus, O. horni, O. bhagwatii and Odontotermes sp.) and one to Microtermes (M. obesi). Partial COII gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers. The sequences so obtained were characterized to calculate the frequencies of each nucleotide bases and a high A + T content was observed. The interspecific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes species ranged from 6.5% to 17.1% across COII fragment. M. obesi sequence diversity ranged from 2.5 with Odontotermes sp. to 19.0% with O. bhagwatii. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance neighbour-joining method revealed three main clades clustering all the individuals according to their genera and families.

  17. A New Fossil Termite(Isoptera,Stolotermitidae,Stolotermes)from the Early Miocene of Otago,New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uwe KAULFUSS; Anthony C.HARRIS; Daphne E.LEE

    2010-01-01

    The forewing of a termite from Eady Miocene lake sediments in Otago,southern New Zealand is figured and described.It exhibits the generic characters of the damp-wood termite Stolotermes Hagen,but differs from forewings of the known species in size and venation pattern and is described as Stolotermes kupe sp.nov.S.kupe represents the first confident record of fossil Stolotermitidae and extends the fossil record of the family back to the Early Miocene.It also is the first direct evidence of fossil Isoptera from New Zealand.though silicified termite faecal pellets.referable to Kalotermes brauni,have been previously described.S.kupe indicates that Stolotermitidae has been present in the Australasian re#on since at least the Early Miocene.

  18. Aplikasi campuran serbuk kayu pinus dan fipronil sebagai umpan rayap tanah Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae di Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amran Amran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, termite bait comprising pinewood of sawdust and a slow action insecticide, fipronil, was made and applied to control subterranean termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen (Isoptera: Termitidae in Bandung. Colony size was measured using capture-mark-release-recapture prior to the bait application, along with the measurement of wood consumption at each station.  Colony foraging populations at all stations were estimated to be 77,951 termites, with mean wood consumption rates ranging from 0.02 to 6.16 g/station/day. Observation at 18 stations installed with bait consisted of 40 ppm fipronil mixed with pinewood sawdust showed that number of foraging activity termites was effectively reduced in 40 days. It is concluded that fipronil-treated pinewood sawdust bait is effective in controlling the population of foraging M. gilvus workers in 40 days.

  19. Contribution of the activated catalase to oxidative stress resistance and γ-aminobutyric acid production in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Changjiang; Hu, Sheng; Huang, Jun; Luo, Maiqi; Lu, Tao; Mei, Lehe; Yao, Shanjing

    2016-12-05

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound which can paradoxically produce themselves and lead to the growth arrest and cell death. To counteract the potentially toxic effects of this compound, the gene katE encoding a heme-dependent catalase (CAT) belonging to the family of monofunctional CATs was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC1306. The enhanced homologous CAT expression was achieved using the NICE system. L. brevis cells with overexpressed CAT showed 685-fold and 823-fold higher survival when exposed to 30mmol/L of H2O2 and long-term aerated stress (after 72h), respectively, than that of the wild type cells. Furtherly, the effects of activated CAT on GABA production in L. brevis were investigated. A GABA production level of 66.4g/L was achieved using two-step biotransformation that successively employed the growing and resting cells derived from engineering L. brevis CAT. These results demonstrated clearly that overexpression of the KatE gene in L. brevis led to a marked increased survival in oxidizing environment, and shed light on a novel feasible approach to enhance the GABA production level by improving the antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties.

  1. Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

    1983-12-01

    Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

  2. Transcriptomic response of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jillian G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of coastal nutrient sources in the persistence of Karenia brevis red tides in coastal waters of Florida is a contentious issue that warrants investigation into the regulation of nutrient responses in this dinoflagellate. In other phytoplankton studied, nutrient status is reflected by the expression levels of N- and P-responsive gene transcripts. In dinoflagellates, however, many processes are regulated post-transcriptionally. All nuclear encoded gene transcripts studied to date possess a 5' trans-spliced leader (SL sequence suggestive, based on the trypanosome model, of post-transcriptional regulation. The current study therefore sought to determine if the transcriptome of K. brevis is responsive to nitrogen and phosphorus and is informative of nutrient status. Results Microarray analysis of N-depleted K. brevis cultures revealed an increase in the expression of transcripts involved in N-assimilation (nitrate and ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetases relative to nutrient replete cells. In contrast, a transcriptional signal of P-starvation was not apparent despite evidence of P-starvation based on their rapid growth response to P-addition. To study transcriptome responses to nutrient addition, the limiting nutrient was added to depleted cells and changes in global gene expression were assessed over the first 48 hours following nutrient addition. Both N- and P-addition resulted in significant changes in approximately 4% of genes on the microarray, using a significance cutoff of 1.7-fold and p ≤ 10-4. By far, the earliest responding genes were dominated in both nutrient treatments by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, which increased in expression up to 3-fold by 1 h following nutrient addition. PPR proteins are nuclear encoded proteins involved in chloroplast and mitochondria RNA processing. Correspondingly, other functions enriched in response to both nutrients were photosystem and ribosomal genes

  3. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by strain of Lactobacillus brevis MTCC 7539.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2009-08-01

    Bacteriocin, an antimicrobial agent having potential for food biopreservation was purified from Lactobacillus brevis (a safe food-grade bacteria isolated from Vari Kandal, a traditional fermented food of Himachal Pradesh by adopting a novel repeated washing method. Its purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Native-PAGE. The relative molecular mass of bacteriocin was 93.74 kD, while specific activity and recovery were 35.52 folds and 17.13%, respectively. It showed high thermal stability and was active over wide range of pH and exhibited sensitivity to trypsin.

  4. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    2001-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino

  5. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on MRS agar after exposure to the oxidizing agent peracetic acid (PAA. An automated microscope stage allowed us to analyse a much larger number of cells over extended periods of incubation. After PAA treatment, the lag time increased markedly, and extensive variation in morphology, µmax as well as stress resistance was observed between and within the tested L. brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in L. brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non-growing individual cells do not stain with a membrane impermanent dye (Propidium iodide, which indicates that PAA may not destroy the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the developed microscopic analysis of individual cells on MRS agar can provides faster results and more details of cell physiology compared to the traditional CFU method.

  6. Mycelial carton galleries of Azteca brevis (Formicidae) as a multi-species network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Veronika E.; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Apart from growing fungi for nutrition, as seen in the New World Attini, ants cultivate fungi for reinforcement of the walls of their nests or tunnel-shaped runway galleries. These fungi are grown on organic material such as bark, epiphylls or trichomes, and form stable ‘carton structures’. In this study, the carton of the runway galleries built by Azteca brevis (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) on branches of Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae) is investigated. For the first time, molecular tools are used to address the biodiversity and phylogenetic affinities of fungi involved in tropical ant carton architecture, a previously neglected ant–fungus mutualism. The A. brevis carton involves a complex association of several fungi. All the isolated fungi were unequivocally placed within the Chaetothyriales by DNA sequence data. Whereas five types of fungal hyphae were morphologically distinguishable, our DNA data showed that more species are involved, applying a phylogenetic species concept based on DNA phylogenies and hyphal morphology. In contrast to the New World Attini with their many-to-one (different ant species—one fungal cultivar) pattern, and temperate Lasius with a one-to-two (one ant species—two mutualists) or many-to-one (different ant species share the same mutualist) system, the A. brevis–fungi association is a one-to-many multi-species network. Vertical fungus transmission has not yet been found, indicating that the A. brevis–fungi interaction is rather generalized. PMID:19556257

  7. Detection, partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 isolated from freshwater fish: Bacteriocin from Lb. brevis FPTLB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shiba Prosad; Dora, Krushna Chandra; Chowdhury, Supratim

    2013-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 was isolated from freshwater fish, capable of producing bacteriocin that had broad spectrum of inhibition (3200 AU/ml) against Escherichia coli MTCC 1563, Enterococcus faecalis MTCC 2729, Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423, Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The antimicrobial activity of crude supernatant fluid was stable after heating at 121 °C for 60 min and declined thereafter. Stability of antimicrobial activity was observed at pH range of 2.0 to 8.0. Its active principle was proteinaceous in nature since the bacteriocin was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by other non-proteolytic enzymes. Mitomycin C and UV light did not affect the activity of the bacteriocin, while chloroform extraction completely destroyed their activity. Exposure to surfactant resulted in an increase in titre, except Nonidet P-40, which led to total loss of activity. No bacteriocin adsorption was detected at pH 1 to 2, whereas 100% bacteriocin adsorption was found at pH 6.5. Based on Tricine SDS-PAGE the estimated molecular mass of bacteriocin was 54 kDa. No plasmid was found to present in the isolate.

  8. ECOHAB: Van Dolah_F- Karenia brevis Cell Cycle Analysis for Determination of In Situ Growth Rates (NODC Accession 0000538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The reported growth rates of Karenia brevis vary from 0.2 to 0.5 divisions per day, both in laboratory and field populations observed. This growth rate alone is not...

  9. Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine production trait in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika

    2009-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis strains with the ability to decarboxylate tyrosine to tyramine have been described and the involvement of several genes constituting a tyrdc operon at the chromosomal level has been demonstrated in this species. In this study, the existence of Lb. brevis strains unable to form tyramine was observed. In order to evaluate if the tyramine-producing ability was strain-dependent or if it could be correlated to the existence of a new species or subspecies, different isolates were analysed. Analysis by M13-RAPD and sequencing of 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ISR and house-keeping gene recA confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the Lb. brevis species. Analysis of the TyrDC pathway encoding operon region in representative strains indicated the existence of a polymorphism. The genetic differences observed showed that the tyrosine decarboxylating ability is not a Lb. brevis species trait but that it is strain-dependent within this species and suggest that the genes encoding the tyramine-producing pathway constitute a genomic island.

  10. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  11. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  12. Degs and degu operon from Bacillus-brevis: a combination that enhances the production of commercially valuable enzymes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for increasing the production of commercially valuable enzymes, such as proteases, beta-glucanases, alpha-amylases and levansucrase. It is dependent on two genes cloned from Bacillus brevis, expressed on a multicopy...

  13. Increased toxicity of Karenia brevis during phosphate limited growth: ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnie Ransom Hardison

    Full Text Available Karenia brevis is the dominant toxic red tide algal species in the Gulf of Mexico. It produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins [PbTxs], which negatively impact human and animal health, local economies, and ecosystem function. Field measurements have shown that cellular brevetoxin contents vary from 1-68 pg/cell but the source of this variability is uncertain. Increases in cellular toxicity caused by nutrient-limitation and inter-strain differences have been observed in many algal species. This study examined the effect of P-limitation of growth rate on cellular toxin concentrations in five Karenia brevis strains from different geographic locations. Phosphorous was selected because of evidence for regional P-limitation of algal growth in the Gulf of Mexico. Depending on the isolate, P-limited cells had 2.3- to 7.3-fold higher PbTx per cell than P-replete cells. The percent of cellular carbon associated with brevetoxins (%C-PbTx was ~ 0.7 to 2.1% in P-replete cells, but increased to 1.6-5% under P-limitation. Because PbTxs are potent anti-grazing compounds, this increased investment in PbTxs should enhance cellular survival during periods of nutrient-limited growth. The %C-PbTx was inversely related to the specific growth rate in both the nutrient-replete and P-limited cultures of all strains. This inverse relationship is consistent with an evolutionary tradeoff between carbon investment in PbTxs and other grazing defenses, and C investment in growth and reproduction. In aquatic environments where nutrient supply and grazing pressure often vary on different temporal and spatial scales, this tradeoff would be selectively advantageous as it would result in increased net population growth rates. The variation in PbTx/cell values observed in this study can account for the range of values observed in the field, including the highest values, which are not observed under N-limitation. These results suggest P-limitation is an important factor regulating

  14. Morphostructural analysis of the male reproductive system and DNA barcoding in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, D G M; Viscuso, R; D'Urso, V; Gibilras, S; Sardella, A; Marletta, A; Pappalardo, A M

    2015-12-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 is an allochthonous leafhopper infesting an invasive grass, Pennisetum setaceum, in Sicily and in mainland Europe; therefore, this species could compete with populations of native species, thus contributing to the loss of biodiversity. Considering the ecological implications of B. brevis, investigations on all its biological aspects represent, therefore, a premise for further studies in applied sciences. Based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis. Further, a first report of DNA barcoding analysis (amplification and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) has also been performed to characterize B. brevis compared to other congeneric species. From a morphological point of view, the male reproductive system of B. brevis has an organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with those concerning the different groups of Cicadomorpha, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures, mainly in the lateral ejaculatory ducts and in the accessory glands. The latter, in particular, show morphostructural differences comparing the distal tract to the proximal one; moreover, the histochemical techniques showed the possible presence of a lipid component in the peculiar cytoplasmic granules found in the gland cells. The significance of these findings in the accessory glands is discussed. Finally, the ultrastructural features found in the seminal vesicles are different from those of the lateral ejaculatory ducts and are indicative of the different roles played by these structures in the organization of the spermatozoa bundles.

  15. Lactic acid production from biomass-derived sugars via co-fermentation of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative resource for producing chemicals and fuels. Xylose is the dominating sugar after hydrolysis of hemicellulose in the biomass, but most microorganisms either cannot ferment xylose or have a hierarchical sugar utilization pattern in which glucose is consumed first. To overcome this barrier, Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 was selected to produce lactic acid. This strain possesses a relaxed carbon catabolite repression mechanism that can use glucose and xylose simultaneously; however, lactic acid yield was only 0.52 g g(-1) from a mixture of glucose and xylose, and 5.1 g L(-1) of acetic acid and 8.3 g L(-1) of ethanol were also formed during production of lactic acid. The yield was significantly increased and ethanol production was significantly reduced if L. brevis was co-cultivated with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 21028. L. plantarum outcompeted L. brevis in glucose consumption, meaning that L. brevis was focused on converting xylose to lactic acid and the by-product, ethanol, was reduced due to less NADH generated in the fermentation system. Sequential co-fermentation of L. brevis and L. plantarum increased lactic acid yield to 0.80 g g(-1) from poplar hydrolyzate and increased yield to 0.78 g lactic acid per g of biomass from alkali-treated corn stover with minimum by-product formation. Efficient utilization of both cellulose and hemicellulose components of the biomass will improve overall lactic acid production and enable an economical process to produce biodegradable plastics.

  16. Characterization and localization of a hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase gene from the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Song, Bongkeun; DeTure, Michael; Baden, Daniel G

    2010-02-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a causative agent of the red tides in Florida, produces a series of toxic compounds known as brevetoxins and their derivatives. Recently, several putative genes encoding polyketide synthase (PKS) were identified from K. brevis in an effort to elucidate the genetic systems involved in brevetoxin production. In this study, novel PKS sequences were isolated from three clones of K. brevis. Eighteen unique sequences were obtained for the PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain of K. brevis. Phylogenetic comparison with closely related PKS genes revealed that 16 grouped with cyanobacteria sequences, while the remaining two grouped with Apicomplexa and previously reported sequences for K. brevis. A fosmid library was also constructed to further characterize PKS genes detected in K. brevis Wilson clone. Several fosmid clones were positive for the presence of PKS genes, and one was fully sequenced to determine the full structure of the PKS cluster. A hybrid non ribosomal peptide synthetase and PKS (NRPS-PKS) gene cluster of 16,061 bp was isolated. In addition, we assessed whether the isolated gene was being actively expressed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and determined its localization at the cellular level by chloroplast isolation. RT-PCR analyses revealed that this gene was actively expressed in K. brevis cultures. The hybrid NRPS-PKS gene cluster was located in the chloroplast, suggesting that K. brevis acquired the ability to produce some of its secondary metabolites through endosymbiosis with ancestral cyanobacteria. Further work is needed to determine the compound produced by the NRPS-PKS hybrid, to find other PKS gene sequences, and to assess their role in K. brevis toxin biosynthetic pathway.

  17. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl by Brevibacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimma, Lutz; Bullach, Anke; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-06-01

    For almost four decades, the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl have been in use in plant protection on a global scale. Both substances are distributed as racemic mixtures, yet the desirable interference in nucleic acid synthesis of harmful fungi only occurs by the (-)-R-enantiomer. As enantioselective degradation in Scheyern (Germany) and Yaoundé (Cameroon) soils has been documented, the influence of 50 isolated microorganisms on the R/S ratio was investigated. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method with a chiral column to separate enantiomers of metalaxyl and furalaxyl, and subsequent detection by tandem mass spectrometry, was employed. Only one of these microorganisms, a strain of Brevibacillus brevis, showed an enantioselective degradation pattern in liquid culture; the respective (-)-R-enantiomers were preferably degraded. Moreover, (-)-R-furalaxyl was degraded faster in cultures supplemented simultaneously with both fungicides of the same concentration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  19. The management of chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon: minimally invasive peroneus brevis tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, N; Oliva, F; Costa, V; Del Buono, A

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesised that a minimally invasive peroneus brevis tendon transfer would be effective for the management of a chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon. In 17 patients (three women, 14 men) who underwent minimally invasive transfer and tenodesis of the peroneus brevis to the calcaneum, at a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (2 to 7) the modified Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) was recorded and the maximum circumference of the calf of the operated and contralateral limbs was measured. The strength of isometric plantar flexion of the gastrocsoleus complex and of eversion of the ankle were measured bilaterally. Functional outcomes were classified according to the four-point Boyden scale. At the latest review, the mean maximum circumference of the calf of the operated limb was not significantly different from the pre-operative mean value, (41.4 cm, 32 to 50 vs 40.6 cm, 33 to 46; p = 0.45), and not significantly less than that of the contralateral limb (43.1 cm, 35 to 52; p = 0.16). The mean peak torque (244.6 N, 125 to 367) and the strength of eversion of the operated ankle (149.1 N, 65 to 240) were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those of the contralateral limb (mean peak torque 289, 145 to 419; strength of eversion: 175.2, 71 to 280). The mean ATRS significantly improved from 58 pre-operatively (35 to 68) to 91 (75 to 97; 95% confidence interval 85.3 to 93.2) at the time of final review. Of 13 patients who practised sport at the time of injury, ten still undertook recreational activities. This procedure may be safely performed, is minimally invasive, and allows most patients to return to pre-injury sport and daily activities. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  20. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Bajantri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect.

  1. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  2. Nutritional ecology of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): growth and survival of incipient colonies feeding on preferred wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, Juan A; Rojas, M Guadalupe

    2003-02-01

    The wood of 11 plant species was evaluated as a food source significantly impacting the growth and survival of incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Colonies of C. formosanus feeding on pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.), and red gum, Liquidambar styraciflua L., produced significantly more progeny than colonies feeding on other wood species tested. Progeny of colonies feeding on pecan and American ash, Fraxinus americana L., had significantly greater survival than progeny of colonies feeding on other wood species. Colonies feeding on a nutritionally supplemented cellulose based matrix showed similar fitness characteristics as colonies feeding on the best wood treatments. These results indicate that differences observed in colony fitness can be partially explained by nutritional value of the food treatment, raising the possibility that wood from different tree species have different nutritional values to the Formosan subterranean termites. Colonies feeding on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Laws., had significantly lower survival and produced significantly fewer workers and soldiers than colonies feeding on other wood species. Colony survival from 90 to 180 d of age and from 90 to 360 d of age was significantly correlated with the number of workers present at 90 d of colony age, indicating that colony survival depends on the presence of workers. Wood consumption in a multiple-choice study was significantly correlated with colony fitness value. This suggests that feeding preference of C. formosanus is at least partially influenced by the nutritional value of the food source.

  3. Characterization of microsatellites for population genetic analyses of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Garner, Susan P; Huang, Qiuying; Booth, Warren; Vargo, Edward L

    2013-10-01

    The fungus-growing subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Termitidae) is a destructive pest in Southeast Asia. To facilitate studies on the biology, ecology, and control of O. formosanus, we isolated and characterized nine novel microsatellite loci from a mixed partial genomic library of O. formosanus and the sympatric Macrotermes barneyi Light enriched for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. We screened these loci in three populations of O. formosanus from China. All loci were polymorphic. Three loci showed heterozygote deficit possibly because of the presence of null alleles. The remaining six loci with 4-15 alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.15-0.60 across populations were used for population genetic analysis. Populations from different provinces (Guangdong, Jiangxi, and Hubei) were genetically differentiated, but the genetic distance between populations was surprisingly small (FST: 0.03-0.08) and the gene flow was considerable (Nem: 3-8), despite the geographical distance being >300 km. Genetic diversity within populations was low (allelic richness: 5.1-6.3) compared with other subterranean dwelling termites, but consistent with the diversity in species of the family Termitidae. Microsatellite markers developed for O. formosanus will allow further studies to examine the phylogeography, population genetic and colony breeding structure, dispersal ranges, and size of foraging territories in this and closely related species, as well as aid in assessing treatment success.

  4. Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik G. D. Plaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nest plasticity of Cornitermes silvestrii (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae in response to flood pulse in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world. Since many areas in Pantanal are flooded during part of the year, it is expected that plants and animals would have mechanisms for their survival during the flooded period. This study investigated the existence of differences in nest shape and inquilines of Cornitermes silvestrii in areas influenced by the flood pulse. We measured the volume, height, width, and height/width ratio of 32 nests in flooded areas and 27 in dry areas, and performed an one-way-Anova with the quasi-Poisson distribution to determine if there were differences in the nest measurements between the points. To analyze the relationship of nest inquilines to flood pulse and nest shape, we performed a regression with a Poisson distribution with the inquiline richness and flood pulse, and the above measurements. The nests of C. silvestrii in flooded areas were significantly higher than nests in dry areas, and had a larger height/width ratio. Colonies in periodically flooded areas would probably make a larger effort to extend their nests vertically, to maintain at least some portion of the structure out of the water and prevent the entire colony from being submerged. Neither the size of the nest nor the flood pulses influenced the assemblage of 11 species found in nests of C. silvestrii.

  5. Evaluation of differential antitermitic activities of Lantana camara oven-dried tissues against Reticufitermes virginicus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonglin Yuan; Xingl Ping Hu

    2011-01-01

    Chemical-treated soil or physical barriers have been the most commonly used approach for termite management.We hypothesized that a barrier of soil incorporated with oven-dried Lantana camara L.tissues could prevent termite infestation.We first examined the antitermitic effects of the dried tissues from two cultivars (‘Mozelle’ and ‘New Gold’)on the subterranean termite,Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae).Results show that all of the tissues of Mozelle had greater antitermic activity than corresponding tissues of New Gold,and leaves had greater termiticidal effects than flowers and stems.When termites were exposed to the test materials in a no-choice bioassay,the 24-day test resulted in a significant reduction of survival (52.5%-88.6%),running speed (18.2%-37.3%),live weight (21.8%-53.5%) and body water content (33.2%-56.2%) compared to the control.The consumption of leaves and flowers was exiguous.When used as 25% tissue mulch-barrier,the oven-dried lantana tissues decreased termite tunneling and wood consumption and increased termite mortality.The decreased survival,vigor,and low consumption indicate a toxic and anti-feeding property of the materials tested.The results therefore support our hypothesis that the dried lantana tissues possess antitermitic activities.

  6. Foraging population and territory estimates for Microcerotermes diversus (Isoptera: Termitidae) through mark-release-recapture in Ahwaz (Khouzestan, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, B; Ekhtelat, M; Khocheili, F; Mossadegh, M S

    2010-12-01

    Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae), an important pest in Ahwaz (Khouzestan, Iran), causes serious economic damage to wooden products in buildings. In this study, we determined the foraging populations and territories of this species using mark-release-recapture techniques. Based on both the weighted mean model and Lincoln index methods, mean termite foraging population estimates for two colonies, A and B, were 2,984,489 +/- 258,802 and 326,134 +/- 8,713, respectively. Estimates with the Lincoln index were 2,731,229 +/- 813,081 for colony A and 321,493 +/- 138,499 for colony B. Estimated horizontal foraging territories for colonies A and B were 25.59 and 44.16 m2, respectively. The maximum and minimum linear foraging distances were 5.40 and 2.14 m for colony A and 9.14 and 1.86 m for colony B, respectively. Our data expand the knowledge about the biology, ecology and behavior of M. diversus.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Peroneal Tendon Pathology Associated With Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highlander, Peter; Pearson, Kyle T; Burns, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying peroneus brevis tendon muscle belly has been speculated to be an associated factor with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology. Multiple studies have analyzed normal and anomalous anatomy associated with peroneal tendon pathology; however, no study has confirmed the clinical association between peroneal tendon pathology and low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly. To identify the correlation of low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly with peroneal tendon pathology. Case-control study; Level of evidence 3. The level of peroneus brevis muscle belly was compared between patients with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology (experimental group) and asymptomatic individuals with otherwise normal lateral ankle using magnetic resonance images. Of the 32 consecutive patients with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology, 28 (87.5%) demonstrated peroneus brevis muscle distal to the fibular groove while 53.8% of control patients demonstrated such findings (P = .022). The most common diagnosis associated with peroneal tendon pathology was ankle instability and osteochondral defect of the talus or tibial plafond. Peroneal tendon pathology in isolation was less common. Peroneal tendon pathology is often associated with lateral ankle instability and osteochondral defects of the ankle joint. Low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly may be a common anatomic variant, but in the setting of instability it can become a source of pain and pathology secondary to overcrowding. Diagnostic, level III: Case-control study. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance...... resistance was observed between and within the tested Lactobacillus brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non...... against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS...

  9. DITRUPA BREVIS N.SP., A NEW SERPULID FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN NEOGENE WITH COMMENTS ON THE ECOLOGY OF THE GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSANA SANFILIPPO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The new species Ditrupa brevis (Polychaeta, Serpulidae is described from Middle Pliocene silts of southern Italy. It is also reported from Late Miocene sediments of southern Italy. The associated faunas suggest an infralittoral or upper-circalittoral distribution. A morphometrical and microstructural analysis of tube was carried out. D. brevis closely resembles Ditrupa arietina but several morphometrical differences allow to discriminate the two species. The Ditrupa tubes provide a substrate for a diversified epifauna. Their high density greatly affects species composition and diversity of soft-bottom communities. It is concluded that Ditrupa can live in various positions with respect to the sediment surface, depending on local sedimentation rate and dynamics. 

  10. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Pentti; Engelhardt, Peter; Hynönen, Ulla; Torkkeli, Mika; Palva, Airi; Serimaa, Ritva

    2010-10-01

    The structure of self-assembly domain containing recombinant truncation mutants of Lactobacillus brevis surface layer protein SlpA in aqueous solution was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The proteins were found out to interact with each other forming stable globular oligomers of about 10 monomers. The maximum diameter of the oligomers varied between 75 Å and 435 Å.

  11. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, Pentti [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, PO Box 2200, FI-02015 Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Finland); Engelhardt, Peter [Haartman Institute, Department of Pathology, PO Box 21, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Hynoenen, Ulla; Palva, Airi [Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Division of Microbiology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Torkkeli, Mika; Serimaa, Ritva, E-mail: ritva.serimaa@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, POB 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-10-01

    The structure of self-assembly domain containing recombinant truncation mutants of Lactobacillus brevis surface layer protein SlpA in aqueous solution was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The proteins were found out to interact with each other forming stable globular oligomers of about 10 monomers. The maximum diameter of the oligomers varied between 75 A and 435 A.

  12. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  13. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Pasquale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT conditions. Results An in vitro model that simulates the normal physiological conditions in the human digestive tract, as well as Caco-2 epithelial human cell lines, was used to challenge L. brevis IOEB 9809, which produced both tyramine and putrescine under all conditions tested. In the presence of BA precursors and under mild gastric stress, a correlation between enhancement of bacterial survival and a synchronous transcriptional activation of the tyramine and putrescine biosynthetic pathways was detected. High levels of both BA were observed after exposure of the bacterium to Caco-2 cells. Conclusions L. brevis IOEB 9809 can produce tyramine and putrescine under simulated human digestive tract conditions. The results indicate that BA production may be a mechanism that increases bacterial survival under gastric stress.

  14. Casein hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis proteases. Peptide profile discriminates strain-dependent enzyme specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-02

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolysed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal, appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC50 in the 16-70 μg/ml range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  15. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Haddad, Kenneth D.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Li, Zhenjiang; Yang, Huijun; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Bissett, W. Paul

    2002-01-01

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K. brevis, in response to light-cued migration and nocturnal mixing, also mimics these aspects of the next fall red tide in 1980, suggesting that sunrise populations may provide the strongest surface signal, for detection of red tides by remote sensors aboard aircraft and satellites. Once a mature red tide is formed, a light-regulated maximal growth rate of 0.15 day -1, reflecting nutrient-limitation, and no other loss processes may be an adequate description of population dynamics above the 30-40 m isobaths, where blooms of K. brevis originate. Within shallow waters at the 10-m isobath, however, an apparent larger growth rate of 0.80 day -1—as a presumed consequence of frontal aggregations—must be offset by unknown processes of algal mortality. Likely candidates for cumulative, biomass-dependent losses are UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from copepods, protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

  16. Molecular mechanisms behind the antimicrobial activity of hop iso-α-acids in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    The main bittering component in beer, hop iso-α-acids, have been characterised as weak acids, which act as ionophores impairing microbial cells' function under acidic conditions as present in beer. Besides medium pH, divalent cations play a central role regarding the efficacy of the antimicrobial effect. The iso-α-acids' non-bitter derivatives humulinic acids can be found in isomerised hop extracts and can be generated during hop storage. Therefore, they have been under investigation concerning their influence on beer sensory properties. This study sketches the molecular mechanism behind iso-α-acids' antimicrobial activity in Lactobacillus (L.) brevis regarding their ionophore activity versus the dependence of the inhibitory potential on manganese binding, and suggests humulinic acids as novel tasteless food preservatives. We designed and synthesised chemically modified iso-α-acids to enhance the basic understanding of the molecular mechanism of antimicrobial iso-α-acids. It could be observed that a manganese-binding dependent transmembrane redox reaction (oxidative stress) plays a crucial role in inhibition. Privation of an acidic hydroxyl group neither erased ionophore activity, nor did it entirely abolish antimicrobial activity. Humulinic acids proved to be highly inhibitory, even outperforming iso-α-acids.

  17. Steric vs. electronic effects in the Lactobacillus brevis ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Borzęcka, Wioleta; Sattler, Johann H; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván; Gotor, Vicente

    2014-01-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ADH (LBADH) is an alcohol dehydrogenase that is commonly employed to reduce alkyl or aryl ketones usually bearing a methyl, an ethyl or a chloromethyl as a small ketone substituent to the corresponding (R)-alcohols. Herein we have tested a series of 24 acetophenone derivatives differing in their size and electronic properties for their reduction employing LBADH. After plotting the relative activity against the measured substrate volumes we observed that apart from the substrate size other effects must be responsible for the activity obtained. Compared to acetophenone (100% relative activity), other small substrates such as propiophenone, α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone, α-hydroxyacetophenone, and benzoylacetonitrile had relative activities lower than 30%, while medium-sized ketones such as α-bromo-, α,α-dichloro-, and α,α-dibromoacetophenone presented relative activities between 70% and 550%. Moreover, the comparison between the enzymatic activity and the obtained final conversions using an excess or just 2.5 equiv. of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol, denoted again deviations between them. These data supported that these hydrogen transfer (HT) transformations are mainly thermodynamically controlled. For instance, bulky α-halogenated derivatives could be quantitatively reduced by LBADH even employing 2.5 equiv. of 2-propanol independently of their kinetic values. Finally, we found good correlations between the IR absorption band of the carbonyl groups and the degrees of conversion obtained in these HT processes, making this simple method a convenient tool to predict the success of these transformations.

  18. Enhancing the Activity of Glutamate Decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis by Directed Evolution☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Lin; Sheng Hu; Kai Yu; Jun Huang; Shanjing Yao; Yinlin Lei; Guixiang Hu; Lehe Mei

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC4.1.1.15) can catalyze the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), which is in great demand in some foods and pharmaceuticals. In our previous study, gad, the gene coding glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacil us brevis CGMCC 1306, was cloned and its soluble expression was realized. In this study, error-prone PCR was conducted to improve its activity, followed by a screening. Mutant Q51H with high activity [55.4 mmol·L−1·min−1·(mg protein)−1, 120%higher than that of the wild type at pH 4.8] was screened out from the mutant library. In order to investigate the potential role of this site in the regulation of enzymatic activity, site-directed saturation mutagenesis at site 51 was carried out, and three specific mutants, N-terminal truncated GAD, Q51P, and Q51L, were identified. The kinetic parameters of the three mutants and Q51H were characterized. The results reveal that aspartic acid at site 88 and N-terminal domain are essential to the activity as well as correct folding of GAD. This study not only improves the activity of GAD, but also sheds new light on the structure–function relationship of GAD.

  19. System identification of evoked mechanomyogram from abductor pollicis brevis muscle in isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Sakai, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the applicability of a sixth-order model to the mechanomyogram (MMG) system of the parallel-fibered muscle, which was identified from the MMG of the pennation muscle. The median nerve was stimulated, and an MMG and torque of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were measured. The MMGs were detected with either a capacitor microphone or an acceleration sensor. The transfer functions between stimulation and the MMG and between stimulation and torque were identified by the singular value decomposition method. The torque and the MMG, which were detected with a capacitor microphone, DMMG, were approximated with a second- and a third-order model, respectively. The natural frequency of the torque, reflecting longitudinal mechanical characteristics, did not show a significant difference from that of the DMMG. The MMG detected with an acceleration sensor was approximated with a fourth-order model. The natural frequencies of the AMMG reflecting the muscle and subcutaneous tissue in the transverse direction were obtained. Both DMMG and AMMG have to be measured to investigate the model of the MMG system for parallel-fibered muscle. The MMG system of parallel-fibered muscle was also modeled with a sixth-order model.

  20. Lateral line analogue aids vision in successful predator evasion for the brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Carly A; Bartol, Ian K

    2014-07-15

    Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the lateral line analogue, brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, were observed in the presence of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, under light and dark conditions with their lateral line analogue intact and ablated. Hair cell ablation was achieved through a pharmacological technique used for the first time on a cephalopod. The proportion of predator-prey interactions survived was significantly higher in the light non-ablated and light ablated groups compared with the dark ablated group. The mean number of interactions survived varied across treatment groups with the light non-ablated group having significantly more success than the light ablated, dark non-ablated and dark ablated groups. These findings demonstrate that although vision is the primary sense, the lateral line analogue also contributes to predator evasion in squid.

  1. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepita, Damian; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Czepita, Maciej; Grobelny, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Intensive long-term studies of Demodex spp. (D.) and its role in chronic blepharits have been carried out in recent years by scientists from the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. It has resulted in numerous publications, spurring a lot of interest worldwide. A few of the papers have been cited in leading American medical journals. In recent years many papers dealing with demodicosis of the eyelids have been published worldwide. Based on the growing interest in the role of Demodex spp. in chronic blepharitis we decided to present and discuss the results of the latest experimental and clinical studies. A review of the literature concerning the role of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis was done. Demodex spp. are intradermal parasites, which thrive in follicles and sebaceous glands of humans and animals. D. is spread by direct contact and probably by dust containing eggs (figs. 1, 2, 3). Currently, it is thought that pathological changes in the course of demodicosis of the eyelids are consequences of: (1) blockage of follicles and leading out tubules of sebaceous glands by the mites and by reactive hyperkeratinization and epithelial hyperplasia; (2) a mechanical vector role of bacteria; (3) host's inflammatory reaction to the presence of parasite's chitine as a foreign body; and (4) stimulation of the host's humoral responses and cell-mediated immunological reactions under the influence of the mites and their waste products. It has been established that: (1) D. folliculorum and D. brevis are cosmopolitan in terms of their distribution; (2) Infection of Demodex spp. often occurs in the course of chronic blepharitis; (3) With the increase in age, the prevalence rate of eyelid demodicosis rises; (4) Demodicosis of the eyelids may be the effect of the decrease of immunity of some patients. Treatment of demodicosis of the eyelids as a general rule lasts a few months. The use of yellow mercurial ointment, sulphur ointment

  2. Heterogeneity between and within Strains of Lactobacillus brevis Exposed to Beer Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the physiological response of six Lactobacillus brevis strains to hop stress, with and without the addition of Mn2+ or ethanol. Based on the use of different fluorescent probes, cell viability and intracellular pH (pHi) were assessed by fluorescence microscopy combined with flow cytometry, at the single cell level. The combined approach was faster than the traditional colony based method, but also provided additional information about population heterogeneity with regard to membrane damage and cell size reduction, when exposed to hop compounds. Different physiological subpopulations were detected under hop stress in both hop tolerant and sensitive strains. A large proportion of cells were killed in all the tested strains, but a small subpopulation from the hop tolerant strains eventually recovered as revealed by pHi measurements. Furthermore, a short term protection against hop compounds was obtained for both hop tolerant and sensitive strains, by addition of high concentration of Mn2+. Addition of ethanol in combination with hop compounds caused an additional short term increase in damaged subpopulation, but the subsequent growth suggested that the presence of ethanol provides a slight cross resistance toward hop compounds. PMID:28261191

  3. Síncope, Brevis Brevians e acento no Português Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Seung-Hwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a síncope e o Brevis Brevians e as relações desses fenômenos com o padrão de acento no português brasileiro, na perspectiva da Fonologia Métrica (Hayes, 1995 e da Teoria da Otimalidade (Prince e Smolensky, 1993; McCrthy e Prince, 1993, 1995. O seu objetivo é mostrar que: i a síncope e a redução silábica estão relacionadas diretamente com a formação e a forma do pé; ii no PB, a redução silábica é motivada pela interação de restrições PARSE e WSP para reestruturar o pé troqueu (LH para (LL; iii a síncope ocorre para ajustar o acento marcado (proparoxítono para acento não-marcado (paroxítono

  4. A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Jennifer P.; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, F. Robert; Heil, Cynthia A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Karenia brevis, a toxic dinoflagellate that blooms regularly in the Gulf of Mexico, frequently causes widespread ecological and economic damage and can pose a serious threat to human health. A means for detecting blooms early and monitoring existing blooms that offers high spatial and temporal resolution is desired. Between 1999 and 2001, a large bio-optical data set consisting of spectral measurements of remote-sensing reflectance ( Rrs( λ)), absorption ( a( λ)), and backscattering ( bb( λ)) along with chlorophyll a concentrations and K. brevis cell counts was collected on the central west Florida shelf (WFS) as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) and Hyperspectral Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (HyCODE) programs. Reflectance model simulations indicate that absorption due to cellular pigmentation is not responsible for the factor of ˜3-4 decrease observed in Rrs( λ) for waters containing greater than 10 4 cells l -1 of K. brevis. Instead, particulate backscattering is responsible for this decreased reflectivity. Measured particulate backscattering coefficients were significantly lower when K. brevis concentrations exceeded 10 4 cells l -1 compared to values measured in high-chlorophyll (>1.5 mg m -3), diatom-dominated waters containing fewer than 10 4 cells l -1 of K. brevis. A classification technique for detecting high-chlorophyll, low-backscattering K. brevis blooms is developed. In addition, a method for quantifying chlorophyll concentrations in positively flagged pixels using fluorescence line height (FLH) data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is introduced. Both techniques are successfully applied to Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data acquired in late August 2001 and validated using in situ K. brevis cell concentrations.

  5. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycete) Isolates and their Effects on Subterranean Termite Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pik-Kheng Hoe; Choon-Fah J. Bong; Kadir Jugah; Amartalingam Rajan

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) is a common termite pest found in oil palm plantation planted on peat. Currently, the control methods focus on using insecticides that lead to high cost and adverse effect to the environment. Approach: Biological control like the use of entomopathogens provides an alternative control method for termite infestation problem. However, several factors need to be investigated in order to obtain a virulent strain with potential...

  6. Effects of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on early development of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica and northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolton, Anne; Vignier, Julien; Soudant, Philippe; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2014-10-01

    The brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, adversely affects many shellfish species including the commercially and ecologically important bivalve molluscs, the northern quahog (=hard clam) Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. This study assessed the effects of exposure of these bivalves to K. brevis during their early development. In separate experiments, embryos of 2-4 cell stage of M. mercenaria and C. virginica were exposed to both whole and lysed K. brevis cells isolated from Manasota Key, Florida. Low bloom concentrations of 500 to 3000 cells mL(-1) were simulated for 96 h. Shell length, percent abnormality (and normality), and percent mortality of resulting larvae were measured. Percentages were recorded after 6, 24, and 96 h of exposure; larval shell length was measured at 24 and 96 h. For both quahogs and oysters, the effects of exposing embryos to K. brevis on all larval responses were generally dose- and time-dependent. Percent mortalities and abnormalities of both clam and oyster embryos increased significantly after only 6h of exposure to whole cells of K. brevis. For clams, these parameters were significantly higher in whole and lysed treatments (at 3000 cells mL(-1)) than in controls. Percent mortalities of oysters were significantly higher in the whole-cell treatment (3000 cells mL(-1)) than under control conditions. After 24h of exposure, mean larval shell length of both bivalve species was significantly reduced relative to controls. This was evident for clam larvae in both the lysed treatment at 1500 cells mL(-1) and in whole and lysed treatments at 3000 cells mL(-1), and for oyster larvae in the lysed treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1). After 96 h, both species exposed to the lysed cell treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1) had significantly smaller larvae compared to those in the control. Overall, lysed cells of K. brevis had a more pronounced effect on shell length, percent abnormality

  7. Common Distribution of gad Operon in Lactobacillus brevis and its GadA Contributes to Efficient GABA Synthesis toward Cytosolic Near-Neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Law, Yee-Song; Khafipour, Ehsan; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2017-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have exhibited strain-specific capacity to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via their glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system, which is one of amino acid-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems in bacteria. However, the linkage between bacterial AR and GABA production capacity has not been well established. Meanwhile, limited evidence has been provided to the global diversity of GABA-producing LAB and bifidobacteria, and their mechanisms of efficient GABA synthesis. In this study, genomic survey identified common distribution of gad operon-encoded GAD system in Lactobacillus brevis for its GABA production among varying species of LAB and bifidobacteria. Importantly, among four commonly distributed amino acid-dependent AR systems in Lb. brevis, its GAD system was a major contributor to maintain cytosolic pH homeostasis by consuming protons via GABA synthesis. This highlights that Lb. brevis applies GAD system as the main strategy against extracellular and intracellular acidification demonstrating its high capacity of GABA production. In addition, the abundant GadA retained its activity toward near-neutral pH (pH 5.5–6.5) of cytosolic acidity thus contributing to efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. This is the first global report illustrating species-specific characteristic and mechanism of efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. PMID:28261168

  8. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Koh, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Young Jun; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sea Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  9. PCR-SSCP and sequence analysis of three Odontotermes spp. (order: isoptera; family: termitidae) on the basis of partial 16SrRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamtesh; Sharma, Vijay Lakshmi; Sodhi, Monika; Mukesh, Manishi; Shouche, Yogesh; Sobti, Ranbir Chander

    2009-10-01

    Partial 16S gene fragments were amplified by using specific primers in few species/populations of termites of the genus Odontotermes (Isoptera:Termitidae:Macrotermitinae), and the PCR products were subjected to SSCP analysis. Three haplotypes obtained were subjected to sequencing. The sequences obtained were characterized to see the frequencies of each nucleotide bases. High A + T content was observed. The inter-specific pairwise sequence divergence in Odontotermes spp. ranged from 0% to 4.8% across the entire 16S gene fragment. Identical sequences were found between two populations of O. horni. Individuals of different species having Type-I conformational pattern, i.e. O. obesus (-AI) and O. horni (-MI), as well as Type-II of O. obesus (-UII) and O. bhagwatii (-CHII) had no percent diversity. Phylogenetic trees drawn on the basis of distance Neighbour-joining method revealed clustering of individuals according to their genera and families.

  10. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) >80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20±0.13 to (0.30±0.56)×10(3) mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and -log(Ksp(MeS)/Ksp(pyr)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn≈Mntrace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are preferentially accumulated by the polychaete, making it a useful biomonitor of sedimentary metal exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Allosteric modulation of neurotoxin binding to voltage-sensitive sodium channels by Ptychodiscus brevis toxin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, R G; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Baden, D G; Catterall, W A

    1987-03-01

    The effects of Ptychodiscus brevis toxin 2 (PbTx-2) on the binding of neurotoxins at four different neurotoxin receptor sites on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes were examined. Binding of saxitoxin at neurotoxin receptor site 1 and Leiurus quinquestriatus alpha-scorpion toxin (LqTx) at neurotoxin receptor site 3 was unaffected. PbTx-2 enhanced binding of batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B) to neurotoxin receptor site 2 and Centruroides suffusus suffusus beta-scorpion toxin (CsTx II) to site 4 on sodium channels. These results support the proposal that PbTx-2 and related toxins act at a new receptor site (site 5) that has not been previously analyzed in binding experiments. Half-maximal effects of PbTx-2 were observed in the range of 20-50 nM PbTx-2. The enhancement of BTX-B binding was reduced by depolarization. Saturating concentrations of PbTx-2 reduced KD values for binding of BTX-B and CsTx-II 2.9-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. The effects of PbTx-2 and LqTx in enhancing BTX-B binding were synergistic. A model involving both preferential binding of BTX-B, PbTx-2, LqTx, and CsTx II to active states of sodium channels and allosteric interactions among the four receptor sites at which these toxins act accommodates these and previous results.

  12. A comparative study of an intensive malolactic transformation of cider using Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I S; Lovitt, R W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary fermentation of alcoholic green cider by Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor so as to compare the performance of the two organisms to rapidly carry out the malolactic fermentation (MLF), an important step in reducing acidity and enhancing the flavor characteristics of the beverages. First, the growth of both organisms was intensified by using perfusion culture in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). O. oeni and L. brevis were grown up to 12.8 g dry cell weight (DCW) l(-1) and 15.5 g DCW l(-1) in the MBR. Secondly, the resultant cells were then used for the malolactic transformation of green cider in the MBR. The influences of the residence time in the MBR and the ethanol concentration of the green cider on the organic acid transformation were investigated. Both organisms showed a good tolerance against the acidic conditions (pH 3.0-4.0) and ethanol (90 g l(-1)). Good levels of malate removal in the MBR were achieved by both organisms but O. oeni was more tolerant to high ethanol concentrations and was capable of growth and malate removal in 130 g ethanol l(-1) green cider. L. brevis malate removal was significantly inhibited above 110 g ethanol l(-1). The MBR allowed the development of high concentrations of active cells capable of rapid MLF and could be achieved over a prolonged period and over a wide range of conditions thus allowing the control of malate transformation rate. Organism selection for the transformation will be governed by the desired beverage characteristics. There is considerable scope to optimize the process further both with the choice of organisms and the design and operation of the reactor. Rapid beverage maturation on a commercial scale may be possible using MBR and pure cultures of MLF lactic acid bacteria.

  13. Allograft reconstruction of peroneus longus and brevis tendons tears arising from a single muscular belly. Case report and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Manuel J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-03-01

    Anatomic variants of the peroneal tendons may cause tendon disorders. Moreover, there is a lack of evidence on how to address chronic tendon pathology when a variant of the peroneal tendons is causing the patient's symptoms. We present a patient with an uncommon peroneal muscle presentation: a single muscular belly dividing into both the peroneus longus and brevis tendons. After extensive debridement of tendinopathic tissue, primary repair or tenodesis was not possible; therefore a unique solution for this problem was performed, reconstructing both peroneal tendons using a semitendinosus allograft. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome.

  15. Longitudinal splitting to the peroneus brevis tendon. Diagnosis and MRI staging; Syndrome fissuraire du tendon court fibulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavernier, T. [Clinique de la Sauvegarde, 69 - Lyon (France); Bonnin, M. [Clinique Charcot, 69 - Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon (France); Bouysset, M. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 Pierre-Benite (France)

    1997-05-01

    We present a series of 38 cases of longitudinal splitting of the peroneus brevis tendon revealed by MR imaging (12 lesions were confirmed at surgery). MRI enabled classification in four surgical grades.The frequency of such lesions in chronic ankle instability as observed in our series is often reported in the literature. Bilateral cases are common. Asymptomatic cases do occur, especially in grades I and II. MRI has been shown to be a very effective investigation for demonstrating this tendinous lesion: the proton density weighted sequence in the axial plane is the most adequate sequence. (authors). 15 refs.

  16. Morphostructural investigation of the female reproductive system and molecular evidence for Wolbachia in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, A M; D'Urso, V; Viscuso, R; Ferrito, V; Giunta, M C; Cupani, S; Vitale, D G M

    2016-02-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) is an allochthonous species that is rapidly spreading in Sicily and in mainland Europe due to the wide spread of its host plant and therefore could also compete with populations of native species. Considering these ecological implications, based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha and since previous investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis have shown some interesting features, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the female reproductive system of this alien leafhopper. Moreover, given the high interest in literature on Wolbachia entomoparasite and based on our previous studies, we provided a contribution to further investigations in applied sciences. For this aim we performed a molecular analysis on males and females of B. brevis to detect the possible presence of strains of the bacterium known to alter host reproductive biology. The female reproductive system has a morphological organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with the literature, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures. In the spermatheca of B. brevis, in particular, the secretory activity is more marked in the sac-shaped tract, where histochemical investigations showed a lipid component of the secretion; possible origin of this component is discussed. Moreover, mainly free spermatozoa are found in the sac-shaped tract of the spermatheca and in the common oviduct. As for the latter, an interesting findings is the lack of cuticular intima on the epithelial surface of the common oviduct; furthermore, the observed features and the literature in this regards led us to review the significance of the structure called as spermatheca. The molecular screening

  17. Impact of Lactic Acid and Hydrogen Ion on the Simultaneous Fermentation of Glucose and Xylose by the Carbon Catabolite Derepressed Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung Hun; Israr, Beenish; Shoemaker, Sharon P; Mills, David A; Kim, Jaehan

    2016-07-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 exhibited a carbon catabolite de-repressed (CCR) phenotype which has ability to consume fermentable sugar simultaneously with glucose. To evaluate this unusual phenotype under harsh conditions during fermentation, the effect of lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentrations on L. brevis ATCC 14869 were examined. Kinetic equations describing the relationship between specific cell growth rate and lactic acid or hydrogen ion concentration has been reduced. The change of substrate utilization and product formation according to lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentration in the media were quantitatively described. Moreover; utilization of other compounds were also observed along with hydrogen ion and lactic acid concentration simultaneously. It has been found that substrate preference changes significantly regarding to utilization of compounds in media. That could result into formation of two-carbon products. In particular, acetic acid present in the media as sodium acetate were consumed by L. brevis ATCC 14869 under extreme pH of both acid and alkaline conditions.

  18. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan. The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC and pH values (pH 5-8, and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. RESULTS: The effect of the pH variation (5-8 on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91% in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition

  19. Effects of toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on canine tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, S; Krzanowski, J J; Anderson, W H; Martin, D F; Polson, J B; Lockey, R F; Bukantz, S C; Szentivanyi, A

    1982-05-01

    The red tide toxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis becomes airborne by the thrashing action of the surf and wind and induces cough, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, and sneezing in normal humans and wheezing in asthmatic patients. The mechanism of the contractile response induced by P. brevis toxin (PBTX) was investigated with isolated canine tracheal smooth muscle. Tetrodotoxin and atropine blocked the contractile effect of PBTX, and neostigmine potentiated the contraction. Mepyramine, phentolamine, methysergide, and chlorisondamine did not inhibit the effect of PBTX. This is the first description of a naturally occurring airborne substance that causes smooth muscle contraction by stimulating the axon sodium channels, resulting in the release of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic efferent nerve endings. The in vitro effect of PBTX on canine tracheal smooth muscle indicates that PBTX is capable of causing respiratory irritation and thus may precipitate an asthmatic attack. It is possible, however, that the mechanism is vivo may also include stimulation of a cough receptor reflex and/or stimulation of sodium channels of afferent vagus nerve fibers. In vitro evidence suggests that isoproterenol, atropine, and verapamil may be used to eliminate or prevent the respiratory symptoms that follow exposure to airborne red tide toxin. The use of high-pressure liquid chromatography separated fractions indicates that the neurotoxic component, not the hemolytic component, is responsible for contractions.

  20. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  3. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus brevis UN Isolated from Dhulliachar: a Traditional Food Product of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita; Ahlawat, O P

    2014-06-01

    A bacteriocin producing strain Lactobacillus brevis UN isolated from Dulliachar-a salted pickle and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. L. brevis UN was found to produce bacteriocin with broad spectrum activity against spoilage causing/food borne pathogens viz. L. monocytogenes, C. perfringens, S. aureus, L. mesenteroides, L. plantarum and B. cereus. Bacteriocin production was optimized through classical one variable at a time method. The isolate showed maximum bacteriocin production at early stationary phase, pH 4.0, temperature 35 °C and with an inoculum size of 1.5 OD @ 10 %. Bacteriocin produced by L. brevis UN was purified to homogeneity by single step gel exclusion chromatography and was most active at pH 6.0 and 7.0, stable up to 100 °C and was proteinaceous in nature. The results of NMR revealed the presence of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine and serine in its peptide structure. PCR amplification analysis determined that bacteriocin encoded gene in L. brevis UN was plasmid bound.

  4. Neural network retrievals of Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the West Florida Shelf (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samir; El-Habashi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Effective detection and tracking of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HAB) that frequently plague the coasts and beaches of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) is important because of their negative impacts on ecology. They pose threats to fisheries, human health, and directly affect tourism and local economies. Detection and tracking capabilities are needed for use with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite, so that HABs monitoring capabilities, which previously relied on imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua, can be extended to VIIRS. Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike its predecessor MODIS-A, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm, or in the Red Band Difference (RBD) algorithm. Both these techniques have demonstrated that the remote sensing reflectance signal from the MODIS-A fluorescence band (Rrs 678 nm) helps in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs in the WFS. To overcome the lack of a fluorescence channel on VIIRS, the approach described here, bypasses the need for measurements at 678nm, and permits extension of KB HABs satellite monitoring to VIIRS. The essence of the approach is the application of a standard multiband neural network (NN) inversion algorithm, previously developed and reported by us, that takes VIIRS Rrs measurements at the 486, 551 and 671nm bands as inputs, and produces as output the related Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), namely: absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (aph443) dissolved organic matter (ag) and non-algal particulates (adm) as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient, (bbp) all at 443nm. We next need to relate aph443 in the VIIRS NN retrieved image to equivalent KB HABs concentrations. To do this, we apply additional constraints, defined by (i) low backscatter manifested as a maximum Rrs551 value and (ii) a minimum [Chla] threshold (and hence an equivalent

  5. Detection and quantification of the toxic microalgae Karenia brevis using lab on a chip mRNA sequence-based amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Christos-Moritz; McQuillan, Jonathan S; Laouenan, Florian; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2017-08-01

    Now and again, the rapid proliferation of certain species of phytoplankton can give rise to Harmful Algal Blooms, which pose a serious threat to marine life and human health. Current methods of monitoring phytoplankton are limited by poor specificity or by the requirement to return samples to a highly resourced, centralised lab. The Lab Card is a small, microfluidic cassette which, when used in tandem with a portable Lab Card Reader can be used to sensitively and specifically quantify harmful algae in the field, from nucleic acid extracts using RNA amplification; a sensitive and specific method for the enumeration of potentially any species based on their unique genetic signatures. This study reports the culmination of work to develop a Lab Card-based genetic assay to quantify the harmful algae Karenia brevis using mRNA amplification by the Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) method. K. brevis cells were quantified by amplification of the rbcL gene transcript in nucleic acid extracts of K. brevis cell samples. A novel enzyme dehydration and preservation method was combined with a pre-existing reagent Gelification method to prepare fully preserved Lab Cards with a shelf-life of at least six weeks prior to use. Using an internal control (IC), the Lab Card-based rbcL NASBA was demonstrated for the quantification of K. brevis from cell extracts containing between 50 and 5000 cells. This is the first demonstration of quantitation of K. brevis using IC-NASBA on a Lab Card. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Observation on the figure of demodex brevis egg%皮脂蠕形螨虫卵形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素琴; 温冬青; 于洁; 陶雅君; 郑福申

    2000-01-01

    @@ 人体蠕形螨分为毛囊蠕形螨(Demodex folliculorum,Df)和皮脂蠕形螨(D. brevis,Db) 两种.近年来我国对蠕形螨的致病、防治及流行病学调查日渐增多,但对皮脂蠕形螨虫卵形态研究的报道甚少.到目前为止,国内教科书及各种参考书中对该卵形态没有详细的描述, 且也未见虫卵图.为此我们自1998年4月至1999年6月对皮脂蠕形螨虫卵的形态进行了观察.现将结果报告如下.

  7. Catastrophic Failure of an Infected Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair Managed with Combined Flexor Hallucis Longus and Peroneus Brevis Tendon Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Devin C; Elliott, Andrew D; Roukis, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Deep infection is one of the most devastating complications following repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. Treatment requires not only culture-driven antibiotic therapy, but more importantly, appropriate débridement of some or even all of the Achilles tendon. This may necessitate delayed reconstruction of the Achilles tendon. The authors present a successful case of reconstruction of a chronically infected Achilles tendon in an otherwise healthy 43-year-old man via a multistaged approach using the flexor hallucis longus and peroneus brevis tendons. We also provide a brief review of the literature regarding local tendon transfer used in the reconstruction of Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A dual role of the transcriptional regulator TstR provides insights into cyanide detoxification in Lactobacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Fernando A.; Murdoch, Caitlin C.; Brown, Sara M.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study we uncover two genes in Lactobacillus brevis ATCC367, tstT and tstR, encoding for a rhodanese and a transcriptional regulator involved in cyanide detoxification. TstT (LVIS_0852) belongs to a new class of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferases. We found that TstR (LVIS_0853) modulates both the expression and the activity of the downstream-encoded tstT. The TstR binding site was identified at −1 to +33, from tstR transcriptional start site. EMSA revealed that sulfite, a product of the reaction catalyzed by TstT, improved the interaction between TstR:PtstR, while Fe(III) disrupted this interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis in TstR identified M64 as a key residue in sulfite recognition, while residues H136-H139-C167-M171 formed a pocket for ferric iron coordination. In addition to its role as a transcriptional repressor, TstR is also involved in regulating the thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase activity of TstT. A 3-fold increase in TstT activity was observed in the presence of TstR, which was enhanced by the addition of Fe(III). Overexpression of the tstRT operon was found to increase the cyanide tolerance of L. brevis and Escherichia coli. The protein-protein interaction between TstR and TstT described herein represents a novel mechanism for regulation of enzymatic activity by a transcriptional regulator. PMID:24684290

  9. Catalogue of type specimens of the Collection of Invertebrates of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Zoraptera Catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de invertebrados da coleção do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brasil. III. Hexapoda: Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moacir Ferreira Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalogue of the type specimens of Isoptera, Mantodea, Mecoptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, and Zoraptera deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to December, 2007. A total of eight holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of nine species of Isoptera; three holotypes and one paratype of three species of Mantodea; five holotypes and five lots of paratypes of five species of Mecoptera; eight holotypes and five lots of paratypes of eleven species of Orthoptera; three holotypes, three neotypes and two lots of paratypes of seven species of Plecoptera; six holotypes and seven lots of paratypes of ten species of Trichoptera; and two holotypes and three lots of paratypes of three species of Zoraptera, are listed. Specific names are listed alphabetically within the family, followed by bibliographic citation, original genus name, status of type, collection number, locality data and remarks when appropriate.É apresentado o catálogo dos espécimes-tipo de Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera e Zoraptera depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Brasil, atualizado até dezembro de 2007. É relacionado um total de sete holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de nove espécies de Isoptera; três holótipos e um parátipo de três espécies de Mantodea; cinco holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de cinco espécies de Mecoptera; oito holótipos e cinco lotes de parátipos de 11 espécies de Orthoptera; três holótipos, três neótipos e dois lotes de parátipos de sete espécies de Plecoptera; seis holótipos e sete lotes de parátipos de dez espécies de Trichoptera; e dois holótipos e três lotes de parátipos de três espécies de Zoraptera. São listados alfabeticamente em cada família os nomes das espécies, seguidos da citação bibliográfica, nome original do

  10. Prevalencia de Demodex folliculorum e Demodex brevis em uma amostra da população de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi realizado um levantamento para se conhecer a distribuição do D. folliculorum e D. brevis no homem. Uma amostra de 100 pessoas atendida em clínica estética foi examinada, procurando-se estudar a associação entre a presença de ácaros e fatores como idade, raça e sexo do hospedeiro. O material colhido da região facial dos indivíduos foi montado em lâminas com o meio de Berlese. Das 100 pessoas examinadas, 72 % foram positivas. Dos casos positivos, 51 % estavam infestados pelo D. folliculorum, 2% pelo D. brevis e 19% apresentaram-se parasitados por ambas as espécies.

  11. Prevalencia de Demodex folliculorum e Demodex brevis em uma amostra da população de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi realizado um levantamento para se conhecer a distribuição do D. folliculorum e D. brevis no homem. Uma amostra de 100 pessoas atendida em clínica estética foi examinada, procurando-se estudar a associação entre a presença de ácaros e fatores como idade, raça e sexo do hospedeiro. O material colhido da região facial dos indivíduos foi montado em lâminas com o meio de Berlese. Das 100 pessoas examinadas, 72 % foram positivas. Dos casos positivos, 51 % estavam infestados pelo D. folliculorum, 2% pelo D. brevis e 19% apresentaram-se parasitados por ambas as espécies.A survey was conduced to determine the prevalence of D. folliculorum and D. brevis for the first time in Brazil. In this study, association between the presence of mites and hostfactors (age, sex and race were anatysed. Samples were obtained from 100 individuals submitted to a facial cleaning in an aesthetic clinic in Botucatu city. All the samples were mounted in Berleses medium and examined by dark-field phase microscopy. From 100 studied individuais, 72 were positive, among the positive cases, 51% showed D. folliculorum, 2% showed D. brevis and 19% both species. The parasite distribution in realtion to sex was not taken in account because the sex ratio tavoured females (90%. According to age, prevalence was high in all age groups. The factors influencing this distribution could be due. 1. the examination of extensive skin areas, 2. the group examined composed of individuals in treatment in an anaesthetic clinic could be more infested than a normal population, 3. the fact that in tropics, the prevalence is often high in all ages.

  12. HPTLC fingerprint profile, in vitro antioxidant and evaluation of antimicrobial compound produced from Brevibacillus brevis-EGS9 against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, T; Senthil Kumar, P; Gopinath, K P

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and HPTLC finger print profile of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9. Primary screening was done using by cross streak method against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The bioactive metabolites were extracted from Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 using ethyl acetate extraction. Ethyl acetate extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (20.2 ± 0.1) mm, Candida albicans (19.2 ± 0.3) mm and Bacillus cereus (18.6 ± 0.2) mm respectively. Forty three UTI bacterial strains were isolated from mid-urine samples of 50 males and 50 females. Escherichia coli were more predominant (48%) followed by Klebsilla pneumonia (29%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17%), Staphylococcus aureus (4%) and Enterobacter faecalis (6%). The ethyl acetate extract was examined to evaluate antibacterial properties against isolated UTIs bacterial pathogens. The results were revealed that the maximum zone was measured in Escherichia coli (18.1 ± 0.4) mm and minimum zone of inhibition was shown against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.6 ± 0.3) mm. Based on the results obtained, the extract of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 exhibited dose dependent manner of antioxidant activity. The DPPH scavenging activity of lowest concentration at 25 μg/ml and high concentration at 1000 μg/ml was measured at 2.4% and 39.5% respectively. HPTLC finger print profile was showed the active compounds present in crude extract, which may responsible for the antioxidant prospective. These results showed that, the significant antimicrobial properties against pathogen; this work will be helpful to explore the active compound identification in the field of pharmaceutical research and able to produce new drug molecules against pathogens.

  13. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo A. Carvalho; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlor...

  14. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-11-06

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.

  15. A 1-D simulation analysis of the development and maintenance of the 2001 red tide of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B. P.; Walsh, J. J.; Jolliff, J. K.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-06-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) ecological model, HABSIM, examined the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide on the West Florida shelf (WFS). Phytoplankton competition among toxic dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis), nitrogen fixing cyanophytes (Trichodesmium erythraeum), large siliceous phytoplankton (diatoms), and small non-siliceous phytoplankton (microflagellates) explored the sequence of events required to support the observed red tide from August to December 2001. The ecological model contained 24 state variables within five submodels: circulation, atmospheric (iron deposition), bio-optics, pelagic (phytoplankton, nutrients, bacteria, zooplankton, and fish), and benthic (nutrient regeneration). The 2001 model results reaffirmed that diazotrophs are the basis for initiation of red tides of K. brevis on the WFS. A combination of selective grazing pressure, iron fertilization, low molar nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, and eventual silica limitation of fast-growing diatoms set the stage for dominance of nitrogen fixers. "New" nitrogen was made available for subsequent blooms of K. brevis through the release of ammonium and urea during nitrogen fixation, as well as during cell lysis, by the Trichodesmium population. Once K. brevis biomass reached ichthyotoxic levels, rapid decay of subsequent fish kills supplied additional organic nutrients for utilization by these opportunistic toxic algae. Both nutrient vectors represented organic non-siliceous sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, further exacerbating silica limitation of the diatom population. The model reproduced this spring transition from a simple estuarine-driven, diatom-based food chain to a complex summer-fall system of Trichodesmium and toxic dinoflagellates. While the model was able to replicate the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide, bloom termination was not captured by this 1-D form on the WFS. Here, horizontal advection and perhaps cell lysis loss terms might play a significant role, to be

  16. Multi-Sensor Approach for the Monitoring of Halitosis Treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-Containing Lozenges--A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Tecco, Simona; Santonico, Marco; Vernile, Chiara; Ciciarelli, Daniele; Tarantino, Ester; Marzo, Giuseppe; Pennazza, Giorgio

    2015-08-10

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate whether a recently described multi-sensor approach called BIONOTE(®) is accurate enough to verify the efficacy of treatment of patients with halitosis. A treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges, compared with placebo was tested. The BIONOTE(®) was compared with traditional techniques used to detect halitosis: OralChroma™ and two calibrated odor judges enrolled for the organoleptic assessments. Twenty patients (10 treated and 10 placebo), suffering from active phase halitosis were included in the study. Treatment consisted of Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges or placebo, 4 tablets/day for 14 days. t0 was before the beginning of the study; t1 was day 7 and t2 was day 14. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed through: (1) Rosenberg score; (2) Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI) anterior and posterior; (2) OralChroma™; (3) the new developed multi-sensor approach, called BIONOTE(®) (test technique). Only the WTCI anterior revealed statistically significant changes between t0 and t2 data (p = 0.014) in the treated group. Except for the WTCI anterior, all diagnostic methods revealed the lack of effectiveness for halitosis of a 14-days treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges. The BIONOTE(®) multisensor system seems accurate in addition to OralChroma™ to assess the initial condition of halitosis and its mitigation during treatment.

  17. Summarizing Statement of Insecticidal Effect on Vegetables and Application Techniques of Pesticide Empedobacter Brevis%短稳杆菌对蔬菜应用技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铭忻; 周晶; 王亚超; 殷逸能; 万鑫

    2011-01-01

    短稳杆菌农药是我国自主创制的一种生物杀虫剂,对小菜蛾、斜纹夜蛾及其他鳞翅目害虫有很好的杀虫效果,对蔬菜本身及害虫天敌无不良影响,对人畜禽安全性好。100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂用于蔬菜大田害虫防治,应当准确掌握用药对象、用药时期及用药方法。%Pesticide Empedobacter brevis is our own creation of a biological insecticide.It has very good insecticidal effect on diamondback moth,Prodenia litura and other Lepidoptera pests.It has no adversely affection on vegetables and natural enemies of pests,and it's safe for people、livestock and poultry.10 000 000 000 spores / mL Empedobacter brevis Suspending agent is used on Prevention of vegetable pests.We should have accurately master of Control object,time and method of pesticide Empedobacter brevis.

  18. Riqueza de cupins (Insecta, Isoptera em áreas de Mata Atlântica primária e secundária do sudeste da Bahia Termite (Insecta, Isoptera richness in primary and secondary Atlantic Forest in southeastern Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana T. Reis

    Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica é considerada um dos biomas com maior diversidade do mundo, abrigando um grande número de espécies endêmicas, porém é um dos mais degradados do Brasil, restando menos de 8% de sua vegetação original. No Sudeste da Bahia, a floresta vem sofrendo um processo de deterioração, originado pelo desmatamento indiscriminado e o mau uso do solo. Nessa região, pouco se conhece sobre a fauna de cupins, onde não existia qualquer levantamento prévio. Os objetivos foram: 1 fazer uma primeira amostragem da fauna de Isoptera dessa parte da Mata Atlântica, através de duas técnicas de coleta; 2 comparar a riqueza de espécies de uma área de mata primária com outra de mata secundária; 3 comparar os resultados dos diferentes protocolos; 4 fazer classificação das espécies em grupos tróficos. As áreas de estudo foram a "Mata da Esperança" (mata primária e a "Reserva Zoobotânica da CEPLAC" (secundária, localizadas no município de Ilhéus, BA. Foram feitas coletas chamadas aqui de "qualitativas" e "quantitativas", que seguiram protocolos determinados, e as amostras foram obtidas por coletas diretas, sem uso de iscas. Foram identificadas 38 espécies, distribuídas em 27 gêneros, sendo que a família Termitidae foi a mais freqüente. A fauna de Isoptera foi mais rica na mata primária. A partir das coletas "quantitativas", foram registradas 19 espécies, e através das coletas "qualitativas", 33 espécies. A maioria das espécies encontradas é xilófaga.The Atlantic Forest is considered one of the most diverse biome in the World, harboring a large number of endemic species. However, it is one of the most degraded ecosystems in Brazil; less than 8% of its original vegetation has been preserved. In southeastern part of the state of Bahia, irresponsible deforestation and misuse of land have being degrading the forest. In this area, the termite fauna is poorly known and there was no available survey. This paper aimed: 1 to

  19. Recombinant S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus brevis mediating antibody adhesion to calf intestine alleviated neonatal diarrhea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Yong-Ho; Park, Hee-Young; Jeong, Yoo-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Young-Hwan

    2009-05-01

    A chimeric gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a S-layer protein from Lactobacillus brevis KCTC3102, and/or two copies of the Fc-binding Z-domain, a synthetic analog of the B-domain of protein A, was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The S-layer fusion proteins produced in a 500-l fermentor were likely to be stable in the range of pH 5 to 8 and 0 degree to 40 degrees . Their adhesive property enabled an easy and rapid immobilization of enzymes or antibodies on solid materials such as plastics, glass, sol-gel films, and intestinal epithelial cells. Owing to their affinity towards intestinal cells and immunoglobulin G, the Slayer fusion proteins enabled the adhesion of antibodies to human epithelial cells. In addition, feeding a mixture of the S-layer fusion proteins and antibodies against neonatal calf diarrhea (coronavirus, rotavirus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium) to Hanwoo calves resulted in 100% prevention of neonatal calf diarrhea syndrome (p<0.01),whereas feeding antibodies only resulted in 56% prevention.

  20. PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS DAN PREBIOTIK OLIGOSAKARIDA PADA BENIH PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuke Eliyani

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis, prebiotik oligosakarida dan sinbiotiknya terhadap jumlah bakteri Lactobacillus sp. dan total bakteri dalam usus, total eritrosit, total leukosit, diferensial leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, tingkat pertumbuhan, serta FCR benih ikan patin siam yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Hasil uji karakteristik menunjukkan bahwa jenis probiotik dan patogen adalah Lactobacillus sp. dan Aeromonas hydrophila. Pada uji in vivo digunakan lima perlakuan yang terdiri atas K(+, K(-, probiotik (pro, prebiotik (pre serta sinbiotik (sin. Bakteri Lactobacillus sp. ditemukan di usus pada perlakuan probiotik dan sinbiotik dengan kisaran jumlah sekitar 101 sampai 106 (CFU/g. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan kontrol pada beberapa waktu pengamatan. Tingkat sintasan terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K(+ sebesar 43,33±11,55; sedangkan empat perlakuan lainnya memperoleh nilai 100%. Tingkat pertumbuhan harian berbeda nyata antar perlakuan, nilai terbaik dicapai pada perlakuan pemberian sinbiotik sebesar 3,370±0,14. Nilai FCR perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik menunjukkan beda nyata dengan kontrol. Perlakuan sin, pre, pro memberikan nilai yang lebih baik pada total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan FCR dibandingkan kontrol.

  1. Microbial production of mannitol by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 from concentrated extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Yue, Min; Liu, Gang; Du, Yuguang; Yin, Heng

    2017-08-17

    In the present study, the conversion of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for mannitol production by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 was investigated. When the bacterium utilized enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as the main substrates in batch fermentation, the significant decrease in mannitol productivity was observed when the initial concentration of reducing sugar increased. Then, a strategy of continuous fed-batch fermentation was adopted for improving mannitol production with enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as main substrates. Although the concentration of mannitol could reach 199.86 g/L at the end of the fermentation, the productivity for the overall process of the fermentation was only 1.67 g/L/h. In order to improve the mannitol productivity with both higher yield and concentration, the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. In SSF, the mannitol production reached 176.50 g/L in 28 h with a productivity of 6.30 g/L/h and a yield of 0.68 g/g total sugar. Our study provide a cost-effective and eco-friendly method for mannitol production from a cheap biomass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Brevetoxin in blood, biological fluids, and tissues of sea turtles naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms in central west Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer; Manire, Charles A; Socha, Victoria; Kinsel, Michael J; Stacy, Brian A; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-06-01

    In 2005 and 2006, the central west Florida coast experienced two intense Karenia brevis red tide events lasting from February 2005 through December 2005 and August 2006 through December 2006. Strandings of sea turtles were increased in the study area with 318 turtles (n = 174, 2005; n = 144, 2006) stranding between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006 compared to the 12-yr average of 43 +/- 23 turtles. Live turtles (n = 61) admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs including unresponsiveness, paresis, and circling. Testing of biological fluids and tissues for the presence of brevetoxin activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 93% (52 of 56) of live stranded sea turtles, and 98% (42 of 43) of dead stranded sea turtles tested. Serial plasma samples were taken from several live sea turtles during rehabilitation and toxin was cleared from the blood within 5-80 days postadmit depending upon the species tested. Among dead animals the highest brevetoxin levels were found in feces, stomach contents, and liver. The lack of significant pathological findings in the majority of animals necropsied supports toxin-related mortality.

  3. Chemical composition, antifeedant, repellent, and toxicity activities of the rhizomes of galangal, Alpinia galanga against Asian subterranean termites, Coptotermes gestroi and Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fauziah; Subramanian, Partiban; Ibrahim, Halijah; Abdul Malek, Sri Nurestri; Lee, Guan Serm; Hong, Sok Lai

    2015-01-01

    Dual choice bioassays were used to evaluate the antifeedant property of essential oil and methanolic extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) (locally known as lengkuas) against two species of termites, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) and Coptotermes curvignathus (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). A 4-cm-diameter paper disc treated with A. galanga essential oil and another treated with either methanol or hexane as control were placed in a petri dish with 10 termites. Mean consumption of paper discs (miligram) treated with 2,000 ppm of essential oil by C. gestroi was 3.30 ± 0.24 mg and by C. curvignathus was 3.32 ± 0.24 mg. A. galanga essential oil showed significant difference in antifeedant effect, 2,000 ppm of A. galanga essential oil was considered to be the optimum concentration that gave maximum antifeedant effect. The essential oil composition was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major component of the essential oil was 1,8-cineol (61.9%). Antifeedant bioassay using 500 ppm of 1,8-cineol showed significant reduction in paper consumption by both termite species. Thus, the bioactive agent in A. galangal essential oil causing antifeeding activity was identified as 1,8-cineol. Repellent activity shows that 250 ppm of 1,8-cineol caused 50.00 ± 4.47% repellency for C. gestroi, whereas for C. curvignathus 750 ppm of 1,8-cineol was needed to cause similar repellent activity (56.67 ± 3.33%). C. curvignathus is more susceptible compare to C. gestroi in Contact Toxicity study, the lethal dose (LD50) of C. curvignathus was 945 mg/kg, whereas LD50 value for C. gestroi was 1,102 mg/kg. Hence 1,8-cineol may be developed as an alternative control against termite in sustainable agriculture practices.

  4. The fine structure of colleterial glands in two cockroaches and three termites, including a detailed study of Cryptocercus punctulatus (Blattaria, Cryptocercidae) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Isoptera, Mastotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrent, Annie; Quennedey, André; Nalepa, Christine A; Robert, Alain; Lenz, Michael; Bordereau, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The colleterial glands of insects are organs associated with the female genital apparatus. In cockroaches, these glands produce secretions that cover two parallel rows of eggs during oviposition, and in oviparous species, these secretions become the tanned, sculpted, rigid outer casing of the ootheca. The goal of this study was to compare the gross anatomy of the colleterial glands and the ultrastructure of their component tubules in the phylogenetically significant genera Cryptocercus (Blattaria) and Mastotermes (Isoptera). Recent studies indicate that cockroaches in the genus Cryptocercus are the sister group of termites, and Mastotermes is the only termite known to produce a cockroach-like ootheca. One additional oviparous cockroach, Therea, and two additional termites, Zootermopsis and Pseudacanthotermes, were also examined. As in other cockroaches, the colleterial glands of Cryptocercus and Therea are asymmetrical, with a well developed bipartite left gland and a smaller right gland. In the termites Mastotermes, Zootermopsis, and Pseudacanthotermes, the colleterial glands are composed of a well-developed, paired, anterior gland and a small posterior gland; histological staining and cytological evidence suggest that these are homologues of the left and the right colleterial glands of cockroaches, respectively. At the ultrastructural level, colleterial gland tubules are made of cells belonging to a modified class 1 type cell in the cockroaches, in Mastotermes, and in Zootermopsis; the latter lays its eggs singly, without a surrounding ootheca-like structure. In the advanced termite Pseudacanthotermes, the tubules are made of secretory units belonging to the class 3 cell type. This study demonstrates that the cytological characteristics of colleterial glands in basal termites are similar to those of cockroaches, whether the termite secretes an oothecal casing that covers two parallel rows of eggs, as in Mastotermes, or lays its eggs singly, as in Zootermopsis

  5. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  6. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  7. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner

    2010-06-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods - July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×10(4) cells l(-1) defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs.

  8. Brevicompanine C, cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp), plant growth regulators from Penicillium brevi-compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Sawada, Aya; Kuramata, Masato; Kusano, Miyako; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi

    2005-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named brevicompanine C (1), cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp) (2), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp) (3), have been isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum Dierckx, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral TLC analysis. Plant growth activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using lettuce seedling bioassay methods. All compounds accelerated the root growth of the seedlings in proportion to their concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L.

  9. Survival, growth, and behavior of the Loliginid Squids Loligo plei, Loligo pealei, and Lolliguncula brevis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in closed sea water systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roger T. Hanlon; Hixon, Raymond F.; Hulet, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Over 1200 squids were captured by night lighting, trawling, or seining in the northern Gulf of Mexico for laboratory maintenance. Two types of recirculating sea water systems were designed and evaluated: a 2 m circular tank (1500 liter capacity) and a 10 m long raceway (10,000 liters). Mean laboratory survival was: Loligo plei (12 to 252 mm mantle length, ML) 11 days, maximum 84 days; Loligo pealei (109 to 285 mm ML) 28 days, maximum 71 days; Lolliguncula brevis (27 to 99 mm ML) 19 days, maxi...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  11. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (pelectric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk.

  12. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Bing-xin; ZHANG Zhen; SHEN Wei-feng; YANG Ching-hong; YU Jing-quan; ZHAO Yu-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY- 1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY- 116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.

  13. Effect of the gastrointestinal environment on pH homeostasis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis cells as measured by real-time fluorescence ratio-imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Ryssel, Mia; Nielsen, Dennis S; Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was developed to obtain real-time observations of the pH homeostasis of single cells of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains as a measure of their physiological state. Changes in the intracellular pH (pHi) were determined using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) for potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3 and Lactobacillus brevis UFLA FFC199. Heterogeneous populations were observed, with pHi values ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, 3.5 to 5.6 and 6.5 to 8.0 or higher during passage of saliva (pH 6.4), gastric (pH 3.5) and intestinal juices (pH 6.4), respectively. When nutrients were added to gastric juice, the isolate L. brevis significantly decreased its pH(i) closer to the extracellular pH (pH(ex)) than in gastric juice without nutrients. This was not the case for L. plantarum. This study is the first to produce an in vitro GIT model enabling real-time monitoring of pH homeostasis of single cells in response to the wide range of pH(ex) of the GIT. Furthermore, it was possible to observe the heterogeneous response of single cells. The technique can be used to determine the survival and physiological conditions of potential probiotics and other microorganisms during passage through the GIT.

  14. Effect of the gastrointestinal environment on pH homeostasis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis cells as measured by real-time fluorescence ratio-imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Ryssel, Mia;

    2014-01-01

    using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) for potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3 and Lactobacillus brevis UFLA FFC199. Heterogeneous populations were observed, with pHi values ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, 3.5 to 5.6 and 6.5 to 8.0 or higher during passage of saliva (p......In the present work, an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was developed to obtain real-time observations of the pH homeostasis of single cells of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains as a measure of their physiological state. Changes in the intracellular pH (pHi) were determined......H 6.4), gastric (pH 3.5) and intestinal juices (pH 6.4), respectively. When nutrients were added to gastric juice, the isolate L. brevis significantly decreased its pHi closer to the extracellular pH (pHex) than in gastric juice without nutrients. This was not the case for L. plantarum. This study...

  15. 短短芽孢杆菌降解芘的细胞毒性分析%Cytotoxicity Assay of Pyrene Biodegradation byBrevibacillus brevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖丽萍; 尹华; 刘芷辰; 叶锦韶; 彭辉; 刘则华

    2015-01-01

    近年来国内外对芘微生物降解过程中的菌种选育、降解性能和降解产物分析等相关报道较多,但针对芘降解菌与芘的分子作用机制研究却不多见。为了探明降解菌短短芽孢杆菌(Brevibacillus brevis)与芘的分子作用机制,考察了B. brevis对质量浓度为1.0 mg·L-1的芘的生物降解,分析了在无机盐培养基中B. brevis与芘作用过程中,其细胞凋亡规律及膜电位的变化,以期从细胞毒性的角度揭示PAHs的微生物降解机理。实验结果显示芘的降解率随着处理时间的增加而呈上升趋势, B. brevis对芘的降解率在168 h达到56.5%。在芘的降解过程中,细胞出现显著的凋亡现象,细胞总凋亡率与细胞早期凋亡率均在48 h时达到峰值,之后均随时间的延长而下降,168 h时细胞早期凋亡率与总凋亡率均小于0.5%,菌体依然对芘具有降解能力。随着细胞凋亡的发生,细胞膜电位下降,即细胞膜电位发生去极化现象,说明细胞外的芘与 K+共转运进入细胞内,从而有助于菌体对芘的吸收与降解。%Although there have been many reports on the isolation of pyrene degrading stains, pyrene degradation characteristics and its catabolites, the information regarding molecular mechanism between degrading bacteria and pyrene is limited thus far. To explore the molecular mechanism between degrading bacteriumBrevibacillus brevis and pyrene, the biodegradation of pyrene (1.0 mg·L-1) byB. brevis, as well as the cell apoptosis and changes of membrane potential ofB. brevis under pyrene exposure in mineral salt medium (MSM) was conducted to reveal the mechanism of pyrene biodegradation from the perspective of cytotoxicity. The experimental results showed that pyrene degradation efficiency increased with time. And the biodegradation efficiency of pyrene by B. brevis reached 56.5% after 168 h. In the degradation process, pyrene significantly induced the cell

  16. “Prolungata convivenza” oltre le nozze e mancata “delibazione” della sentenza ecclesiastica di nullità matrimoniale (brevi note a Cass. civ., sez. I, sent. 20 gennaio 2011, n. 1343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. I fatti e il processo – 2. La sentenza – 3. Una decisa svolta giurisprudenziale – 4. Difficoltà applicative – 5. (segue… incerti futuri scenari - 6. Brevi conclusioni: la rinnovata vitalità del limite di ordine pubblico.

  17. [Anchors and peroneous brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering for the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ning

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the clinical therapeutic effects of anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering on the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection. From March 2005 to April 2010, the clinical data of 10 patients with acute achilles tendon rupture repaired with suture anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering were retrospectively analyzed. The achilles tendon rupture was caused by corticosteroids injection. There were 8 males and 2 females with a mean age of (46.80 +/- 2.83) years old(ranged from 21 to 68 years). Postoperative complications, the range of movement of affected foot, number of consecutive heel raises and single leg jumpings were recorded. Functional recovery of achilles tendon were assessed according to ankle and hindfoot scores of the American Orthopedic Foot Ankle Society (AOFAS). All patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months with an average of 13.5 months. No wound infection, re-rupture and rejection reaction were found. At the last follow-up, there was no significant difference in the range of movement between affected foot (54.5 +/- 6.3) degrees and unaffected foot (56.8 +/- 3.8) degrees (t = 0.989, P = 0.336). The affected foot could raise heel and do single-leg hops for 10 times continuosly. There was significant difference in AOFAS between preoperative score (67.3 +/- 7.6) and postoperative score (95.5 +/- 7.6) (t = 8.297, P = 0.000);and there was no significant difference between affected foot scores (95.5 +/- 7.6)and unaffected foot scores (98.5 +/- 6.3) (t = 0.961, P = 0.349). Function recovery of achilles tendon: 9 cases were good, 1 case was fine. Anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering for the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection is a reliable and effective method, with advantage of simple operation, dependable fixation and less complications.

  18. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  19. A Harmful Algal Bloom of Karenia brevis in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico as Revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanmin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida’s Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches—as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH. Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L−1 within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA’s Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-3 mission.

  20. A Two-stage pH and Temperature Control with Substrate Feeding Strategy for Production of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春龙; 黄俊; 胡升; 赵伟睿; 姚善泾; 梅乐和

    2013-01-01

    Methods to optimize the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 were investigated. Results indicated that cell growth was maximal at pH 5.0, while pH 4.5 was pref-erable to GABA formation. The optimal temperature for cell growth (35 °C) was lower than that for GABA forma-tion (40 °C). In a two-stage pH and temperature control fermentation, cultures were maintained at pH 5.0 and 35 °C for 32 h, then adjusted to pH 4.5 and 40 °C, GABA production increased remarkably and reached 474.79 mmol·L-1 at 72 h, while it was 398.63 mmol·L-1 with one stage pH and temperature control process, in which cultivation con-ditions were constantly controlled at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. In order to avoid the inhibition of cell growth at higher L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) concentrations, the two-stage control fermentation with substrate feeding strat-egy was applied to GABA production, with 106.87 mmol (20 g) L-MSG supplemented into the shaking-flask at 32 h and 56 h post-inoculation separately. The GABA concentration reached 526.33 mmol·L-1 at 72 h with the fer-mentation volume increased by 38%. These results will provide primary data to realize large-scale production of GABA by L. brevis CGMCC 1306.

  1. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon.

  2. 短乳杆菌JH-1体外降胆固醇机理的初步探讨%Mechanism of Cholesterol-Degrading Activity of Lactobacillus brevis JH-1 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 陆兆新

    2015-01-01

    [目的]为了初步阐明短乳杆菌Lactobacillus brevis JH-1体外降胆固醇机理.[方法]分析乳酸菌降胆固醇作用的3种可能的机理(同化作用、共沉淀作用和掺入细胞膜).[结果] Lactobacillus brevis JH-1体外降胆固醇与同化作用和掺入细胞膜有关.[结论]初步判定短乳杆菌JH-1体处降胆固醇是同化作用和掺入细胞膜共同作用的结果.

  3. Criopreservação do sêmen de Prochilodus brevis: meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Teixeira Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Prochilodus brevis é um peixe reofílico, importante componente do ecossistema fluvial e apreciado na culinária nordestina. No entanto, ações antrópicas têm ameaçado sua sobrevivência. Desta forma, surge, nos pesquisadores, o interesse no desenvolvimento de protocolos de conservação do material genético, como a criopreservação seminal. Logo, a determinação do meio de congelação e da taxa de descongelação adequados, são passos fundamentais que possibilitarão a utilização dessa biotecnologia na produção de curimatã comum, reduzindo os riscos à sua sobrevivência. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de P. brevis. Para isso, 18 horas antes da coleta de sêmen, os machos receberam dose única de extrato hipofisário de carpa. Cada animal foi sedado com solução à base de eugenol e o sêmen foi coletado. As amostras foram diluídas em quatro meios de congelação (5% Glicose + Metilglicol 10%; 5% Glicose + DMSO 10%; 0,9% NaCl + Metilglicol 10%; 0,9% NaCl + DMSO 10% envasadas em palhetas de 0,25 mL e congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. O sêmen foi descongelado após sete dias em três taxas de descongelação: 25 °C 30 s-1; 30 °C 16 s-1; 40 °C 12 s-1. Foram feitas as análises de motilidade, vitalidade e morfologia com auxílio de sistema automatizado de análise seminal (CASA. As características do sêmen in natura assemelharam-se, em sua maioria, às encontradas na literatura. Para os parâmetros analisados, o sêmen in natura apresentou qualidade seminal superior a todos os tratamentos com o sêmen criopreservado (p 0,05. Para o sêmen criopreservado, os maiores índices foram alcançados quando se utilizou DMSO e as taxas de descongelação de 30 °C 16 s-1 ou 40 °C 12 s-1. Quanto à análise morfológica, a maior porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi obtida utilizando as

  4. Potential impacts of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the growth, survival and juvenile recruitment of the non-native green mussel Perna viridis in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Thébault, Julien; Volety, Aswani K

    2016-01-01

    Red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis are frequent along the Gulf coast of Florida and it is unclear what tolerance the green mussel Perna viridis, a recently introduced species to coastal waters, has toward these events. Established populations of P. viridis were monitored along the coastal waters of Estero Bay, Florida before, during and following two consecutive red tide blooms to assess the potential effects on growth, survival and juvenile recruitment. Upon onset of the bloom, growth rates fell from 6 to 10 mm month(-1) (March 2011-November 2011) to less than 3 mm month(-1). In the succeeding years, K. brevis blooms were present, and average growth of individually tagged mussels remained below 3 mm month(-1). During growth monitoring the use of calcein as an internal marker was tested with positive staining results and no observed effect on growth or survival. In March 2012, following the first red tide bloom, a population-wide mortality event was observed. Following this event, increased mortality rates were observed with peaks during onset of the bloom in the fall of 2012 and 2013. Juvenile recruitment was also limited during years in which blooms persisted into the spring spawning period suggesting gamete and/or larval sensitivity to K. brevis. Although it cannot be conclusively determined that the cause of reduced growth and survival is due to red tide events, the parallels observed suggest that K. brevis is a factor in the observed changes in population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 短稳杆菌对水稻二化螟的药效%Efficacy of Empedobacter brevis in Controlling Rice-stem Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宏伟; 赵云峰; 高小文; 吴铭忻

    2013-01-01

    Rice-stem borer is one of the main pests of rice in Heilongjiang Province, China. Because of using chemical pesticides for a long time, the rice-stem borer had produced resistance to chemical pesticides, which not only caused the control efficacy to decrease significantly, but also impacted the rice quality in Heilongjiang. In order to choose the biological pesticides to replace the chemical pesticides, a test was conducted by using suspending agent of 10 billion spores/mL of Empedobacter brevis for rice-stem borer control, with the wettable powder of 8 000 IU/mg Bt as the control insecticide. The results indicated that using 1 500 mL of the Empedobacter brevis in every hm2 rice fields had the best control efficacy, and was safe to rice, people, livestock, birds and other non-target organisms. So this fungicide had development and application values.%二化螟是黑龙江地区水稻主要害虫之一。由于长期使用化学农药,水稻二化螟对化学农药产生了抗药性,不仅用药效果明显下降,而且对黑龙江大米的品质产生了影响。为了筛选出可以替代化学杀虫剂的生物农药,选用100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂与8000 IU/mg苏云金杆菌可湿性粉剂进行对照,对二化螟进行了药效试验。试验结果表明:100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂1500 mL/hm2对二化螟的防治效果最好,且对水稻、对人、畜、禽及其他非靶标生物都安全,极具推广应用价值。

  6. Effect of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on sleep: a non-randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakita, Y; Tsuchimoto, N; Takata, Y; Nakamura, T

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 affects sleep rhythms in mice. The present study evaluated the effect of consumption of heat-killed SBC8803 on sleep architecture in humans. A non-randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, and crossover pilot study was conducted using volunteers who scored at a slightly high level (i.e. ≥6) on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Male subjects (n=17; age 41-69 y) consumed placebo or SBC8803 capsules (25 mg/day of heat-killed SBC8803) for 10 days. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded using a mobile, one-channel system, providing objective data on sleep. Subjects' sleep journals and administration of the AIS provided subjective data on sleep. Three subjects were excluded from the statistical analysis. Analysis of the remaining 14 volunteers revealed no significant differences between placebo and SBC8803 consumption in either the AIS or the sleep EEG. The sleep journals revealed an improvement in 'waking' for the SBC8803 consumption periods (P=0.047), and there was a marginally significant effect on 'drowsiness during the following day' (P=0.067). Effects on the EEG delta power value (μV(2)/min) were revealed by a stratified analysis based on age, AIS, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Specifically, effects were found among subjects in their 40s who consumed the SBC8803 capsules (P=0.049) and among subjects with a BDI score less than the all-subjects average (13.3) (P=0.045). A marginally significant effect was found among subjects with an AIS score less than the all-subjects average (11.6) (P=0.065). The delta power value of 5 subjects with both BDI and AIS scores less than the average increased significantly (P=0.017). While the number of subjects was limited, a beneficial effect on sleep due to consumption of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 was found in subjects with slightly challenged sleep.

  7. Influence of Lactobacillus brevis 15 and Lactobacillus plantarum 13 on blood glucose and body weight in rats after high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlieva, M; Tacheva, T; Mihaylova, S; Tropcheva, R; Trifonova, K; Toleкova, A; Danova, S; Vlaykova, T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many authors have investigated the possible antidiabetic effect of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus species constitute a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group and have been found to exhibit beneficial effects on the development of diabetes and its complications. In the current study, we investigated the effects of newly characterised Bulgarian Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus brevis 15 and Lactobacillus plantarum 13, on blood glucose levels and body weight of rats fed a fructose-enriched diet. An experiment was conducted over a period of 8 weeks with 24 2-month-old Wistar rats randomly assigned to receive a standard diet (Con, control group), fructose-enriched diet (Fr group), standard diet with probiotics given twice a week (Pro group), and fructose-enriched diet with probiotics given twice a week (Pro+Fr group). At the end of the experimental period, a statistically significant increase in body weight was observed in all experimental groups (P<0.0001). The highest rise was seen in the fructose group (Fr, 169±19 g), followed by the Pro+Fr group (153±15 g), Pro group (149±13 g), and Con group (141±5 g). Moreover, the final blood glucose levels had risen significantly in the groups receiving fructose either without (Fr; P<0.0001) or with lactobacilli (Pro+Fr; P=0.002), while the rise was insignificant in the group of rats given probiotic supplementation only (Pro, P=0.071) and inexistent in the Con group (P=0.999). The highest elevation of blood glucose levels was observed in the Fr group (3.18 mmol/l), followed by the Pro+Fr group (2.00 mmol/l) whereas the Pro group showed the lowest levels (0.60 mmol/l). The results of our study suggest that the newly characterised Bulgarian Lactobacillus strains, L. brevis 15 and L. plantarum 13, could be considered as possible probiotics and might be able to prevent some metabolic disturbances.

  8. Analysis of the morphometry and variations in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle: an anatomic guide for muscle flap and tendon transfer surgical dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Somayaji, Nagabhooshana S.; Rao, Mohandas K. G.; Bhat, Kumar M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) is a practical option for use as an island flap or free flap when reconstructing soft tissue defects in the ankle as well as in the entire lower limb. It is frequently used to correct crossover toe deformity and other painful toe disorders. We evaluated the morphometry of the EDB in 44 formalin-fixed limbs. Length and width of the muscles were measured. Surface area was calculated as the product of length and width of the muscle. The length of each tendon was also measured from its origin to the point of distal attachment. Presence of any additional tendons was noted. Mean length, width, and surface area of the muscle were 7.39±0.71 cm, 4.1±0.37 cm, and 30.5±4.78 cm2 on the right side and 7.2±0.84 cm, 3.9±0.37 cm, and 28.4±5.35 cm2 on the left side, respectively. Morphometry of the tendons revealed that the tendon of the great toe had the highest mean length (9.5 cm) and the tendon of the fourth toe had the lowest mean length (6.3 cm). Four of the limbs studied (9.09%) had only three tendons. Three of the limbs studied (6.81%) had five tendons, and in one exceptional case (2.27%), six tendons were detected. These observations have significant value and are applicable to plastic and orthopedic surgery. PMID:24179695

  9. RT-qPCR analysis of putative beer-spoilage gene expression during growth of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination of beer presents a continual economic threat to brewers. Interestingly, only certain isolates of LAB can grow in the hostile beer environment (e.g., as studied here, Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) and a non-ropy isolate of Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344NR)), indicating that significant genetic specialization is required. The genes hitA, horA, horB, horC, and bsrA, which have been proposed to confer beer-spoiling ability to an organism, are suspected of counteracting the antimicrobial effects of hops. However, these genes are not present in the same combination (if at all) across beer-spoiling organisms. As such, we sought to investigate the extent to which these genes participate during Lb464 and Pc344NR mid-logarithmic growth in beer through reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. We first determined the optimal reference gene set needed for data normalization and, for each bacterium, established that two genes were needed for accurate assessment of gene expression. Following this, we found that horA expression was induced for Pc344NR, but not for Lb464, during growth in beer. Instead, horC expression was dramatically increased in Lb464 when growing in beer, whereas no change was detected for the other putative beer-spoilage-related genes. This indicates that HorC may be one of the principle mediators enabling growth of Lb464 in beer, whereas in Pc344NR, this may be attributable to HorA. These findings not only reveal that Lb464 and Pc344NR are unique in their beer-specific genetic expression profile but also indicate that a range of genetic specialization exists among beer-spoilage bacteria.

  10. Satellite Retrievals of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf Using Neural Networks and Comparisons with Other Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-habashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the application of a Neural Network (NN previously developed by us, to the detection and tracking, of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HABs that plague the coasts of the West Florida Shelf (WFS using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellite observations. Previous approaches for the detection of KB HABs in the WFS primarily used observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua (MODIS-A satellite. They depended on the remote sensing reflectance signal at the 678 nm chlorophyll fluorescence band (Rrs678 needed for both the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH and Red Band Difference algorithms (RBD currently used. VIIRS which has replaced MODIS-A, unfortunately does not have a 678 nm fluorescence channel so we customized the NN approach to retrieve phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm (aph443 using only Rrs measurements from existing VIIRS channels at 486, 551 and 671 nm. The aph443 values in these retrieved VIIRS images, can in turn be correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations [Chla] and KB cell counts. To retrieve KB values, the VIIRS NN retrieved aph443 images are filtered by applying limiting constraints, defined by (i low backscatter at Rrs 551 nm and (ii a minimum aph443 value known to be associated with KB HABs in the WFS. The resulting filtered residual images, are then used to delineate and quantify the existing KB HABs. Comparisons with KB HABs satellite retrievals obtained using other techniques, including nFLH, as well as with in situ measurements reported over a four year period, confirm the viability of the NN technique, when combined with the filtering constraints devised, for effective detection of KB HABs.

  11. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements.

  12. Cornitermes Cumulans (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae colonies activity in controlled conditions on macro and micro-aggregated soil structuresAtividade de colônias de Cornitermes Cumulans (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae sobre estruturas edáficas macro e microagregadas em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guimarães

    2012-10-01

    estruturas oriundas de um Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo. Ninhos em atividade de Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera, Nasutitermitinae foram coletados a campo e mantidos em vasos em casa de vegetação por nove meses. As estruturas utilizadas no experimento foram macroestruturas densas e estrutura granular, ambas amostradas no mesmo solo que as colônias. O experimento foi realizado com duas repetições para cada estrutura, sendo cada repetição composta de um vaso com estrutura, ninho e alimento, e um vaso com a mesmo material e alimentação. As estruturas fabricadas pelos térmitas foram descritas macro e micromorfologicamente e comparadas com amostras coletadas no campo, também se verificou a distribuição das galerias. Os térmitas mantiveram as atividades de forrageamento e construção do ninho até o final do experimento, com algumas restrições. Para os vasos com estruturas densas a atividade desenvolveu-se tanto no vaso onde havia o ninho quanto no vaso com alimentação. Em comparação, para os vasos com estrutura granular as construções foram menos desenvolvidas e localizadas nos volumes associados aos ninhos. Nas estruturas construídas, as partículas de solo eram orientadas, formando uma parede rígida, como observado em feições coletadas no campo. As colônias de C. cumulans exploravam o ambiente de forma aleatória em todas as direções, retrabalhando estruturas densas e reagregando as partículas do solo para construção de galerias. Todas as estruturas densas ofertadas às colônias foram parcialmente ou completamente modificadas, e as concentrações de matéria orgânica das estruturas densas oriundas de horizontes profundos do solo foram incrementadas. Os térmitas retrabalham estruturas deixadas por eles ou outros invertebrados do solo, criando microestrutura e re-agregando o solo.

  13. 环介导恒温扩增技术快速检测短凯伦藻%Rapid Detection of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) by Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 石彦红; 马凌波; 徐兆礼

    2012-01-01

    短凯伦藻(Karenia brevis)是一种有毒赤潮微藻,所产生的短藻毒素对海洋生物乃至人类都有毒害作用,为加强对短凯伦藻赤潮的监控,建立了稳定的短凯伦藻环介导恒温扩增(LAMP)鉴定体系,在此基础上进行了特异性和灵敏性验证.特异性实验结果显示只有短凯伦藻或者含短凯伦藻的模板呈现阳性反应,其他微藻为阴性反应,从而验证了该LAMP方法的特异性;同时,对短凯伦藻的基因组DNA进行一系列10倍稀释作为敏感度实验的模板,并与常规PCR做了对比,结果表明:短凯伦藻的LAMP方法最低检测限度为50 pg,敏感度比常规PCR高10倍.LAMP产物鉴定不需要常规的胶电泳过程,直接采用肉眼观察的方法,在含有短凯伦藻的阳性反应管中会出现白色混浊,加入syBRò Green I染料呈现绿色,而未含有短凯伦藻的阴性管为澄清,染色后仍为原来的橙色.因此,该方法操作简便、特异性强、灵敏度高而成本低,在赤潮原因种检测监控方面具有良好的应用前景.%Karenia brevis (Gymnodinium breve) is an unarmored, non-peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. It produces lipophilic brevetoxin that can harm many marine animals, eg. fish, birds and shellfish. As for human, brevetoxin can cause respiratory distress by inhalation and food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Previous methods for the detection of A', brevis depend on microscopy analysis, which is time-consuming and requires a considerable amount of expertise and skill. Molecular methods have also been applied to detect K. brevis, e.g. real-time PCR and DNA hybridization assay. However, there are some inevitable disadvantages for the two methods, such as expensive reagents and equipment, or fussy approaches. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a specific nucleic acid amplification method that is easy to perform. The LAMP method can amplify nucleic acids under isothermal conditions at

  14. Transcriptional activity and role of plasmids of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T during growth in the presence of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn Bergsveinson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Whole-transcriptome analysis was performed on beer-spoilage organisms Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T (Pc344 when grown in growth-limiting concentrations of hop extract. This was done to delineate the hops-specific component of the total transcriptional response for these bacteria when growing in beer. The transcriptome of highly hop-tolerant isolate Lb464 had fewer genes with differential expression in response to a stronger challenge (i.e., higher bitterness units of hop extract than did Pc344, highlighting the variable nature of hop-tolerance in beer-spoilage-related lactic acid bacteria. As Lb464 can grow in pressurized/gassed beer and Pc344 cannot, this indicates that the genetic and physiological response to hops alone does not dictate the overall beer-spoilage virulence of an isolate. The general response to hops in both isolates involves pathways of acid tolerance and intracellular pH homeostasis, with glutamate and citrate metabolism, and biogenic amine metabolism as additional major responses to the presence of hop extract by Lb464 and Pc344, respectively. A Pc344 chromosomal ABC transporter (PECL_1630 was more strongly expressed than the plasmid-located, hop-tolerance ABC transporter horA. PECL_1630 is suggested to be involved in import of ATP into the cell, potentially assisting the total bacterial community when facing hop stress. This transporter is found in other beer-related P. claussenii suggesting a putative species-specific beer-spoilage-related genetic marker. Lb464 and Pc344 each contain eight plasmids and transcription from almost all occurs in response to both hops and beer. However, as evident by both transcriptional analysis and plasmid variant analysis, each bacterium harbors one plasmid that is critical for responding to hops and beer stress. For both bacteria, complex transcriptional regulation and cooperation between chromosomal and plasmid-based genes occurs in response

  15. Coexpression of Lactobacillus brevis ADH with GDH or G6PDH in Arxula adeninivorans for the synthesis of 1-(R)-phenylethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Marion; Prokoph, Alexandra; Kasprzak, Jakub; Becker, Karin; Baronian, Keith; Bode, Rüdiger; Kunze, Gotthard; Vorbrodt, H- Matthias

    2015-06-01

    The yeast Arxula adeninivorans was used for the overexpression of an ADH gene of Lactobacillus brevis coding for (R)-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (LbADH) to synthesise enantiomerically pure 1-(R)-phenylethanol. Glucose dehydrogenase gene from Bacillus megaterium (BmGDH) or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase of Bacillus pumilus (BpG6PDH) were coexpressed in Arxula to regenerate the cofactor NADPH by oxidising glucose or glucose 6-phosphate. The yeast strain expressing LbADH and BpG6PDH produced 5200 U l(-1) ADH and 370 U l(-1) G6PDH activity, whereas the strain expressing LbADH and BmGDH produced 2700 U l(-1) ADH and 170 U l(-1) GDH activity. However, the crude extract of both strains reduced 40 mM acetophenone to pure 1-(R)-phenylethanol with an enantiomeric excess (ee) of >99 % in 60 min without detectable by-products. An increase in yield was achieved using immobilised crude extracts (IEs), Triton X-100 permeabilised cells (PCs) and permeabilised immobilised cells (PICs) with PICs being most stable with GDH regeneration over 52 cycles. Even though the activity and synthesis rate of 1-(R)-phenylethanol with the BpG6PDH and LbADH coexpressing strain was higher, the BmGDH-LbADH strain was more stable over successive reaction cycles. This, combined with its higher total turnover number (TTN) of 391 mol product per mole NADP(+), makes it the preferred strain for continuous reaction systems. The initial non-optimised semi-continuous reaction produced 9.74 g l(-1) day(-1) or 406 g kg(-1) dry cell weight (dcw) day(-1) isolated 1-(R)-phenylethanol with an ee of 100 % and a TTN of 206 mol product per mole NADP(+). In conclusion, A. adeninivorans is a promising host for LbADH and BpG6PDH or BmGDH production and offers a simple method for the production of enantiomerically pure alcohols.

  16. Long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols and Lactobacillus brevis M8 on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-li LI; Zong-jun LI; Zhong-shan WEI; Ting LIU; Xiao-zuo ZOU; Yong LIAO; Yu LUO

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of oral tea polyphenols (TPs) and Lactobacillus brevis M8 (LB) on biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes, and cytokines expression in broilers. In experiment 1, 240 broiler chickens were selected to investigate the effects of 0.06 g/kg body weight (BW) TP and 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers;in experiment 2, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of TP (0.03, 0.06, and 0.09 g/kg BW) combined with 1.0 ml/kg BW LB on broilers;in experiment 3, 180 broiler chickens were assigned randomly to three groups to investigate the effects of different dosages of LB (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 ml/kg BW) combined with 0.06 g/kg BW TP on broilers. The results showed that TP and LB affected serum bio-chemical parameters, and TP reduced serum cholesterol (CHO) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) abundances in a dosage-dependent manner (P  目的:茶多酚和乳酸菌在动物营养上的作用已经得到广泛的验证,但是关于二者联合作用的研究鲜有报道。本文采用肉鸡作为试验模型,研究了茶多酚和乳酸菌联合灌喂对肉鸡血液生化、消化酶以及肠道细胞因子表达的影响。  创新点:本研究首次采用联合灌喂茶多酚和乳酸菌,探讨了二者联合作用对肉鸡的影响,并通过模拟生产,长期观察了茶多酚和乳酸菌对肉鸡的影响。  方法:对肉仔鸡灌喂不同浓度的茶多酚和乳酸菌,在第56和84天随机屠宰取样。收集血液检查血液生化指标,并测定消化酶活性。取肠道样品提取RNA,采用反转录聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)检测细胞因子的表达以及相关信号通路的激活。  结论:长期灌喂茶多酚和乳酸菌改善了肉鸡脂质代谢、消化酶活性以及炎症反应,其机制可能是通过影响了NF-κB信号通路。

  17. γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Production and Angiotensin-I Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitory Activity of Fermented Soybean Containing Sea Tangle by the Co-Culture of Lactobacillus brevis with Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eun Kyeong; Kim, Nam Yeun; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Ji, Geun Eog

    2015-08-01

    To enhance the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content, the optimized fermentation of soybean with added sea tangle extract was evaluated at 30°C and pH 5.0. The medium was first inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae strain FMB S46471 and fermented for 3 days, followed by the subsequent inoculation with Lactobacillus brevis GABA 100. After fermentation for 7 days, the fermented soybean showed approximately 1.9 g/kg GABA and exhibited higher ACE inhibitory activity than the traditional soybean product. Furthermore, several peptides in the fraction containing the highest ACE inhibitory activity were identified. The novel fermented soybean enriched with GABA and ACE inhibitory components has great pharmaceutical and functional food values.

  18. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de látex color en 18. Disecamos los músculos ECRL y ECRB y sus pedículos, los fotodocumentamos y radiografiamos valorando los resultados en función del patrón vascular intramuscular, relaciones anatómicas, calibres y longitud de pedículos. Encontramos dos patrones vasculares diferentes en las 29 disecciones siguiendo la clasificación de Mathes y Nahai de la anatomía vascular de los músculos (en función del número de pedículos vasculares y su dominancia: Tipo I( 37,9% ECRL y 20,7% ECRB y Tipo II(62,1% del ECRL y 79,3% del ECRB. El pedículo principal del ECRL (de diámetro medio 1,73 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 32,32 mm es en el 100% de los casos rama de la arteria recurrente radial y el pedículo principal del ECRB (de diámetro medio 1,11 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 27,77 mm es rama de la arteria radial en el 68,9% de los casos y de la arteria recurrente radial en el 31,1% de los casos. Concluimos que El ECRL y ECRB presentan dos tipos de patrones vasculares: tipo I y tipo II, siendo más frecuente en nuestro trabajo el tipo II, que hacen que ambos puedan ser transferidos como colgajos libres por su pedículo principal. Ambos músculos presentan un tamaño, contorno, contenido fascial importante para el anclaje de suturas y una longitud de pedículo y calibre vascular adecuados para su transferencia microvascular libre en reanimación facial. De los dos, el más realizable como colgajo libre es el ECRB ya que la relaci

  19. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  20. 基于短乳杆菌S层启动子组成型乳酸杆菌表达系统的构建%Construction of constitutive expression system based on Lactobacillus brevis S layer promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李一经; 秦思; 唐丽杰; 葛俊伟; 乔薪瑗; 崔文; 姜艳平

    2013-01-01

    pPG612 is a shuttle vector suitiable for cloning in both E.coli and Lactobacillus.In the current study,we replaced the promoter of pPG612 vector with S-layer protein's promoter SlpA of Lactobaccillus brevis,and thus constructed a type of expression vector of lactic acid bacteria,of which the expressing foreign protein ability was detected with the TGEV N gene as a target gene in three lactic acid bacillus.We further confirmed that the vector was able to express TGEV N gene N with SDS-PAGE and westem blot.In conclusion,SIpA was a constitutive promoter which could be applied to more studies in the near future.%以大肠杆菌和乳酸菌穿梭分泌表达型载体pPG612为基本模型,用短乳杆菌S层启动子SlpA替换载体上gusA启动子,并以TGEVN蛋白基因为目基因构建一种乳酸杆菌组成型表达载体,用以检测SIpA启动子在三种不同乳酸杆菌中表达能力.结果表明,该组成型启动子具有表达外源功能蛋白功能,且具有严格宿主选择性,为进一步利用该载体及组成型启动子进行其他应用奠定了基础.

  1. Greater trochanteric transfer for the treatment of coxa brevis in children and adolescents%大转子移位术矫正儿童及青少年短髋畸形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓书贞; 杨建平; 张中礼; 龚仁钰; 王春会; 曾裴; 蔡少华; 杨红军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨大转子移位术矫正儿童及青少年短髋畸形的疗效.方法 2005年8月至2011年1月,应用大转子移位术矫正儿童及青少年短髋畸形20例22髋,其中18例20髋获得随访.男4例,女14例;年龄7.5~15.0岁,平均11.4岁.5例6髋为Perthes病残留畸形,13例14髋为发育性髋脱位手术后股骨头坏死.4例4髋曾行大转子阻滞术.均行大转子移位术,矫正畸形后以拉力螺钉固定,术后石膏裤固定6周.结果 随访14~79个月,平均31个月.术前有行走后疲劳不适感或髋关节疼痛18例,末次随访时消失或改善13例;术前16例存在跛行、Trendelenburg征阳性,末次随访时改善9例;术前12例13髋存在髋外展受限,术后明显改善,末次随访时髋关节外展范围(45.38°±1.05°)与术前(25.38°±1.20°)比较差异有统计学意义.大转子尖到股骨头上缘关节面水平的距离[(17.47±3.14)mm]、大转子尖到股骨头中心距离与股骨头半径之比(2.10±0.21)与术前[分别为(-2.89±4.62) mm、1.59±0.221比较差异均有统计学意义;下肢长度差(0.78±0.26)cm,与术前[(0.83±0.33) cm]比较差异无统计学意义.结论 对儿童及青少年短髋畸形,大转子移位术可以改善临床症状,恢复股骨近端正常解剖关系,重建髋关节生物力学环境,但不能改善下肢不等长.%Objective To evaluate the effect of greater trochanteric transfer for the treatment of coxa brevis in children and adolescents.Methods From August 2005 to January 2011,twenty patients (22 hips)with coxa brevis underwent greater trochanteric transfer.Among them 18 patients (20 hips) were available for evaluation,including 4 boys and 14 girls,with an average age of 11.4 years (range,7.5-15.0 years) at operation.Five cases (6 hips) were caused by Perthes disease,and 13 cases (14 hips) were caused by developmental dysplasia of hip.Four patients (4 hips) had undergone greater trochanteric epiphyseodesis ever before.All patients were

  2. 乳源短乳杆菌M8 S-层蛋白的提纯及其生物学特征分析%Purification and Biological Characterization of S-Layer Proteins in Lactobacillus brevis M8, Isolated from Fresh Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖荣; 范郁冰; 张丽丽; 李宗军

    2012-01-01

    通过利用原子力显微镜(AFM)来观察凝胶过滤层析法提纯短乳杆菌M8菌株的S-层蛋白的表面形貌,同时探讨S-层蛋白的再生特性及黏附特性。结果表明:凝胶过滤层析法能够获得纯度较高的S-层蛋白;该蛋白在纯水中可自我组装成纳米级“团簇”结构;去除S-层蛋白的菌体细胞仍然具有生命活性,适当培养后可重新表达该蛋白;短乳杆菌M8可黏附到Caco-2细胞上,其S-层蛋白介导此过程。%The aim of this study was to purify S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus brevis M8, isolated from fresh milk, by Sephadex G-75 column chromatography and observe their surface morphology under atomic force microscope (AFM). Also, regeneration and adhesion characteristics were explored. Highly pure S-layer proteins were obtained by Sephadex G-75 column chromatography, which could form nano-cluster by self-assemblage. Lactobacillus brevis M8 cells without S-layer proteins could re-express the proteins after re-incubation. Lactobacillus brevis M8 could adhere to Caco-2 cells, which was mediated by the S-layer proteins.

  3. 牛奶中分离的乳酸菌GGMCC1306中谷氨酸脱羧酶的分离纯化及酶学性质研究%Purification and Characterization of Glutamate Decarboxylase of Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 Isolated from Fresh Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊; 梅乐和; 盛清; 姚善泾; 林东强

    2007-01-01

    A Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 isolated from fresh milk without pasteurization was found to have higher glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity. An effective isolation and purification procedure of GAD from a cell-free extract of Lactobacillus brevis was developed, and the procedure included four steps: 30%-90% saturation (NH4)2SO4 fractional precipitation,Q sepharose FF anion-exchange chromatography,sephacryl S-200 gel filtration,and resource Q anion-exchange chromatography.Using this protocol,the purified GAD was demonstrated to possess electrophoretic homogeneity via SDS-PAGE. The purificaton fold and activity recovery of GAD were 43.78 and 16.95%, respectively. The molecular weight of the purified GAD was estimated to be approximately 62 kDa via SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of the purified GAD were 4.4 and 37℃,respecively.The purified GAD had a half-life of 50minat 45℃ and the Km value of the enzyme from Lineweaver-Burk polt was found to be 8.22.5'-pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) had little effect on the regulation of its activity.

  4. Ars longa, vita brevis... / Leelo Tamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamm, Leelo

    1998-01-01

    16. veebr. 1998 avati Aegviidu rahvamajas maalikunstnik Valdur Ohaka 65 taiesest koosnev õlimaalide näitus, kus on töid aastaist 1943-1998. Samal päeval asus manalateele teoste looja. Aegviidu olulisusest Valdur Ohaka jaoks. Kunstniku viimastest maalidest.

  5. Antibiosis of the ferment of the endophyte Brevibacillus brevis strain 011%内生短短芽胞杆菌011菌发酵滤液抑菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇婷; 易有金; 夏菠; 杨建奎; 曾静

    2013-01-01

    为明确短短芽胞杆菌011菌株在植物病害生物防治中的应用潜力,采用平皿打孔法测定011菌发酵滤液抗菌谱及其活性稳定性;采用孢子萌发法测定011菌发酵滤液对番茄早疫病菌最低抑菌浓度MIC及EC50;并显微观察其对番茄早疫病菌菌丝及孢子抑制作用.结果表明:011菌发酵滤液对8种植物病原真菌均有抑制作用,其中对番茄早疫病菌抑制作用较强,抑菌带宽度为5.5 mm;对番茄早疫病菌菌丝及孢子均有致畸作用;对番茄早疫病菌最低抑菌浓度MIC为30%,有效抑菌中浓度EC50为9.64%;其活性具有较好的热稳定性(100℃处理1h活性保持在95%0),耐酸性及抗紫外线(pH2.0处理及紫外20 W,30 cm照射120 min,活性保持不变).%To investigate the utilization potential of the strain 011 of Brevibacillus brevis in biocontrol of plant diseases,antibiosis spectrum and stability of its ferment were evaluated by plate-perforation method.MIC and EC50 of the ferment against Alternaria solani were determined by spore germination assay,and its inhibitive effects on both hyphae and spores of A.solani were validated by microscopy.The results suggested that the ferment of the strain 011 had an inhibitive effect on 8 fungal plant pathogens,and the strongest inhibition was observed in A.solani,with a 5.5 mm width of inhibition band.Moreover,the ferment had a teratogenic effect on both hyphae and spores of A.solani ; the MIC and EC50 were 30% and 9.64%,respectively; the ferment had considerable heat stability (with 95% bioactivity reserved after treatment at 100 ℃ for 1 h),acid tolerance and anti-UV property (bioactivity was unaffected by pre-treatment at pH2.0 or 20 W UV radiation from a distance of 30 cm for 120 min).

  6. 中国杉木害虫名录(一)(昆虫纲:直翅目,等翅目,半翅目,双翅目,鳞翅目,膜翅目;蛛形纲:蜱螨目)%A List of pests on Chinese fir from China(I) (Insecta:Orthoptera,Isoptera,Hemiptera,Diptera,Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera;Arachnida:Acarina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏初奖; 王旺进

    2014-01-01

    By investigation and consuLting a number of data,a List of pests on Chinese fir( Cunninghamia lanceolat) from China was presented in this paper. This List incLuded 151 species beLonging to 47 famiLies,7 orders and 2 cLas-ses,Isecta with Orthoptera(10 species in 4 famiLies),Isoptera(27 species in 3 famiLies ),Hemiptera(49species in 14 famiLies),Lepidoptera(57 species in 20 famiLies),Diptera(2 species in 2 famiLies),Hymenoptera(1 spe-cies in 1 famiLy),and Arachnida with Acarina(5 species in 3 famiLies). The Chinese names,scientific names and distribution of the pests were aLso given. The resuLts provided the reLationaL information for monitoring and controLLing these pests.%通过调查和查阅文献资料,整理了危害我国杉木的害虫名录(一),计7目47科110属151种。其中昆虫纲( Isecta)146种,包括直翅目( Orthoptera)4科10种、等翅目( Isoptera)3科27种、半翅目( Hemiptera)14科49种、鳞翅目( Lepidoptera)20科57种、双翅目( Diptera)2科2种和膜翅目( Hymenoptera)1科1种;以及蛛形纲( Arachnida)蜱螨目( Acarina)3科4属5种。并列出每种害虫的中名、学名和分布省份,为杉木害虫的监测与综合治理提供依据。

  7. RAPD analysis and sequence alignment of genomic DNA of hair follicle mites Demodex folliculorum and D.Brevis (Acari:Demodicidae)%毛囊蠕形螨与皮脂蠕形螨基因组DNA的RAPD分析和序列比对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚娥; 成慧

    2009-01-01

    [目的]分析毛囊蠕形螨Demodex folliculorum (D.f) 和皮脂蠕形螨D.Brevis (D.b.)基因组DNA的多态性,对相关条带进行测序分析.[方法]采用改良小昆虫DNA提取法提取两种人体蠕形螨基因组DNA,选择RAPD技术对其进行多态性分析,将相关条带分别与pMDl8-T载体连接,克隆、测序后进行酶切鉴定和分析.[结果]毛囊蠕形螨共扩增15条带,皮脂蠕形螨共扩增12条带;两种蠕形螨既有共有条带,又有特异性条带;根据条带差异计算得到两种间的遗传距离为0.5556.毛囊蠕形螨约800 bp处特异性条带测序结果显示,序列片段长度为855 bp(GenBank登录号为F1277970);特异性引物扩增和酶切鉴定均为毛囊蠕形螨所特有.序列比对显示与阿糖胞苷DNA区域结合蛋白有46%的序列相似度.两种人体蠕形螨约300 bp处共有条带序列分析显示,碱基序列均为341 bp(GenBank登录号分别为D.f F1520176;D.b.F1520175),在第84和第165位点有2个碱基不同,分别是A/G和C/T互换,同源性高达99.4%.但未发现有开放阅读框和相似度高的序列.[结论]序列片段为855 bp的特异性条带为毛囊蠕形螨所特有;341 bp碱基序列为毛囊蠕形螨和皮脂蠕形螨所共有,同源性高达99.4%.RAPD技术可用于两种人体蠕形螨基因组DNA的多态性分析和物种鉴定.%[Objective] Analysis of genomic DNA polymorphism and the related sequence of Demodex folliculorum and D. Brevis. [Methods] The genomic DNA of the human Demodex was extracted by using improved DNA extraction method of mini-insects. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was applied to analyze the polymorphism. The related bands were connected with pMD18-T vector, and cloned, sequenced, and identified and analyzed after enzyme digestion. [ Results] There were 15 bands obtained in D. Folliculorum and 12 in D. Brevis. Some bands were shared by the two mites while others were species- specific. The genetic distance between the two Demodex

  8. Description of the imago of Neocapritermes utiariti (Isoptera: Termitidae: Termitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Renato A; Sobral, Rafael; Dambros, Cristian S; Morais, José W DE

    2017-01-19

    The neotropical termite genus Neocapritermes Holmgren (1912) was revised by Krishna & Araujo (1968), who recognized 14 valid species. Two additional species were described by Constantino (1991), and another one by Bandeira & Cancello (1992). However, the imago of most species of Neocapritermes remain unknown. In this paper we describe for the first time the imago of Neocapritermes utiariti based on specimens from the State of Rondônia, Brazil. The examined material will be deposited in the Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (INPA). Comparisons with other imagoes of Neocapritermes were made based on descriptions and figures from Krishna & Araújo (1968). The measurements were taken with an ocular micrometer following Roonwal's (1970) system of morphometric characters.

  9. New records of Termite species from Kerala (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poovoli Amina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present taxonomic study on the termites of Kerala, reports six species and one genus for the first time from the state.  They are Odontotermes yadevi Thakur, Microtermes unicolor Snyder Grallatotermes niger Chatterjee and Thapa, Nasutitermes matangensis matangensis (Haviland, Dicuspiditermes gravelyi (Silvestri and Microcerotermes minor Holmgren.  The Genus Grallatotermes Holmgren is documented for the first time from Kerala.  O. yadevi recovered from firewood is hereby added to the list of wood destroying termites of India.

  10. Survey of the leg exocrine glands in termites(Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Xavier Soares

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the leg exocrine glands in the termite workers of 16 species of the families Kalotermitidae and Termitidae was carried out through scanning electron microscope. Glandular openings were not found in the legs of Anoplotermes sp., Ruptitermes sp. (Apicotermitinae, Termitidae or Glyptotermes planus (Kalotermitidae, but they are present, spread over the ventral surface of the first, second and third tarsomeres of other Termitidae such as Armitermes euamignathus, Cornitermes cumulans, Nasutitermes coxipoensis, Rhynchotermes nasutissimus, Syntermes nanus, Embiratermes festivellus (Nasutitermitinae, Amitermes beaumonti, Hoplotermes amplus, Microcerotermes sp., Neocapritermes opacus, Orthognathotermes sp., Spinitermes brevicornutus and Termes sp. (Termitinae. The pores are usually isolated but they can also be grouped inside a round depression. The occurrence of leg exocrine glands in the family Termitidae is reported for the first time.

  11. Cuticular permeability of two species of Coptotermes Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J. Kenneth Grace

    2003-01-01

    cuticular permeability (CP) values of worker and soldier castes of copotermes formosanus Shiraki and coptotermes vastator light were determined using gravimetric techniques. Comparisons were made between castes, species and betweencolonies of C. Formosanus and C. vastator. CP values did not differ among either species or colony,...

  12. Observations on Coptotermes havilandi Holmgr. (javanicus Kemn.) (Isoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1962-01-01

    The first find of a colony of a Coptotermes species smaller in size than the wellknown C. curvignathus Holmgr., was made while I was inspecting Acacia tomentosa trees growing on the forest boundary near Tanggung, in the teak area east of Semarang, in August 1920. The colony inhabited a deep fissure

  13. Comparative study of the labial gland secretion in termites (Isoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Sillam-Dussès

    Full Text Available Labial glands are present in all castes and developmental stages of all termite species. In workers, their secretion contains a food-marking pheromone and digestive enzymes, while soldier secretion plays a defensive role. However, these functions were studied only in a limited set of species, and do not allow drawing general conclusions. Hence, we have investigated the chemical composition of the labial gland extracts from soldiers and workers in 15 termite species belonging to 6 families using an integrative approach based on proteomic and small-molecule profiling. We confirmed the presence of hydroquinone and cellulase in the labial glands of workers, and we identified new toxic compounds in soldiers and workers of several species. Our results highlight the dual role of labial gland secretion, i.e. the defensive role in soldiers and workers of several termite species, and the digestive function in workers.

  14. Observations on Coptotermes havilandi Holmgr. (javanicus Kemn.) (Isoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalshoven, L.G.E.

    1962-01-01

    The first find of a colony of a Coptotermes species smaller in size than the wellknown C. curvignathus Holmgr., was made while I was inspecting Acacia tomentosa trees growing on the forest boundary near Tanggung, in the teak area east of Semarang, in August 1920. The colony inhabited a deep fissure

  15. 短小乳杆菌内蒙古分离株S-层蛋白的普查、鉴定和基因分析%Detection, Identification and Genetic Analysis of S-Layer Protein of Lactobacillus brevis Isolated from Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰丽; 魏建民; 王艳霞; 王敏; 满达; 格日勒图

    2012-01-01

    S-层蛋白(S-layers protein)是位于某些细菌表面的高度有序的具有超微结构的一种外膜蛋白.本试验以蒙古族传统乳制品中分离的短小乳杆菌(Lactobacillus brevis)为材料,应用SDS-PAGE技术对若干乳杆菌进行S-层蛋白的普查,并应用PCR方法克隆出L.brevis的slp基因,对该slp基因进行测序及序列分析.试验结果表明,SDS-PAGE电泳结果显示L.brevis样品在44~55 ku之间出现目的条带,与文献报道的S-层蛋白大小范围一致;PCR方法正确扩增出大小约为1300 bp的slp基因,经DNAStar软件遗传分析发现该基因与鸡乳酸杆菌株(GenBank登录号:AY597266.1)的亲缘关系和遗传距离最近,与其他种类乳酸菌遗传距离也非常相近;经Genetyx生物软件推导出的S-层蛋白大小理论值约为47 ku,具有显著的外膜蛋白的特性.本试验为后续遗传改造等研究工作奠定基础.%The surface layers protein (SLP) is a major composition of the bacterial outermost envelope with highly ordered ultrastructure. The Lactobacillus brevis which isolated from Mongolian traditional dairy products were used as materials in this study. The S-layer proteins from several Lactobacillus were detected by SDS-PAGE and slp gene was cloned by PCR and then analyzed the slp gene sequence of Lactobacillus breris. The results showed that the protein sample of Lactobacillus breris showed target band about 44 to 55 ku which had the same size range of SLP that had been reported,and slp gene about 1300 bp was amplified by PCR method. The DNAStar software found that the protein had recently kinship and genetic distance with L. gallinarum strain (GenBank: AY597266. 1) and was similar to other Lactobacillus spp. The theoretical size of S-layer protein was about 47 ku released by the Genetyx software and had significant feature of outer membrane proteins. This layed foundation for genetic modification and other research work.

  16. The clinical analysis of reverse peroneus brevis muscle flaps for bone exposure after the operation of calcaneus fracture%逆行腓骨短肌肌瓣修复跟骨骨折术后骨外露临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学东; 杨润功; 于振山; 张亚奎; 王雪飞

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨逆行腓骨短肌肌瓣在修复跟骨骨折术后骨外露的可行性.方法自2007年1月至2010年2月收治跟骨骨折内固定术后所致骨外露病例11例,其中男7例,女4例,年龄18~50岁,平均35.2岁;开放性骨折3例,闭合性骨折8例,手术原切口均为跟骨外侧"L"形切口,跟骨解剖型钢板内固定.创面缺损范围1.5cm×2.3cm~3.0cm×4.0cm,病程为2-4个月;所有病例均进行多次换药不见好转.手术时首先给予原切口扩创,清除坏死组织和炎性肉芽组织,取出内固定物.设计并切取同侧腓骨短肌逆行肌瓣充填缺损区,观察血运良好后,表面予以中厚游离皮片覆盖,打包加压,石膏托固定2周,供区均直接缝合.结果所有病例术后转移肌瓣及植皮完全成活,仅1例伴肌瓣下感染,换药后愈合.11例患者随访时间为2-20个月,平均4.5个月;术后皮瓣质地、外形良好,足踝活动稳定,无并发症发生,均可正常行走,无疼痛.结论逆行腓骨短肌肌瓣修复跟骨骨折术后骨外露,操作简单、成功率高、并发症少,可获得满意临床疗效.%Objective To investigate the feasibility of reverse peroneus brevis muscle flaps for bone exposure after the operation of calcaneus fracture.Methods From January 2007 to Feburary 2010, there were 11 cases (7 males and 4 females) of bone exposure after the operation of calcaneus fracture with internal fixation.The average age was 35.2 years (range; 18-50).3 cases were of opening fracture and 8 cases were of closed fracture.A11 patients had "L" incision on the lateral calcaneus site and were fixed with anatomical plate.The area of soft tissue defect was 1.5×2.3cm3.0×4.0cm.The course of disease ranged from 2 months to 4 months.Incisions of all the patients were not improved after dressing changes many times.The intemal plate was dropped out after incision expansion and debridement of necrotic tissue and inflammatory granulation tissue.Peroneus brevis muscle flap was

  17. Unique zinc mass in mandibles separates drywood termites from other groups of termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Bronwen W.; Stewart, Aaron; Huang, Han; Truss, Rowan; Noller, Barry; Rasch, Ronald; Zalucki, Myron P.

    2008-05-01

    Previously, the presence of metals in arthropod mandibles has been linked with harder cuticle, and in termites, a 20% increase in hardness has been found for mandibles containing major quantities of zinc. The current study utilises electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to assess incidence and abundance of metals in all extant subfamilies of the Isoptera. The basal clades contain no zinc and little to no manganese in the cutting edge of the mandible cuticle, suggesting that these states are ancestral for termites. However, experimentation with mandibles in vitro indicates the presence of some elements of the cuticular biochemistry necessary to enable uptake of zinc. The Termopsidae, Serritermitidae, Rhinotermitidae and Termitidae all contain minor quantities of manganese, while trace to minor quantities of zinc occur in all except the Serritermitidae. In contrast, all Kalotermitidae or drywood termites contain major levels of zinc in the mandible edge. Diet and life type are explored as links to metal profiles across the termites. The presence of harder mandibles in the drywood termites may be related to lack of access to free water with which to moisten wood. Scratch tests were applied to a set of mandibles. The coefficient of friction for Cryptotermes primus (Kalotermitidae) mandibles, when compared with species from other subfamilies, indicates that zinc-containing mandibles are likely to be more scratch resistant.

  18. Ars longa vita brevis / Endrik Mänd

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mänd, Endrik, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    EKA uue hoone ehitusloa menetlemisega seotud pöördumisest Tallinna Linnaplaneerimise Ametile. Linn represseerivat kinnisvaraomanikku, sest viimane ei nõustu kooskõlastama Eesti Kunstiakadeemia ehitusluba

  19. Interculturalità, quando? Brevi note per una metodologia interculturale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Giustino Vitolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interculture is a task and a challenge of our time. A task of hybridization of cultures. A challenge to autonomy of culture, to build a more plural and more open community. This task and this challenge require, in the educative relationship, a more explicitly “Socratic” process.

  20. Space of exposure. Brevi note per un urbanistica verticale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tripodi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Solo qualche anno fa, all’apice della più radicale visione modernista, il discorso comune dava per spacciata la città, quanto meno nella sua tradizionale connotazione di centralità che organizza il territorio, superata dalla suburbanizzazione diffusa ed informe, riassorbita in una supercittà distribuita ovunque e senza luoghi. Se è vero che la tendenza allo sprawl urbano non si è certo arrestata e che la produzione di spazi suburbani continua ad essere parte consistente dei processi di strutturazione del territorio, gli ultimi decenni sono stati indubbia- mente quelli della rivincita urbana: una urban renaissance annunciata e compiuta attraverso programmi di riqualificazione, riconversione e marketing che ha ritrovato il centro – quello storico quanto quello di nuovo sviluppo – quale elemento ordinatore del paesaggio globale e catalizzatore delle nuove economie.

  1. pH条件对短短芽孢杆菌FJAT-0809-GLX次生代谢物产生的影响%Effects of Initial pH Value for the Fermentation of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX on the Generation of Secondary Metabolites Substances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥; 刘波; 朱育菁; 胡桂萍; 车建美; 唐建阳

    2012-01-01

    Components of FJAT-0809-GLX fermentation liquid inlO different initial pH values were analyzed by GC-MS. Eleven compounds with the match degree above 90 % were identified. The compounds found commonly in these 10 fermentation liquid was Hexahydro-pyrrolo [1,2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione. There were two sorts of functional compounds in the FJAT-0809-GLX fermentation liquids; one is volatile compounds which relate to the special aroma of this fermentation liquid, including 5-methyl-2-Furancarboxaldehyde, Maltol, Benzeneacetaldehyde, n-Hexa-decanoic acid, Oleic Acid, and 2-Hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one. The other sort of functional compound had antiseptic and bacteriostatic effect, including Maltol, 2-Furanmethanol and Hexahydro-pyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1,4-dione and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-Furancarboxaldehyde. The fermentation liquid with the initial pH value of 6 to 12 had inhibitory activity against K88. The pH value 7 had the best inhibitory activity; the diameter of inhibition zone was 20. 33mm. Different initial pH values led to different terminal pH value, and then affect the generation properties of secondary metabolites of Brevibacillus brevis FJAT-0809-GLX.%应用GC-MS对10种不同初始pH条件下发酵的FJAT-0809-GLX发酵液的丙酮萃取液进行初步成分鉴定,从这10种发酵液中得到匹配率≥90%成分11种,各发酵液中的成分存在明显差异,其中共有成分1种,为六氢吡咯并[1,2-a]吡嗪-1,4-二酮.在匹配率≥90%成分中,功能性成分按其功能可分为2类,一类为挥发性或芳香类物质,与该发酵液具有的特殊香气有关,包括5-甲基呋喃醛、2-甲基-3-羟基-4-吡喃酮、苯乙醛、棕榈酸、顺式十八碳-9-烯酸、甲基环戊烯醇酮;另一类为防腐或抑菌类成分,包括2-甲基-3-羟基-4-吡喃酮、2-呋喃甲醇、六氢-吡咯[1,2-a]吡嗪-1,4-二酮和5-羟甲基糠醛.初始pH 6~12的发酵液对大肠杆菌K88均有抑制效果,其中初始pH为7的抑菌效

  2. 腓浅神经与腓骨短肌联合活体组织检查的诊断意义初探及15例临床病理报告%The diagnostic significance of superficial peroneal nerve and peroneus brevis muscle biopsy: a clinicopathological report of 15 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关鸿志; 陈琳; 郭玉璞; 刘智; 钱敏; 任海涛; 赵燕环; 崔丽英

    2012-01-01

    Objective In an attempt to clarify the usefulness of combined nerve and muscle biopsy in the diagnosis of neuromuscular disease when compared with traditional sural nerve biopsy.Methods Fifteen biopsies of superficial peroneal nerve (SPN) and peroneus brevis muscle ( PBM ) by one incision performed within one neurological clinic were reviewed.All patients had peripheral neuropathy while 3 of them had myopathy clinically.The diagnostic significance of SPN and PBM biopsies were classified into 3 grade: essential,helpful,no value.Results Of 15 SPN and PBM biopsies,7 showed essential pathological findings which reached the etiological diagnosis, including 5 definite vasculitis, 1 inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and 1 amyloid neuropathy.Five biopsies are helpful for etiological diagnosis,including demyelinating neuropathy,mild inflammation,and microvascular lesion,et al.Three biopsies are of no value for etiological diagnosis which only have nonspecific change such as type 2 fiber atrophy,neurogenic atrophy and axonal degeneration et al. Finally,SPN and PBM biopsies made the definite etiological diagnosis possible in 12 patients.Conclusions SPN and PBM biopsy improved the yield of specific pathological and etiological diagnosis of neuropathy and myopathy such as vasculitis and amyloidosis with minor trauma and side effect.Further clinical and pathological studies will be necessary for a better practice of combined nerve and muscle biopsy.%目的 开展单一切口下的腓浅神经与腓骨短肌联合活体组织检查,通过回顾相关病例的临床和病理资料,分析联合活体组织检查的诊断意义.方法 共15例患者,女性7例,男性8例,年龄14 ~72岁,其中亚急性6例、慢性9例,均患有周围神经病,3例临床上合并肌肉病.周围神经病的临床类型包括对称性感觉和运动性神经病7例、多发性单神经病5例、对称性感觉性神经病3例.在外踝前上方纵切口,取材腓浅神经与腓骨短肌.

  3. Treatment of osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects at distal region of leg and foot by pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps and reverse island flaps with sural nerve and blood supplying vessels%腓骨短肌肌瓣联合腓肠神经营养血管逆行岛状皮瓣治疗患者小腿远端及足部骨髓炎伴软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡骁骅; 陈忠; 黎明; 杜伟力; 王成; 沈余明

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解应用远端蒂腓骨短肌肌瓣联合腓肠神经营养血管逆行岛状皮瓣治疗患者小腿远端及足部骨髓炎伴软组织缺损的效果. 方法 2008年3月-2010年12月,笔者单位收治12例小腿远端及足部骨髓炎伴软组织缺损患者,其中7例为胫骨远端骨髓炎伴软组织缺损,1例为跟腱后侧慢性溃疡伴骨髓炎,4例为跟骨外侧软组织缺损伴骨髓炎及内固定物外露.彻底清创后,软组织缺损范围为4 cm×2 cm~13 cm×9 cm,骨缺损范围为3.0 cm ×3.0 cm ×3.0 cm~6.0 cm ×3.0 cm×4.0 cm.所有患者应用腓骨短肌肌瓣填充骨髓炎清创后形成的无效腔,腓肠神经营养血管逆行岛状皮瓣修复软组织缺损.手术切取皮瓣大小为5 cm×3 cm~14cm×10cm,肌瓣大小为11 cm ×3 cm~16 cm×4 cm.供瓣区直接缝合或植皮修复. 结果 11例皮瓣、肌瓣成活良好,创面均一次性愈合.1例皮瓣及肌瓣远端坏死,采用胫后动脉穿支肌皮瓣修复后愈合.随访6~ 24个月,皮瓣质地及外形良好,患者未复发骨髓炎. 结论 联合应用远端蒂腓骨短肌肌瓣与腓肠神经营养血管逆行岛状皮瓣移植,能有效治疗小腿远端及足部骨髓炎伴软组织缺损,操作简单、易行、安全可靠.%Objective To observe the clinical effect of distally pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps and reverse island flaps with sural nerve and blood supplying vessels on repairing osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects at distal region of leg and foot.Methods Twelve patients with osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects at distal region of leg and foot hospitalized from March 2008 to December 2010.Among them,7 patients suffered from acute or chronic osteomyelitis and soft tissue defects at the distal end of tibia,1 patient suffered from chronic osteomyelitis and chronic ulcer in the posterior aspect of achilles tendon,4 patients suffered from acute or chronic osteomyelitis,soft tissue defects,and exposure of internal fixator in the

  4. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  5. The Arthromitus stage of Bacillus cereus: intestinal symbionts of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, L.; Jorgensen, J. Z.; Dolan, S.; Kolchinsky, R.; Rainey, F. A.; Lo, S. C.

    1998-01-01

    In the guts of more than 25 species of arthropods we observed filaments containing refractile inclusions previously discovered and named "Arthromitus" in 1849 by Joseph Leidy [Leidy, J. (1849) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 4, 225-233]. We cultivated these microbes from boiled intestines of 10 different species of surface-cleaned soil insects and isopod crustaceans. Literature review and these observations lead us to conclude that Arthromitus are spore-forming, variably motile, cultivable bacilli. As long rod-shaped bacteria, they lose their flagella, attach by fibers or fuzz to the intestinal epithelium, grow filamentously, and sporulate from their distal ends. When these organisms are incubated in culture, their life history stages are accelerated by light and inhibited by anoxia. Characterization of new Arthromitus isolates from digestive tracts of common sow bugs (Porcellio scaber), roaches (Gromphodorhina portentosa, Blaberus giganteus) and termites (Cryptotermes brevis, Kalotermes flavicollis) identifies these flagellated, spore-forming symbionts as a Bacillus sp. Complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from four isolates (two sow bug, one hissing roach, one death's head roach) confirms these as the low-G+C Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus cereus. We suggest that B. cereus and its close relatives, easily isolated from soil and grown on nutrient agar, enjoy filamentous growth in moist nutrient-rich intestines of healthy arthropods and similar habitats.

  6. Effects of a fipronil spot treatment on field colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbrink, W L A; Cornelius, M L; Showler, A T; Pound, J M

    2014-04-01

    This field study investigated the colony effect of a fipronil spot treatment applied to active infestations of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Spot treatments were applied to a single active independent monitor from each of four colonies in which multiple independent monitors were established. All treated monitors were abandoned, and the contents of the treated monitors were replaced with untreated wood at the approximately 30-d posttreatment inspection. All colonies survived treatment and only one colony exhibited long-term effects, which included significant reductions in termite collections and increased worker size. The affected colony was treated within 1 m of its primary nest. Two colonies exhibited a correlation between monitor termite production and distance from treatment. Distance appears to be a factor limiting fipronil's colony effects. The Formosan subterranean termite may not be a good candidate for the exterior perimeter and localized interior treatment label option because of the large range and size of the colony.

  7. New genera and new species of Nasutitermitinae from the Neotropical Region (Isoptera, Termitidae

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    Luiz Roberto Fontes

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Three new Neotropical genera of Nasutitermitinae, of the group with mandibulate soldiers, are described. Cyrilliotermes, gen. n., is related to Curvitermes and includes C. cupim, sp. n. (type species, C. jaci, sp. n., C. cashassa, sp. n., C. strictinasus (Mathews, 1977, comb, n., and C. angulariceps (Mathews, 1977, comb, n., both C. strictinasus and C. angulariceps being removed from Curvitermes. Alates and soldiers are described for C. cupim, from Brazil, and for C. cachassa, from Suriname, and soldiers for C. jaci, from Suriname; a new locality is reported for C. strictinasus. Embiratermes, gen. n., is related to Armitermes and include E. festivellus (Silvestri, 1901, comb. n. (type species, E. benjamini (Snyder, 1926, comb, n., E. brevinasus (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. chagresi (Snyder, 1925, comb, n., E. heterotypus Silvestri, 1901, comb, n., E. latidens (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. neotenicus (Holmgren, 1906, comb, n., E. silvestrii (Emerson, 1949, comb, n., E. snyderi (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., E. spissus (Emerson & Banks, 1957, comb, n., and E. transandinus (Araujo, 1977, comb, n., all removed from Armitermes. The creation of Embiratermes, besides being based on morphological characteristics of soldiers, workers and alates, is justified by the defensive behaviour of the soldiers, which is different from that of Armitermes soldiers. Ibitermes, gen. n., which seems to be related to Embiratermes, includes only I. curupira, sp. n., described from a series of soldiers and workers from Brazil. Keys based on the soldier caste are provided for the identification of the 11 genera with mandibulate soldiers of the Nasutitermitinae, and for the species of Rhynchotermes, Curvitermes and Cyrilliotermes. Curvitermes planioculus Mathews, 1977 is considered a junior synonym of C. minor (Silvestri, 1901, syn.n.

  8. Developmental pathways of Psammotermes hybostoma (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: old pseudergates make up a new sterile caste.

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    Thomas Bourguignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergonomic efficiency is in termites maximized by task partitioning among specialized castes. The isopteran caste systems can be classified as either (i linear, when tasks are performed by pluripotent immatures (pseudergates, retaining the ability to develop into winged imagoes or (ii bifurcated, with the presence of a true worker caste, which diverges early and permanently from the sexual (nymph/alate line. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the ontogenetic potentialities of the highly polymorphic sand termite Psammotermes hybostoma. Beside numerous pluripotent pseudergates, constituting the main work force, some larger non-feeding apterous immatures, also occur. These individuals are unable to proceed to the winged imago stage, but store large amounts of fat and also give rise to large soldiers. Soldiers therefore originate from a wide range of apterous instars, consequently being highly polymorphic. CONCLUSIONS: The caste system of P. hybostoma is essentially linear, as in other basal Rhinotermitidae, but is distinguished by the late bifurcation leading to large apterous immatures. Because these large worker-like individuals deviate late and do not perform worker tasks, they cannot be considered homologous to the true workers of Termitidae and advanced Rhinotermitidae, but they provide a novel example of the evolution of sterile immatures in termites.

  9. Efficacy of vetiver oil and nootkatone as soil barriers against Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistrello, L; Henderson, G; Laine, R A

    2001-12-01

    Vetiver oil and its components nootkatone and cedrene were assessed as sand treatments for their efficacy to disrupt food recruitment by Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Termites were required to tunnel through sand treated with vetiver oil, nootkatone, cedrene, or untreated sand to reach a food source. Results showed that sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone disrupted termite tunneling behavior. As a consequence, after 21 d, wood consumption and termite survival were significantly lower compared with cedrene-treated or untreated sand treatments. Sand treated with vetiver oil or nootkatone at 100 microg/g substrate were effective barriers to termites.

  10. Phylogenetic reconstruction of Syntermitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae) based on morphological and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuezzo, Carolina; Cancello, Eliana M.

    2017-01-01

    The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes) and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank) of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA). Morphological and molecular data were analyzed in combination, with the Bayesian inference method, and the important aspects of termite biology, defense and feeding habits are discussed based on the resulting tree. Although useful for providing diagnostic characters, the morphology of the soldier caste reveals several cases of convergence; whereas the feeding habit shows indications of evolutionary significance. PMID:28329010

  11. Tunneling and activity of reticulitermes flavipes (isoptera: rhinotermitidae) exposed to low concentrations of nonrepellent termiticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Mulrooney; P.D. Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Tunneling and activity bioassays of chlorfenapyr, fipronil, and imidaclopridtreated sand were conducted in the laboratory using Reticulitermes flavipes(Kollar). Termites tunneled significantly less through sand treated with 1.0

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Effects of Soil Properties on Termiticide Performance against Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Mississippi soils representing a range of soil properties were treated with bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr, or fipronil at two rates of each termiticide. Treated soils were placed in well-drained containers, then watered. Two weeks post-treatment, core samples were removed, divided into three 5-c...

  13. Nutritional ecology of the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): feeding response to commercial wood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G

    2001-04-01

    The feeding preferences of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were tested in three separate experiments on 28 different wood species. Experiment 1 was a multiple-choice test designed to test relative preferences among 24 wood species commercially available in New Orleans, LA. Experiment 2 was a similar study designed to test relative preferences among 21 wood species shown or reported to be unpalatable to the Formosan subterranean termite. Experiment 3 was a no-choice test to examine the feeding deterrence of the 10 least preferred wood species. Preference was determined by consumption rates. Birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton), red gum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), Parana pine [Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) 1, sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), pecan (Carya illinoensis Wangenh.), and northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) were the most preferred species by C. formosanus in order of consumption rate. All of these species were significantly more preferred than southern yellow pine (Pinus taeda L.), widely used for monitoring. Sinker cypress [ = old growth bald cypress, Taxodium distichum (L.)], western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn), Alaskan yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis D. Don), eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.)], Spanish cedar (Cedrella odorata L.), Honduras mahogany (Swietenia macrophyla King), Indian rosewood (Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.), Honduras rosewood (D. stevensonii Standl.), and morado (Machaerium sp.) induced significant feeding deterrence and mortality to C. formosanus. The last eight species produced 100% mortality after 3 mo.

  14. Potential of Kaolin-based Particle Film Barriers for Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of three particle film products on Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated in feeding, tunneling, and contact assays. The particle films, hydrophobic M96-018 and hydrophilic Surround and Surround WP are based on the inert clay mineral kaolin. In 2-week ...

  15. Evaluation of the effects of thiamethoxam on three species of African termite (Isoptera: Termitidae) crop pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgarde, S; Rouland-Lefevre, C

    2002-06-01

    Thiamethoxam formulated as ACTARA 25 WG has been tested on three species of higher African termites: Trinervitermes trinervius Rambur, Odontotermes smeathmani Fuller, and Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri, which are pests of the principal tropical food crops (e.g., rice, maize, sorghum, sugarcane). The doses used ranged from 0.03 to 10 ppm. The effective dose for these termites was 0.3 ppm, which resulted in 100% mortality within 2-8 d, depending on the species studied. Excluding O. smeathmani, which consumed the product, thiamethoxam proved to be an anti-feedant but not repellent to T. trinervius and A. evuncifer. For all species studied, mortality was not dependent on consumption of the products, which acts principally by contact. In O. smeathmani, thiamethoxam could be transmitted in the colony from contaminated individuals to healthy individuals.

  16. Trehalase activity in fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes feae (Isoptera: Termitideae) and inhibitory effect of validamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatun, Nujira; Wangsantitham, Orathai; Tungjitwitayakul, Jatuporn; Sakurai, Sho

    2014-06-01

    Trehalase is the hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzed the hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. In this study, trehalase activity in the fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes feae Wasmann had been examined. Trehalase activity in digestive tract and carcass of O. feae was higher than that in wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann. The intestinal tract of worker caste of O. feae was the main source of trehalase compared with that in salivary, fat body, and carcass. In particular, the highest activity was found in the midgut and hindgut parts. More specifically, the contents of midgut and hindgut had higher enzyme activity compared with that trehalase prepared from their epithelial tissue. The enzyme activity of gut trehalase in three different termite castes, worker, soldier, and reproductive, had been determined. The result showed that female alate had the highest activity, followed by worker, male alate, and soldier castes. Trehalose concentration in the reproductive caste was at lowest level, while soldier and worker contained the high trehalose concentration. This study indicates that high trehalase activity locates in the midgut and hindgut contents and change in trehalase activity in fungus-growing termite is caste-specific. Validamycin inhibited trehalase activity of O. feae in vivo and caused high mortality, indicating that this trehalase inhibitor is valuable tools for termite control.

  17. Morphometric analysis of population samples of soldier caste of Odontotermes obesus (Rambur (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor, F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study morphometric variations in Odontotermes obesus (Rambur, samples from nineteen nests were statistically analyzed for mean, standard deviation, standard error, coefficient of variability and confidence interval (95% and analysis of variance (Model II ANOVA, The mean values of the different population samples were compared with the student t-test, following the Minitab version and Sokal & Rohlf (1973. In the study of external characters, measurements form a very important component, particularly for identification of species. However, the reliability of the measurements depends on the extent of variability which the structures show within and between colonies. For each individual soldier, the following nine parameters were measured: i length of head; ii width of head at mandibles; iii width of head at the posterolateral ends of antennal carinae; iv maximum width of head; v length of left mandible; vi tooth of left mandible from tip; vii length of pronotum; viii width of pronotum; ix length of postmentum; and x width of postmentum.

  18. Field evaluation of a fipronil bait against subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiu-Ying; Lei, Chao-Liang; Xue, Dong

    2006-04-01

    The subterranean termite Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki is an important pest of agronomic crops, plantations, and forestry, and it endangers earthen dikes and dams in China. A fipronil bait consisting of straw pulp and white sugar was evaluated against field colonies of O. formosanus. Triple mark-capture with Nile blue dye was used to delineate foraging territories and to estimate foraging populations of four O. formosanus colonies locating in the campus of Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Termite activity was monitored by number of termite workers and straw board consumption in underground monitoring stations. Consumption of bait matrix and fipronil was estimated for each testing site. The results showed that approximately 3-5 mg of fipronil could suppress foraging populations of O. formosanus containing 0.4-0.7 million foragers per colony. Baits containing fipronil seem to be a feasible alternative for controlling O. formosanus.

  19. Toxicity, repellency, and transfer of chlorfenapyr against western subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Michael K; Saran, Raj K

    2006-06-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a slow-acting insecticide against western subterranean termite, Reticulitermes hesperus Banks, when applied to sand. The LD50 at day 7 for workers is 29.98 ng per termite and considerably higher than that of chlorpyrifos (14.01), cypermethrin (3.21), and fipronil (0.16). Brief exposures to sand treated with chlorfenapyr resulted in dose-dependent mortality over a broad range of concentrations. Brief 1-h exposures to > or =75 ppm provided >88% kill of termites at day 7. Chlorfenapyr deposits did not repel termites, even at 300 ppm. Termites tunneled from 0.1 to 1.8 cm into sand treated with 10- to 300-ppm chlorfenapyr deposits, resulting in > or =70% mortality. Within 1 h after being exposed to 50 ppm chlorfenapyr, approximately 17% of the termites exhibited impaired responses to synthetic trail pheromone. By 4 h, nearly 60% of the workers were not able to follow a 10 fg/cm pheromone trail. There was a direct linear relationship of the uptake of [14C]chlorfenapyr as concentration and duration of exposure increased. The percentage of chlorfenapyr transferred to recipients varied from 13.3 to 38.4%. Donors exposed for 1 h transferred a greater percentage of chlorfenapyr than did donors exposed for 4 h. A 1-h exposure on 100-ppm deposits provided sufficient uptake to kill 100% of the donors and sufficient transfer to kill 96% of the recipients. There was not enough transfer for recipients to serve as secondary donors and kill other termites. Horizontal transfer is limited to contact with the original donor and by the decreased mobility of workers within 4-8 h after exposure to treated sand. The effectiveness of chlorfenapyr barrier treatments is primarily due to its nonrepellency and delayed toxicity.

  20. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest

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    C. S. Almeida

    Full Text Available Abstract Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m, while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting.

  1. Distribution and density of Cubitermes Wasmann (Isoptera: Termitidae mounds in the northern Kruger National Park

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    V.W. Meyer

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides fundamental information on distribution and density of the genus Cubitermes, Wasm. quantified for future monitoring. After distribution trends have been established, changes in Cubitermes density over time can be brought into contention with other factors in the Kruger National Park, such as the impact of fire frequency, water distribution, and elephant density on these insects. At least ten 2 ha belt-transects were undertaken in each of the 20 northern landscape zones of the KNP. Termite mounds were recorded and their activity within was determined. Cubitermes accounts for 29.8% of all active termite mounds in the northern KNP, with an average density of 0.33 mounds/ha. Cubitermes favours the Nwambiya Sandveld (zone 32. These termites occur in high density in the Klipkoppies 1 land type (Gorge, but in low densities in the Phalaborwa 10-12, Bulweni 1-3, Letaba 1-7 and Pafuri 3-6 land types. Cubitermes mounds tend to occur in high numbers on the Nzhelele formation (Mn (sandstones; quartzite; basalt. Mounds of this genus in the Far North are highly concentrated on the Gaudam and Moriah soil series of the Hutton form, suggesting that these termites prefer very sandy soils with medium to coarse particles.

  2. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, B.P.; Buitenwerf, R.; Desouza, O.; Olff, H.

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termi

  3. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Desouza, Og; Olff, Han

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of termi

  4. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

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    Wright Maureen S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae, and one bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST, Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki, after liquid exposure, and for their lack of propensity to repel FST. Results The fungus Isaria fumosorosea at 108 spores/ml caused 72.5% mortality on day 7, significantly higher than the control and 106 spores/ml treatment. On day 14, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused 38.8% and 92.5% mortality, respectively, significantly higher than the control. On day 21, 82.5% and 100% of the termites were killed by the 106 and 108 treatments, respectively. I. fumosorosea did not repel termites at 106 nor 108 spores/g in sand, soil or sawdust. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae at 108 spores/ml caused 57.5% mortality on day 7, 77.5% mortality on day 14 and 100% mortality on day 21. Conclusions On all three days the rate of mortality was significantly higher than that of the control and 106 spores/ml treatment with I. fumosorosea. Neither I. fumosorosea nor M. anisopliae caused repellency of FST in sand, soil or sawdust. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis did not cause significant mortality on days 7, 14 or 21. When termites were exposed to cells of B. thuringiensis in sawdust and when termites were exposed to a mixture of spores and cells in sand, a significantly higher number remained in the control tubes. Repellency was not seen with B. thuringiensis spores alone, nor with the above treatments in the other substrates.

  5. Soldier head morphology of the Neotropical termites: Embiratermes festivellus Silvestri and Spinitermes brevicornutus (Desneux (Isoptera, Termitidae

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    Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Heads of soldier termites belonging to the species Embiratermes festivellus (Silvestri, 1901 (Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae and Spinitermes brevicornutus (Desneux, 1904 (Termitidae, Termitinae were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Individual glandular openings are present in the upper part of E. festivellus head and correspond to class 3 glandular cells. Campaniform sensillae occur in both termite heads, but this sensorial structure was not observed in the nasus extremity of E. festivellus soldier.

  6. Terpenos em cupins do gênero Nasutitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae

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    Márcia N. S. de la Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the front gland of termites has been studied for over 40 years. The genus Nasutitermes, considered the most evolved of the Termitidae family, has a peculiarity that sets it apart from the others: a caste of soldiers that carry a terpenic mixture used in defense. This secretion is formed by mono, sesqui and diterpenes from trinervitane, kempane and rippertane skeletons, only found in termites. This article sought to review the scientific literature and contribute to the knowledge on the chemical composition of the secretion of the Nasutitermes soldiers from the interesting aspects of its behavior.

  7. Digestion of Termiticide Bait Matrices by the Pest Termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Amit; Karl, Zachary J; Scharf, Michael E

    2016-04-01

    Termites are highly effective digesters of wood lignocellulose, which is a central factor contributing to their global status as pests of wooden structures. For the same reason, termite baits that combine cellulosic matrices with slow-acting insecticides are both effective and popular as a reduced-risk approach for termite control. This study took a novel approach for assessing digestibility of termite bait matrices and matrix components to gain potentially new insights into bait attractiveness and efficacy. The rationale behind this study is that termite baits that are more digestible should have more nutritional value to termites and thus encourage maximal feeding and trophallactic transfer of active ingredients through termite colonies. Studies were done using in vitro digestion assays with termite gut protein extracts followed by colorimetric detection of released glucose and pentose monosaccharides from test substrates. The substrates tested included two commercial bait matrices (Recruit IV and Recruit II HD), two matrix components (compressed and toasted compressed cellulose), and two natural pine woods as positive controls (southern yellow and northern pine). Overall results show equal or greater monosaccharide availability for some commercial matrices than standard pine lignocelluloses, suggesting sufficient nutritional value for the proprietary matrices. Another more prominent trend was significant intercolony variation in digestibility across substrates, possibly resulting from differences in microbiota composition, long-term diet adaptation, or both. These findings thus illuminate new nutrition-based factors that can potentially impact bait feeding, trophallactic exchange, and efficacy.

  8. Swarming of the Formosan Subteranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarms of Formosan subterranean termites (FST) in Southern Mississippi were monitored from mid-April through late June, 2007-2009. Distribution of swarming colonies was recorded at 69 traps within Poplarville (Pearl River County) and an additional 45-65 traps, spaced at 1-5 mile (1.6-8 km) intervals...

  9. The impact of edge effect on termite community (Blattodea: Isoptera) in fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C S; Cristaldo, P F; Florencio, D F; Ribeiro, E J M; Cruz, N G; Silva, E A; Costa, D A; Araújo, A P A

    2016-09-26

    Habitat fragmentation is considered to be one of the biggest threats to tropical ecosystem functioning. In this region, termites perform an important ecological role as decomposers and ecosystem engineers. In the present study, we tested whether termite community is negatively affected by edge effects on three fragments of Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Termite abundance and vegetation structure were sampled in 10 transects (15 × 2 m), while termite richness, activity, and soil litter biomass were measured in 16 quadrants (5 × 2 m) at forest edge and interior of each fragment. Habitat structure (i.e. number of tree, diameter at breast height and soil litter biomass) did not differ between forest edge and interior of fragments. Termite richness, abundance and activity were not affected by edge effect. However, differences were observed in the β diversity between forest edge and interior as well as in the fragments sampled. The β diversity partitioning indicates that species turnover is the determinant process of termite community composition under edge effect. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should be based on the selection of several distinct sites instead of few rich sites (e.g. nesting).

  10. Phenoloxidase activity in the infraorder Isoptera: unraveling life-history correlates of immune investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Reichheld, Jennifer L.

    2016-02-01

    Within the area of ecological immunology, the quantification of phenoloxidase (PO) activity has been used as a proxy for estimating immune investment. Because termites have unique life-history traits and significant inter-specific differences exist regarding their nesting and foraging habits, comparative studies on PO activity can shed light on the general principles influencing immune investment against the backdrop of sociality, reproductive potential, and gender. We quantified PO activity across four termite species ranging from the phylogenetically basal to the most derived, each with their particular nesting/foraging strategies. Our data indicate that PO activity varies across species, with soil-dwelling termites exhibiting significantly higher PO levels than the above-ground wood nester species which in turn have higher PO levels than arboreal species. Moreover, our comparative approach suggests that pathogenic risks can override reproductive potential as a more important driver of immune investment. No gender-based differences in PO activities were recorded. Although termite PO activity levels vary in accordance with a priori predictions made from life-history theory, our data indicate that nesting and foraging strategies (and their resulting pathogenic pressures) can supersede reproductive potential and other life-history traits in influencing investment in PO. Termites, within the eusocial insects, provide a unique perspective for inferring how different ecological pressures may have influenced immune function in general and their levels of PO activity, in particular.

  11. Hospitalitermes krishnai, a new nasute termite (Nasutitermitinae, Termitidae, Isoptera, from southern Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Syaukani Syaukani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of nasute termite, Hospitalitermes krishnai sp. n., is described from soldiers and workers discovered in Lampung Province, Sumatra. This species can be distinguished from other related Hospitalitermes species from Southeast Asia by the anterior part of head capsule that is much smaller than the posterior part, head capsule that is moderately constricted behind the antennal sockets, and relatively deep depression between the head and nasus and, finally, the short and robust nasus measuring less than half as long as head capsule. Moreover, in profile the nasus is slightly up-curved but slightly decurved at the apical tip. We name this new species after Professor Kumar Krishna in recognition of his life-long contributions to termite taxonomy, systematics and biology.

  12. The frontal weapon of the termite Armitermes euamignathus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae

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    Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Frontal weapon is the term used to designate the apparatus consisting of frontal gland and associated structures that participate in the chemical defense of termite soldiers. The ultra structure of the frontal gland and the scanning microscopy of the soldier head was investigated in the termite Amiitermes euamignathus Silvestri, 1901.Campaniform sensilla was not observed but there were 80 to100 sensory bristles around the frontal pore. The glandular epithelium shows only class 1 cells according 10 the classification of NOIROT & QUENNEDEY (1974, 1991. The glandular cells are characterized by apical microvilli, a basal labyrinth and a large quantity of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which forms dense zones throughout the cytoplasm. The secretion is concentrated mainly in the basal pole of the cell and consists of large lipid droplets. The secretory epithelium is covered by a thick apical cuticle composed of a thin outer epicuticle, a layer of epicuticular filaments and a dense procuticle. The cytological results concerning the frontal pore showed a reduced cuticle and the presence of a subcuticular space where the lipid droplets are accumulated. The lack of class 3 cells and the presence of an intrinsic musculature are two anatomical features of the A. euamignathus frontal gland that will be important in the phylogenetic relationships of the Nasutitermitinae.

  13. Field evaluation of the bait toxicant chlorfluazuron in eliminating Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Brenton C; Fitzgerald, Christopher J

    2003-12-01

    Two aspects of the Exterra Termite Interception and Baiting System (Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) were evaluated in a field experiment using 13 termite mounds near Townsville, Australia. First, a cellulose-acetate powder containing either 0.05% wt:wt or 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron (Requiem, Ensystex, Fayetteville, NC) was tested for its efficacy in eliminating colonies of the xylophagous mound-building subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). The moist bait matrix was replenished during the first inspection of 10 mounds (five mounds by two treatments) used in the experiment. Second, a single application of the moist bait matrix was used on three additional mounds to test termite responses and the effectiveness of 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron. Although there was no evidence of repellence, there was little removal of replenished bait. Five colonies were eliminated by 0.05% wt:wt chlorfluazuron and five colonies by 0.25% wt:wt chlorfluazuron: another colony was moribund, and elimination appeared imminent. Colony decline was first suspected some 12 wk after bait application, and colony elimination was confirmed, by destructive sampling, about 5 wk later. Colony elimination may have occurred within 12 wk. One colony was an anomaly and did not succumb to the effects of the toxicant. Another colony was not eliminated because of invasion of the baiting system by ants. Ants, principally Iridomyrmex purpureus (F. Smith) group and Papyrius nitidus (Mayr) group, occurred commonly in the stations during the experiment. Microcerotermes sp. was found in five of the C. acinaciformis mounds, after colony elimination. Inspections of small sections of mounds and wooden dowels inserted into mounds were reliable methods for monitoring colony health.

  14. [Termites (Isoptera) in forest ecosystems of Cat Tien National Park (Southern Vietnam)].

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    Beliaeva, N V; Tiunov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The species composition and termite community populations were studied and the total land termites biomass was estimated in five forest habitats of Cat Tien National Park, Southern Vietnam. Twenty-four species of two families, Rhinotermitidae (1 species) and Termitidae (23 species), the predominant representatives of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, were found in mounds and in soil samples. On the test plots the density of termite mounds averaged 68 per hectare, primarily the mounds of three Macrotermes species. Destructive sampling allowed estimation of the caste composition and total community biomass based on six termite mounds of the prevailing species (Globitermes sulphureus, Microcerotermes burmanicus, Macrotermes carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and Hypotermes obscuriceps). The total number of termites in the nests ranged from 65 000 to 3 150 000 individuals with the total biomass ranging from 185 to 2440 g live weight. The total abundance of nesting Macrotermes species alone could conservatively be estimated as 2.5 million individuals and 20.5 kg live weight per hectare. The number of soil- and litter-feeding termites averaged for the test plots was estimated at about 60 ind./m2. Four species dominating on the test plots (M. carbonarius, M. gilvus, M. malaccensis, and H. obscuriceps) belong to active tree litter feeders.

  15. Effects of a Fipronil Spot-Treatment on field colonies of Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This field study investigated the colony effect of a Fipronil spot-treatment applied to active infestations of Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Spot-treatments were applied to a single active independent monitor from each of four colonies in which multiple independent m...

  16. The influence of fipronil on Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) feeding beyond treated plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Shelton

    2013-01-01

    A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the area of influence of fipronil at incremental distances away from treated plots on the Harrison Experimental Forest near Saucier, MS. Small treated (water and fipronil) plots were surrounded by untreated wooden boards in an eight-point radial pattern, and examined for evidence of termite feeding every 60 d for 1 yr...

  17. Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Brazil: possible origins inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C; Fontes, L R; Bueno, O C; Martins, V G

    2010-09-01

    The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, originally from northeast India through Burma, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Indonesian archipelago, is a major termite pest introduced in several countries around the world, including Brazil. We sequenced the mitochondrial COII gene from individuals representing 23 populations. Phylogenetic analysis of COII gene sequences from this and other studies resulted in two main groups: (1) populations of Cleveland (USA) and four populations of Malaysia and (2) populations of Brazil, four populations of Malaysia, and one population from each of Thailand, Puerto Rico, and Key West (USA). Three new localities are reported here, considerably enlarging the distribution of C. gestroi in Brazil: Campo Grande (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), Itajaí (state of Santa Catarina), and Porto Alegre (state of Rio Grande do Sul).

  18. Effect of chemical cues on the foraging and tunneling behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood rot fungi can cause directional tunneling, aggregation behavior and increased wood consumption by subterranean termites. Because vanillin and guaiacol are byproducts of lignin degradation, these chemicals were tested as potential attractants to Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formo...

  19. Dynamics of foraging trails in the Neotropical termite Velocitermes heteropterus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifig, Ives; Jost, Christian; Fourcassié, Vincent; Zana, Yossi; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria

    2015-09-01

    Foraging behavior in termites varies with the feeding habits of each species but often occurs through the formation of well-defined trails that connect the nest to food sources in species that build structured nests. We studied the formation of foraging trails and the change in caste ratio during foraging in the termite Velocitermes heteropterus. This species is widespread in Cerrado vegetation where it builds epigeal nests and forages in open-air at night. Our aim was to understand the processes involved in the formation of foraging trails, from the exploration of new unmarked areas to the recruitment of individuals to food and the stabilization of traffic on the trails, as well as the participation of the different castes during these processes. Foraging trails were videotaped in the laboratory and the videos were then analyzed both manually and automatically to assess the flow of individuals and the caste ratio on the trails as well as to examine the spatial organization of traffic over time. Foraging trails were composed of minor workers, major workers, and soldiers. The flow of individuals on the trails gradually increased from the beginning of the exploration of new areas up to the discovery of the food. The caste ratio remained constant throughout the foraging excursion: major workers, minor workers and soldiers forage in a ratio of 8:1:1, respectively. The speed of individuals was significantly different among castes, with major workers and soldiers being significantly faster than minor workers. Overall, our results show that foraging excursions in V. heteropterus may be divided in three different phases, characterized by individual speeds, differential flows and lane segregation.

  20. Subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae):Exploitation of equivalent food resources with different forms of placement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juliana Toledo Lima; Ana Maria Costa-Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    Coptotermes gestroi and Heterotermes tenuis have been described as important urban pests in Brazil.The establishment of control technologies using baits that consider the social behavior of termites requires a better knowledge of their foraging behavior.Thus,this study analyzed the feeding behavior of these species with three different forms of food placement:food on the surface of a substrate and food either partially or completely buried in the substrate.Experimental arenas were composed of a central chamber connected to three food chambers.Each central chamber contained 550 foragers of C.gestroi or 517 foragers ofH.tenuis.Blocks ofPinus elliottii were placed in the different food chambers.After 28 days,the consumption of each wood block and the percentage of foraging individuals recruited for food chambers were verified in relation to the total survival rate obtained for each one of the 20 replicates.Results showed that completely buried food was most consumed for H.tenuis and presented a higher recruitment rate of workers and soldiers for both species.Although the consumption had non-significant differences for C.gestroi,these termites exhibited a tendency to prefer completely buried food.In these conditions,it can be concluded that the forms of food placement used in the present research influenced the recruitment of individuals for both species.Data also suggests that when the foraging subterranean termites find food resources in the tunneling substrate,they tend to concentrate their efforts on it,a behavior regime that reduces exposure to external environment.

  1. Parvitermes (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae) in Central America: Two new termite species and reassignment of Nasutitermes mexicanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The termite genus Parvitermes is now recognized on the Central American mainland to include Parvitermes mexicanus, new combination (previously in Nasutitermes) and two new species, Parvitermes mesoamericanus sp. n. and Parvitermes yucatanus sp. n., herein described from soldiers and workers. These three species, nine West Indian Parvitermes, and Antillitermes subtilis all share characteristic enteric valve spines that orientate against intestinal flow. All species are subterranean nesters and cellulose feeders. Evidence is mounting that generic-level endemicity may be completely absent among the West Indian nasutitermitine fauna and that its origins stem from Central America. PMID:27667954

  2. Damage Pattern and Nesting Characteristic of Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae in Oil Palm on Peat

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    Wei-Hong Lau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm industry of Malaysia has expanded into peat area in Sarawak. Problem statement: The subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus was a serious pest of oil palm on peat. Control of this termite has resorted to heavy usage of chemicals which was deemed uneconomical and hostile to the environment. Baiting system has inconsistent success due to the limited knowledge of the behavior of the pest. Approach: This study was to investigate damage and nesting characteristic of the pest. Infested palm in the peat area was dissected using a chainsaw and observation was made on the endoecie and damage. Microclimate inside the palm was recorded using a data logger and acid insoluble lignin from 3 different infested palms was determined. Results: Dissection of infested palm revealed that termite generally attacked the palm from the spear in immature palm or basal region in mature palm due to the energy requirement and level of water table. Spear region infestation was possible because of the moist environment provided by the proximity of the fronds and leaf sheaths. The high lignin content (42-45% in the thin laminae indicated the concentration of lignin or incorporation of peat in nest construction. Wood stump residues remained in the plantation was one of the main reasons of termite infestation. The stability and protection of the wood stump encouraged termite breeding. A C. curvignathus queen was discovered in the endoecie under the wood stump and was seen mobile. Conclusion: The pest was generally available in area where wood stumps and moisture were available. Manipulation of water table for certain period after spraying of chemical may help reduce infestation by the termite.

  3. Uncitermes almeriae, a new termite species from Amazonia (Isoptera, Termitidae, Syntermitinae)

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    Carrijo, Tiago F.; Constantini, Joice P.; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical termite genus Uncitermes Rocha & Cancello, 2012 was known from a single species, Uncitermes teevani (Emerson, 1925). In this paper a new species, Uncitermes almeriae sp. n., is described and illustrated from worker and soldier castes, along with observations on the Uncitermes nest. A distribution map with the occurrences of both species is presented. The new species is distinguished from its congener by the presence of short bristles covering the head capsule and frontal tube. PMID:27408564

  4. Occurrence of fungi in combs of fungus-growing termites (Isoptera: Termitidae, Macrotermitinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedegbe, Herbert J; Miambi, Edouard; Pando, Anne; Roman, Jocelyne; Houngnandan, Pascal; Rouland-Lefevre, Corinne

    2009-10-01

    Fungus-growing termites cultivate their mutualistic basidiomycete Termitomyces species on a substrate called a fungal comb. Here, the Suicide Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction (SuPER) method was adapted for the first time to a fungal study to determine the entire fungal community of fungal combs and to test whether fungi other than the symbiotic cultivar interact with termite hosts. Our molecular analyses show that although active combs are dominated by Termitomyces fungi isolated with direct Polymerase Endonuclease Restriction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), they can also harbor some filamentous fungi and yeasts only revealed by SuPER PCR-DGGE. This is the first molecular evidence of the presence of non-Termitomyces species in active combs. However, because there is no evidence for a species-specific relationship between these fungi and termites, they are mere transient guests with no specialization in the symbiosis. It is however surprising to notice that termite-associated Xylaria strains were not isolated from active combs even though they are frequently retrieved when nests are abandoned by termites. This finding highlights the implication of fungus-growing termites in the regulation of fungi occurring within the combs and also suggests that they might not have any particular evolutionary-based association with Xylaria species.

  5. Disjunctitermes insularis, a new soldierless termite genus and species (Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae) from Guadeloupe and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.; Carrijo, Tiago F.; Postle, Anthony C.; Tonini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Disjunctitermes insularis gen. n. & sp. n. is described from workers collected on Guadeloupe and in Peru and is the first soldierless termite found on a deep-water island. As with many soldierless and soil-feeding termite species, the enteric valve morphology is an essential diagnostic character of D. insularis. The D. insularis sequence cluster, derived from a barcode analysis with twelve other described genera of New World Apicotermitinae, is well resolved. Results of a stochastic dynamic spread model suggest that the occurrence of D. insularis on Guadeloupe may be the result of a pre-Colombian overwater dispersal event from mainland South America. PMID:28769627

  6. Influence of a mineral insecticide particle size on bait efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas g. Shelton; Laurent Cartier; Terence L. Wagner; Christian Becker

    2007-01-01

    We examined the efficacy of termiticidal baits comprised of powdered acellulose and a mineral insecticide, cryolite crystals, in laboratory bioassays against pseudergates of Eastern subterranean termites [Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)]. The influence of cryolite crystal size [0 (control), 0.2, and 20 pm diameter particles] on the overall mortality...

  7. Absence of Relationship Among Termite (Insecta: Isoptera Richness, Functional Groups and Environmental Variables in Southern Brazil

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    Elena Diehl

    2015-12-01

    Resumo. Nas zonas temperadas, os térmitas têm um papel ecológico reduzido, enquanto que, nos trópicos, dominam entre os invertebrados decompositores e correspondem a cerca de 10% do total da biomassa animal e quase 95% da biomassa de insetos de solo. Ao mesmo tempo, as zonas tropicais possuem ambientes mais produtivos, menor variação climática, maior estabilidade ecológica e riqueza de espécies. No presente trabalho, avaliamos a riqueza, composição e os grupos funcionais dos térmitas de 14 localidades em diferentes altitudes no Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil, a partir de dados já publicados. Testamos se existiria um padrão relacionando essas três variáveis à altitude e aos fatores bioclimáticos. Os resultados não mostraram correlação significativa entre riqueza de espécies e altitude, assim como os fatores bioclimáticos não explicaram a variação na composição de espécies e dos grupos funcionais. No entanto, o número, embora não significativo, e a composição de espécies foram diferentes entre os locais de coleta. Sugerimos a ampliação dos levantamentos, com maior esforço amostral e maior número de pontos amostrados, para identificar os fatores ambientais que influenciam a termitofauna do sul do Brasil.

  8. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; Buitenwerf, Robert; Desouza, Og; Olff, Han

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of

  9. The importance of termites (Isoptera) for the recycling of herbivore dung in tropical ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, B.P.; Buitenwerf, R.; Desouza, O.; Olff, H.

    2008-01-01

    While the key role of termites in the decomposition of litter in the tropics has been acknowledged for a long time, much less information exists on their importance in the recycling of dung of primary consumers, especially herbivores. A review of published studies shows that a diverse group of

  10. Characterization of the P. Brevis Polyether Neurotoxin Binding Component in Excitable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-14

    International Conference on Ciguatera . (T. R. Tosteson and D. Ballantyne, Eds.) in press. Baden, D.G. (1991) The Polyether Brevetoxins and Site Five of the...Confomrations and Potency Correlations. Third Intl. Conf. Ciguatera , Puerto Rico 1990. Tosteson, T.R., and Baden, D.G. Polyether Dinoflagellate Toxins...and Caribbean Ciguatera : Correlation of Fish Toxins with Standard Toxins Third International Conference on Ciguatera , Peurto Rico 1990. Baden, D.G

  11. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organi...

  12. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus brevis Strain D6, Isolated from Smoked Fresh Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ravi; Uroić, Ksenija; Hynönen, Ulla; Kos, Blaženka; Šušković, Jagoda; Palva, Airi

    2016-04-07

    The autochthonousLactobacillus brevisstrain D6, isolated from smoked fresh cheese, carries a 45-kDa S-layer protein. Strain D6 has shown adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and to Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells, as well as immunomodulatory potential and beneficial milk technological properties. Hence, it could be used as a potential probiotic starter culture for cheese production.

  13. Toxicity of clay flocculation of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to estuarine invertebrates and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic environmental effects of proposed control procedures for red tide events are relatively unknown but important to understand. The objective of this study was to determine the laboratory-derived toxicities of a clay flocculation technique proposed for the Florida red ti...

  14. Figure politiche del precariato negli anni ‘70: brevi cenni per una genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cavazzini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della precarietà – sul piano lavorativo e su quello, correlato al primo, “esistenziale” – trova, in Italia, un primo momento di formulazione attorno alla metà degli anni Settanta. Si tratta innanzitutto di una formulazione, non esclusivamente sociologica né macroeconomica, ma direttamente politica, fermo restando che queste tre dimensioni non sono realmente separabili nel discorso marxista, che ha indubbiamente “tenuto a battesimo” l’emergenza della figura del precario, ed in particolar modo nella sua variante operaista che ha rappresentato un punto di riferimento incontestabile per i movimenti e le creazioni politiche da cui la Penisola è stata investita nel secondo dopoguerra.

  15. Effects of iron limitation on photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in the Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis (Bacillariophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, T; van Leeuwe, MA; Gieskes, WWC; de Baar, HJW

    2004-01-01

    Iron, one of the structural elements of organic components that play an essential role in photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation of plants, is available at extremely low concentrations in large parts of the Southern Ocean's surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that photosynthesis is the primar

  16. Characterization of the Ptychodiscus brevis Polyether Neurotoxin Binding Component in Excitable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-31

    Centruroides suffusus suffusus toxin II to neurotoxin receptoi Site 4 by the brevetoxins. Catterall and Gainer (16) suggested that the brevetoxins bind at a...binding of 1251 Centruroides suffusus suffusus toxin 11 on neurotoxin receptor site 4. Purification of both alpha- and beta-scorpion toxins is...guinguestraitus venom (site 3), or Centruroides sculpturatus venom (site 4) (Fig 13 ). Tritiated brevetoxin binding is slightly enhanced (5-10%) in the presence

  17. Il pragmatismo a Firenze dal 1900 al 1980 circa. Brevi note

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    Franco Cambi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Florence had played in twentieth century an important role in the spread of pragmatism in Italy: from Papini and Prezzolini to Codignola, to Borghi and to the pedagogical adventure of “Scuola e città”, to Preti who has developed during the years in Florence his more pragmatist text: Praxis ed empirismo (1957.

  18. Ars longa vita brevis est : kunst on pikk, elu lühike / Margit Bunder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bunder, Margit, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Fotokonkursist "Noored on tõelised võitjad". Loetletud preemiad saanud autorid ja tööd. Plakatinäitusest "Meil pole ükskõik". Maarja Galeriis avatud näitusest "Põhjamaine tunnetus". Riho Lahi eksliibriste ja Edgar Valteri raamatuillustratsioonide näitusest Põlva Keskraamatukogus

  19. Characterization of the P. brevis Polyether Neurotoxin Binding Component in Excitable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    the same conditions. This means that label activated in the bulk solution cannot contribute to the site-specific labeling. If the nitrenes generated...of low, as well as high, affinity sites should be possible. Also, labeling of hydrophobic sites should be possible, sin-c nitrene produced upon...increase in nonspecific binding from the zero time (no irradiation) value is atmibutable to the hydrophobic samre and highly active nitrene group of the

  20. Toxicity of clay flocculation of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to estuarine invertebrates and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benthic environmental effects of proposed control procedures for red tide events are relatively unknown but important to understand. The objective of this study was to determine the laboratory-derived toxicities of a clay flocculation technique proposed for the Florida red ti...

  1. Arthromitus (Bacillus cereus) symbionts in the cockroach Blaberus giganteus: dietary influences on bacterial development and population density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, L.; Jorgensen, J.; Haselton, A.; Pitt, A.; Rudner, R.; Margulis, L.

    1999-01-01

    The filamentous spore-forming bacterium Arthromitus, discovered in termites, millipedes, sow bugs and other soil-dwelling arthropods by Leidy (1850), is the intestinal stage of Bacillus cereus. We extend the range of Arthromitus habitats to include the hindgut of Blaberus giganteus, the large tropical American cockroach. The occurrence and morphology of the intestinal form of the bacillus were compared in individual cockroaches (n=24) placed on four different diet regimes: diurnally maintained insects fed (1) dog food, (2) soy protein only, (3)purified cellulose only, and (4) a dog food-fed group maintained in continuous darkness. Food quality exerted strong influence on population densities and developmental stages of the filamentous bacterium and on fecal pellet composition. The most dramatic rise in Arthromitus populations, defined as the spore-forming filament intestinal stage, occurred in adult cockroaches kept in the dark on a dog food diet. Limited intake of cellulose or protein alone reduced both the frequency of Arthromitus filaments and the rate of weight gain of the insects. Spores isolated from termites, sow bugs, cockroaches and moths, grown on various hard surfaces display a branching mobility and resistance to antibiotics characteristic to group I Bacilli whose members include B. cereus, B. circulans, B. alvei and B. macerans. DNA isolated from pure cultures of these bacilli taken from the guts of Blaberus giganteus (cockroach), Junonia coenia (moth), Porcellio scaber (sow bug) and Cryptotermes brevis (termite) and subjected to Southern hybridization with a 23S-5S B. subtilis ribosomal sequence probe verified that they are indistinguishable from laboratory strains of Bacillus cereus.

  2. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae; Caracterizacao dos hemocitos de operarios de Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) e avaliacao hemocitaria apos parasitismo por Metarhizium anisopliae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal], e-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: auritermes@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Luiz C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA); Lima, Elza A.L.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Micologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  3. Distribuição espacial de cupinzeiros de Cornitermes snyderi (Isoptera: Termitidae e sua associação com teca Spatial distribution of termite-nests of Cornitermes Snyderi (Isoptera: Termitidae and its association with teak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Peres Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar a espécie de cupim, avaliar a relação de ocorrência de ninhos com a cultura de Tectona grandis (teca e seus possíveis danos provocados por essa associação, sendo determinado o tipo da distribuição espacial dos cupinzeiros na área de estudo. O trabalho foi realizado no município de Porto Esperidião, estado de Mato Grosso, em um plantio de teca de 581,27 ha. Os cupinzeiros foram posicionados com auxílio de um GPS (Global Positioning System para posterior avaliação da distribuição populacional, conforme o índice de Morisita. Os ninhos foram quantificados em diferentes classes de cotas altimétricas. Avaliou-se também a quantidade de ninhos presentes nas árvores, nas rebrotas e fora das árvores, bem como a influência desses ninhos no crescimento das árvores. Os cupins encontrados foram identificados como Cornitermes snyderi, cujos ninhos não afetaram o crescimento em relação à circunferência à altura do peito (CAP das árvores. A distribuição espacial dos termiteiros no plantio é agregada, binomial negativa. Não foi constatada a presença de danos nas árvores circundadas pelos ninhos.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.59

    The objectives of this study was identify the termite species, assess the relationship of the occurrence of nests with Tectona grandis (teak and its possible damage caused by this association, being determined the type of spatial distribution of nests in the studying area. This work was conducted in the municipality of Porto Esperidião, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, in the teak plantation with 581,27 ha. The nests were placed with a GPS (Global Positioning System, for further assessment of population distribution, according to the Morisita index. The nests were quantified in different altitudes classes. It was also evaluated the number of nests found in trees and regrowth in and out of trees, as well as the influence of these nests in tree growth. The termites found were identify as Cornitermes snyderi. The nests do not affect the growth in relation to the circumference at breast height of tree. The spatial distribution of termites in the planting is pooled, binomial negative. I was not observed damage in trees surrounded by nests.

    doi: 10.4336/2012.pfb.32.70.59

  4. TAMANHO DA ÁREA DE FORRAGEAMENTO DO CUPIM SUBTERRÂNEO Heterotermes tenuis (ISOPTERA; RHINOTERMITIDAE EM CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR FORAGING AREA OF THE UNDERGROUND TERMITE Heterotermes tenuis (ISOPTERA; RHINOTERMITIDAE IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Marcondes Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a área de forrageamento do cupim Heterotermes tenuis utilizando-se a isca Termitrap® marcada com o radioisótopo 32P. O experimento foi conduzido numa área com cana-de-açúcar, em Piracicaba-SP. Foram localizados 20 focos de H. tenuis, com iscas. Em cada um desses focos aplicou-se uma isca Termitrap® impregnada com 18,5 MBb (500 mCi 32P na forma de fosfato de sódio diluído em 15 ml de água destilada. Ao redor das iscas marcadas, foram instaladas iscas sem marcador em quatro pontos: Norte, Sul, Leste e Oeste, eqüidistantes de 1, 5, 10 e 20 metros. Cada tratamento foi representado por um foco previamente determinado e marcado e uma das distâncias estipuladas para a isca de monitoramento, sendo repetido de 4 a 6 vezes. Após 15 dias da marcação, procedeu-se a avaliação coletando-se 15 indivíduos de H. tenuis de cada isca de monitoramento infestada, acondicionando-os em frascos de vidro com água destilada, que foram analisados em cintilador líquido, pelo teste de Cerenkov. Verificou-se que em apenas 20% das iscas de monitoramento coletaram-se cupins e 11,3% estavam marcadas com o radioisótopo. Constatou-se que ocorrem diversas colônias forrageando numa mesma área. A área de forrageamento de H. tenuis em cana-de-açúcar pode variar de 3 a 1.250 m2.The area of foraging of the termite species Heterotermes tenuis was evaluated using the Termitrap® bait marked with the radioisotope 32P. The experiment was conducted in an area with sugarcane, in Piracicaba,SP Brazil. Twenty infestion foci of H. tenuis were identified with baits. Each focus recieved baits labeled with 18.5 MBb (500 mCi 32P in the form of sodium phosphate diluted in 15 ml of distilled water. Surrounding the marked baits were installed baits without marker in four points: North, South, East and West, halfway of 1, 5, 10 and 20 meters. Each treatment was represented previously by a focus settled and marked and one of the distances specified for the monitoring bait, being repeated of 4 to 6 times. After 15 days of the demarcation, the evaluation was proceeded by collecting 15 individuals of H. tenuis from each infested monitoring bait. These insects were transferred to glass flasks with distilled water, and analyzed in a liquid cintilador, by the test of Cerenkov. It was verified that in only 20% of the monitoring baits termites were collected and 11.3% were marked with the radioisotope, and that several colonies may by foraging in a same area. The foraging area for a colony of H. tenuis in sugarcane can vary from 3 to 1,250 m2.

  5. Ensaios de combate ao cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae Field tests for control of the mound-building termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Mariconi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de combater o cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans, importante espécie invasora, foram instalados dois campos experimentais. Experimento I: 60 ninhos foram escolhidos e medidos externamente. O ensaio constou de 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A abamectina (50 cm³ CE 1,8%; B silafluofem (200 cm³ CE 80%; C silafluofem (400 cm³ CE 80%; D fipronil (15g G 2%; E fipronil (20g G 2%; F clorpirifós (30g G 0,125%. Nos tratamentos A, B, C, as quantidades entre parênteses são da formulação comercial em 100 litros de água. Em D, E, F, são do granulado para cada ninho. Dos líquidos, usou-se um litro de calda por monte. A demolição dos montes deu-se após 103 dias da aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a abamectina e fipronil. Experimento II: Também neste ensaio os cupinzeiros foram 60, abrangendo 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A fipronil (l0g G 2%; B fipronil (15g G 2%; C bendiocarbe (20g G 0,1%; D bendiocarbe (20g G 0,5%; E imidaclopride (0,15g G 70%; F imidaclopride (0,30g G 70%. Em A, B, C, D, as quantidades de granulados são por ninho. Em E, F são de granulado dispersível em um litro de água, por ninho. A destruição dos cupinzeiros foi feita 148 e 149 dias após a aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram o fipronil e imidaclopride.Two field tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of several pesticides for the control of the mound termite pest in pastures. Experiment I: 60 mounds were selected and measured outside. There were 6 treatments with 10 replicátions: A abamectin (50 cm³ 1.8% EC; B silafluofen (200 cm³ 80% EC; C silafluofen (400 cm³ 80% EC; D fipronil (15g 2% G; E fipronil (20g 2% G; F chlorpirifos (30g 0.125% G. In A,B,C, the quantities between parenthesis are of the commercial formulation in 100 liters of water. In D,E,F, are of granular insecticides per mound. One liter of the liquids was used per nest. Demolition of the mounds were made 103 days after the application. The most efficient were abamectin and fipronil. Experiment II: Also 60 nests, with 6 treatments and 10 replicátions: A fipronil (lOg 2% G; B fipronil (15g 2% G; C bendiocarb (20g 0.1% G; D bendiocarh (20g 0.5% G; E imidacloprid (0.15g 70% G; F imidacloprid (0.30g 70% G. In A,B,C,D, the quantities of granular insecticides are by nest. In E,F, of dispersible granule in 1 liter of water, by nest. The demolition of the nests was made 148 and 149 days after the application. The most efficient were fipronil and imidacloprid.

  6. Foraging distance and population size of juvenile colonies of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in laboratory extended arenas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between colony size and foraging distance was examined in extended foraging arenas with incipient colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Our results showed that as long as the royal pairs are present, larger colonies foraged at longer distance...

  7. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khoirul Himmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  8. Neotenic Phenotype and Sex Ratios Provide Insight into Developmental Pathways in Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T. Forschler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Several thousand Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar including worker, nymph, soldier, neotenic and alate castes were collected from three pine logs brought into the laboratory on dates five years apart. The neotenics, all nymphoid, were divided into three groups based on the extent of cuticle pigmentation and termed regular neotenics (RN, black-headed neotenics (BHN or black neotenics (BN. All castes, from Log A, in 2008, provided a neutral sex ratio except BHN (N = 378 and BN (N = 51 which were exclusively male while the soldiers (N = 466 were female-biased. This information suggests that there is a sex-linked bifurcation along the path for termite development with a male-biased neotenic or female-biased soldier as the choice. In contrast, termites collected in 2004 from Log B provided sex ratios that included a female biased RN (N = 1017, a neutral soldier (N = 258 and male biased BHN (N = 99 and workers (N = 54. Log C, collected in 2009, provided female biased soldiers (N = 32, RNs (N = 18 and BHNs (N = 4 and only male BN (N = 5. Eight laboratory cultures, ranging in age from five to 14 years old, also were sampled and all castes sexed. The census included a 14-year old queen-right colony, an 8-year old polyandrous colony and six colonies provided nymphs and male-biased worker populations. Together these data indicate a flexible caste determination system providing a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the flexible developmental options available in R. flavipes that we discuss relative to the literature on Reticulitermes ontogeny.

  9. Nest-Gallery Development and Caste Composition of Isolated Foraging Groups of the Drywood Termite, Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmi, S Khoirul; Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi; Yanase, Yoshiyuki; Oya, Masao; Torigoe, Toshiyuki; Akada, Masanori; Imadzu, Setsuo

    2016-07-22

    An X-ray computed-tomographic examination of nest-gallery development from timbers naturally infested by foraging groups of Incisitermes minor colonies was conducted. This study documents the colonization process of I. minor to new timbers and how the isolated groups maintain their nest-gallery system. The results suggested that development of a nest-gallery within a suitable wood item is not random, but shows selection for softer substrate and other adaptations to the different timber environments. Stigmergic coordinations were expressed in dynamic changes of the nest-gallery system; indicated by fortification behavior in sealing and re-opening a tunnel approaching the outer edge of the timber, and accumulating fecal pellets in particular chambers located beneath the timber surface. The study also examines the caste composition of isolated groups to discover how I. minor sustains colonies with and without primary reproductives.

  10. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae) based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Symes, CT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Symes_2011.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 28351 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Symes_2011.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Insect Science (2010) 00, 1... fraction of the overall mass of each termite, were then ground C? 2010 The Authors Journal compilation C? Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Insect Science, 00, 1?6 Diet of Hodotermes mossambicus 3 and weighed into tin cups (pre...

  11. First Record of Rhynchotermes nasutissimus (Silvestri (Isoptera: Syntermitinae Associated with Rat Carrion in Brasília, Brazil

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    Anna Prestes

    2014-04-01

    Resumo. Rhynchotermes nasutissimus (Silvestri é uma espécie que se alimenta de folhas de serrapilheira, distribuída pela região Neotropical. Encontrou-se pela primeira vez esta espécie associada com carcaça de rato, em uma área urbana de Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brasil. Os dez soldados e 36 operários se encontravam dispersos entre as vértebras e restos secos do animal que foi exposto durante uma semana no solo em março de 2012, final da estação chuvosa. Acredita-se que este comportamento raro seja resultado de alguma deficiência nutricional.

  12. Termiticidal Activity of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth Seed Extracts on the Termite Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

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    Bolarinwa Olugbemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and mineral composition of raw and boiled seeds of the African locust bean, Parkia biglobosa (Jacq Benth, was determined while the termiticidal action of the aqueous, alcoholic, and acetone extracts of the bean seeds were investigated. Variations in the proximate and mineral composition of the raw and boiled seeds were obtained while heavy minerals such as cadmium, cobalt, lead, nickel, and copper had been leached out of the seed during the process of boiling. Extracts from the raw seeds exhibited varying degree of termiticidal activity, while extracts from the boiled seed had no effect on the workers of Coptotermes intermedius Silvestri. Alcoholic extracts were more active than the aqueous and acetone extracts. Termites die within 30 min, 40 min, and 110 min when exposed to concentration of 4 g mL−1 treatments of alcoholic, aqueous, and acetone extracts, respectively.

  13. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay; Gayatri Jaiswal; Shoeb Ahmad; Leena Khanna; Subhash Chand Jain

    2012-01-01

    In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2), triacontanol (CDS3), and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8) which have ...

  14. Evidence for a higher number of species of Odontotermes (Isoptera than currently known from Peninsular Malaysia from mitochondrial DNA phylogenies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Cheng

    Full Text Available Termites of the genus Odontotermes are important decomposers in the Old World tropics and are sometimes important pests of crops, timber and trees. The species within the genus often have overlapping size ranges and are difficult to differentiate based on morphology. As a result, the taxonomy of Odontotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has not been adequately worked out. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of 40 samples of Odontotermes from Peninsular Malaysia using two mitochondrial DNA regions, that is, the 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes, to aid in elucidating the number of species in the peninsula. Phylogenies were reconstructed from the individual gene and combined gene data sets using parsimony and likelihood criteria. The phylogenies supported the presence of up to eleven species in Peninsular Malaysia, which were identified as O. escherichi, O. hainanensis, O. javanicus, O. longignathus, O. malaccensis, O. oblongatus, O. paraoblongatus, O. sarawakensis, and three possibly new species. Additionally, some of our taxa are thought to comprise a complex of two or more species. The number of species found in this study using DNA methods was more than the initial nine species thought to occur in Peninsular Malaysia. The support values for the clades and morphology of the soldiers provided further evidence for the existence of eleven or more species. Higher resolution genetic markers such as microsatellites would be required to confirm the presence of cryptic species in some taxa.

  15. Evidence for a Higher Number of Species of Odontotermes (Isoptera) than Currently Known from Peninsular Malaysia from Mitochondrial DNA Phylogenies

    OpenAIRE

    Shawn Cheng; Kirton, Laurence G.; Panandam, Jothi M.; Siraj, Siti S.; Kevin Kit-Siong Ng; Soon-Guan Tan

    2011-01-01

    Termites of the genus Odontotermes are important decomposers in the Old World tropics and are sometimes important pests of crops, timber and trees. The species within the genus often have overlapping size ranges and are difficult to differentiate based on morphology. As a result, the taxonomy of Odontotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has not been adequately worked out. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of 40 samples of Odontotermes from Peninsular Malaysia using two mitochondrial DNA regi...

  16. Subterranian termite genus Odontotermes (Blattaria: Isoptera: Termitidae from Chhattisgarh, India with its annotated checklist and revised key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Saha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with eight subterranean species of termites of the genus Odontotermes from Chhattisgarh, India. Taxonomic descriptions along with photographs and key to all species have been provided.  Among them six species are reported for the first time from the state.  These six species are added to the previously known eight species resulting in a total of 14 species of termite belonging to four genera under the family Termitidae from Chhattisgarh. 

  17. Evidence for a higher number of species of Odontotermes (Isoptera) than currently known from Peninsular Malaysia from mitochondrial DNA phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shawn; Kirton, Laurence G; Panandam, Jothi M; Siraj, Siti S; Ng, Kevin Kit-Siong; Tan, Soon-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Termites of the genus Odontotermes are important decomposers in the Old World tropics and are sometimes important pests of crops, timber and trees. The species within the genus often have overlapping size ranges and are difficult to differentiate based on morphology. As a result, the taxonomy of Odontotermes in Peninsular Malaysia has not been adequately worked out. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of 40 samples of Odontotermes from Peninsular Malaysia using two mitochondrial DNA regions, that is, the 16S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes, to aid in elucidating the number of species in the peninsula. Phylogenies were reconstructed from the individual gene and combined gene data sets using parsimony and likelihood criteria. The phylogenies supported the presence of up to eleven species in Peninsular Malaysia, which were identified as O. escherichi, O. hainanensis, O. javanicus, O. longignathus, O. malaccensis, O. oblongatus, O. paraoblongatus, O. sarawakensis, and three possibly new species. Additionally, some of our taxa are thought to comprise a complex of two or more species. The number of species found in this study using DNA methods was more than the initial nine species thought to occur in Peninsular Malaysia. The support values for the clades and morphology of the soldiers provided further evidence for the existence of eleven or more species. Higher resolution genetic markers such as microsatellites would be required to confirm the presence of cryptic species in some taxa.

  18. Genetic variation of symbiotic fungi cultivated by the macrotermitine termite Odontotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in the Ryukyu Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, H; Miura, T; Maekawa, K; Shinzato, N; Matsumoto, T

    2002-08-01

    Fungus-growing termites have a mutualistic relationship with their cultivated fungi. To improve understanding of genetic aspects of this relationship, we examined molecular markers in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus and its fungi Termitomyces spp. from the Ryukyu Archipelago. Based on the polymorphic band patterns obtained from arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction methods, we constructed cladograms for related colonies of the termites and fungi. The resulting trees indicated that the termites display little genetic variation among the colonies, while the symbiotic fungi consist of two major genetic types. In addition, molecular phylogenetic trees of the symbiotic fungi based on internal transcribed spacer and 18S rDNA suggested that these two types of fungi are different species. We also demonstrated that the fungi comprising the fruiting bodies and fungus combs are identical, and that fungus combs are probably a monoculture within a single termite colony. Our results indicate that horizontal transmission of symbiotic fungi among termite colonies occurred during the evolutionary history of this symbiosis.

  19. Antitermite Activities of C. decidua Extracts and Pure Compounds against Indian White Termite Odontotermes obesus (Isoptera: Odontotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we have tested antitermite responses of Capparis decidua stem, root, flower, and fruit extracts and pure compounds to Odontotermes obesus in various bioassays. Crude stem extract has shown very high susceptibility and very low LD50 values, that is, 14.171 μg/mg in worker termites. From stem extract, three pure compounds were isolated in pure form namely, heneicosylhexadecanoate (CDS2, triacontanol (CDS3, and 2-carboxy-1, 1-dimethylpyrrolidine (CDS8 which have shown very low LD50 value in a range of 5.537–10.083 μg/mg. Similarly, one novel compound 6-(1-hydroxy-non-3-enyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one (CDF1 was isolated from flower extract that has shown an LD50 8.08 μg/gm. Repellent action of compounds was tested in a Y-shaped glass olfactometer in which CDF1 compounds have significantly repelled termites to the opposite arm. Besides this, C. decidua extracts have shown significant reduction (P<0.05 and 0.01 in termite infestation in garden saplings when it was coated on cotton tags and employed over tree trunks. Further, C. deciduas stem extract was used for wood seasoning, which gave very good results as test wood sticks have shown significantly (P<0.05 and 0.01 very low termite infestation.

  20. Estimation of food composition of Hodotermes mossambicus (Isoptera: Hodotermitidae) based on observations and stable carbon isotope ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig T. Symes; Stephan Woodborne

    2011-01-01

    The diet of the harvester termite Hodotermes mossambicus was investigated at two sites with distinct dietary components: C4 grasses (δ13 C isotope values, -13.8‰to -14.0‰) and C3 plants (δ13C isotope values, -25.6‰ to -27.1‰). By comparing observations of food items carried into the colony by the termites and carbon isotope ratios of whole termites (that determined assimilated carbon), the relative proportion of the C3 and C4 plant food components of the termite diet was estimated. There was agreement between the observational data and stable carbon isotopic data, with grass representing approximately 93% of the diet of H, mossambicus at two study sites (urban and rural) on the South African highveld. However, when correcting for mass of food items, that is, C3 and C4, carried by termites, the proportion of grass (C4) in the diet may be underestimated.

  1. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  2. Transcriptome response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Carbon dioxide (CO2 is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. High CO2 concentration is a major feature of termite nests, which may be used as a cue for locating their nests. Termites also survive under an elevated CO2 concentration. However, the mechanism by which elevated CO2 concentration influences gene expression in termites is poorly understood. Methods To gain a better understanding of the molecular basis involved in the adaptation to CO2 concentration, a transcriptome of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic analyses across different CO2 concentration (0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% treatments. Results (1 Based on a high throughput sequencing platform, we obtained approximately 20 GB of clean data and revealed 189,421 unigenes, with a mean length and an N50 length of 629 bp and 974 bp, respectively. (2 The transcriptomic response of C. formosanus to elevated CO2 levels presented discontinuous changes. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes revealed 2,936 genes regulated among 0.04%, 0.4%, 4% and 40% CO2 concentration treatments, 909 genes derived from termites and 2,027 from gut symbionts. Genes derived from termites appears selectively activated under 4% CO2 level. In 40% CO2 level, most of the down-regulated genes were derived from symbionts. (3 Through similarity searches to data from other species, a number of protein sequences putatively involved in chemosensory reception were identified and characterized in C. formosanus, including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, ionotropic receptors, odorant binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins. Discussion We found that most genes associated with carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and genetic information processing were regulated under different CO2 concentrations. Results suggested that termites adapt to ∼4% CO2 level and their gut symbionts may be killed under high CO2 level. We anticipate that our findings provide insights into the transcriptome dynamics of CO2 responses in termites and form the basis to gain a better understanding of regulatory networks.

  3. Termite (Insecta, Isoptera assemblage of a gallery forest relic from the Chaco province (Argentina: taxonomic and functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godoy, M. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Termite fauna of the gallery forest in the Colonia Benitez Reserve (Chaco province, Argentina were analyzed using the rapid diversity assessment protocol (100 x 2 m transects. Twelve species, 10 genera and two families (Kalotermitidae and Termitidae, were detected, comprising the four feeding groups recognized for termites. True soil–feeders (IV showed the highest species richness, and dead wood and grasses feeders (II had the highest relative abundance. The most frequently occupied microhabitats were dead wood pieces lying on the ground. These results indicate that the Reserve harbors a diverse termite community similar to the ‘monte fuerte’ isopteran fauna (91.6% shared species. Our findings also support the Reserve´s value as a well–preserved fragment of the original gallery forest and emphasize the need to promote its conservation.

  4. Area-Wide Management of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in the New Orleans French Quarter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (FST) was first introduced to the continental US after WWII. New Orleans’ French Quarter (FQ) in particular has been severely impacted experiencing reoccurring cycles of damages and repairs since FST was introduced to the region 65 ye...

  5. Proneotermes macondianus, a new drywood termite from Colombia and expanded distribution of Proneotermes in the Neotropics (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalla, Robin; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.; Korb, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After more than one hundred years, a new drywood termite of the genus Proneotermes is described from the tropical dry forest in the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Morphological and genetic analyses are given for Proneotermes macondianus sp. n. This termite occurs in tropical dry forests in small colonies inside thin branches of dry wood. The soldier of Proneotermes macondianus is smaller and the genal horns are angled outward compared to the other two described Proneotermes species. The imago wings are unusually short and wide. Genetic analyses for COII, 12S, and 16S genes show less than three percent difference between sample localities of Proneotermes macondianus. Intergeneric comparison with selected kalotermitid genera indicates that Bifiditermes is the most closely related genus of those sequenced. New morphological descriptions and morphometric measurements of Proneotermes latifrons based on the soldier caste are also included. Neotropical locality records for Proneotermes latifrons and Proneotermes perezi are provided. PMID:27843387

  6. Acoustical tree evaluation of Coptotermes Formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) with imidacloprid and noviflumeron in historic Jackson Square, New Orleans, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine years of periodic acoustical monitoring of 93 trees active with Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, evaluated imidacloprid tree foam and noviflumuron bait on activity in trees. Long term, imidacloprid suppressed but did not eliminate termite activity in treated trees...

  7. Potential Hybridization between Two Invasive Termite Species, Coptotermes formosanus and C. gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae, and Its Biological and Economic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Yao Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Asian subterranean termite, Coptotermes gestroi, is a tropical species but has increasingly been collected from the subtropics in recent years, making it sympatric to the Formosan subterranean termite, C. formosanus in at least three areas, Taiwan, Hawaii, and Florida. Simultaneous flights by these two species were observed since 2013 in South Florida, during which interspecies tandems were observed. Laboratory mating of C. formosanus and C. gestroi alates produced hybrid incipient colonies of larger population size. Studies are underway to examine the presence in the field of hybrid colonies in sympatric areas of Taiwan and Florida. Other biological characteristics of C. formosanus × C. gestroi hybrids being studied include temperature tolerance and preference, colony growth rate, wood-consumption rate, and reproductive fertility. This current research aims to determine the potential establishment of a hybrid termite population in south Florida and Taiwan. It investigates the risk of introgressive hybridization in field populations, with an emphasis on its potential ecological, evolutionary, and economic consequences.

  8. Effect of Bait Supplements on the Feeding and Tunneling Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study examined the effects of water soluble chemicals from an aqueous extract of Summon Preferred Food Source disks and from a sports drink, Gatorade, on the feeding and tunneling behavior of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. Both Summon extract and Gato...

  9. Testicular development and modes of apoptosis during spermatogenesis in various castes of the termite Reticulitermes labralis (Isoptera:Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao Hong; Chen, Jiao Ling; Zhang, Xiao Jing; Xue, Wei; Liu, He; Xing, Lian Xi

    2015-11-01

    The separation of reproductive and non-reproductive roles based on caste differentiation is the most prominent characteristic of termites. However, little is known about the mechanism of male reproductive division that underlies caste differentiation. In the present study, testicular development and stage-specific apoptotic patterns were investigated and compared during spermatogenesis in reproductives, workers and soldiers of the termite Reticulitermes labralis. The results showed that male workers were divided into two types, the workers with spermatozoa (WS) and the workers without spermatozoa (WN). Spermatogenesis in WN and soldiers arrested at the spermatocyte stage. Moreover, there were significant differences in testicular size and spermatogenesis among the various castes. The mode of apoptosis in late instar WS was similar to the reproductives, as demonstrated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analysis. First, the majority of apoptotic cells were spermatogonia, and the spermatogonia of both late instar WS and reproductives exhibited lower apoptotic rates compared with late instar WN and soldiers. Second, the spermatocytes and spermatids showed very little apoptosis in the late instar WS and reproductives, and no TUNEL signal was detected in any of the examined spermatozoa. Our findings suggest that the male workers undergo a basal developmental schema comprising two undifferentiated larval instars, followed by a bifurcated development into either (i) the sexual lineage, in which the workers are able to provide normal spermatozoa to queens, or (ii) the neuter lineage, in which the male workers lose reproductive options. The level of testicular development may explain the significant discrepancies in reproductive capacity among the reproductives, workers and soldiers and reveal the reproductive division in male workers. These differences are controlled by apoptosis during early spermatogenesis.

  10. Structural requirements for repellency: norsesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoid derivatives of nootkatone against the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Betty C R; Henderson, Gregg; Sauer, Anne M; Crowe, William; Laine, Roger A

    2010-08-01

    Research has shown that the family of grapefruit flavors called nootkatones have significant repellant and toxic effects to Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Nineteen synthetic nootkatone derivatives, along with three commercially available nootkatone derivatives, were tested for repellent activity against C. formosanus by a choice assay in a petri dish with a two-step triage procedure. Based on the repellency threshold value, the relationships between structure and activity are discussed. Four derivatives of nootkatone have very high repellency and toxicity to C. formosanus, 9 times the potency of the primary compound nootkatone. Four other compounds have between 2 and 3 times the repellency of nootkatones, and three compounds are equal in their repellency to nootkatone. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Effects of antibiotics on hydrogen production and gut symbionts in the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueqing Cao; Jian-Zhong Sun; Jose M.Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms that inhabit the gut of Coptoterrnes forrnosanus enable this termite to degrade lignocelluloses and further produce hydrogen as an important intermediate to be recycled in its hindgut or as a byproduct to be emitted to the atmosphere.Both symbiotic protists and prokaryotes in the guts of termites demonstrated some different roles with respect to hydrogen production.In this study,the effects of two antibiotics,ampicillin and tetracycline,on hydrogen emission and the gut symbionts of C.formosanus were investigated.Hydrogen emission from termite guts was significantly enhanced when termites fed on wood diets treated with either ampicillin or tetracycline.The greatest H2 emission rates,2519 ± 74 and 2080 ± 377 nmol/h/g body weight,were recorded with the treatments of ampicillin and tetracycline,respectively,which showed 6-7 times more H2 production than that of controls.Antibiotic-treated diets negatively affected the prokaryotic communities and reduced their abundances,particularly on those ectosymbionts inhabiting the gut walls or in the gut fluid of C.formosanus,such as spirochetes.However,no significant reductions in the counts of gut cellulolytic protists,Pseudotrichonympha grassii and Holonastigotoids hartmanni,were recorded; and with a further observation by confocal laser scanning microscopy,the endosymbionts inhabiting P.grassii generally survived the antibiotic treatments.These results suggest that some prokaryotes may serve as the main hydrogen consumers,while P.grassii,together with its endosymbionts,may function as the main contributors for hydrogen production in the hindgut of C.formosanus.

  12. Isolation and assessment of gut bacteria from the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), for paratransgenesis research and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhe, Chinmay V; Sethi, Amit; Delatte, Jennifer; Husseneder, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Paratransgenesis targeting the gut protozoa is being developed as an alternative method for the control of the Formosan subterranean termite (FST). This method involves killing the cellulose-digesting gut protozoa using a previously developed antiprotozoal peptide consisting of a target specific ligand coupled to an antimicrobial peptide (Hecate). In the future, we intend to genetically engineer termite gut bacteria as "Trojan Horses" to express and spread ligand-Hecate in the termite colony. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of bacteria strains isolated from the gut of FST as "Trojan Horses." We isolated 135 bacteria from the guts of workers from 3 termite colonies. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene identified 20 species. We tested 5 bacteria species that were previously described as part of the termite gut community for their tolerance against Hecate and ligand-Hecate. Results showed that the minimum concentration required to inhibit bacteria growth was always higher than the concentration required to kill the gut protozoa. Out of the 5 bacteria tested, we engineered Trabulsiella odontotermitis, a termite specific bacterium, to express green fluorescent protein as a proof of concept that the bacteria can be engineered to express foreign proteins. Engineered T. odontotermitis was fed to FST to study if the bacteria are ingested. This feeding experiment confirmed that engineered T. odontotermitis is ingested by termites and can survive in the gut for at least 48 h. Here we report that T. odontotermitis is a suitable delivery and expression system for paratransgenesis in a termite species. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Biflora-4,10(19),15-triene: a new diterpene from a termite soldier (isoptera termitidae termitinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiemer, D.F. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY); Meinwald, J.; Prestwich, G.D.; Solheim, B.A.; Clardy, J.

    1980-01-04

    This communication describes spectrometric, chemical, and x-ray diffraction studies leading to the assignment of the structure to this diterpene. The name assigned is biflora-4,10(19),15-triene on the basis of its skeletal relationship to the violet-red, o-quinonoid antibiotic biflorin, a constituent of the Brazilian medicinal plant Capraria biflora L. The triene was isolated from a hexane extract. The mass spectra and NMR spectra were measured. The compound was esterified with p-bromobenzoyl chloride. The p-bromobenzoate crystallized in the monoclinic crystal system. Lattice parameters were measured. Intensity data were collected on a fully automated four-circle diffractometer. 1666 unique reflections were judged observed after correction for Lorentz, polarization, and background effects. The bromine position was deduced from the Patterson synthesis with complications. Careful selection of atoms finally yielded the correct structure. Full-matrix least-square refinements converged to the current minimum crystallographic residual of 0.090. A computer-generated perspective drawing of the final x-ray model is shown. 1 figure.

  14. Variations in abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the Quervain syndrome: a surgical and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Teerawat; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-two wrists of Thai cadavers and the wrists of 66 patients with de Quervain syndrome were studied, and the variation in the number of tendons and the fibro-osseous tunnel in the first extensor compartment were recorded. The abductor pollicis longus had more than one tendon in 73 of the cadavers (89%) and in 32 of the patients (49%) (p Quervain syndrome (p = 0.01). The results indicate that the number of fibro-osseous tunnels and multiple compartments in the first extensor compartment may be associated with a predisposition to de Quervain syndrome.

  15. Neither elevated nor reduced CO2 affects the photophysiological performance of the marine Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; de Poll, Willem H. van; van der Strate, Han J.; Neven, Ika A.; Beardall, John; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced or reduced pCO(2) (partial pressure of CO2) may affect the photosynthetic performance of marine microalgae since changes in pCO(2) can influence the activity of carbon concentrating mechanisms, modulate cellular RuBisCO levels or alter carbon uptake efficiency. In the present study we compa

  16. Fluorescence study on ligand induced conformational changes of glutamine synthetase from Bacillus brevis Bb G1 under sporulating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUJA ABRAHAM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutamine synthetase, an important enzyme of nitrogen metabolism, was purified under sporulating conditions (GSala. The effect of ligands on the tryptophan fluorescence of the purified enzyme GSala was investigated. With increasing concentrations of L-glutamine in GSala, a blue shift in emission maximum with an increase in fluorescence intensity and decrease in life times were observed compared to the emission maximum, fluorescence intensity and life times of GSala. With increasing concentrations of glycine in GSala, a shift in emission maximum, change in fluorescence intensity and change in lifetimes were observed compared to the emission maximum, fluorescence intensity and life times of GSala. These observations strongly support the possibility that GSala undergoes a conformational change on binding with ligands and each ligand produced different conformational changes in GSala. Also, different concentrations of each ligand produced different protein conformations in the enzyme GSala.

  17. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance...... against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS...

  18. Characterization of soybean fermented by aflatoxin non-producing Aspergillus oryzae and γ-aminobutyric acid producing Lactobacillus brevis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Nam Yeun; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize fermented soybean products with enhanced safety and bioactive compound using aflatoxin non-producing Aspergillus oryzae FMB S46471 and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA...

  19. “Per fortuna ci sono le mucche.” Brevi considerazioni sul valore del pañcgavya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Nadal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the value of pañcgavya and its role in Hindu culture and religion. “Pañcgavya” is a Sanskrit word which means “the five of the cow”, i.e. milk, curd, clarified butter, dung and urine. These five products can be used one by one or combined together in proper ratio. For centuries they have been used in traditional Hindu rituals as prasad (religious offering consumed by the worshippers, as medicaments in Ayurvedic medicine and as fertilizers and pesticides. Nowadays these cow products are utilized for personal hygiene and for household cleanliness as well. The medicinal usage of pañcgavya, particularly cow urine, is commonly known as “cowpathy” and is very appreciated by Indian, especially Hindu, consumers. The reasons of this success are the eco-friendliness of these natural products and, above all, the fact that they come from the body of the most esteemed animal of India. In Hindu culture the cow is considered to be the highest example of purity and perfection and the best emblem of generosity and plenty. The “five of the cow” are the most important products of this magnanimity.

  20. REMOVAL OF HARMFUL ALGAL CELLS (KARENIA BREVIS) AND TOXINS FROM SEAWATER CULTURE BY CLAY FLOCCULATION. (R827090)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. Bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome variant secondary to extensor hallucis brevis muscle hypertrophy in a ballet dancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Joshua N; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary EHB hypertrophy in a dancer, with successful treatment with bilateral EHB muscle excisions for decompression. The bilateral presentation of this case with the treatment of EHB muscle excision is the first of its type reported in the literature.

  2. Competenze, assi culturali e discipline. Un’esperienza di progettazione didattica a Monteroni d’Arbia: brevi note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Caione

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a literacy about Skills Approach in education involves a general re-thinking of education, in relation to epochal challenges, to a more active and participatory citizenship and to a knowledge linked to people’s existential needs and professional too. This work is to assume that skill/competence as a model in education is possible, and it becomes even desirable. Skills become an instrument for the effective exercise of citizenship rights and contribute to enhance the student's ability to make informed and independent choices in many contexts. This paper has three goals: placing the meaning of skill/competence in education, favoring the interpretation of international and local law about lifelong learning, promoting an integration among skills, knowledge and school matters. A training experience aimed to Italian teachers further demonstrates how organ- ize, promote and practice these integrations: so the school is not passive of new social inquiry but is an active lead of cultural change associated with ‘skills’.

  3. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. The Importance Of Art In Human Life. A Proustian Interpretation Of Honigmann’s Forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noortwijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present an exploration of the theme of art’s power within human life in Heddy Honigmann’s documentary film Forever (2006), which exemplifies her obsession with this topic. The film’s contemplation of art is a self-reflexive one, as it uses the medium of film to explore represent

  4. Ars Longa, Vita Brevis. The Importance Of Art In Human Life. A Proustian Interpretation Of Honigmann’s Forever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noortwijk, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to present an exploration of the theme of art’s power within human life in Heddy Honigmann’s documentary film Forever (2006), which exemplifies her obsession with this topic. The film’s contemplation of art is a self-reflexive one, as it uses the medium of film to explore

  5. Brevi riflessioni in tema di procreazione medicalmente assistita a partire dalla sentenza n. 162 del 2014 della Corte costituzionale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Dalla Villa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. La fine del divieto di fecondazione eterologa in Italia – 2. Dignità umana e tradizione dottrinale in ordine alla procreazione – 3. La logica della donazione nel Magistero della Chiesa – 4. Duttilità disciplinare e opportune cautele: le tematiche aperte dalla Consulta.

  6. PHYSIOCHEMICAL LIGNOCELLULOSE MODIFICATION IN THE FORMOSAN SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE COPTOTERMES FORMOSANUS SHIRAKI (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE AND POTENTIAL USES IN THE PRODUCTION OF BIOFUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Li,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and other wood-feeding insects have the ability to digest cellulose and structurally modify or degrade lignin. We examined the physical and chemical changes to lignocellulosic components of Chinese red pine (Pinus massoniana after passing through the termite (C. formosanus digestive system. The purpose of this research was to evaluate biochemical digestive processes in the C. formosanus gut as potential models for biofuels processing. Results suggest that demethylation, demethoxylation, and propyl side-chain modification are responsible for higher lignin removal and cellulose crystallinity reduction after structural alteration. SEM images also further indicated that unlike the fungus- growing termites Odontotermes formosanus, the lower termites C. formosanus disrupted the lignocellulose structure, and thus resulted in an increase of surface area to cellulase. Comparative enzymatic hydrolysis tests between raw wood and C. formosanus faeces revealed an enhanced level of enzymatic digestibility in digested material. Based on the results, C. formosanus can efficiently modify lignin at ambient temperatures and pressures in contrast to current methods used in biofuels production.

  7. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera), in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L.) (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Appel, Arthur G.; Xing Ping Hu; Jinxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Qin; Hongyan Zhu; Xiangqian Chang; Zhijing Wang; Xianqin Liu; Mingyan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L.), located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60%) trees had multiple tubes at all directions. H...

  8. Two new species of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) found in fungus gardens of Odontotermes termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae) in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Taisuke Kanao; Munetoshi Maruyama; Watana Sakchoowong

    2010-01-01

    Discoxenus katayamai sp. n. and Odontoxenus thailandicus sp. n. are described from Khao Yai National Park, East Thailand. Both species were collected from nests of termite of the genus Odontotermes Holmgren, 1912. These are the first records of both genera from Thailand. Discoxenus katayamai is similar to D. indicus Wasmann, 1904, and O. thailandicus is similar to O. butteri (Wasmann, 1916). Each species is easily distinguished from their congeners by the body size, the number of the setae on...

  9. Two new species of Aleocharinae (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae found in fungus gardens of Odontotermes termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Macrotermitinae in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taisuke Kanao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discoxenus katayamai sp. n. and Odontoxenus thailandicus sp. n. are described from Khao Yai National Park, East Thailand. Both species were collected from nests of termite of the genus Odontotermes Holmgren, 1912. These are the first records of both genera from Thailand. Discoxenus katayamai is similar to D. indicus Wasmann, 1904, and O. thailandicus is similar to O. butteri (Wasmann, 1916. Each species is easily distinguished from their congeners by the body size, the number of the setae on the pronotum, elytra and abdomen and other characters discussed below.

  10. Observations of the Biology and Ecology of the Black-Winged Termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki (Termitidae: Isoptera, in Camphor, Cinnamomum camphora (L. (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur G. Appel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the biology and ecology of the black-winged termite, Odontotermes formosanus Shiraki, were examined in a grove of camphor trees, Cinnamomum camphora (L., located at the Fruit and Tea Institute, Wuhan, China. Of the 90 trees examined, 91.1% had evidence of termite activity in the form of exposed mud tubes on the bark. There was no relationship between tree diameter and mud tube length. Mud tubes faced all cardinal directions; most (60% trees had multiple tubes at all directions. However, if a tree only had one tube, 22.2% of those tubes faced the south. The majority (>99% of mud tubes were found on the trunk of the tree. Approximately 35% of all mud tubes had termite activity. Spatial distribution of termite activity was estimated using camphor and fir stakes installed throughout the grove. Camphor stakes were preferred. Kriging revealed a clumped distribution of termite activity.

  11. Tunnel geometry of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in response to sand bulk density and the presence of food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T(A)NIA NOBRE; LINA NUNES; DAVID E. BIGNELL

    2007-01-01

    The cryptic habits of subterranean termites restricts detailed analysis of their foraging patterns in situ, but the process is evidently dominated by tunnel constructions connecting the nest with woody resources discovered within the territory of each colony.In this study, tunnel formation and orientation were studied experimentally in the termite taining fine sand as the substratum. The building of exploratory tunnels over a 10-day period and the geometry of the resulting network are described. Fractal analysis showed that tunnel geometry had a fractal dimension, regardless of the total length tunnelled whether foragers encountered the food source or not. The bulk density of the sand in the arenas affected the distances tunnelled, with higher density reducing construction, but did not affect tunnel geometry. Tunnels were not discernibly orientated with respect to the positioning of the food source, even in a situation where termites had failed to find the food source at a distance of less than 50 mm, suggesting that volatiles from wood are not attractants.

  12. Morphology of the alate and worker mandibles of the soil-feeding nasute termites (Isoptera, Termitidae, Nasutitermitinae from the neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Roberto Fontes

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the mandibles of the alates and workers of the 8 soil-feeding genera with nasute soldiers from the Neotropical Region is studied. Three mandibular patterns are recognized : (1 Convexitermes, Atlantitermes, Araujotermes, Coatitermes, Subulitermes and Agnathotermes have mandibles with complete marginal dentition and no reduced teeth, (2 Angularitermes has mandibles with complete marginal dentition but two teeth are vestigial, and in (3 Cyronotermes the marginal dentition is incomplete. A set of other characteristics is associated with each of these mandibular patterns. Intraspecific variation are registered, either between the alate and the worker castes of all genera, as between the worker types of the dimorphic worker caste of the genera with complete and developed marginal dentition. Such dimorphism was previously unreported for the soil-feeding Nasutitermitinae; the soldier arises from one worker type.

  13. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  14. Ocorrência de térmitas subterrâneos (isoptera: rhinotermitidae e termitidae) e durabilidade natural da madeira de cinco esencias florestais

    OpenAIRE

    Henrique Trevisan; Janaína De Nadai; Lunz, Alexandre M.; Acacio G. de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluating of the wood natural durability of five arboreal essences: Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud, Lophantera lactescens Ducke, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart.) Macbr. and Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. The field experiment was accomplished in the campus of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro from February, 2001 to November, 2002. Six samples of each essence partially buried in vertical position were disposed at random in ...

  15. Ocorrência de térmitas subterrâneos (isoptera: rhinotermitidae e termitidae e durabilidade natural da madeira de cinco esencias florestais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Trevisan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluating of the wood natural durability of five arboreal essences: Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Steud, Lophantera lactescens Ducke, Piptadenia gonoacantha (Mart. Macbr. and Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. The field experiment was accomplished in the campus of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro from February, 2001 to November, 2002. Six samples of each essence partially buried in vertical position were disposed at random in five blocks. In laboratory, following a system of notes related to the wood healthy state, the samples were classed accorging to a behavioral index for each species in relation to the wood aspect. The samples bark condition, the hardness of the wood and the presence of longitudinal cracks were also observed in the body of the sample Laphantera lactescens and Piptadenia gonoacantha were the most and less durable woods according to the evaluated parameters, respectively. In 47% of the samples that were attacked three species of termites were identified: Coptotermes havilandi, Nasutitermes jaraguae and Nasutitermes minor.

  16. 深圳口岸进口原木截获的白蚁(等翅目)%Termites (Isoptera) Intercepted from Imported Logs at Shenzhen Port

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余道坚; 陈志粦; 金显忠

    2002-01-01

    记录深圳口岸1998~2001年期间从进口原木中截获的3科7属12种白蚁,包括黄檀新白蚁Neotermes dalbergiae (Kalshoven),大家白蚁Coptotermes curvignathus Holmgren,塞庞乳白蚁C.sepangensis Krishna,婆罗乳白蚁C.borneensis Oshima,非洲乳白蚁C.sjostedti Holmgren,沙捞越长鼻白蚁Schedorhinotermes sarawakensis (Holmgren),中暗长鼻白蚁S.medioobscurus (Holmgren),哈氏象白蚁Nastutitermes havilandi (Desneux),镰锯白蚁Microcerotermes distans (Havilandi),邻白蚁Termes propinquus (Holmgren),印度弓白蚁Amitermes belli (Desneux) 和齿弓白蚁A.dentatus (Havilandi).编制了分种检索表,并对上述国内没有分布的白蚁种类兵蚁的形态和鉴定特征作了描述和图示.

  17. Atributos edáficos e de termiteiros de cupim-de-montículo (Isoptera: Termitidae em Pinheiral-RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Barreto Alves Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Amostras de terra e de termiteiros da espécie Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (cupim-de-montículo foram comparadas quanto às propriedades químicas e biológicas, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência dos térmitas em algumas propriedades dos solos. O trabalho foi realizado em Pinheiral-RJ, em áreas de pastagem formada, pastagem nativa e plantio de eucalipto. Foram coletadas amostras de 60 termiteiros e do solo adjacente, ao longo de um ano, em quatro estações. A biomassa microbiana encontrada nos termiteiros foi superior à do solo na maioria das áreas e das estações avaliadas, e o fracionamento do carbono demonstrou que a maior parte deste está sob a forma de humina.

  18. CHANGES IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF SUBTERRANEAN TERMITE COLONIES (ISOPTERA: RHINOTERMITIDAE) IN CITY PARK, NEW ORLEANS, LOUISIANA IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termite activity had been continuously monitored in four sections of City Park since 2002. Between 2002 and 2005, 12 distinct Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, colonies had been delineated using mark-release-recapture techniques. This study examines how the distribution ...

  19. Toxic effects of palpoluck Polygonum hydropepper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. plants extracts against termites Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Zeb

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A research project was carried out aimed at to study the toxic effects of Palpoluck Polygonum hydropipper L. and Bhang Cannabis sativa L. crude extracts against two species of termites i.e. Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann and Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann at Nuclear institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA Peshawar, Pakistan in April 2002. Results revealed that after ten days of feeding maximum percent mortality in case of Polygonum hydropipper L. leaf and flower extracts was 28.0, 52.0, 28 and 74.7 for H. indicola and Coptotermes heimi respectively, while in control only 10.7 and 12.0% mortality were recorded. Similarly, for the same species of termites the percent mortality in Cannabis sativa L. extracts was 54.7, 64.0, 58.7 and 70.7 for leaf and seed extracts respectively, while in control only 12.0 and 10.7% mortality were observed. In each extract mortality was significantly different from that of control. Toxic effects of both extracts (leaf and flower were more profound against Coptotermes heimi than Heterotermes indicola during these ten days of feeding. Also the seed extracts caused more mortality than the leaves for both species, suggesting the availability of high contents of toxic materials in seed.

  20. ALGUNAS OBSERVACIONES SOBRE LA ESTRUCTURA DEL NIDO Y COMPOSICIÓN DE COLONIAS DE Pseudomyrmex termitarius (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE BELLO (ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA SOME OBSERVATIONS ON THE NEST STRUCTURE AND COLONY COMPOSITION OF Pseudomyrmex termitarius (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE IN ABELLO ( ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA LOCALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Alexander Pulgarín Díaz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se han realizado pocos estudios sobre la composición de las colonias y arquitectura del nido, no solo de especies del género Pseudomyrmex si no en general de la familia Formicidae. P. termitarius es una de las dos especies del género que nidifica en el suelo. Ésta ha sido objeto de pocas investigaciones ecológicas y etológicas. En este trabajo se estudió la composición de colonias de P. termitarius, la arquitectura de su nido en una localidad de Bello (Antioquia, Colombia y se realizaron observaciones sobre el establecimiento in vitro de colonias de la especie. Se excavaron 27 nidos, cada uno contenido, dentro de bloques cilíndricos de suelo de 35 cm de profundidad y 20 cm de diámetro aproximadamente. Quince de estos nidos se utilizaron para estudiar la composición de las colonias, en los cuales se contaron los individuos contenidos. Ocho nidos se establecieron en condiciones in vitro y se les proporcionó diferentes dietas. Para estudiar la estructura de los nidos se vació yeso con agua en 12 de los 27 nidos, se excavaron y se separó la estructura del nido formada por el yeso. Se realizaron observaciones sobre su arquitectura. Una colonia típica de P. termitarius posee un máximo de 297 individuos; el máximo número de obreras es de 102. Se discute la causa de la ausencia de reina en la mayoría de los nidos excavados y la hipótesis de que la especie sea polidómica y/o posea obreras gamergadas. La estructura de los nidos de la especie posee la forma típica de nidos subterráneos de hormigas, con máximo 22 cm profundidad y 5 cámaras de 1.63 cm³ aproximadamente. La estructura externa de los nidos es bien conocida, pero no la interna. De los ocho nidos in vitro sobrevivieron cuatro por 14 meses, con una dieta de Cryptotermes brevis e imagos de Drosophilidae congelados y solución de agua-miel.Few studies have been conducted on colony composition and nest architecture of Pseudomyrmex species or even in general for the family

  1. Spatial distribution of nests of Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae in a pasture in the municipality of Rio Claro (SP, Brazil / Distribuição espacial dos ninhos de Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae em uma área de pastagem no município de Rio Claro (SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Tunes Buschini

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The nests of Cornitermes cumulans were detected as randomly distributed in a pasture in the municipality of Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil. The mean distance between each nest and its closest neighboring nest influenced their mean volume at the level (mean volume = 27.002 + 4.508 nearest neighbor distance; r= 0.155**, n = 61. Although the distribution pattern of the nests of Cornitermes cumulans was random, competition may be one of the limiting factors for the growth of the colonies which could support the hypothesis that this pattern is tending toward an aggregation, or is, at a larger scale, an aggregating pattern.

  2. Termitofauna (Insecta, Isoptera em Remanescentes de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual em São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Assemblages of termites (Insecta, Isoptera in fragments of stationary semideciduous forest in São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Faria Florencio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido relatado que o desmatamento e a fragmentação florestal alteram a riqueza e/ou a abundância das comunidades animais, havendo uma relação positiva com o tamanho do fragmento. Visando testar esta hipótese, foram comparadas as termitofaunas de seis remanescentes de floresta estacional semidecidual e de uma área desmatada em início de sucessão vegetal, com diferentes tamanhos. Em dez setores intercalados de um transecto traçado em cada ambiente, os térmitas foram procurados sob pedras, no interior de ninhos, troncos e galhos, sobre/sob a casca dos troncos e em amostras de solo do horizonte-A. Por área, foram analisadas: a composição da termitofauna, as riquezas de espécies observada e estimada e a relação área-riqueza observada. No total, foram coletadas 11 espécies de nove gêneros e duas famílias (Kalotermitidae e Termitidae. De Termitidae, a subfamília Apicotermitinae apresentou a maior riqueza de espécies (Sobs=6 e foi encontrada em cinco áreas, enquanto Nasutitermitinae, com a segunda maior riqueza (Sobs=4, foi registrada nos sete ambientes. A riqueza variou de duas a seis espécies, mas não mostrou relação com o tamanho da área. A análise de agrupamento revelou a existência de quatro grupos de áreas que pela composição de espécies apresentaram similaridades variando de 60 a 40%. Pelos padrões de ocorrência, cinco espécies (uma/ambiente foram categorizadas como raras e as demais como intermediárias. Os resultados sugerem que a fragmentação e o desmatamento da floresta estacional semidecidual local interferiram mais na composição do que na riqueza de espécies de térmitas.It has been reported that forest fragmentation modifies the richness and/or the abundance of communities. To test this hypothesis it was evaluated the fauna of termites of six fragments of stationary semideciduous forest and an area in early succession. In each one it was designed a transect (100 m x 2 m, divided into 20 plots (5 m x 2 m. In ten of these plots the collections were conducted under stones, in the nests, trunks and branches, over/under trunk barks and in five soil samples (340 cm³ of the A-horizon by plot with a sampling effort of 60 minutes/plot. The composition, the observed and estimated species richness, the relation between area and observed richness, as well as the occurrence and dominance patterns of each species were analyzed. Eleven species from nine genera and two families (Kalotermitidae and Termitidae were collected, rising the number of species registered in the state from 14 to 18. The subfamily, Apicotermitinae with the upper species richness (S=6, was found in five of the seven areas, while Nasutitermitinae, with the second highest number of species (Sobs=4, was collected in all areas. The richness varied from two to six species, and was not related to the area size. Five species were considered rare, but the others were intermediate. The areas were grouped in four groups with 60, 57, 50 and 40% of similarity, with the species composition as the highest difference between them, suggesting that fragmentation of the local forest influenced more the composition than the richness of termites.

  3. Binding Assays for the Quantitative Detection of P. brevis Polyether Neurotoxins in Biological Samples and Antibodies as Therapeutic Aids for Polyether Marine Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    List 31 3 I | | I I I I I I I I I I L I. List of Appendices, Illustrations, Tables Tables Page U Table 1. Nomenclature for the Brevetoxins. a Table 2... NOMENCLATURE FOR THE BREVETOXINS* Notation Synonyms Reference PbTx-1 Brevetoxin-A 10,11 GB-1 11,12 PbTx-2 Brevetoxin-B 13 GB-2 11 T34 4 PbTx-3 GB-3 11 T17 5...PbTx-7 (reduced PbTx- 1) was dissolved in a minimal volume of redistilled pyridine, and a ten-fold molar excess of succinic anhydride in pyridine was

  4. A 1-D Simulation Analysis of the Development and Maintenance of the 2001 Red Tide of the Ichthyotoxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    excretion; grazing; settling; and migration for each group of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (Table 1). In this complex ecological model, the carbon...Results 3.1. Phytoplankton The phytoplankton community of the model’s baseline case reproduced initiation of the spring transition of microalgae ...of the zooplankton herbivores, which both eat these microalgae and, in turn, are subject to predation by clupeid and chaetognath carnivores. Proper

  5. ECOHAB: Kamykowski_D- Florida Process Cruise 11/16-19/1998- Karenia brevis counts, biochemistry and behavior (NODC Accession 0000534)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Water bottle samples were collected from selected depths (variable with station) at 14 stations in the study area. Coulter counts in the 14-28 um size...

  6. ECOHAB: Kamykowski_D- Florida Process Cruise 11/16-19/1998- Karenia brevis counts, biochemistry and behavior (NODC Accession 0000533)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Water bottle samples were collected from selected depths (variable with station) at 44 stations in the study area. Coulter counts in the 14 to 28 um size...

  7. Characterization, cloning and sequencing of a thermostable endo-(1, 3-1, 4) beta-glucanase-encoding gene from an alkalophilic Bacillus-brevis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available amyloliquefaciens shows extensive ho- mology with that of Bacillus subtilis. Gene 49:177-187 Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the as- sembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227 : 680-685 Lloberas J... as a host for molecular cloning. Methods Enzymol 68:342-357 Messing J (1979) A multipurpose cloning system based on single stranded DNA bacteriophage M13. Recomb DNA Tech Bull 2:43 Murphy N, McConnell DJ, Cantwell BA...

  8. Putrescine production via the ornithine decarboxylation pathway improves the acid stress survival of Lactobacillus brevis and is part of a horizontally transferred acid resistance locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Andrea; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A; Lucas, Patrick M

    2014-04-03

    Decarboxylation pathways are widespread among lactic acid bacteria; their physiological role is related to acid resistance through the regulation of the intracellular pH and to the production of metabolic energy via the generation of a proton motive force and its conversion into ATP. These pathways include, among others, biogenic amine (BA) production pathways. BA accumulation in foodstuffs is a health risk; thus, the study of the factors involved in their production is of major concern. The analysis of several lactic acid bacterial strains isolated from different environments, including fermented foods and beverages, revealed that the genes encoding these pathways are clustered on the chromosome, which suggests that these genes are part of a genetic hotspot related to acid stress resistance. Further attention was devoted to the ornithine decarboxylase pathway, which affords putrescine from ornithine. Studies were performed on three lactic acid bacteria belonging to different species. The ODC pathway was always shown to be involved in cytosolic pH alkalinisation and acid shock survival, which were observed to occur with a concomitant increase in putrescine production.

  9. SURVEY OF THE STEROL COMPOSITION OF THE MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES KARENIA BREVIS, KARENIA MIKIMOTOI, AND KARLODINIUM MICRUM: DISTRIBUTION OF STEROLS WITHIN OTHER MEMBERS OF THE CLASS DINOPHYCEAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sterol composition of different marine microalgae was examined to determine the utility of sterols as biomarkers to distinguish members of various algal classes. For example, members of the class Dinophyceae possess certain 4-methyl sterols, such as dinosterol, which are rare...

  10. Brevi riflessioni sull’art. 17 TFUE e sul progetto di Direttiva del Consiglio recante disposizioni in materia di divieto di discriminazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Montesano

    2015-05-01

       Brief reflections on art. 17 TFEU and on the draft Directive laying down rules for the application of the principle of equal treatment three persons irrespective of religion or belief, disability, age, sexual orientation  The essay is to analyze the recent developments affecting the relationship between the European Union , religious denominations and religious perspective in general in the light of what is stated in art. 17 TFEU and in a renewed ideological Community regulatory framework resulting after the changes introduced by the Lisbon Treaty . In the final part of the paper, it focuses on the new draft Directive COM 426/2008 laying down rules against discrimination (including religious, and on the general secular identity dimension of the European Union in matters religious.

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    User

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... CONTROL AND PREVENTION OFBIODETERIORATION CAUSED BY TERMITES. (ISOPTERA). ⃰Oludairo, O. O. .... fluosilicate powder, arsenic dust, boric acid and ... is none repellent and has slow toxic action. (Grace, 1990).

  12. Foreign gene transfer in termite cells using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), are well known for their destruction of human dwellings and flora in the tropics and subtropics. A method to deliver foreign genes in...

  13. Patogenicidade de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride e Beauveria bassiana a Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Isoptera: Termitidae) em cana-de-açúcar e compatibilidade com inseticidas químicos

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride e Beauveria bassiana têm ação comprovada contra diversas espécies de insetos. Os cupins podem ser infectados por esses fungos naturalmente. Avaliou-se a ação desses fungos sobre Nasutitermes coxipoensis em laboratório e quantificou-se a produção de conídios nos insetos mortos. A compatibilidade de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae reisolado de N. coxipoensis com os inseticidas fipronil, imidaclopride e ensossulfan fo...

  14. Toprakaltı termiti Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)’ya karşı indoxacarb ve chlorfenapyr’in laboratuvar koşullarında etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    MISBAH-UL-HAQ, Muhammad; KHAN, Imtiaz Ali; FARID, Abid; ULLAH, Misbah; GOUGE, Dawn H.; Paul B. Baker

    2016-01-01

    Indoxacarb ve chlorfenapyrin’in, Toprakaltı termiti, Heterotermes indicola (Wasmann)’da beslenme engelleyici ve bireyler arasında taşınma etkileri 2013-2014 yıllarında Gıda ve Tarım Nükleer Enstitüsü (NIFA) (Peshawar, Pakistan)’nde laboratuvar testleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. Test edilen kimyasal konsantrasyonları indoxacarb için 1-100 ppm (ağırlık/ağırlık) ve chlorfenapyrin 1 ile 7 ppm (ağırlık/ağırlık) arasında değişmiştir. Gözlemler indoxacarb’ın 50 ppm üzerindeki dozlarda hızlı ölüme seb...

  15. PURIFICATION AND SOME PROPERTIES OF CELLULASE FROM ODONTOTERMES FORMOSANUS (ISOPTERA:TERMITIDAE)%黑翅土白蚁纤维素酶纯化及其特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天赐; 莫建初; 程家安

    2004-01-01

    The purification of the cellulase from Odontotermes formosanus workers was achieved by using anion-exchange column of UNOsphere Q, BioLogic DuoFlow chromatography system. The purified cellulase was identified as an endoglucanase and some of its properties were investigated. The Egase activity was 807.5-fold as high as the initial enzyme activity using CMC as substrate and 14.4-fold using salicin as substrate. The enzyme preparations were homogeneous as judged by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, molecular weight of which was 80 kDa and confirmed by 2-DE zymogram analysis. The enzyme was isoelectric at pH 6.4, which was active on CMC substrate.%利用DuoFlow层析系统阴离子交换柱UNOsphere Q,从黑翅土白蚁工蚁体内分离出内切葡聚糖酶.以羧甲基纤维素和水杨苷为底物,测得纯化酶的活性分别是原酶液的807.5和14.4倍.经变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳分析,获得单一的蛋白条带,其分子量大小为80kDa.经双向电泳图谱分析,其等电点为6.4.

  16. ESPÉCIES DE CUPINS (ISOPTERA EM CULTURA DE EUCALIPTO SOB DIFERENTES SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE IRRIGAÇÃO, EM REGIÃO DE TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO-PANTANAL DE MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tavares da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O eucalipto sofre severos danos por cupins durante a implantação das mudas no campo, sendo considerada praga importante da cultura. No ecótono Cerrado/Pantanal não existem estudos anteriores sobre a ocorrência de cupins em plantações de eucalipto. O objetivo foi conhecer a riqueza de cupins, sua distribuição nos tratamentos e a influência do ambiente nas populações de cupins, nos híbridos de eucalipto Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis e Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis com fertirrigação por gotejamento, microaspersão e sequeiro. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com 10 tratamentos e quatro repetições. A riqueza de cupins foi associada pela Análise de Correspondência e pela influência climática pela Análise de Componentes Principais. Os cupins foram coletados de março de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013, em 432 parcelas de 4,0 x 2,25 m, em uma área de 3 ha, seguindo o protocolo rápido de coleta, observando-se a serrapilheira, e até 30 cm de profundidade no solo. Obtiveram-se 18 espécies de Termitidae, Rhinotermitidae, Heterotermitinae, Syntermitinae, Apicotermitinae e Nasutitermitinae. Nos tratamentos com gotejamento, houve a maior frequência total, com presença de 18 espécies de cupins nos híbridos, sem associação significativa. A associação entre espécies de cupins e tratamentos constituiu quatro grupos. A precipitação e a umidade relativa do ar influenciaram significativamente na comunidade dos cupins. Portanto, a maior riqueza de espécies ocorreu nos tratamentos com gotejamento. Das espécies consideradas pragas de eucalipto, destacou-se Syntermes molestus, pela sua maior frequência durante as coletas. Ocorreu diferença significativa na distribuição das espécies de cupins associadas aos tratamentos entre os meses de coleta. A riqueza e a distribuição dos cupins são influenciadas ao longo do ano pelos diferentes manejos de irrigação em áreas de cultivo de eucalipto.

  17. 38 CFR 4.73 - Schedule of ratings-muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) flexor digiti minimi brevis; (9) dorsal and plantar interossei. Other important plantar structures: Plantar aponeurosis, long plantar and calcaneonavicular ligament, tendons of posterior tibial, peroneus... muscles of the foot: Plantar: (1) Flexor digitorum brevis; (2) abductor hallucis; (3) abductor...

  18. Wood-feeding cockroaches as models for termite evolution (Insecta: Dictyoptera): Cryptocercus vs. Parasphaeria boleiriana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klass, Klaus-Dieter; Nalepa, Christine; Lo, Nathan

    2008-03-01

    Isoptera are highly specialized cockroaches and are one of the few eusocial insect lineages. Cryptocercus cockroaches have appeared to many as ideal models for inference on the early evolution of termites, due to their possible phylogenetic relationship and several shared key attributes in life history. Recently, Pellens, Grandcolas, and colleagues have proposed the blaberid cockroach Parasphaeria boleiriana to be an alternative model for the early evolution in termites. We compare the usefulness of Cryptocercus and P. boleiriana as models for termite evolution. Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera (1) can both feed on comparatively recalcitrant wood, (2) have an obligate, rich and unique hypermastigid and oxymonadid fauna in the hindgut, (3) transfer these flagellates to the next generation by anal trophallaxis, (4) have social systems that involve long-lasting biparental care, and, finally, (5) are strongly suggested to be sister groups, so that the key attributes (1)-(4) appear to be homologous between the two taxa. On the other hand, P. boleiriana (1) feeds on soft, ephemeral wood sources, (2) shows no trace of the oxymonadid and hypermastigid hindgut fauna unique to Cryptocercus and lower Isoptera, nor does it have any other demonstrated obligate relationship with hindgut flagellates, (3) is likely to lack anal trophallaxis, (4) has only a short period of uniparental brood care, and (5) is phylogenetically remote from the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade. These facts would argue against any reasonable usage of P. boleiriana as a model for the early evolution of Isoptera or even of the clade Cryptocercus+Isoptera. Cryptocercus thus remains an appropriate model-taxon-by-homology for early termite evolution. As compared to P. boleiriana, some other Blaberidae (such as the Panesthiinae Salganea) appear more useful as model-taxa-by-homoplasy for the early evolution of the Cryptocercus+Isoptera clade, as their brooding behavior is more elaborate than in P. boleiriana.

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLG243 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 48 0.40 1 ( EX969119 ) CAGO4353.rev CAGO Karenia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 4...8 0.40 1 ( EX968438 ) CAGO3969.fwd CAGO Karenia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 48 0.40 1 ( EX968437 ) CAGO3969.rev CAGO Karen...ia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 48 0.40 1 ( EX965930 ) CAGO2586.rev CAGO Karenia brevis Karbr Str

  20. Extraction and random primer PCR detection of genomic DNA of parasitic mites Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis (Acari: Demodicidae)%人体蠕形螨的DNA提取与随机引物PCR检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚娥; 成慧; 寻萌; 吴李萍

    2009-01-01

    的纯度和RAPD指纹图谱影响较小.不同DNA提取方法提取的同一种蠕形螨DNA指纹图谱基本相似, 试剂盒法和改良小昆虫法提取的DNA样本条带多而清晰, 碱裂解法提取的样本条带少而模糊.[结论]液氮反复冻融研磨法破碎蠕形螨细胞是有效的, 蠕形螨冻存时间不宜超过6个月, 试剂盒提取法是提取蠕形螨DNA的好方法.RAPD技术可以用于这两种人体蠕形螨DNA分子水平上的检测和分类.

  1. 带血管蒂的趾短伸肌肌瓣治疗跗跖骨慢性骨髓炎%Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the tarsal metatarsal bones using vascular pedicled flap of extensor digitorum brevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志功

    2002-01-01

    @@ 慢性骨髓炎的病理比较复杂,可导致炎症持续或反复的发作,是临床治疗的难点.作者采用带血管蒂的趾短伸肌肌瓣治疗跗、跖骨骨髓炎4例,取得了满意效果.

  2. ECOHAB: Doucette_G- Algicidal bacteria and the regulation of Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico from 1998-11-16 to 1999-09-29 (NODC Accession 0000542)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interactions between bacteria and species of harmful and/or toxic algae are potentially important factors affecting both the population dynamics and toxicity of...

  3. Cloning and Characteristics Analysis of S-layer Protein Signal Peptide Gene from Lactobacillus brevis%短小乳杆菌S-层蛋白信号肽基因的克隆及特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁轲; 余祖华; 程相朝; 王天奇; 刘一尘

    2008-01-01

    根据GeneBank上注册的短小乳酸杆菌S-层蛋白基因序列设计了1对引物,采用PCR法获得了S-层蛋白信号肽基因,将其克隆到pMD18-T载体并测序.序列分析表明,序列全长为370bp,其中编码信号肽部分的90bp的碱基与GeneBank中的完全相同,生物信息学分析也表明这是一段信号肽基因,氨基酸序列分析也表明它具备信号肽的典型特征.试验克隆得到了短小乳酸杆菌S-层信号肽基因.

  4. Chemosensory recognition of the marbled whiptail lizard, Aspidoscelis marmorata (Squamata: Teiidae) to odors of sympatric lizards (Crotophytus collaris, Coleonyx brevis, Eumeces obsoletus and Uta stansburiana) that represent different predation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, F

    2008-01-01

    The ability of the whiptail lizard Aspidoscelis marmorata (Teiidae) to detect and discriminate chemical stimuli associated with the integument of a sympatric saurophagous lizard (Crotaphytus collaris) was tested. Females of A. marmorata were presented with cotton swabs containing chemical cues from C. collaris and three species of nonsaurophagous lizards, as well as water and cologne (pungency control), and total number of tongue-flick (TF) recorded. Other responses were assessed including directed TF rate, time from initial presentation of the stimulus to first TF (latency), time spent fleeing from the stimulus, and number of flight bouts. The number of TFs, directed TF rate, and number of attempts at fleeing exhibited by were significantly greater when females were presented with swabs containing cues from C. collaris as compared to nonsaurophagous lizards and both control treatments. A. marmorata required significantly less time to elicit their first TF when presented with cues from C. collaris as compared to all other treatments. Most previous studies have focused on the responses of lizards to cues associated with snake predators. This study provides the first available data on responses of a teiid to cues associated with a saurophagous lizard.

  5. Trophic interactions among invertebrates in termitaria in the African savanna : a stable isotope approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Visser, Sarah N.; Freymann, Bernd P.; Schnyder, Hans

    2008-01-01

    1. Termites (Isoptera) in tropical savannas are known as ecosystem engineers, affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of water, carbon, cations, and nutrients through their mound structures. Their mounds, however, also offer habitation to diverse taxa and feeding guilds of other invertebrate

  6. Catalog of insect type specimens preserved at the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Science with corrections of some specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai-Qin; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Dong, Da-Zhi; Zhang, Li-Kun

    2015-09-18

    This article presents a list of insect types preserved in Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology (KNHMZ). As of March, 2015, 3 412 type specimens belonging to 266 species/subspecies of 37 families in 9 orders (Odonata, Isoptera, Mantodea, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera) are included. Information corrections of some specimens are provided in this article.

  7. Reticulitermes nelsonae, a New Species of Subterranean Termite (Rhinotermitidae from the Southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yee Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reticulitermes nelsonae, a new species of Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera is described based on specimens from Sapelo Island, GA, Thomasville, GA, Havelock, NC, and Branford, FL. Adult (alate and soldier forms are described. Diagnostic characters are provided and incorporated into a supplemental couplet of a dichotomous key to the known species of Reticulitermes found in Georgia, USA.

  8. Reticulitermes nelsonae, a New Species of Subterranean Termite (Rhinotermitidae) from the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su Yee; Forschler, Brian T

    2012-01-06

    Reticulitermes nelsonae, a new species of Rhinotermitidae (Isoptera) is described based on specimens from Sapelo Island, GA, Thomasville, GA, Havelock, NC, and Branford, FL. Adult (alate) and soldier forms are described. Diagnostic characters are provided and incorporated into a supplemental couplet of a dichotomous key to the known species of Reticulitermes found in Georgia, USA.

  9. Spatial and temporal hotspots of termite-driven decomposition in the Serengeti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; de Visser, Sara N.; Olff, Han; Spence, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that directly or indirectly control the availability of resources to other organisms by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. Termites (Insecta, Isoptera) are among the most important ecosystem engineers in tropical ecosystems. We used a fie

  10. Diet of the ant-eating chat Myrmecocichla lormicivora in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-15

    Nov 15, 1987 ... 1988,23(3). Diet of the ant-eating chat Myrmecocichla lormicivora in relation to ... year Hymenoptera (ants) were the most abundant arthropods in the pitfall traps wit~ Isoptera common in winter. ..... X = plant material present. R.

  11. Spatial and temporal hotspots of termite-driven decomposition in the Serengeti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freymann, Bernd P.; de Visser, Sara N.; Olff, Han; Spence, John R.

    Ecosystem engineers are organisms that directly or indirectly control the availability of resources to other organisms by causing physical state changes in biotic or abiotic materials. Termites (Insecta, Isoptera) are among the most important ecosystem engineers in tropical ecosystems. We used a

  12. PENGARUH KONDISI FUMIGASI TERHADAP EFEKTIFITAS PEWARNAAN DAN KEAWETAN KAYU HUTAN RAKYAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istie Sekartining Rahayu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian log consumption average in 1999-2004 was about 40 million cubic meter per year. Far above the capacity of natural forest to supply wood demand which was only 6.9 million cubic meter per year and only 5 million cubic meter per year from plantation forest. Now community forest has been managed well based on commercial orientation to fullfill the needs of forest products. Recently community forest is known as realible wood producer for furniture such as rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis, Maesopsis (Maesopsis eminii, Jeunjing (Paraserianthes falcataria, Durian (Durio spp., Jackfriut (Arthocarpus sp. However those woods have low appearance quality (pale colours and ununiform, texture not attractive. Thus they need some treatments to enhance their appearance, one of them by fumigation. The purpose of this researh are to gain optimalize fumigation condition (combination between amonia volume and time of fumigation to have wood stain that resistance from weathering and to analyze durability of fumigation wood against Cryptotermes sp attack. The treatments were fumigation by 2, 4, 6 litre of amonia for 1, 2, 3 days. Those treatments were applied on 5 wood species (mahagony, jackfruit, rambutan, menteng and mindi. The results of this research showed that fumigation treatments have effects only on jackfruit, mahagony, rambutan. They did not have effects on menteng and mindi. Because the difference of tanin content between woods, made every wood had different reaction to fumigation (amonia. Based on comparison of all treatments quantitatively showed the most darkened colour of jackfruit was resulted by fumigation by 4 litre amonia for 3 days, mahagony was fumigation by 6 litre amonia for 2 days and rambutan was fumigation by 4 liter amonia for 2 days. Weathering resistance resulted all wood species did not resist to weathering or their colour fade away. Wood fumigation durability showed 100 % mortality of Cryptotermes sp (on jackfruit, mahagony and

  13. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12135-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available toma_caninum_EST_Male_pSM... 46 2.2 1 ( BB935847 ) Trifolium pratense cDNA clone:RCC08710. 32 2.9 3 ( FK839344 ) K05091F01 Karen...ia brevis Multi-strain Library Kar... 40 3.8 2 ( FK839414 ) K05092F01 Karen...ia brevis Multi-strain Library Kar... 40 4.0 2 ( FK847078 ) K05381E08 Karenia brevis Multi-str

  14. Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos M; Eusebio, Dwight A; San Pablo, Marciana R; Villena, Edgar M

    2011-12-28

    The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period.

  15. Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciana R. San Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.-based wood wool cement board (WWCB against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period.

  16. Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack of Philippine Termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos M.; Eusebio, Dwight A.; San Pablo, Marciana R.; Villena, Edgar M.

    2011-01-01

    The resistance of yemane (Gmelina arborea Roxb.)-based wood wool cement board (WWCB) against Philippine termites was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Tests were conducted following the FPRDI standard procedures in determining the resistance of WWCB against subterranean and drywood termites. Results of the laboratory tests showed that WWCB was resistant to both Microcerotermes losbañosensis Oshima and Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks. Under field conditions, WWCB was highly resistant to subterranean termites. There was no remarkable termite damage except for the normal nibbling or initial termite feeding on the board during the 8-year exposure period. PMID:26467946

  17. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-01-01

    .... However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards...

  18. Chemical communication in termites: syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol as trail-following pheromone, syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal and (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal as the respective male and female sex pheromones in Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Isoptera, Archotermopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Michael J; Sémon, Etienne; Krasulová, Jana; Sillam-Dussès, David; Robert, Alain; Cornette, Richard; Hoskovec, Michal; Záček, Petr; Valterová, Irena; Bordereau, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The trail-following pheromone and sex pheromones were investigated in the Indomalayan termite Hodotermopsis sjoestedti belonging to the new family Archotermopsidae. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid phase microextraction (SPME) of the sternal gland secretion of pseudergates and trail-following bioassays demonstrated that the trail-following pheromone of H. sjoestedti was syn-4,6-dimethylundecan-1-ol, a new chemical structure for termite pheromones. GC-MS after SPME of the sternal gland secretion of alates also allowed the identification of sex-specific compounds. In female alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as (5E)-2,6,10-trimethylundeca-5,9-dienal, a compound previously identified as the female sex pheromone of the termite Zootermopsis nevadensis. In male alates, the major sex-specific compound was identified as syn-4,6-dimethylundecanal, a homolog of syn-4,6-dimethyldodecanal, which has previously been confirmed as the male sex pheromone of Z. nevadensis. The presence of sex-specific compounds in alates of H. sjoestedti strongly suggests for this termite the presence of sex-specific pairing pheromones which were only known until now in Z. nevadensis. Our results showed therefore a close chemical relationship between the pheromones of the taxa Hodotermopsis and Zootermopsis and, in contrast, a clear difference with the taxa Stolotermes and Porotermes, which is in total agreement with the recent creation of the families Archotermopsidae and Stolotermitidae as a substitute for the former family Termopsidae.

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01257-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 70170 ) CAGO4982.rev CAGO Karenia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 48 0.80 1 ( EX874478 ) AUAO6235.rev AUAO Kare...nia brevis Karbr Dark-phase... 48 0.80 1 ( EX868488 ) AUAO2996.rev AUAO Karenia bre

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1262 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available obacillus brevis subsp. gravesensis ATCC 27305] gb|EEI72085.1| MFS family major facilitator transporter [Lactobacillus brevis subsp. gravesensis ATCC 27305] ZP_03938574.1 0.087 23% ... ...CBRC-TTRU-01-1262 ref|ZP_03938574.1| MFS family major facilitator transporter [Lact

  1. Hemi-Castaing ligamentoplasty for the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability: a retrospective assessment of outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Schepers (Tim); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: In the treatment of chronic ankle instability, most non-anatomical reconstructions use the peroneus brevis tendon. This, however, sacrifices the natural ankle stabilising properties of the peroneus brevis muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome of pa

  2. Metabolomics and proteomics reveal impacts of chemically mediated competition on marine plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulson-Ellestad, Kelsey L.; Jones, Christina M.; Roy, Jessie; Viant, Mark R.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Kubanek, Julia; Nunn, Brook L.

    2014-01-01

    Competition is a major force structuring marine planktonic communities. The release of compounds that inhibit competitors, a process known as allelopathy, may play a role in the maintenance of large blooms of the red-tide dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, which produces potent neurotoxins that negatively impact coastal marine ecosystems. K. brevis is variably allelopathic to multiple competitors, typically causing sublethal suppression of growth. We used metabolomic and proteomic analyses to investigate the role of chemically mediated ecological interactions between K. brevis and two diatom competitors, Asterionellopsis glacialis and Thalassiosira pseudonana. The impact of K. brevis allelopathy on competitor physiology was reflected in the metabolomes and expressed proteomes of both diatoms, although the diatom that co-occurs with K. brevis blooms (A. glacialis) exhibited more robust metabolism in response to K. brevis. The observed partial resistance of A. glacialis to allelopathy may be a result of its frequent exposure to K. brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico. For the more sensitive diatom, T. pseudonana, which may not have had opportunity to evolve resistance to K. brevis, allelopathy disrupted energy metabolism and impeded cellular protection mechanisms including altered cell membrane components, inhibited osmoregulation, and increased oxidative stress. Allelopathic compounds appear to target multiple physiological pathways in sensitive competitors, demonstrating that chemical cues in the plankton have the potential to alter large-scale ecosystem processes including primary production and nutrient cycling. PMID:24889616

  3. [The microflora of sour dough. IV. Communication: bacterial composition of sourdough starters genus Lactobacillus beijerinck (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicher, G; Schröder, R

    1978-11-28

    The bacterial composition of three so called pure culture sourdough starters of varying origin was investigated. 245 isolates were obtained all belonging to the genus Beijerinck. According to their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics they were classified into the subgroups: Thermobacterium (L. acidophilus), Streptobacterium (L. casei, L. plantarum, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius) and Betabacterium (L. brevis, L. brevis var. lindneri, L buchneri, L. fermentum, L. fructi vorans). In the three sourdough starters the identified lactic organisms varied in number and proportion. In starter preparation "A" only the varieties L. fructi vorans and L. fermentum were present. Preparation "B" contained a great variety of microorganisms with L. brevis and L. brevis L. lindneri predominating. In starter "C" L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. alimentarius predominated.

  4. 短小乳杆菌重组S-层蛋白质的纯化及其体外黏附性的初步鉴定%Purification of Recombinant S-layer Protein from Lactobacillus brevis and Preliminary Identification of Adhesive Property in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩凤; 敖敦格日勒; 小琴; 特尼格尔; 赵慧; 格日勒图

    2013-01-01

    以本实验室已构建的pMD19T-slp为模板,应用PCR方法亚克隆slp基因,将其定点插入到原核表达载体pGEX-4T-3中,成功构建原核表达载体pGEX-slp,经IPTG诱导获得重组融合蛋白GST-SLP并用LiC1的方法进行纯化.应用SDS-PAGE和Western blot方法对表达产物进行鉴定,应用ELISA方法鉴定重组融合蛋白的体外黏附特性.在大肠埃希菌裂解样品中,SDS-PAGE和Western blot结果均证明分子质量大小约为71 ku的重组融合蛋白GST-SLP的存在;ELISA结果提示,该重组融合蛋白在体外能够有效地黏附在乳酸乳球菌NZ9000表面.本试验为S-层蛋白质生物学特性的进一步研究奠定了基础.

  5. Wood Litter Consumption by three Species of Nasutitermes Termites in an Area of the Atlantic Coastal Forest in Northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Moura,Flávia Maria da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Termites constitute a considerable fraction of the animal biomass in tropical forest, but little quantitative data are available that indicates their importance in the processes of wood decomposition. This study evaluated the participation of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae), N. ephratae (Holmgren), and N. macrocephalus (Silvestri) in the consumption of the wood litter in a remnant area of Atlantic Coastal Forest in northeastern Brazil. The populations of this specie...

  6. Convergent structure and function of mycelial galleries in two unrelated Neotropical plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, V E; Lauth, J; Orivel, J

    2017-01-01

    The construction process and use of galleries by Azteca brevis (Myrmicinae: Dolichoderinae) inhabiting Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae) were compared with Allomerus decemarticulatus (Myrmicinae: Solenopsidini) galleries on Hirtella physophora (Chrysobalanaceae). Though the two ant species are phylogenetically distant, the gallery structure seems to be surprisingly similar and structurally convergent: both are pierced with numerous holes and both ant species use Chaetothyrialean fungi to strengthen the gallery walls. Al. decemarticulatus is known to use the galleries for prey capture and whether this is also the case for Az. brevis was tested in field experiments. We placed Atta workers as potential prey/threat on the galleries and recorded the behaviour of both ant species. We found considerable behavioural differences between them: Al. decemarticulatus was quicker and more efficient at capture than was Az. brevis. While most Atta workers were captured after the first 5 min by Al. decemarticulatus, significantly fewer were captured by Az. brevis even after 20 min. Moreover, the captured Atta were sometimes simply discarded and not taken to the nest by Az. brevis. As a consequence, the major function of the galleries built by Az. brevis may, therefore, be defense against intruders in contrast to Al. decemarticulatus which uses them mainly for prey capture. This may be due to a higher need for protein in Al. decemarticulatus compared to coccid-raising Az. brevis.

  7. Fitness consequences for copepods feeding on a red tide dinoflagellate: deciphering the effects of nutritional value, toxicity, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily K; Lettieri, Liliana; McCurdy, Katherine J; Kubanek, Julia

    2006-03-01

    Phytoplankton exhibit a diversity of morphologies, nutritional values, and potential chemical defenses that could affect the feeding and fitness of zooplankton consumers. However, how phytoplankton traits shape plant-herbivore interactions in the marine plankton is not as well understood as for terrestrial or marine macrophytes and their grazers. The occurrence of blooms of marine dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis suggests that, for uncertain reasons, grazers are unable to capitalize on, or control, this phytoplankton growth-making these systems appealing for testing mechanisms of grazing deterrence. Using the sympatric copepod Acartia tonsa, we conducted a mixed diet feeding experiment to test whether K. brevis is beneficial, toxic, nutritionally inadequate, or behaviorally rejected as food relative to the palatable and nutritionally adequate phytoplankter Rhodomonas lens. On diets rich in K. brevis, copepods experienced decreased survivorship and decreased egg production per female, but the percentage of eggs that hatched was unaffected. Although copepods showed a 6-17% preference for R. lens over K. brevis on some mixed diets, overall high ingestion rates eliminated the possibility that reduced copepod fitness was caused by copepods avoiding K. brevis, leaving nutritional inadequacy and toxicity as remaining hypotheses. Because egg production was dependent on the amount of R. lens consumed regardless of the amount of K. brevis eaten, there was no evidence that fitness costs were caused by K. brevis toxicity. Copepods limited to K. brevis ate 480% as much as those fed only R. lens, suggesting that copepods attempted to compensate for low food quality with increased quantity ingested. Our results indicate that K. brevis is a poor food for A. tonsa, probably due to nutritional inadequacy rather than toxicity, which could affect bloom dynamics in the Gulf of Mexico where these species co-occur.

  8. Neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis with intralobular Demodex mites: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Maryam; Wilson, Lindsay H; Wada, David; Florell, Scott R; Bowen, Anneli R

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old white man presented with a 1-week history of an asymptomatic erythematous, annular plaque with minimal scale limited to the nasal bridge. Histological examination showed a mixed infiltrate of lymphocytes and neutrophils within sebaceous glands. The clinical and histopathological presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis. Several Demodex brevis mites were present deep within the affected sebaceous lobules. Demodex brevis mites are uncommon inhabitants of sebaceous glands of the nose, presenting more commonly on other body sites. The cause of neutrophilic sebaceous adenitis is unknown, but the presence of D. brevis in affected sebaceous glands in this case suggests a possible association.

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14993-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ' ... 34 0.11 3 ( EX875269 ) AUAO6653.rev AUAO Karenia brevis Karbr Dark-phase... 40 0.11 2 ( AC026229 ) Hom...elium discoideum chromosome 2 map 5481549... 40 0.12 4 ( EX876963 ) AUAO7534.rev AUAO Karenia brevis Karbr D...ark-phase... 40 0.12 2 ( AL606522 ) Mouse DNA sequence from clone RP23-19L22 on chrom... 44 0.13 7 ( EX973352 ) CAGO6611.rev CAGO Kar...enia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 40 0.13 2 ( ER386461 ) 1

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11589-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e cDNA... 46 2.9 1 ( CK280486 ) EST743208 Nicotiana benthamiana mixed tissue cDNA... 46 2.9 1 ( FK838422 ) K01142E09 Karen...ia brevis Multi-strain Library Kar... 46 2.9 1 ( EX958792 ) CAGO1119.rev CAGO Karenia brevis K...arbr Stressed (... 46 2.9 1 ( EX867877 ) AUAO2659.rev AUAO Karenia brevis Karbr Dark-phase... 46 2.9 1 ( CP0

  11. Harmful algal blooms discovered during the Mote Monthly transect cruises, 1998 and 1999 (NODC Accession 0000532)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  12. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and

  13. Heterologously Expressed Family 51 α-l-Arabinofuranosidases from Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus brevis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Michlmayr, Herbert; Schümann, Christina; Kulbe, Klaus D.; del Hierro, Andrés M

    2010-01-01

    Putative α-l-arabinofuranosidases of Oenococcus oeni and Lactobacillus brevis were heterologously expressed and characterized. We report the basic functional properties of the recombinant enzymes in comparison to those of a commercial family 51 arabinosidase of Aspergillus niger.

  14. Hydrographic cruises to provide the seasonal cross-isobath and along-isobath descriptions of the physical, chemical and biological descriptors of the shelf ecosystem of the West Florida shelf to support ECOHAB, June 1998 - December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  15. Description de quatre espèces nouvelles du genre Rhyparus, Westw. (Scarabaeidae: Coprini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1893-01-01

    Long. 6 mill. — Elongatus, parallelus, fuscus, opacus, antennis palpisque ferrugineis; R. sumatrensi Fairm. ¹) affinis, similiter coloratus, sed multo minor et angustior, capite minus brevi, minus transverso, antice quadriangulato, haud truncato, fronte medio breviter biplicato, prothorace subquadra

  16. A new subgenus of the Coleopterous family Drilidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorham, H.S.

    1883-01-01

    Generi Diplocladon Gorham 1) valde affine, sed antennae simpliciter pectinatae. Antennae duodecimi-articulatae, articulo basali valido subquadrato, secundo brevi quam hoc dimidio minore, tertio triangulari, angulo interno ramum emittente; quarto ad undecimum perbrevibus, latitudine haud longioribus,

  17. Sequence characterization of 5S ribosomal RNA from eight gram positive procaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woese, C. R.; Luehrsen, K. R.; Pribula, C. D.; Fox, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Complete nucleotide sequences are presented for 5S rRNA from Bacillus subtilis, B. firmus, B. pasteurii, B. brevis, Lactobacillus brevis, and Streptococcus faecalis, and 5S rRNA oligonucleotide catalogs and partial sequence data are given for B. cereus and Sporosarcina ureae. These data demonstrate a striking consistency of 5S rRNA primary and secondary structure within a given bacterial grouping. An exception is B. brevis, in which the 5S rRNA sequence varies significantly from that of other bacilli in the tuned helix and the procaryotic loop. The localization of these variations suggests that B. brevis occupies an ecological niche that selects such changes. It is noted that this organism produces antibiotics which affect ribosome function.

  18. A new subgenus of the Coleopterous family Drilidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorham, H.S.

    1883-01-01

    Generi Diplocladon Gorham 1) valde affine, sed antennae simpliciter pectinatae. Antennae duodecimi-articulatae, articulo basali valido subquadrato, secundo brevi quam hoc dimidio minore, tertio triangulari, angulo interno ramum emittente; quarto ad undecimum perbrevibus, latitudine haud longioribus,

  19. ECOHAB: Mote Process Cruises 1998 through 2000 (NODC Accession 0000529)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  20. DNA fingerprinting of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies using traditional biochemical methods to study the ecology of commercial sauerkraut fermentations revealed that four lactic acid bacteria species, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and Lactobacillus brevis were the primary microorganisms in...

  1. Physical and biological data collected off the Florida coast in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Harmful Algal Bloom Historical Database from February 5, 1954 to December 30, 1998 (NODC Accession 0000585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the later part of 1999, a relational Microsoft Access database was created to accommodate a wide range of data on the phytoplankton Karenia brevis. This database,...

  2. Coléoptères nouveaux des Indes orientales, de la famille des Scarabaeidae, Rhipidoceridae, Tenebrionidae et Oedemeridae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1892-01-01

    Long. 7 mill. — R. Desjardinsii valde similis, sed multo major et prothorace medio elytris haud angustiore; capite brevi, fere truucato, fronte breviter quadriplicato, genis ampliatis; prothorace lateribus antice fortius emarginato, dorso medio carinis duabus integris parallelis, utrinque carina pos

  3. Laurentiuse kirikus kõlab hingedeaja muusika / Laine Lehto

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehto, Laine

    2009-01-01

    Kuressaare Laurentiuse kirikus 12. detsembril toimuvast kontserdist, kus ühisprojektina esinevad Saaremaa Neidudekoor, Saaremaa Poistekoor, Kuressaare muusikakooli ja KG huvikooli Inspira õpetajad ja õpilased, esitusel Piret Ripsi kooriteosed "Missa Brevis" (dirigent Anne Kann) ja kantaat "Hingedemaa kellad" (Laine Lehto)

  4. Ser Cepparello e il «giudicio» degli uomini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Andrea Di Martino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Un’ipotesi sulla prima novella del Decameron, sulla complessa figura del suo protagonista; e brevi considerazioni sul quadro assiologico boccacciano secondo alcune istanze narrative dell’opera.

  5. Description d’une espèce nouvelle du genre Phyllognathus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1897-01-01

    Long. 14 mill. — Oblongus, subparallelus, convexus, castaneus, nitidus; capite brevi, rugoso, antice obtuse lobato, utrinque angulato, mandibulis prominulis, valde bilobatis; prothorace transverso, elytris haud angustiore, antice angustato, lateribus sat rotundatis, dorso parum fortiter sat dense pu

  6. Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Persico

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Brevi riflessioni su temi inerenti a courseware, ossia un insieme organicamente organizzato di materiale didattico di vario tipo, inclusi testi, materiale audio, immagini, filmati e software.

  7. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  8. Phytoplankton cell count, temperature and salinity data from Texas coastal waters, 1996-2002 (NODC Accession 0000669)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was created to accommodate a wide range of data on the phytoplankton Karenia brevis. It is designed to efficiently capture core information, yet have...

  9. Harmful algal bloom historical database from Coastal waters of Florida from 01 November 1995 to 09 September 1996 (NODC Accession 0019216)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the later part of 1999, a relational Microsoft Access database was created to accommodate a wide range of data on the phytoplankton Karenia brevis. This database,...

  10. A REVIEW OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS IN INDONESIA WITH REFERENCE TO SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boo Liat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinjauan tentang Schistosoma di Indonesia ini mencakup Schistosoma japonicum, S. incognitum, S. spindale dan Trichohilharzia brevis. Tinjauan dibuat atas dasar laporan-laporan penelitian yang telah diterbitkan. Di dalamnya dapat dijumpai uraian singkat tentang S. spinale dan T. brevis. Dari banyak publikasi tentang S. japonicum dan S. incoganitum dapat disajikan uraian tentang peranan kedua parasit tersebut sebagai penyebab penyakit baik manusia maupun hewan.

  11. Wolfgang Schieder, Benito Mussolini

    OpenAIRE

    Toro, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Sugli scaffali italiani le storie brevi del fascismo o le brevi biografie dedicate a Benito Mussolini, per quanto si faccia spesso fatica a distinguere le une dalle altre, sono numerosissime; in Germania soprattutto le seconde sono rimaste per lungo tempo un prodotto d’importazione. Wolfgang Schieder, storico tedesco di riferimento per quanto riguarda il fascismo italiano, si è confrontato negli ultimi anni con il non facile tentativo di sintetizzare in testi divulgativi l’opera di un’intera ...

  12. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, F; Nishino, N

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

  13. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wang, F.; Nishino, N.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage). The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1). Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum) and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis) were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides) in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici), Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei), and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis) formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2). Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents. PMID:26949952

  14. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Soybean Curd Residue: Their Isolation, Identification and Ability to Inhibit Aerobic Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of the predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB on the fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silage containing soybean curd residue (SC-TMR silage. The SC-TMR materials were ensiled in laboratory silos for 14 or 56 days. LAB predominant in SC-TMR silage were identified (Exp. 1. Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum and Streptococcus bovis (S. bovis were found in the untreated materials, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (L. pseudomesenteroides in 14-day silage and Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum in all silages. Pediococcus acidilactici (P. acidilactici, Lactobacillus paracasei (L. paracasei, and Lactobacillus brevis (L. brevis formed more than 90% of the isolates in 56-day silage. Italian ryegrass and whole crop maize were inoculated with P. acidilactici and L. brevis isolates and the fermentation and aerobic stability determined (Exp. 2. Inoculation with P. acidilactici and L. brevis alone or combined improved the fermentation products in ryegrass silage and markedly enhanced its aerobic stability. In maize silage, P. acidilactici and L. brevis inoculation caused no changes and suppressed deterioration when combined with increases in acetic acid content. The results indicate that P. acidilactici and L. brevis may produce a synergistic effect to inhibit SC-TMR silage deterioration. Further studies are needed to identify the inhibitory substances, which may be useful for developing potential antifungal agents.

  15. Diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis in the Karoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kuntzsch

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis was studied from March 1988 to September 1989 at two sites near Beaufort West in the central Karoo. In a near-natural habitat (Karoo National Park, insects and wild fruit contributed almost equally to the diet, while more insects than plant material were consumed on a sheep farm (Saucyskuil. Adult and larval Coleoptera (KNP and Orthoptera (Saucyskuil were predominantly preyed upon in an opportunistic manner, influenced by food availability. A higher volume of Isoptera was consumed at Saucyskuil, suggesting higher availability in the farming area.

  16. A survey on entomophagy prevalence in Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carebara vidua [Tsambarafuta] adult is consumed. These are rich in fat which is concentrated in the abdomen. They are fried, dried and sold to consumers. There is no degutting. In the order Isoptera, the following species are the most consumed... especially in the eastern parts of Zimbabwe (Table 1). On collection from their nests, they are salted, fried and dried. They tend to be rich in protein and fats. There is no degutting. The availability calendar for fresh and dried insects consumed...

  17. Curculionids in the diet of the white-quilled korhaan: more than just food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Kok

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of 326 white-quilled korhaan (Eupodotis afraoides stomach contents collected in the Free State and Northern Cape over a period of 20 years (1984-2004 showed this species to be a mixed feeder concentrating mainly on insects. Based on dry mass prey items of the Isoptera and Coleoptera form the bulk of the diet. According to frequency of occurrence coleopterans, more specifically members of the family Curculionidae, are utilised most often. Indications are that the curculionids, owing to their size and relative hardness of the exoskeleton, fulfil an accessory function with regard to the physical breakdown of coarse food items in the muscular stomach.

  18. Toxicity of thiamethoxam against Philippine subterranean termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2007-01-01

    Thiamethoxam (ACTARA 25WG) was evaluated for its termiticidal properties against three species of economically important subterranean termites (Isoptera: Termitidae) in the Philippines: Nasutitermes luzonicus Oshima, Macrotermes gilvus Hagen, and Microcerotermes losbanosensis Oshima. Results of the study indicated that exposure to soil or ingestion of paper treated with thiamethoxam at concentration above 0.41 ppm may provide an adequate chemical barrier or induce high mortality against N. luzonicus, M. gilvus and M. losbanosensis after 5-9 days. Feeding bioassays showed that thiamethoxam was not repellent to M. gilvus and M. losbanosensis but had an anti-feeding effect on N. luzonicus.

  19. Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acda, Menandro N

    2009-01-01

    Oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), was evaluated in the laboratory for its barrier and repellent activity against the Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator Light (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). The study showed that J. curcas oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality in C. vastator. Behavior of termites exposed to sand treated with J. curcas oil indicated that it is toxic or repellent to C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds, were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite.

  20. Nutritional Properties and Antinutritional Factors of Corn Paste (Kutukutu) Fermented by Different Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Tchikoua; Ngouné Léopold, Tatsadjieu; Carl Moses Funtong, Mbofung

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce antinutritional factors and to improve the nutritional properties of Kutukutu during fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). For that, Kutukutu (700 g) was prepared in the laboratory and inoculated with pure cultures of LAB (109 CFU/mL). Then, preparation was incubated for 120 h. Every 24 h, Kutukutu were collected, dried at 45°C for 24 h, and analyzed. The results showed that Lactobacillus brevis G25 increased reducing sugars content to 80.7% in Kutukutu after 96 h of fermentation. Lactobacillus fermentum N33 reduced the starch content to 73.2%, while Lactobacillus brevis G11, L. brevis G25, and Lactobacillus cellobiosus M41 rather increased the protein content to 18.9%. The bioavailability of Mg and Fe increased, respectively, to 50.5% and 70.6% in the Kutukutu fermented with L. brevis G25. L. plantarum A6 reduced the tannin content to 98.8% and L. buchneri M11 reduced the phytate content to 95.5%. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that, for a best reduction of antinutrients factors and improvement of protein content and minerals, Kutukutu must be fermented by L. brevis G25 and L. fermentum N33, respectively. These starter cultures could be used to ameliorate nutritional proprieties of Kutukutu during the fermentation. PMID:26904660

  1. Nutritional Properties and Antinutritional Factors of Corn Paste (Kutukutu Fermented by Different Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchikoua Roger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reduce antinutritional factors and to improve the nutritional properties of Kutukutu during fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. For that, Kutukutu (700 g was prepared in the laboratory and inoculated with pure cultures of LAB (109 CFU/mL. Then, preparation was incubated for 120 h. Every 24 h, Kutukutu were collected, dried at 45°C for 24 h, and analyzed. The results showed that Lactobacillus brevis G25 increased reducing sugars content to 80.7% in Kutukutu after 96 h of fermentation. Lactobacillus fermentum N33 reduced the starch content to 73.2%, while Lactobacillus brevis G11, L. brevis G25, and Lactobacillus cellobiosus M41 rather increased the protein content to 18.9%. The bioavailability of Mg and Fe increased, respectively, to 50.5% and 70.6% in the Kutukutu fermented with L. brevis G25. L. plantarum A6 reduced the tannin content to 98.8% and L. buchneri M11 reduced the phytate content to 95.5%. The principal component analysis (PCA shows that, for a best reduction of antinutrients factors and improvement of protein content and minerals, Kutukutu must be fermented by L. brevis G25 and L. fermentum N33, respectively. These starter cultures could be used to ameliorate nutritional proprieties of Kutukutu during the fermentation.

  2. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  3. The prevalance of demodex species in faculty of health science students

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    Hafize Özdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Demodex folliculorum and D. brevis are acari that can be found in hair follicles and sebaceous glands of the skin, especially on face of human. This study was aimed to reveal prevalance of Demodex species in faculty of health science students. Methods: Skin surface biopsy was performed in subjects who completed socio-demographic questionnaire. The samples were examined under a microscope for demodex species. Results: In this study, at least one species of demodex was found to be positive in 47.4% of 270 students. Coexistence of D. folliculorum and D. brevis was observed in most of the subjects (50.8%. In all positive cases, the presence of only Demodex folliculorum or brevis was found in 29.7% and 19.5% respectively. There was no relationship between variables and demodex prevalence. Conclusion: This study showed that demodex species infestation is a common but an ignored health problem in faculty of health science students.

  4. Feeding pattern and use of reproductive habitat of the Striped toad Rhinella crucifer (Anura: Bufonidae from Southeastern Brazil

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    Rodrigo B. Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet composition, foraging mode, and using of reproductive habitat of Rhinella crucifer was studied in an artificial pond in Espírito Santo, Brazil. The favored substrate was leaf litter, followed by Cyperaceae/Poaceae. Calling sites, preferred for 23.3 % (n = 7 of the observed toads, were within the water, with only the head not submerged. We analyzed a total of 61 specimens, mainly males (98.5% male and 1.5% female. Seven categories of prey were found in the stomach contents: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera (Formicidae, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Gastropoda (Mollusca, Opilionida (Arachnida. Our studies indicate that the diet of Rhinella crucifer consists mainly of terrestrial colonial arthropods. Formicidae was the predominant food item in frequency of occurrence, number of prey and weight. Isoptera and Coleoptera were also relevant in terms of weight. Neither large ontogenetic dietary nor seasonal shifts were observed in the population studied. Our results suggest that no intraspecific food resource partitioning occurs in adult or juveniles. Rhinella crucifer adults avoid competition inhabiting different home range habitats and seem to be ant-specialist with a wide foraging mode.

  5. BIBLIOMETRICS ON ONE OF THE LARGEST TERMITE INVENTORIES IN THE CERRADO: "STUDIES ON TERMITES FROM THE MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL BY AGA MATHEWS 1977"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HÉLIDA FERREIRA DA CUNHA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper consists on a bibliometric analysis of the international influences of the book "Studies on termites from the Mato Grosso State, Brazil", by AGA Mathews (1977. The number of citations has increased over the years after the first citation. Mathews book was cited in articles, reviews, theses, dissertations, books, book chapters, abstracts in conference proceedings, comments and scientific notes. Most these studies are empirical and descriptive. The studies were conducted in 35 countries of the Neotropical, Palearctic, Afrotropical, Nearctic, Australasia and Indomalaya regions. 55% of the studies were carried out in Brazil. The journals Sociobiology and Insectes Sociaux, have social insect studies within its scope, and the highest number of articles citing Mathews. Most of the 71 authors that cited Mathews more than twice are Brazilian. Constrictotermes cyphergaster was the most studied in over 80% of the studies addressing Isoptera. The most frequent keywords were termite, Isoptera and taxonomy, generalist terms indexed in most publications carried out in different countries. Most of the research studies were carried out in laboratories and native vegetation areas. Studies in agroecosystems were implemented predominantly in Brazil. This study shows the diversity of application (citations of Mathews' book, and that the number of citations will continue to increase due to the large amount of information presented by the author.

  6. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis.

  7. Tyramine and phenylethylamine production among lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José María; Pardo, Isabel; Ferrer, Sergi

    2007-04-20

    The ability of wine lactic acid bacteria to produce tyramine and phenylethylamine was investigated by biochemical and genetic methods. An easy and accurate plate medium was developed to detect tyramine-producer strains, and a specific PCR assay that detects the presence of tdc gene was employed. All strains possessing the tdc gene were shown to produce tyramine and phenylethylamine. Wines containing high quantities of tyramine and phenylethylamine were found to contain Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus hilgardii. The main tyramine producer was L. brevis. The ability to produce tyramine was absent or infrequent in the rest of the analysed wine species.

  8. Toxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae and the site of reactive oxygen species production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fengmin, E-mail: lifengmin@ouc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Liang, Zhi [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@sina.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872 (China); Zhao, Wei; Wu, Miao; Wang, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science and Ecology, Ministry of Education, College of Environmental Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The growth of two species of algae was inhibited under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. • Oxidative stress was one of the mechanisms of toxicity of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae. • The site of ROS production was the electron transfer chain of chloroplast. - Abstract: Given the extensive use of nanomaterials, they may enter aquatic environments and harm the growth of algae, which are primary producers in an aquatic ecosystem. Thus, the balance of an aquatic ecosystem may be destroyed. In this study, Karenia brevis and Skeletonema costatum were exposed to nano-TiO{sub 2} (anatase, average particle size of 5–10 nm, specific surface area of 210 ± 10 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) to assess the effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} on algae. The findings of transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrate aggregation of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the algal suspension. Nano-TiO{sub 2} was also found to be inside algal cells. The growth of the two species of algae was inhibited under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. The 72 h EC{sub 50} values of nano-TiO{sub 2} to K. brevis and S. costatum were 10.69 and 7.37 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. TEM showed that the cell membrane of K. brevis was destroyed and its organelles were almost undistinguished under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure. The malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of K. brevis and S. costatum significantly increased compared with those of the control (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities (CAT) of K. brevis and S. costatum changed in different ways. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in both species were significantly higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). The site of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis and S. costatum under nano-TiO{sub 2} exposure was explored with the addition of inhibitors of different electron transfer chains. This study indicated that nano-TiO{sub 2} in algal suspensions inhibited the growth

  9. Molecular basis for the reproductive division of labour in a lower termite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehli Michael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyphenism, the expression of different phenotypes with the same genetic background, is well known for social insects. The substantial physiological and morphological differences among the castes generally are the result of differential gene expression. In lower termites, workers are developmentally flexible to become neotenic replacement reproductives via a single moult after the death of the founding reproductives. Thus, both castes (neotenics and workers are expected to differ mainly in the expression of genes linked to reproductive division of labour, which constitutes the fundamental basis of insect societies. Results Representational difference analysis of cDNAs was used to study differential gene expression between neotenics and workers in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus (Kalotermitidae. We identified and, at least partially cloned five novel genes that were highly expressed in female neotenics. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of all five genes in different castes (neotenics, founding reproductives, winged sexuals and workers of both sexes confirmed the differential expression patterns. In addition, the relative expression of these genes was determined in three body parts of female neotenics (head, thorax, and abdomen using quantitative real-time PCR. Conclusion The identified genes could be involved in the control and regulation of reproductive division of labour. Interestingly, this study revealed an expression pattern partly similar to social Hymenoptera indicating both common and species-specific regulatory mechanisms in hemimetabolous and holometabolous social insects.

  10. Genes underlying reproductive division of labor in termites, with comparisons to social Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All social insects are characterized by a reproductive division of labor. Within a colony only a few individuals reproduce (queens and in termites, also a king while the large majority (workers and soldiers forgo reproduction, at least temporarily. The evolution of such reproductive altruism can ultimately be explained by inclusive fitness theory. Here, I will review the proximate genetic mechanisms underlying this altruism in termites. As social cockroaches they evolved eusociality independently from the social Hymenoptera, which makes them interesting test cases to look for common underlying mechanisms of eusociality and lineage specific idiosyncrasies. First, I will provide a summary of the genes and their function that have been identified to underlie reproductive division of labor - so called 'queen genes,' - in the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus, an emerging model to study termite social evolution. Second, I outline how widespread these queen genes are across the termite phylogeny, using also evidence from recent genome analyses. I will provide hypotheses about the evolutionary origin of these queen genes, aiming to link proximate mechanisms with ultimate functions. Finally, I will draw comparisons to social Hymenoptera to indicate potential common underpinnings that warrant further testing.

  11. Termite Species Distribution and Flight Periods on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Reina L.; Grace, J. Kenneth; Mason, Makena; Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Spafford, Helen; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Termites are economically-important structural pests, costing residents of Hawaii over $100 million annually. On Oahu, the last published termite swarming survey occurred from 1969 to 1971, and the last termite hand-collection survey occurred from 1998 to 2000. To contribute data on termite occurrences on Oahu, a light-trap survey took place from February 2011 to September 2012, and a hand-collection survey occurred from September to November 2012. Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, swarming was compared over the duration of the study, finding peak swarming in May 2011. C. formosanus alate activity density was regressed with environmental factors, finding a negative correlation with average wind speed and a positive correlation with average rainfall. Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) alates were observed in April, June, and July 2011 and in June 2012. Four species of termites were found in the hand-collection survey of 44 sites: Incisitermes immigrans (Snyder) (n = 8/44), C. formosanus (n = 2/44), Cryptotermes cynocephalus Light (n = 1/44), and Neotermes sp. (n = 1/44). This study contributes to distribution data for termite species on Oahu and records alate activity for two important termite pests. PMID:28587241

  12. Scent of a queen—cuticular hydrocarbons specific for female reproductives in lower termites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Tobias; Hoffmann, Katharina; Kroiss, Johannes; Strohm, Erhard; Korb, Judith

    2009-02-01

    In social insects, it is assumed that signals of the queen inform nestmates about her reproductive status. Thus, workers forego their own reproduction if the queen signals high fertility. In hemimetabolous termites, little is known about reproductive inhibition, but evidence exists for a royal-pair control. Workers of lower termites exhibit a high developmental flexibility and are potentially able to become reproductives, but the presence of a fertile reproductive restrains them from reaching sexual maturity. The nature of this control, however, remains unknown. Here, we report on qualitative differences in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles between queens and workers of the basal drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus. Queens were characterized by a shift to long-chained and branched hydrocarbons. Most remarkably, similar chemical patterns are regarded as fertility cues of reproductives in social Hymenoptera. This might suggest that both groups of social insects convergently evolved similar chemical signatures. The present study provides deeper insights into how termites might have socially exploited these signatures from sexual communication in their cockroach-like ancestor.

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF A SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT USING BIFENTHRIN TO PROTECT RADIATA PINE FRAMING FROM DAMAGE BY SUBTERRANEAN AND DRYWOOD TERMITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paimin Sukartana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various experimental testing procedures were undertaken in Indonesia to determine the effectiveness of a patented superficial (envelope treatment using bifenthrin to protect radiata pine framing material from damage by two species of subterranean termites (Macrotermes gilvus and Coptotermes curvignathus and one species of drywood termite (Cryptotermes cynocephalus. Lengths of framing material (Pinus radiata sapwood were commercially treated to the targeted retention of 0.02% m/m of bifenthrin in the outer 2 mm depth penetration zone of the material. The treated and untreated materials were subsequently cut into test specimens and exposed to M. gilvus in the field and a semi-laboratory trial, to C. curvignathus in the laboratory and a semi-laboratory trial and to C. cynocephalus in a laboratory trial. No supplementary treatment was performed on the exposed cut ends of the treated test specimens. The results from the trials clearly demonstrated that the superficial treatment of bifenthrin seemed effective in protecting test specimens of radiata pine framing material from significant damage by Indonesia’s most notorious termite species that often causes serious economic loss to the timbers. Termites were unable to damage any of the bifenthrin-treated surfaces of test specimens. Any obser ved damage by termites, albeit minor, was in all cases confined to the exposed cut ends of test specimens. In contrast, attack by termites on the untreated control test specimens caused damage of the samples ranging from light to heavy.

  14. Drug: D04369 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04369 Drug Gramicidin (JP16/USP/INN) Brevibacillus brevis [TAX:1393] Antibacterial...lassification [BR:br08302] Antibacterials Antibacterials, Other Gramicidin D04369 Gramicidin (JP16/USP/INN) ...Antiinfectives [BR:br08307] Antibacterials Others Cell membrane function inhibitors Peptides Gramicidin [ATC

  15. De Quervain disease caused by abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Ito, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tadayoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    De Quervain disease is caused by a stenosing tenosynovitis in the first dorsal compartment, and the main aetiology is extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tenosynovitis. We encountered three cases in which EPB tenosynovitis was absent and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tenosynovitis was confirmed during operation. In the treatment of de Quervain disease, APL tenosynovitis should be paid as much attention as EPB tenosynovitis.

  16. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera) of Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith and Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; O. hova Bischoff, 1933; O. maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith and Tripotin, sp. n., O. seyrigi Bisch...

  17. Anatomic localization of motor points for the neuromuscular blockade of hand intrinsic muscles involved in thumb-in-palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Choi, Jin Hwan; Lee, Je Hoon; Ko, Young Jin; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hye Won

    2008-09-01

    To determine the location of the motor points and intramuscular branches for the muscles involved in thumb-in-palm and the abductor pollicis brevis muscle, the latter of which, because of its anatomic proximity, may be inadvertently blocked. Hand intrinsic muscles from 20 fresh cadavers were dissected. The point of nerve entry to the muscle belly and the points where the intramuscular endings were located most proximally and distally were defined in relation to a reference line connecting the hook of hamate and the head of the first metacarpal bone. We were able to define a region, located from 66.08% +/- 8.67% to 70.28% +/- 10.62% of the reference line, with the hook of hamate as starting point, where intramuscular endings for the thumb-in-palm muscles were dense and farther from the intramuscular endings for the abductor pollicis brevis. The region around 40% of the reference line was the point where the intramuscular endings were most dense for the abductor pollicis brevis. The results may provide guidelines that could help in localizing the appropriate points for the neuromuscular blockade of thumb-in-palm muscles and, at the same time, help in minimizing the inadvertent block of the abductor pollicis brevis.

  18. Inhibitors of biofilm formation by biofuel fermentation contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biofuel fermentation contaminants such as Lactobacillus sp. may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. In this study, biofilm-forming strains of Lactobacillus brevis, L. fermentum, and L. plantarum were isolated and characterized from a dry-grind fuel ethanol plant. A var...

  19. Trigonalidae (Hymenoptera of Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of the primarily hyperparasitoid family Trigonalidae are reported from Madagascar: Orthogonalys brevis Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., Orthogonalys gigantea Benoit, 1951; O. hova Bischoff, 1933; O. maculata Bischoff, 1933; Orthogonalys parahova Smith & Tripotin, sp. n., O. seyrigi Bischoff, 1933; and Trigonalys natalensis Kriechbaumer, 1894. Diagnoses and a key to species are given.

  20. Biosystematic studies on the Muellerianella complex (Delphacidae Homoptera Auchenorrhyncha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drosopoulos, S.

    1977-01-01

    The genus Muellerianella comprises the species: M. farmairei, M. brevipennis, M. relicta and one pseudogamous all-female biotype M. fairmairei (3n). The bisexual species M. fairmairei and M. brevi

  1. A new Buprestid genus and species from the Aru-Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neervoort van de Poll, J.R.H.

    1886-01-01

    Caput mediocre, epistomate subproducto, subemarginato, labro producto, rotundato; oculi magni; antennae 11 articulatae, articulis 4°—11° serratis. Prothorax brevis, trapezoïdalis, subconvexus, margine frontali in medio sensim producto, angulis anticis prominentibus, acutis, lateribus rectis, angulis

  2. Novae Cicindelidarum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, W.

    1897-01-01

    Palpis tenuibus non inflatis, labro sat brevi antice rotundato-producto non dentato, quarto antennarum articulo distaliter valde compresso-foliaceo: huius dilatationis forma est triangularis, basis apicem (art.) versus sita et excisa, utroque angulo libero pilo perparvo tenuissimo ornato. Statura Me

  3. Coléoptères de l’Inde boréale, Chine et Malaisie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1896-01-01

    Long. 10 mill. — Oblongus, sat convexus, piceo-fuscus, modice nitidus; capite brevi, subtiliter punctato-rugoso, medio sulcato, post oculos spina obtusa armato, antennis articulo 2° oblonge subquadrato, rugosulo, clava magna, compressa, dense subtiliter coriacea, margine externo dentibus 3 validis,

  4. La delibazione delle sentenze ecclesiastiche ed i poteri istruttori della Corte d’Appello

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascia Marchei

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo è destinato alla pubblicazione nella rivista  Famiglia, Persone e Successioni, edita dalla Utet.SOMMARIO: 1. Il caso – 2. Gli orientamenti della giurisprudenza di legittimità – 3. Il limite del riesame del merito ed i poteri della Corte d’Appello: brevi considerazioni conclusive.

  5. Two new species of the genus Peltonotellus Puton (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Caliscelidae) from northwestern China with a world checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Rui; Gnezdilov, Vladimir M; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-12-04

    A checklist of Peltonotellus species is provided. Two new species, P. brevis sp. nov. from Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and P. niger sp. nov. from Gansu Province are described and illustrated. Chinese species of the genus Peltonotellus as well as sexual dimorphism are briefly discussed.

  6. Positioning Techniques to Reduce the Occurrence of DeQuervain's Tendonitis in Nursing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzi, Alison

    2010-01-01

    DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently…

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13910-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C811264 ) Sr_pASP6_07a17_SP6 S. ratti mixed stage pAMP Stro... 44 7.9 1 ( EX970702 ) CAGO5258.fwd CAGO Karen...ia brevis Karbr Stressed (... 44 7.9 1 ( EX970607 ) CAGO5207.fwd CAGO Karenia bre

  8. Commencement Bay Study. Volume IV. Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-31

    BAY Taxa Epibenthic Pump Infaunal Core Hydrozoa Hydroida (polyp) + Scyphozoa Scyphozoan medusae + Nemertea + Nematoda + + Turbellaria Polycladida...Occurrence Nemertea 2 0.8 Polychaeta unid. 14 5.9 Armandia brevis 3 1.2 Caitella capitata 6 2.5 Cirratulidae 1 0.4 Eteone longa 1 0.4 Platynereis

  9. Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya-e; Wang, Zheng-hang; Xu, Yang; Xu, Ji-ru; Liu, Wen-yan; Wei, Meng; Wang, Chu-ying

    2012-10-01

    To our knowledge, few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present. In this study our group, for the first time, cloned, sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum, Demodex brevis, and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi'an China, by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D. canis from Japan, retrieved from GenBank. Results show that amplification was successful only in three D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates. The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D. canis and 338 bp for D. brevis. The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi'an D. canis isolates and one Japanese D. canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%, and those between four D. canis isolates and one D. brevis isolate were 99.1%-99.4%. Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters, according with the traditional classification. Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced, and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain. The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene, which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites.

  10. Interpretazione assiologica, principio di bilateralità pattizia e (ineguale libertà di accedere alle intese ex art. 8, terzo comma, Cost.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

    2016-07-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. La sentenza n. 52 del 2016 della Corte costituzionale – 2. La portata assiologica (e non meramente procedimentale del principio di bilateralità pattizia – 3. Valenza assiologica e profili attuativi nell’esercizio della bilateralità pattizia – 4. L’isolamento della dinamica bilaterale dalla promozione di un effettivo pluralismo confessionale – 5. Brevi annotazioni finali- 6. Appendice.

  11. Muscle hernias of the lower leg: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, J.M. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)]|[IDI - Centre Tarragona, Ressonancia Magnetica, Hospital Joan XXIII, Tarragona (Spain); Perez del Palomar, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Virgen de la Cinta, Tortosa, Tarragona (Spain)

    1999-08-01

    Muscle hernias of the lower leg involving the tibialis anterior, peroneus brevis, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius were found in three different patients. MRI findings allowed recognition of herniated muscle in all cases and identification of fascial defect in two of them. MR imaging findings and the value of dynamic MR imaging is emphasized. (orig.) With 3 figs., 10 refs.

  12. Primary root protophloem differentiation requires balanced phosphatidylinositol-4,5-biphosphate levels and systemically affects root branching.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez-Villalon, A.; Gujas, B.; van Wijk, R.; Munnik, T.; Hardtke, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    Protophloem is a specialized vascular tissue in growing plant organs, such as root meristems. In Arabidopsis mutants with impaired primary root protophloem differentiation, brevis radix (brx) and octopus (ops), meristematic activity and consequently overall root growth are strongly reduced. Second s

  13. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.

  14. C1 compounds as auxiliary substrate for engineered Pseudomonas putida S12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, F.W.; Winde, J.H. de; Ruijssenaars, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida S12 was engineered to efficiently utilize the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde as auxiliary substrate. The hps and phi genes of Bacillus brevis, encoding two key steps of the ribulose monophosphate (RuMP) pathway, were introduced to construct a

  15. Social attraction mediated by fruit flies' microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Isvarya; Durisko, Zachary; Xu, Jianping; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-04-15

    Larval and adult fruit flies are attracted to volatiles emanating from food substrates that have been occupied by larvae. We tested whether such volatiles are emitted by the larval gut bacteria by conducting tests under bacteria-free (axenic) conditions. We also tested attraction to two bacteria species, Lactobacillus brevis, which we cultured from larvae in our lab, and L. plantarum, a common constituent of fruit flies' microbiome in other laboratory populations and in wild fruit flies. Neither larvae nor adults showed attraction to axenic food that had been occupied by axenic larvae, but both showed the previously reported attraction to standard food that had been occupied by larvae with an intact microbiome. Larvae also showed significant attraction to volatiles from axenic food and larvae to which we added only either L. brevis or L. plantarum, and volatiles from L. brevis reared on its optimal growth medium. Controlled learning experiments indicated that larvae experienced with both standard and axenic used food do not perceive either as superior, while focal larvae experienced with simulated used food, which contains burrows, perceive it as superior to unused food. Our results suggest that flies rely on microbiome-derived volatiles for long-distance attraction to suitable food patches. Under natural settings, fruits often contain harmful fungi and bacteria, and both L. brevis and L. plantarum produce compounds that suppress the growth of some antagonistic fungi and bacteria. The larval microbiome volatiles may therefore lead prospective fruit flies towards substrates with a hospitable microbial environment.

  16. Quelques Coléoptéres de l’Afrique occidentale française

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1899-01-01

    Long. 5½ à 7 mill. — Ovatus, convexus, rufus, nitidus; capite brevi, antice utrinque fortiter foveolato; prothorace transverso, elytris haud angustiore, lateribus sat rotundato, punctulato, antice angustiore; scutello ogivali, fere ruguloso-punctato; elytris brevibus, ad humeros angulatis, sat gross

  17. BRS Centauro – oat cultivar for ground cover and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo do Nascimento Junior

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants and seeds of oat cultivar BRS Centauro, of the species Avena brevis Roth., are highly uniform. The crop cycle is long, the suitability as fodder excellent, and leaf production particularly high, resulting in better quality forage than that of the black oat forage controls.

  18. Enhancement of the reactive iron pool by marine diatoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; Timmermans, Klaas R.; Fischer, Astrid C.; Kroon, Koos J.; Buma, Anita G. J.; Wolterbeek, Bert Th.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Short term (2 days) laboratory experiments were performed to study the change in irradiance induced production of Fe(II) in seawater in the presence of two open oceanic Southern Ocean diatom species, Thalassiosira sp. and Chaetoceros brevis. Three irradiance conditions were applied: 1) UVB+UVA+VIS,

  19. Evaluation of In-vivo Antimalarial Activity of Methanol Leaf Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the in-vivo antimalarial activity of the methanol extract of the leaves of Glyphaea brevis in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Methods: The phytochemical profile of ethylacetate, n-butanol, and residual ... antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and ... Phytochemical screening to determine the.

  20. Il capitalismo non è un termine evangelico. Una breve riflessione “sturziana” rileggendo l’Enciclica Caritas in veritate di Benedetto XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Barbieri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Economia e religione - 2. L’etica protestante e lo spirito del capitalismo - 3. L’etica cattolica e il capitalismo - 4. Il capitalismo buono e l’umanizzazione dell’economia - 5. Il capitalismo cattivo - 6. La riflessione di Luigi Sturzo.Brevi cenni.

  1. Competing phytoplankton undermines allelopathy of a bloom-forming dinoflagellate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Emily K; Myers, Tracey L; Naar, Jerome; Kubanek, Julia

    2008-12-07

    Biotic interactions in the plankton can be both complex and dynamic. Competition among phytoplankton is often chemically mediated, but no studies have considered whether allelopathic compounds are modified by biotic interactions. Here, we show that compounds exuded during Karenia brevis blooms were allelopathic to the cosmopolitan diatom Skeletonema costatum, but that bloom allelopathy varied dramatically among collections and years. We investigated several possible causes of this variability and found that neither bloom density nor concentrations of water-borne brevetoxins correlated with allelopathic potency. However, when we directly tested whether the presence of competing phytoplankton influenced bloom allelopathy, we found that S. costatum reduced the growth-inhibiting effects of bloom exudates, suggesting that S. costatum has a mechanism for undermining K. brevis allelopathy. Additional laboratory experiments indicated that inducible changes to K. brevis allelopathy were restricted to two diatoms among five sensitive phytoplankton species, whereas five other species were constitutively resistant to K. brevis allelopathy. Our results suggest that competitors differ in their responses to phytoplankton allelopathy, with S. costatum exhibiting a previously undescribed method of resistance that may influence community structure and alter bloom dynamics.

  2. Drought stress induced changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Harish C; Baig, M J; Chandra, A; Bhatt, R K

    2010-07-01

    Seven species of genus Avena viz., Avena sativa, Avena strigosa, Avena brevis, Avena vaviloviana, Avena abyssinica, Avena marocana and Avena sterilis were used to study the impact of drought stress on lipid peroxidation and other antioxidant enzymes. Maximum increase in the catalase activity was recorded in A. vaviloviana (129.97%) followed by A. sativa (122.82%) and A. brevis (83.38%) at vegetative stage; however at flowering stage the maximum increase was reported in A. sativa (25.62%) followed by A. sterilis (20.46%) and A. brevis (18.53%). At vegetative stage drought, maximum increase in peroxidase activity was recorded in A. sativa (122.82%) followed by A. brevis (83.38%) and A. sterilis (49.78%). Flowering stage drought, showed maximum increase in A. Sativa (27.09%) followed by A. marocana (23.50%) and A. sterilis (20.46%). A. sativa and A. sterilis showed stress tolerance at both the stages by accumulating higher percentage of peroxidase followed by A. brevis at vegetative and A. marocana at flowering stage. Level of lipid peroxidation in terms of Malondialdehyde (MDA) content was increased in the leaves when plants were subjected to moisture stress. The rate of increase in lipid peroxidation occurs irrespective of stage however; maximum increase was recorded in A. strigosa at both the stages. Avena species which showed high level of MDA content, indicates more lipid peroxidation and more membrane permeability and are comparatively more susceptible for water stress than those which produce less Malondialdehyde (MDA) content at higher magnitude of water stress such species have better capability for moisture stress tolerance.

  3. Comparative analysis of three brevetoxin-associated bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus mortality events in the Florida Panhandle region (USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Twiner

    Full Text Available In the Florida Panhandle region, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus have been highly susceptible to large-scale unusual mortality events (UMEs that may have been the result of exposure to blooms of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis and its neurotoxin, brevetoxin (PbTx. Between 1999 and 2006, three bottlenose dolphin UMEs occurred in the Florida Panhandle region. The primary objective of this study was to determine if these mortality events were due to brevetoxicosis. Analysis of over 850 samples from 105 bottlenose dolphins and associated prey items were analyzed for algal toxins and have provided details on tissue distribution, pathways of trophic transfer, and spatial-temporal trends for each mortality event. In 1999/2000, 152 dolphins died following extensive K. brevis blooms and brevetoxin was detected in 52% of animals tested at concentrations up to 500 ng/g. In 2004, 105 bottlenose dolphins died in the absence of an identifiable K. brevis bloom; however, 100% of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 29,126 ng/mL. Dolphin stomach contents frequently consisted of brevetoxin-contaminated menhaden. In addition, another potentially toxigenic algal species, Pseudo-nitzschia, was present and low levels of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA were detected in nearly all tested animals (89%. In 2005/2006, 90 bottlenose dolphins died that were initially coincident with high densities of K. brevis. Most (93% of the tested animals were positive for brevetoxin at concentrations up to 2,724 ng/mL. No DA was detected in these animals despite the presence of an intense DA-producing Pseudo-nitzschia bloom. In contrast to the absence or very low levels of brevetoxins measured in live dolphins, and those stranding in the absence of a K. brevis bloom, these data, taken together with the absence of any other obvious pathology, provide strong evidence that brevetoxin was the causative agent involved in these bottlenose dolphin

  4. 中国桑树害虫名录(Ⅺ)%Checklist of Mulberry Pests in China (Ⅺ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    浦冠勤; 孙兴鲁; 毛建萍; 姜德义; 王军; 谭书生

    2010-01-01

    记述了昆虫纲(Insecta)双翅目(Diptera)、缨翅目(Thysanoptera)、等翅目(Isoptera)、膜翅目(Hymenoptera)、革翅目(Dermaptera)、蜚蠊目(Blattaria)的26种桑树害虫,以及蛛形纲(Arachnida)真螨目(Acariformes)、甲壳纲(Crustacea)等足目(Isopoda)、软体动物门(Mollusca)腹足纲(Gastropoda)柄眼目(Stylommatophora)共28种桑树害虫与危害物种,分别介绍了这些害虫及危害物种的中文名称、学名、寄主种类与主要分布区域,为控制桑树各类有害生物的发生与危害提供相关的基础信息.

  5. Ressources alimentaires non conventionnelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse, F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Unconventional Food Resources. Concepts of ethnobotany, ethnozoology and ethnoecology are defined and their respective development recounted. The geographic frame is afterwards specified: Tropical Africa. Diversity of wild edible vegetable products is illustrated by some examples: cyanobacteria from Chad, mushroom consumption in the Zambezian region and pteridophagy. Upper plants are approached according to six ensembles, namely starchy fruits and seeds, oilseeds and nuts, fleshy fruits, reserve organs, flowers and vegetable species. After recalling the diversity of insects eating at world scale, four orders are briefly presented: coleoptera, isoptera (termites, lepidoptera (mainly caterpillars or campeophagy and orthoptera. Finally the nutritional input of unconventional foods is underlined as well as the urgent need of their further studies.

  6. Alimentación en Melanophryniscus stelzneri (Anura: Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipelo, Ana María

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary categories of a population of Melanophryniscus stelzneri are studied cuantitatively and cualitatively utilizing a sample of 57 specimens obtained from "El Trapiche", province of San Luis, Argentine, in order to know the grade of trophic overlap and predation strategies. The main alimentary categories for males and females are: Formicidae, Collembola, Acari, Coleoptera, Isoptera and larvae. Although the diets of both sexes show a high grade of trophic overlap, males and females differ in the amount of each resource used. Adults and juveniles present a low grade of trophic overlap. The juveniles follow the "widely foraging" strategy and the adults follow an intermidiate one, between "sit and wait" and "widely foraging".

  7. Sex-pairing pheromone in the Asian termite pest species Odontotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Liu, Shu-Wen; Liu, Cong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2012-05-01

    The sex-pairing pheromone of the black winged subterranean termite, Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) (Isoptera, Termitidae), was investigated using headspace-SPME, GC-MS, GC-EAD, and attraction bioassays. Females secrete the pheromone from their sternal gland to attract males. The sex-pairing pheromone is composed of (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol and (Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol, estimated at 9 to 16.64 ng and 0.2 to 0.54 ng, respectively. Both short- and long-distance sex attraction bioassays were employed to show that these compounds act in synergy at long distance, but only (Z,Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol is active at short distance. The pheromone may be useful in efforts to control this pest, which is considered one of the most harmful termite species in Southeast Asia.

  8. The Ceratocanthinae of Ulu Gombak: high species richness at a single site, with descriptions of three new species and an annotated checklist of the Ceratocanthinae of Western Malaysia and Singapore (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ballerio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable species richness of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Hybosoridae found at Ulu Gombak (Selangor, West Malaysia, a secondary rainforest research station, is discussed. Eighteen species have been collected, mainly in nests of termites (Isoptera and bess beetles (Coleoptera: Passalidae. Among them at least seven are new species, three of them here described: Madrasostes hashimi sp. n., Madrasostes mirificum sp. n., and Pterorthochaetes tsurui sp. n. Four other species (Madrasostes agostii Paulian, Madrasostes clypeale Paulian, Madrasostes depressum Paulian, and Madrasostes simplex Paulian are recorded for the first time for West Malaysia and three for new states within West Malaysia (Pterorthochaetes insularis Gestro, Madrasostes malayanum Paulian and Madrasostes sculpturatum Paulian. A checklist of the 34 Ceratocanthinae recorded so far from West Malaysia and Singapore is provided with taxonomic, distributional and morphological remarks on some species.

  9. Influence of food on recruitment pattern in the termite, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olugbemi, B O

    2010-01-01

    Recruitment pattern in the termite, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis Sjostedt (Isoptera: Termitidae) was found to be largely influenced by the presence or absence of food. This is reflected in the quantitative recruitment that occurred after food had been detected by the scouting foragers. Results showed that this information was communicated and responded to by other confederates in the nest within four to seven minutes after food addition or removal. The presence of an additional food source relative to an already existing one did not have any significant impact on the recruitment activities of this termite. Recruitment decision pattern in M. fuscotibialis involve to a large extent an "autocratic" decision strategy in the development and maintenance of recruitment process in this termite species.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on the termite, Microcerotermes diversus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibpour, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    Microcerotermes diversus (Silvestri) (Isoptera: Termitidae) is the most economically destructive termite in structures in southwest Iran. One sustainable control strategy that usually helps to reduce subterranean termite damage in buildings, is the use of insect growth regualtors in a suitable bait matrix that are safe to the user and the environment. In the laboratory assays described here, the delayed toxicity of Flurox, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, to M. diversus was evaluated under force-feeding and choice trials. Flurox induced worker and nymph mortality and incomplete ecdysis in nymphs of M. diversus under no-choice and two-choice feeding tests. These adverse effects may cause disruption of the caste balance in M. diversus, leading to the collapse of the colony. These assays determined concentrations of Flurox that can be used in bait formulations.

  11. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  12. Thuringiensin: A Thermostable Secondary Metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with Insecticidal Activity against a Wide Range of Insects

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    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thuringiensin (Thu, also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.

  13. Thuringiensin: a thermostable secondary metabolite from Bacillus thuringiensis with insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Lifang; Peng, Donghai; Li, Lin; Sun, Ming; Yu, Ziniu

    2014-07-25

    Thuringiensin (Thu), also known as β-exotoxin, is a thermostable secondary metabolite secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis. It has insecticidal activity against a wide range of insects, including species belonging to the orders Diptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, and Isoptera, and several nematode species. The chemical formula of Thu is C22H32O19N5P, and it is composed of adenosine, glucose, phosphoric acid, and gluconic diacid. In contrast to the more frequently studied insecticidal crystal protein, Thu is not a protein but a small molecule oligosaccharide. In this review, a detailed and updated description of the characteristics, structure, insecticidal mechanism, separation and purification technology, and genetic determinants of Thu is provided.

  14. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlaine A Menezes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  15. Feeding resource partitioning between two understorey insectivorous birds in a fragment of Neotropical cloud forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M; Lima, A L C

    2015-11-01

    The food habits and niche overlap based on diet composition and prey size of two species of understorey insectivorous birds were investigated in an area of montane rain forest in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. A total of 43 birds were captured: 33 individuals of Conopophaga lineata (Conopophagidae) with 13 recaptures, and 10 individuals of Myiothlypis leucoblephara (Parulidae) with 12 recaptures, from which were obtained respectively 33 and 10 fecal samples. Fragments of 16 groups of arthropods, plus insect eggs, were identified in these samples. Conopophaga lineata predominantly consumed Formicidae (32%) and Isoptera (23.6%). However, the index of alimentary importance (AI) of Isoptera (3.53) was lower than other groups such as Formicidae (AI = 61.88), Coleoptera (AI = 16.17), insect larvae (AI = 6.95) and Araneae (AI = 6.6). Myiothlypis leucoblephara predominantly consumed Formicidae (28.2%) and Coleoptera (24.4%), although Coleoptera and Hymenoptera non-Formicidae had the highest values of AI (38.71 and 22.98 respectively). Differences in the proportions of the types of arthropods consumed by birds were not enough to reveal their separation into feeding niches (overlap = 0.618, p observed ≤ expected = 0.934), whereas differences in the use of resources was mainly due to the size of the prey (p<0.001), where C lineata, the species with the highest body mass (p<0.001) consumed larger prey. It is plausible that prey size is an axis of niche dimension that allows the coexistence of these species.

  16. Studies on the Catalytic Properties of Partially Purified Alkaline Proteases from Some Selected Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titilayo Olufunke Femi-Ola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The research was done to study the conditions enhancing catalytic activities of alkaline proteases from Vibro sp., Lactobacillus brevis, Zymomonas sp., Athrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis.Methodology and Results: The proteolytic enzymes were purified in 2-step procedures involving ammonium sulphate precipitation and sephadex G-150 gel permeation chromatography. The upper and lower limits for the specific activities of proteases from the selected microorganisms were estimated at 20.63 and 47.51 units/mg protein with Zymomonas protease having the highest specific activity towards casein as its substrate and purification fold of 3.46, while that ofLactobacillus brevis protease was 8.06. The native molecular weights of these active proteins ranged from 30.4 to 45.7 kDa with Athrobacter sp. protease having the highest weight for its subunits. The proteolytic enzymes had optimum pH range of 8 to 10 and temperature range of 50 to 62 ºC accounting for the percentage relative activity range of 75 to 94% and 71 to 84 % respectively. The activities of Lactobacillus brevis and Bacillus subtilis proteases were maximum at pH 9 and 10 respectively. Lactobacillus brevis protease activity was maximum at temperature of 62 ºC, while beyond this value, a general thermal instability of these active proteins was observed. At above 70 ºC, the catalytic activities of Corynebacterium sp., Vibrio sp., Zymomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp. proteases were progressively reduced over a period of 120 min of incubation, while Bacillus subtlis and Lactobacillus brevis proteases were relatively stable. Effect of metal ions was investigated on the catalytic activity of protease from the microorganisms. Lactobacillus brevis,Zymomonas sp., Arthrobacter sp., Corynebacterium sp. and Bacillus subtilis protease activities were strongly activated by metal ions such as Ca+2 and Mg+2. Enzyme activities were inhibited strongly by Cu2+ and Hg2+ but were not

  17. Computer modeling of the pathomechanics of spastic hip dislocation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F; Slomczykowski, M; Cope, R; Lipton, G E

    1999-01-01

    Spastic muscles about the hip cause subluxation, dislocation, and lead to acetabular dysplasia. Spastic hip disease occurs when the muscles about the hip exert forces that are too high or in the wrong direction or both. To determine the role of the hip forces in the progression of spastic hip disease and the effect of both muscle-lengthening and bony reconstructive surgeries, a computerized mathematical model of a spastic hip joint was created. The magnitude and direction of the forces of spastic hips undergoing surgery were analyzed preoperatively and postoperatively to determine which procedure is best suited for the treatment of spastic hip disease. The muscle-lengthening procedures included (a) the adductor longus, (b) the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, and adductor longus, and (3) the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus. The bony reconstructive and muscle-lengthening procedures included (a) lengthening the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus combined with changing femoral neck anteversion from 45 to 10 degrees , (b) lengthening of the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus combined with changing neck-shaft angle from 165 to 135 degrees , and (c) lengthening of the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, adductor longus, semimembranosus, and semitendinosus combined with changing femoral neck anteversion from 45 to 10 degrees and neck-shaft angle from 165 to 135 degrees . Results show that a child with spastic hip disease has a hip-force magnitude 3 times that of the a child with a normal hip in the normal physiologic position. Based on this mathematical model the best to normalize the magnitude of the hip-joint reaction force, the muscles to be lengthened should include the psoas, iliacus, gracilis, adductor brevis, and the adductor longus. To normalize the direction of

  18. Restoration of pinch in intrinsic muscles of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steve K; Wisser, Jamie R

    2012-02-01

    The primary intrinsic muscles responsible for key and tip pinch are the adductor pollicis, first dorsal interosseous and flexor pollicis brevis muscles. Numerous conditions can lead to their dysfunction. Non-operative treatment consists of exercises of the compensating extensor pollicis longus and flexor pollicis longus muscles and use of adaptive devices, such as larger grips. Operative treatments include tendon transfers and joint fusions. The most common tendon transfer procedures include transfering of the extensor carpi radialis brevis to the adductor pollicis muscle or transfering of the abductor pollicis longus to the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both require use of extension tendon grafts. In cases of joint instability or arthrosis, arthrodesis of the thumb and index finger MP or IP joints, alone or in combination, may be indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A review of the zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--ectoparasites of passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2014-11-18

    The zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Harpirhynchidae), parasites of passerines, is revised. A key to the species of this group is provided and data on host associations and geographic distribution of its constituent species are summarized. This group includes six previously recognized species: Harpyrhynchoides alaudinus Bochkov, 2000, H. brevis (Ewing, 1911) comb. nov., H. heatherae Bochkov and Galloway, 2013, H. rubeculinus (Cherny and Sixl, 1971), H. vulgaris Bochkov and Galloway, 2004, and H. zumpti (Fain, 1972). Three species from North American passerines are described as new: H. setophaga sp. nov. from Setophaga ruticilla (Parulidae), H. xanthocephalus sp. nov. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Icteridae), and H. spizella sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Emberizidae). Additionally, H. brevis is redescribed based on samples from Coccothraustes vespertinus (type host) and Loxia curvirostra (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from North America. Harpyrhynchoides kirgizorum Fain et al. 1999 syn. nov. is synonymized with H. zumpti. 

  20. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi, ethnic fermented vegetable products of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Buddhiman; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2010-10-01

    Gundruk is a fermented leafy vegetable and khalpi is a fermented cucumber product, prepared and consumed in the Himalayas. In situ fermentation dynamics during production of gundruk and khalpi was studied. Significant increase in population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was found during first few days of gundruk and khlapi fermentation, respectively. Gundruk fermentation was initiated by Lactobacillus brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and finally dominated by Lb. plantarum. Similarly in khalpi fermentation, heterofermentative LAB such as Leuconostoc fallax, Lb. brevis and P. pentosaceus initiated the fermentation and finally completed by Lb. plantarum. Attempts were made to produce gundruk and khalpi using mixed starter culture of LAB previously isolated from respective products. Both the products prepared under lab condition had scored higher sensory-rankings comparable to market products.

  1. Hand weakness in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1X.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arthur-Farraj, P J

    2012-07-01

    There have been suggestions from previous studies that patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) have weaker dominant hand muscles. Since all studies to date have included a heterogeneous group of CMT patients we decided to analyse hand strength in 43 patients with CMT1X. We recorded handedness and the MRC scores for the first dorsal interosseous and abductor pollicis brevis muscles, median and ulnar nerve compound motor action potentials and conduction velocities in dominant and non-dominant hands. Twenty-two CMT1X patients (51%) had a weaker dominant hand; none had a stronger dominant hand. Mean MRC scores were significantly higher for first dorsal interosseous and abductor pollicis brevis in non-dominant hands compared to dominant hands. Median nerve compound motor action potentials were significantly reduced in dominant compared to non-dominant hands. We conclude that the dominant hand is weaker than the non-dominant hand in patients with CMT1X.

  2. Interaction between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in sour-dough using a rheofermentometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Corsetti, A; Rossi, J

    1995-11-01

    Rheofermentometer assays were used to characterize the leavening of sour-doughs produced using species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, alone or in combination. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141 produced the most CO2 and ethanol whereas S. exiguus M14 and Lactobacillus brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 contributed poorly to leavening and gave sour-doughs without porosity. In comparison with that seen in sour-dough produced with yeast alone, yeast fermentation with heterofermentative LAB present was faster whereas that with homofermentative LAB (L. plantarum DC400, L. farciminis CF3) present was slower and produced more CO2. Combining L. brevis subsp. lindneri CB1 with S. cerevisiae 141 decreased bacterial cell numbers and souring activity. However, addition of fructose to the sour-dough overcame these problems as well as activating S. cerevisiae 141.

  3. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  4. Localized Acquired Hypertrichosis Associated with the Application of a Splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. C. Leung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 16-year-old boy whose left forearm and hand were cut by a piece of glass from a broken window as a result of the fall. He had surgical repair of his left extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, and dorsal branch of the left radial nerve. Following the surgery, he was put on a splint so as to immobilize the left forearm and wrist. On removal of the splint 4 weeks post surgery, he was noticed to have more hair growth on his left forearm and hand than his right counterparts. The patient was reassessed 2, 4, and 8 months after the removal of the splint. The hypertrichosis got better with time. At the last visit, the hair growth in the left forearm and hand was back to normal. Our patient represents the first reported case of localized acquired hypertrichosis following the application of a splint in the pediatric literature.

  5. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus with multiple absences of thumb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung-Mook

    2013-02-01

    We report a rare case of a 10-year-old girl with anomalous course of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle, which exists with absence of thenar muscles and muscles in the 1st extensor compartment. Her chief complaint was severe atrophy on the right thenar eminence. On physical examination, there was no obvious functional abnormality on her right thumb. On magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis brevis muscles were absent. The tendon of the EPL muscle was found, but it had abnormal insertion on the radial side of the proximal phalanx, not on the distal phalanx. This variation was thought to have played a major role in compensating for impaired abduction of the thumb, which is usually accompanied by agenesis of major abductors of the thumb.

  6. PCR法检测一株啤酒腐败菌条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志武

    2010-01-01

    以短乳杆菌(Lactobacillus brevis)为研究对象,对PCR法快速检测短乳杆菌(Lactobacillus brevis)的扩增条件:Taq酶浓度、Mg2+浓度、退火温度、循环温度/时间、循环次数5个方面进行了优化.最终得到PCR反应最佳条件:25ul体系中,Taq酶用量2.0U/ml,Mg2+浓度2.0mM退火温度为50℃.扩增程序:94℃4min进入循环,94℃30s,50℃30s,72℃30s,35个循环后,再72下延伸5min.

  7. A study of transcranial magnetic stimulation in older (>3 years patients of malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karak B

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed in 40 subjects. Twenty patients in the age group of 3 to 8 years and having different grades of malnutrition were included in the ′study group′ whereas 20 normal children having no complaints comprised the ′control group′. The coil of the magnetic stimulator was applied tangentially over the vertex to stimulate the cortex. The motor evoked potential (MEP was obtained using root stimulation by applying the coil at the cervical and lumbosacral spines. Recordings were made from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB and extensor digitorum brevis (EDB muscles of both sides. Cortical threshold, latency and amplitude of motor evoked potential and central conduction time were recorded. Malnourished children showed significantly increased cortical threshold, prolonged cortical latency and central conduction time and reduction in amplitude of MEP. Observed delay in central motor conduction in malnourished children suggests asymptomatic involvement of corticospinal pathways.

  8. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  9. Regenerating Longleaf Pine on Hydric Soils: Short- and Long-term Effects on Native Ground-Layer Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-16

    grape vine/woody vitsp. MONOCOTS CYPERACEAE Carex striata var. brevis Walter’s sedge graminoid CASTB Cyperus croceus Baldwin’s...this area is longleaf pine savanna, consisting of longleaf pine overstories with herbaceous ground layers dominated by grasses and sedges , including...groups: large graminoids (grasses with leaves >15 cm long, forming dense bunches or looser clumps), small graminoids (smaller grasses, sedges , and

  10. A survey on facial Demodex infection in Nanyang City%南阳市人体面部蠕形螨感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨增茹; 王革新; 王大强

    2004-01-01

    寄生于人体的蠕形螨有两种,即毛囊蠕形螨(Demodex fol1iculorum)和皮脂蠕形螨(Demodex brevis)。为了解河南省南阳市人体面部蠕形螨感染现状,作者于2001年6月-2003年12月对不同人群调查结果如下。

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of chitin synthase gene fragments of Demodex mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-e ZHAO; Zheng-hang WANG; Yang XU; Ji-ru XU; Wen-yan LIU; Meng WEI; Chu-ying WANG

    2012-01-01

    To our knowledge,few reports on Demodex studied at the molecular level are available at present.In this study our group,for the first time,cloned,sequenced and analyzed the chitin synthase (CHS) gene fragments of Demodex folliculorum,Demodex brevis,and Demodex canis (three isolates from each species) from Xi'an China,by designing specific primers based on the only partial sequence of the CHS gene of D.canis from Japan,retrieved from GenBank.Results show that amplification was successful only in three D.canis isolates and one D.brevis isolate out of the nine Demodex isolates.The obtained fragments were sequenced to be 339 bp for D.canis and 338 bp for D.brevis.The CHS gene sequence similarities between the three Xi'an D.canis isolates and one Japanese D.canis isolate ranged from 99.7% to 100.0%,and those between four D.canis isolates and one D.brevis isolate were 99.1%-99.4%.Phylogenetic trees based on maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods shared the same clusters,according with the traditional classification.Two open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in each CHS gene sequenced,and their corresponding amino acid sequences were located at the catalytic domain.The relatively conserved sequences could be deduced to be a CHS class A gene,which is associated with chitin synthesis in the integument of Demodex mites.

  12. Chondromalacia of sesamoids in first metatarsophalangeal joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宏; 聂林; 王洪申; 张传军

    2004-01-01

    @@ The incidence of sesamoids in the firstmetatarsophalangeal joint is 100% and they areattached on the flexor hallucis brevis in thearticular capsule. 1 On the compulsory effect of externalfactors, the feet receive unusual long-term loads andthe sesamoids will exhibit the clinical symptoms suchas injury, denaturalization and pain. We have treated4 patients, who are verified to suffer fromchondromalacia of sesamoids by pathologicalexamination, in our hospital.

  13. A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Özdikmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new name for the Neotropical genus Aniarella Enderlein (Diptera, Sciaridae. A junior homonym was detected among neotropical sciarid flies genera and the following replacement name is proposed: Novaniarella nom. nov. for Aniarella Enderlein, 1911 (nec Bolivar, 1906. Accordingly, new combinations are herein proposed for the species currently included in this genus: Novaniarella azteca (Lane, 1959 comb. nov., Novaniarella brevis (Rubsaamen, 1894 comb. nov. and Novaniarella pelluscens (Enderlein, 1911 comb. nov.

  14. Additive containing homo and heterolactic bacteria on the fermentation quality of maize silage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i4.18833

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Junges

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This trial evaluated the addition of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis and Enterococcus faecium combo additive against a control treatment. The silages were made in laboratory silos that were stored for 30, 60, 90 or 120 days before opening. We evaluated the chemical composition of the forage before and after ensiling and the fermentative losses of silages. The additive decreased (p -1 compared to control silage (14.0 kg ton-1, but it increased (p  

  15. Modeling Lactic Fermentation of Gowé Using Lactobacillus Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettencourt de J. C. Munanga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A global model of the lactic fermentation step of gowé was developed by assembling blocks hosting models for bacterial growth, lactic acid production, and the drop of pH during fermentation. Commercial strains of Lactobacillus brevis and of Lactobacillus plantarum were used; their growth was modeled using Rosso’s primary model and the gamma concept as a secondary model. The optimum values of pH and temperature were 8.3 ± 0.3, 44.6 ± 1.2 °C and 8.3 ± 0.3, 3.2 ± 37.1 °C with μmax values of 1.8 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.1 for L. brevis and L. plantarum respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration of undissociated lactic acid was 23.7 mM and 35.6 mM for L. brevis and L. plantarum, respectively. The yield of lactic acid was five times higher for L. plantarum than for L. brevis, with a yield of glucose conversion to lactic acid close to 2.0 for the former and 0.8 for the latter. A model was developed to predict the pH drop during gowé fermentation. The global model was partially validated during manufacturing of gowé. The global model could be a tool to aid in the choice of suitable starters and to determine the conditions for the use of the starter.

  16. 生防菌FM4B的鉴定及抗菌物质的性质研究%Identification on Biocontrol Bacillus Strain FM4B and Detection of Its Antagonistic Substance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡雪芹; 芮广虎; 周雪梅; 张洪斌

    2011-01-01

    采用生理生化、16S rDNA等方法鉴定菌株FM4B并对该菌株抑菌物质粗提液的性质进行了初步研究.生理生化实验显示,菌株FM4B属于短短芽孢杆菌,16S rDNA基因的测定与分析表明,FM4B与B.brevis(短短芽孢杆菌)的同源性达到99.5%,故推定FM4B为短短芽孢杆菌.实验表明抑菌物质粗提物对多种细菌、真菌有抑制作用,并且耐高温(90℃)、耐酸碱(pH 2~11)、对蛋白酶K、胰蛋白酶、胃蛋白酶不敏感.%Classical physiological and biochemical methods and 16S rDNA analysis were used to identify bacillus strain FM4B and the crude extract produced by the strain was studied. Physiological and biochemical identification showed that FM4B related to Brevibacillus brevis. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the 16S rDNA sequence of FM4B shared 99.5% homologies with sequence of Brevibacillus brevis from GenBank. So it is considered that the strain of FM4B belongs to Brevibacillus brevis. The crude extract had antibacterial activity against bacteria and fungi, which was stable after heated (90℃) and pH altered (pH2 ~ 11), resistant to trypsin, proteinase K and pepsin.

  17. Tra discriminazione religiosa e libertà matrimoniale: il contrasto agli sham marriages nell'ordinamento giuridico britannico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Giordano Gennaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Brevi cenni sull’immigrazione verso il Regno Unito - 2. Gli sham marriages e la pronuncia di illegittimità dell’Asylum and Immigration (Treatment of Claimants, etc. Act del 2004 - 3. Riflessioni conclusive.Ora nel volume collettaneo (a cura di V. TOZZI e M. PARISI,Immigrazione e soluzioni legislative in Italia e Spagna. Istanze autonomistiche, società multiculturali, diritti civili e di cittadinanza, ed. Arti Grafiche la Regione, Ripalimosani, 2007, p. 379 ss.

  18. Revision of the genus Trypeticus Marseul (Coleoptera: Histeridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaar, P.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Trypeticus Marseul, 1864 is revised and figured. A key to the species is given. Redescriptions of the hitherto described species are presented. The number of species in this genus has been brought up to 100, of which 72 species are described as new: T. adebratti (Sabah, Brunei), T. alticola (Indonesia: Irian Jaya), T. angustifrons (Indonesia: Irian Jaya?), T. arriagadai (Philippines), T. aukei (W. Malaysia, Sabah), T. bertiae (India), T. boukei (Sabah), T. brevis (Sabah), T. capilla...

  19. The use of nerve and muscle biopsy in the diagnosis of vasculitis: a 5 year retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, D. L. H.; Groves, M.; Blake, J.; Holton, J.L.; King, R. H. M.; Orrell, R W; Ginsberg, L; Reilly, M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Peripheral nerve vasculitis is an important condition which can be diagnostically challenging and is one of the principal current indications for nerve and muscle biopsy. Previous studies have suggested that combined nerve and muscle biopsy (usually of the superficial peroneal nerve and peroneus brevis muscle) produces a higher diagnostic yield than nerve biopsy alone in the investigation of vasculitis. Objective: To determine whether in our two centres combined nerve (usually t...

  20. Mitochondrial superoxide flashes: metabolic biomarkers of skeletal muscle activity and disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial superoxide flashes (mSOFs) are stochastic events of quantal mitochondrial superoxide generation. Here, we used flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from transgenic mice with muscle-specific expression of a novel mitochondrial-targeted superoxide biosensor (mt-cpYFP) to characterize mSOF activity in skeletal muscle at rest, following intense activity, and under pathological conditions. Results demonstrate that mSOF activity in muscle depended on electron transport chain and aden...