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Sample records for cryptosporidium source tracking

  1. Assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. as a microbial source tracking tool for surface water: application in a mixed-use watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystajecky, Natalie; Huck, Peter M; Schreier, Hans; Isaac-Renton, Judith L

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of host specificity, combined with genomic sequencing of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp., has demonstrated a microbial source tracking (MST) utility for these common waterborne microbes. To explore the source attribution potential of these pathogens, water samples were collected in a mixed rural-urban watershed in the Township of Langley, in southwestern British Columbia (BC), Canada, over a 2-year period. Cryptosporidium was detected in 63% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from no positive detection (NPD) to 20,600 oocysts per 100 liters. Giardia was detected in 86% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from NPD to 3,800 cysts per 100 liters of water. Sequencing at the 18S rRNA locus revealed that 50% of Cryptosporidium samples and 98% of Giardia samples contained species/genotypes (Cryptosporidium) or assemblages (Giardia) that are capable of infecting humans, based on current knowledge of host specificity and taxonomy. Cryptosporidium genotyping data were more promising for source tracking potential, due to the greater number of host-adapted (i.e., narrow-host-range) species/genotypes compared to Giardia, since 98% of Giardia isolates were zoonotic and the potential host could not be predicted. This report highlights the benefits of parasite genomic sequencing to complement Method 1623 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and shows that Cryptosporidium subtyping for MST purposes is superior to the use of Giardia subtyping, based on better detection limits for Cryptosporidium-positive samples than for Giardia-positive samples and on greater host specificity among Cryptosporidium species. These additional tools could be used for risk assessment in public health and watershed management decisions.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Three Real-Time PCR Assays for Genotyping and Source Tracking Cryptosporidium spp. in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Neumann, Norman F.; Ruecker, Norma; Alderisio, Kerri A.; Sturbaum, Gregory D.; Villegas, Eric N.; Chalmers, Rachel; Monis, Paul; Feng, Yaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking source water can present a serious public health risk. To rapidly and effectively assess the source and human-infective potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water, sensitive detection and correct identification of oocysts to the species level (genotyping) are essential. In this study, we developed three real-time PCR genotyping assays, two targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (18S-LC1 and 18S-LC2 assays) and one targeting the 90-kDa heat shock protein (hsp90) gene (hsp90 assay), and evaluated the sensitivity and Cryptosporidium species detection range of these assays. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes and melt curve analysis, the 18S-LC1 and hsp90 assays could differentiate common human-pathogenic species (C. parvum, C. hominis, and C. meleagridis), while the 18S-LC2 assay was able to differentiate nonpathogenic species (such as C. andersoni) from human-pathogenic ones commonly found in source water. In sensitivity evaluations, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays could detect as few as 1 Cryptosporidium oocyst per sample. Thus, the 18S-LC2 and hsp90 genotyping assays might be used in environmental monitoring, whereas the 18S-LC1 genotyping assay could be useful for genotyping Cryptosporidium spp. in clinical specimens or wastewater samples. PMID:26092455

  3. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environment with Cryptosporidium having a high tolerance to most of the drinking water disinfectants. The absence of bacteria associated with feacal pollution does not necessarily indicate the absence of Cryptosporidium or Giardia. Being a common cause of waterborne disease, the requirement for detecting the presence ...

  4. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    leaving the treatment works is free of Cryptosporidium oocysts and. Giardia cysts, all sample points from the treatment works are tested .... RWS is a vial containing 100"10 Cryptosporidium and 100"10. Giardia.Each batch of Rand Water Seed is quality controlled. Seed samples are prepared using a Becton Dickinson flow ...

  5. Occurrence, Source, and Human Infection Potential of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Source and Tap Water in Shanghai, China▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Zhao, Xukun; Chen, Jiaxu; Jin, Wei; Zhou, Xiaonong; Li, Na; Wang, Lin; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping studies on the source and human infection potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water have been almost exclusively conducted in industrialized nations. In this study, 50 source water samples and 30 tap water samples were collected in Shanghai, China, and analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1623. To find a cost-effective method to replace the filtration procedure, the water samples were also concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation (CCF). Of the 50 source water samples, 32% were positive for Cryptosporidium and 18% for Giardia by Method 1623, whereas 22% were positive for Cryptosporidium and 10% for Giardia by microscopy of CCF concentrates. When CCF was combined with PCR for detection, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium (28%) was similar to that obtained by Method 1623. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium in 17 water samples identified the presence of C. andersoni in 14 water samples, C. suis in 7 water samples, C. baileyi in 2 water samples, C. meleagridis in 1 water sample, and C. hominis in 1 water sample. Therefore, farm animals, especially cattle and pigs, were the major sources of water contamination in Shanghai source water, and most oocysts found in source water in the area were not infectious to humans. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 2 of 30 tap water samples. The combined use of CCF for concentration and PCR for detection and genotyping provides a less expensive alternative to filtration and fluorescence microscopy for accurate assessment of Cryptosporidium contamination in water, although the results from this method are semiquantitative. PMID:21498768

  6. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  7. 40 CFR 141.211 - Special notice for repeated failure to conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduct monitoring of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification... of the source water for Cryptosporidium and for failure to determine bin classification or mean... operator of a community or non-community water system that is required to monitor source water under § 141...

  8. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on beef farms and water sources within the vicinity of the farms on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia and species of Cryptosporidium on beef farms in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasites. Twenty beef farms were selected based on the presence of surface water 6 mo of age, while most Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium pestis (previously Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype') isolates were detected in calves ≤ 6 mo of age. All Cryptosporidium ryanae isolates (four) were found in calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 14 and 93% of surface water samples of 14 farms, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in three (15%) ground water samples of 20 farms. One Cryptosporidium-positive water sample, which was the only surface water sample amenable to genotyping, contained C. parvum. The farm-level risk factors investigated in this study, age of animals and location of the farm, were not associated with the risk of infection in cattle with either Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia duodenalis. We conclude that beef cattle are a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis that could contaminate source water. There is the possibility of further transmission to humans on PEI if the source water is not properly treated prior to consumption. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adaptive management for mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water: a case study in an agricultural catchment in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Brett A; Kandulu, John; Deere, Daniel A; White, Monique; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Crossman, Neville D

    2009-07-01

    Water-borne pathogens such as Cryptosporidium pose a significant human health risk and catchments provide the first critical pollution 'barrier' in mitigating risk in drinking water supply. In this paper we apply an adaptive management framework to mitigating Cryptosporidium risk in source water using a case study of the Myponga catchment in South Australia. Firstly, we evaluated the effectiveness of past water quality management programs in relation to the adoption of practices by landholders using a socio-economic survey of land use and management in the catchment. The impact of past management on the mitigation of Cryptosporidium risk in source water was also evaluated based on analysis of water quality monitoring data. Quantitative risk assessment was used in planning the next round of management in the adaptive cycle. Specifically, a pathogen budget model was used to identify the major remaining sources of Cryptosporidium in the catchment and estimate the mitigation impact of 30 alternative catchment management scenarios. Survey results show that earlier programs have resulted in the comprehensive adoption of best management practices by dairy farmers including exclusion of stock from watercourses and effluent management from 2000 to 2007. Whilst median Cryptosporidium concentrations in source water have decreased since 2004 they remain above target levels and put pressure on other barriers to mitigate risk, particularly the treatment plant. Non-dairy calves were identified as the major remaining source of Cryptosporidium in the Myponga catchment. The restriction of watercourse access of non-dairy calves could achieve a further reduction in Cryptosporidium export to the Myponga reservoir of around 90% from current levels. The adaptive management framework applied in this study was useful in guiding learning from past management, and in analysing, planning and refocusing the next round of catchment management strategies to achieve water quality targets.

  11. The search for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    The absence of bacteria ... of waterborne disease, the requirement for detecting the presence of these organisms in environmental and treated water samples ... at the rate designated for the filter under test. • Allow the pump to pull all the water through the filter and turn off the pump. Chemical composition of source water.

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from animal sources in Qinghai province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanis, Panagiotis; Plutzer, Judit; Halim, Norhaliza Abdul; Igori, Khatanbaatar; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Ongerth, Jerry; Liqing, Ma

    2007-11-01

    The presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 20 zoo animals of the Xining Zoo, 16 farm yaks and 42 farm goats in Qinghai province, China was investigated by an immunofluorescence test (IFT). The species and/or genotypes were determined by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 16 zoo animals, 2 yaks, and 15 goats by IFT. The IFT positive samples were further investigated by PCR, and 16 of them were found to be positive by that method also. Sequence analysis of the PCR products derived from Cryptosporidium oocysts from Black leopard (Panthera pardus), Heijing He (Grus nigricollis), Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia), Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), Lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), and White-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon) fecal samples matched that of Cryptosporidium parvum mouse genotype. Sequence analyses of other PCR products were consistent with cervine genotype Cryptosporidium from Ibex (Capra ibex), a novel Cryptosporidium genotype from a wild yak (Bos mutus), C. bovis-like genotype from one goat sample and also a novel Cryptosporidium genotype from one other separate goat sample. The present work reports the first data on Cryptosporidium infections in animals from the Qinghai province of mountainous central western China and the first findings of the 'cervine' genotype in Capra ibex, C. bovis-like genotype and the new Cryptosporidium spp. in farm goat and in wild yak.

  13. Giardia and Cryptosporidium on dairy farms and the role these farms may play in contaminating water sources in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, E; Greenwood, S J; Dixon, B R; Barkema, H W; McClure, J T

    2012-01-01

    Cattle represent a reservoir for Giardia and Cryptosporidium and may contaminate water sources. To determine the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on dairy farms and in water bodies near the farms. FARMS AND WATER SOURCES: Twenty dairy farms and 20 wells and 13 surface water samples associated with dairy farms. Proportions of samples positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia were determined by a direct immunofluorescence assay. Fecal and water samples were taken at different times. Thirty-two (95% CI: 29-35%) and 14% (95% CI: 12-17%) of fecal samples, and 100 (95% CI: 96-100) and 55% (95% CI: 32-77%) of herds, were positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblage E was detected in high proportions (90%) of fecal samples. Cryptosporidium bovis predominated (51%) in all cattle. C. andersoni predominated in adult cattle (53%), whereas the predominant species in animals < 2 months and 2-6 months was C. bovis, respectively. Only calves < 2 months of age were positive for C. parvum. In 46% (95% CI: 19-75%) and 85% (95% CI: 55-98%) of surface water, concentrations of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were higher in downstream, than in upstream, locations of farms, whereas only 1 groundwater sample was positive for Cryptosporidium. This sample of dairy cattle was predominantly infected with nonzoonotic species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, or both. More studies are needed to determine if the presence of Giardia or Cryptosporidium in surface water was associated with shedding in animals from nearby farms. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Foodborne illness associated with Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2011-11-01

    Waterborne outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia are well documented, while the public health implications for foodborne illness from these parasites have not been adequately considered. Cryptosporidium and Giardia are common in domestic livestock, where young animals can have a high prevalence of infection, shedding large numbers of oocysts and cysts. Molecular epidemiological studies have advanced our knowledge on the distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in specific livestock. This has enabled better source tracking of contaminated foods. Livestock generate large volumes of fecal waste, which can contaminate the environment with (oo)cysts. Evidence suggests that livestock, particularly cattle, play a significant role in food contamination, leading to outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis. However, foodborne giardiasis seems to originate primarily from anthroponotic sources. Foodborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are underreported because of the limited knowledge of the zoonotic potential and public health implications. Methods more sensitive and cheaper are needed to detect the often-low numbers of (oo)cysts in contaminated food and water. As the environmental burden of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from livestock waste increases with the projected increase in animal agriculture, public health is further compromised. Contamination of food by livestock feces containing Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts could occur via routes that span the entire food production continuum. Intervention strategies aimed at preventing food contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia will require an integrated approach based on knowledge of the potential points of entry for these parasites into the food chain. This review examines the potential for foodborne illness from Cryptosporidium and Giardia from livestock sources and discusses possible mechanisms for prevention and control.

  15. Transport of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Source-specific Indicator Organisms, and Standard Water Quality Constituents During Storm Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdevant-Rees, P. L.; Bourdeau, D.; Baker, R.; Long, S. C.; Barten, P. K.

    2004-05-01

    Microbial and water-quality measurements are collected during storm events under a variety of meteorological and land-use conditions in order to 1) identify risk of Cryptosporidium oocysts, Giardia cysts and other constituents, including microbial indicator organisms, entering surface waters from various land uses during periods of surface runoff; 2) optimize storm sampling procedures for these parameters; and 3) optimize strategies for accurate determination of constituent loads. The investigation is focused on four isolated land uses: forested with free ranging wildlife, beaver influenced forested with free ranging wildlife, residential/commercial, and dairy farm grazing/pastureland using an upstream and downstream sampling strategy. Traditional water-quality analyses include pH, temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total suspended solids, total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl-nitrogen, and ammonia nitrogen, Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. Total coliforms and fecal coliforms are measured as industry standard microbial analyses. Sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, Rhodococcus coprophilus, Clostridium perfringens spores, and Somatic and F-specific coliphages are measured at select sites as potential alternative source-specific indicator organisms. Upon completion of the project, the final database will consist of wet weather transport data for a set of parameters during twenty-four distinct storm-events in addition to monthly baseline data. A subset of the results to date will be presented, with focus placed on demonstrating the impact of beaver on constituent loadings over a variety of hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  16. Microbial source tracking: state of the science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joyce M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Reasoner, Donald J

    2002-12-15

    Although water quality of the Nation's lakes, rivers and streams has been monitored for many decades and especially since the passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, many still do not meet the Act's goal of "fishable and swimmable". While waterways can be impaired in numerous ways, the protection from pathogenic microbe contamination is most important for waters used for human recreation, drinking water and aquaculture. Typically, monitoring methods used for detecting potential pathogenic microorganisms in environmental waters are based upon cultivation and enumeration of fecal indicator bacteria (i.e. fecal coliforms, E. coli, and fecal enterococci). Currently, there is increasing interest in the potential for molecular fingerprinting methods to be used not only for detection but also for identification of fecal contamination sources. Molecular methods have been applied to study the microbial ecology of environmental systems for years and are now being applied to help improve our waters by identifying problem sources and determining the effect of implemented remedial solutions. Management and remediation of water pollution would be more cost-effective if the correct sources could be identified. This review provides an outline of the main methods that either have been used or have been suggested for use in microbial source tracking and some of the limitations associated with those methods.

  17. Cryptosporidium enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing, are important measures for preventing this illness. Certain water filters can also reduce risk by filtering out the cryptosporidium eggs. However, the pores of the filter ...

  18. Survey of the Occurrence and Human Infective Potential of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in Wastewater and Different Surface Water Sources of Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Kálmán; Morar, Adriana; Ilie, Marius S; Plutzer, Judit; Imre, Mirela; Emil, Tîrziu; Herbei, Mihai V; Dărăbuș, Gheorghe

    2017-10-01

    From the group of parasitic protozoa, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most common pathogens spread in surface water sources, representing a continuous threat to public health and water authorities. The aim of this survey was to assess the occurrence and human infective potential of these pathogens in treated wastewaters and different surface water sources. A total of 76 western Romanian water bodies in four counties (Arad, Bihor, Caraș-Severin and Timiș) were investigated, including the effluents of wastewater treatment plants (n = 11) and brooks (n = 19), irrigation channels (n = 8), lakes (n = 16), and ponds (n = 22). Water samples were collected through polyester microfiber filtration. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were isolated using immunomagnetic separation, according to the US EPA 1623 method, followed by their identification and counting by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. All samples were screened through PCR-based techniques targeting the gdh gene for Giardia spp. and the 18S rRNA gene for Cryptosporidium spp., followed by sequencing of the positive results. Cryptosporidium-positive samples were subtyped based on sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Giardia spp. was found in all tested water types with a cumulative detection rate of 90.1% in wastewaters, 26.3% in brooks, 37.5% in irrigation channels, 31.2% in lakes, and 36.4% in ponds. Except for ponds, all monitored water bodies harbored the Giardia duodenalis AII subassemblage with human infective potential. In addition, the ruminant origin assemblage E was widely distributed, and the domestic/wild canid-specific assemblage D was also recorded in a pond. Three (27.3%) wastewater samples were Cryptosporidium positive, and the identified species was the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum, with IIaA15G2R1 (n = 2) and IIdA18G1 subtypes. The results highlight that this threat to the public health must be brought to the attention of epidemiologists, health officials

  19. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiyo, Rogerio; de Souza, Carla Zangari; Nishi, Letícia; Brustolin, Camila Fernanda; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Falavigna Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analysis, and five liters for physicochemical analysis. Water samples were filtered under vacuum with a kit containing a cellulose acetate membrane filter, 1.2 µm (Millipore(r), Barueri, SP, Brazil). The material retained on the membrane was mechanically extracted and analyzed by direct immunofluorescence (Merifluor(r)kit). From 20 rural properties investigated, 10 had artesian wells (40 samples), 10 had common wells (40 samples), and one had a mine (four samples), the latter contaminated by Cryptosporidium spp. In samples from artesian wells, 90 to 130 meters depth, 42.5% were positive for total coliforms and 5.0% were identified to have abnormal coloration. From the samples of common wells, 14 to 37 meters depth, 87.5% were contaminated with total coliforms, 82.5% were positive for thermotolerant coliforms, and 12.5% had color abnormalities. We did not detect the presence of Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. in artesian and common wells. The use of artesian or common wells is an important step in the control of the spreading of zoonoses, particularly Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp., as well as artesian wells for coliform control in local production of vegetables to be marketed.

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species coproantigens on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to assess the potential of animals, used for teaching and research, as a source of Cryptosporidium infection for students and staff of a University in Nigeria. Faecal samples from 185 animals reared on the teaching and research farm were collected and examined for Cryptosporidium spp. antigens ...

  1. Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederlandse zwembaden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    2003-01-01

    Swimming-pool associated outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been frequently reported in the UK and USA. Cryptosporidium oocysts could sometimes be detected in the pool water or the filter backwash water in cases where the source of the outbreak was confirmed. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium and

  2. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the relative contributions of the pathogenic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia by manure of farm animals in The Netherlands to the total yearly environmental load was studied. Manure of veal calves forms a very large source of Cryptosporidium (1.5 m 10 square 16 oocysts per year)

  3. Multi-source energy harvester for wildlife tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Zuo, Lei; Zhou, Wanlu; Liang, Changwei; McCabe, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Sufficient power supply to run GPS machinery and transmit data on a long-term basis remains to be the key challenge for wildlife tracking technology. Traditional way of replacing battery periodically is not only time and money consuming but also dangerous to live-trapping wild animals. In this paper, an innovative wildlife tracking device with multi-source energy harvester with advantage of high efficiency and reliability is investigated and developed. This multi-source energy harvester entails a solar energy harvester and an innovative rotational electromagnetic energy harvester is mounted on the "wildlife tracking collar" which will remarkably extend the duration of wild life tracking. A feedforward and feedback control of DC-DC converter circuit is adopted to passively realize the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) logic for the solar energy harvester. The rotational electromagnetic energy harvester can mechanically rectify the irregular bidirectional motion into unidirectional motion has been modeled and demonstrated.

  4. Alternative methods in tracking sources of microbial contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A key factor in the management and remediation of impaired ground- and surface water is the ability to distinguish the sources of faecal contamination. Several approaches have been adopted as microbial source tracking methods (MST), which are generally classified as culturing, phenotypic, genetic, and chemical MST.

  5. Tracking the sources of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.; Churkina, G.; Coates, J.; Grote, R.; Mar, K.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Zhu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this set of studies we examine the attribution of tropospheric ozone to emissions of VOC using a tagging approach, whereby each VOC oxidation intermediate in model chemical mechanisms is tagged with the identity of its primary emitted compound, allowing modelled ozone production to be directly attributed to all emitted VOCs in the model. Using a global model we

  6. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  7. Coherence among different microbial source tracking markers in a small agricultural stream with or without livestock exclusion practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A; Gannon, Victor; Jokinen, Cassandra C; Jones, Tineke H; Marti, Romain; Neumann, Norman F; Ruecker, Norma J; Sunohara, Mark; Topp, Edward; Lapen, David R

    2013-10-01

    Over 1,400 water samples were collected biweekly over 6 years from an intermittent stream protected and unprotected from pasturing cattle. The samples were monitored for host-specific Bacteroidales markers, Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, viruses and coliphages associated with humans or animals, and bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Ruminant Bacteroidales markers did not increase within the restricted cattle access reach of the stream, whereas the ruminant Bacteroidales marker increased significantly in the unrestricted cattle access reach. Human Bacteroidales markers significantly increased downstream of homes where septic issues were documented. Wildlife Bacteroidales markers were detected downstream of the cattle exclusion practice where stream and riparian habitat was protected, but detections decreased after the unrestricted pasture, where the stream and riparian zone was unprotected from livestock. Detection of a large number of human viruses was shown to increase downstream of homes, and similar trends were observed for the human Bacteroidales marker. There was considerable interplay among biomarkers with stream flow, season, and the cattle exclusion practices. There were no to very weak associations with Bacteroidales markers and bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. Overall, discrete sample-by-sample coherence among the different microbial source tracking markers that expressed a similar microbial source was minimal, but spatial trends were physically meaningful in terms of land use (e.g., beneficial management practice) effects on sources of fecal pollution.

  8. Multiple approaches to microbial source tracking in tropical northern Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Neave, Matthew

    2014-09-16

    Microbial source tracking is an area of research in which multiple approaches are used to identify the sources of elevated bacterial concentrations in recreational lakes and beaches. At our study location in Darwin, northern Australia, water quality in the harbor is generally good, however dry-season beach closures due to elevated Escherichia coli and enterococci counts are a cause for concern. The sources of these high bacteria counts are currently unknown. To address this, we sampled sewage outfalls, other potential inputs, such as urban rivers and drains, and surrounding beaches, and used genetic fingerprints from E. coli and enterococci communities, fecal markers and 454 pyrosequencing to track contamination sources. A sewage effluent outfall (Larrakeyah discharge) was a source of bacteria, including fecal bacteria that impacted nearby beaches. Two other treated effluent discharges did not appear to influence sites other than those directly adjacent. Several beaches contained fecal indicator bacteria that likely originated from urban rivers and creeks within the catchment. Generally, connectivity between the sites was observed within distinct geographical locations and it appeared that most of the bacterial contamination on Darwin beaches was confined to local sources.

  9. Sound source tracking device for telematic spatial sound field reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Bruno

    This research describes an algorithm that localizes sound sources for use in telematic applications. The localization algorithm is based on amplitude differences between various channels of a microphone array of directional shotgun microphones. The amplitude differences will be used to locate multiple performers and reproduce their voices, which were recorded at close distance with lavalier microphones, spatially corrected using a loudspeaker rendering system. In order to track multiple sound sources in parallel the information gained from the lavalier microphones will be utilized to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio between each performer and the concurrent performers.

  10. Source Tracking of Nitrous Oxide using A Quantum Cascade ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nitrification and denitrification are two major biological pathways that are responsible for soil emissions of N2O. However, source tracking of in-situ or laboratory N2O production is still challenging to soil scientists. The objective of this study was to introduce the use of a new technology, quantum cascade laser (QCL) spectroscopy, which allows for significantly improved accuracy and precision to continuously measure real-time N2O for source tracking. This data provides important emission inventory information to air quality and atmospheric chemistry models. The task demonstrated that QCL spectroscopy can measure the flux of nitrous oxide at ambient and well as elevated concentrations in real time. The fractionation of the nitrous oxide produced by microbial processing of nitrate can be measured and characterized as isotopic signatures related to the nitrifying or denitrifying state of the microbial communities. This has important implications for monitoring trace gases in the atmosphere. The data produced by this system will provide clients including the air quality and climate change communities with needed information on the sources and strengths of N2O emissions for modeling and research into mitigation strategies to reduce overall GHG emissions in agricultural systems.

  11. First molecular identification of Cryptosporidium by 18S rRNA in goats and association with farm management in Terengganu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzan Mat Yusof

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: The identified species found in goat was Cryptosporidium parvum. Future study on the zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium parvum in goats needs to be done in order to find the source of transmission of this parasite.

  12. DNA barcoding of Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlapeta, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Cryptosporidium spp. (Apicomplexa) causing cryptosporidiosis are of medical and veterinary significance. The genus Cryptosporidium has benefited from the application of what is considered a DNA-barcoding approach, even before the term 'DNA barcoding' was formally coined. Here, the objective to define the DNA barcode diversity of Cryptosporidium infecting mammals is reviewed and considered to be accomplished. Within the Cryptosporidium literature, the distinction between DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy is indistinct. DNA barcoding and DNA taxonomy are examined using the latest additions to the growing spectrum of named Cryptosporidium species and within-species and between-species identity is revisited. Ease and availability of whole-genome DNA sequencing of the relatively small Cryptosporidium genome offer an initial perspective on the intra-host diversity. The opportunity emerges to apply a metagenomic approach to purified field/clinical Cryptosporidum isolates. The outstanding question remains a reliable definition of Cryptosporidium phenotype. The complementary experimental infections and metagenome approach will need to be applied simultaneously to address Cryptosporidium phenotype with carefully chosen clinical evaluations enabling identification of virulence factors.

  13. Intermittent Volcanism in the S Pacific: Tracking Persistent Geochemical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A.; Staudigel, H.; Hanan, B. B.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2004-12-01

    South Pacific ocean intraplate volcanoes (OIV's) have formed relatively short, discontinuous chains over the last 140 Ma, in contrast to classic continuous hot spot chains like Hawaii or Louisville. Moreover, its volcanism stands apart by very diverse and radiogenic mantle source regions, defining the South Pacific Isotopic and Thermal Anomaly (SOPITA). Discontinuous SOPITA OIV's form a complex array of crossing lineaments and isolated seamounts that can be back-tracked in time to the western Pacific. We studied the Hf and Pb isotopic composition of the prominent western Gilbert's and Tokelau chain that mostly correspond to the plate motion stage expressed by the Emperor Seamounts. The Gilbert's chain (to the West of Tokelau) has an age range of 74-65 Ma, and back-tracks to an OIV source origin near Rurutu. Notably, this chain shows an isotopic signature similar to the Rurutu chain, from Burtaritari (176Hf/177Hf: 0.282900, 206Pb/204Pb: 20.582) to Tuba (0.282938, 19.691). The parallel-running Tokelau chain ranges from 76-58 Ma, projecting current activity around Macdonald seamount. Its isotopic composition is also similar to Macdonald seamount, as shown by Howland (0.282951, 20.773) to Polo (0.283050, 19.390). However, both chains also contain seamounts with ages and isotopic signatures that are outliers, inconsistent with their general age range and isotopic trends (e.g. Ava; 0.282641, 17.729 and Sakau; 0.282880, 18.997). Our results show that the discontinuous magmatic provinces within SOPITA can be tracked back in time by geochronology and geochemical fingerprinting. This suggests that the SOPITA OIV's are fed by distinct, long-lived mantle source regions that may turn "on" or "off" for distinct periods during their life-times. This intermittent volcanism is inconsistent with the "standard" fixed hot spot model, since it does not produce continuous chains with linear age progressions. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the utility of geochemical fingerprinting

  14. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurring in natural water bodies in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia protozoa are zoonotic parasites that cause human gastroenteritis and can be transmitted to human through the fecal-oral route and water or food. Several species belong to these genera and their resistant forms occur in water, but only some of them are infectious to human. Health risk depends on the occurrence of infectious Cryptosporidium and Giardia species and genotypes in water, and only molecular techniques allow detecting them, as well as enable to identify the contamination source. In this work, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis have been performed on the basis of 18S rDNA and ß-giardin genes sequences of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, in order to provide the molecular characterization of these parasites detected earlier in five natural water bodies in Poland and to track possible sources of their (oo)cysts in water. Genotyping revealed a high similarity (over 99 up to 100 %) of analyzed sequences to cattle genotype of C. parvum isolated from cattle and human and to G. intestinalis assemblage B isolated from human. The sequences obtained by others originated from patients with clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis or giardiasis and/or with the infection confirmed by different methods. The contamination of three examined lakes is probably human-originated, while the sources of contamination of two remaining lakes are wild and domestic animals. Obtained phylogenetic trees support suggestions of other authors that the bovine genotype of C. parvum should be a separate species, as well as A and B assemblages of G. intestinalis.

  15. Using Microbial Source Tracking to Enhance Environmental Stewardship of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sherry; Rose, Joan; Flood, Matthew; Aw, Tiong; Hyndman, David

    2016-04-01

    Large scale agriculture relies on the application of chemical fertilizers and animal manure. It is well known that nutrients in excess of a plant's uptake and soil retention capacity can travel to nearby waterways via surface run-off and groundwater pathways, indirectly fertilizing these aquatic ecosystems. It has not yet been possible to distinguish water quality impacts of fertilizer from those derived from human and animal waste sources. However, new microbial source tracking (MST) tools allow specific identification of fecal pollution. Our objective was to examine pollution risks at the regional scale using MST, mapping and classification and regression tree analysis. We present results Bovine M2 genetic marker data from three flow regimes (baseflow, snow melt, and post-planting rain). Key landscape characteristics were related to the presence of the bovine markers and appear to be related to fate and transport. Impacts at this regional watershed scale will be discussed. Our research aims to identify the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality by linking nutrient concentrations with fecal pollution sources. We hope that our research will provide guidance that will help improve water quality through agricultural best management practices to reduce pathogen contamination.

  16. METHODS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. AND GIARDIA SP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis caused by infection with Giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidiosis, caused by infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. These outbreaks have created a need to detect these organisms in source and finished drinking water. The pr...

  17. A Tracking Analyst for large 3D spatiotemporal data from multiple sources (case study: Tracking volcanic eruptions in the atmosphere)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohamed A.; Elshehaly, Mai H.; Gračanin, Denis; Elmongui, Hicham G.

    2018-02-01

    This research presents a novel Trajectory-based Tracking Analyst (TTA) that can track and link spatiotemporally variable data from multiple sources. The proposed technique uses trajectory information to determine the positions of time-enabled and spatially variable scatter data at any given time through a combination of along trajectory adjustment and spatial interpolation. The TTA is applied in this research to track large spatiotemporal data of volcanic eruptions (acquired using multi-sensors) in the unsteady flow field of the atmosphere. The TTA enables tracking injections into the atmospheric flow field, the reconstruction of the spatiotemporally variable data at any desired time, and the spatiotemporal join of attribute data from multiple sources. In addition, we were able to create a smooth animation of the volcanic ash plume at interactive rates. The initial results indicate that the TTA can be applied to a wide range of multiple-source data.

  18. Bayesian source tracking via focalization and marginalization in an uncertain Mediterranean Sea environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosso, Stan E; Wilmut, Michael J; Nielsen, Peter L

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies Bayesian source tracking in an uncertain environment to Mediterranean Sea data, and investigates the resulting tracks and track uncertainties as a function of data information content (number of data time-segments, number of frequencies, and signal-to-noise ratio) and of prior information (environmental uncertainties and source-velocity constraints). To track low-level sources, acoustic data recorded for multiple time segments (corresponding to multiple source positions along the track) are inverted simultaneously. Environmental uncertainty is addressed by including unknown water-column and seabed properties as nuisance parameters in an augmented inversion. Two approaches are considered: Focalization-tracking maximizes the posterior probability density (PPD) over the unknown source and environmental parameters. Marginalization-tracking integrates the PPD over environmental parameters to obtain a sequence of joint marginal probability distributions over source coordinates, from which the most-probable track and track uncertainties can be extracted. Both approaches apply track constraints on the maximum allowable vertical and radial source velocity. The two approaches are applied for towed-source acoustic data recorded at a vertical line array at a shallow-water test site in the Mediterranean Sea where previous geoacoustic studies have been carried out.

  19. Microbial source tracking: a tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ling-Lin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The ability to trace fecal indicators and food-borne pathogens to the point of origin has major ramifications for food industry, food regulatory agencies, and public health. Such information would enable food producers and processors to better understand sources of contamination and thereby take corrective actions to prevent transmission. Microbial source tracking (MST), which currently is largely focused on determining sources of fecal contamination in waterways, is also providing the scientific community tools for tracking both fecal bacteria and food-borne pathogens contamination in the food chain. Approaches to MST are commonly classified as library-dependent methods (LDMs) or library-independent methods (LIMs). These tools will have widespread applications, including the use for regulatory compliance, pollution remediation, and risk assessment. These tools will reduce the incidence of illness associated with food and water. Our aim in this review is to highlight the use of molecular MST methods in application to understanding the source and transmission of food-borne pathogens. Moreover, the future directions of MST research are also discussed.

  20. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (water samples from one catchment site were frequently contaminated with Giardia (92 %) and Cryptosporidium (96 %), especially in winter and spring. Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified.

  1. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  2. Source tracking Mycobacterium ulcerans infections in the Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A Narh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have associated Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU infection, Buruli ulcer (BU, with slow moving water bodies, there is still no definite mode of transmission. Ecological and transmission studies suggest Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR typing as a useful tool to differentiate MU strains from other Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria (MPM. Deciphering the genetic relatedness of clinical and environmental isolates is seminal to determining reservoirs, vectors and transmission routes. In this study, we attempted to source-track MU infections to specific water bodies by matching VNTR profiles of MU in human samples to those in the environment. Environmental samples were collected from 10 water bodies in four BU endemic communities in the Ashanti region, Ghana. Four VNTR loci in MU Agy99 genome, were used to genotype environmental MU ecovars, and those from 14 confirmed BU patients within the same study area. Length polymorphism was confirmed with sequencing. MU was present in the 3 different types of water bodies, but significantly higher in biofilm samples. Four MU genotypes, designated W, X, Y and Z, were typed in both human and environmental samples. Other reported genotypes were only found in water bodies. Animal trapping identified 1 mouse with lesion characteristic of BU, which was confirmed as MU infection. Our findings suggest that patients may have been infected from community associated water bodies. Further, we present evidence that small mammals within endemic communities could be susceptible to MU infections. M. ulcerans transmission could involve several routes where humans have contact with risk environments, which may be further compounded by water bodies acting as vehicles for disseminating strains.

  3. Bacteroidales markers for microbial source tracking in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nshimyimana, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Mercedes C; Thompson, R Janelle; Wuertz, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The island city country of Singapore served as a model to validate the use of host-associated Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene marker assays for identifying sources of fecal pollution in the urban tropical environment of Southeast Asia. A total of 295 samples were collected from sewage, humans, domesticated animals (cats, dogs, rabbits and chicken), and wild animals (birds, monkeys and wild boars). Samples were analyzed by real time PCR using five human-associated assays (HF183-SYBR Green, HF183, BacHum, BacH and B. thetaiotaomicron α-1-6, mannanase (B. theta), one canine-associated assay (BacCan), and a total Bacteroidales assay (BacUni). The best performing human-associated assay was B. theta with a diagnostic sensitivity of 69% and 100% in human stool and sewage, respectively, and a specificity of 98%. BacHum achieved the second highest sensitivity and specificity for human stool at 65% and 91%, respectively. The canine-associated Bacteroidales assay (BacCan) had a sensitivity and specificity above 80% and was validated for tracking fecal pollution from dogs. BacUni demonstrated a sensitivity and specificity of 100% for mammals, thus BacUni was confirmed for total Bacteroidales detection in the region. We showed for the first time that rabbit fecal samples cross-react with human-associated assays (HF183-SYBR Green, HF183, BacHum and BacH) and with BacCan. Our findings regarding the best performing human-associated assays differ from those reported in Bangladesh and India, which are geographically close to Southeast Asia, and where HF183 and BacHum were the preferred assays, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An adaptive algorithm for separating and tracking multiple directional sources in linear arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, C. C.; Chin, Francois; Foo, S. S.

    1992-03-01

    A new algorithm for spatially filtering out, enhancing, and tracking individual directional sources in an adaptive array is proposed and investigated. In this algorithm, the sources are separated by using an adaptive beamformer whose outputs are processed by employing the LMS algorithm to track distinct sources individually. From the LMS weights employed, the source locations can be estimated and whenever significant changes in these are detected, the beamformer is updated so that its outputs will be due to different sources in the steady state. With this algorithm, the problems of look direction errors in look-direction constrained arrays and of large signal power in power inversion arrays are eliminated, and the enhancement of multiple moving sources becomes a natural process. Furthermore, because the sources are individually tracked and the beamformer is only updated occasionally, the algorithm possesses fast tracking behavior, and its implementation complexity is comparable to that of beamformer-based adaptive arrays using the LMS algorithm.

  5. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, Dummy; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  6. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of cryptosporidium to surface waters : A case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, J.; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  7. Bayesian geoacoustic inversion and source tracking for horizontal line array data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Dag

    The overall goal of this thesis is to develop non-linear Bayesian methods for three-dimensional tracking of a moving acoustic source in shallow water despite environmental uncertainty, with application to data from a horizontal line array (HLA) of hydrophones. As a precursor, Bayesian geoacoustic inversion is applied to estimate seabed model parameters and their uncertainties. A simulation study examines the effect of source and array factors on geoacoustic information content in matched-field inversion of HLA data, as quantified in terms of model parameter uncertainties. Bayesian geoacoustic inversion is applied to both controlled-source and ship-noise data from a HLA deployed on the seafloor in a shallow-water experiment conducted in the Barents Sea. A new approach is introduced to account for data error reduction due to averaging data over time-series subsegments (snapshots), based on empirically apportioning measurement and theory error, with effects on inversion results compared to those of existing approaches. It is further demonstrated that combining data from multiple, independent time-series segments (for a moving source) in the inversion can significantly reduce geoacoustic parameter uncertainties. Geoacoustic uncertainties are also shown to depend on ship range and orientation, with lowest uncertainties for short ranges and for the ship stern/propeller oriented toward the array. Sediment sound-speed profile and density estimates from controlled-source and ship-noise data inversions are found to be in good agreement with values from geophysical measurements. Two non-linear Bayesian matched-field inversion approaches are developed for three-dimensional source tracking despite environmental uncertainty. Focalization-tracking maximizes the posterior probability density (PPD) over track and environmental parameters. Synthetic test cases show that the algorithm substantially outperforms tracking with poor environmental estimates and generally obtains results

  8. An open-source framework for testing tracking devices using Lego Mindstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomier, Julien; Ibanez, Luis; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Pace, Danielle; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we present an open-source framework for testing tracking devices in surgical navigation applications. At the core of image-guided intervention systems is the tracking interface that handles communication with the tracking device and gathers tracking information. Given that the correctness of tracking information is critical for protecting patient safety and for ensuring the successful execution of an intervention, the tracking software component needs to be thoroughly tested on a regular basis. Furthermore, with widespread use of extreme programming methodology that emphasizes continuous and incremental testing of application components, testing design becomes critical. While it is easy to automate most of the testing process, it is often more difficult to test components that require manual intervention such as tracking device. Our framework consists of a robotic arm built from a set of Lego Mindstorms and an open-source toolkit written in C++ to control the robot movements and assess the accuracy of the tracking devices. The application program interface (API) is cross-platform and runs on Windows, Linux and MacOS. We applied this framework for the continuous testing of the Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK), an open-source toolkit for image-guided surgery and shown that regression testing on tracking devices can be performed at low cost and improve significantly the quality of the software.

  9. Three-dimensional source tracking in an uncertain environment via Bayesian marginalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefsen, Dag; Dosso, Stan E

    2010-09-01

    This paper develops a non-linear Bayesian marginalization approach for three-dimensional source tracking in shallow water with uncertain environmental properties. The algorithm integrates the posterior probability density via a combination of Metropolis-Hastings sampling over environmental and bearing model parameters and Gibbs sampling over source range/depth, with track constraints on source velocity applied. Marginal distributions for source range/depth and source bearing are derived, with source position uncertainties estimated from the distributions. The Viterbi algorithm is applied to obtain the most probable three-dimensional track. The approach is applied to experimental narrowband data recorded on a bottom-moored horizontal line array in the Barents Sea.

  10. Sources of error when tracking irrigation fluids during hysteroscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, H R; Stanley, C

    2000-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of circulating nurses to estimate input and outgo of irrigating fluids used during hysteroscopic procedures in a hospital operating room. Simulation of intraoperative measurements (Canadian Task Force classification II-1). Operating room. Intervention. Circulating nurses estimated fluid volumes under circumstances simulating actual conditions of hysteroscopic ablative or resection procedures. Three-liter glycine irrigation bags were overfilled by an average of 2.8% (62-125 ml). Estimates of fluid remaining in partially emptied bags were in error by an average ranging from 4% to 50%/bag (largest error 10-55%, 157-401 ml). Estimates of fluid in kick buckets were in error by an average of 10% to 39% (largest error 22-66%, 232-903 ml). Visual estimates of fluid on the operating room floor were in error by an average of 56% to 67% (largest error 65-81%, 182-840 ml). Estimates of fluid in suction canisters were consistent among nurses. The accuracy of measurements for partially filled suction canisters primarily depended on the accuracy of canister calibration. Volume contained in cascaded suction canisters from an actual surgical procedure was grossly different from rated capacity. Accurate tracking of irrigation fluid during hysteroscopic procedures is difficult. Even with a mechanical measuring system, fluid lost on the floor can introduce sizable errors. Estimation errors can easily and quickly accumulate to clinically significant volumes. Use of an automated mechanical fluid-tracking system with devices to capture fluid lost from the surgical field is recommended.

  11. Tracking nonpoint source nitrogen pollution in human-impacted watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sujay S.; Groffman, Peter M; Band, Lawrence; Elliott, Emily M.; Shields, Catherine A.; Kendall, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Nonpoint source nitrogen (N) pollution is a leading contributor to U.S. water quality impairments. We combined watershed N mass balances and stable isotopes to investigate fate and transport of nonpoint N in forest, agricultural, and urbanized watersheds at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research site. Annual N retention was 55%, 68%, and 82% for agricultural, suburban, and forest watersheds, respectively. Analysis of δ15N-NO3–, and δ18O-NO3– indicated wastewater was an important nitrate source in urbanized streams during baseflow. Negative correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in urban watersheds indicated mixing between atmospheric deposition and wastewater, and N source contributions changed with storm magnitude (atmospheric sources contributed ∼50% at peak storm N loads). Positive correlations between δ15N-NO3– and δ18O-NO3– in watersheds suggested denitrification was removing septic system and agriculturally derived N, but N from belowground leaking sewers was less susceptible to denitrification. N transformations were also observed in a storm drain (no natural drainage network) potentially due to organic carbon inputs. Overall, nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, wastewater, and fertilizer showed different susceptibility to watershed N export. There were large changes in nitrate sources as a function of runoff, and anticipating source changes in response to climate and storms will be critical for managing nonpoint N pollution.

  12. FECAL SOURCE TRACKING BY ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ANALYSIS ON A WATERSHED EXHIBITING LOW RESISTANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ongoing development of microbial source tracking has made it possible to identify contamination sources with varying accuracy, depending on the method used. The purpose of this study was done to test the efficiency of the antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) method under low ...

  13. Molecular epidemiologic source tracking of orally transmitted Chagas disease, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Maikell; Carrasco, Hernán J; Martínez, Clara E; Messenger, Louisa A; Nessi, Anaibeth; Londoño, Juan C; Espinosa, Raul; Martínez, Cinda; Alfredo, Mijares; Bonfante-Cabarcas, Rafael; Lewis, Michael D; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Miles, Michael A; Llewellyn, Martin S

    2013-07-01

    Oral outbreaks of Chagas disease are increasingly reported in Latin America. The transitory presence of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites within contaminated foods, and the rapid consumption of those foods, precludes precise identification of outbreak origin. We report source attribution for 2 peri-urban oral outbreaks of Chagas disease in Venezuela via high resolution microsatellite typing.

  14. Particle Filter Design Using Importance Sampling for Acoustic Source Localisation and Tracking in Reverberant Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williamson Robert C

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequential Monte Carlo methods have been recently proposed to deal with the problem of acoustic source localisation and tracking using an array of microphones. Previous implementations make use of the basic bootstrap particle filter, whereas a more general approach involves the concept of importance sampling. In this paper, we develop a new particle filter for acoustic source localisation using importance sampling, and compare its tracking ability with that of a bootstrap algorithm proposed previously in the literature. Experimental results obtained with simulated reverberant samples and real audio recordings demonstrate that the new algorithm is more suitable for practical applications due to its reinitialisation capabilities, despite showing a slightly lower average tracking accuracy. A real-time implementation of the algorithm also shows that the proposed particle filter can reliably track a person talking in real reverberant rooms.

  15. Particle Filter Design Using Importance Sampling for Acoustic Source Localisation and Tracking in Reverberant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Eric A.; Williamson, Robert C.

    2006-12-01

    Sequential Monte Carlo methods have been recently proposed to deal with the problem of acoustic source localisation and tracking using an array of microphones. Previous implementations make use of the basic bootstrap particle filter, whereas a more general approach involves the concept of importance sampling. In this paper, we develop a new particle filter for acoustic source localisation using importance sampling, and compare its tracking ability with that of a bootstrap algorithm proposed previously in the literature. Experimental results obtained with simulated reverberant samples and real audio recordings demonstrate that the new algorithm is more suitable for practical applications due to its reinitialisation capabilities, despite showing a slightly lower average tracking accuracy. A real-time implementation of the algorithm also shows that the proposed particle filter can reliably track a person talking in real reverberant rooms.

  16. RadSTraM: Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring, Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL; Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Gross, Ian G [ORNL; Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    This report focuses on the technical information gained from the Radiological Source Tracking and Monitoring (RadSTraM) Phase II investigation and its implications. The intent of the RadSTraM project was to determine the feasibility of tracking radioactive materials in commerce, particularly International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Category 3 and 4 materials. Specifically, Phase II of the project addressed tracking radiological medical isotopes in commerce. These categories of materials are susceptible to loss or theft but the problem is not being addressed by other agencies.

  17. Degradation and Isotope Source Tracking of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Joshi, Sunendra R; Jaisi, Deb P

    2016-01-27

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine], an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup, and its main metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), have been frequently reported to be present in soils and other environments and thus have heightened public concerns on their potential adverse effects. Understanding the fate of these compounds and differentiating them from other naturally occurring compounds require a toolbox of methods that can go beyond conventional methods. Here, we applied individual isotope labeling technique whereby each compound or mineral involved in the glyphosate and AMPA degradation reaction was either synthesized or chosen to have distinct (18)O/(16)O ratios so that the source of incorporated oxygen in the orthophosphate generated and corresponding isotope effect during C-P bond cleavage could be identified. Furthermore, we measured original isotope signatures of a few commercial glyphosate sources to identify their source-specific isotope signatures. Our degradation kinetics results showed that the rate of glyphosate degradation was higher than that of AMPA in all experimental conditions, and both the rate and extent of degradation were lowest under anoxic conditions. Oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)OP) of orthophosphate generated from glyphosate and AMPA degradation suggested that one external oxygen atom from ambient water, not from dissolved oxygen or mineral, was incorporated into orthophosphate with the other three oxygen atoms inherited from the parent molecule. Interestingly, δ(18)OP values of all commercial glyphosate products studied were found to be the lightest among all orthophosphates known so far. Furthermore, isotope composition was found to be unaffected due to variable degradation kinetics, light/dark, and oxic/anoxic conditions. These results highlight the importance of phosphate oxygen isotope ratios as a nonconventional tool to potentially distinguish glyphosate sources and products from other organophosphorus compounds

  18. Tracking natural and anthropogenic Pb exposure to its geological source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jane; Pashley, Vanessa; Madgwick, Richard; Neil, Samantha; Chenery, Carolyn

    2018-01-31

    Human Pb exposure comes from two sources: (i) natural uptake through ingestion of soils and typified by populations that predate mining activity and (ii) anthropogenic exposure caused by the exposure to Pb derived from ore deposits. Currently, the measured concentration of Pb within a sample is used to discriminate between these two exposure routes, with the upper limit for natural exposure in skeletal studies given as 0.5 or 0.7 mg/kg in enamel and 0.5/0.7 μg/dL in blood. This threshold approach to categorising Pb exposure does not distinguish between the geological origins of the exposure types. However, Pb isotopes potentially provide a more definitive means of discriminating between sources. Whereas Pb from soil displays a crustal average 238 U/ 204 Pb (μ) value of c 9.7, Pb from ore displays a much wider range of evolution pathways. These characteristics are transferred into tooth enamel, making it possible to characterize human Pb exposure in terms of the primary source of ingested Pb and to relate mining activity to geotectonic domains. We surmise that this ability to discriminate between silicate and sulphide Pb exposure will lead to a better understanding of the evolution of early human mining activity and development of exposure models through the Anthropocene.

  19. Simultaneous Molecular Detection of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora from Raw Vegetables in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Seobo; Won, Jua; Kim, Jae-Whan; Kim, Kyungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2017-04-01

    Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora are well-known coccidian protozoa that can cause waterborne and foodborne diarrheal illnesses. There have been a few reports regarding contamination in different vegetables with Cryptosporidium, but no data are available regarding the sources of Cyclospora infections in Korea. In the present study, we collected 6 kinds of vegetables (perilla leaves, winter-grown cabbages, chives, sprouts, blueberries, and cherry tomatoes) from July 2014 to June 2015, and investigated contamination by these 2 protozoa using multiplex quantitative real-time PCR. Among 404 vegetables, Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora were detected in 31 (7.7%) and 5 (1.2%) samples, respectively. In addition, Cryptosporidium was isolated from all 6 kinds of vegetables, whereas Cyclospora was detected in 4 kinds of vegetables (except perilla leaves and chives). Cryptosporidium (17.8%) and Cyclospora (2.9%) had the highest detection rates in chives and winter-grown cabbages, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected all year long; however, Cyclospora was detected only from October to January. In 2 samples (sprout and blueberry), both Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora were detected. Further investigations using TaqI restriction enzyme fragmentation and nested PCR confirmed Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis, respectively. In conclusion, we detected C. cayetanensis in vegetables for the first time in Korea. This suggests that screening should be employed to prevent these protozoal infections in Korea.

  20. Rewinding the waves: tracking underwater signals to their source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama; Crivelli, Davide; Parsons, Wade; Colbourne, Bruce; Ryan, Amanda

    2017-10-24

    Analysis of data, recorded on March 8th 2014 at the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organisation's hydroacoustic stations off Cape Leeuwin Western Australia, and at Diego Garcia, reveal unique pressure signatures that could be associated with objects impacting at the sea surface, such as falling meteorites, or the missing Malaysian Aeroplane MH370. To examine the recorded signatures, we carried out experiments with spheres impacting at the surface of a water tank, where we observed almost identical pressure signature structures. While the pressure structure is unique to impacting objects, the evolution of the radiated acoustic waves carries information on the source. Employing acoustic-gravity wave theory we present an analytical inverse method to retrieve the impact time and location. The solution was validated using field observations of recent earthquakes, where we were able to calculate the eruption time and location to a satisfactory degree of accuracy. Moreover, numerical validations confirm an error below 0.02% for events at relatively large distances of over 1000 km. The method can be developed to calculate other essential properties such as impact duration and geometry. Besides impacting objects and earthquakes, the method could help in identifying the location of underwater explosions and landslides.

  1. Particle Filter with Integrated Voice Activity Detection for Acoustic Source Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehmann Eric A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In noisy and reverberant environments, the problem of acoustic source localisation and tracking (ASLT using an array of microphones presents a number of challenging difficulties. One of the main issues when considering real-world situations involving human speakers is the temporally discontinuous nature of speech signals: the presence of silence gaps in the speech can easily misguide the tracking algorithm, even in practical environments with low to moderate noise and reverberation levels. A natural extension of currently available sound source tracking algorithms is the integration of a voice activity detection (VAD scheme. We describe a new ASLT algorithm based on a particle filtering (PF approach, where VAD measurements are fused within the statistical framework of the PF implementation. Tracking accuracy results for the proposed method is presented on the basis of synthetic audio samples generated with the image method, whereas performance results obtained with a real-time implementation of the algorithm, and using real audio data recorded in a reverberant room, are published elsewhere. Compared to a previously proposed PF algorithm, the experimental results demonstrate the improved robustness of the method described in this work when tracking sources emitting real-world speech signals, which typically involve significant silence gaps between utterances.

  2. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Schistosoma. Cancer-associated antigens Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), melanoma-associated antigen, the MHC molecule HLA-B7.

  3. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anser EMT: the first open-source electromagnetic tracking platform for image-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herman Alexander; Franz, Alfred Michael; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Seitel, Alexander; Trauzettel, Fabian; Maier-Hein, Lena; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic tracking is the gold standard for instrument tracking and navigation in the clinical setting without line of sight. Whilst clinical platforms exist for interventional bronchoscopy and neurosurgical navigation, the limited flexibility and high costs of electromagnetic tracking (EMT) systems for research investigations mitigate against a better understanding of the technology's characterisation and limitations. The Anser project provides an open-source implementation for EMT with particular application to image-guided interventions. This work provides implementation schematics for our previously reported EMT system which relies on low-cost acquisition and demodulation techniques using both National Instruments and Arduino hardware alongside MATLAB support code. The system performance is objectively compared to other commercial tracking platforms using the Hummel assessment protocol. Positional accuracy of 1.14 mm and angular rotation accuracy of [Formula: see text] are reported. Like other EMT platforms, Anser is susceptible to tracking errors due to eddy current and ferromagnetic distortion. The system is compatible with commercially available EMT sensors as well as the Open Network Interface for image-guided therapy (OpenIGTLink) for easy communication with visualisation and medical imaging toolkits such as MITK and 3D Slicer. By providing an open-source platform for research investigations, we believe that novel and collaborative approaches can overcome the limitations of current EMT technology.

  5. Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring Project: Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Randy M [ORNL; Hill, David E [ORNL; Gorman, Bryan L [ORNL

    2010-09-01

    As a proof of concept tested in an operational context, the Global Radiological Source Sorting, Tracking, and Monitoring (GRadSSTraM) Project successfully demonstrated that radio frequency identification (RFID) and Web 2.0* technologies can be deployed to track controlled shipments between the United States and the European Union. Between November 2009 and May 2010, a total of 19 shipments were successfully shipped from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and tracked to their delivery at England's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) by the United Kingdom Royal Mail. However, the project can only be viewed as a qualified success as notable shortcomings were observed. Although the origin and terminus of all RFID-enabled shipments were recorded and no shipments were lost, not all the waypoints between ORNL and NPL were incorporated into the pilot. Given limited resources, the project team was able to install RFID listeners/actuators at three waypoints between the two endpoints. Although it is likely that all shipments followed the same route between ORNL and NPL, it cannot be determined beyond question that all 19 shipments were routed on identical itineraries past the same three waypoints. The pilot also raises the distinct possibility that unattended RFID tracking alone, without positive confirmation that a tagged item has been properly recorded by an RFID reader, does not meet a rigorous standard for shipping controlled items. Indeed, the proof of concept test strongly suggests that a multifaceted approach to tracking may be called for, including tracking methods that are capable of reading and accepting multiple inputs for individual items [e.g., carrier-provided tracking numbers, Universal Product Codes (UPCs), and RFID tags]. For controlled items, another apparent requirement is a confirmation feature, human or otherwise, which can certify that an item's RFID tag, UPC, or tracking number has been recorded.

  6. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables irrigated with low quality water in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tobias Boel; Petersen, Heidi Huus; Robert C., Abaidoo

    but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water...

  7. The Cryptosporidium parvum Kinome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artz Jennifer D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hundreds of millions of people are infected with cryptosporidiosis annually, with immunocompromised individuals suffering debilitating symptoms and children in socioeconomically challenged regions at risk of repeated infections. There is currently no effective drug available. In order to facilitate the pursuit of anti-cryptosporidiosis targets and compounds, our study spans the classification of the Cryptosporidium parvum kinome and the structural and biochemical characterization of representatives from the CDPK family and a MAP kinase. Results The C. parvum kinome comprises over 70 members, some of which may be promising drug targets. These C. parvum protein kinases include members in the AGC, Atypical, CaMK, CK1, CMGC, and TKL groups; however, almost 35% could only be classified as OPK (other protein kinases. In addition, about 25% of the kinases identified did not have any known orthologues outside of Cryptosporidium spp. Comparison of specific kinases with their Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii orthologues revealed some distinct characteristics within the C. parvum kinome, including potential targets and opportunities for drug design. Structural and biochemical analysis of 4 representatives of the CaMK group and a MAP kinase confirms features that may be exploited in inhibitor design. Indeed, screening CpCDPK1 against a library of kinase inhibitors yielded a set of the pyrazolopyrimidine derivatives (PP1-derivatives with IC50 values of CpCDPK1. In addition, structural analysis of CpCDPK4 identified an unprecedented Zn-finger within the CDPK kinase domain that may have implications for its regulation. Conclusions Identification and comparison of the C. parvum protein kinases against other parasitic kinases shows how orthologue- and family-based research can be used to facilitate characterization of promising drug targets and the search for new drugs.

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water resources of the Kuang River catchment, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Mukhaidin, Nabila; Choy, Seow Huey; Smith, Gavin J D; Mendenhall, Ian H; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ziegler, Alan D

    2016-08-15

    A catchment-scale investigation of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Kuang River Basin was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. Water samples were collected from the Kuang River and its tributaries as well as a major irrigation canal at the study site. We also investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection among dairy and beef cattle hosts. Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia were detected in all the rivers considered for this study, reflecting their ubiquity within the Kuang River Basin. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium/Giardia in the upper Kuang River and Lai River is of a particular concern as both drain into the Mae Kuang Reservoir, a vital source of drinking-water to many local towns and villages at the research area. We did not, however, detected neither Cryptosporidium nor Giardia were in the irrigation canal. The frequency of Cryptosporidium/Giardia detection nearly doubled during the rainy season compared to the dry season, highlighting the importance of water as an agent of transport. In addition to the overland transport of these protozoa from their land sources (e.g. cattle manure, cess pits), Cryptosporidium/Giardia may also be re-suspended from the streambeds (a potentially important repository) into the water column of rivers during storm events. Faecal samples from dairy and beef cattle showed high infection rates from various intestinal parasites - 97% and 94%, respectively. However, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were only detected in beef cattle. The difference in management style between beef (freeranging) and dairy cattle (confined) may account for this disparity. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Cryptosporidium/Giardia-positive samples contained C. ryanae (non-zoonotic) as well as Giardia intestinalis assemblages B (zoonotic) and E (non-zoonotic). With only basic water treatment facilities afforded to them, the communities of the rural area relying on these water supplies are

  9. An open source framework for tracking and state estimation ('Stone Soup')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul A.; Barr, Jordi; Balaji, Bhashyam; White, Kruger

    2017-05-01

    The ability to detect and unambiguously follow all moving entities in a state-space is important in multiple domains both in defence (e.g. air surveillance, maritime situational awareness, ground moving target indication) and the civil sphere (e.g. astronomy, biology, epidemiology, dispersion modelling). However, tracking and state estimation researchers and practitioners have difficulties recreating state-of-the-art algorithms in order to benchmark their own work. Furthermore, system developers need to assess which algorithms meet operational requirements objectively and exhaustively rather than intuitively or driven by personal favourites. We have therefore commenced the development of a collaborative initiative to create an open source framework for production, demonstration and evaluation of Tracking and State Estimation algorithms. The initiative will develop a (MIT-licensed) software platform for researchers and practitioners to test, verify and benchmark a variety of multi-sensor and multi-object state estimation algorithms. The initiative is supported by four defence laboratories, who will contribute to the development effort for the framework. The tracking and state estimation community will derive significant benefits from this work, including: access to repositories of verified and validated tracking and state estimation algorithms, a framework for the evaluation of multiple algorithms, standardisation of interfaces and access to challenging data sets. Keywords: Tracking,

  10. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  11. Patterns of Cryptosporidium oocyst shedding by eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting an Australian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Sangster, Nicholas C; Slade, Martin B; Veal, Duncan A

    2005-10-01

    The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in feces from a population of wild eastern grey kangaroos inhabiting a protected watershed in Sydney, Australia, was investigated. Over a 2-year period, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 239 of the 3,557 (6.7%) eastern grey kangaroo fecal samples tested by using a combined immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometric technique. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in this host population was estimated to range from 0.32% to 28.5%, with peaks occurring during the autumn months. Oocyst shedding intensity ranged from below 20 oocysts/g feces to 2.0 x 10(6) oocysts/g feces, and shedding did not appear to be associated with diarrhea. Although morphologically similar to the human-infective Cryptosporidium hominis and the Cryptosporidium parvum "bovine" genotype oocysts, the oocysts isolated from kangaroo feces were identified as the Cryptosporidium "marsupial" genotype I or "marsupial" genotype II. Kangaroos are the predominant large mammal inhabiting Australian watersheds and are potentially a significant source of Cryptosporidium contamination of drinking water reservoirs. However, this host population was predominantly shedding the marsupial-derived genotypes, which to date have been identified only in marsupial host species.

  12. An outbreak of Cryptosporidium at a recreational water park in Niagara Region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica; Hague, Heather; Hudgin, Glen; Ross, Lorrie; Moore, Deborah

    2013-05-01

    Cryptosporidium is a parasitic protozoan found in water sources and spread through the fecal-oral route. Cryptosporidiosis is characterized by gastroenteritis and is increasingly associated with recreational water sources. On December 3, 2010, Niagara Region Public Health was informed of a laboratory-confirmed case of Cryptosporidium. Over the subsequent two weeks, a total of three additional laboratory-confirmed cases were reported. All cases had visited the same water park in Niagara Region, Canada, over November 14-16, 2010. A total of 12 cases associated with the outbreak ranged in age from 1 to 66 years. This article describes the outbreak, environmental investigation, and control measures. The environmental investigation revealed that the ultraviolet disinfection system was offline on November 14, 2010, which may have allowed for the transmission of Cryptosporidium to bathers. Further research into the detection of Cryptosporidium outbreaks and regulations and guidelines for water park operators may help to decrease future outbreaks.

  13. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Furey

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Enterococcus sp. isolates originating from deer, bovine, gull, and human sources were examined using microarrays. Isolates were subjected to Box PCR amplification and the resulting amplification products labeled with Cy5. Fluorescent-labeled templates were hybridized to in-house constructed nonamer oligonucleotide microarrays consisting of 198 probes. Microarray hybridization profiles were obtained using the ArrayPro image analysis software. Principal Components Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA were compared for their ability to visually cluster microarray hybridization profiles based on the environmental source from which the Enterococcus sp. isolates originated. The PCA was visually superior at separating origin-specific clusters, even for as few as 3 factors. A Soft Independent Modeling (SIM classification confirmed the PCA, resulting in zero misclassifications using 5 factors for each class. The implication of these results for the application of random oligonucleotide microarrays for BST is that, given the reproducibility issues, factor-based variable selection such as in PCA and SIM greatly outperforms dendrogram-based similarity measures such as in HCA and K-Nearest Neighbor KNN.

  14. Enterococcus and Escherichia coli fecal source apportionment with microbial source tracking genetic markers - is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal pollution is measured in surface waters using culture-based measurements of enterococci and Escherichia coli bacteria. Source apportionment of these two fecal indicator bacteria is an urgent need for prioritizing remediation efforts and quantifying health risks associated...

  15. Source tracking using microbial community fingerprints: Method comparison with hydrodynamic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D T; Jovanovic, D; Lintern, A; Teakle, I; Barnes, M; Deletic, A; Coleman, R; Rooney, G; Prosser, T; Coutts, S; Hipsey, M R; Bruce, L C; Henry, R

    2017-02-01

    Urban estuaries around the world are experiencing contamination from diffuse and point sources, which increases risks to public health. To mitigate and manage risks posed by elevated levels of contamination in urban waterways, it is critical to identify the primary water sources of contamination within catchments. Source tracking using microbial community fingerprints is one tool that can be used to identify sources. However, results derived from this approach have not yet been evaluated using independent datasets. As such, the key objectives of this investigation were: (1) to identify the major sources of water responsible for bacterial loadings within an urban estuary using microbial source tracking (MST) using microbial communities; and (2) to evaluate this method using a 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The Yarra River estuary, which flows through the city of Melbourne in South-East Australia was the focus of this study. We found that the water sources contributing to the bacterial community in the Yarra River estuary varied temporally depending on the estuary's hydrodynamic conditions. The water source apportionment determined using microbial community MST correlated to those determined using a 3-dimensional hydrodynamic model of the transport and mixing of a tracer in the estuary. While there were some discrepancies between the two methods, this investigation demonstrated that MST using bacterial community fingerprints can identify the primary water sources of microorganisms in an estuarine environment. As such, with further optimization and improvements, microbial community MST has the potential to become a powerful tool that could be practically applied in the mitigation of contaminated aquatic systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium sp. in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Snak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considered a zoonosis of utmost importance, cryptosporidiosis has a worldwide distribution and can infect mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. It is caused by a highly resistant protozoan present in the environment and can cause death in immunosuppressed individuals and pups, as well as in farm animals such as cattle and sheep, generating losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep feces from the farms of Western Paraná, which have different management styles, and compare the results with their respective management methods. One hundred and forty-four stool samples were collected (69 from Property 1 and 75 from Property 2 and analyzed using a fecal smear on slides after staining by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen method. Samples tested positive by this method were subjected to nested PCR and the products obtained were sent for sequencing to determine the species. While 82.60% of the samples from Property 1 were tested positive, only 36% of the samples from Property 2 were tested positive. On analyzing the sequencing data, it was observed that the Cryptosporidium species of samples from Property 1 showed high similarity to Cryptosporidium xiaoi and those from Property 2, to Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. The reason for divergence in results can be attributed to differences in management systems adopted by each property, thus showing the importance of detecting carrier animals, as they can contaminate the environment, especially the water sources, and spread the disease to humans and other animals.

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Africa: current and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Sylvia Afriyie; Ryan, Una

    2017-04-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development. Malnutrition and HIV status are also important contributors to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in African countries. Molecular typing of both parasites in humans, domestic animals and wildlife to date indicates a complex picture of both anthroponotic, zoonotic and spill-back transmission cycles that requires further investigation. For Cryptosporidium, the only available drug (nitazoxanide) is ineffective in HIV and malnourished individuals and therefore more effective drugs are a high priority. Several classes of drugs with good efficacy exist for Giardia, but dosing regimens are suboptimal and emerging resistance threatens clinical utility. Climate change and population growth are also predicted to increase both malnutrition and the prevalence of these parasites in water sources. Dedicated and co-ordinated commitments from African governments involving "One Health" initiatives with multidisciplinary teams of veterinarians, medical workers, relevant government authorities, and public health specialists working together are essential to control and prevent the burden of disease caused by these parasites.

  18. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  19. Use of Enterococcus, BST and sterols as indicators for poultry pollution source tracking in surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has applied Enterococcus, Bacterial Source Tracking (BST) and sterol analysis for pollution source identification from poultry sources. Fecal contamination was detected in 100% of surface water and 15% of groundwater sites tested. E. faecium was the dominant species in aged litter sampl...

  20. Genetic diversity of Escherichia coli isolates in irrigation water and associated sediments: implications for source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lingeng; Hume, Michael E; Sternes, Keith L; Pillai, Suresh D

    2004-11-01

    Identifying the sources of fecal contaminants in surface water bodies such as rivers and lakes is of significant importance for environmental quality, food safety and regulatory purposes. Current DNA library-based source tracking approaches rely on the comparison of the genetic relatedness among the fecal contaminants. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relatedness of Escherichia coli isolated from irrigation water and associated sediments using pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and to evaluate the genetic stability of the E. coli PFGE patterns. The isolates were obtained over a 4-month period from specific locations within irrigation canals and sediments associated with the Rio Grande River along the Texas-Mexico border. Fifty E. coli isolates were genotyped using PFGE. Different E. coli genotypes were identified among samples collected in 11 different locations. Some isolates obtained over successive months showed similar genotypic patterns. In the laboratory experiment, the PFGE pattern of one E. coli strain changed during survival in irrigation water. The genetic relatedness of this strain changed from >95% to <83% over 8-week survival. These results imply that PFGE is of such extreme resolution that it may be a challenging task to rely solely on a PFGE-based source tracking DNA fingerprint library for large watersheds.

  1. Passive acoustic tracking using a library of nearby sources of opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Christopher M A; Sarkar, J; Hodgkiss, W S; Kuperman, W A; Sabra, K G

    2018-02-01

    A method of localizing unknown acoustic sources using data derived replicas from ships of opportunity has been reported previously by Verlinden, Sarkar, Hodgkiss, Kuperman, and Sabra [J. Acoust. Soc. Am, 138(1), EL54-EL59 (2015)]. The method is similar to traditional matched field processing, but differs in that data-derived measured replicas are used in place of modeled replicas and, in order to account for differing source spectra between library and target vessels, cross-correlation functions are compared instead of comparing acoustic signals directly. The method is capable of localizing sources in positions where data derived replicas are available, such as locations previously transited by ships tracked using the Automatic Identification System, but is limited by the sparsity of ships of opportunity. This paper presents an extension of this localization method to regions where data derived replicas are not available by extrapolating the measured cross-correlation function replicas onto a larger search grid using waveguide invariant theory. This new augmentation provides a method for continuous tracking.

  2. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium Species in Animals Inhabiting Sydney Water Catchments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common zoonotic waterborne parasitic diseases worldwide and represents a major public health concern of water utilities in developed nations. As animals in catchments can shed human-infectious Cryptosporidium oocysts, determining the potential role of animals in dissemination of zoonotic Cryptosporidium to drinking water sources is crucial. In the present study, a total of 952 animal faecal samples from four dominant species (kangaroos, rabbits, cattle and sheep inhabiting Sydney's drinking water catchments were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium using a quantitative PCR (qPCR and positives sequenced at multiple loci. Cryptosporidium species were detected in 3.6% (21/576 of kangaroos, 7.0% (10/142 of cattle, 2.3% (3/128 of sheep and 13.2% (14/106 of rabbit samples screened. Sequence analysis of a region of the 18S rRNA locus identified C. macropodum and C. hominis in 4 and 17 isolates from kangaroos respectively, C. hominis and C. parvum in 6 and 4 isolates respectively each from cattle, C. ubiquitum in 3 isolates from sheep and C. cuniculus in 14 isolates from rabbits. All the Cryptosporidium species identified were zoonotic species with the exception of C. macropodum. Subtyping using the 5' half of gp60 identified C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 12 and IdA15G1 (n = 2 in kangaroo faecal samples; C. hominis IbA10G2 (n = 4 and C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 4 in cattle faecal samples, C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa (n = 1 in sheep and C. cuniculus VbA23 (n = 9 in rabbits. Additional analysis of a subset of samples using primers targeting conserved regions of the MIC1 gene and the 3' end of gp60 suggests that the C. hominis detected in these animals represent substantial variants that failed to amplify as expected. The significance of this finding requires further investigation but might be reflective of the ability of this C. hominis variant to infect animals. The finding of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in these

  3. FIMTrack: An open source tracking and locomotion analysis software for small animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Risse

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of small animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.

  4. FIMTrack: An open source tracking and locomotion analysis software for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Benjamin; Berh, Dimitri; Otto, Nils; Klämbt, Christian; Jiang, Xiaoyi

    2017-05-01

    Imaging and analyzing the locomotion behavior of small animals such as Drosophila larvae or C. elegans worms has become an integral subject of biological research. In the past we have introduced FIM, a novel imaging system feasible to extract high contrast images. This system in combination with the associated tracking software FIMTrack is already used by many groups all over the world. However, so far there has not been an in-depth discussion of the technical aspects. Here we elaborate on the implementation details of FIMTrack and give an in-depth explanation of the used algorithms. Among others, the software offers several tracking strategies to cover a wide range of different model organisms, locomotion types, and camera properties. Furthermore, the software facilitates stimuli-based analysis in combination with built-in manual tracking and correction functionalities. All features are integrated in an easy-to-use graphical user interface. To demonstrate the potential of FIMTrack we provide an evaluation of its accuracy using manually labeled data. The source code is available under the GNU GPLv3 at https://github.com/i-git/FIMTrack and pre-compiled binaries for Windows and Mac are available at http://fim.uni-muenster.de.

  5. Multi-year microbial source tracking study characterizing fecal contamination in an urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M G.; Christensen, Eric D.; Stelzer, Erin A.

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological and hydrological data were used to rank tributary stream contributions of bacteria to the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri. Concentrations, loadings and yields of E. coli and microbial source tracking (MST) markers, were characterized during base flow and storm events in five subbasins within Independence, as well as sources entering and leaving the city through the river. The E. coli water quality threshold was exceeded in 29% of base-flow and 89% of storm-event samples. The total contribution of E. coli and MST markers from tributaries within Independence to the Little Blue River, regardless of streamflow, did not significantly increase the median concentrations leaving the city. Daily loads and yields of E. coli and MST markers were used to rank the subbasins according to their contribution of each constituent to the river. The ranking methodology used in this study may prove useful in prioritizing remediation in the different subbasins.

  6. Movement of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets through septic drainfields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billian, Hannah; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Thompson, Theresa; Hagedorn, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The past three decades' data on outbreaks in the United States indicate that homes dependent on untreated groundwater (e.g. wells) for household drinking water that are also reliant on onsite treatment of household wastewater (e.g. septic systems) may be at greater risk for waterborne disease. While groundwater quality monitoring to protect public health has traditionally focused on the detection of fecal indicator bacteria, the application of emerging source tracking strategies may offer a more efficient means to identify pollution sources and effective means of remediation. This study compares the movement of common fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) with a chemical (optical brighteners, OB) and a molecular (Bacteroides HF183) source tracking (ST) target in small scale septic drainfield models in order to evaluate their potential utility in groundwater monitoring. Nine PVC column drainfield models received synchronized doses of primary-treated wastewater twice daily, with influent and effluent monitored bi-weekly over a 7-month period for all targets. Results indicate that E. coli and enterococci concentrations were strongly associated (Spearman's rank, p<0.05), and correlations between enterococci and optical brighteners were moderately strong. Bacteroides HF183 was significantly, but not strongly, associated with optical brighteners and both indicator bacteria (Point-biserial correlation, p<0.05), most likely due to its sporadic detection. Application of human ST marker monitoring in groundwaters at risk of contamination by human sewage is recommended, although consistent interpretation of results will rely on more detailed evaluation of HF183 incidence in source contamination waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiological source tracking in oil/gas, medical and other industries: requirements and specifications for passive RFID technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowla, Farid U. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Subsurface sensors that employ radioisotopes, such 241Am-Be and 137Cs, for reservoir characterization must be tracked for safety and security reasons. Other radiological sources are also widely used in medicine. The radiological source containers, in both applications, are small, mobile and used widely worldwide. The nuclear sources pose radiological dispersal device (RDD) security risks. Security concerns with the industrial use of radionuclide sources is in fact quite high as it is estimated that each year hundreds of sealed sources go missing, either lost or stolen. Risk mitigation efforts include enhanced regulations, source-use guidelines, research and development on electronic tracking of sources. This report summarizes the major elements of the requirements and operational concepts of nuclear sources with the goal of developing automated electronic tagging and locating systems.

  8. Microbial source tracking in impaired watersheds using PhyloChip and machine-learning classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Eric A; Butkus, Steven R; Andersen, Gary L

    2016-11-15

    Sources of fecal indicator bacteria are difficult to identify in watersheds that are impacted by a variety of non-point sources. We developed a molecular source tracking test using the PhyloChip microarray that detects and distinguishes fecal bacteria from humans, birds, ruminants, horses, pigs and dogs with a single test. The multiplexed assay targets 9001 different 25-mer fragments of 16S rRNA genes that are common to the bacterial community of each source type. Both random forests and SourceTracker were tested as discrimination tools, with SourceTracker classification producing superior specificity and sensitivity for all source types. Validation with 12 different mammalian sources in mixtures found 100% correct identification of the dominant source and 84-100% specificity. The test was applied to identify sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Russian River watershed in California. We found widespread contamination by human sources during the wet season proximal to settlements with antiquated septic infrastructure and during the dry season at beaches during intense recreational activity. The test was more sensitive than common fecal indicator tests that failed to identify potential risks at these sites. Conversely, upstream beaches and numerous creeks with less reliance on onsite wastewater treatment contained no fecal signal from humans or other animals; however these waters did contain high counts of fecal indicator bacteria after rain. Microbial community analysis revealed that increased E. coli and enterococci at these locations did not co-occur with common fecal bacteria, but rather co-varied with copiotrophic bacteria that are common in freshwaters with high nutrient and carbon loading, suggesting runoff likely promoted the growth of environmental strains of E. coli and enterococci. These results indicate that machine-learning classification of PhyloChip microarray data can outperform conventional single marker tests that are used to assess health

  9. [Investigation on contamination of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water and environmental water in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ping; He, Yan-Yan; Zhu, Qian; Ma, Xiao-Jiang; Cai, Li

    2010-12-30

    To understand the contamination status of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia in drinking water, source water and environmental water in Shanghai. All water samples collected from drinking water, source water and environmental water were detected by a procedure of micromembrane filtration, immune magnetic separation (IMS), and immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were not found in 156 samples of the drinking water including finished water, tap water, or pipe water for directly drinking in communities. Among 70 samples either source water of water plants (15 samples), environmental water from Huangpu River(25), canal water around animal sheds(15), exit water from waste-water treatment plants(9), or waste water due to daily life(6), Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 2(8.0%), 7(46.7%), 1(11.1%), and 1(16.7%) samples, respectively; and Giardia cysts were detected in 1(6.7%), 3(12.0%), 6 (40.0%), 2(22.2%), and 2(33.3%), respectively. The positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was 17.1% (12/70) and 20.0% (14/70), respectively. No Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts have been detected in drinking water, but found in source water and environmental water samples in Shanghai.

  10. Selection and application of microbial source tracking tools for water-quality investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) is a complex process that includes many decision-making steps. Once a contamination problem has been defined, the potential user of MST tools must thoroughly consider study objectives before deciding upon a source identifier, a detection method, and an analytical approach to apply to the problem. Regardless of which MST protocol is chosen, underlying assumptions can affect the results and interpretation. It is crucial to incorporate tests of those assumptions in the study quality-control plan to help validate results and facilitate interpretation. Detailed descriptions of MST objectives, protocols, and assumptions are provided in this report to assist in selection and application of MST tools for water-quality investigations. Several case studies illustrate real-world applications of MST protocols over a range of settings, spatial scales, and types of contamination. Technical details of many available source identifiers and detection methods are included as appendixes. By use of this information, researchers should be able to formulate realistic expectations for the information that MST tools can provide and, where possible, successfully execute investigations to characterize sources of fecal contamination to resource waters.

  11. Zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium meleagridis on an organic Swedish farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverlås, Charlotte; Mattsson, Jens G; Insulander, Mona; Lebbad, Marianne

    2012-10-01

    We believe that we present the first evidence of zoonotic transmission of the bird parasite, Cryptosporidium meleagridis. Despite being the third most common cause of human cryptosporidiosis, an identified zoonotic source has not been reported to date. We found Cryptosporidium oocysts in pigs, sheep/goats, hens and broiler chickens on a farm with suspected zoonotic transmission. By DNA analysis we identified C. meleagridis in samples from one human, three chickens and one hen. Sequencing of the ssrRNA and 70kDa Heat Shock Protein (HSP) genes showed identical C. meleagridis sequences in the human and chicken samples, which is evidence of zoonotic transmission. The HSP70 sequence was unique. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Investigations of Bacteroides as Microbial Source Tracking Tools in Southeast Louisiana Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C. J.; Childers, G. W.; Engel, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    Microbial Source Tracking (MST) is a developing field that is gaining increased attention. MST refers to a host of techniques that discriminates among the origins of fecal material found in natural waters from different sources (e.g. human, livestock, and wildlife) by using microbial indicator species with specificity to only certain host organisms. The development of species-specific molecular markers would allow for better evaluation of public health risks and tracking of nutrient sources impacting a watershed. Although several MST methods have been reported with varying levels of success, few offer general applicability for natural waters due to spatial and temporal constraints associated with these methods. One group of molecular MST markers that show promise for broad environmental applications are molecular 16S rDNA probes for Bacteroides. This method is based on 16S rDNA detection directly from environmental samples without the need for a preliminary cultivation step. In this study we have expanded previous sampling efforts to compile a database of over 1000 partial 16S rRNA Bacteroides genes retrieved from the fecal material of 15 different host species (human, cat, dog, pig, kangaroo). To characterize survival of Bacteroides outside of the host, survival time of the Bacteroides marker was compared to that of E.coli under varying natural environmental conditions (temperature and salinity). Bacteroides displayed a survival curve with shouldering and tailing similar to that of E.coli, but log reduction times differed with treatment. In summary, MST marker stability was identified within host species and the overall Bacteroides community structure correlated to host diet, suggesting that detection of a Bacteroides community could confidently identify fecal contamination point sources. Natural water samples from southeast Louisiana were collected for MST including the Tangipahoa River watershed where the source of fecal contamination has been hotly debated. The

  13. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Juel, Cynthia Dawn

    2002-01-01

    was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed...

  14. Global Cryptosporidium Loads from Livestock Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen-Henstra, Lucie; Benders, Jorien; Medema, Gertjan; Hofstra, Nynke

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the environmental pathways of Cryptosporidium is essential for effective management of human and animal cryptosporidiosis. In this paper we aim to quantify livestock Cryptosporidium spp. loads to land on a global scale using spatially explicit process-based modeling, and to explore the

  15. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos ( Eublepharis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius) from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in Captive Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lihua; Ryan, Una M.; Graczyk, Thaddeus K.; Limor, Josef; Li, Lixia; Kombert, Mark; Junge, Randy; Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Zhou, Ling; Arrowood, Michael J.; Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, David; Lal, Altaf A.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium in reptiles was analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. A total of 123 samples were analyzed, of which 48 snake samples, 24 lizard samples, and 3 tortoise samples were positive for Cryptosporidium. Nine different types of Cryptosporidium were found, including Cryptosporidium serpentis, Cryptosporidium desert monitor genotype, Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium parvum bovine and mouse genotypes, one C. serpentis-like parasite in a lizard, two new Cryptosporidium spp. in snakes, and one new Cryptosporidium sp. in tortoises. C. serpentis and the desert monitor genotype were the most common parasites and were found in both snakes and lizards, whereas the C. muris and C. parvum parasites detected were probably the result of ingestion of infected rodents. Sequence and biologic characterizations indicated that the desert monitor genotype was Cryptosporidium saurophilum. Two host-adapted C. serpentis genotypes were found in snakes and lizards. PMID:14766569

  17. Identifying the origin of waterbird carcasses in Lake Michigan using a neural network source tracking model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenow, Kevin P.; Ge, Zhongfu; Fara, Luke J.; Houdek, Steven C.; Lubinski, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Avian botulism type E is responsible for extensive waterbird mortality on the Great Lakes, yet the actual site of toxin exposure remains unclear. Beached carcasses are often used to describe the spatial aspects of botulism mortality outbreaks, but lack specificity of offshore toxin source locations. We detail methodology for developing a neural network model used for predicting waterbird carcass motions in response to wind, wave, and current forcing, in lieu of a complex analytical relationship. This empirically trained model uses current velocity, wind velocity, significant wave height, and wave peak period in Lake Michigan simulated by the Great Lakes Coastal Forecasting System. A detailed procedure is further developed to use the model for back-tracing waterbird carcasses found on beaches in various parts of Lake Michigan, which was validated using drift data for radiomarked common loon (Gavia immer) carcasses deployed at a variety of locations in northern Lake Michigan during September and October of 2013. The back-tracing model was further used on 22 non-radiomarked common loon carcasses found along the shoreline of northern Lake Michigan in October and November of 2012. The model-estimated origins of those cases pointed to some common source locations offshore that coincide with concentrations of common loons observed during aerial surveys. The neural network source tracking model provides a promising approach for identifying locations of botulinum neurotoxin type E intoxication and, in turn, contributes to developing an understanding of the dynamics of toxin production and possible trophic transfer pathways.

  18. Application of microbial source tracking methods in a Gulf of Mexico field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korajkic, A; Badgley, B D; Brownell, M J; Harwood, V J

    2009-11-01

    Microbial water quality and possible human sources of faecal pollution were assessed in a Florida estuary that serves shellfishing and recreational activities. Indicator organisms (IO), including faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci, were quantified from marine and river waters, sediments and oysters. Florida recreational water standards were infrequently exceeded (6-10% of samples); however, shellfishing standards were more frequently exceeded (28%). IO concentrations in oysters and overlaying waters were significantly correlated, but oyster and sediment IO concentrations were uncorrelated. The human-associated esp gene of Enterococcus faecium was detected in marine and fresh waters at sites with suspected human sewage contamination. Lagrangian drifters, used to determine the pathways of bacterial transport and deposition, suggested that sediment deposition from the Ochlockonee River contributes to frequent detection of esp at a Gulf of Mexico beach. These data indicate that human faecal pollution affects water quality in Wakulla County and that local topography and hydrology play a role in bacterial transport and deposition. A combination of IO enumeration, microbial source tracking methods and regional hydrological study can reliably inform regulatory agencies of IO sources, improving risk assessment and pollution mitigation in impaired waters.

  19. A perspective on Cryptosporidium and Giardia, with an emphasis on bovines and recent epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two common aetiological agents of infectious enteritis in humans and animals worldwide. These parasitic protists are usually transmitted by the faecal-oral route, following the ingestion of infective stages (oocysts or cysts). An essential component of the control of these parasitic infections, from a public health perspective, is an understanding of the sources and routes of transmission in different geographical regions. Bovines are considered potential sources of infection for humans, because species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infecting humans have also been isolated from cattle in molecular parasitological studies. However, species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia of bovids, and the extent of zoonotic transmission in different geographical regions in the world, are still relatively poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to (1) provide a brief background on Cryptosporidium and Giardia, (2) review some key aspects of the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in animals, with an emphasis on bovines, (3) summarize research of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from cattle and water buffaloes in parts of Australasia and Sri Lanka, considering public health aspects and (4) provide a perspective on future avenues of study. Recent studies reinforce that bovines harbour Cryptosporidium and Giardia that likely pose a human health risk and highlight the need for future investigations of the biology, population genetics and transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cattle, water buffaloes and other ruminants in different geographical regions, the fate and transport of infective stages following their release into the environment, as well as for improved strategies for the control and prevention of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, guided by molecular epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J.; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to c...

  1. Tracking sensitive source areas of different weather pollution types using GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; An, Xingqin; Zhai, Shixian; Hou, Qing; Sun, Zhaobin

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the sustained pollution processes were selected during which daily PM2.5 concentration exceeded 75 μg/m3 for three days continuously based on the hourly data of Beijing observation sites from July 2012 to December 2015. Using the China Meteorological Administration (CMA) MICAPS meteorological processing system, synoptic situation during PM2.5 pollution processes was classified into five weather types: low pressure and weak high pressure alternating control, weak high pressure, low pressure control, high rear, and uniform pressure field. Then, we chose the representative pollution cases corresponding to each type, adopted the GRAPES-CUACE adjoint model tracking the sensitive source areas of the five types, and analyzed the critical discharge periods of Beijing and neighboring provinces as well as their contribution to the PM2.5 peak concentration in Beijing. The results showed that the local source plays the main theme in the 30 h before the objective time, and prior to 72 h before the objective time contribution of local sources for the five pollution types are 37.5%, 25.0%, 39.4%, 31.2%, and 42.4%, respectively; the Hebei source contributes constantly in the 57 h ahead of the objective time with the contribution proportion ranging from 37% to 64%; the contribution period and rate of Tianjin and Shanxi sources are shorter and smaller. Based on the adjoint sensitivity analysis, we further discussed the effect of emission reduction control measures in different types, finding that the effect of local source reduction in the first 20 h of the objective time is better, and if the local source is reduced 50% within 72 h before the objective time, the decline rates of PM2.5 in the five types are 11.6%, 9.4%, 13.8%, 9.9% and 15.2% respectively. And the reduction effect of the neighboring sources is better within the 3-57 h before the objective time.

  2. SWISTRACK - AN OPEN SOURCE, SOFTWARE PACKAGE APPLICABLE TO TRACKING OF FISH LOCOMOTION AND BEHAVIOUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2010-01-01

    Denham Cook, John Atkins and John Stetfensen 1st International FitFish Workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish, Barcelona 2010. PC based tracking of fish is a valuable method for monitoring fish behaviour in experimental tanks, Tracking of fish movements enables quantification of variables...... effective background subtraction algorithms and filters ensuring smooth tracking of fish • Application of tags of different colour enables the software to track multiple fish without the problem of track exchange between individuals • Low processing requirements enable tracking in real-time • Further...

  3. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford's mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  4. Response of TLD-albedo and nuclear track dosimeters exposed to plutonium sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Baumgartner, W.V.; Fix, J.J.

    1991-12-01

    Neutron dosimetry has been extensively studied at Hanford since the mid-1940s. At the present time, Hanford contractors use thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)-albedo dosimeters to record the neutron dose equivalent received by workers. The energy dependence of the TLD-albedo dosimeter has been recognized and documented since introduced at Hanford in 1964 and numerous studies have helped assure the accuracy of dosimeters. With the recent change in Hanford`s mission, there has been a significant decrease in the handling of plutonium tetrafluoride, and an increase in the handling of plutonium metal and plutonium oxide sources. This study was initiated to document the performance of the current Hanford TLD-albedo dosimeter under the low scatter conditions of the calibration laboratory and under the high scatter conditions in the work place under carefully controlled conditions at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The neutron fields at the PFP facility were measured using a variety of instruments, including a multisphere spectrometer, tissue equivalent proportional counters, and specially calibrated rem meters. Various algorithms were used to evaluate the TLD-albedo dosimeters, and the results are given in this report. Using current algorithms, the dose equivalents evaluated for bare sources and sources with less than 2.5 cm (1 in.) of acrylic plastic shielding in high scatter conditions typical of glove box operations are reasonably accurate. Recently developed CR-39 track etch dosimeters (TEDs) were also exposed in the calibration laboratory and at the PFP. The results indicate that the TED dosimeters are quite accurate for both bare and moderated neutron sources. Until personnel dosimeter is available that incorporates a direct measure of the neutron dose to a person, technical uncertainties in the accuracy of the recorded data will continue.

  5. The feasibility of improved live-dead distinction in qPCR-based microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Laura; Strathmann, Martin; Nocker, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    PCR-based microbial source tracking (MST) has become a useful tool to identify dominant sources of fecal pollution in water. The method has previously been successfully combined with viability PCR (using propidium monoazide) allowing the preferential detection of membrane-intact bacteria. This study aimed at further improving the selectivity for intact cells when targeting host-specific markers in Bacteroidales bacteria. One approach was to increase amplicon sizes that had been shown to be useful for other applications of viability PCR. For this purpose, two different amplicon sizes were compared when targeting either the genus of Bacteroidales or subgroups thereof specifically associated with human and ruminant fecal material. When applied to different environmental samples, the proposed proportion of intact cells could drop by up to 38% (for sewage treatment effluent from 64 to 26%) when targeting longer sequences. Furthermore co-incubation of the viability dye with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was found to be beneficial, although this observation is currently still empirical. When examining signal decay of artificially contaminated unfiltered river water over six weeks, the PMA treatment effect was observed from the beginning, but the ratio of intact and damaged cells remained constant over time with signals disappearing at the same rate independent of PMA treatment. In this instance the contribution of other factors to overall signal decay seemed more important than loss of membrane integrity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Block Acquisition and Tracking Algorithms Using an Open Source GPS Receiver Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Ganesh K.; Akopian, David; Heckler, Gregory W.; Winternitz, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    Location technologies have many applications in wireless communications, military and space missions, etc. US Global Positioning System (GPS) and other existing and emerging Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are expected to provide accurate location information to enable such applications. While GNSS systems perform very well in strong signal conditions, their operation in many urban, indoor, and space applications is not robust or even impossible due to weak signals and strong distortions. The search for less costly, faster and more sensitive receivers is still in progress. As the research community addresses more and more complicated phenomena there exists a demand on flexible multimode reference receivers, associated SDKs, and development platforms which may accelerate and facilitate the research. One of such concepts is the software GPS/GNSS receiver (GPS SDR) which permits a facilitated access to algorithmic libraries and a possibility to integrate more advanced algorithms without hardware and essential software updates. The GNU-SDR and GPS-SDR open source receiver platforms are such popular examples. This paper evaluates the performance of recently proposed block-corelator techniques for acquisition and tracking of GPS signals using open source GPS-SDR platform.

  7. Epidemiology and molecular relationships of Cryptosporidium spp. in people, primates, and livestock from Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Salyer

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is one of the most common parasitic diarrheal agents in the world and is a known zoonosis. We studied Cryptosporidium in people, livestock, and non-human primates in the region of Kibale National Park, Uganda. Land use change near the park has resulted in fragmented forest patches containing small, remnant populations of wild primates that interact intensively with local people and livestock. Our goal was to investigate risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and to assess cross-species transmission using molecular methods.Diagnostic PCR revealed a prevalence of Cryptosporidium of 32.4% in humans, 11.1% in non-human primates, and 2.2% in livestock. In the case of humans, residence in one particular community was associated with increased risk of infection, as was fetching water from an open water source. Although 48.5% of infected people reported gastrointestinal symptoms, this frequency was not significantly different in people who tested negative (44.7% for Cryptosporidium, nor was co-infection with Giardia duodenalis associated with increased reporting of gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal consistency was no different in infected versus uninfected people or animals. DNA sequences of the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein gene placed all infections within a well-supported C. parvum/C. hominis clade. However, the only two sequences recovered from primates in the core of the park's protected area fell into a divergent sub-clade and were identical to published sequences from C. parvum, C. hominis, and C. cuniculus, suggesting the possibility of a separate sylvatic transmission cycle.Cryptosporidium may be transmitted frequently among species in western Uganda where people, livestock, and wildlife interact intensively as a result of anthropogenic changes to forests, but the parasite may undergo more host-specific transmission where such interactions do not occur. The parasite does not appear to have strong effects on human or

  8. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  9. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Thomas; Butler, Gregory

    2012-01-26

    In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50 scientists. The EnzymeTracker is freely available online at http

  10. The EnzymeTracker: an open-source laboratory information management system for sample tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triplet Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many laboratories, researchers store experimental data on their own workstation using spreadsheets. However, this approach poses a number of problems, ranging from sharing issues to inefficient data-mining. Standard spreadsheets are also error-prone, as data do not undergo any validation process. To overcome spreadsheets inherent limitations, a number of proprietary systems have been developed, which laboratories need to pay expensive license fees for. Those costs are usually prohibitive for most laboratories and prevent scientists from benefiting from more sophisticated data management systems. Results In this paper, we propose the EnzymeTracker, a web-based laboratory information management system for sample tracking, as an open-source and flexible alternative that aims at facilitating entry, mining and sharing of experimental biological data. The EnzymeTracker features online spreadsheets and tools for monitoring numerous experiments conducted by several collaborators to identify and characterize samples. It also provides libraries of shared data such as protocols, and administration tools for data access control using OpenID and user/team management. Our system relies on a database management system for efficient data indexing and management and a user-friendly AJAX interface that can be accessed over the Internet. The EnzymeTracker facilitates data entry by dynamically suggesting entries and providing smart data-mining tools to effectively retrieve data. Our system features a number of tools to visualize and annotate experimental data, and export highly customizable reports. It also supports QR matrix barcoding to facilitate sample tracking. Conclusions The EnzymeTracker was designed to be easy to use and offers many benefits over spreadsheets, thus presenting the characteristics required to facilitate acceptance by the scientific community. It has been successfully used for 20 months on a daily basis by over 50

  11. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  12. First molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousefi, N A; Mahdy, M A K; Lim, Y A L; Xiao, L; Mahmud, R

    2013-05-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite of humans and animals and has a worldwide distribution. The parasite has a unique epidemiology in Middle Eastern countries where the IId subtype family of Cryptosporidium parvum dominates. However, there has been no information on Cryptosporidium species in Yemen. Thus, this study was conducted in Yemen to examine the distribution of Cryptosporidium species and subtype families. Fecal samples were collected from 335 patients who attended hospitals in Sana'a city. Cryptosporidium species were determined by PCR and sequence analysis of the 18 s rRNA gene. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis subtypes were identified based on sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. Out of 335 samples, 33 (9.9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. Of them, 97% were identified as C. parvum whilst 1 case (3%) was caused by C. hominis. All 7 C. parvum isolates subtyped belonged to the IIaA15G2R1 subtype. The common occurrence of the zoonotic IIa subtype family of C. parvum highlights the potential occurrence of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Yemen. However, this postulation needs confirmation with future molecular epidemiological studies of cryptosporidiosis in both humans and animals in Yemen.

  13. Microbial source tracking in shellfish harvesting waters in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symonds, E M; Young, S; Verbyla, M E; McQuaig-Ulrich, S M; Ross, E; Jiménez, J A; Harwood, V J; Breitbart, M

    2017-03-15

    Current microbial water quality monitoring is generally limited to culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Given the many possible sources of fecal pollution within a watershed and extra-intestinal FIB reservoirs, it is important to determine source(s) of fecal pollution as a means to improve water quality and protect public health. The principal objective of this investigation was to characterize the microbial water quality of shellfish harvesting areas in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica during 2015. In order to achieve this objective, the specificity and sensitivity of 11 existing microbial source tracking (MST) PCR assays, associated with cows (BacCow), dogs (BacCan, DogBac), domestic wastewater (PMMoV), general avian (GFD), gulls (Gull2), horses (HorseBac, HoF), humans (HF183, HPyV), and pigs (PF), were evaluated using domestic wastewater and animal fecal samples collected from the region. The sensitivity of animal-associated assays ranged from 13 to 100%, while assay specificity ranged from 38 to 100%. The specificity of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and human polyomavirus (HPyV) was 100% for domestic wastewater, as compared to 94% specificity of the HF183 Bacteroidales marker. PMMoV was identified as a useful domestic wastewater-associated marker, with concentrations as high as 1.1 × 10 5 copies/ml and 100% sensitivity and specificity. Monthly surface water samples collected from four shellfish harvesting areas were analyzed using culture-based methods for Escherichia coli as well as molecular methods for FIB and a suite of MST markers, which were selected for their specificity in the region. While culturable E. coli results suggested possible fecal pollution during the monitoring period, the absence of human/domestic wastewater-associated markers and low FIB concentrations determined using molecular methods indicated sufficient microbial water quality for shellfish harvesting. This is the first study to our knowledge to test the

  14. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Schriewer, A; Odagiri, M; Wuertz, S.; Misra, PR; Panigrahi, P.; Clasen, T; Jenkins, MW

    2015-01-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were compared with pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public ...

  15. Source Tracking of Nitrous Oxide using A Quantum Cascade Laser System in the Field and Laboratory Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrous oxide is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleting substance. Nitrification and denitrification are two major biological pathways that are responsible for soil emissions of N2O. However, source tracking of in-situ or laboratory N2O production is still challenging to...

  16. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Boonkhao, Narongsak; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.

  17. Exhumation of the Source Area of the Cameros Basin revealed by detrital zircon fission track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Pedro; Barbero, Luis; Casas-Sainz, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The Cameros Basin (NW of the Iberian Range, NE of the Iberian Peninsula) was an intracontinental basin during Mesozoic times, which was inverted during Alpine compression. Its formation was due to a main rifting stage during Thithonian-Albian times related with an extensional period due to the opening of the Bay of Biscay. This extensional period is characterized by high subsidence and the filling of the basin with up to 8 km of continental sediments. A very low-grade metamorphic event is recorded during Albian times reaching maximum temperatures of ~350°C. Although the Cameros Basin has been studied for several decades from different geological points of view, the source area for the Cameros Basin still remains unknown. Previous studies have given some information about the possible location and nature of the source area: (1) Paleocurrent data indicate that the main source area was located SW of the basin (Salas et al., 2001); (2) Calculated chemical alteration indices show no intense chemical weathering of the source area and no significant variations along the stratigraphic section (Mata et al., 2000); (3) mineralogical studies trace elements ratios indicate that the material source should be acid igneous rock or any rock derived from them (Mata et al., 2000). In this work we present new detrital zircon fission track (ZFT) data from samples collected in different stratigraphic units of the Cameros Basin. Five samples were not reset for ZFT during burial and the metamorphic episode that occurred during Albian times. Those samples have a thermal signal previous to their deposition in the Cameros Basin and reveal the cooling history of the source area. Youngest peak ages for ZFT are in a range of 149 to 214 Ma. Lag-time values for those samples show a break-in-slope at ~130 Ma. Older samples show a decrease in lag-time values (from 55 myr to 20 myr) which implies an increase in exhumation rate between 145 and 135 Ma coinciding with the beginning of the rifting

  18. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by genotyping and subtyping parasites in wastewater.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite their wide occurrence, cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are considered neglected diseases by the World Health Organization. The epidemiology of these diseases and microsporidiosis in humans in developing countries is poorly understood. The high concentration of pathogens in raw sewage makes the characterization of the transmission of these pathogens simple through the genotype and subtype analysis of a small number of samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The distribution of genotypes and subtypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in 386 samples of combined sewer systems from Shanghai, Nanjing and Wuhan and the sewer system in Qingdao in China was determined using PCR-sequencing tools. Eimeria spp. were also genotyped to assess the contribution of domestic animals to Cryptosporidium spp., G. duodenalis, and E. bieneusi in wastewater. The high occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. (56.2%, G. duodenalis (82.6%, E. bieneusi (87.6%, and Eimeria/Cyclospora (80.3% made the source attribution possible. As expected, several human-pathogenic species/genotypes, including Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, G. duodenalis sub-assemblage A-II, and E. bieneusi genotype D, were the dominant parasites in wastewater. In addition to humans, the common presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Eimeria spp. from rodents indicated that rodents might have contributed to the occurrence of E. bieneusi genotype D in samples. Likewise, the finding of Eimeria spp. and Cryptosporidium baileyi from birds indicated that C. meleagridis might be of both human and bird origins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The distribution of Cryptosporidium species, G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes, and E. bieneusi genotypes in urban wastewater indicates that anthroponotic transmission appeared to be important in epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, and microsporidiosis in the study areas. The finding of

  20. Time-resolved in vivo dosimetry for source tracking in brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jacob Graversen; Rylander, Susanne; Buus, Simon; Bentzen, Lise; Hokland, Steffen Bjerre; Søndergaard, Christian Skou; With, Anders Karl Mikael; Kertzscher, Gustavo; Tanderup, Kari

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that brachytherapy source tracking can be realized with in vivo dosimetry. This concept could enable real-time treatment monitoring. In vivo dosimetry was incorporated in the clinical routine during high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy at Aarhus University Hospital. The dosimetry was performed with a radioluminescent crystal positioned in a dedicated brachytherapy needle in the prostate. The dose rate was recorded every 50-100 ms during treatment and analyzed retrospectively. The measured total delivered dose and dose rates for each dwell position with dwell times >0.7 s were compared with expected values. Furthermore, the distance between the source and dosimeter, which was derived from the measured dose rates, was compared with expected values. The measured dose rate pattern in each needle was used to determine the most likely position of the needle relative to the dosimeter. In total, 305 needles and 3239 dwell positions were analyzed based on 20 treatments. The measured total doses differed from the expected values by -4.7 ± 8.4% (1SD) with range (-17% to 12%). It was possible to determine needle shifts for 304 out of 305 needles. The mean radial needle shift between imaging and treatment was 0.2 ± 1.1 mm (1SD), and the mean longitudinal shift was 0.3 ± 2.0 mm (1SD). Time-resolved in vivo dosimetry can be used to provide geometric information about the treatment progression of afterloading brachytherapy. This information may provide a clear indication of errors and uncertainties during a treatment and, therefore, enables real-time treatment monitoring. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Spinacia oleracea L. leaf stomata harboring Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: a potential threat to food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarisin, Dumitru; Bauchan, Gary; Fayer, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a cosmopolitan microscopic protozoan parasite that causes severe diarrheal disease (cryptosporidiosis) in mammals, including humans and livestock. There is growing evidence of Cryptosporidium persistence in fresh produce that may result in food-borne infection, including sporadic cases as well as outbreaks. However, drinking and recreational waters are still considered the major sources of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, which has resulted in prioritization of studies of parasite etiology in aquatic environments, while the mechanisms of transmission and parasite persistence on edible plants remain poorly understood. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy together with fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibodies, C. parvum oocysts were found to strongly adhere to spinach plants after contact with contaminated water, to infiltrate through the stomatal openings in spinach leaves, and to persist at the mesophyll level. These findings and the fact that this pathogenic parasite resists washing and disinfection raise concerns regarding food safety.

  2. Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederlandse zwembaden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    2003-01-01

    Zwembad gerelateerde explosies van cryptosporidiose zijn regelmatig gerapporteerd in Groot-Brittannie en de Verenigde Staten. De bron van de explosie kon soms achterhaald worden doordat Cryptosporidium oocysten in het zwembadwater of in het terugspoelwater van de zwembadfilters konden worden

  3. Killing of Cryptosporidium sporozoites by Lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Jose Luis; Sparks, Hayley; White, A Clinton; Martinez-Traverso, Griselle; Ochoa, Theresa; Castellanos-González, Alejandro

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium is a major contributor to diarrhea morbidity and mortality in young children around the world. Current treatments for children suffering from cryptosporidiosis are suboptimal. Lactoferrin is a glycoprotein found in breast milk. It has showed bacteriostatic and antimicrobial activity in the intestine. However, the effects of lactoferrin on the intestinal parasite Cryptosporidium have not been reported. In this study, we investigated the anticryptosporidial activity of human lactoferrin on different stages of Cryptosporidium. Physiologic concentrations of lactoferrin killed Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites, but had no significant effect on oocysts viability or parasite intracellular development. Since sporozoites are essential for the infection process, our data reinforce the importance of breastfeeding and point to the potential of lactoferrin as a novel therapeutic agent for cryptosporidiosis.

  4. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  5. Prevalence and molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. In pre-weaned dairy calves in mashhad area, khorasan razavi province, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Mohhammed; Razmi, Gholamreza; Mohhammadi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasen

    2013-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. The aim of study was to detect and isolate the Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of naturally infected pre-wean calves in the Mashhad area. Overall, 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-weaned calves were collected from 10 farms in the Mashhad area the capital center of the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium spp. All infected samples were also analyzed using nested -PCR. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in PCR- positive samples. Eighty five (28.3%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 8-14 days old and diarrheic calves were significantly higher than other groups. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by SspI, VspI restriction enzymes and sequence analysis revealed the presence of C. parvum bovine genotype in all isolates. Our results suggest that pre-weaned calves are likely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic C. parvum.

  6. Relationship of human-associated microbial source tracking markers with Enterococci in Gulf of Mexico waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Katrina V; Brownell, Miriam; Wang, Shiao Y; Lepo, Joe Eugene; Mott, Joanna; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Kilgen, Marilyn; Hellein, Kristen N; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Harwood, Valerie J

    2013-03-01

    Human and ecosystem health can be damaged by fecal contamination of recreational waters. Microbial source tracking (MST) can be used to specifically detect domestic sewage containing human waste, thereby informing both risk assessment and remediation strategies. Previously, an inter-laboratory collaboration developed standardized PCR methods for a bacterial, an archaeal, and a viral indicator of human sewage. Here we present results for two subsequent years of field testing in fresh and salt water by five laboratories across the U.S. Gulf Coast (two in Florida and one each in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas) using common standard operating procedures (SOPs) developed previously. Culturable enterococci were enumerated by membrane filtration, and PCR was used to detect three MST markers targeting domestic sewage: human-associated Bacteroides (HF183), Methanobrevibacter smithii and human polyomaviruses BK and JC (HPyVs). Detection of sewage markers in surface waters was significantly associated with higher enterococci levels and with exceedance of the recreational water quality standard in four or three regions, respectively. Sewage markers were frequently co-detected in single samples, e.g., M. smithii and HF183 were co-detected in 81% of Louisiana samples, and HPyVs and M. smithii were co-detected in over 40% of southwest Florida and Mississippi samples. This study demonstrates the robustness and inter-laboratory transferability of these three markers for the detection of pollution from domestic sewage in the waters impacting the Gulf of Mexico over a coastal range of over 1000 miles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for a new species of Cryptosporidium infecting tortoises: Cryptosporidium ducismarci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptosporidiosis affects the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract of humans as well as of a wide range of companion, farm, laboratory and wild animals. In the past few years, three independent studies have provided strong evidence for the existence of a distinct Cryptosporidium species affecting tortoises and likely circulating in other reptile species as well. A new Cryptosporidium genotype was firstly detected and genetically characterized in a marginated tortoise in Italy in 2007 and named Cryptosporidium sp. ex Testudo marginata CrIT-20. The phylogenetic analysis of this isolate indicated that this Cryptosporidium was unique and belonged to the intestinal clade. These findings were later on confirmed by the detection of genetic homologies of isolates from a python and a chameleon from Spain and by recent research in the United States. The latter study presented both the occurrence of intestinal lesions in a pancake tortoise and a Russian tortoise and the genetic characterization of the isolates, together with the first pictures of the endogenous stages of Cryptosporidium CrIT-20. Phylogenetic inference based on the sequences representing small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU of these isolates confirmed the pathological findings because this Cryptosporidium was related to the intestinal group and supported previous results in T. marginata from Italy. The present scientific data on the Cryptosporidium CrIT-20 support its classification as a new species of Cryptosporidium causing intestinal diseases in tortoises. Although further morphological (i.e. exogenous stages and biological aspects (i.e. complete host range are yet to be elucidated, it is proposed that this Cryptosporidium is designated Cryptosporidium ducismarci.

  8. Utility of Microbial Source-Tracking Markers for Assessing Fecal Contamination in the Portage River Watershed, Northwestern Ohio, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    An influx of concentrated animal feeding operations in northwest Ohio has prompted local agencies to examine the effects of these industrial farms on water quality in the upper Portage River watershed. The utility of microbial source-tracking (MST) tools as a means of characterizing sources of fecal contamination in the watershed was evaluated. From 2007 to 2008, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Bowling Green State University, and the Wood County Health Department collected and analyzed 17 environmental samples and 13 fecal source samples for Bacteroides-based host-associated DNA markers. At many of the environmental sites tested, MST marker results corroborated the presumptive fecal contamination sources. Results from this demonstration study support the utility of using MST with host-specific molecular markers to characterize the sources of fecal contamination in the Portage River watershed.

  9. Mussels (Perna perna as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Ferreira Mariné Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60 were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21 and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21. The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2 were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  10. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium... Cryptosporidium Treatment Technique Requirements § 141.712 Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment... water monitoring required under § 141.701(a), unfiltered systems must calculate the arithmetic mean of...

  11. Library-dependent and library-independent microbial source tracking to identify spatial variation in faecal contamination sources along a Lake Ontario beach (Ontario, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, T A; Hill, S; Seto, P; Marsalek, J

    2010-01-01

    Multiple microbial source tracking methods were applied to investigate spatial variation in faecal pollution sources impacting a 1.7 km freshwater beach on Lake Ontario (Canada). The highest E. coli concentrations measured in the study area were from interstitial sand pore water at Sunnyside Beach, reaching 2.6 x 10(6) CFU/100 ml. These E. coli concentrations exceeded those in the nearby Humber River and Black Creek, which are impacted by combined sewer overflows containing municipal wastewater and by stormwater conveying washoff from the urban area. Library-independent Bacteroidales HF183 analyses identified the more frequent occurrence of municipal wastewater contamination in the Humber River and at a Sunnyside Beach location closest to the mouth of the river. Library-dependent E. coli antibiotic resistance and rep-PCR DNA fingerprinting analyses identified the more frequent occurrence of bird faecal contamination at Sunnyside Beach locations away from the river mouth. These microbial source tracking results raise caution about managing beaches with multiple sources of contamination as a single entity without considering spatial variability in faecal pollution sources and the need for more localized beach management practices.

  12. Evaluation of a magnetic microsphere antibody detection assay for the investigation of exposure to Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anti-Cryptosporidium IgA and IgG are useful markers of exposure to Cryptosporidium in human populations, but detection in saliva may be difficult. To evaluate a magnetic microsphere assay for detection of anti-Cryptosporidium IgA and IgG in saliva, recombinant sporozoite gp15 (1...

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary

  14. Estimating Cryptosporidium and Giardia disease burdens for children drinking untreated groundwater in a rural population in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Miles E; Smith, Woutrina A; Jenkins, Marion W

    2018-01-01

    In many low-income settings, despite improvements in sanitation and hygiene, groundwater sources used for drinking may be contaminated with enteric pathogens such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which remain important causes of childhood morbidity. In this study, we examined the contribution of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium and Giardia found in groundwater sources used for drinking to the total burden of diarrheal disease among children < 5 in rural India. We studied a population of 3,385 children < 5 years of age in 100 communities of Puri District, Odisha, India. We developed a coupled quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) population model based on observed levels of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in improved groundwater sources used for drinking and compared the QMRA-SIR estimates with independently measured all-cause (i.e., all fecal-oral enteric pathogens and exposure pathways) child diarrhea prevalence rates observed in the study population during two monsoon seasons (2012 and 2013). We used site specific and regional studies to inform assumptions about the human pathogenicity of the Cryptosporidium and Giardia species present in local groundwater. In all three human pathogenicity scenarios evaluated, the mean daily risk of Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection (0.06-1.53%), far exceeded the tolerable daily risk of infection from drinking water in the US (< 0.0001%). Depending on which protozoa species were present, median estimates of daily child diarrhea prevalence due to either Cryptosporidium or Giardia infection from drinking water was as high as 6.5% or as low as < 1% and accounted for at least 2.9% and as much as 65.8% of the all-cause diarrhea disease burden measured in children < 5 during the study period. Cryptosporidium tended to account for a greater share of estimated waterborne protozoa infections causing diarrhea than did Giardia. Diarrhea prevalence estimates for waterborne Cryptosporidium

  15. Dynamic Axle Loads as a Main Source of Railway Track Degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.; De Jong, E.; Zoeteman, A.

    2015-01-01

    During train operation, geometrical irregularities develop in soil-supported ballasted railway tracks as a function of born tonnage. This form of degradation is combatted by periodic maintenance in the form of tamping by specially equipped trains in order to guarantee predefined levels of structural

  16. Tracking the MSL-SAM methane detection source location Through Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla-García, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    over the landing [8, 9]. MRAMS is ideally suited for this investigation; the model is explicitly designed to simulate Mars' at-mospheric circulations at the mesoscale and smaller with realistic, high-resolution surface properties [10, 11]. In order to characterize seasonal mixing changes throughout the Martian year, simulations were con-ducted at Ls 0, 90, 180 and 270. Two additional sim-ulations at Ls 225 and 315 were explored to better understand the unique meteorological setting cen-tered around Ls 270. Ls 270 was shown to be an anomalous season when air within and outside the crater was well mixed by strong, flushing, northerly flow and large amplitude breaking mountain waves: air flowing downslope at night is cold enough to penetrate all the way to the surface. At other seasons, the air in the crater is more isolated -but not com-pletely- from the surrounding environment: mesoscale simulations indicate that the air flowing down the crater rims does not easily make it to the crater floor. Instead, the air encounters very cold and stable air pooled in the bottom of the crater, which forces the air to glide right over the colder, more dense air below. Thus, the mixing of near-surface crater air with the external environment is potentially more limited than around Ls 270. 2. Tracking methane source location The rise in concentration was reported to start around sol 300 (˜Ls 336), peaked shortly after sol 520 (˜Ls 82), and then dropped to background val-ues prior to sol 575 (˜Ls 103). Two scenarios are considered in the context of the circulations predicted by MRAMS. The first scenario is the release of methane from somewhere outside the crater. The second is a release of methane within the crater. In both cases, the release is assumed to take place near the season when the rise of concen-tration was first noted (˜Ls 336). This is a transition-al time at Gale Crater, when the flushing winds are giving way to the more isolated crater scenario: In the situation where

  17. Cryptosporidium infections in Denmark, 2010-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Ethelberg, Steen; Hansen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    ) comprised test results on cryptosporidia detected by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between 1 January 2010 and 30 April 2014. Samples that tested positive at the SSI were submitted to species and subtype analysis by conventional PCR and sequencing of ribosomal and gp60 genes, respectively....... RESULTS: A total of 689 Cryptosporidium-positive stool samples were submitted by 387 patients. Limiting case episodes to two months (60 days), a total of 388 case episodes representing 387 patients were identified. Cryptosporidiosis was most common among infants and toddlers. Moreover, a peak in incidence...... was observed among younger adults aged 23-24 years. In 43 Cryptosporidium-positive faecal samples, identification was performed to species and subtype level. Cryptosporidium parvum was found in 34 samples, C. hominis in eight, and C. meleagridis in one sample; C. parvum subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 10) and IIaA16G...

  18. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in agricultural and water environments in the Qinghai area of China by IFT and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqing; Sotiriadou, Isaia; Cai, Qigang; Karanis, Gabriele; Wang, Geping; Wang, Guanghua; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiuping; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2014-09-01

    Qinghai Province in northwest China is strongly influenced by agricultural activities and is an important source of food and drinking water. Here, we present findings regarding the occurrence and molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species based on a large-scale investigation of areas of Qinghai Province. The diagnosis and molecular detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was carried out using immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT), whereas nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in fecal smears and water samples was used for the detection and molecular characterization of the species. In total, 561 samples (260 water samples and 301 fecal samples from animals) were collected and analyzed. Of the 260 water samples, 66 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 71 samples were positive by nested PCR; in addition, 39 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 40 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of the 301 fecal samples from animals, 98 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and 61 samples were positive by nested PCR, whereas 52 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT and 31 samples were positive by nested PCR. We showed that the water supplies and animals investigated contained Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Thus, we recommend that the Chinese Government and Chinese health authorities undertake control measures to protect the food and drinking water sources in Qinghai from these pathogenic protozoa.

  19. Sources of variation in assessing left atrial functions by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaş, Roxana Cristina; Mihăilă, Sorina; Vinereanu, Dragoş

    2016-03-01

    Left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate, determined by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE), are reproducible indices to assess LA function. Different normal ranges for LA phasic functions have been reported. We investigated the role of the reference point (P- and R-wave), gain, and region of interest (ROI), as the major sources of variation when assessing LA function. 52 subjects were evaluated for LA conventional and STE analysis. 45 of them (46 ± 14 years, 26 men) were feasible for concomitant LA deformation, and LA phasic volumes and ejection fractions (LAEF) evaluation. First, we compared the P- and R-wave methods, for the evaluation of the LA functions. We used diastolic mitral profile to clearly delineate the time intervals for each LA function. For the P-wave method, active function was assessed from negative global strain as a difference between the strain at pre-atrial contraction and strain just before mitral valve closure (GSA-), and late diastolic strain rate (GSRL); passive function from positive strain at MVO (GSA+), and from early negative diastolic strain rate (GSRE); reservoir function from the sum of GSA- and GSA+ (TGSA), and positive strain rate at the beginning of LV systole (GSR+). For the R-wave method we used the same SR parameters. The active function was evaluated by late positive global strain (GSAC), the reservoir by positive peak before the opening of the mitral valve (TGSA), and conduit function by the difference between TGSA and GSAC (GSA+). Then, by using P-wave method, we measured all previously described parameters for different gains-minimum (G0), medium (G12), and maximum (G24), and for different ROIs-minimum (ROI0), step 1 (ROI1), and 2 (ROI2). Feasibility of the LA strain measurements was 87 %. Active LA function was similar in the absolute value (GSAC and GSA-), whereas passive and reservoir functions were significantly higher (GSA+, TGSA) with the R-wave method. Active LAEF correlated with GSA- measured by the P-wave (r

  20. Preliminary considerations on Cryptosporidium diffusion in aquatic environments; Considerazioni preliminari sulla diffusione di Cryptosporidium nelle acque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briancesco, R.; Bonadonna, L. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1999-06-01

    During the past 10 years the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has been recognised as a pathogen for humans. Worldwide surveys have shown Cryptosporidium oocysts to be present in surface, marine, potable and ground water, and in sewage and disinfected water. This paper attempt to present the most recent literature concerning Cryptosporidium in regard to its presence, occurrence and biological features. [Italian] Negli anni piu' recenti il protozoo parassita Cryptosporidium e' stato riconosiuto come agente eziologico di forme acute di gastroenterite nell'uomo. Dalla letteratura risulta che le oocisti del parassita possono essere ritrovate in acque superficiali e profonde, in acque potabili, marine e reflue. Vengono quindi di seguito introdotte alcune considerazioni sulle caratteristiche del parassita e sui dati piu' recenti in relazione alla sua presenza e diffusione nell'ambiente acquatico.

  1. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination II: Curating the Interstellar Dust Collector, Picokeystones, and Sources of Impact Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David R.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Gainsforth, Zack; Butterworth, Anna L.; Bastien, Ronald K.; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the inherent difficulties that arise during "ground truth" characterization of the Stardust interstellar dust collector. The challenge of identifying contemporary interstellar dust impact tracks in aerogel is described within the context of background spacecraft secondaries and possible interplanetary dust particles and beta-meteoroids. In addition, the extraction of microscopic dust embedded in aerogel is technically challenging. Specifically, we provide a detailed description of the sample preparation techniques developed to address the unique goals and restrictions of the Interstellar Preliminary Exam. These sample preparation requirements and the scarcity of candidate interstellar impact tracks exacerbate the difficulties. We also illustrate the role of initial optical imaging with critically important examples, and summarize the overall processing of the collection to date.

  2. Canine scent detection and microbial source tracking of human waste contamination in storm drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Reynolds, Scott; Reynolds, Karen; Holden, Patricia A

    2014-06-01

    Human fecal contamination of surface waters and drains is difficult to diagnose. DNA-based and chemical analyses of water samples can be used to specifically quantify human waste contamination, but their expense precludes routine use. We evaluated canine scent tracking, using two dogs trained to respond to the scent of municipal wastewater, as a field approach for surveying human fecal contamination. Fecal indicator bacteria, as well as DNA-based and chemical markers of human waste, were analyzed in waters sampled from canine scent-evaluated sites (urban storm drains and creeks). In the field, the dogs responded positively (70% and 100%) at sites for which sampled waters were then confirmed as contaminated with human waste. When both dogs indicated a negative response, human waste markers were absent. Overall, canine scent tracking appears useful for prioritizing sampling sites for which DNA-based and similarly expensive assays can confirm and quantify human waste contamination.

  3. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in Brazilian captive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Maria Júlia Rodrigues; Cury, Márcia Cristina; Santín, Mónica

    2017-02-01

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, three birds were found positive for E. bieneusi (3.5%), two for Cryptosporidium (2.3%), and one for Giardia (1.2%). Two genotypes of E. bieneusi were detected by nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region, genotypes D and Peru 6 in a swan goose and in two rock pigeons, respectively. For Cryptosporidium and Giardia, nucleotide sequence analysis of the SSU rRNA identified Cryptosporidium baileyi and Duck genotype in a swan goose and a mandarin duck, respectively, and Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in a toco toucon. Our results demonstrate that human-pathogenic E. bieneusi genotypes D and Peru6 and G. duodenalis assemblage A are present in captive birds in Brazil, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination.

  4. Southern Hemisphere Application of the Systematic Approach to Tropical Cyclone Forecasting Part 4: Sources of Large Track Errors by Dynamical Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reader, Grahame

    2000-01-01

    Sources of 72-h track errors > 300 n mi by four dynamical model tropical cyclone predictions in the Southern Hemisphere during the 1997-98 and 1998-99 seasons are studied using conceptual models Carr and Elsberry have previously...

  5. Comparison of Microbial and Chemical Source Tracking Markers To Identify Fecal Contamination Sources in the Humber River (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and Associated Storm Water Outfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Zachery R; Grabuski, Josey; Sverko, Ed; Edge, Thomas A

    2016-11-01

    Storm water runoff is a major source of pollution, and understanding the components of storm water discharge is essential to remediation efforts and proper assessment of risks to human and ecosystem health. In this study, culturable Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli levels were quantified and microbial source tracking (MST) markers (including markers for general Bacteroidales spp., human, ruminant/cow, gull, and dog) were detected in storm water outfalls and sites along the Humber River in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and enumerated via endpoint PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Additionally, chemical source tracking (CST) markers specific for human wastewater (caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, acetaminophen, and acesulfame) were quantified. Human and gull fecal sources were detected at all sites, although concentrations of the human fecal marker were higher, particularly in outfalls (mean outfall concentrations of 4.22 log10 copies, expressed as copy numbers [CN]/100 milliliters for human and 0.46 log10 CN/100 milliliters for gull). Higher concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, acesulfame, E. coli, and the human fecal marker were indicative of greater raw sewage contamination at several sites (maximum concentrations of 34,800 ng/liter, 5,120 ng/liter, 9,720 ng/liter, 5.26 log10 CFU/100 ml, and 7.65 log10 CN/100 ml, respectively). These results indicate pervasive sewage contamination at storm water outfalls and throughout the Humber River, with multiple lines of evidence identifying Black Creek and two storm water outfalls with prominent sewage cross-connection problems requiring remediation. Limited data are available on specific sources of pollution in storm water, though our results indicate the value of using both MST and CST methodologies to more reliably assess sewage contamination in impacted watersheds. Storm water runoff is one of the most prominent non-point sources of biological and chemical contaminants which can potentially

  6. Crowd-Sourced Mobility Mapping for Location Tracking Using Unlabeled Wi-Fi Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing requirements of the seamless and round-the-clock Location-based services (LBSs, a growing interest in Wi-Fi network aided location tracking is witnessed in the past decade. One of the significant problems of the conventional Wi-Fi location tracking approaches based on received signal strength (RSS fingerprinting is the time-consuming and labor intensive work involved in location fingerprint calibration. To solve this problem, a novel unlabeled Wi-Fi simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM approach is developed to avoid the location fingerprinting and additional inertial or vision sensors. In this approach, an unlabeled mobility map of the coverage area is first constructed by using the crowd-sourcing from a batch of sporadically recorded Wi-Fi RSS sequences based on the spectral cluster assembling. Then, the sequence alignment algorithm is applied to conduct location tracking and mobility map updating. Finally, the effectiveness of this approach is verified by the extensive experiments carried out in a campus-wide area.

  7. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het hier gepresenteerde deelonderzoek richt zich op de relatieve bijdrage van verschillende populaties landbouwhuisdieren via mest en afvalwater aan de totale emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederland. Vleeskalveren vormen per jaar in Nederland via hun mest een grote emissiebron van

  8. Diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum in immunocompromised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study is to search for Cryptosporidium parvum in Sudanese immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients presenting with diarrhea. Methods: Two hundred and thirteen stool specimens were collected from different groups of patients presenting with diarrhea and healthy control ...

  9. Human and Animal Fecal Contamination of Community Water Sources, Stored Drinking Water and Hands in Rural India Measured with Validated Microbial Source Tracking Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriewer, Alexander; Odagiri, Mitsunori; Wuertz, Stefan; Misra, Pravas R; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Clasen, Thomas; Jenkins, Marion W

    2015-09-01

    We examined pathways of exposure to fecal contamination of human and animal origin in 24 villages in Odisha, India. In a cross-sectional study during the monsoon season, fecal exposure via community water sources (N = 123) and in the home (N = 137) was assessed using human- and nonhuman-associated Bacteroidales microbial source tracking (MST) markers and fecal coliforms (FCs). Detection rates and marker concentrations were examined to pinpoint pathways of human fecal exposure in the public and domestic domains of disease transmission in study communities. Human fecal markers were detected much more frequently in the domestic domain (45% of households) than in public domain sources (8% of ponds; 4% of groundwater drinking sources). Animal fecal markers were widely detected in both domains (74% of ponds, 96% of households, 10% of groundwater drinking sources), indicating ubiquitous risks of exposure to animal feces and zoonotic pathogens. This study confirms an often suggested contamination link from hands to stored water in the home in developing countries separately for mothers' and children's hands and both human and animal fecal contamination. In contrast to MST markers, FCs provided a poor metric to assess risks of exposure to fecal contamination of human origin in this rural setting. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF HOST-SPECIFIC METAGENOMIC MARKERS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING USING A NOVEL METAGENOMIC APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination of source waters is an important issue to the drinking water industry. Improper disposal of animal waste, leaky septic tanks, storm runoff, and wildlife can all be responsible for spreading enteric pathogens into source waters. As a result, methods that can pi...

  11. Assessment of fast and thermal neutron ambient dose equivalents around the KFUPM neutron source storage area using nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-ur-Rehman [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: fazalr@kfupm.edu.sa; Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Physics Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Abu-Jarad, F. [Radiation Protection Unit, Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, P. O. Box 13027, Dhahran 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Qureshi, M.A. [Center for Applied Physical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    A set of five {sup 241}Am-Be neutron sources are utilized in research and teaching at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). Three of these sources have an activity of 16Ci each and the other two are of 5Ci each. A well-shielded storage area was designed for these sources. The aim of the study is to check the effectiveness of shielding of the KFUPM neutron source storage area. Poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) Nuclear track detectors (NTDs) based fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters have been utilized side by side for 33 days to assess accumulated low ambient dose equivalents of fast and thermal neutrons at 30 different locations around the source storage area and adjacent rooms. Fast neutron measurements have been carried out using bare NTDs, which register fast neutrons through recoils of protons, in the detector material. NTDs were mounted with lithium tetra borate (Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}) converters on their surfaces for thermal neutron detection via B10(n,{alpha})Li6 and Li6(n,{alpha})H3 nuclear reactions. The calibration factors of NTD both for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were determined using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) with and without a polyethylene moderator. The calibration factors for fast and thermal neutron area passive dosimeters were found to be 1.33 proton tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1} and 31.5 alpha tracks cm{sup -2}{mu}Sv{sup -1}, respectively. The results show variations of accumulated dose with the locations around the storage area. The fast neutron dose equivalents rates varied from as low as 182nSvh{sup -1} up to 10.4{mu}Svh{sup -1} whereas those for thermal neutron ranged from as low as 7nSvh{sup -1} up to 9.3{mu}Svh{sup -1}. The study indicates that the area passive neutron dosimeter was able to detect dose rates as low as 7 and 182nSvh{sup -1} from accumulated dose for thermal and fast neutrons, respectively, which were not possible to detect with the available active neutron

  12. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dual wavelength multiple-angle light scattering system for cryptosporidium detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buaprathoom, S.; Pedley, S.; Sweeney, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    A simple, dual wavelength, multiple-angle, light scattering system has been developed for detecting cryptosporidium suspended in water. Cryptosporidium is a coccidial protozoan parasite causing cryptosporidiosis; a diarrheal disease of varying severity. The parasite is transmitted by ingestion of contaminated water, particularly drinking-water, but also accidental ingestion of bathing-water, including swimming pools. It is therefore important to be able to detect these parasites quickly, so that remedial action can be taken to reduce the risk of infection. The proposed system combines multiple-angle scattering detection of a single and two wavelengths, to collect relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering phase functions from tested suspension, and multivariate data analysis techniques to obtain characterizing information of samples under investigation. The system was designed to be simple, portable and inexpensive. It employs two diode lasers (violet InGaN-based and red AlGaInP-based) as light sources and silicon photodiodes as detectors and optical components, all of which are readily available. The measured scattering patterns using the dual wavelength system showed that the relative wavelength angle-resolved scattering pattern of cryptosporidium oocysts was significantly different from other particles (e.g. polystyrene latex sphere, E.coli). The single wavelength set up was applied for cryptosporidium oocysts'size and relative refractive index measurement and differential measurement of the concentration of cryptosporidium oocysts suspended in water and mixed polystyrene latex sphere suspension. The measurement results showed good agreement with the control reference values. These results indicate that the proposed method could potentially be applied to online detection in a water quality control system.

  14. Species and Strain-specific Typing of Cryptosporidium Parasites in Clinical and Environmental Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Lihua

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging waterborne and foodborne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected individuals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites and in the development of molecular tools for the identification and typing of oocysts in environmental samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene has shown that the genus Cryptosporidium is comprised of several distinct species. Our data show the presence of at least four species: C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi and C. serpentis (C. meleagridis, C. nasorum and C. felis were not studied. Within each species, there is some sequence variation. Thus, various genotypes (genotype 1, genotype 2, guinea pig genotype, monkey genotype and koala genotype, etc. of C. parvum differ from each other in six regions of the SSU rRNA gene. Information on polymorphism in Cryptosporidium parasites has been used in the development of species and strain-specific diagnostic tools. Use of these tools in the characterization of oocysts various samples indicates that C. parvum genotype 1 is the strain responsible for most human Cryptosporidium infections. In contrast, genotype 2 is probably the major source for environmental contamination of environment, and has been found in most oysters examined from Chesapeake Bay that serve as biologic monitors of surface water. Parasites of Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum have not been detected in HIV+ individuals, indicating that the disease in humans is caused only by C. parvum.

  15. Tracking Dietary Sources of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine Mammals through a Subtropical Marine Food Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Chen, Hui; Du, Bibai; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-09-05

    Our previous study revealed an elevated accumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in marine mammals from Hong Kong waters in the South China Sea. To examine the bioaccumulation potential and biomagnification in these apex predators, we sampled the dietary items of marine mammals and tracked the sources of SCCPs and MCCPs through a marine food web in this region. Sixteen fish species, seven crustacean species, and four mollusk species were collected, and the main prey species were identified for two species of marine mammals. Concentrations of ∑SCCPs and ∑MCCPs in these collected species suggested a moderate pollution level in Hong Kong waters compared to the global range. Lipid content was found to mediate congener-specific bioaccumulation in these marine species. Significantly positive correlations were observed between trophic levels and concentrations of ∑SCCPs or ∑MCCPs (p mammals was observed. This is the first report of dietary source tracking of SCCPs and MCCPs in marine mammals. The elevated biomagnification between prey and marine mammals raises environmental concerns about these contaminants.

  16. Serological responses to Cryptosporidium antigens in inhabitants of Hungary using conventionally filtered surface water and riverbank filtered drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, K; Plutzer, J; Moltchanova, E; Török, A; Varró, M J; Domokos, K; Frost, F; Hunter, P R

    2015-10-01

    In this study the putative protective seroprevalence (PPS) of IgG antibodies to the 27-kDa and 15/17-kDa Cryptosporidium antigens in sera of healthy participants who were and were not exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts via surface water-derived drinking water was compared. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding risk factors that have been shown to be associated with infection. The PPS was significantly greater (49-61%) in settlements where the drinking water originated from surface water, than in the control city where riverbank filtration was used (21% and 23%). Logistic regression analysis on the risk factors showed an association between bathing/swimming in outdoor pools and antibody responses to the 15/17-kDa antigen complex. Hence the elevated responses were most likely due to the use of contaminated water. Results indicate that waterborne Cryptosporidium infections occur more frequently than reported but may derive from multiple sources.

  17. Identification of novel and zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A; Lymbery, A; Ng, J; Tweedle, S; Ryan, U

    2010-03-25

    Little is known about the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fish. The present study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in cultured fingerlings (n=227), wild freshwater (n=227) and wild marine/estuarine species (n=255) of fish in Western Australia by PCR amplification at the 18S rRNA locus. Results revealed a low prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in fish hosts; 0.8% (6/709). Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified including C. parvum, C. xiaoi and pig genotype II in whiting (Sillago vittata) and a novel Cryptosporidium spp. in mullets (Mugil cephalus). The identification of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in fish indicates that future research to gain a better understanding of the public health impacts is warranted. The detection of the protozoa in fish may also be a good sentinel for environmental contamination or ecosystem health.

  18. Occurrence Of Cryptosporidium Species Copro-Antigen In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chaque échantillon a été testé pour identifier la présence de copro-antigènes Cryptosporidium sp. à l'aide d'un kit d'essai d'immuno-absorption disponible dans le commerce pour les essais recouvert d'enzyme Cryptosporidium spécifiques (anticorps monoclonal) dirigés contre des antigènes de Cryptosporidium parvum.

  19. Evolution of monitoring for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efstratiou, Artemis; Ongerth, Jerry; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2017-10-15

    This review describes the evolution of monitoring methodology for Cryptosporidium and Giardia in water since the 1970's. Methods in current use for Giardia and Cryptosporidium in water are highlighted, though attention is given to all available published methods by country and continent. The review is intended to stimulate research leading to future improvements and further developments in monitoring methodology for Giardia, Cryptosporidium and other waterborne protozoan parasites in water. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. An integrated system for clinical treatment verification of HDR prostate brachytherapy combining source tracking with pretreatment imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan L; Hanlon, Max; Panettieri, Vanessa; Millar, Jeremy L; Matheson, Bronwyn; Haworth, Annette; Franich, Rick D

    2017-09-22

    High-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment is usually delivered in one or a few large dose fractions. Poor execution of a planned treatment could have significant clinical impact, as high doses are delivered in seconds, and mistakes in an individual fraction cannot be easily rectified. Given that most potential errors in HDR brachytherapy ultimately lead to a geographical miss, a more direct approach to verification of correct treatment delivery is to directly monitor the position of the source throughout the treatment. In this work, we report on the clinical implementation of our treatment verification system that uniquely combines the 2D source-tracking capability with 2D pretreatment imaging, using a single flat panel detector (FPD). The clinical brachytherapy treatment couch was modified to allow integration of the FPD into the couch. This enabled the patient to be set up in the brachytherapy bunker in a position that closely matched that at treatment planning imaging. An anteroposterior image was acquired of the patient immediately before treatment delivery and was assessed by the Radiation Oncologist online, to reestablish the positions of the catheters relative to the prostate. Assessment of catheter positions was performed in the left-right and superior-inferior directions along the entire catheter length and throughout the treatment volume. Source tracking was then performed during treatment delivery, and the measured position of the source dwells were directly compared to the treatment plan for verification. The treatment verification system was integrated into the clinical environment without significant change to workflow. Two patient cases are presented in this work to provide clinical examples of this system, which is now in routine use for all patient treatments in our clinic. The catheter positions were visualized relative to the prostate, immediately before treatment delivery. For one of the patient cases presented in this work, they

  1. Biomarkers in sedimentary sequences: Indicators to track sediment sources over decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F. X.; Fang, N. F.; Wang, Y. X.; Tong, L. S.; Shi, Z. H.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term sedimentary sequence research can reveal how human activities and climate interact to affect catchment vegetation, flooding, soil erosion, and sediment sources. In this study, a biomarker sediment fingerprinting technique based on n-alkanes was used to identify long timescale (decadal) sediment sources in a small agricultural catchment. However, the highly saline carbonate environment and bacterial and algal activities elevated the levels of even-chain n-alkanes in the sediments, leading to an obvious even-over-odd predominance of short and middle components (C15-C26). Therefore, by analyzing three odd, long-chain n-alkanes (C27, C29 and C31) in 27 source samples from cropland, gully, and steep slope areas and one sediment sequence (one cultivated horizon and 47 flood couplets), a composite fingerprinting method and genetic algorithm optimization were applied to find the optimal source contributions to sediments. The biomarker fingerprinting results demonstrated that the primary sediment source is gullies, followed by cropland and steep slope areas. The average median source contributions associated with 47 flood couples collected from sediment core samples ranged from 0 ± 0.1% to 91.9 ± 0.4% with an average of 45.0% for gullies, 0 ± 0.4% to 95.6 ± 1.6% with an average of 38.2% for cropland, and 0 ± 2.1% to 60.7 ± 0.4% with an average of 16.8% for steep slopes. However, because farmers were highly motivated to manage the cropland after the 1980s, over half the sediments were derived from cropland in the 1980s. Biomarkers have significant advantages in the identification of sediments derived from different landscape units (e.g., gully and steep slope areas), and n-alkanes have considerable potential in high-resolution research of environmental change based on soil erosion in the hilly Loess Plateau region.

  2. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  3. Source Tracking and Succession of Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria during Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Jeon, Che Ok

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at evaluating raw materials as potential lactic acid bacteria (LAB) sources for kimchi fermentation and investigating LAB successions during fermentation. The bacterial abundances and communities of five different sets of raw materials were investigated using plate-counting and pyrosequencing. LAB were found to be highly abundant in all garlic samples, suggesting that garlic may be a major LAB source for kimchi fermentation. LAB were observed in three and two out of five ginger and leek samples, respectively, indicating that they can also be potential important LAB sources. LAB were identified in only one cabbage sample with low abundance, suggesting that cabbage may not be an important LAB source. Bacterial successions during fermentation in the five kimchi samples were investigated by community analysis using pyrosequencing. LAB communities in initial kimchi were similar to the combined LAB communities of individual raw materials, suggesting that kimchi LAB were derived from their raw materials. LAB community analyses showed that species in the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were key players in kimchi fermentation, but their successions during fermentation varied with the species, indicating that members of the key genera may have different acid tolerance or growth competitiveness depending on their respective species. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Tracking the sources and sinks of local marine debris in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry S; Lamson, Megan R; Nakashima, Davis; Toloumu, Derek; Hafner, Jan; Maximenko, Nikolai; McDermid, Karla J

    2013-03-01

    Plastic pollution has biological, chemical, and physical effects on marine environments and economic effects on coastal communities. These effects are acute on southeastern Hawai'i Island, where volunteers remove 16 metric tons of debris annually from a 15 km coastline. Although the majority is foreign-origin, a portion is locally-generated. We used floating debris-retention booms in two urban waterways to measure the input of debris from Hilo, the island's largest community, and released wooden drifters in nearby coastal waters to track the fate of that debris. In 205 days, 30 kilograms of debris (73.6% plastic) were retained from two watersheds comprising 10.2% of Hilo's developed land area. Of 851 wooden drifters released offshore of Hilo in four events, 23.3% were recovered locally, 1.4% at distant locations, and 6.5% on other islands. Comparisons with modeled surface currents and wind were mixed, indicating the importance of nearshore and tidal dynamics not included in the model. This study demonstrated that local pollutants can be retained nearby, contribute to the island's debris-accumulation area, and quickly contaminate other islands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel library-independent approach based on high-throughput cultivation in Bioscreen and fingerprinting by FTIR spectroscopy for microbial source tracking in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapaval, V; Møretrø, T; Wold Åsli, A; Suso, H P; Schmitt, J; Lillehaug, D; Kohler, A

    2017-05-01

    Microbiological source tracking (MST) for food industry is a rapid growing area of research and technology development. In this paper, a new library-independent approach for MST is presented. It is based on a high-throughput liquid microcultivation and FTIR spectroscopy. In this approach, FTIR spectra obtained from micro-organisms isolated along the production line and a product are compared to each other. We tested and evaluated the new source tracking approach by simulating a source tracking situation. In this simulation study, a selection of 20 spoilage mould strains from a total of six genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Peyronellaea and Phoma) was used. The simulation of the source tracking situation showed that 80-100% of the sources could be correctly identified with respect to genus/species level. When performing source tracking simulations, the FTIR identification diverged for Phoma glomerata strain in the reference collection. When reidentifying the strain by sequencing, it turned out that the strain was a Peyronellaea arachidicola. The obtained results demonstrated that the proposed approach is a versatile tool for identifying sources of microbial contamination. Thus, it has a high potential for routine control in the food industry due to low costs and analysis time. The source tracking of fungal contamination in the food industry is an important aspect of food safety. Currently, all available methods are time consuming and require the use of a reference library that may limit the accuracy of the identification. In this study, we report for the first time, a library-independent FTIR spectroscopic approach for MST of fungal contamination along the food production line. It combines high-throughput microcultivation and FTIR spectroscopy and is specific on the genus and species level. Therefore, such an approach possesses great importance for food safety control in food industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Microbial source tracking in a small southern California urban watershed indicates wild animals and growth as the source of fecal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Sunny C; Chu, Weiping; Olson, Betty H; He, Jian-Wen; Choi, Samuel; Zhang, Jenny; Le, Joanne Y; Gedalanga, Phillip B

    2007-09-01

    Three independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods were applied to a small urban subwatershed in Orange County, California. Fifty-seven water samples collected over summer 2002 were analyzed for human adenovirus and enterovirus. Enterococci and E. coli were isolated for antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA) and for PCR identification of human- and animal-specific toxin genes, respectively. All water samples were PCR negative for human enteroviruses and E. coli human-specific toxin gene. E. coli toxin markers revealed the presence of toxin genes specific to bird, rabbit, and cow. Enterococci ARA results supported this conclusion and indicated that fecal bacteria from bird and wild animal feces as well as soil were the predominant source found in the watershed. An E. coli, isolated from the watershed and inoculated back into the heat-sterilized storm drain water, increased 4 log units within 6 days. Collectively, these results suggest that bird and wild animal feces, soil amendments, and/or fecal coliform growth in the storm drain are the major contributors to the fecal bacterial pollution in downstream areas. However, human adenoviruses were detected on two occasions. Fecal bacterial concentrations were not elevated on these two occasions, suggesting that the elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria in this small watershed could be unrelated to the source of human adenovirus.

  7. TANAMI: Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry. II. Additional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Ros, E.; Carpenter, B.; Angioni, R.; Blanchard, J.; Böck, M.; Burd, P. R.; Dörr, M.; Dutka, M. S.; Eberl, T.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Krauß, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. TANAMI is a multiwavelength program monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) south of - 30° declination including high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging, radio, optical/UV, X-ray, and γ-ray studies. We have previously published first-epoch8.4 GHz VLBI images of the parsec-scale structure of the initial sample. In this paper, we present images of 39 additional sources. The full sample comprises most of the radio- and γ-ray brightest AGN in the southern quarter of the sky, overlapping with the region from which high-energy (> 100 TeV) neutrino events have been found. Aims: We characterize the parsec-scale radio properties of the jets and compare them with the quasi-simultaneous Fermi/LAT γ-ray data. Furthermore, we study the jet properties of sources which are in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events compared to the full sample. We test the positional agreement of high-energy neutrino events with various AGN samples. Methods: TANAMI VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz are made with southern hemisphere radio telescopes located in Australia, Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. Results: Our observations yield the first images of many jets below - 30° declination at milliarcsecond resolution. We find that γ-ray loud TANAMI sources tend to be more compact on parsec-scales and have higher core brightness temperatures than γ-ray faint jets, indicating higher Doppler factors. No significant structural difference is found between sources in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events and other TANAMI jets. The 22 γ-ray brightest AGN in the TANAMI sky show only a weak positional agreement with high-energy neutrinos demonstrating that the > 100 TeV IceCube signal is not simply dominated by a small number of the γ-ray brightest blazars. Instead, a larger number of sources have to contribute to the signal with each individual source having only a small Poisson probability for producing an event in

  8. Do oxygen stable isotopes track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant dominated peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charman, D.; Amesbury, M. J.; Newnham, R.; Loader, N.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Royles, J.; Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature and humidity dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives. Exploitation of this record from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, has been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with limited application in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. Throughout New Zealand (NZ), the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) forms deep peat deposits. NZ provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because sites are ideally suited to single taxon analysis, preserve potentially high resolution full Holocene palaeoclimate records and are situated in the climatically sensitive SH mid-latitudes. Crucially, large gradients exist in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. We test the capacity for δ18O analysis of Empodisma alpha cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ to provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records. We took surface plant, water and precipitation samples over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. We found a strong link between the isotopic compositions of surface root water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in surface root water. The link between source water and plant

  9. Radioactive Particle Tracking Technique with Concentrated {sup 68}Ga Source for Visualization of Water Flows in Digester with Vertical Impeller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jang-Guen; Moon, Jinho; Lim, Jaecheong; Jung, Sung-Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    It is very important to understand the dynamic behavior of mixing flow for operating digesters. Therefore, there have been incessant studies over the world to investigate hydrodynamic parameters of flows in digesters experimentally. In Korea, researchers at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) have been studying radioactive particle tracking (RPT) technique to tracks the trajectory of a single radioactive particle flowing along with flow current and then, hydrodynamics parameters are calculated based on the trajectory of particle. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out for the digester mixed by a vertical impeller to visualize water flow. In this study, the RPT technique was carried out to investigate water flows in digester mixed by vertical impeller. We used a {sup 68}Ga generator source as a radioactive particle by concentrating eluate for RPT to be independent of reactors, and that is the first attempt in the world. The reconstructed particle trajectory will be used to calculate hydrodynamics parameters to understand the dynamic behavior of flows in digester.

  10. Jitter Studies for a 2.4 GeV Light Source Accelerator Using LiTrack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, Gregory E

    2010-03-19

    Electron beam quality is an important factor in the performance of a free electron laser (FEL). Parameters of particular interest are the electron beam energy, slice emittance and energy spread, peak current, and energy chirp. Jitter in average energy is typically many times the slice energy spread. A seeded FEL is sensitive not only to these local properties but also to factors such as shot-to-shot consistency and the uniformity of the energy and current profiles across the bunch. The timing and bunch length jitter should be controlled to maximize the interval of time over which the electron beam can be reliably seeded by a laser to produce good output in the FEL. LiTrack, a one-dimensional tracking code which includes the effect of longitudinal wakefields, is used to study the sensitivity of the accelerator portion of a 2.4 GeV FEL to sources of variability such as the radio frequency (RF) cavities, chicanes, and the timing and efficiency of electron production at the photocathode. The main contributors to jitter in the resulting electron beam are identified and quantified for various figures of merit.

  11. Information Theoretic Source Seeking Strategies for Multiagent Plume Tracking in Turbulent Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Hajieghrary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present information theoretic search strategies for single and multi-robot teams to localize the source of biochemical contaminants in turbulent flows. The robots synthesize the information provided by sporadic and intermittent sensor readings to optimize their exploration strategy. By leveraging the spatio-temporal sensing capabilities of a mobile sensing network, our strategies result in control actions that maximize the information gained by the team while minimizing the time spent localizing the biochemical source. By leveraging the team’s ability to obtain simultaneous measurements at different locations, we show how a multi-robot team is able to speed up the search process resulting in a collaborative information theoretic search strategy. We validate our proposed strategies in both simulations and experiments.

  12. Nitrogen source tracking with δ15N content of coastal wetland plants in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory L. Bruland; Richard A.. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Inter- and intra-site comparisons of the nitrogen (N) stable isotope composition of wetland plant species have been used to identify sources of N in coastal areas. In this study, we compared δ15N values from different herbaceous wetland plants across 34 different coastal wetlands from the five main Hawaiian Islands and investigated relationships of δ15N with...

  13. Persistence and microbial source tracking of Escherichia coli at a swimming beach at Lake of the Ozarks State Park, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L.; Schumacher, John G.; Burken, Joel G.

    2016-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) has closed or posted advisories at public beaches at Lake of the Ozarks State Park in Missouri because of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentration exceedances in recent years. Spatial and temporal patterns of E. coliconcentrations, microbial source tracking, novel sampling techniques, and beach-use patterns were studied during the 2012 recreational season to identify possible sources, origins, and occurrence of E. coli contamination at Grand Glaize Beach (GGB). Results indicate an important source of E. coli contamination at GGB was E. coli released into the water column by bathers resuspending avian-contaminated sediments, especially during high-use days early in the recreational season. Escherichia coli concentrations in water, sediment, and resuspended sediment samples all decreased throughout the recreational season likely because of decreasing lake levels resulting in sampling locations receding away from the initial spring shoreline as well as natural decay and physical transport out of the cove. Weekly MDNR beach monitoring, based solely on E. coli concentrations, at GGB during this study inaccurately predicted E. coli exceedances, especially on weekends and holidays. Interestingly, E. coli of human origin were measured at concentrations indicative of raw sewage in runoff from an excavation of a nearby abandoned septic tank that had not been used for nearly two years.

  14. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis GP60 subtypes worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Avendaño V

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic parasite very important in animal health as well as in public health. It is because this is one of the main causes of diarrhea in children, calves, lambs and other variety of youth mammalians in a lot of countries. The globalization has enabled the exchange of biological material in different regions worldwide, encouraging the spread of diseases and exposure to these biological agents to different environmental conditions, inducing adaptation through genetic changes. Based in the polymorphism of the gene for GP60, this review intended to present the distribution of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in humans and calves worldwide. The subtype that affects cattle more frequently corresponds to IIaA15G2R; while the subtype most frequently isolated from human samples is IaA19G2.

  15. Application of PFGE to source tracking of faecal pollution in coastal recreation area: a case study in Aoshima Beach, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T; Yoshida, T; Suzuki, Y

    2011-03-01

    The development of a microbial source tracking (MST) method is strongly desired to ensure public health and bacteriological safety in coastal recreation areas. We try to specify the source of faecal pollution by applying pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the study of the aquatic environment on Aoshima Beach, Japan. Enterococcus faecium, an enterococcus, was used as a faecal indicator bacterium in this study. Enterococcus faecium strains were isolated and identified from each water sample collected from Aoshima Beach and five rivers (Oyodo, Kiyotake, Kaeda, Chifuku and Tsukunami Rivers) that might be potential sources of faecal pollution. Enterococcus faecium strains collected from water samples were analysed using PFGE. The similarities of all the PFGE types of the Ent. faecium strains were compared using dendrogram analysis. The PFGE types of the strains isolated from Aoshima Beach showed a high similarity to those of the strains isolated from the Oyodo River at a 0·9 similarity level. It was suggested that the Oyodo River is the source of faecal pollution on Aoshima Beach. The PFGE analysis using enterococci is a potential tool for the MST of faecal indicator bacteria that can be applied to the study of the coastal environment. This is one of the studies that PFGE was applied to the coastal environment. The approach using PFGE could estimate the river that is source of faecal pollution in Aoshima Beach. By applying PFGE as a tool of MST method, detailed information of faecal pollution in coastal area can be provided. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Open source tracking and analysis of adult Drosophila locomotion in Buridan's paradigm with and without visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Colomb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects have been among the most widely used model systems for studying the control of locomotion by nervous systems. In Drosophila, we implemented a simple test for locomotion: in Buridan's paradigm, flies walk back and forth between two inaccessible visual targets [1]. Until today, the lack of easily accessible tools for tracking the fly position and analyzing its trajectory has probably contributed to the slow acceptance of Buridan's paradigm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present here a package of open source software designed to track a single animal walking in a homogenous environment (Buritrack and to analyze its trajectory. The Centroid Trajectory Analysis (CeTrAn software is coded in the open source statistics project R. It extracts eleven metrics and includes correlation analyses and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA. It was designed to be easily customized to personal requirements. In combination with inexpensive hardware, these tools can readily be used for teaching and research purposes. We demonstrate the capabilities of our package by measuring the locomotor behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster (whose wings were clipped, either in the presence or in the absence of visual targets, and comparing the latter to different computer-generated data. The analysis of the trajectories confirms that flies are centrophobic and shows that inaccessible visual targets can alter the orientation of the flies without changing their overall patterns of activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using computer generated data, the analysis software was tested, and chance values for some metrics (as well as chance value for their correlation were set. Our results prompt the hypothesis that fixation behavior is observed only if negative phototaxis can overcome the propensity of the flies to avoid the center of the platform. Together with our companion paper, we provide new tools to promote Open Science as well as the collection and

  17. Open source tracking and analysis of adult Drosophila locomotion in Buridan's paradigm with and without visual targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomb, Julien; Reiter, Lutz; Blaszkiewicz, Jedrzej; Wessnitzer, Jan; Brembs, Bjoern

    2012-01-01

    Insects have been among the most widely used model systems for studying the control of locomotion by nervous systems. In Drosophila, we implemented a simple test for locomotion: in Buridan's paradigm, flies walk back and forth between two inaccessible visual targets [1]. Until today, the lack of easily accessible tools for tracking the fly position and analyzing its trajectory has probably contributed to the slow acceptance of Buridan's paradigm. We present here a package of open source software designed to track a single animal walking in a homogenous environment (Buritrack) and to analyze its trajectory. The Centroid Trajectory Analysis (CeTrAn) software is coded in the open source statistics project R. It extracts eleven metrics and includes correlation analyses and a Principal Components Analysis (PCA). It was designed to be easily customized to personal requirements. In combination with inexpensive hardware, these tools can readily be used for teaching and research purposes. We demonstrate the capabilities of our package by measuring the locomotor behavior of adult Drosophila melanogaster (whose wings were clipped), either in the presence or in the absence of visual targets, and comparing the latter to different computer-generated data. The analysis of the trajectories confirms that flies are centrophobic and shows that inaccessible visual targets can alter the orientation of the flies without changing their overall patterns of activity. Using computer generated data, the analysis software was tested, and chance values for some metrics (as well as chance value for their correlation) were set. Our results prompt the hypothesis that fixation behavior is observed only if negative phototaxis can overcome the propensity of the flies to avoid the center of the platform. Together with our companion paper, we provide new tools to promote Open Science as well as the collection and analysis of digital behavioral data.

  18. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  19. ICR SS protozoan data site-by-site: a picture of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in U.S. surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongerth, Jerry E

    2013-09-17

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Information Collection Rule Supplemental Survey (ICR SS) required analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in 10 L surface water samples twice a week for a year by USEPA Method 1623 at 80 representative U.S. public water systems (PWS). The resulting data are examined site-by-site in relation to objectives of the Federal drinking water regulation, The Long-Term (2) Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2), currently under formal 6-year review by the USEPA. The data describe Cryptosporidium and Giardia in watersheds nation-wide over a single annual cycle. Due to limited recovery efficiency measurement results are not fully quantified. In the required sample volumes of 10 L no Cryptosporidium were found in 86% of samples and no Giardia were found in 67% of samples. Yet, organisms were found in enough samples at 34 of 80 sites to detail a specrtum of occurrence and variability for both organisms. The data are shown to describe indivudual site risk essential for guidance of watershed and water treatment management by PWSs. The span of median occurrence for both organisms was about 2 orders of magnitude above the limit of detection (LD), ca. 0.05 raw no's/L for Cryptosporidium and ca. 0.10 raw no's/L for Giardia. Data analysis illustrates key features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water: presence is continuous not intermittent; zeros indicate presence below the LD; occurrence level and variations depend on watershed sources; risk depends on both magnitude and variability of concentration; accurate estimation of risk requires routine measurement of recovery efficiency and calculation of concentration. The data and analysis illustrate features of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in surface water relevant to their effective regulation for public health protection.

  20. Cryptosporidium parvum: From foal to veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppi, R; Piva, S; Castagnetti, C; Sarli, G; Iacono, E; Fioravanti, M L; Caffara, M

    2016-03-30

    This paper describes the transmission of a zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum between two foals hospitalized in an Equine Perinatology Unit (EPU) linked to an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in veterinary students. Fecal specimens of 36 mares (105 samples) and 28 foals (122 samples) were subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen staining, nested PCR of 18S rDNA. Two foals tested positive for Cryptosporidium; PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and subtyping by nested PCR of the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene revealed C. parvum subtype IIdA23G1. The introduction of Cryptosporidium into the EPU is suspected to be in a foal showing no initial clinical signs that tested positive for C. parvum during an asymptomatic phase. A second foal, hospitalized afterwards for perinatal asphyxia syndrome complicated with failure of passive transfer and sepsis, showed severe watery diarrhea after 4 days of hospitalization and was positive for the same subtype. During this period, six students attending the EPU complained of abdominal pain and diarrhea and were positive for the same subtype of C. parvum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of this subtype in foals and the first report of evidence of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from foals to human. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Additional novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in ornamental fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morine, M; Yang, R; Ng, J; Kueh, S; Lymbery, A J; Ryan, U M

    2012-12-21

    Current knowledge on the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in fishes is still limited. This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species in 171 ornamental fishes, belonging to 33 species, collected from 8 commercial aquariums around Perth, Western Australia. All samples were screened by nested PCR targeting the 18S rRNA locus. A total of 6 positives were identified by PCR at the 18S locus from 4 different species of fishes (red eye tetra, Moenkhausia sanctaefilomenae; gold gourami, Trichogaster trichopterus; neon tetra, Paracheirodon innesi; goldfish, Carassius auratus auratus), giving an overall prevalence of 3.5% (6/171). Four different genotypes were identified, only one of which has been previously reported in fish; piscine genotype 4 in a neon tetra isolate, a rat genotype III-like isolate in a goldfish, a novel genotype in three isolates from red eye (piscine genotype 7) which exhibited a 3.5% genetic distance from piscine genotype 1 and a piscine genotype 6-like from a gold gourami (1% genetic distance). Further biological and genetic characterisation is required to determine the relationship of these genotypes to established species and strains of Cryptosporidium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Probabilistic analysis showing that a combination of bacteroides and methanobrevibacter source tracking markers is effective for identifying waters contaminated by human fecal pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christopher; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Ufnar, Jennifer A.; Whitman, Richard L.; Stewart, Jill R.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial source tracking assays to identify sources of waterborne contamination typically target genetic markers of host-specific microorganisms. However, no bacterial marker has been shown to be 100% host-specific, and cross-reactivity has been noted in studies evaluating known source samples. Using 485 challenge samples from 20 different human and animal fecal sources, this study evaluated microbial source tracking markers including the Bacteroides HF183 16S rRNA, M. smithii nifH, and Enterococcus esp gene targets that have been proposed as potential indicators of human fecal contamination. Bayes' Theorem was used to calculate the conditional probability that these markers or a combination of markers can correctly identify human sources of fecal pollution. All three human-associated markers were detected in 100% of the sewage samples analyzed. Bacteroides HF183 was the most effective marker for determining whether contamination was specifically from a human source, and greater than 98% certainty that contamination was from a human source was shown when both Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH markers were present. A high degree of certainty was attained even in cases where the prior probability of human fecal contamination was as low as 8.5%. The combination of Bacteroides HF183 and M. smithii nifH source tracking markers can help identify surface waters impacted by human fecal contamination, information useful for prioritizing restoration activities or assessing health risks from exposure to contaminated waters.

  3. Ultrafiltration and Microarray for Detection of Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Harwood, Valerie J; Nayak, Bina; Weidhaas, Jennifer L

    2016-01-04

    Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated freshwater and marine water, and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of >95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole-genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of the microarray. Viruses (adenovirus, bocavirus, hepatitis A virus, and human polyomaviruses) were detected in sewage-contaminated samples. Pathogens such as Legionella pneumophila, Shigella flexneri, and Campylobacter fetus were detected along with genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, and tetracycline. Nonmetric dimensional analysis of MST marker genes grouped sewage-spiked freshwater and marine samples with sewage and apart from other fecal sources. The sensitivity (percent true positives) of the microarray probes for gene targets anticipated in sewage was 51 to 57% and was lower than the specificity (percent true negatives; 79 to 81%). A linear relationship between gene copies determined by quantitative PCR and microarray fluorescence was found, indicating the semiquantitative nature of the MST microarray. These results indicate that ultrafiltration coupled with WGA provides sufficient nucleic acids for detection of viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and antibiotic resistance genes by the microarray in applications ranging from beach monitoring to risk assessment. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. prevalence of cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-12-02

    Dec 2, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute gastroenteritis in Zaria, Nigeria by Kinyoun Modified Carbol-Fuchsin Staining. (Modified Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) Technique. The results for the screening of Cryptosporidium.

  5. Ubiquity of the water-borne pathogens, Cryptosporidium and Giardia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of the diarrhoea disease caused by the water-borne pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia in KwaZulu-Natal, was determined from pathology laboratory data. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were found to be endemic in KwaZulu-Natal with laboratory-confirmed incidences ranging from 2.9 to 3.7% and 2.9 to ...

  6. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts among children with acute gastroenteritis in Zaria, Nigeria by Kinyoun Modified Carbol-Fuchsin Staining (Modified Ziehl-Neelsen Staining) Technique. The results for the screening of Cryptosporidium oocysts showed that out of 372 stool ...

  7. Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the health risks associated with exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, there is no uniform approach to monitoring these protozoan parasites across the world. In the present study, a strategy for monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia in drinking water was developed in an effort to ensure that the risk of exposure ...

  8. Cross-Reactivity of Some Cryptosporidium Species with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cross-Reactivity of Some Cryptosporidium Species with Cryptosporidium parvum Coproantigen in a Commercial ELISA Kit. ... transmission in the study area. This work showed that unlike some other livestock diseases where commercially available ELISA kits are often relied on as diagnostic tools, ELISA kits obtained

  9. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guosheng; Qiu, Zhiqun; Qi, Junsheng; Chen, Ji-an; Liu, Fengdan; Liu, Wenyi; Luo, Jiaohua; Shu, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is the biggest lake in the world and a major water source in China. There is no information about occurrence and impact of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on the aquatic ecosystem. 61 surface water samples from 23 monitoring sites and 5 treated effluent samples were collected and analyzed. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found, respectively, in 86.4% and 65.2% of a total of 66 water samples, with high concentrations in treated effluent. The mean percent recovery was 29.14% for oocysts and 34.86% for cysts. A seasonal pattern was observed, with positive samples for Cryptosporidium more frequent in flood period and positive samples for Giardia more frequent in impounding period. Counts of enterococci, fecal coliforms and total coliforms, and turbidity were significantly associated with Cryptosporidium concentration in backwater (water in a main river which is backed up by the Three Gorges Dam) areas of tributaries but not Giardia. High associations were also found between oocyst and cyst in backwater areas of tributaries and cities. The risks of infection and illness due to water consumption in four different exposure routes were estimated. The results showed that swimming in the TGR has the highest infection risk with 1.39 × 10(-3) per time (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-600.3 × 10(-5)) for Cryptosporidium and 2.08 × 10(-4) per time (95% CI: 0.05-878.87 × 10(-6)) for Giardia, while directly drinking unboiled tap water treated with the conventional process has the highest morbidity with 524.98 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 10.35-2040.26) for Cryptosporidium and 5.89 per 100,000 population per year (95% CI: 0.08-22.67) for Giardia. This study provides new useful information for drinking water plants, health care workers and managers to improve the safety of tap water and deduce the risk of surface water contamination in China. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and future trends in fecal source tracking and deployment in the Lake Taihu Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Charles; Liang, Xinqiang

    The emerging discipline of microbial and/or chemical source tracking (collectively termed fecal source tracking (FST)) is being used to identify origins of fecal contamination in polluted waters in many countries around the world. FST has developed rapidly because standard methods of measuring contamination in water by enumerating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as fecal coliforms and enterococci do not identify the sources of the contamination. FST is an active area of research and development in both the academic and private sectors and includes: Developing and testing new microbial and chemical FST methods. Determining the geographic application and animal host ranges of existing and emerging FST techniques. Conducting experimental comparisons of FST techniques. Combining direct monitoring of human pathogens associated with waterborne outbreaks and zoonotic pathogens responsible for infections among people, wildlife, or domesticated animals with the use of FST techniques. Applying FST to watershed analysis and coastal environments. Designing appropriate statistical and probability analysis of FST data and developing models for mass loadings of host-specific fecal contamination. This paper includes a critical review of FST with emphasis on the extent to which methods have been tested (especially in comparison with other methods and/or with blind samples), which methods are applicable to different situations, their shortcomings, and their usefulness in predicting public health risk or pathogen occurrence. In addition, the paper addresses the broader question of whether FST and fecal indicator monitoring is the best approach to regulate water quality and protect human health. Many FST methods have only been tested against sewage or fecal samples or isolates in laboratory studies (proof of concept testing) and/or applied in field studies where the “real” answer is not known, so their comparative performance and accuracy cannot be assessed. For FST to be

  11. Utilizing HaloTag Technology to Track the Fate of PCSK9 from Intracellular vs. Extracellular Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Xi; Fischer, Paul; Palyha, Oksana C; Wisniewski, Douglas; Hubbard, Brian; Akinsanya, Karen; Strack, Alison M; Ehrhardt, Anka G

    2012-01-01

    The function of a particular protein is dependent upon its localization and milieu. The ability to track the "fate" of a protein is a valuable tool to elucidate its function. We present the use of HaloTag technology to study the localization and fate of human Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-like Kexin type 9 (PCSK9).The role of PCSK9 in the regulation of circulating low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) levels is ascribed to binding of circulating PCSK9 to the LDL receptor (LDLR) and subsequent lysosomal degradation of LDLR. However, hints in the literature indicate that intracellular PCSK9 may act on the LDLR, possibly during processing of newly synthesized protein. To address this question, the source and fate of intracellular PCSK9 requires further investigation.We applied HaloTag technology to distinguish the source of intracellular PCSK9 and showed that newly synthesized intracellular PCSK9 has unique localization from the PCSK9 after re-uptake. This suggests different functions of PCSK9 while interacting with the LDLR.

  12. Cryptosporidium species from common edible bivalves in Manila Bay, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoso, Edison Jay A; Rivera, Windell L

    2017-06-15

    Manila Bay is one of the major propagation sites of edible bivalves in the Philippines. Studies have shown that bivalves might be contaminated with human pathogens like the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium, one of the major causes of gastroenteritis in the world. In this study, Cryptosporidium from four species of edible bivalves were isolated using a combination of sucrose flotation and immunomagnetic separation. Using direct fluorescent antibody test, Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 67 out of 144 samples collected. DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of the isolates detected C. parvum and C. hominis (major causes of human cryptosporidiosis) and C. meleagridis (causes infection in avian species). Analysis of the 60kDa glycoprotein gene further confirmed the genotypes of the Cryptosporidium isolates. This study is the first to provide baseline information on Cryptosporidium contamination of Manila Bay where bivalves are commonly cultured. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  14. Mercury exposure and source tracking in distinct marine-caged fish farm in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Coasts of South China have experienced an unprecedented growth in its marine-caged fish industry. We analyzed mercury concentrations and stable mercury isotope ratios in fourteen fish species from two cage-cultured farms in Southern China. Total mercury concentrations of all species were lower than the human health screening values, but the human exposures through consumption of several carnivorous fish exceeded the USEPA's reference dose. Isotopic compositions in the sediment (δ202Hg: -1.45‰ to -1.23‰; Δ199Hg: -0.04‰ to -0.01‰) suggested that mercury in these farms were from coal combustion and industrial inputs. Commercial food pellets and fresh fish viscera provided the major sources of methylmercury to the farmed fish and dominated their mercury isotopic signatures. Non-carnivorous fish presented lower δ202Hg and Δ199Hg values than the carnivorous fish. Using a mixing model, we demonstrated that the majority of mercury in non-carnivorous species came from pellets and in carnivorous fish came from combined diets of pellets and viscera. Meanwhile, methylmercury concentrations and % methylmercury in the fish were positively correlated with δ202Hg values but not with Δ199Hg values, mainly because fish eating similar feeds maintained similar Δ199Hg values. Environmental influences of cage farming such as fish feces and uneaten viscera that continuously provide organic mercury to the environments need to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. OPEN SOURCE WEB TOOL FOR TRACKING IN A LOWCOST MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fissore

    2017-11-01

    test an alternative solution to other more expensive MMSs. The first objective of this paper is to report on the development of a prototype of MMS for the collection of geospatial data based on the assembly of low cost sensors managed through a web interface developed using open source libraries. The main goal is to provide a system accessible by any type of user, and flexible to any type of upgrade or introduction of new models of sensors or versions thereof. After a presentation of the hardware components used in our system, a more detailed description of the software developed for the management of the MMS will be provided, which is the part of the innovation of the project. According to the worldwide request for having big data available through the web from everywhere in the world (Pirotti et al., 2011, the proposed solution allows to retrieve data from a web interface Figure 4. Actually, this is part of a project for the development of a new web infrastructure in the University of Padua (but it will be available for external users as well, in order to ease collaboration between researchers from different areas. Finally, strengths, weaknesses and future developments of the low cost MMS are discussed.

  16. Open Source Web Tool for Tracking in a Lowcost Mobile Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fissore, F.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2017-11-01

    alternative solution to other more expensive MMSs. The first objective of this paper is to report on the development of a prototype of MMS for the collection of geospatial data based on the assembly of low cost sensors managed through a web interface developed using open source libraries. The main goal is to provide a system accessible by any type of user, and flexible to any type of upgrade or introduction of new models of sensors or versions thereof. After a presentation of the hardware components used in our system, a more detailed description of the software developed for the management of the MMS will be provided, which is the part of the innovation of the project. According to the worldwide request for having big data available through the web from everywhere in the world (Pirotti et al., 2011), the proposed solution allows to retrieve data from a web interface Figure 4. Actually, this is part of a project for the development of a new web infrastructure in the University of Padua (but it will be available for external users as well), in order to ease collaboration between researchers from different areas. Finally, strengths, weaknesses and future developments of the low cost MMS are discussed.

  17. USE OF COMPOSITE DATA SETS FOR SOURCE-TRACKING ENTEROCCOCCI IN THE WATER COLUMN AND SHORELINE INTERSTITIAL WATERS ON PENSACOLA BEACH, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genthner, Fred J., Joseph B. James, Diane F. Yates and Stephanie D. Friedman. Submitted. Use of Composite Data Sets for Source-Tracking Enterococci in the Water Column and Shoreline Interstitial Waters on Pensacola Beach Florida. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 33 p. (ERL,GB 1212). So...

  18. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  19. Association of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with Human Viruses and Microbial Source Tracking Markers at Coastal Beaches Impacted by Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John

    2012-01-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided. PMID:22773625

  20. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining multiple algorithms for road network tracking from multiple source remotely sensed imagery: a practical system and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangguo; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Jixian; Shen, Jing

    2009-01-01

    In light of the increasing availability of commercial high-resolution imaging sensors, automatic interpretation tools are needed to extract road features. Currently, many approaches for road extraction are available, but it is acknowledged that there is no single method that would be successful in extracting all types of roads from any remotely sensed imagery. In this paper, a novel classification of roads is proposed, based on both the roads' geometrical, radiometric properties and the characteristics of the sensors. Subsequently, a general road tracking framework is proposed, and one or more suitable road trackers are designed or combined for each type of roads. Extensive experiments are performed to extract roads from aerial/satellite imagery, and the results show that a combination strategy can automatically extract more than 60% of the total roads from very high resolution imagery such as QuickBird and DMC images, with a time-saving of approximately 20%, and acceptable spatial accuracy. It is proven that a combination of multiple algorithms is more reliable, more efficient and more robust for extracting road networks from multiple-source remotely sensed imagery than the individual algorithms.

  2. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.

  3. Rotifers ingest oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, R.; Trout, J.M.; Walsh, E.; Cole, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Six genera of rotifers including Philodina, Monostyla, Epiphanes, Euchlanis, Brachionus, and Asplanchna were exposed to oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum cleaned of fecal debris. Unstained oocysts and those stained with fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody were added to suspensions of viable rotifers and were examined by phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. Rotifers of all six genera were observed ingesting oocysts. A maximum of 25 oocysts was observed in the stomachs of Euchlanis and Brachionus. Euchlanis and Epiphanes were observed excreting boluses containing up to eight oocysts. It was not determined whether rotifers digested or otherwise rendered oocysts nonviable.

  4. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in small ruminants from Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Salas, Dora; Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Cruz-Romero, Anabel; Aguilar-Domínguez, Mariel; Ibarra-Priego, Nelly; Merino-Charrez, José O; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús

    2016-01-19

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp. that can affect domestic animal and human populations. In newborn ruminants, cryptosporidiosis is characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea, which can result in high morbidity and economic impact. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in small ruminants from the Perote municipality in Veracruz State, Mexico. One hundred and sixty small ruminants (80 sheep and 80 goats) from eight farms located in four towns of the Perote municipality were examined following a cross-sectional study design. Stool samples were analyzed by a modification of the Faust centrifugation method, and the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was examined using a modification of the Ziehl-Neelsen staining procedure. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Cryptosporidium infection and the general characteristics of the animals studied. Overall, 112 (70%, 95% CI: 62.3-76.9) of the 160 small ruminants sampled were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in goats was 72.5% (95% CI: 61.4-81.9) and in sheep 67.5% (95% CI: 56.1-77.6). Small ruminants aged 1 month old had the highest (88.2%; 95% CI: 63.6-98.5) prevalence of infection. Prevalence varied from 60% to 85% among herds. Animal species, age, sex, breed, farm, town or cohabitation with cattle did not influence the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection. A high prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium spp. was observed in small ruminants from the Perote municipality in Veracruz, Mexico. Infection was widely distributed among sheep and goats regardless of their age, breed or farm location. Further research is required to identify risk factors for, and to assess the veterinary public health significance of Cryptosporidium infection among sheep and goats in the Mexican state of Veracruz.

  5. Detection and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinmode, Adekunle Bamidele; Ogbonna, Nkeiruka Fortunate; Widmer, Giovanni

    To study the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) raised for experimental usage, 134 faecal samples were obtained from two rearing houses in Ibadan and examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst using the modified acid fast staining technique. Cryptosporidium species in 2 samples positive for microscopy were further characterized by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplifying the 18S rRNA gene. Two of 134 samples were positive for the Cryptosporidium oocysts. Sequencing of the small-subunit rRNA amplicons identified the species in the two PCR positive samples as Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium rat genotype. These findings showed that laboratory rat is a potential reservoir for diverse Cryptosporidium species and suggests that laboratory rats should be screened for Cryptosporidium infection prior to experiments, especially where pathogen free animals are not available. This the first report to identify Cryptosporidium species infecting laboratory rats in Nigeria.

  6. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  7. Using the Orbit Tracking Code Z3CYCLONE to Predict the Beam Produced by a Cold Cathode PIG Ion Source for Cyclotrons under DC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Forringer, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Experimental measurements of the emittance and luminosity of beams produced by a cold-cathode Phillips Ionization Guage (PIG) ion source for cyclotrons under dc extraction are reviewed. (The source being studied is of the same style as ones that will be used in a series of 250 MeV proton cyclotrons being constructed for cancer therapy by ACCEL Inst, Gmbh, of Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.) The concepts of 'plasma boundary' and 'plasma temperature' are presented as a useful set of parameters for describing the initial conditions used in computational orbit tracking. Experimental results for r-pr and z-pz emittance are compared to predictions from the MSU orbit tracking code Z3CYCLONE with results indicating that the code is able to predict the beam produced by these ion sources with adequate accuracy such that construction of actual cyclotrons can proceed with reasonably prudent confidence that the cyclotron will perform as predicted.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in humans on Prince Edward Island, Canada: evidence of zoonotic transmission from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, E; Greenwood, S J; Dixon, B R; Sweet, L; Ang, L; Barkema, H W; McClure, J T

    2012-09-01

    To determine the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, 658 human faecal specimens were screened that were submitted to the Queen Elizabeth Hospital diagnostic laboratory. Overall, 143 (22%) samples were Cryptosporidium positive, while three (0.5%) were positive for Giardia. Successful genotyping of 25 Cryptosporidium isolates by sequence analysis of the HSP70 gene revealed that 28 and 72% were C. hominis and C. parvum, respectively. Cryptosporidium isolates from humans and previously genotyped C. parvum from beef cattle were subtyped by sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Subtyping identified three subtypes belonging to the family IIa. All three subtypes IIaA16G2RI (55%), IIaA16G3RI (22%) and IIaA15G2RI (22%) were found in the animal isolates, while two of the subtypes found in the animals, IIaA16G2RI (80%) and IIaA15G2RI (20%), were also identified in the human isolates. Cryptosporidium infection in humans peaked in April-June. Molecular epidemiological analysis of the human data showed a C. parvum peak in the spring and a relatively smaller peak for C. hominis in July-September. The majority (57%) of human Cryptosporidium isolates were found in children between 5 and 10 years of age. All three Giardia isolates were identified as G. duodenalis assemblage A. The overall Cryptosporidium prevalence in our human samples was high relative to other studies, but because the samples were submitted to a hospital diagnostic laboratory, the results may not be representative of the general population. Further, the presence of the same zoonotic C. parvum subtypes in cattle and human isolates implies that transmission is largely zoonotic and cattle may be a source of sporadic human infections on PEI. The presence of Giardia in people on PEI is rare, and the assemblage A found in humans might originate from humans, livestock or other domestic or wild animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  10. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil Identificação de espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium em bovinos leiteiros no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.No presente estudo foram identificadas espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium originadas de bovinos leiteiros na região central do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 200 animais (100 bezerros e 100 vacas em 10 propriedades leiteiras. As amostras foram examinadas utilizando os métodos de microscopia óptica (MO, ensaio imunoenzimático (EI e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. As espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium foram determinados pelo método de polimorfismo no tamanho dos fragmentos de restrição (RFLP ou sequenciamento dos genes SSU-rRNA e GP60. A infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. teve ocorrência de 14% (28/200. A ocorrência em bezerros (26% foi significativamente maior do que em vacas (2%. Do total de 27

  11. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  12. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. PMID:23477297

  13. Giardia and Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in coyotes (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, James M; Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2006-06-01

    Feces and duodenal scrapings were collected from 22 coyotes (Canis latrans) killed in managed hunts in northeastern Pennsylvania. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to detect Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. PCR-amplified fragments of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. SSU-rRNA genes were subjected to DNA sequence analysis for species/genotype determination. Seven coyotes (32%) were positive for G. duodenalis: three assemblage C, three assemblage D, and one assemblage B. Six coyotes (27%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. One isolate shared 99.7% homology with C. muris, whereas five others (23%) shared 100% homology with C. canis, coyote genotype. This is the first report on multiple genotypes of Giardia spp. in coyotes and on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. genotypes in coyotes.

  14. Cryptosporidium oocysts in Ghanaian AIDS patients with diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although Cryptosporidium spp. infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients (AIDS) with chronic diarrhoea have been reported in several African countries, there is no information regarding cryptosporidial diarrhoea in Ghanaian AIDS patients. Objective: To investigate the occurrence of C.

  15. Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are frequent parasites of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, raising questions about the clinical significance of such infections. Infections with both parasites have a wide spectrum of symptoms that can vary between asymptomatic infections to serious infection ...

  16. Characterization of a gamma-ray tracking array: A comparison of GRETINA and Gammasphere using a 60 Co source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T.; Korichi, A.; Zhu, S.; Wilson, A. N.; Weisshaar, D.; Dudouet, J.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Campbell, C. M.; Clément, E.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lalović, N.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Perez-Vidal, R. M.; Pietri, S.; Radford, D. C.; Ralet, D.; Riley, L. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Stezowski, O.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we provide a formalism for the characterization of the tracking arrays with emphasis on the proper corrections required to extract their photopeak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios. The methods are first applied to Gammasphere, a well characterized 4pi array based on the principle of Compton suppression, and subsequently to GRETINA. The tracking efficiencies are then discussed and some guidelines as to what clustering angle to use in the tracking algorithm are presented. It was possible, using GEANT4 simulations, to scale the measured efficiencies up to the expected values for the full 4pi implementation of GRETA.

  17. Characterization of a gamma-ray tracking array: A comparison of GRETINA and Gammasphere using a 60Co source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, T.; Korichi, A.; Zhu, S.; Wilson, A. N.; Weisshaar, D.; Dudouet, J.; Ayangeakaa, A. D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Campbell, C. M.; Clément, E.; Crawford, H. L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P.; Greene, J. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lalović, N.; Lee, I. Y.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Perez-Vidal, R. M.; Pietri, S.; Radford, D. C.; Ralet, D.; Riley, L. A.; Seweryniak, D.; Stezowski, O.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we provide a formalism for the characterization of tracking arrays with emphasis on the proper corrections required to extract their photopeak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios. The methods are first applied to Gammasphere, a well characterized 4π array based on the principle of Compton suppression, and subsequently to GRETINA. The tracking efficiencies are then discussed and some guidelines as to what clustering angle to use in the tracking algorithm are presented. It was possible, using GEANT4 simulations, to scale the measured efficiencies up to the expected values for the full 4π implementation of GRETA.

  18. Characterization of a gamma-ray tracking array: A comparison of GRETINA and Gammasphere using a {sup 60}Co source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritsen, T., E-mail: torben@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL60439 (United States); Korichi, A. [C.S.N.S.M., IN2P3-CNRS, bat 104-108, F-91405 Orsay Campus (France); Zhu, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL60439 (United States); Wilson, A.N. [University of the West of Scotland, Paisley (United Kingdom); Weisshaar, D. [NSCL, Michigan State University (United States); Dudouet, J. [I.P.N. Lyon, IN2P3-CNRS, Lyon Campus (France); Ayangeakaa, A.D.; Carpenter, M.P. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL60439 (United States); Campbell, C.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States); Clément, E. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen (France); Crawford, H.L.; Cromaz, M.; Fallon, P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States); Greene, J.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL60439 (United States); Lalović, N. [Department of Physics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA94720 (United States); Perez-Vidal, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, E-46920 Valencia (Spain); and others

    2016-11-11

    In this paper, we provide a formalism for the characterization of tracking arrays with emphasis on the proper corrections required to extract their photopeak efficiencies and peak-to-total ratios. The methods are first applied to Gammasphere, a well characterized 4π array based on the principle of Compton suppression, and subsequently to GRETINA. The tracking efficiencies are then discussed and some guidelines as to what clustering angle to use in the tracking algorithm are presented. It was possible, using GEANT4 simulations, to scale the measured efficiencies up to the expected values for the full 4π implementation of GRETA.

  19. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; SANYATHITISEREE, PORNCHAI; Inpankaew, Tawin; KAMYINGKIRD, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropel...

  20. Chasing the Black Smoke: Building Software for CALIPSO Satellite Data to Aid in Tracking and Identifying Sources of Aerosols and their Impact on the Earth's Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite is a NASA Earth observation that analyzes aerosol particles suspended in the Earth's atmosphere. Researchers use visualized CALIPSO data to track the global distribution, dispersion, and source of aerosols. There currently exists a tool for displaying CALIPSO data, but this tool does not support needed features for tracking aerosols such as selecting regions of data and sharing those selected regions, making tracking specific airborne objects difficult for researchers. Adding these necessary features to the current CALIPSO visualization tool is difficult, as the tool is written in Interactive Data Language (IDL), a proprietary and obscure language and writing additional features for the tool would require a specialized development team. This topic will focus on release of a new tool for visualization CALIPSO's atmospheric data, or the Visualization of CALIPSO (VOCAL) open source Python program. The talk will explain why VOCAL will serve as the successor to the current visualization tool for CALIPSO data, what new features VOCAL brings to the table for researchers, and how this new tool can further support the tracking and identification of aerosols in the Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  2. Frame rate required for speckle tracking echocardiography: A quantitative clinical study with open-source, vendor-independent software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoita, Madalina; Zolgharni, Massoud; Dadkho, Elham; Pernigo, Matteo; Mielewczik, Michael; Cole, Graham D; Dhutia, Niti M; Francis, Darrel P

    2016-09-01

    To determine the optimal frame rate at which reliable heart walls velocities can be assessed by speckle tracking. Assessing left ventricular function with speckle tracking is useful in patient diagnosis but requires a temporal resolution that can follow myocardial motion. In this study we investigated the effect of different frame rates on the accuracy of speckle tracking results, highlighting the temporal resolution where reliable results can be obtained. 27 patients were scanned at two different frame rates at their resting heart rate. From all acquired loops, lower temporal resolution image sequences were generated by dropping frames, decreasing the frame rate by up to 10-fold. Tissue velocities were estimated by automated speckle tracking. Above 40 frames/s the peak velocity was reliably measured. When frame rate was lower, the inter-frame interval containing the instant of highest velocity also contained lower velocities, and therefore the average velocity in that interval was an underestimate of the clinically desired instantaneous maximum velocity. The higher the frame rate, the more accurately maximum velocities are identified by speckle tracking, until the frame rate drops below 40 frames/s, beyond which there is little increase in peak velocity. We provide in an online supplement the vendor-independent software we used for automatic speckle-tracked velocity assessment to help others working in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Vieira, Carmen; Kern, Anita; Eriksson, Irene; Ziros, Panos; Kay, David; Miagostovich, Marize; Vargha, Marta; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2014-08-01

    Integrated river basin management planning to mitigate the impacts of economic, demographic and climate change is an important issue for the future protection of water resources. Identifying sources of microbial contamination via the emerging science of Microbial Source Tracking (MST) plays a key role in risk assessment and the design of remediation strategies. Following an 18-month surveillance program within the EU-FP7-funded VIROCLIME project, specific MST tools were used to assess human markers such as adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and porcine and bovine markers such as porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) via quantification with real-time PCR to analyze surface water collected from five sites within different climatic zones: the Negro River (Brazil), Glafkos River (Greece), Tisza River (Hungary), Llobregat River (Spain) and Umeälven River (Sweden). The utility of the viral MST tools and the prevalence and abundance of specific human and animal viruses in the five river catchments and adjacent seawater, which is impacted by riverine contributions from the upstream catchments, were examined. In areas where no sanitation systems have been implemented, sewage can directly enter surface waters, and river water exhibited high viral loads; HAdV and JCPyV could be detected at mean concentrations of 10(5) and 10(4) Genome Copies/Liter (GC/L), respectively. In general, river water samples upstream of urban discharges presented lower human viral loads than downstream sampling sites, and those differences appeared to increase with urban populations but decrease in response to high river flow, as the elevated river water volume dilutes microbial loads. During dry seasons, river water flow decreases dramatically, and secondary effluents can represent the bulk of the riverine discharge. We also observed that ice cover that formed over the river during the winter in the studied areas in North Europe could preserve viral stability

  4. Treating Water Contamination using Ultraviolet Radiation to Control Cryptosporidium and E.Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, David; O'Hehir, Michael; Dunphy, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Concerns about the quality of drinking water in Ireland have come into sharp focus with the recent Cryptosporidium outbreak in Galway City. This article looks at how ultraviolet radiation can offer a potential solution in the control of Cryptosporidium contamination.

  5. Presence of microbial and chemical source tracking markers in roof-harvested rainwater and catchment systems for the detection of fecal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Ndlovu, T; Dobrowsky, P H; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2016-09-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) and chemical source tracking (CST) markers were utilized to identify fecal contamination in harvested rainwater and gutter debris samples. Throughout the sampling period, Bacteroides HF183 was detected in 57.5 % of the tank water samples and 95 % of the gutter debris samples, while adenovirus was detected in 42.5 and 52.5 % of the tank water and gutter debris samples, respectively. Human adenovirus was then detected at levels ranging from below the detection limit to 316 and 1253 genome copies/μL in the tank water and debris samples, respectively. Results for the CST markers showed that salicylic acid (average 4.62 μg/L) was the most prevalent marker (100 %) in the gutter debris samples, caffeine (average 18.0 μg/L) was the most prevalent in the tank water samples (100 %) and acetaminophen was detected sporadically throughout the study period. Bacteroides HF183 and salicylic acid (95 %) and Bacteroides HF183 and caffeine (80 %) yielded high concurrence frequencies in the gutter debris samples. In addition, the highest concurrence frequency in the tank water samples was observed for Bacteroides HF183 and caffeine (60 %). The current study thus indicates that Bacteroides HF183, salicylic acid and caffeine may potentially be applied as source tracking markers in rainwater catchment systems in order to supplement fecal indicator analyses.

  6. [Detection of Cryptosporidium in subterranean drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abramovich, B L; Lura de Calafell, M C; Haye, M A; Nepote, A; Argañara, M F

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work has been to determine the role of drinking water of subterranean origin in the transmission of enteroparasitosis. The samples were obtained from wells and tanks supplying population areas in Santa Fe province. The physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters were all determined. The detection of parasites was carried out by means of filtration, the subsequent washing of the filters with a Tween 80 solution and the concentration of the remaining liquid which was then submitted to microscopic examination. This examination was made for both fresh samples and samples stained with permanent and differential staining techniques. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found in the water which supplies one of those population areas. The bacteriological examination revealed the presence of total coliforms but neither chemical contamination parameters nor faecalis coliforms were found. We conclude that the absence of the latter is not enough to discard the presence of parasites and that protective measures of the water supply must be implemented.

  7. Intravenous contrast material administration at high-pitch dual-source CT pulmonary angiography: Test bolus versus bolus-tracking technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerl, J. Matthias, E-mail: matthias.kerl@gmail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Lehnert, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.lehnert@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Schell, Boris, E-mail: boris.schell@googlemail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bodelle, Boris, E-mail: Boris.bodelle@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Beeres, Martin, E-mail: Martin.Beeres@kgu.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Jacobi, Volkmar, E-mail: v.jacobi@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W., E-mail: ralfwbauer@aol.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare test bolus and bolus tracking for the determination of scan delay of high-pitch dual-source CT pulmonary angiography in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism using 50 ml of contrast material. Materials and methods: Data of 80 consecutive patients referred for CT pulmonary angiography were evaluated. All scans were performed on a 128-channel dual-source CT scanner with a high-pitch protocol (pitch 3.0, 100 kV, 180 mA s). Contrast enhancement was achieved by injecting 50 ml of iomeprol followed by a saline chaser of 50 ml injected at a rate of 4 ml/s. The scan delay was determined using either the test bolus (n = 40) or bolus tracking (n = 40) technique. Test bolus required another 15 ml CM to determine time to peak enhancement of the contrast bolus within the pulmonary trunk. Attenuation profiles in the pulmonary trunk and on segmental level as well as in the ascending aorta were measured to evaluate the timing techniques. Additionally, overall image quality was evaluated. Results: In all patients an adequate and homogeneous contrast enhancement of more than 250 HU was achieved in the pulmonary arteries. No statistically significant difference between test bolus and bolus tracking was found regarding attenuation of the pulmonary arteries or overall image quality. However, using bolus tracking 15 ml CM less was injected. Conclusion: A homogeneous opacification of the pulmonary arteries and sufficient image quality can be achieved with both the bolus tracking and test bolus techniques with significant lower contrast doses compared to conventional contrast material injection protocols.

  8. The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children, Taiz District, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Al-Shamiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first work done on cryptosporidiosis among the children in Taiz, Yemen.Methods: A number of 712 samples were collected from children of different ages (ranging from 1 month to 12 years from Dec 2006 to Aug 2007. The collected samples were examined by Sheather's sugar floatation and Modified Ziehl- Neelsen stain as well as ELISA methods. The test results were statistically analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The overall positive percentage was 43.7%. The higher incidence (36.2 % was oc­curred in males while the lowest incidence (32.7 % was observed in females (r= 0.876; P= 0.001. The correlation between infected cases and the type of drinking water was r =0.121. Among the cases examined by ELISA (92 cases, 26.1 % were infected. The correlation be­tween seropositivity and gender was r= 0.652 (P=0.031.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant pathogen among children at Taiz. Fresh water supplies, education, eating habits and domestic animals are considered the main sources for transmission of cryptosporidiosis.

  9. Maximum power point tracking algorithm based on sliding mode and fuzzy logic for photovoltaic sources under variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, L.; Petit, P.; Sawicki, J. P.; Ternifi, Z. T.; Bachir, G.; Della, M.; Aillerie, M.

    2017-02-01

    Solar panels have a nonlinear voltage-current characteristic, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP), which depends on the environmental factors, such as temperature and irradiation. In order to continuously harvest maximum power from the solar panels, they have to operate at their MPP despite the inevitable changes in the environment. Various methods for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) were developed and finally implemented in solar power electronic controllers to increase the efficiency in the electricity production originate from renewables. In this paper we compare using Matlab tools Simulink, two different MPP tracking methods, which are, fuzzy logic control (FL) and sliding mode control (SMC), considering their efficiency in solar energy production.

  10. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recycled waters used for irrigation and first description of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Biba, Anastasia; Mavridou, Athena; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present the first time findings regarding the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage waters and the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in Greece. Biological treatment plants from three regions in Greece have been investigated. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast (MZN-AF) and by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas nested PCR based on the SSU rDNA assay was used for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium followed by sequencing for the genetic characterization of the species. In total, 73 samples (37 raw sewage samples and 38 of treated water samples) were collected and analyzed. Of the 73 water samples, 4 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and staining, 12 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by nested PCR; 9 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT. We showed that Cryptosporidium cysts are found both in the input and the discharge of the biological treatment plants. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene resulted in the determination of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris Greek isolates. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in wastewaters and the first molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Greek environments. As the treated water is used for irrigation, or it is discharged into the sea, our findings indicate that biological treatment facilities constitute a possible risk for public health because the related species are prevalent in humans; the results invite for further epidemiological investigations to evaluate the real public health risk in Greece.

  11. Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2011-01-01

    Proton Collision Event with 2 Electrons & 2 Muons (Actual Event) An animation of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The two muons are detailed as long blue tracks, the two electrons as short blue tracks matching green clusters of energy in the calorimeters which lie outside the inner tracking detector. source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/2-electron-2-muon-event.html

  12. Interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the Intestinal Ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Douvropoulou, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite commonly causing diarrhea, particularly in infants in developing countries. The research challenges faced in the development of therapies against Cryptosporidium slow down the process of drug discovery. However, advancement of knowledge towards the interactions of the intestinal ecosystem and the parasite could provide alternative approaches to tackle the disease. Under this perspective, the primary focus of this work was to study interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the intestinal ecosystem in a mouse model. Mice were treated with antibiotics with different activity spectra and the resulted perturbation of the native gut microbiota was identified by microbiome studies. In particular, 16S amplicon sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) were used to determine the bacterial composition and the genetic repertoire of the fecal microbial communities in the mouse gut. Following alteration of the microbial communities of mice by application of antibiotic treatment, Cryptosporidium parasites were propagated in mice with perturbed microbiota and the severity of the infection was quantified. This approach enabled the prediction of the functional capacity of the microbial communities in the mouse gut and led to the identification of bacterial taxa that positively or negatively correlate in abundance with Cryptosporidium proliferation.

  13. Identification of novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in kangaroos from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Fenwick, Stanley; Potter, Abbey; Ng, Josephine; Ryan, Una

    2011-06-30

    A total of 763 faecal samples were collected from western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) in Western Australia and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium by PCR at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) locus. Samples that were positive at the 18S locus were also amplified at the actin locus. The overall prevalence was 9.3% (71/763). At the 18S rRNA locus, sequences were obtained for 28 of the 71 positives. Sequence analysis identified four species; Cryptosporidium fayeri in seven isolates, Cryptosporidium marcopodum in four isolates, Cryptosporidium xiaoi in six isolates and a novel genotype (kangaroo genotype I) in eleven isolates. Analysis at the actin locus confirmed the genetic distinctness of the novel genotype. The results of the present study indicate that in addition to C. fayeri and C. marcopodum, kangaroos may be capable of being infected with a wider range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes including livestock species such as C. xiaoi. The novel genotype identified in the kangaroos most likely represents a cryptic species that requires further analyses to confirm its species status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the β-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites.

  15. Childhood Cryptosporidium infection among aboriginal communities in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, H M; Mahdy, M A K; ’Azlin, M Y; Fatmah, M S; Norhayati, M

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a coccidian parasite that is prevalent worldwide, some species of which cause morbidity in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. The prevalence and predictors of Cryptosporidium infection, and its effect on nutritional status, have recently been explored among 276 children (141 boys and 135 girls, aged 2–15 years) in aboriginal (Orang Asli) villages in the Malaysian state of Selangor. Faecal smears were examined by the modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining technique while socio–economic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric measurements. Cryptosporidium infection, which was detected in 7·2% of the aboriginal children, was found to be significantly associated with low birthweight (⩽2·5 kg), being part of a large household (with more than seven members) and prolonged breast feeding (>2 years). The output of a binary logistic regression confirmed that large household size was a significant predictor of Cryptosporidium infection (giving an odds ratio of 2·15, with a 95% confidence interval of 1·25–5·02). Cryptosporidium infection is clearly a public-health problem among the aboriginal children of Selangor, with person-to-person the most likely mode of transmission. PMID:21396250

  16. Intestinal parasitism in Peruvian children and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova Paz Soldan, O; Vargas Vásquez, F; Gonzalez Varas, A; Peréz Cordón, G; Velasco Soto, J R; Sánchez-Moreno, M; Rodríguez Gonzalez, I; Rosales Lombardo, M J

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal parasitism was studied in children of Trujillo (Peru) to create a prevention and control program. Fecal samples of 489 children were examined. The general prevalence of intestinal parasitosis was found to be 68%. The most frequent pathogenic enteroparasites were Giardia lamblia (26.4%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (13%), Hymenolepis nana (2%), Hymenolepis diminuta (1.6%), and Cryptosporidium spp. (1%). All these parasites appeared both in diarrheic and nondiarrheic children, except Cryptosporidium, which invariably caused diarrhea. Multiple parasitism was frequent, 45.6% of the children presenting two, three, or four intestinal parasites. Cryptosporidium was the only parasite that was not associated with the others. Only five children were affected of cryptosporidiosis, presenting explosive diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Cryptosporidium species and genotypes involved in the infantile cryptosporidiosis were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Four children were parasitized by Cryptosporidium hominis and only one by Cryptosporidium parvum. Our results confirm that anthroponotic transmission of Cryptosporidium is predominant in Peru.

  17. Measurement of angular distribution of neutron flux for the 6 MeV race-track microtron based pulsed neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, B.J., E-mail: bjp@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Chavan, S.T.; Pethe, S.N.; Krishnan, R. [SAMEER, IIT Powai Campus, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Dhole, S.D., E-mail: sanjay@physics.unipune.ernet.i [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-09-15

    The 6 MeV race track microtron based pulsed neutron source has been designed specifically for the elemental analysis of short lived activation products, where the low neutron flux requirement is desirable. Electrons impinges on a e-{gamma} target to generate bremsstrahlung radiations, which further produces neutrons by photonuclear reaction in {gamma}-n target. The optimisation of these targets along with their spectra were estimated using FLUKA code. The measurement of neutron flux was carried out by activation of vanadium at different scattering angles. Angular distribution of neutron flux indicates that the flux decreases with increase in the angle and are in good agreement with the FLUKA simulation.

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.13×10(-6) to 2.49×10(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.79×10(-5) to 5.74×10(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.04×10(-5) to 1.46×10(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.71×10(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.47×10(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.68×10(-4).

  19. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in dogs and cats in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailing; Jin, Yue; Wu, Wenxian; Li, Pei; Wang, Lin; Li, Na; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Controversies exist on the potential role of companion animals in the transmission of enteric pathogens in humans. This study was conducted to examine the genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis in companion animals in Shanghai, China, and to assess their zoonotic potential. Fecal specimens from 485 dogs and 160 cats were examined for the occurrence and genotype distribution of the three pathogens by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to determine the species and genotypes. The χ(2) test was used to compare differences in infection rates between living conditions or age groups. Cryptosporidium spp., E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis were found in 39 (8.0 %), 29 (6.0 %) and 127 (26.2 %) of dogs, and 6 (3.8 %), 9 (5.6 %) and 21 (13.1 %) of cats, respectively. Infection rates of the pathogens in dogs from pet shops and a clinic were higher than those in household dogs, and higher in cats from one animal shelter than from pet shops. No significant differences in infection rates were detected among age groups. Cryptosporidium canis and C. felis were the only Cryptosporidium species found in dogs and cats, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype PtEb IX was the dominant genotype in dogs, whereas Type IV and D were the most common ones in cats. Multi-locus sequence typing at the glutamate dehydrogenase, β-giardin, and triosephosphate isomerase loci revealed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A (n = 23), B (n = 1), C (n = 26), and D (n = 58) in dogs (only A in household dogs) and assemblages A (n = 2), B (n = 6), C (n = 2), D (n = 1), and F (n = 7) in cats. Co-infection was detected in 24 dogs and 5 cats, especially those living in crowded conditions. Living condition is a major risk factor affecting the occurrence of enteric protists in companion animals in China, and although dogs and cats can be potential sources of human infections, the different distribution of

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Species in Children Referred to Central and Hospital Laboratories of Zabol City, South East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Dabirzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cryptosporidiosis has a worldwide distribution, and is the commonest cause of diarrhea in children and immune compromised individuals. Since there is no data available on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species (sp. in Zabol city, thus this study was carried out to assess the disease prevalence and related factors influencing the disease. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 200 fecal specimens were collected from children referred to the Central or hospital labs in Zabol city, South East of Iran, during April 2014 to August 2016. Fecal examination was performed by staining with Ziel-Neelsen acid-fast to find oocysts of the parasite. The children were grouped according to the age, gender, kind of water supplies, and diarrheic and non-diarrheic condition. Data were evaluated using SPSS version 13.0 software. Results Among the children referred to the Central laboratory, 200 fecal samples from different age groups were collected. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium species was 9.7% which was higher in children under 4 years. There was a significant relationship between sources of water supply and diarrheic children infected with Cryptosporidium (P

  1. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie C.; de Kraker, Jelske; Hofstra, Nynke; Kroeze, Carolien; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a global model by Hofstra et al (2013 Sci. Total Environ. 442 10-9) and zoom into Bangladesh and India as illustrative case studies. The model is most sensitive to changes in oocyst excretion and infection rate, and to assumptions on the share of faeces reaching the surface water for different sanitation types. We find urban centres to be hotspots of human Cryptosporidium emissions. We estimate that 53% (Bangladesh) and 91% (India) of total emissions come from urban areas. 50% of oocysts come from only 8% (Bangladesh) and 3% (India) of the country area. In the future, population growth and urbanization may further deteriorate water quality in Bangladesh and India, despite improved sanitation. Under our ‘business as usual’ (‘sanitation improvements’) scenario, oocyst emissions will increase by a factor 2.0 (1.2) for India and 2.9 (1.1) for Bangladesh between 2010 and 2050. Population growth, urbanization and sanitation development are important processes to consider for large scale water quality modelling.

  2. Generation of whole genome sequences of new Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolates directly from stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, Stephen J; Pachebat, Justin A; Swain, Martin T; Robinson, Guy; Cameron, Simon Js; Alexander, Jenna; Hegarty, Matthew J; Elwin, Kristin; Chalmers, Rachel M

    2015-08-29

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Cryptosporidium spp. has previously relied on propagation of the parasite in animals to generate enough oocysts from which to extract DNA of sufficient quantity and purity for analysis. We have developed and validated a method for preparation of genomic Cryptosporidium DNA suitable for WGS directly from human stool samples and used it to generate 10 high-quality whole Cryptosporidium genome assemblies. Our method uses a combination of salt flotation, immunomagnetic separation (IMS), and surface sterilisation of oocysts prior to DNA extraction, with subsequent use of the transposome-based Nextera XT kit to generate libraries for sequencing on Illumina platforms. IMS was found to be superior to caesium chloride density centrifugation for purification of oocysts from small volume stool samples and for reducing levels of contaminant DNA. The IMS-based method was used initially to sequence whole genomes of Cryptosporidium hominis gp60 subtype IbA10G2 and Cryptosporidium parvum gp60 subtype IIaA19G1R2 from small amounts of stool left over from diagnostic testing of clinical cases of cryptosporidiosis. The C. parvum isolate was sequenced to a mean depth of 51.8X with reads covering 100 % of the bases of the C. parvum Iowa II reference genome (Bioproject PRJNA 15586), while the C. hominis isolate was sequenced to a mean depth of 34.7X with reads covering 98 % of the bases of the C. hominis TU502 v1 reference genome (Bioproject PRJNA 15585). The method was then applied to a further 17 stools, successfully generating another eight new whole genome sequences, of which two were C. hominis (gp60 subtypes IbA10G2 and IaA14R3) and six C. parvum (gp60 subtypes IIaA15G2R1 from three samples, and one each of IIaA17G1R1, IIaA18G2R1, and IIdA22G1), demonstrating the utility of this method to sequence Cryptosporidium genomes directly from clinical samples. This development is especially important as it reduces the requirement to propagate

  3. Open-source sea ice drift algorithm for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery using a combination of feature tracking and pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Stefan; Sandven, Stein

    2017-08-01

    An open-source sea ice drift algorithm for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery is introduced based on the combination of feature tracking and pattern matching. Feature tracking produces an initial drift estimate and limits the search area for the consecutive pattern matching, which provides small- to medium-scale drift adjustments and normalised cross-correlation values. The algorithm is designed to combine the two approaches in order to benefit from the respective advantages. The considered feature-tracking method allows for an efficient computation of the drift field and the resulting vectors show a high degree of independence in terms of position, length, direction and rotation. The considered pattern-matching method, on the other hand, allows better control over vector positioning and resolution. The preprocessing of the Sentinel-1 data has been adjusted to retrieve a feature distribution that depends less on SAR backscatter peak values. Applying the algorithm with the recommended parameter setting, sea ice drift retrieval with a vector spacing of 4 km on Sentinel-1 images covering 400 km × 400 km, takes about 4 min on a standard 2.7 GHz processor with 8 GB memory. The corresponding recommended patch size for the pattern-matching step that defines the final resolution of each drift vector is 34 × 34 pixels (2.7 × 2.7 km). To assess the potential performance after finding suitable search restrictions, calculated drift results from 246 Sentinel-1 image pairs have been compared to buoy GPS data, collected in 2015 between 15 January and 22 April and covering an area from 80.5 to 83.5° N and 12 to 27° E. We found a logarithmic normal distribution of the displacement difference with a median at 352.9 m using HV polarisation and 535.7 m using HH polarisation. All software requirements necessary for applying the presented sea ice drift algorithm are open-source to ensure free implementation and easy distribution.

  4. Recovery and viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts using the membrane dissolution procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuin, R M; Bukhari, Z; Clancy, J L

    2000-08-01

    Previously, the cellulose acetate membrane filter dissolution method was reported to yield Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst recoveries of 70.5%, with recovered oocysts retaining their infectivity. In contrast, high spike doses (approximately 1 x 10(5) Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts) yielded recoveries ranging from 0.4% to 83.9%, and 3.2% to 90.3%, respectively, in this study. Recoveries with low spike doses (approximately 100 (oo)cysts) continued to demonstrate high variability also. Efforts to optimize the method included increased centrifugation speeds, suspension of the final concentrate in deionized water for organism detection on well slides, and analysis of the entire concentrate. A comparison of two monoclonal antibodies was also conducted to identify potential differences between antibodies in detection of organisms. Archived source and finished water samples were spiked, yielding variable recoveries of C. parvum oocysts (11.8% to 71.4%) and G. intestinalis cysts (7.4% to 42.3%). Effects of organic solvents used in the membrane dissolution procedure on the viability of recovered (oo)cysts was determined using a fluorogenic vital dyes assay in conjunction with (oo)cyst morphology, which indicated > 99% inactivation. These data indicate that the membrane dissolution procedure yields poor and highly variable (oo)cyst recoveries, and also renders the majority of recovered organisms non-viable.

  5. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, Sylvia Maharani; Suharno; Hidayat, Adi; Matsubayashi, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in Indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in Indonesia have never been performed. Fecal samples from cattle at 35 farms in 7 districts in West Java, Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice for Cryptosporidium or Giardia.spp. 153 of 394 examined cattle (38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence of Eimeria spp., Nematoda spp. (including Oesophagustomum and Bunostomum-like), Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum spp. was 22.4%, 11.2%, 12.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) was also found in two samples. One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries. although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Indonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilisation of Rep-PCR to track microbes in aerosols collected adjacent to their source, a saline lake in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Chris I; O'Loingsigh, Tadhg; Tapper, Nigel J; De Deckker, Patrick; Allison, Gwen E

    2013-04-15

    Dust storms are a major source of aerosolized bacteria, especially in the drought conditions experienced in Australia in the decade to 2009. The major aims of this project were to identify the culturable bacteria in environmental samples and to genetically fingerprint all isolates using repetitive element PCR (Rep-PCR) to investigate the possibility of tracking isolates from their source into the atmosphere. Four field trips were conducted to a dry lake in western Victoria, Australia to sample aerosols and sediments. Aerosols were collected at heights up to 150 m using vacuum pumps with filters attached to a tethered helium balloon, while corresponding sediments were collected in sterile polypropylene tubes. Isolates were cultivated on Tryptic Soy Agar, R2 Agar and Marine Agar, and grown in dark conditions at ambient temperature. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of 270 isolates, fifteen different bacterial families were identified, with both the aerosols and sediments dominated by the Bacillaceae family. Four sets of Rep-PCR primers were tested, with the ERIC and (GTG)5 primers proving to be the most suitable for fingerprinting the cultured taxa. Rep-PCR revealed very high strain diversity in the samples collected, however some strains were still able to be tracked from sediments up to 150 m in height. This shows the potential of Rep-PCR, however very large reference databases would be required for the technique to be more useful. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and small-scale validation of a novel pigeon-associated mitochondrial DNA source tracking marker for the detection of fecal contamination in harvested rainwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waso, M; Khan, S; Khan, W

    2018-02-15

    The current study was aimed at designing and validating (on a small-scale) a novel pigeon mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) microbial source tracking (MST) marker for the detection of pigeon fecal matter in harvested rainwater. The pigeon mtDNA MST marker was designed to target the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene by employing mismatch amplification mutation assay kinetics. The pigeon marker was validated by screening 69 non-pigeon and 9 pigeon fecal samples. The host-sensitivity of the assay was determined as 1.00 while the host-specificity of the assay was 0.96. Harvested rainwater samples (n=60) were screened for the prevalence of the marker with the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker detected in 78% of the samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to calculate the conditional probability of the marker detecting true pigeon contamination and the marker subsequently displayed a 99% probability of detecting true pigeon contamination in the harvested rainwater samples. In addition, the mtDNA Cytochrome b marker displayed high concurrence frequencies versus heterotrophic bacteria (78.3%), E. coli (73.3%), total coliforms (71.1%) and fecal coliforms (66.7%). This study thus validates that targeting mtDNA for the design of source tracking markers may be a valuable tool to detect avian fecal contamination in environmental waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Slab track

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The last 160 years has been mostly used conventional track with ballasted bed, sleepers and steel rail. Ensuring the high speed rail traffic, increasing railway track capacities, providing comfortable and safe ride as well as high reliability and availability railway track, has led to development of innovative systems for railway track. The so-called slab track was first built in 1972 and since then, they have developed many different slab track systems around the world. Slab track was also b...

  9. A method for verification of treatment delivery in HDR prostate brachytherapy using a flat panel detector for both imaging and source tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Ryan L., E-mail: ryan.smith@wbrc.org.au; Millar, Jeremy L.; Franich, Rick D. [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia and School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000 (Australia); Haworth, Annette [School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia and Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC 3002 (Australia); Panettieri, Vanessa [Alfred Health Radiation Oncology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3004 (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Verification of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment delivery is an important step, but is generally difficult to achieve. A technique is required to monitor the treatment as it is delivered, allowing comparison with the treatment plan and error detection. In this work, we demonstrate a method for monitoring the treatment as it is delivered and directly comparing the delivered treatment with the treatment plan in the clinical workspace. This treatment verification system is based on a flat panel detector (FPD) used for both pre-treatment imaging and source tracking. Methods: A phantom study was conducted to establish the resolution and precision of the system. A pretreatment radiograph of a phantom containing brachytherapy catheters is acquired and registration between the measurement and treatment planning system (TPS) is performed using implanted fiducial markers. The measured catheter paths immediately prior to treatment were then compared with the plan. During treatment delivery, the position of the {sup 192}Ir source is determined at each dwell position by measuring the exit radiation with the FPD and directly compared to the planned source dwell positions. Results: The registration between the two corresponding sets of fiducial markers in the TPS and radiograph yielded a registration error (residual) of 1.0 mm. The measured catheter paths agreed with the planned catheter paths on average to within 0.5 mm. The source positions measured with the FPD matched the planned source positions for all dwells on average within 0.6 mm (s.d. 0.3, min. 0.1, max. 1.4 mm). Conclusions: We have demonstrated a method for directly comparing the treatment plan with the delivered treatment that can be easily implemented in the clinical workspace. Pretreatment imaging was performed, enabling visualization of the implant before treatment delivery and identification of possible catheter displacement. Treatment delivery verification was performed by measuring the

  10. A method for verification of treatment delivery in HDR prostate brachytherapy using a flat panel detector for both imaging and source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan L; Haworth, Annette; Panettieri, Vanessa; Millar, Jeremy L; Franich, Rick D

    2016-05-01

    Verification of high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment delivery is an important step, but is generally difficult to achieve. A technique is required to monitor the treatment as it is delivered, allowing comparison with the treatment plan and error detection. In this work, we demonstrate a method for monitoring the treatment as it is delivered and directly comparing the delivered treatment with the treatment plan in the clinical workspace. This treatment verification system is based on a flat panel detector (FPD) used for both pre-treatment imaging and source tracking. A phantom study was conducted to establish the resolution and precision of the system. A pretreatment radiograph of a phantom containing brachytherapy catheters is acquired and registration between the measurement and treatment planning system (TPS) is performed using implanted fiducial markers. The measured catheter paths immediately prior to treatment were then compared with the plan. During treatment delivery, the position of the (192)Ir source is determined at each dwell position by measuring the exit radiation with the FPD and directly compared to the planned source dwell positions. The registration between the two corresponding sets of fiducial markers in the TPS and radiograph yielded a registration error (residual) of 1.0 mm. The measured catheter paths agreed with the planned catheter paths on average to within 0.5 mm. The source positions measured with the FPD matched the planned source positions for all dwells on average within 0.6 mm (s.d. 0.3, min. 0.1, max. 1.4 mm). We have demonstrated a method for directly comparing the treatment plan with the delivered treatment that can be easily implemented in the clinical workspace. Pretreatment imaging was performed, enabling visualization of the implant before treatment delivery and identification of possible catheter displacement. Treatment delivery verification was performed by measuring the source position as each dwell was delivered

  11. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  12. Cryptosporidium parvum and Isopora belli infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the importance of Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli infections as a cause of diarrhoea among patients admitted to the Medical Wards in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) in Blantyre, Malawi. Design: Prospective case control study. Subjects: One hundred and twenty one patients with ...

  13. Unique Cryptosporidium Population in HIV-Infected Persons, Jamaica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatei, Wangeci; Barrett, Donnett; Lindo, John F.; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise; Cama, Vitaliano

    2008-01-01

    A cryptosporidiosis survey showed the presence of Cryptosporidium hominis, C. parvum, C. canis, and C. felis in 25, 7, 1, and 1 HIV-positive persons from Jamaica, respectively; 1 person had both C. hominis and C. felis. Multilocus sequence typing indicated the presence of a homogeneous but geographically distinct C. hominis population in Jamaica. PMID:18439378

  14. Assessment of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in some urban water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in some urban water systems in Yaounde(Cameroon). GA Ajeagah, TO Njine, SM Foto, M Nola. Abstract. No Abstract. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biiology Vol. 2 (1) 2006: pp.9-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajeb.v2i1.37944 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  15. Application of a basic monitoring strategy for Cryptosporidium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-27

    Feb 27, 2014 ... risk-based procedure followed by Northern Ireland. The monitoring strategy developed represents a preventative approach for proactively monitoring Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in drinking water. The strategy consists of 10 steps: (i) assessment of the monitoring requirements, (ii) description and ...

  16. Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Ogun state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... resistant to most common disinfectants and are not readily killed by routine chlorination of water supplies (LeChevallier et al., ..... Journal of Clinical. Microbiology, 33(2): 416-418. LeChevallier MW, Norton WD & Lee RG (1991). Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies. Applied.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases in particular parasitic infestation is among the drawbacks to profitable pig production since parasites compromise the production and reproduction performance of infested pigs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in pigs ...

  18. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    1999-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded,primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an

  19. Assessment of Cryptosporidium in wastewater reuse for drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium was assessed in a treatment plant geared for the production of drinking water from wastewater effluent and the results were compared to those on an existing typical drinking water treatment plant operated by Waternet, the water cycle company of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, ...

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are enteric protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Infections with both parasites are known as one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and livestock. The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardias...

  1. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans. © I. Sotiriadou et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic animals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single faecal sample per animal was collected from pigs, goats, dogs, ducks, chickens and pigeons and analysed by Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia immunofluorescence antibody assay for the simultaneous detection of these parasites. The faecal consistency was noted and scored as non-diarrhoeic or diarrhoeic.

  3. Cryptosporidium parvum Infection Requires Host Cell Actin Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, David A.; Coleman, Daniel J.; Lane, Michael A.; May, Robin C.; Machesky, Laura M.; Clark, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum accumulates host cell actin at the interface between the parasite and the host cell cytoplasm. Here we show that the actin polymerizing proteins Arp2/3, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and neural Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) are present at this interface and that host cell actin polymerization is necessary for parasite infection.

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum infection requires host cell actin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D A; Coleman, D J; Lane, M A; May, R C; Machesky, L M; Clark, D P

    2001-09-01

    The intracellular protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum accumulates host cell actin at the interface between the parasite and the host cell cytoplasm. Here we show that the actin polymerizing proteins Arp2/3, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), and neural Wiskott Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) are present at this interface and that host cell actin polymerization is necessary for parasite infection.

  5. Characterization of a single dose methylprednisolone acetate immune suppression model using Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas A; Schaefer, Frank W

    2006-10-10

    An immunosuppressive dose of methylprednisolone acetate (MPA) was compared with a non-immunosuppressive dose using Cryptosporidium oocyst production as an indicator of immunosuppression. To be classified as immunosuppressive, the dose had to satisfy five criteria. First, the dose had to abrogate normal immune defenses allowing the propagation of an organism to which the host is normally resistant, i.e. Cryptosporidium parvum in adult mice. Second, the dose had to decrease overall circulating CD4 T-lymphocyte numbers by greater than 80%. Third, the immunosuppressive dose had to prolong the infection beyond the normal infection length, and fourth, increase the severity of an active infection. Lastly, after complete recovery from a C. muris infection, immunosuppression must suppress the naturally acquired post infection immunity and allow reinfection. In mice immunosuppression with 600 mgMPA/kg lasted approximately 14 days and satisfied all five criteria. Fecal oocyst production could be perpetuated by dosing at 10-day intervals. A 200 mgMPA/kg dose transiently lowered CD4 counts by over 80%, but failed to override the naturally acquired post infection immunity or allow infection with C. parvum. The immunosuppressed blood profile consisted of an immediate sharp rise of mature segmented neutrophils combined with a severe decrease in circulating T-lymphocyte numbers. The rise and fall of neutrophils proved to be a good indicator of the severity and duration of immunosuppression. The thymus and spleen likewise contracted and then expanded in accordance with the steroid effect. The metabolism of MPA resulted in the eventual recovery of immune function signified by the cessation of C. parvum oocyst production. The recovery blood profile was associated with circulating CD8 counts near control levels, continuing 80% depression of CD4 counts and a dropping total neutrophil count. This study shows that the 600 mg/kg MPA dose is a good model for immunosuppression, which

  6. Host association of Cryptosporidium parvum populations infecting domestic ruminants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quílez, Joaquín; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Monteagudo, Luis; del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2013-09-01

    A stock of 148 Cryptosporidium parvum DNA extracts from lambs and goat kids selected from a previous study examining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species and GP60 subtypes in diarrheic lambs and goat kids in northeastern Spain was further characterized by a multilocus fragment typing approach with six mini- and microsatellite loci. Various degrees of polymorphism were seen at all but the MS5 locus, although all markers exhibited two major alleles accounting for more than 75% of isolates. A total of 56 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) from lambs (48 MLTs) and goat kids (11 MLTs) were identified. Individual isolates with mixed MLTs were detected on more than 25% of the farms, but most MLTs (33) were distinctive for individual farms, revealing the endemicity of cryptosporidial infections on sheep and goat farms. Comparison with a previous study in calves in northern Spain using the same six-locus subtyping scheme showed the presence of host-associated alleles, differences in the identity of major alleles, and very little overlap in MLTs between C. parvum isolates from lambs and those from calves (1 MLT) or isolates from lambs and those from goat kids (3 MLTs). The Hunter-Gaston index of the multilocus technique was 0.976 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.970 to 0.982), which supports its high discriminatory power for strain typing and epidemiological tracking. Population analyses revealed the presence of two host-associated subpopulations showing epidemic clonality among the C. parvum isolates infecting calves and lambs/goat kids, respectively, although evidence of genetic flow between the two subpopulations was also detected.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in two new seal species, Phoca vitulina and Cystophora cristata, and a novel Cryptosporidium genotype in a third seal species, Pagophilus groenlandicus, from the Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, A L; Wallace, C C; Yund, P O; Ford, T E

    2012-04-01

    Data on the geographic distribution and host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. are critical for developing an understanding of likely transmission patterns in nature. During a molecular-based survey of fecal samples from 293 terrestrial and aquatic animals in Maine, USA, we detected Cryptosporidium sp. in 11 harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 1 hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), and 1 harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus). None of the terrestrial or freshwater mammal fecal samples or bird samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium sp. However, the sequencing results of the small subunit (ssu) rRNA gene indicate that the seals were infected with an undescribed species of Cryptosporidium , previously isolated only from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in northern Quebec, Canada. In addition, the Cryptosporidium sp. detected in the harp seal is significantly different from the previously observed Cryptosporidium sp. in other seals. We confirmed the genetic distinctiveness of this Cryptosporidium genotype and the identity of the other Cryptosporidium sp. seal ssu rRNA sequences by using data from the 70-kDa heat shock protein gene. Based on phylogenetic reconstructions of both genes, it seems that either Cryptosporidium canis or C. felis are sister species to the seal associated Cryptosporidium spp. Our findings extend the range of " Cryptosporidium sp. seal" well south of the 55th parallel, add other species to the list of seals affected by Cryptosporidium sp., and highlight the presence of unrecognized population and potentially species level variation in Cryptosporidium.

  8. Tracking the evolution of mantle sources with incompatible element ratios in stagnant-lid and plate-tectonic planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Kent C.; Shearer, Charles K.

    2017-09-01

    The distribution of high field strength incompatible element ratios Zr/Nb, Nb/Th, Th/Yb and Nb/Yb in terrestrial oceanic basalts prior to 2.7 Ga suggests the absence or near-absence of an enriched mantle reservoir. Instead, most oceanic basalts reflect a variably depleted mantle source similar in composition to primitive mantle. In contrast, basalts from hydrated mantle sources (like those associated with subduction) exist from 4 Ga onwards. The gradual appearance of enriched mantle between 2 and 3 Ga may reflect the onset and propagation of plate tectonics around the globe. Prior to 3 Ga, Earth may have been in a stagnant-lid regime with most basaltic magmas coming from a rather uniform, variably depleted mantle source or from a non-subduction hydrated mantle source. It was not until the extraction of continental crust and accompanying propagation of plate tectonics that ;modern type; enriched and depleted mantle reservoirs developed. Consistent with the absence of plate tectonics on the Moon is the near absence of basalts derived from depleted (DM) and enriched (EM) mantle reservoirs as defined by the four incompatible element ratios of this study. An exception are Apollo 17 basalts, which may come from a mixed source with a composition similar to primitive mantle as one end member and a high-Nb component as the other end member. With exception of Th, which requires selective enrichment in at least parts of the martian mantle, most martian meteorites can be derived from sources similar to terrestrial primitive mantle or by mixing of enriched and depleted mantle end members produced during magma ocean crystallization. Earth, Mars and the Moon exhibit three very different planetary evolution paths. The mantle source regions for Mars and the Moon are ancient and have HFS element signatures of magma ocean crystallization well-preserved, and differences in these signatures reflect magma ocean crystallization under two distinct pressure regimes. In contrast, plate

  9. Cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae: Molecular and Biological Evidence of Cryptic Species within Gastric Cryptosporidium of Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kváč

    Full Text Available The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium muris strain TS03 are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. is proposed. Cryptosporidium proliferans obtained from a naturally infected East African mole rat (Tachyoryctes splendens in Kenya was propagated under laboratory conditions in rodents (SCID mice and southern multimammate mice, Mastomys coucha and used in experiments to examine oocyst morphology and transmission. DNA from the propagated C. proliferans isolate, and C. proliferans DNA isolated from the feces of an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Central African Republic, a donkey (Equus africanus in Algeria, and a domestic horse (Equus caballus in the Czech Republic were used for phylogenetic analyses. Oocysts of C. proliferans are morphologically distinguishable from C. parvum and C. muris HZ206, measuring 6.8-8.8 (mean = 7.7 μm × 4.8-6.2 μm (mean = 5.3 with a length to width ratio of 1.48 (n = 100. Experimental studies using an isolate originated from T. splendens have shown that the course of C. proliferans infection in rodent hosts differs from that of C. muris and C. andersoni. The prepatent period of 18-21 days post infection (DPI for C. proliferans in southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha was similar to that of C. andersoni and longer than the 6-8 DPI prepatent period for C. muris RN66 and HZ206 in the same host. Histopatologicaly, stomach glands of southern multimammate mice infected with C. proliferans were markedly dilated and filled with necrotic material, mucus, and numerous Cryptosporidium developmental stages. Epithelial cells of infected glands were atrophic, exhibited cuboidal or squamous metaplasia, and significantly proliferated into the lumen of the stomach, forming papillary structures. The epithelial height and stomach weight were six-fold greater than in non-infected controls. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, Cryptosporidium

  10. Prevalence and genotyping of Cryptosporidium in stool samples collected from children in Taif City (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, I; Gherbawy, Y; Jamjoom, M; Banaja, A

    2014-06-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections in Taif (Saudi Arabia). Stool samples from children under 10 years by modified Ziehl-Neelson staining and two PCR techniques were used for genotyping experiments. The microscopic examination showed that, eleven samples were positive for presence of Cryptosporidium. With 11 of 100 samples, DNA extraction and subsequent genotyping was successful. By means of RAPD technique, the genetic similarity among the collected isolates was 55%. The 18S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that all Cryptosporidium-isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum. In comparison with reference strains from different species of Cryptosporidium species from GenBank, all collected isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum clade. The fact that only human genotypes were detected suggests that cryptosporidiosis must primarily be considered as a non zoonotic disease in Taif region.

  11. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting source water monitoring... Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.706 Reporting source water monitoring results. (a) Systems must report results from the source water monitoring required under § 141.701 no later than 10...

  12. Can oxygen stable isotopes be used to track precipitation moisture source in vascular plant-dominated peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amesbury, Matthew J.; Charman, Dan J.; Newnham, Rewi M.; Loader, Neil J.; Goodrich, Jordan; Royles, Jessica; Campbell, David I.; Keller, Elizabeth D.; Baisden, W. Troy; Roland, Thomas P.; Gallego-Sala, Angela V.

    2015-11-01

    Variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation are determined by fractionation processes which occur during temperature- and humidity-dependent phase changes associated with evaporation and condensation. Oxygen stable isotope ratios have therefore been frequently used as a source of palaeoclimate data from a variety of proxy archives, which integrate this signal over time. Applications from ombrotrophic peatlands, where the source water used in cellulose synthesis is derived solely from precipitation, have been mostly limited to Northern Hemisphere Sphagnum-dominated bogs, with few in the Southern Hemisphere or in peatlands dominated by vascular plants. New Zealand (NZ) provides an ideal location to undertake empirical research into oxygen isotope fractionation in vascular peatlands because single taxon analysis can be easily carried out, in particular using the preserved root matrix of the restionaceous wire rush (Empodisma spp.) that forms deep Holocene peat deposits throughout the country. Furthermore, large gradients are observed in the mean isotopic composition of precipitation across NZ, caused primarily by the relative influence of different climate modes. Here, we test whether δ18O of Empodisma α-cellulose from ombrotrophic restiad peatlands in NZ can provide a methodology for developing palaeoclimate records of past precipitation δ18O. Surface plant, water and precipitation samples were taken over spatial (six sites spanning >10° latitude) and temporal (monthly measurements over one year) gradients. A link between the isotopic composition of root-associated water, the most likely source water for plant growth, and precipitation in both datasets was found. Back-trajectory modelling of precipitation moisture source for rain days prior to sampling showed clear seasonality in the temporal data that was reflected in root-associated water. The link between source water and plant cellulose was less clear, although mechanistic modelling predicted mean

  13. Multiple-source tracking: Investigating sources of pathogens, nutrients, and sediment in the Upper Little River Basin, Kentucky, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Cherry, Mac A.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Bunch, Aubrey R.

    2017-09-20

    The South Fork Little River (SFLR) and the North Fork Little River (NFLR) are two major headwater tributaries that flow into the Little River just south of Hopkinsville, Kentucky. Both tributaries are included in those water bodies in Kentucky and across the Nation that have been reported with declining water quality. Each tributary has been listed by the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water in the 303(d) List of Waters for Kentucky Report to Congress as impaired by nutrients, pathogens, and sediment for contact recreation from point and nonpoint sources since 2002. In 2009, the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet—Kentucky Division of Water developed a pathogen total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the Little River Basin including the SFLR and NFLR Basins. Future nutrient and suspended-sediment TMDLs are planned once nutrient criteria and suspended-sediment protocols have been developed for Kentucky. In this study, different approaches were used to identify potential sources of fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), nitrate, and suspended sediment; to inform the TMDL process; and to aid in the implementation of effective watershed-management activities. The main focus of source identification was in the SFLR Basin.To begin understanding the potential sources of fecal contamination, samples were collected at 19 sites for densities of FIB (E. coli) in water and fluvial sediment and at 11 sites for Bacteroidales genetic markers (General AllBac, human HF183, ruminant BoBac, canid BacCan, and waterfowl GFD) during the recreational season (May through October) in 2013 and 2014. Results indicated 34 percent of all E. coli water samples (n=227 samples) did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2012 recommended national criteria for primary recreational waters. No criterion currently exists for E. coli in fluvial sediment. By use of the Spearman’s rank correlation test, densities of FIB in fluvial sediments were observed to have a

  14. Cryptosporidium species and Cryptosporidium parvum subtypes in dairy calves and goat kids reared under traditional farming systems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul; Yasa-Duru, Sibel; Usluca, Selma; Lysen, Colleen; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-11-01

    Molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in ruminants reared under traditional animal management systems are scarce and studies conducted thus far have revealed largely an absence of the pathogenic and zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum in pre-weaned animals. In this study, we examined Cryptosporidium species and subtype distribution in free-range pre-weaned dairy calves and goat kids with diarrhea. Cryptosporidium-positive specimens from pre-weaned calves on 10 farms and goat kids on 4 farms in Ankara, Balikesir, Corum, Kirikkale, and Kirsehir Provinces, Turkey were genotyped by PCR-restriction length polymorphism analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene, which identified C. parvum in 27 calves and 9 goat kids and Cryptosporidium ryanae in 1 calf. Among the C. parvum isolates successfully subtyped by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene, three subtypes were detected in calves, including IIaA13G2R1 (20/23), IIdA18G1 (2/23), and IIdA20G1b (1/23), and four subtypes were detected in goat kids, including IIaA13G2R1 (3/8), IIaA15G1R1 (2/8), IIdA22G1 (2/8), and IIdA18G1 (1/8). Data of the study suggest that dairy calves reared in a traditional cow-calf system in Turkey are mainly infected with a C. parvum subtype rarely seen elsewhere, whereas goat kids are infected with diverse subtypes. As all five C. parvum subtypes found in this study are known human pathogens, pre-weaned farm animals could play a potential role in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tracking Nitrogen Source Using δ15N Reveals Human and Agricultural Drivers of Seagrass Degradation across the British Isles

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin L. Jones; Benjamin L. Jones; Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth; Leanne C. Cullen-Unsworth; Richard K. F. Unsworth; Richard K. F. Unsworth

    2018-01-01

    Excess nutrients shift the ecological balance of coastal ecosystems, and this eutrophication is an increasing problem across the globe. Nutrient levels may be routinely measured, but monitoring rarely attempts to determine the source of these nutrients, even though bio-indicators are available. Nitrogen stable isotope analysis in biota is one such bio-indicator, but across the British Isles, this is rarely used. In this study, we provide the first quantitative evidence of the anthropogenic dr...

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum studies with dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M Q; Cliver, D O

    1999-02-02

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite capable of causing massive waterborne outbreaks. This study was conducted to model the transfer of C. parvum oocysts from contaminated water via food contact surfaces into yogurt and ice-cream, as well as to examine oocyst survival. Propidium iodide staining, combined with a direct immunofluorescence assay, was used for oocyst viability determination. Oocysts were recovered from milk products by a sucrose flotation-based procedure, with average recoveries of 82.3, 60.7, and 62.5% from low (1%) fat milk, 9% fat ice-cream, and 98% fat-free yogurt, respectively. Oocysts were also recovered, by rinsing with tap water, from stainless steel surfaces inoculated with oocyst suspension, with average recoveries of 93.1% when the surface was still wet and 69.0% after the surface had air-dried at room temperature. Viability of oocysts on the surface was significantly affected by desiccation; 5% of the oocysts remained viable after 4 h of air-drying at room temperature, while the proportion of viable oocysts was 81, 69, and 45% after air-drying for 10 min, 1 h, and 2 h, respectively. In contrast, oocyst viability only dropped from 82 to 75% after 30 min contact at room temperature with 5% bleach solution (equivalent to 0.26% NaOCl). Transfer of oocysts from milk and stainless steel surfaces into yogurt, and oocyst survival during the process were analyzed. Yogurt was made from pasteurized low fat milk and live yogurt starter by incubating at 37 degrees C for 48 h and then stored at 4 degrees C. Oocyst viability decreased from 83% (80%) to approximately 60% after 48 h at 37 degrees C and to approximately 58% following 8 days of storage, similar to oocyst survival in the controls using pasteurized milk without the addition of live yogurt. Oocyst survival in ice-cream was investigated by inoculating oocysts into ice-cream mix, and mixing and freezing in an ice-cream freezer, and hardening at -20 degrees C. Although approximately 20

  17. A Resilient, Non-neuronal Source of the Spatiotemporal Lag Structure Detected by BOLD Signal-Based Blood Flow Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Aso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals convey information about brain circulation via low frequency oscillation of systemic origin (sLFO that travels through the vascular structure (“lag mapping”. Prompted by its promising application in both physiology and pathology, we examined this signal component using multiple approaches. A total of 30 healthy volunteers were recruited to perform two reproducibility experiments at 3 Tesla using multiband echo planar imaging. The first experiment investigated the effect of denoising and the second was designed to study the effect of subject behavior on lag mapping. The lag map's intersession test-retest reproducibility and image contrast were both diminished by removal of either the neuronal or the non-neuronal (e.g., cardiac, respiratory components by independent component analysis-based denoising, suggesting that the neurovascular coupling also comprises a part of the BOLD lag structure. The lag maps were, at the same time, robust against local perfusion increases due to visuomotor task and global changes in perfusion induced by breath-holding at the same level as the intrasession reliability. The lag structure was preserved after time-locked averaging to the visuomotor task and breath-holding events, while any preceding signal changes were canceled out for the visuomotor task, consistent with the passive effect of neurovascular coupling in the venous side of the vasculature. These findings support the current assumption that lag mapping primarily reflects vascular structure despite the presence of sLFO perturbation of neuronal or non-neuronal origin and, thus, emphasize the vascular origin of the lag map, encouraging application of BOLD-based blood flow tracking.

  18. Characterization of Enterococcus spp. from human and animal feces using 16S rRNA sequences, the esp gene, and PFGE for microbial source tracking in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Yoon; Lee, Jung Eun; Lee, Sunghee; Lee, Hee Tae; Hur, Ho-Gil; Ko, Gwangpyo

    2010-05-01

    Contamination from human and animal fecal waste is a primary cause of water pollution. Microbial source tracking (MST) may be a useful tool for high-quality environmental management and for assessing human health risks associated with water pollution. The goal of this study was to evaluate Enterococcus spp. as a target organism for MST. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from five different sources (human, chicken, pig, cow, and goose) in South Korea. In total, 237 Enterococcus spp. were isolated from feces using membrane- Enterococcus indoxyl-beta-d-glucoside agar. The 16S rRNA gene and the whole genome were analyzed using nucleic acid sequencing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Both phylogenetic analysis and principal coordinate analysis using UniFrac were performed on the nucleic acid sequences of the 16S rRNA gene. According to P-tests from UniFrac, significant differences existed between Enterococcus spp. isolated from human feces and those from animal feces. In addition, we evaluated whether the esp gene of Enterococcus faecium could be a specific target for Enterococcus spp. isolated from human feces. Of 58 E. faecium isolates tested, only three were esp-positive. The specificity of the esp gene of E. faecium isolated from human feces was 100%, but the sensitivity was esp gene and 16S rRNA sequences, whereas PFGE provides limited information on the fecal sources of Enterococcus spp.

  19. Open-source sea ice drift algorithm for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery using a combination of feature-tracking and pattern-matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckenhuber, Stefan; Sandven, Stein

    2017-04-01

    An open-source sea ice drift algorithm for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery is introduced based on the combination of feature-tracking and pattern-matching. A computational efficient feature-tracking algorithm produces an initial drift estimate and limits the search area for the pattern-matching, that provides small to medium scale drift adjustments and normalised cross correlation values as quality measure. The algorithm is designed to utilise the respective advantages of the two approaches and allows drift calculation at user defined locations. The pre-processing of the Sentinel-1 data has been optimised to retrieve a feature distribution that depends less on SAR backscatter peak values. A recommended parameter set for the algorithm has been found using a representative image pair over Fram Strait and 350 manually derived drift vectors as validation. Applying the algorithm with this parameter setting, sea ice drift retrieval with a vector spacing of 8 km on Sentinel-1 images covering 400 km x 400 km, takes less than 3.5 minutes on a standard 2.7 GHz processor with 8 GB memory. For validation, buoy GPS data, collected in 2015 between 15th January and 22nd April and covering an area from 81° N to 83.5° N and 12° E to 27° E, have been compared to calculated drift results from 261 corresponding Sentinel-1 image pairs. We found a logarithmic distribution of the error with a peak at 300 m. All software requirements necessary for applying the presented sea ice drift algorithm are open-source to ensure free implementation and easy distribution.

  20. Detection of Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Surface and Filter Backwash Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation and Integrated Cell Culture-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Hashemi, F. Helen; Shaw, Nancy J.; Abrams, Felicia A.; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Abbaszadegan, Morteza

    1999-01-01

    A new strategy for the detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in water samples, which combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for recovery of oocysts with in vitro cell culturing and PCR (CC-PCR), was field tested with a total of 122 raw source water samples and 121 filter backwash water grab samples obtained from 25 sites in the United States. In addition, samples were processed by Percoll-sucrose flotation and oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as a ...

  1. Technical note: a new method for the Lagrangian tracking of pollution plumes from source to receptor using gridded model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Owen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Lagrangian particle dispersion models (LPDMs are powerful and popular tools used for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas measurements. However, it can be difficult to determine the transport pathway of emissions from their source to a receptor using the standard gridded model output, particularly during complex meteorological scenarios. In this paper we present a method to clearly and easily identify the pathway taken by only those emissions that arrive at a receptor at a particular time, by combining the standard gridded output from forward (e.g., concentration and backward (e.g., residence time LPDM simulations. By comparing the pathway determined from this method with particle trajectories from both the forward and backward models, we show that this method successfully restores much of the Lagrangian information that is lost when the data are gridded. A sample analysis is presented, demonstrating that the source-to-receptor pathway determined from this method is more accurate and easier to use than existing methods using standard LPDM products (gridded fields of, e.g., concentrations and residence time. As demonstrated in an evaluation and an example application, the method requires agreement between the transport described by the forward and backward simulations and thus provides a means to assess the quality and reversibility of the simulation. Finally, we discuss the potential for combining the backward LPDM simulation with gridded data from other sources (e.g., chemical transport models to obtain a Lagrangian sampling of the air that will eventually arrive at a receptor. Based on the advantages presented here, this new method can complement or even replace many of the standard uses of backward LPDM simulations.

  2. Tracking the sources of blood meals of parasitic arthropods using shotgun proteomics and unidentified tandem mass spectral libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Özlem; Shao, Wenguang; Lam, Henry; Brisson, Dustin

    2014-04-01

    Identifying the species on which hematophagous arthropods feed is crucial for studying the factors that affect pathogen distributions and that can aid public health. Here we describe a protocol to identify the species a parasitic arthropod has previously fed upon by identifying the source of the remnants of a previous blood meal via shotgun proteomics and spectral matching. The protocol is a nontargeted approach that uses the entire detected blood proteome for source identification; it does not require a priori knowledge of genome or protein sequences. Instead, reference spectral libraries are compiled from the blood of multiple host species by using SpectraST, which takes ∼4 d; the identification of the species from which a previous blood meal of a hematophagous arthropod was taken is achieved with spectral matching against the reference spectral libraries, which takes approximately another 4 d. This method is robust against random degradation of the blood meal and can identify unknown blood remnants months after the feeding event.

  3. Tools and methods for detecting and characterizing giardia, cryptosporidium, and toxoplasma parasites in marine mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohweyer, Jeanne; Dumètre, Aurélien; Aubert, Dominique; Azas, Nadine; Villena, Isabelle

    2013-09-01

    Foodborne infections are of public health importance and deeply impact the global economy. Consumption of bivalve mollusks generates risk for humans because these filtering aquatic invertebrates often concentrate microbial pathogens from their environment. Among them, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma are major parasites of humans and animals that may retain their infectivity in raw or undercooked mollusks. This review aims to detail current and future tools and methods for ascertaining the load and potential infectivity of these parasites in marine bivalve mollusks, including sampling strategies, parasite extraction procedures, and their characterization by using microscopy and/or molecular techniques. Method standardization should lead to better risk assessment of mollusks as a source of these major environmental parasitic pathogens and to the development of safety regulations, similar to those existing for bacterial and viral pathogens encountered in the same mollusk species.

  4. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  5. Application of Pb isotopes to track the sources and routes of metal uptake in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bader Albogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine the important routes of metal uptake in earthworms to enable a better understanding of the primary source of metal uptake in the environment. Earthworms can take up chemicals from pore water and soil both by ingestion and through contact with their skin. However, it is unclear which pathway is the most important for metal uptake. An experiment was designed in which both soil chemistry and foods were artificially manipulated, producing different pools of soil lead (Pb with different isotope compositions at a range of Pb concentrations. Earthworms (Eiseniafetida were exposed to different lead concentrations through the addition of 500 mg/kg lead oxide (Pb3O4 to soil and 500 mg/kg lead nitrate to food (manure, with distinctly different isotopic compositions. Earthworms were also exposed to combinations of soil only and soil plus food in order to quantify the proportions of Pb taken up from each component. After acid digestion of the earthworm tissues, the Pb isotope composition of the accumulated lead in the earthworms was measured using a Thermo-fisher, iCAPQ, ICP-MS for 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured relative to NIST SRM 981, allowing us to determine the pathway of lead uptake. Mixing calculations have been used to deconvolute the lead isotope signatures and identify the amount of lead taken up by the earthworms from the different soil pools. Differences in bioaccumulation factors and the relative amounts of lead accumulated from different pools changes as a function of concentration in the different pools. Earthworms were shown to uptake lead from bothsoil and food sources through ingestion route. Our findings suggest that a major pathway of lead uptake in earthworm species is heavily influenced by their ecology.

  6. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  7. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of farmer exposure to Cryptosporidium spp. in irrigation water within Kumasi Metropolis-Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampson, Angelina; Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Mills-Robertson, Felix C.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite which can be transmitted via food and water. Some studies have shown irrigation water to be routes of transmission for Cryptosporidium into the food chain, however, little information is known about Cryptosporidium levels in wastewater used for irrigation...

  8. Tracking Snow Variations in the Northern Hemisphere Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data (2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-source remote sensing data were used to generate 500-m resolution cloud-free daily snow cover images for the Northern Hemisphere. Simultaneously, the spatial and temporal dynamic variations of snow in the Northern Hemisphere were evaluated from 2000 to 2015. The results indicated that (1 the maximum, minimum, and annual average snow-covered area (SCA in the Northern Hemisphere exhibited a fluctuating downward trend; the variation of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere had well-defined inter-annual and regional differences; (2 the average SCA in the Northern Hemisphere was the largest in January and the smallest in August; the SCA exhibited a downward trend for the monthly variations from February to April; and the seasonal variation in the SCA exhibited a downward trend in the spring, summer, and fall in the Northern Hemisphere (no pronounced variation trend in the winter was observed during the 2000–2015 period; (3 the spatial distribution of the annual average snow-covered day (SCD was related to the latitudinal zonality, and the areas exhibiting an upward trend were mainly at the mid to low latitudes with unstable SCA variations; and (4 the snow reduction was significant in the perennial SCA in the Northern Hemisphere, including high-latitude and high-elevation mountainous regions (between 35° and 50°N, such as the Tibetan Plateau, the Tianshan Mountains, the Pamir Plateau in Asia, the Alps in Europe, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Cordillera Mountains in North America.

  9. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinon Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. Particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in HIV-infected persons. However, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. Additionally, it has been difficult to find suitable animal models for propagation of this parasite. Efforts are needed to develop reproducible animal models allowing both the routine passage of different species and approaching unclear aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, especially in the pathophysiology field. Results We developed a model using adult severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium muris while treated or not with Dexamethasone (Dex in order to investigate divergences in prepatent period, oocyst shedding or clinical and histopathological manifestations. C. muris-infected mice showed high levels of oocysts excretion, whatever the chemical immunosuppression status. Pre-patent periods were 11 days and 9.7 days in average in Dex treated and untreated mice, respectively. Parasite infection was restricted to the stomach, and had a clear preferential colonization for fundic area in both groups. Among C. parvum-infected mice, Dex-treated SCID mice became chronic shedders with a prepatent period of 6.2 days in average. C. parvum-inoculated mice treated with Dex developed glandular cystic polyps with areas of intraepithelial neoplasia, and also with the presence of intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For the first time C. parvum is associated with the formation of polyps and adenocarcinoma lesions in the gut of Dex-treated SCID mice. Additionally, we have developed a model to compare chronic muris and parvum

  10. Coevolution of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; McEvoy, J.; Loudová, M.; Stenger, B.; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Rašková, Veronika; Moriarty, E.; Rost, M.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2013), s. 805-817 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985904 ; RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cryptosporidium tyzzeri * house mouse * hybrid zone * coevolution Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.404, year: 2013

  11. La confusa taxonomía de Cryptosporidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos descubrimientos en la biología y filogenética de Cryptosporidium refuerzan la necesidad de una exhaustiva revisión del ciclo de vida y la taxonomía de este parásito. Tanto futuros estudios de cultivo in vitro e in vivo así como estudios moleculares y genéticos permitirán avanzar en el profundo conocimiento de este interesante parásito.

  12. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  13. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60 gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M.; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries. PMID:24755606

  15. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide tablets on inactivation of cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Haas, Charles N; Arrowood, Michael J; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-05-20

    The ability of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to achieve 2-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in drinking water has been documented. No studies have specifically addressed the effects of ClO2 on C. parvum oocyst infectivity in chlorinated recreational water venues (e.g., pools). The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of ClO2 as an alternative to existing hyperchlorination protocols that are used to achieve a 3-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in such venues. To obtain a 3-log inactivation of C. parvum Iowa oocysts, contact times of 105 and 128 min for a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 2.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. Contact times of 294 and 857 min for a solution containing 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 3.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. The hyperchlorination control (21 mg/L free chlorine only) required 455 min for a 3-log inactivation. Use of a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 and solutions containing 5 or 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with the addition of free chlorine appears to be a promising alternative to hyperchlorination for inactivating Cryptosporidium in chlorinated recreational water venues, but further studies are required to evaluate safety constraints on use.

  16. Tracking the sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds: Foraging in waste management facilities results in higher DecaBDE exposure in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentes, Marie-Line, E-mail: gentes.marie_line@courrier.uqam.ca [Centre de recherche en toxicologie de l’environnement (TOXEN), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Mazerolle, Marc J., E-mail: Marc.Mazerolle@uqat.ca [Centre for Forest Research, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boulevard de l’Université, Rouyn-Noranda, QC, Canada J9X 5E9 (Canada); Giroux, Jean-François, E-mail: giroux.jean-francois@uqam.ca [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); Patenaude-Monette, Martin [Groupe de recherche en écologie comportementale et animale, Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, Canada H3C 3P8 (Canada); and others

    2015-04-15

    Differences in feeding ecology are now recognized as major determinants of inter-individual variations in contaminant profiles of free-ranging animals, but exceedingly little attention has been devoted to the role of habitat use. Marked inter-individual variations and high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (e.g., DecaBDE) have previously been documented in ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) breeding in a colony near Montreal (QC, Canada). However, the environmental sources of these compounds, and thus the reasons causing these large inter-individual variations remain unidentified. In the present study, we used GPS-based telemetry (±5 to 10 m precision) to track ring-billed gulls from this colony to reconstruct their movements at the landscape level. We related habitat use of individual gulls (n=76) to plasma concentrations (ng/g ww) and relative contributions (percentages) to Σ{sub 38}PBDEs of major congeners in the internationally restricted PentaBDE and current-use DecaBDE mixtures. Male gulls that visited waste management facilities (WMFs; i.e., landfills, wastewater treatment plants and related facilities; 25% of all GPS-tracked males) exhibited greater DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) and lower PentaBDE (percentages) relative to those that did not. In contrast, no such relationships were found in females. Moreover, in males, DecaBDE (concentrations and percentages) increased with percentages of time spent in WMFs (i.e., ~5% of total foraging time), while PentaBDE (percentages) decreased. No relationships between percentages of time spent in other habitats (i.e., urban areas, agriculture fields, and St. Lawrence River) were found in either sex. These findings suggest that animals breeding in the vicinity of WMFs as well as mobile species that only use these sites for short stopovers to forage, could be at risk of enhanced DecaBDE exposure. - Highlights: • The study was conducted on breeding gulls with high levels of flame

  17. Application of host-specific source-tracking tools for rapid identification of fecal contamination in fresh produce by humans and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-03-30

    Fecal contamination in fresh produce is a public health concern because it may contain human pathogens. We introduced host-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for the rapid detection and identification of fecal contamination sources from humans and farm animals (cow, pig, chicken) in fresh produce. Each composite fecal sample was spiked on lettuce at two contamination levels (0.2 mg or 2 mg feces g⁻¹), followed by qPCR assays for detecting each host-specific genetic marker: BoBac (cow); PF163 (pig); CP3-49 (chicken); and HF183 and gyrB (human). Two commercial DNA extraction kits were compared to evaluate DNA recovery yields and removal of PCR inhibition. Sketa2 assay was conducted to assess the presence of PCR inhibition in the contaminated lettuce. All the qPCR assays yielded reliable detection from contaminated lettuce (2 mg feces g⁻¹), where their target gene numbers were 1.5-5.0 × 10³ (HF183), 0.8-2.2 × 10³ (gyrB), 0.6-1.6 × 10³ (BoBac), 1.6-3.0 × 10³ (CP3-49) and 1.1-2.2 × 10³ (PF163) copies g⁻¹ of lettuce. Among the two extraction kits, QIAamp DNA Stool Kit resulted in 2-3 times higher sensitivity and 20% less PCR inhibition than the PowerFood™ kit. This study provides information on the optimized host-specific qPCR assay in identifying sources of fecal contamination in fresh produce and is useful for tracking the contamination source and improving agricultural practice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Spinacia oleracea L. leaf stomata harboring Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts: A potential threat for food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientific literature documents the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in irrigation waters and on fresh produce. In the present study spinach leaves were experimentally exposed to Cryptosporidium oocysts which were subsequently irrigated with clean water daily for 5 days. As determined by confoc...

  19. The use of an atmospheric cold plasma jet to inactivate Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts on cilantro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: In 2015, the CDC reported a rise in outbreaks linked to parasites like Cryptosporidium. Outbreaks of Cryptosporidium parvum have been associated with contaminated drinking or recreational water; however, there is growing concern that oocysts may become a more common contaminant in food...

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in captive lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a global epidemic parasite and one of the most important intestinal pathogens causing diarrhea in animals and humans. Despite extensive research on this parasite group, little is known about rates of Cryptosporidium infection in lesser pandas. In this study, we use molecular diagnostic tools to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species in the lesser panda. Using a PCR approach, we sequenced the 18S rRNA gene in fecal samples collected from 110 captive lesser pandas held throughout China (approximately one third of the captive population). We determined Cryptosporidium species via a BLAST comparison of our sequences against those of published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. We report that captive lesser pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, Cryptosporidium andersoni, at a prevalence of 6.36 % (7/110). The present investigation revealed the existence of C. andersoni infection in captive lesser panda and suggested that proper control measures should be taken carefully to protect the welfare of zoo workers and visitors.

  1. Occurence of Cryptosporidium spp. in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T. B.; Petersen, H. H.; Abaidoo, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp...

  2. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahatchai Tangtrongsup

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  3. Impacts of population growth, urbanisation and sanitation changes on global human Cryptosporidium emissions to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Nynke; Vermeulen-Henstra, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a pathogenic protozoan parasite and is a leading cause of diarrhoea worldwide. The concentration of Cryptosporidium in the surface water is a determinant for probability of exposure and the risk of disease. Surface water concentrations are expected to change with population

  4. Metagenomic Investigation of the Microbial Community Structure and Diversity for Sentinel Coral Reefs and Urbanized Coastal Waters in Southeast Florida, and Molecular Microbial Source Tracking to Characterize Potential LBSP Microbial Contaminant Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinigalliano, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs and recreational beaches provide critical ecosystem services. However, coastal waters of the Southeast Florida region receive anthropogenic discharges from highly urbanized watersheds via runoff, canals, coastal inlets, and treated wastewater outfalls. There is concern regarding the biological contaminants that enter the coastal zone from land-based sources, especially for viable pathogens and genetic elements that could confer virulence or resistance. Targeted molecular microbial source tracking (MST) by quantitative PCR allows the measurement of specific microbial contaminants such as host-specific fecal indicators. These fecal source markers can help track specific fecal contamination of public health concern in the coastal zone and may also help track exposure of coral reefs to such contamination. A range of pathogens associated with sewage/septic contamination have shown detrimental impact to coral communities, including changes to the biodiversity of coral microbiomes. High-throughput Next-Generation-Sequencing (NGS) and community genomic analysis can provide a comprehensive, culture-independent approach to investigate microbial community diversity in complex environmental samples. The combination of host-specific microbial source tracking by qPCR and metagenomic NGS can provide substantial enhancement to traditional methods of water quality assessment to better protect both environmental biodiversity and human health. Reported here is a multifaceted water quality assessment study of three coastal inlets, two treated wastewater outfalls, and four sentinel coral reef communities in the Southeast Florida coastal zone offshore of Miami-Dade and Broward Counties. This study utilized a combination of bi-monthly sampling for nutrients, fecal indicator bacteria, and human-source molecular source tracking to measure specific contaminants of ecosystem and public health concern. In addition, 16S metagenomic analysis using Illumina Next-Generation Sequencing

  5. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  6. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  7. Characterizing the concentration of Cryptosporidium in Australian surface waters for setting health-based targets for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S; Roser, D; Deere, D

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that the next revision of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines will include 'health-based targets', where the required level of potable water treatment quantitatively relates to the magnitude of source water pathogen concentrations. To quantify likely Cryptosporidium concentrations in southern Australian surface source waters, the databases for 25 metropolitan water supplies with good historical records, representing a range of catchment sizes, land use and climatic regions were mined. The distributions and uncertainty intervals for Cryptosporidium concentrations were characterized for each site. Then, treatment targets were quantified applying the framework recommended in the World Health Organization Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality 2011. Based on total oocyst concentrations, and not factoring in genotype or physiological state information as it relates to infectivity for humans, the best estimates of the required level of treatment, expressed as log10 reduction values, ranged among the study sites from 1.4 to 6.1 log10. Challenges associated with relying on historical monitoring data for defining drinking water treatment requirements were identified. In addition, the importance of quantitative microbial risk assessment input assumptions on the quantified treatment targets was investigated, highlighting the need for selection of locally appropriate values.

  8. Online Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for other purposes, such as research, measurement, and fraud prevention. Mobile browsers work much like traditional web ... users’ Do Not Track preferences. Can I block online tracking? Consumers can learn about tracker-blocking browser ...

  9. Tracking and evolution of irrigation triggered active landslides by multi-source high resolution DEM: The Jiaojiacun landslide group of Heifangtai (Northwest of China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Runqiang; Meng, Xingmin; Wang, Siyuan; Chen, Guan; Lee, Yajun; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    The construction of three large hydropower stations, i.e. Liujia, Yanguo and Bapan, resulted in the immigration of the impacted people to Heifangtai from 1960s. To support the living and farming of the immigrated people, a large amount of water has been pumped from the Yellow River to Heifangtai, which has changed the former underground water budget and led to 111 landslides from 1968 in this area. To reveal the deformation process of landslides in Heifangtai, a quantitative deformation analysis model of landslide based on multi-source DEM data is established using four periods of topographic maps obtained in 1970, 2001, 2010 and 2013 respectively, including two 1:10000 topographic maps and two 1:1000 data acquired from 3D Laser Scanner. The whole study area was divided into two sections based on the two distinct kinds of landslide patterns. The selected morphometric parameters, residual topographic surface and surface roughness, extracted from three typical landslides, and the statistical analysis (Box-plot diagrams) of the temporal variations of these parameters, allowed the reconstruction and tracking of these landslides. We monitored the changing of landslide boundaries, average vertical and horizontal displacement rates and zones of uplift and subsidence. The volumes of removed and/or accumulated material were estimated as well. We can then demonstrate the kinematics of landslides based on information from high-resolution DEM, and the changing table of underground water, ring-shear test and soil-water characteristic curve referenced from other researchers. The results provide a new insight on the use of multi-source high resolution DEM in the monitoring of irrigation-triggered landslides.

  10. Microbial Source Tracking of Avian Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Have We Learned After 10 Years of MST Research: Its Importance in the Developments of New Markers and Future Directions. Feces Production in the U.S.: Human - 07%; Chickens - 22%; Pigs - 20%; Dairy - 10%; and Beef Cattle 44%. Evaluation of Swine Assays - PF163 targeting...

  11. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sources Fondation Pablo Iglesias. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Archives privées de Manuel ArijaArchives extérieuresArchives FNJS de EspañaPrensa Archives Générales de l’Administration. Alcala de Henares. Sections : Opposition au franquismeSig. 653 Sig TOP 82/68.103-68.602.Índice de las cartas colectivas, Relaciones, Cartas al Ministro de Información de Marzo de 1965. c.662. Sources cinématographiques Filmothèque Nationale d’Espagne.NO.DO. N° 1157C. 08/03/1965.aguirre Javier, Blanco vertical....

  12. Particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Safarík, K; Newby, J; Sørensen, P

    2002-01-01

    In this lecture we will present a short historical overview of different tracking detectors. Then we will describe currently used gaseous and silicon detectors and their performance. In the second part we will discuss how to estimate tracking precision, how to design a tracker and how the track finding works. After a short description of the LHC the main attention is drawn to the ALICE experiment since it is dedicated to study new states in hadronic matter at the LHC. The ALICE tracking procedure is discussed in detail. A comparison to the tracking in ATLAS, CMS and LHCb is given. (5 refs).

  13. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498 of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498 with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498 by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498 by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2% samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%, Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%, Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%, and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples was most common followed by A (12.3% and mixed infections (5.1%. Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46, chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34 and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73; specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03 and C. meleagridis (p<0.001 were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95.This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve

  14. Molecular-based investigation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from animals in water catchments in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Jex, Aaron R; Koehler, Anson V; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-01

    There has been no large-scale systematic molecular epidemiological investigation of the waterborne protozoans, Cryptosporidium or Giardia, in southeastern Australia. Here, we explored, for the first time, the genetic composition of these genera in faecal samples from animals in nine Melbourne Water reservoir areas, collected over a period of two-years. We employed PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and phylogenetic analyses of loci (pSSU and pgp60) in the small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes to detect and characterise Cryptosporidium, and another locus (ptpi) in the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene to identify and characterise Giardia. Cryptosporidium was detected in 2.8% of the 2009 samples examined; the analysis of all amplicons defined 14 distinct sequence types for each of pSSU and pgp60, representing Cryptosporidium hominis (genotype Ib - subgenotype IbA10G2R2), Cryptosporidium parvum (genotype IIa - subgenotypes IIaA15G2R1, IIaA19G2R1, IIaA19G3R1, IIaA19G4R1, IIaA20G3R1, IIaA20G4R1, IIaA20G3R2 and IIaA21G3R1), Cryptosporidium cuniculus (genotype Vb - subgenotypes VbA22R4, VbA23R3, VbA24R3, VbA25R4 and VbA26R4), and Cryptosporidium canis, Cryptosporidium fayeri, Cryptosporidium macropodum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum as well as six new pSSU sequence types. In addition, Giardia was identified in 3.4% of the samples; all 28 distinct ptpi sequence types defined were linked to assemblage A of Giardia duodenalis. Of all 56 sequence types characterised, eight and one have been recorded previously in Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, from humans. In contrast, nothing is known about the zoonotic potential of 35 new genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia recorded here for the first time. Future work aims to focus on estimating the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes in humans and a wide range of animals in Victoria and elsewhere in Australia. (Nucleotide sequences reported in

  15. Identification of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium sp. in Feces of Diarrheal Patient at Puskesmas Jatinangor, September–November 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komathi Palani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diarrhea is one of the main public health problems occurring in West Java. One of the affected areas is Subdistrict Jatinangor. Inappropriate management of sanitation facilities around Jatinangor area causes contamination of water. Cikeruh River is one of the water sources in Jatinangor Area, from which people obtain water for daily activities. Water borne illness due to poor sanitation condition can lead to parasitic infection such as Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum which can cause a prolonged diarrhea. There has not been any study done regarding the presence of parasitical infection causing diarrhea around Jatinangor. Methods: In order to identify the parasitic infection, a descriptive study was carried out on 16 fecal samples collected from diarrheal patient who visited Puskesmas Jatinangor from September–November 2012. The parasites were checked by using wet mount method Results: The parasites found were Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, but none of Giardia lamblia. There were also other findings such as Iodamoeba butschlii and Entamoeba coli. Conclusion: Positive findings of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium parvum in diarrhea patients is most probably due to contaminated water and food. Measures need to be done to improve sanitary condition in Cikeruh River to prevent diarrhea.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in mussels (Mytilus californianus) and California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adell, A D; Smith, W A; Shapiro, K; Melli, A; Conrad, P A

    2014-12-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are of public health importance, with recognized transmission through recreational waters. Therefore, both can contaminate marine waters and shellfish, with potential to infect marine mammals in nearshore ecosystems. A 2-year study was conducted to evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in mussels located at two distinct coastal areas in California, namely, (i) land runoff plume sites and (ii) locations near sea lion haul-out sites, as well as in feces of California sea lions (CSL) (Zalophus californianus) by the use of direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) detection methods and PCR with sequence analysis. In this study, 961 individual mussel hemolymph samples, 54 aliquots of pooled mussel tissue, and 303 CSL fecal samples were screened. Giardia duodenalis assemblages B and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near two land runoff plume sites (Santa Rosa Creek and Carmel River), and assemblages C and D were detected in hemolymph from mussels collected near a sea lion haul-out site (White Rock). These results suggest that mussels are being contaminated by protozoa carried in terrestrial runoff and/or shed in the feces of CSL. Furthermore, low numbers of oocysts and cysts morphologically similar to Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, were detected in CSL fecal samples, suggesting that CSL could be a source and a host of protozoan parasites in coastal environments. The results of this study showed that Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. from the feces of terrestrial animals and CSL can contaminate mussels and coastal environments. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, R J; Mawdsley, J L; Brooks, A E; Davies, D R

    1997-01-01

    The survival of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass was examined in laboratory silos with herbage prepared in one of three different ways; either untreated, inoculated with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum or by direct acidification with formic acid. The pH values of all silages initially fell below 4.5, but only formic acid-treated silage remained stable at less than pH 4 after 106 d, with the pH of the untreated and inoculant-treated silages rising to above 6. The formic acid-treated silage had a high lactic acid concentration (109 g kg-1 dry matter (DM)) and low concentrations of propionic and butyric acids after 106 d. However, the untreated and inoculant-treated silages showed an inverse relationship, with low lactic acid concentrations and high concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids. These silages also contained ammonia-N concentrations in excess of 9 g kg-1 DM. In terms of the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts very few differences were seen after 14 d of ensilage with ca 50% remaining viable, irrespective of treatment and total numbers had declined from the initial level of 5.9 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(4) g(-1) fresh matter. Total oocyst numbers remained approximately the same until the end of the ensiling period, with the percentage of viable oocysts declining to 46, 41 and 32% respectively for formic acid, inoculant and untreated silages. The results are discussed in terms of changes occurring during the silage fermentation, in particular the products which may influence the survival of Cryptosporidium and implications for agricultural practice and the health of silage fed livestock.

  18. First description of Cryptosporidium parvum in carrier pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno César Miranda; Ferrari, Elis Domingos; da Cruz Panegossi, Mariele Fernanda; Nakamura, Alex Akira; Corbucci, Flávio Sader; Nagata, Walter Bertequini; Dos Santos, Bianca Martins; Gomes, Jancarlo Ferreira; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Widmer, Giovanni; Bresciani, Katia Denise Saraiva

    2017-08-30

    The carrier pigeon and the domestic pigeon are different breeds of the species Columba livia. Carrier pigeons are used for recreational activities such as bird contests and exhibitions. Due to the close contact with humans, these birds may potentially represent a public health risk, since they can host and disseminate zoonotic parasites, such as those belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium (phylum Apicomplexa). The purpose of this work was the detection by microscopic and molecular techniques of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples of carrier pigeons, and subsequently to sequence the 18S ribosomal RNA marker of positive samples to identify the species. A total of 100 fecal samples were collected individually in two pigeon breeding facilities from Formiga and Araçatuba, cities located in Minas Gerais state and São Paulo state, Brazil, respectively. The age of the birds ranged from one to 12 years; 56 were females and 44 males. Fecal smears were stained with negative malachite green, whereas the molecular characterization was based on the sequence of a ∼800bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Microscopic examination of fecal smears revealed 4% (4/100) oocyst positivity. On the other hand, 7% (7/100) of positivity were found using nested PCR. Three samples were 99% to 100% similar to Cryptosporidium parvum 18S rDNA type A (Genbank AH006572) and the other three samples had 99% to 100% similarity to C. parvum 18S rDNA type B (Genbank AF308600). To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum oocysts in carrier pigeons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in calves in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefay, D; Naciri, M; Poirier, P; Chermette, R

    2000-03-28

    Two multicentre surveys were conducted in France to estimate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in calves using qualitative ELISA for detection of Cryptosporidium coproantigens and oocysts. The first survey involved 4-12-day-old calves in six dairy-calf distribution centres, collecting calves from seven Administrative Regions (Aquitaine, Bretagne, Franche-Comté, Lorraine, Normandie, Nord, Pays de Loire). For each region, 20 calves were selected every month for 12 consecutive months (October 1995-September 1996). Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was 17.9% (Confidence Intervals (C.I.) 95%=[16.1%; 19.8%]) among the 1628 selected calves, of which only 5.3% had diarrhoea. The second survey conducted between November 1995 and May 1996 involved 4-21-day-old calves examined by veterinary practitioners who selected 189 livestock farms of dairy- or suckler-type in ten Administrative Departments (Allier, Cantal, Creuse, Doubs, Ille-et-Vilaine, Maine-et-Loire, Manche, Pas-de-Calais, Saône-et-Loire, Vendée). Cryptosporidia were detected in 105 (55.6%) of the farms. Among the 440 calves examined, of which 398 (90.5%) presented diarrhoea, cryptosporidia were found in 191 animals, i.e. a prevalence of 43.4% (C.I. 95%=[38. 8%; 48.0%]). Breed of calves and type of housing had very little impact on prevalence in this survey. Some regional variations could be noticed, even if cryptosporidia infection is widespread. Monthly variations could be related to seasonal peaks in calving with a lower infection rate during summer.

  20. Coevolution of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and the house mouse (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; McEvoy, John; Loudová, Martina; Stenger, Brianna; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Ditrich, Oleg; Rašková, Veronika; Moriarty, Elaine; Rost, Michael; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2013-09-01

    Two house mouse subspecies occur in Europe, eastern and northern Mus musculus musculus (Mmm) and western and southern Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd). A secondary hybrid zone occurs where their ranges meet, running from Scandinavia to the Black Sea. In this paper, we tested a hypothesis that the apicomplexan protozoan species Cryptosporidium tyzzeri has coevolved with the house mouse. More specifically, we assessed to what extent the evolution of this parasite mirrors divergence of the two subspecies. In order to test this hypothesis, we analysed sequence variation at five genes (ssrRNA, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium 1 (TRAP-C1), actin and gp60) in C. tyzzeri isolates from Mmd and Mmm sampled along a transect across the hybrid zone from the Czech Republic to Germany. Mmd samples were supplemented with mice from New Zealand. We found two distinct isolates of C. tyzzeri, each occurring exclusively in one of the mouse subspecies (C. tyzzeri-Mmm and C. tyzzeri-Mmd). In addition to genetic differentiation, oocysts of the C. tyzzeri-Mmd subtype (mean: 4.24×3.69μm) were significantly smaller than oocysts of C. tyzzeri-Mmm (mean: 4.49×3.90 μm). Mmm and Mmd were susceptible to experimental infection with both C. tyzzeri subtypes; however, the subtypes were not infective for the rodent species Meriones unguiculatus, Mastomys coucha, Apodemus flavicollis or Cavia porcellus. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that C. tyzzeri is coevolving with Mmm and Mmd. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence, transmission, and host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. in various animal groups from two French zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; El Safadi, Dima; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Cian, Amandine; Moriniere, Romain; Gantois, Nausicaa; Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Guyot, Karine; Bosc, Stéphanie; Chabé, Magali; Petit, Thierry; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2017-12-01

    Cryptosporidium represents a major cause of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals including domestic, wild, and in captivity animals, and more than 30 validated species of Cryptosporidium are recognized as infectious to different hosts such as mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted worldwide in order to shed light on the epidemiology of this parasite and to explore its potential reservoirs. Few surveys, targeting humans and animals have been carried out regarding the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in France and no data are available about the circulation of this parasite in French zoological gardens. Herein, we determined the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in animals housed in two French zoos. A total of 307 fecal samples belonging to 161 species were screened by nested PCR. Overall, Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in 1.9% of the 161 species and 1% of the total number of fecal samples tested. Additionally, three Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. galli, C. andersoni, and C. tyzzeri. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular study focused on Cryptosporidium infection in captivity animals in France. This study is of interest considering the exposure of a large number of humans and animals to this waterborne protozoan, found ubiquitously in the environment.

  2. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Molecular Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium Species in Pet Dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    GU, You-fang; WANG, Kai; LIU, De-yi; MEI, Nan; CHEN, Cheng; CHEN, Tao; HAN, Min-min; ZHOU, Li; CAO, Jia-tong; ZHANG, Heng; ZHANG, Xue-liang; FAN, Zi-lai; LI, Wen-chao

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium species infection in pet dogs, and identify the G. lamblia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species. A total of 315 fresh fecal samples were collected from pet clinics in five counties of Anhui Province and in Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province. Hemi-nested-PCR targeting the GDH gene of G. lamblia and nested-PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium were performed in all the fecal samples. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics methods to identify the G. lamblia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species. The positive rates of G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. infections in the 315 fecal samples were 3.2% (10/315) and 1.6% (5/315), respectively. Specifically, the two indicators were both significantly higher in dogs ≤12 months (17.8% and 11.1%, respectively) than in adult dogs (0.7% and 0.0%)(Pdogs. In addition, two G. lamblia assemblages were identified, assemblages B (n=6) and D (n=4). Sequence analysis of PCR products of the SSU rRNA gene showed that the five Cryptosporidium isolates were C. canis (n =5). The prevalences of G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium infection in pet dogs in Anhui and Zhejiang Provinces were 3.2 % and 1.6 %, respectively. The assemblages of G. lamblia in this study are of types B and D.

  4. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from domestic animals in a rural area surrounding Atlantic dry forest fragments in Teodoro Sampaio municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. isolados de animais domésticos de propriedades rurais circunvizinhas a fragmentos de Floresta Atlântica Seca do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in domestic animals in rural properties surrounding rain forest fragments within the municipality of Teodoro Sampaio, southeastern Brazil. Conventional sucrose flotation method followed by molecular characterization of the parasites by sequencing PCR products amplified from SSU rRNA gene were used. Stool samples were collected from domestic animals raised as pets and livestock in all rural properties surrounding three forest fragments. Samples from cattle (197, equine (63, pigs (25, sheep (11, and dogs (28 were collected from 98 rural properties. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium within each animal species was 3.0% (6/197 among cattle and 10.7% (3/28 among dogs. Cryptosporidium was not detected in stool samples from equine, sheep, and pigs. All sequences obtained from the six samples of calves showed molecular identity with Cryptosporidium andersoni while all sequences from dog samples were similar to C. canis. The frequency of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in these domestic animal species was low. The absence of C. parvum in the present study suggests that the zoonotic cycle of cryptosporidiosis may not be relevant in the region studied. The presence of Cryptosporidium species seldom described in humans may be, otherwise, important for the wild fauna as these animals are a source of infection and dissemination of this protozoan to other animal species. The impact and magnitude of infection by C. andersoni in wild ruminants and C. canis in wild canids have to be assessed in future studies to better understand the actual importance of these species in this region.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a ocorrência de Cryptosporidium, em animais domésticos de propriedades rurais ao redor de fragmentos de mata Atlântica de interior no município de Teodoro Sampaio, por exame convencional de flutuação em solução de sacarose, seguido de caracterização molecular

  5. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    Genetic studies have demonstrated profound differences between the 'porcine' genotype of Cryptosporidium parvum, versus 'human' and 'bovine' genotypes. The study analysed infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype (CPP-13 isolate) of C. parvum, and compared the results with published...... data on the 'bovine' genotype (CPB-0 isolate). This was investigated in calves and piglets from commercial herds. Piglets were mildly affected by the CPP-13 isolate, contrary to piglets infected with the CPB-0 isolate, which caused diarrhoea of a mean duration of 3.5 days. CPP-13 produced no or very...

  6. Giardia y Cryptosporidium en fauna salvaje de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Reboredo Fernández, Aurora

    2016-01-01

    Giardia y Cryptosporidium son protozoos parásitos ubicuos que infectan a numerosos vertebrados, incluyendo al hombre, a los animales domésticos y salvajes. El objetivo de la presente Tesis Doctoral es investigar la presencia de ambos enteropatógenos en fauna salvaje de Galicia. Se analizaron 734 muestras de macroinvertebrados bentónicos, reptiles, aves y mamíferos (terrestres y marinos) mediante una técnica de inmunofluorescencia directa y PCR-secuenciación de los genes que codifican la SSU-r...

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  8. Fluorescent microspheres as surrogates in evaluating the efficacy of riverbank filtration for removing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and other pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronald W.; Metge, David W.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Jasperse, Jay

    2011-01-01

    A major benefit of riverbank filtration (RBF) is that it provides a relatively effective means for pathogen removal. There is a need to conduct more injection-and-recovery transport studies at operating RBF sites in order to properly assess the combined effects of the site heterogeneities and ambient physicochemical conditions, which are difficult to replicate in the lab. For field transport studies involving pathogens, there is considerable interest in using fluorescent carboxylated microspheres (FCM) as surrogates, because they are chemically inert, negatively charged, easy to detect, available in a wide variety of sizes, and have been found to be nonhazardous in tracer applications. Although there have been a number of in-situ studies comparing the subsurface transport behaviors of FCM to those of bacteria and viruses, much less is known about their suitability for investigations of protozoa. Oocysts of the intestinal protozoan pathogen Cryptosporidium spp are of particular concern for many RBF operations because of their ubiquity and persistence in rivers and high resistance to chlorine disinfection. Although microspheres often have proven to be less-than-ideal analogs for capturing the abiotic transport behavior of viruses and bacteria, there is encouraging recent evidence regarding use of FCM as surrogates for C. parvum oocysts. This chapter discusses the potential of fluorescent microspheres as safe and easy-to-detect surrogates for evaluating the efficacy of RBF operations for removing pathogens, particularly Cryptosporidium, from source waters at different points along the flow path.

  9. Occurrence and removal of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts from a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Priscila Ribeiro Dos; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2017-05-01

    Sewage and sewage sludge have been recognized as potential sources of two important waterborne pathogenic protozoa: Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to the lack of studies about the occurrence of these pathogens in sewage and sludge in Brazil, an investigation was conducted at various stages of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aiming to assess the occurrence of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, their removal by the treatment processes, which are upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and dissolved air flotation process, and also the correlations between protozoa and indicator microorganisms. Significant quantities of cysts were detected in 100% of the analyzed wastewater samples, while oocysts were detected only in 39.0% of all wastewater samples. The overall removal of Giardia spp. cysts from the WWTP was on average 2.03 log, and the UASB reactor was more efficient than flotation. The sludge samples presented high quantities of (oo)cysts, implying the risks of contamination in the case of sludge reuse or inadequate disposal. Giardiasis prevalence was estimated between 2.21% and 6.7% for the population served by the WWTP, while cryptosporidiosis prevalence was much lower. Significant positive correlation was obtained only between cysts and Clostridium spores in anaerobic effluent.

  10. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  11. Long-Term Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Paired Agricultural Watersheds under Controlled and Conventional Tile Drainage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Graham; Brassard, Julie; Edge, Thomas A.; Gannon, Victor; Gottschall, Natalie; Jokinen, Cassandra C.; Jones, Tineke H.; Khan, Izhar U. H.; Marti, Romain; Sunohara, Mark D.; Topp, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Surface waters from paired agricultural watersheds under controlled tile drainage (CTD) and uncontrolled tile drainage (UCTD) were monitored over 7 years in order to determine if there was an effect of CTD (imposed during the growing season) on occurrences and loadings of bacterial and viral pathogens, coliphages, and microbial source tracking markers. There were significantly lower occurrences of human, ruminant, and livestock (ruminant plus pig) Bacteroidales markers in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD watershed. As for pathogens, there were significantly lower occurrences of Salmonella spp. and Arcobacter spp. in the CTD watershed. There were no instances where there were significantly higher quantitative loadings of any microbial target in the CTD watershed, except for F-specific DNA (F-DNA) and F-RNA coliphages, perhaps as a result of fecal inputs from a hobby farm independent of the drainage practice treatments. There was lower loading of the ruminant marker in the CTD watershed in relation to the UCTD system, and results were significant at the level P = 0.06. The odds of Salmonella spp. occurring increased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent, yet for Arcobacter spp., the odds of this pathogen occurring significantly decreased when a ruminant marker was present relative to when the ruminant marker was absent (but increased when a wildlife marker was present relative to when the wildlife marker was absent). Interestingly, the odds of norovirus GII (associated with human and swine) occurring in water increased significantly when a ruminant marker was present relative to when a ruminant marker was absent. Overall, this study suggests that fecal pollution from tile-drained fields to stream could be reduced by CTD utilization. PMID:24727274

  12. A fixed sublithospheric source for the late Neogene track of the Yellowstone hotspot: Implications of the Heise and Picabo volcanic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Mark H.; Rodgers, David W.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Saltzman, Janet; DiVenere, Victor J.; Hagstrum, Jonathan T.; Embree, Glenn F.; Walter, Robert C.

    2014-04-01

    The Heise and Picabo volcanic fields of eastern Idaho are part of the more extensive time-transgressive Yellowstone-Snake River Plain hotspot track. Calderas associated with these two silicic volcanic fields are buried under 1 to 3 km of younger basalt, so their locations and eruption record histories have been based on analysis of silicic units along the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain along with some limited geophysical data. A 1.5 km borehole penetrating through basalt into underlying silicic rocks provides new data we used to reassess caldera locations and the timing of eruptions of these volcanic fields. Using these new caldera locations, we calculate an extension-adjusted rate of 2.35 cm/yr for the North American plate over the last 6.66 m.y. and a velocity of 2.30 cm/yr over the 10.27 m.y. Recalculation of a previously determined plate velocity-based migration of the deformation field surrounding the eastern Snake River Plain yields an extension-adjusted rate of 2.38 ± 0.21 cm/yr. These migration rates all fall within the previously published range of North American plate velocities of 2.2 ± 0.8 cm/yr, 2.4 cm/yr, and 2.68 ± 0.78 cm/yr based on a global hot spot reference frame. The consistency of these rates suggest that over the last 10 m.y., the Yellowstone hot spot is fixed with respect to the motion of the North American plate and therefore consistent with a classical deep-sourced hotspot model.

  13. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em serpentes de cativeiro Prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Custório Ruggiero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium é um protozoário encontrado em uma grande variedade de espécies animais como responsável por casos de gastrite e enterite, porém com epidemiologia pouco conhecida em animais silvestres. A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em lavado gástrico de serpentes mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta foi realizada uma semana após alimentação, evitando, assim, a regurgitação devido à manipulação. Foram realizados esfregaços do sedimento do lavado gástrico, obtido por centrifugação, corados pela técnica de coloração de Kinyoun. Parte do sedimento foi submetido à técnica de RFLP-PCR para identificação da espécie de Cryptosporidium. O serpentário é dividido em três seções, por espécie - a primeira com oito jibóias (Boa constrictor amarali, a segunda com dez jararacas (Bothropoides jararaca e a última com sete cascavéis (Caudisona durissa. A prevalência de C. serpentis encontrada neste estudo para as serpentes C. durissa, B. jararaca e Boa c. amarali, foi de 57,14% (04/07, 40% (04/10 e 37,5% (03/08, respectivamente, revelando importante ocorrência desse protozoário em serpentes de cativeiro. Apesar da alta prevalência encontrada, apenas as jiboias apresentaram sintomas como perda de peso e regurgitação, refletindo uma sensibilidade diferente da espécie para C. serpentis.Cryptosporidium is a protozoan found in a wide variety of animal species which is responsible for gastritis and enteritis, but its epidemiology is poorly known in wild animals. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in gastric aspirate of captive snakes from the public serpentarium of the Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was performed preferably one week after feeding, thereby preventing regurgitation due to manipulation. Smears were done from the gastric

  14. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    separate salad bar ingredients were found to be likely sources: peeled whole carrots served in a bowl of water, grated carrots, and red peppers (in multivariate analysis, whole carrots: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.0; grated carrots: OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.9; peppers: OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.7-6.6). We speculate...

  15. Importância de Cryptosporidium spp. como causa de diarréia em bezerros Importance of Cryptosporidium spp. as a cause of diarrhea in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.F. Feitosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras de fezes de 14 bezerros e de suas mães até a oitava semana pós parição. A maior taxa de excreção de oocistos foi verificada em bezerros com sete dias de idade. Das vacas, 42,8% foram positivas para Cryptosporidium no período pós-parto. Em outra etapa deste estudo, foram acompanhados 57 bezerros positivos para Cryptosporidium, com até 30 dias de idade, provenientes de 32 propriedades leiteiras, e estudouse o grau de eliminação dos oocistos com a possível ocorrência de diarréia. Em todos os animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foi pesquisada a presença de bactérias enteropatogênicas, vírus (Rotavirus e Coronavirus e protozoários (Eimeria spp..The aim of this research was to evaluate the shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples from 14 calves from one dairy farm, from birth until 60 days old and from cows until eight weeks after parturition. The higher percentage of oocysts excreted was observed in 7-day-old calves. In the post-partum period 43.7% of cows were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Further analyses were accomplished in 57 calves from another 32 milk farms, previously known as positive for Cryptosporidium, through oocysts fecal screening and clinical signs analyses until calves were 30 days old. Fecal samples from all animals that presented diarrhea were screened for the presence of bacteria, virus (Rotavirus and Coronavirus and protozoa (Eimeria spp..

  16. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Archives Archivo Histórico del Estado de Jalisco Fondo Gobernación, Asunto Pasaportes y Salvoconductos : G-8-877/9773-9775 G-8-878/9774, 9776, 9777 et 9781 G-8-879/9782-9788 G-8-880/9789-9798 G-8-881-882/9803 G-8-882/9804-9805 G-8-883/9806-9811 G-8-884/9813 G-8-885/9817-9820 G-8-886/9822-9825 G-8-887/9826-9830 G-8-888/9835 G-8-889-890/9837 G-8-889/9839 Sources imprimées Livres et chroniques O’Farrill Romulo, (2004) Reseña histórica estadística y comercial de México y sus estados, directorio g...

  17. Drug treatment and novel drug target against Cryptosporidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargala G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis emergence triggered the screening of many compounds for potential anti-cryptosporidial activity in which the majority were ineffective. The outbreak of cryptosporidiosis which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993 was not only the first significant emergence of Cryptosporidium spp. as a major human pathogen but also a huge waterborne outbreak thickening thousands of people from a major city in North America. Since then, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are regularly occurring throughout the world. New drugs against this parasite became consequently urgently needed. Among the most commonly used treatments against cryptosporidiosis are paromomycin, and azithromycin, which are partially effective. Nitazoxanide (NTZ’s effectiveness was demonstrated in vitro, and in vivo using several animal models and finally in clinical trials. It significantly shortened the duration of diarrhea and decreased mortality in adults and in malnourished children. NTZ is not effective without an appropriate immune response. In AIDS patients, combination therapy restoring immunity along with antimicrobial treatment of Cryptosporidium infection is necessary. Recent investigations focused on the potential of molecular-based immunotherapy against this parasite. Others tested the effects of probiotic bacteria, but were unable to demonstrate eradication of C. parvum. New synthetic isoflavone derivatives demonstrated excellent activity against C. parvum in vitro and in a gerbil model of infection. Newly synthesized nitroor non nitro- thiazolide compounds, derived from NTZ, have been recently shown to be at least as effective as NTZ against C. parvum in vitro development and are promising new therapeutic agents.

  18. Solar UV reduces Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst infectivity in environmental waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B J; Hoefel, D; Daminato, D P; Fanok, S; Monis, P T

    2008-05-01

    To determine the effect of solar radiation on Cryptosporidium parvum in tap and environmental waters. Outdoor tank experiments and a cell culture infectivity assay were used to measure solar inactivation of C. parvum oocysts in different waters. Experiments conducted on days with different levels of solar insolation identified rapid inactivation of oocysts in tap water (up to 90% inactivation within the first hour). Increased dissolved organic carbon content in environmental waters decreased solar inactivation. The role of solar ultraviolet (UV) in inactivation was confirmed by long-pass filter experiments, where UV-B was identified as the most germicidal wavelength. Reductions in oocyst infectivity following solar radiation were not related to a loss of excystation capacity. Solar UV can rapidly inactivate C. parvum in environmental waters. This is the first study to assess natural sunlight inactivation of C. parvum oocysts in surface waters and drinking water using an infectivity measure and determines the wavelengths of light responsible for the inactivation. The findings presented here provide valuable information for determining the relative risks associated with Cryptosporidium oocysts in aquatic environments and identify solar radiation as a critical process affecting the oocyst survival in the environment.

  19. Determining the protein repertoire of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Sanya J.; Xia, Dong; Prieto, Helena; Yates, John; Heiges, Mark; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Bromley, Elizabeth; Lal, Kalpana; Sinden, Robert E.; Tomley, Fiona; Wastling, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    The genome of the intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium parvum has recently been sequenced, but protein expression data for the invasive stages of this important zoonotic gastrointestinal pathogen are limited. In this paper a comprehensive analysis of the expressed protein repertoire of an excysted oocyst/sporozoite preparation of C. parvum is presented. Three independent proteome platforms were employed which yielded more than 4800 individual protein identifications representing 1237 nonredundant proteins, corresponding to ∼30% of the predicted proteome. Peptide data were mapped to the corresponding locations on the C. parvum genome and a publicly accessible interface for proteome data was developed for data-mining and visualisation at CryptoDB (http://cryptodb.org). These data provide a timely and valuable resource for improved annotation of the genome, verification of predicted hypothetical proteins and identification of proteins not predicted by current gene models. The data indicated the expression of proteins likely to be important to the invasion and intracellular establishment of the parasite, including surface proteins, constituents of the remnant mitochondrion and apical organelles. Comparison of the expressed proteome with existing transcriptional data indicated only a weak correlation. For approximately half the proteome there was limited functional and structural information, highlighting the limitations in the current understanding of Cryptosporidium biology. PMID:18306179

  20. Timber tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Düdder, Boris; Ross, Omry

    2017-01-01

    Managing and verifying forest products in a value chain is often reliant on easily manipulated document or digital tracking methods - Chain of Custody Systems. We aim to create a new means of tracking timber by developing a tamper proof digital system based on Blockchain technology. Blockchain...

  1. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  2. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal–oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  3. Sensitive quantitative detection/identification of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by signature lipid biomarker analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Center for Environmental Biotechnology]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Alugupalli, S.; Schrum, D.P. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Unique signature lipid biomarkers were found in the acid-fast oocytes of Cryptosporidium parvum. This makes possible the rapid detection/identification and potential infectivity directly from drinking water membrane filtrates.

  4. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R828035)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  5. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R829180)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  6. Literature Reference for Cryptosporidium spp. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007. 73(13): 4218–4225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of drinking water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, aerosol, and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR for identification of Cryptosporidium spp.

  7. Literature Reference for Cryptosporidium spp. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1999. 65(9): 3936–3941)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of animal samples using tissue culture techniques that may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum.

  8. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  9. SPECIES AND GENUS DIFFERENTIATION OF PARASITES (GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM) BY MALDI - MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  10. SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

  11. Molecular characterization of a new genotype of Cryptosporidium from American minks ( Mustela vison) in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Feng, Yaoyu; Ning, Changshen; Jian, Fuchun; Xiao, Lihua; Zhao, Jinfeng

    2008-01-01

    A total of 469 fecal samples were collected from American minks (Mustela vison) on a farm in Hebei Province in China and examined for Cryptosporidium by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and 8 Cryptosporidim isolates were obtained...

  12. Characterization of Cryptosporidium meleagridis of human origin passaged through different host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Donna E; Dilo, Julia; Pearson, Christine; Chapman, Susan; Tumwine, James; Tzipori, Saul

    2003-04-01

    Cryptosporidium meleagridis, a protozoon first observed in turkeys, has been linked by several investigators to cryptosporidiosis in humans. C. meleagridis is the only known Cryptosporidium species that infects both avian and mammalian species. We describe the successful propagation of C. meleagridis (isolate TU1867), originally purified from a patient with diarrhea, in laboratory animals including chickens, mice, piglets, and calves. TU1867 was readily transmitted from one animal host to another, maintaining genetic homogeneity and stability. The rate of infectivity and virulence of TU1867 for the mammalian species were similar to those of Cryptosporidium parvum. Laboratory propagation of genetically and phenotypically stable and well-characterized reference isolates, representing various Cryptosporidium species, particularly those infectious to humans, will improve considerably the spectrum and quality of laboratory and field investigations on this medically important protozoa.

  13. Preliminary Characterization of MEDLE-2, a Protein Potentially Involved in the Invasion of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoling Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are important causes of diarrhea in humans, ruminants, and other mammals. Comparative genomic analysis indicated that genetically related and host-adapted Cryptosporidium species have different numbers of subtelomeric genes encoding the Cryptosporidium-specific MEDLE family of secreted proteins, which could contribute to differences in host specificity. In this study, a Cryptosporidium parvum-specific member of the protein family MEDLE-2 encoded by cgd5_4590 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Immunofluorescent staining with antibodies generated from the recombinant protein showed the expression of the protein in sporozoites and development stages. In vitro neutralization assay with the antibodies partially blocked the invasion of sporozoites. These results support the potential involvement of MEDLE-2 in the invasion of host cells.

  14. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck™ capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching, ...

  15. Emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen via huishoudelijk afvalwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven JF; Medema GJ; de Nijs ACM; Elzenga JG; MGB

    1996-01-01

    In een kwantitatieve beschrijving van de emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen in de Nederlandse oppervlaktewateren met behulp van emissie- en verspreidingsmodellen zijn concentraties van genoemde pathogenen geschat. De emissies werden met PROMISE gemodelleerd,

  16. Cryptosporidium outbreak in calves on a large dairy farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niine, Tarmo; Dorbek-Kolin, Elisabeth; Lassen, Brian

    2018-01-01

    of life. HP concentration and HL treatment were negatively associated with weight gain at 3 months of age. Cryptosporidium positive faecal samples were significantly (P Giardia or Eimeria positive samples were not. Correct prophylactic treatment with HL delayed...

  17. Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium isolates from pet lizards and snakes in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, L; Capasso, M; Mihalca, A D; Cirillo, R; Cringoli, G; Cacciò, S

    2012-11-01

    In order to acquire prevalence and genetic data on Cryptosporidium infections in captive lizards and snakes kept as pets, a survey was conducted on 150 individual reptiles from southern Italy. Fecal samples were preserved in 5% formalin and analyzed using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. IFA revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in nine of the 150 samples examined (6.0%), precisely in 6/125 snakes (4.8%) and in 3/25 lizards (12.0%); all fecal samples tested negative for the presence of Giardia cysts. Molecular characterization based on nested PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene, revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in three samples from snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor, Elapheguttata guttata guttata and Python molurus).

  18. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate protozoan parasite found in surface waters. It is the etiological agent for cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that causes severe gastrointestinal illness which is potentially fatal among immuno-compromised individuals. This water borne...

  19. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; Hurnik, Daniel; Estey, Chelsie; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    In a cross-sectional study of 633 pigs from 21 herds on Prince Edward Island, Canada (PEI), the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and the genotypes and species of isolates were determined in order to establish the zoonotic potential of pigs in this region. As determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DFA), 18 herds (86%) and 163 animals (26%; 95% CI: 22-29%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium, while just 3 herds (14%) and 6 animals (1%; 95% CI: 0.4-2%) tested positive for Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolates were detected in 39% (95% CI: 34-44%) of weanlings (1-3 months of age) and 9% (95% CI: 6-13) of sows (>8months of age). Molecular characterization using the 18S rDNA and HSP70 gene fragments revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II, C. suis, C. parvum, and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype. Among the 113 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, pig genotype II (61%) predominated, with C. suis (36%) being the next most prominant isolate. C. parvum (2%; two isolates) and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype (0.9%; one isolate) were only occasionally isolated. The only two Cryptosporidium-positive genotyped isolates from sows included one each of C. suis and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II. All but one of the six Giardia positive isolates were detected in weanling pigs. None of the Giardia-positive isolates was amenable to PCR. This study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. are highly prevalent in pigs on PEI, Canada, are found mostly in weanlings (1-3 months of age). Furthermore, the pigs are primarily infected by the host-specific genotypes and species, Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II and C. suis, whereas the zoonotic C. parvum is rare. Giardia duodenalis is only occasionally found in pigs. These findings suggest that domestic pigs on PEI, Canada, likely do not pose a significant health risk to humans from these parasites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute diarrhoea associated with Cryptosporidium sp in Belém, Brazil (preliminary report)

    OpenAIRE

    Loureiro, Edvaldo Carlos Brito; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Mata, Leonardo

    1986-01-01

    Cryptosporidium sp was detected in faeces from three children suffering from acute diarrhoea. In two cases no other concomitant agents were detected and in a 3rd. this agent was associated with Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili and Pentatricbomonas hominis. Amostras de Cryptosporidium sp foram detectadas das fezes de três crianças com diarréia aguda. Em dois casos nenhum outro agente foi registrado, concomitantemente, e no terceiro caso, esse coccidi...

  1. Isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaqiong; Li, Na; Lysén, Colleen; Frace, Michael; Tang, Kevin; Sammons, Scott; Roellig, Dawn M; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-02-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of Cryptosporidium spp. is hampered by difficulties in obtaining sufficient, highly pure genomic DNA from clinical specimens. In this study, we developed procedures for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium genomic DNA from fecal specimens and verification of DNA purity for whole-genome sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of genomic DNA were achieved by a combination of three oocyst purification steps and whole-genome amplification (WGA) of DNA from purified oocysts. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of WGA products was used as an initial quality assessment of amplified genomic DNA. The purity of WGA products was assessed by Sanger sequencing of cloned products. Next-generation sequencing tools were used in final evaluations of genome coverage and of the extent of contamination. Altogether, 24 fecal specimens of Cryptosporidium parvum, C. hominis, C. andersoni, C. ubiquitum, C. tyzzeri, and Cryptosporidium chipmunk genotype I were processed with the procedures. As expected, WGA products with low (sequences in Sanger sequencing. The cloning-sequencing analysis, however, showed significant contamination in 5 WGA products (proportion of positive colonies derived from Cryptosporidium genomic DNA, ≤25%). Following this strategy, 20 WGA products from six Cryptosporidium species or genotypes with low (mostly sequencing, generating sequence data covering 94.5% to 99.7% of Cryptosporidium genomes, with mostly minor contamination from bacterial, fungal, and host DNA. These results suggest that the described strategy can be used effectively for the isolation and enrichment of Cryptosporidium DNA from fecal specimens for whole-genome sequencing. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Host Association of Cryptosporidium parvum Populations Infecting Domestic Ruminants in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Quílez, Joaquín; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Monteagudo, Luis; del Cacho, Emilio; Sánchez-Acedo, Caridad

    2013-01-01

    A stock of 148 Cryptosporidium parvum DNA extracts from lambs and goat kids selected from a previous study examining the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species and GP60 subtypes in diarrheic lambs and goat kids in northeastern Spain was further characterized by a multilocus fragment typing approach with six mini- and microsatellite loci. Various degrees of polymorphism were seen at all but the MS5 locus, although all markers exhibited two major alleles accounting for more than 75% of isolates....

  4. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311) and 0.64% (2/311) by ELISA and Sheather's sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  5. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, Lovebirds (Agapornis sp., Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria, and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fecal samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311 and 0.64% (2/311 by ELISA and Sheather’s sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  6. Morphologic, host specificity, and molecular characterization of a Hungarian Cryptosporidium meleagridis isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sréter, T; Kovács, G; da Silva, A J; Pieniazek, N J; Széll, Z; Dobos-Kovács, M; Márialigeti, K; Varga, I

    2000-02-01

    This study was undertaken in order to characterize Cryptosporidium meleagridis isolated from a turkey in Hungary and to compare the morphologies, host specificities, organ locations, and small-subunit RNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences of this organism and other Cryptosporidium species. The phenotypic differences between C. meleagridis and Cryptosporidium parvum Hungarian calf isolate (zoonotic genotype) oocysts were small, although they were statistically significant. Oocysts of C. meleagridis were successfully passaged in turkeys and were transmitted from turkeys to immunosuppressed mice and from mice to chickens. The location of C. meleagridis was the small intestine, like the location of C. parvum. A comparison of sequence data for the variable region of the SSU rRNA gene of C. meleagridis isolated from turkeys with other Cryptosporidium sequence data in the GenBank database revealed that the Hungarian C. meleagridis sequence is identical to a C. meleagridis sequence recently described for a North Carolina isolate. Thus, C. meleagridis is a distinct species that occurs worldwide and has a broad host range, like the C. parvum zoonotic strain (also called the calf or bovine strain) and Cryptosporidium felis. Because birds are susceptible to C. meleagridis and to some zoonotic strains of C. parvum, these animals may play an active role in contamination of surface waters not only with Cryptosporidium baileyi but also with C. parvum-like parasites.

  7. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in yaks in Qinghai Province of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Mi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium infecting yaks in the Qinghai Province of Northwestern China. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected by microscopy and nested-PCR. A total of 586 fecal samples were collected from yaks in 6 counties, of which 142 (24.2% samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The small subunit (SSU rRNA gene of fifty-five samples were amplified and sequenced successfully and demonstrated that Cryptosporidium bovis (31/55, 56.4% was the most common species, followed by C. parvum (16/55, 29.1% and C. ryanae (5/55, 9.0%. Mixed infections of C. parvum and C. bovis (n = 2, C. ryanae and C. bovis (n = 1 were also detected. All three species were found in yaks ranging in age from 2 years. Cryptosporidium was most commonly detected in spring (28.4%, followed by summer (20.9%, then winter (17.5%. Cryptosporidium parvum positive samples were subtyped using the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Subtypes IIaA15G2R1 (n = 8, IIaA16G2R1 (n = 2, IIaA14G1R1 (n = 1, IIaA14G2R1 (n = 1 and IIaA16G3R1 (n = 1 were detected. All of these subtypes are zoonotic, and may pose a potential threat to human health.

  8. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  9. [The survey of Cryptosporidium infection among young children in kindergartens in Anhui Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Li, Chao-pin

    2004-12-01

    To study the cryptosporidiosis infection among young children in 29 kindergartens in the province, and to explore the best way to diagnose the infection. Stool specimens of 1204 children were collected, oocysts of Cryptosporidium were identified with auramine O-modified staining, acid-fast staining, safranine T and methylene blue staining, and auramine O-modified acid-fast staining. The detection rate of Cryptosporidium in four stainings were 2.46%, 1.50%, 1.98% and 3.46% respectively, and the rate was significantly higher by auramine O-modified acid-fast staining than other stainings (P urban children (2.14%, 15/684) than the rural ones (5.19%, 27/520). Boys and girls showed similar detection rate (1.99%, 24/1204 vs 1.50%, 18/1204). Cryptosporidium infection was usually subclinical, the major clinical features of cryptosporidium included benign diarrhea, mild abdominal pain and nausea. The Cryptosporidium infection was relatively common in kindergartens in Anhui and higher infection rate was found in rural children. As majority of the Cryptosporidium infections are subclinical, the confirmation of diagnosis is important though difficult.

  10. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  11. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  12. Assessing the infection risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public drinking water delivered by surface water systems in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maria Ines Z; Galvani, Ana Tereza; Padula, Jose Antonio; Nardocci, Adelaide Cassia; Lauretto, Marcelo de Souza; Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Hachich, Elayse Maria

    2013-01-01

    A survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was conducted in surface water used as drinking water sources by public water systems in four densely urbanized regions of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, based on protozoa concentrations, was performed to estimate the probability of protozoa infection associated with drinking water ingestion. A total of 206 source water samples were analyzed over a 24 month period using the USEPA Method 1623. The risk of infection was estimated using an exponential dose response model, children and adults exposure and a gamma distribution for (oo)cyst concentrations with three scenarios for treating censored data. Giardia was detected in 102 of the samples, and 19 of them were also positive for Cryptosporidium, with maximum concentrations of 97.0 cysts/L and 6.0 oocysts/L, respectively. Risk distributions were similar for the three scenarios. In the four regions, the estimated risk of Giardia infection per year, for adults and children, ranged from 0.29% to 2.47% and from 0.08% to 0.70%, respectively. Cryptosporidium risk infection varied from 0.15% to 0.29% for adults and from 0.04% to 0.08% for children. In both cases, the calculated risk surpassed the risk of infection of 10(-4) (1:10,000) defined as tolerable by USEPA for a yearly exposure. The probability of Giardia infection was very close to the rates of acute diarrheic disease for adults (1% to 3%) but lower for children (2% to 7%). The daily consumption of drinking water was an important contributing factor for these differences. The Microbiological Risk Assessment carried out in this study provides an indication of infection risks by Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the population served by these source waters. Strategies for source water protection and performance targets for the water treatment should be established to achieve the required level of public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. No molecular epidemiological evidence supporting household transmission of zoonotic Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. from pet dogs and cats in the province of Álava, Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    The role of pet dogs and cats as suitable source of human infections by the diarrheagenic protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. has been a topic of intense debate for long time and still remains a largely unsolved problem. In this cross-sectional molecular epidemiological survey we attempted to investigate whether zoonotic (or zooanthroponotic) disease transmission was occurring among humans and domestic dogs and cats sharing the same spatial and temporal setting in both rural and urban areas of the province of Álava, Northern Spain. A total of 268 (including 179 human, 55 canine, and 34 feline) individual faecal specimens were obtained from 63 family households during February-March and November-December 2014. Detection of G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts was achieved by direct fluorescence microscopy (DFAT) and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene of the parasites. Giardia-positive isolates were subsequently sub-genotyped at the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and β-giardin (BG) genes. Overall, G. duodenalis infections were identified in 3.4% (6/179) of humans, 29% (16/55) of dogs, and 5.9% (2/34) of cats, respectively. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were detected in 1.1% (2/179) of humans, 5.5% (3/55) of dogs, and 8.8% (3/34) of cats, respectively. Simultaneous infections in human and canine/feline hosts by G. duodenalis or Cryptosporidium spp. were only demonstrated in a single household in which a cat and its owner tested positive for Cryptosporidium by DFAT, but this result could not be confirmed by SSU-PCR. Infections were homogeneously distributed among the studied human or animal populations irrespectively of their sex, age group, or geographical region of origin. Inadequate washing of raw vegetables and fruits was the only risk factor significantly associated to a higher likelihood of having human giardiosis/cryptosporidiosis. Molecular characterization of G. duodenalis

  14. Tracking FEMA

    OpenAIRE

    Leskanic, Tyler; Kays, Kevin; Maier, Emily; Cannon, Seth

    2015-01-01

    The zip archive attached to this project is the compressed TrackingFEMA Git repository. It contains the CMS (RefineryCMS - Rails), processing scripts, as well as visualization sample code. The processing scripts are in a folder called TrackingFEMAProcessing. The visualizations are contained in Visualization. The rest of the rails files are contained within the usual Ruby on Rails file system structure. The finished product is a website visualizing the efforts of disaster response organizat...

  15. Transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores at the Barcelona zoo: a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracenea, M; Gómez, M S; Torres, J; Carné, E; Fernández-Morán, J

    2002-02-27

    Factors influencing the transmission of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores housed at the Barcelona zoo have been analyzed. The relationship between continuous and discontinuous oocyst shedding, both animal housing conditions and abiotic factors (seasonality, humidity, temperature) was examined to explain the epizootiology of the protozoan. Thirty six fecal samples from each of 11 primates (Pongidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidae and Lemuridae) and 22 herbivores (Elephantidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Bovidae) were examined over the period of 1 year. The parasite transmission was based on the chronic infection status of some animals serving as a source of successive reinfection for other animals. The environmental temperature and humidity (seasonality), the physical features of the facilities, the vicinity of the animals and the physiological status induced by captivity contributed to transmission. The long-term character of this study was essential for obtaining these results and interpreting the complex relationships.

  16. Cryptosporidium: a frequent finding in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, L; Pohjola, S; Jokipii, A M

    1983-08-13

    1422 faecal samples sent by general practitioners for routine parasitological examination were surveyed in 3 months. Of the 10.8% short-listed for special examination for cryptosporidium oocysts, 14 (9.1%) were positive. Charcot-Leyden crystals were not associated with cryptosporidiosis. All 14 patients had symptoms of gastrointestinal infection, which seemed to be related to a trip abroad. The incubation period varied between 4 and 12 days. Clinically cryptosporidiosis could not be distinguished from giardiasis, but its duration was shorter (median 10 days), strong abdominal pain and cramps were commoner, and bloating, anorexia, and weakness were less common. The disease can be diagnosed by identification of oocysts in faecal samples that have undergone formalin-ether concentration. There is no specific treatment for it, and recovery is spontaneous.

  17. Cryptosporidium infection in infancy as a cause of malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kare; Andersen, M; Aaby, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum causes persistent diarrhea in young children in developing countries. To determine the interaction between nutritional status and cryptosporidiosis, an open cohort of 1064 children younger than 3 y of age was followed for 1441 child-years by weekly diarrhea recall visits....... A total of 5072 weight and 4264 height measurements was made. There were no tendencies of low weight (P = 0.38) or height (P = 0.16) in children who acquired cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis in infancy was accompanied by an estimated weight loss of 392 g (95% CI: 247, 538 g) in boys and 294 g (95% CI......: 109, 479 g) in girls, corresponding to 3.7% and 2.9% of mean weight, respectively, at 2 y of age. No significant catch-up growth covered for this loss in weight. A similar effect in linear growth was shown (P = 0.02). Although it has been suggested that the effect of infections on nutrition is usually...

  18. Proventriculitis Associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) and Its Epidemiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagun, Shotaro; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Miki; Tomikawa, Sohei; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu

    2017-10-01

    We describe an unusual case of proventriculitis associated with Cryptosporidium baileyi in a 7-wk-old snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus) chick kept at a zoo. Necropsy of this animal revealed diffuse mucosal thickening of the proventriculus. Subsequent histopathological examinations of the proventriculus showed marked ductal epithelial hyperplasia with intestinal metaplasia and severe inflammatory cell infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. These lesions were associated with numerous periodic-acid-Schiff-positive cryptosporidia-like protozoan parasites. Moreover, oocysts found within the lamina propria had a noticeably thicker wall and displayed Ziehl-Neelsen-positive test results. PCR sequencing analyses of the 18S rDNA, actin, and 70 kDa heat shock protein gene loci identified the protozoan to be C. baileyi, of which two novel sets of primers were designed for use with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. An epidemiological survey was carried out at the zoo to investigate the source of infection, but all owl species surveyed proved negative for cryptosporidiosis. It is most likely that small animal vectors such as wild birds or rodents were responsible for this particular lethal case. This is the first report of C. baileyi associated with proventriculitis and also the first report of cryptosporidiosis in a raptor species in Asia.

  19. Concentration of Cryptosporidium, microsporidia and other water-borne pathogens by continuous separation channel centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of continuous separation channel centrifugation for concentrating water-borne pathogens of various taxa and sizes. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia lamblia cysts, Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores and Escherichia coli were seeded into different water matrices at densities ranging from 5 to 10 000 organisms l(-1) and recovered using continuous separation channel centrifugation. All pathogens were enumerated on membrane filters using microscopy. Recovery efficiencies were usually > 90%. Oocyst recovery did not vary with source water turbidity or with centrifuge flow rate up to 250 ml min(-1). Based on excystation, this concentration method did not alter oocyst viability. Continuous separation channel centrifugation is an effective means of concentrating water-borne pathogens. Methods are needed for detecting pathogens in drinking water to ensure public health. The first step for any pathogen detection procedure is concentration. However, this step has been problematic because recovery efficiencies of conventional methods, like filtration, are often low and variable, which may lead to false negatives. Continuous separation channel centrifugation can simultaneously concentrate multiple pathogens as small as 1 microm with high and reproducible efficiency in a variety of water matrices.

  20. Cryptosporidium outbreak linked to interactive water feature, UK: importance of guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M; Boccia, D; Kealy, M; Salkin, B; Ferrero, A; Nichols, G; Stuart, J M

    2006-01-01

    A need for national guidelines relating to interactive water features was highlighted following three outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis in the United Kingdom, all of which were related to public water features. In August 2003 the Health Protection Agency South West of England was notified of an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with an interactive water feature designed for water play within an adventure park. The water feature was implicated following samples with a high coliform count and the presence of faecal coliforms. A case was defined as any child (younger than 16 years of age) who had visited the park during August and who subsequently had gastrointestinal symptoms and a faecal sample positive for cryptosporidium. Seventy one children were identified in the cohort. This outbreak of cryptosporidiosis was characterised by a very high attack rate (89%), relatively severe in duration (median 8 days) and had a relatively high hospital admission (16% of cases). The epidemic curve was consistent with a point source of infection, which corresponded to the date 80% of the cohort visited the park. This outbreak has similarities to two other cryptosporidiosis outbreaks reported in England in 2003 that involved public water features. These outbreaks raise issues about the operation and maintenance of water-based recreational attractions that very often involve children. The paper reflects on the basic control measures that can be taken and highlights the need for guidelines, especially since such attractions are becoming increasingly common. The Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group in United Kingdom has now produced guidelines.

  1. Assessment of zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and humans in rural villages in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amimul M Ehsan

    Full Text Available Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like, as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number

  2. Assessment of zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and humans in rural villages in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul M; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Parvin, Sonia M; Islam, Taohidul M; Ahmed, Uddin M; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like), as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne) transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number of sequences that

  3. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. World's largest air shower array now on track of super-high-energy cosmic-rays Pierre Auger Observatory seeks source of highest-energy extraterrestrial particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "With the completion of its hundredth surface detector, the Pierre Auger Observatory, under construction in Argentina, this week became the largest cosmic-ray air shower array in the world. Managed by scientists at the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the Pierre Auger project so far encompasses a 70-square-mile array of detectors that are tracking the most violent-and perhaps most puzzling- processes in the entire universe" (1 page).

  5. WSU-IR at TREC 2015 Clinical Decision Support Track: Joint Weighting of Explicit and Latent Medical Query Concepts from Diverse Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    uw17( Deficiency Anemia ) ) ) where 0.40, 0.35 and 0.45 are the weights of the corresponding concept types . The window sizes for ordered and...task in this track. These instantiations consider different types of concepts and use different parts of topics as queries. 1 Introduction An...of different types , including patient demographics, symptoms of a disease or laboratory test results. For example, the query “A 4-year-old girl

  6. Cryptosporidium Species are Frequently Present but Rarely Detected in Clinical Samples from Children with Diarrhea in a Developed Country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaards, Daniel M; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Skov, Marianne N

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were done on cryptosporidiosis in children. A retrospective survey showed that from 2005 to 2015 Cryptosporidium species was detected by microscopy of stool from 0.25% of children with diarrhea. In a subsequent prospective study PCR detected Cryptosporidium species in 4 (1,3%) of 304 ...

  7. Arduino based radioactive tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Rashid, Mohd Fazlie Bin Abdul; Rahman, Anwar Bin Abdul; Ramlan, Atikah

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear need to strengthen security measures to prevent any malevolent use or accidental misuse of radioactive sources. Some of these radioactive sources are regularly transported outside of office or laboratory premises for work and consultation purposes. This paper present the initial development of radioactive source tracking system, which combined Arduino microcontroller, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) technologies. The tracking system will help the owner to monitor the movement of the radioactive sources. Currently, the system is capable of tracking the movement of radioactive source through the GPS satellite signals. The GPS co-ordinate could either be transmitted to headquarters at fixed interval via Short Messaging Service (SMS) to enable real time monitoring, or stored in a memory card for offline monitoring and data logging.

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Wild, Semi-Wild and Captive Orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) on Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynářová, Anna; Foitová, Ivona; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, Michael; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Nguyen, Cathleen; Supriyadi, Supriyadi; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans' habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists. The overall prevalence of parasites in 298 examined animals was 11.1%. The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals (7.0%). Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (n = 5) and novel genotype Pongo 2 were detected only in six individuals (2.0%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. (2.7%), including C. parvum (n = 2) and C. muris (n = 6). Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual. While no significant differences between the different human contact level groups (p = 0.479-0.670) or between the different islands (p = 0.992) were reported in case of E. bieneusi or E. cuniculi, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly less frequently detected in wild individuals (p orangutans on Kalimantan than on Sumatra (p orangutans are significantly less frequently infected by Cryptosporidium spp. than captive and semi-wild animals. In addition, this parasite was more frequently detected at localities on Kalimantan. In contrast, we did not detect any significant difference in the prevalence of microsporidia between the studied groups of animals. The sources and transmission modes of infections were not determined, as this would require repeated sampling of individuals, examination of water sources, and sampling of humans and animals sharing the habitat with orangutans.

  9. First report of Cryptosporidium canis in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and identification of several novel subtype families for Cryptosporidium mink genotype in minks (Mustela vison) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Tao, Wei; Liu, Chengwu; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Li, Qiao; Yang, Hang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the rapid and extensive advances in molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in humans and a variety of animals, the prevalence and genetic traits of the parasite in wildlife bred in captivity and the role of the neglected hosts in zoonotic transmission of human cryptosporidiosis are rarely understood. This study investigated the prevalence, species/genotype, and subtype of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in China and assessed the possibility of zoonotic transmission. Three of 191 (1.6%) foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 17 of 162 (10.5%) raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 48 of 162 (29.6%) minks (Mustela vison) were positive for Cryptosporidium by nested PCRs targeting the small subunit rRNA gene. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of only Cryptosporidium canis in foxes and raccoon dogs. There is no significant difference in prevalence between young and adult foxes (or raccoon dogs). Three Cryptosporidium species or genotype including C. canis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, and mink genotype were determined in minks aged five to six months. Subtyping based on nucleotide and amino acid sequence polymorphisms of the 60kDa glycoprotein facilitated identification of three novel subtype families named as Xb to Xd for Cryptosporidium mink genotype. The presence of zoonotic C. canis, C. meleagridis, and Cryptosporidium mink genotype in captive-bred fur animals is of public health concerns. The findings expanded the host ranges of C. canis and C. meleagridis and confirmed genetic diversity at the subtype level in Cryptosporidium mink genotype. This is the first study reporting Cryptosporidium infections in foxes and raccoon dogs in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium from cattle from five states of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Nan Jiun; Koehler, Anson V; Ebner, Janine; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of the cattle industry in Malaysia, there are very few studies of the diversity and public health significance of bovine cryptosporidiosis in this country. In the present study, we used a PCR-based approach to detect and genetically characterize Cryptosporidium DNA in faecal samples from a cohort of 215 asymptomatic cattle (of different ages) from six farms from five states of Peninsular Malaysia. Cattle on four of the six farms were test-positive for Cryptosporidium, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae were detected in two (0.9%) and five (2.3%) samples tested; this low prevalence likely relates to the age of the cattle tested, as most (73%) of the samples tested originated from cattle that were ≥2 years of age. Future studies should investigate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and weaned calves in rural communities of Malaysia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of faecal Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in diarrheic Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiei, K; Pourjafar, M; Ghane, M

    2011-08-01

    Over a one-year period, based on a random cluster sampling design, 661 faecal samples from natural cases of diarrheic calves were taken in Fars province of Iran. The samples were taken from the 267 diarrheic calves of high and 394 diarrheic calves of average producing Holstein dairy cows. Faecal samples were collected directly from the rectum. Herd selection was based on geographical location and density of cattle in the region. Samples were collected based on 5 percent of herd population in 4 geographical regions: North, West, East and South of Fars province. The herds were stratified into small, medium and large size. Laboratory investigation consisted of a direct identification test for antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum. All herds had HPDC and APDC Cryptosporidium-infected diarrheic calves in their population. Diarrheic Cryptosporidium infected HPDC calves in southern region of Fars province were at much lower risk (P2 to 3years) showed a higher rate of infection when compared to diarrheic HPDC Cryptosporidium infected ones. There were no differences among the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in diarrheic HPDC and APDC calves of different herd size groups.

  12. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection among Inhabitants of 2 Rural Areas in White Nile State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Jin-Su; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Mohamed, Abd Al Wahab Saed; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidium , a protozoan parasite that causes watery diarrhea, is found worldwide and is common in areas with low water hygiene. In February 2014, 866 stool samples were collected from the inhabitants of 2 rural areas in White Nile State, Sudan. These stool samples were assessed by performing modified acid-fast staining, followed by examination under a light microscope. The overall positive rate of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 13.3%. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area having water purification systems and in 14.6% stool samples obtained from inhabitants living in the area not having water purification systems. No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection between men and women (14.7% and 14.1%, respectively). The positive rate of oocysts by age was the highest among inhabitants in their 60s (40.0%). These findings suggest that the use of water purification systems is important for preventing Cryptosporidium infection among inhabitants of these rural areas in Sudan.

  13. Genetic analysis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from people in Northern Australia using PCR-based tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Janine; Koehler, Anson V; Robertson, Gemma; Bradbury, Richard S; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Norton, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been limited genetic study of the gastrointestinal pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium in northern parts of Australia. Here, PCR-based methods were used for the genetic characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 695 people with histories of gastrointestinal disorders from the tropical North of Australia. Genomic DNAs from fecal samples were subjected to PCR-based analyses of regions from the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and/or the glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 13 and four of the 695 samples, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B were found in 4 (31%) and 9 (69%) of the 13 samples in persons of <9 years of age. Cryptosporidium hominis (subgenotype IdA18), Cryptosporidium mink genotype (subgenotype IIA16R1) and C. felis were also identified in single patients of 11-21 years of age. Future studies might focus on a comparative study of these and other protists in rural communities in Northern Australia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  15. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in dogs in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Fuchun; Qi, Meng; He, Xiaoyi; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Sumei; Dong, Heping; Zhang, Longxian

    2014-01-17

    Cryptosporidiosis in dogs has been reported worldwide, involving both asymptomatic and diarrheic dogs. Large-scale surveys of Cryptosporidium infection in dogs have been performed in some countries using different diagnostic methods. But, few data are available on the infection rate and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs in China. In this study, 770 fecal samples from 66 locations in Henan Province were examined. The average Cryptosporidium infection rate was 3.8%, with dogs in kennels having the highest rate of 7.0% (χ² = 14.82, P dogs younger than 90 days, which was significantly higher than that in the other age groups (1.1-3.8%;χ² = 18.82, P dogs. Twenty-nine Cryptosporidium-positive samples were amplified at the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin loci using PCR. Sequence analysis of these amplicons identified only Cryptosporidium canis, which showed 100% identity with the published sequences of the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes. Our results confirm that C. canis is popular in the dog population in China, considering the large number of dogs in China and the close contact between dogs and humans, the role of C. canis in the transmission of human cryptosporidiosis warrants attention.

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a mare and her foal with foal heat diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrucci, Stefania; Buggiani, Claudia; Sgorbini, Micaela; Cerchiai, Isabella; Otranto, Domenico; Traversa, Donato

    2011-12-15

    Cryptosporidium infection was molecularly investigated in mares and in their neonatal foals for which the occurrence of foal heat diarrhoea was also assessed. Thirty-seven mare/foal pairs were included in the study. All foals were born in the same stud farm during 2006-2008 breeding seasons. Two faecal samples, one prior to and one after delivery were collected from each mare, whereas three faecal samples were taken from each foal, i.e. at 8, 10 and 12 days of age. All samples (74 from mares and 111 from foals) were divided into two aliquots, one of which was examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium by a commercially available microplate ELISA kit, while the second aliquot of all ELISA-positive samples was molecularly examined. Nine out of 37 examined foals presented foal heat diarrhoea and one of them scored positive for Cryptosporidium, together with its mare. More specifically, four samples belonging to the same mare/foal pair resulted positive for Cryptosporidium upon both ELISA and PCR. The sequence analysis of the COWP gene showed the occurrence of the zoonotic species Cryptosporidium parvum. The possibility that foal heat diarrhoea-like episodes may be due to neonatal cryptosporidiosis and their relevance for the health of horses and of humans handling diarrhoeic neonatal foals and their mares are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Farm factors associated with reducing Cryptosporidium loading in storm runoff from dairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W A; Lewis, D J; Pereira, M D G; Lennox, M; Conrad, P A; Tate, K W; Atwill, E R

    2008-01-01

    A systems approach was used to evaluate environmental loading of Cryptosporidium oocysts on five coastal dairies in California. One aspect of the study was to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations and loads for 350 storm runoff samples from dairy high use areas collected over two storm seasons. Selected farm factors and beneficial management practices (BMPs) associated with reducing the Cryptosporidium load in storm runoff were assessed. Using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) analysis, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected on four of the five farms and in 21% of storm runoff samples overall. Oocysts were detected in 59% of runoff samples collected near cattle less than 2 mo old, while 10% of runoff samples collected near cattle over 6 mo old were positive. Factors associated with environmental loading of Cryptosporidium oocysts included cattle age class, 24 h precipitation, and cumulative seasonal precipitation, but not percent slope, lot acreage, cattle stocking number, or cattle density. Vegetated buffer strips and straw mulch application significantly reduced the protozoal concentrations and loads in storm runoff, while cattle exclusion and removal of manure did not. The study findings suggest that BMPs such as vegetated buffer strips and straw mulch application, especially when placed near calf areas, will reduce environmental loading of fecal protozoa and improve stormwater quality. These findings are assisting working dairies in their efforts to improve farm and ecosystem health along the California coast.

  18. Método rápido para la observación de Cryptosporidium en heces Rapid method for detection of cryptosporidium in stools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Barona

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1990 y diciembre de 1991 se examinaron 120 muestras de materia fecal de niños o adultos que consultaron por diarrea, sugestiva de ser causada por Cryptosporidium spp. En todos los casos se realizó la coloración con Lugol-Nigroslna, que proponemos, y se hizo la confirmación con la de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, pese a su limitación de teñir con el mismo patrón de coloración el Cryptosporldium y estructuras diferentes a él. En 20 (16.6% muestras (12 de niños y 8 de adultos se identificaron ooquistes de Cryptosporldlum spp y todas se confirmaron como positivas por la coloración de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Dado que no siempre es fácil la observación de parásitos de poca prevalencia sugerimos esta coloración como ensayo de rutina porque ayuda a distinguir los ooquistes de Cryptosporidium y mejora la observación de todos los protozoarios.

    We examined 120 stool specimens from patients with diarrheal disease, suspected of being infected with Cryptosporidium. Preliminary observation was made with a Lugol-Nigrosine stain and confirmation with modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Twenty specimens (12 from children and 8 from adults (16.6% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts andevery one of them was confirmed with ZN stain. Since It may be difficult to detect low-prevalence parasites we suggest routine use of Lugol-Nigrosine which is useful for the detection of Cryptosporidium as well as of other protozoa.

  19. Tracking Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Bimbó, K.

    2016-01-01

    Depending on a relevant task at hand, information can be represented at different levels, less or more detailed, each supporting its own appropriate logical languages. We discuss a few of these levels and their connections, and investigate when and how information growth at one level can be tracked

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; El Safadi, Dima; Cian, Amandine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Nourrisson, Céline; Poirier, Philippe; Pereira, Bruno; Razakandrainibe, Romy; Pinon, Anthony; Lambert, Céline; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Dabboussi, Fouad; Delbac, Frederic; Favennec, Loïc; Hamze, Monzer; Viscogliosi, Eric; Certad, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection. In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%), followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%), Giardia duodenalis (28.5%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%). PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa. This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as unidentified

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Protozoan Infections with Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Blastocystis and Dientamoeba among Schoolchildren in Tripoli, Lebanon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Osman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal protozoan infections are confirmed as major causes of diarrhea, particularly in children, and represent a significant, but often neglected, threat to public health. No recent data were available in Lebanon concerning the molecular epidemiology of protozoan infections in children, a vulnerable population at high risk of infection.In order to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of intestinal pathogenic protozoa, a cross-sectional study was conducted in a general pediatric population including both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. After obtaining informed consent from the parents or legal guardians, stool samples were collected in January 2013 from 249 children in 2 schools in Tripoli, Lebanon. Information obtained from a standard questionnaire included demographic characteristics, current symptoms, socioeconomic status, source of drinking water, and personal hygiene habits. After fecal examination by both microscopy and molecular tools, the overall prevalence of parasitic infections was recorded as 85%. Blastocystis spp. presented the highest infection rate (63%, followed by Dientamoeba fragilis (60.6%, Giardia duodenalis (28.5% and Cryptosporidium spp. (10.4%. PCR was also performed to identify species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium, subtypes of Blastocystis, and assemblages of Giardia. Statistical analysis using a logistic regression model showed that contact with family members presenting gastrointestinal disorders was the primary risk factor for transmission of these protozoa.This is the first study performed in Lebanon reporting the prevalence and the clinical and molecular epidemiological data associated with intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchildren in Tripoli. A high prevalence of protozoan parasites was found, with Blastocystis spp. being the most predominant protozoans. Although only 50% of children reported digestive symptoms, asymptomatic infection was observed, and these children may act as

  2. Stochastic modeling of Cryptosporidium parvum to predict transport, retention, and downstream exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. D.; Boano, F.; Atwill, E. R.; Li, X.; Harter, T.; Packman, A. I.

    2016-12-01

    Rivers are a means of rapid and long-distance transmission of pathogenic microorganisms from upstream terrestrial sources. Thus, significant fluxes of pathogen loads from agricultural lands can occur due to transport in surface waters. Pathogens enter streams and rivers in a variety of processes, notably overland flow, shallow groundwater discharge, and direct inputs from host populations such as humans and other vertebrate species. Viruses, bacteria, and parasites can enter a stream and persist in the environment for varying amounts of time. Of particular concern is the protozoal parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, which can remain infective for weeks to months under cool and moist conditions, with the infectious state (oocysts) largely resistant to chlorination. In order to manage water-borne diseases more effectively we need to better predict how microbes behave in freshwater systems, particularly how they are transported downstream in rivers and in the process interact with the streambed and other solid surfaces. Microbes continuously immobilize and resuspend during downstream transport due to a variety of processes, such as gravitational settling, attachment to in-stream structures such as submerged macrophytes, and hyporheic exchange and filtration within underlying sediments. These various interactions result in a wide range of microbial residence times in the streambed and therefore influence the persistence of pathogenic microbes in the stream environment. We developed a stochastic mobile-immobile model to describe these microbial transport and retention processes in streams and rivers that also accounts for microbial inactivation. We used the model to assess the transport, retention, and inactivation of C. parvum within stream environments, specifically under representative flow conditions of California streams where C. parvum exposure can be at higher risk due to agricultural nonpoint sources. The results demonstrate that the combination of stream reach

  3. Tracking inside the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Badalà, A; Lo Re, G; Palmeri, A; Pappalardo, G S; Pulvirenti, A; Riggi, F

    2002-01-01

    One of the main purposes of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS) is to improve the resolution of the track parameters found in the main ALICE tracker detector, the Time Projector Chamber (TPC). Some results about tracking efficiency and resolution of track parameters obtained with a tracking code, based on the Kalman filter algorithm are presented.

  4. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water (ASM 2017 Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  5. Removal effect of the water purifier for home use against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihiro; Kajima, Junko; Fujino, Takashi

    2004-08-01

    The removal effects of the faucet mounted type water purifier for home use were examined against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. The water purifier is composed of a layer of granular activated carbon and the hollow fiber membrane filter. The cartridges were unused, 25%, 50% and 75% flow down by Arizona-dust of U. S. A. Two respective cartridges were used of the examination. The faucet and the water purifier were connected by anti-pressure tube, and 3.0 x 10(7) oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum were injected into anti-pressure tube while water was running. Twenty liter of collected purified water was examined under the fluorescent microscope. Any oocysts in the purified water collected from all cartridges were not found. Therefore, we considered this purifier as an effective one in removing Cryptosporidium oocysts from drinking water.

  6. The survey on Cryptosporidium parasite infection in Tabriz and suburb native poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hossein hashemzadefarhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan protozoans that can cause gastrointestinal illness with diarrhea in domestic animals, poultry and humans. In addition to the direct economic effects of the clinical disease, the damage caused to the immune system and interaction with other pathogens such as IBD virus has significant effects. The present study has been carried out with the purpose of determining infection to Cryptosporidium.in native poultry Tabriz region and its suburb the present study, 400 fecal samples from native poultry were prepared and examined. Based on our results, from 400 examined samples in 14% of cases cryptosporidium infection was seen. The highest infection vote with 15 positive samples (15% was recorded during winter and the next highest infection with 9% was seen in autumn. Chi squared analysis of results indicated significant difference infection rate during difference seasons of the year (p

  7. A new species of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Ryan, Una M

    2008-10-01

    Cryptosporidium macropodum n. sp is described. Oocysts of C. macropodum from the feces of kangaroos (Macropus spp.) are morphologically indistinguishable from other mammalian Cryptosporidium species, including C. parvum, C. hominis, C. suis, and C. canis. The oocysts are fully sporulated on excretion, lack sporocysts, and have an average width of 4.9 microm (4.5-6.0), a length of 5.4 microm (5.0-6.0), and a length:width ratio of 1.1. Phylogenetic analyses of the 18S ribosomal RNA, actin, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) loci demonstrate that C. macropodum is genetically distinct from all described Cryptosporidium species, including others found in marsupials. The parasite seems to be highly host-specific, because it has been found only in marsupials to date. Therefore, based on biological and molecular data, we consider C. macropodum a new species.

  8. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow

  10. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed

  11. Doppler tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher Jacob

    This study addresses the development of a methodology using the Doppler Effect for high-resolution, short-range tracking of small projectiles and vehicles. Minimal impact on the design of the moving object is achieved by incorporating only a transmitter in it and using ground stations for all other components. This is particularly useful for tracking objects such as sports balls that have configurations and materials that are not conducive to housing onboard instrumentation. The methodology developed here uses four or more receivers to monitor a constant frequency signal emitted by the object. Efficient and accurate schemes for filtering the raw signals, determining the instantaneous frequencies, time synching the frequencies from each receiver, smoothing the synced frequencies, determining the relative velocity and radius of the object and solving the nonlinear system of equations for object position in three dimensions as a function of time are developed and described here.

  12. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium identified in clinical samples from cities in Brazil and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Saramago Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterisation of Cryptosporidiumgenotypes and subtypes are fundamental to the study of cryptosporidiosis epidemiology, aiding in prevention and control strategies. The objective was to determine the genetic diversity ofCryptosporidium in samples obtained from hospitals of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Samples were analysed by microscopy and TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays forCryptosporidium detection, genotyped by nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and subtyped by DNA sequencing of the gp60 gene. Among the 89 samples from Rio de Janeiro, Cryptosporidium spp were detected in 26 by microscopy/TaqMan PCR. In samples from Buenos Aires,Cryptosporidium was diagnosed in 15 patients of the 132 studied. The TaqMan PCR and the nested-PCR-RFLP detected Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, and co-infections of both species. In Brazilian samples, the subtypes IbA10G2 and IIcA5G3 were observed. The subtypes found in Argentinean samples were IbA10G2, IaA10G1R4, IaA11G1R4, and IeA11G3T3, and mixed subtypes of Ia and IIa families were detected in the co-infections. C. hominis was the species more frequently detected, and subtype family Ib was reported in both countries. Subtype diversity was higher in Buenos Aires than in Rio de Janeiro and two new subtypes were described for the first time.

  13. [Evaluation of usefulness of different methods for detection of Cryptosporidium in human and animal stool samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Anna; Sulima, Paweł; Majewska, Anna C

    2004-01-01

    There are many methods for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Most of them (more than 20) enable the microscopic detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal smears. Such a great variability of diagnostic methods may lead to confusion as far as the choice of an appropriate technique by a given laboratory is concerned. This study evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of Cryptosporidium oocysts and coproantigen detection methods in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis in human (266 stool specimen) and animals (205 from cattle, 160 from sheep, 30 from horses, 80 from cats, 227 from dogs and 11 from wild animals). The total number of human and animal stool specimens processed was 266 and 713, respectively. In this study the usefulness of several diagnostic methods was compared. The following techniques were taken into account: wet mounts, hematoxylin staining, four different specific methods (modified Zeihl-Neelsen, Kinyoun's, safranin-methylene blue, as well as carbol-methyl violet and tartrazyne) and commercially available kit based on enzyme-linked immunoassay (ProspecT(r) Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay). The final number of positive specimens was 123. Out of them 77 were positive in all specific methods. The oocysts found in stool specimens were measured. Humans were infected with C. parvum and animals with C. parvum, C. andersoni or C. felis. The statistical analysis has shown that EIA test was a better than microscopy method for identification of Cryptosporidium in faecal samples in human and wild animal. Sensitivity and specificity are important factors for the choice of a proper diagnostic method for Cryptosporidium detection, however other factors such as cost, simplicity and ease of interpretation of results are also important considerations.

  14. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos; Lima, Danielle Dos; da Silva, Edson Moura; Moreira, André Lucas de Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; Amaral, Rodrigo de; Lazzarini, Stella Maris; Alves, Leucio Câmara

    2017-09-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are protozoans that can infect humans and wild and domestic animals. Due to the growing importance of diseases caused by protozoan parasites in aquatic species, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia sp. in aquatic and marine mammals in the northern and northeastern regions of Brazil. We collected 553 fecal samples from 15 species of wild-ranging and captive aquatic mammals in northern and northeastern Brazil. All samples were analyzed by the Kinyoun technique for identification of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Giardia sp. cysts were identified by means of the centrifugal-flotation technique in zinc sulfate solution. Subsequently, all samples were submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing. The overall frequency of infection was 15.55% (86/553) for Cryptosporidium spp. and 9.04% (50/553) for Giardia sp. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in samples from 5 species: neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (15.28%), giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis (41.66%), Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis (9.67%), Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis (16.03%), and Antillean manatee T. manatus (13.79%). Giardia sp. was identified in L. longicaudis (9.23%), P. brasiliensis (29.16%), pygmy sperm whale Kogia breviceps (100%), dwarf sperm whale K. sima (25%), S. guianensis (9.67%), T. inunguis (3.81%), and T. manatus (10.34%). This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in L. longicaudis, P. brasiliensis, and S. guianensis, while the occurrence of Giardia sp., in addition to the 2 otter species, was also identified in manatees, thus extending the number of hosts susceptible to these parasitic agents.

  15. Tracking Porters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Maja Hojer; Krause-Jensen, Jakob; Saltofte, Margit

    2015-01-01

    Anthropology attempts to gain insight into people's experiential life-worlds through long-term fieldwork. The quality of anthropological knowledge production, however, does not depend solely on the duration of the stay in the field, but also on a particular way of seeing social situations. The an...... the students followed the work of a group of porters. Drawing on anthropological concepts and research strategies the students gained crucial insights about the potential effects of using tracking technologies in the hospital....

  16. NucliTrack: an integrated nuclei tracking application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sam; Barr, Alexis R; Glen, Robert; Bakal, Chris

    2017-10-15

    Live imaging studies give unparalleled insight into dynamic single cell behaviours and fate decisions. However, the challenge of reliably tracking single cells over long periods of time limits both the throughput and ease with which such studies can be performed. Here, we present NucliTrack, a cross platform solution for automatically segmenting, tracking and extracting features from fluorescently labelled nuclei. NucliTrack performs similarly to other state-of-the-art cell tracking algorithms, but NucliTrack's interactive, graphical interface makes it significantly more user friendly. NucliTrack is available as a free, cross platform application and open source Python package. Installation details and documentation are at: http://nuclitrack.readthedocs.io/en/latest/ A video guide can be viewed online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J6e0D9F-qSU Source code is available through Github: https://github.com/samocooper/nuclitrack. A Matlab toolbox is also available at: https://uk.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/61479-samocooper-nuclitrack-matlab. sam@socooper.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  18. Cryptosporidium et faune sauvage : un risque pour l'homme ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumoulin A.

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Cette revue rappelle les connaissances actuelles relatives à la biologie de Cryptosporidium, notamment sa biodiversité et son mode de transmission. Elle fait état de la présence du parasite chez les différentes espèces d'hôtes mammifères qui l'hébergent et analyse les risques réels et potentiels de la transmission à l'homme. Le rôle probable d'une transmission mécanique par les insectes est évoqué sur la base d'expérimentations originales. Enfin, les coûts sanitaires et économiques de la cryptosporidiose, tant chez l'espèce humaine que chez le bétail, sont rappelés, ce qui souligne à nouveau l'importance de la détection du parasite dans l'environnement et la faune sauvage, son identification à l'aide d'outils moléculaires spécifiques et les moyens à mettre en oeuvre pour lutter efficacement contre la parasitose.

  19. Enhancing Management Tools: Molecular Genetic Tracking to Target Microbial Pollution Sources in South Florida Coral Reefs, Year 1 - CRCP project #1114

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Both coastal inlets and treated wastewater outfalls are recognized as major pathways for microbial contaminants from Land-Based Sources of Pollution (LBSP) to enter...

  20. Tracking the release of IPCC AR5 on Twitter: Users, comments, and sources following the release of the Working Group I Summary for Policymakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Todd P

    2017-10-01

    Using the immediate release of the Working Group 1 Summary for Policymakers of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report as a case study, this article seeks to describe what type of actors were most active during the summary release, the substance of the most propagated tweets during the summary release, and the media sources that attracted the most attention during the summary release. The results from the study suggest that non-elite actors, such as individual bloggers and concerned citizens, accounted for the majority of the most propagated tweets in the sample. This study also finds that the majority of the most propagated tweets in the sample focused on public understanding of the report. Finally, while mainstream media sources were the most frequently discussed media sources, a number of new media and science news and information sources compete for audience attention.

  1. In Vitro Interactions of Asian Freshwater Clam (Corbicula fluminea) Hemocytes and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T. K.; Fayer, R.; Cranfield, M. R.; Conn, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Corbicula fluminea hemocytes phagocytosed infectious oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum in vitro. After 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of incubation, averages of 35.8, 58.0, 69.7, 77.7, and 81.6% of the oocysts were phagocytosed by 24.3, 70.0, 78.5, 87.3, and 93.0% of the hemocytes, respectively. A single clam can retain by phagocytosis an average of 1.84 x 10(sup6) oocysts per ml of hemolymph. C. fluminea bivalves can serve as biological indicators of contamination of wastewaters and agricultural drainages with Cryptosporidium. PMID:16535656

  2. The Structural Basis of Cryptosporidium-Specific IMP Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPherson, Iain S.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Riera, Thomas V.; D’Aquino, J. Alejandro; Zhang, Minjia; Cuny, Gregory D.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth (BWH); (Brandeis)

    2010-03-29

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a potential biowarfare agent, an important AIDS pathogen, and a major cause of diarrhea and malnutrition. No vaccines or effective drug treatment exist to combat Cryptosporidium infection. This parasite relies on inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) to obtain guanine nucleotides, and inhibition of this enzyme blocks parasite proliferation. Here, we report the first crystal structures of CpIMPDH. These structures reveal the structural basis of inhibitor selectivity and suggest a strategy for further optimization. Using this information, we have synthesized low-nanomolar inhibitors that display 10{sup 3} selectivity for the parasite enzyme over human IMPDH2.

  3. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite, exc...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  4. Determination of the level of parasitic infection (Cryptosporidium and Giardia of the vegetables marketed in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad Avazpoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infected with intestinal parasites is one of the most important health and economical problems, which could have different effects, such as diarrheal diseases or death associated. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in the vegetable marketed in Ilam city. Methods: This study was performed on 280 samples of fresh vegetables and lettuce in Ilam. The samples were taken at the level of 500 grams from the places where vegetables and lettuce are sold. Micro liters of each sample was placed on the slide using automatic micropipette, and Logel and Zyl-Nelson stainings were performed in order to identify Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results: From 200 samples, 54 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte and 13 samples to Giardia cysts. From 80 lettuce samples also 32 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte, and 6 samples contaminated to Giardia cysts. The results showed that the overall infection was 37%. Infection with Giardia cysts was 6.8% and infection with Cryptosporidium oocyte was 30.7%, and Cryptosporidium infection rates in vegetables and lettuce were different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: As a result of this research it is determined that the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Ilam vegetables is significantly higher, and the contamination of lettuce is far greater. Therefore, authorities should be more attentive to the field of education and the control of parasitic diseases.

  5. Occurrence of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from São Paulo State, Brazil, and Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.

  6. Reduction of risk of watery diarrhea with point-of-use water filters during a massive outbreak of waterborne Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addiss, D G; Pond, R S; Remshak, M; Juranek, D D; Stokes, S; Davis, J P

    1996-06-01

    The occurrence of a massive waterborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium infection in Milwaukee, Wisconsin provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of point-of-use home water filters in preventing diarrheal illness associated with Cryptosporidium infection. Of 155 filter owners who responded to a televised request to contact the City of Milwaukee Health Department, 99 (64%) completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their sources of drinking water, the characteristics of their home water filters, and diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Diarrhea among respondents was independently associated with residence in southern or central Milwaukee (the area served by the implicated South water treatment plant), having a home water filter with a pore diameter of greater than 1 micron, and drinking unfiltered tap water in a public building in southern Milwaukee. Among residents of southern and central Milwaukee, two (18%) of 11 persons who drank only submicron-filtered water at home and who did not drink unfiltered South plant water at work had watery diarrhea, compared with 50% (n = 2), 63% (n = 35), and 80% (n = 15) who reported drinking South plant water that was unfiltered or passed through a filter with a pore diameter > 1 micron at work only, home only, or both home and work, respectively (P = 0.02). The data indicate that use of submicron point-of-use water filters may reduce risk of waterborne cryptosporidiosis.

  7. PyGaze: an open-source, cross-platform toolbox for minimal-effort programming of eye-tracking experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalmaijer, E.S.; Mathôt, S.; van der Stigchel, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X

    2014-01-01

    he PyGaze toolbox is an open-source software package for Python, a high-level programming language. It is designed for creating eyetracking experiments in Python syntax with the least possible effort, and it offers programming ease and script readability without constraining functionality and

  8. Tracking historical mobility behavior and sources of lead in the 59-year sediment core from the Huaihe River using lead isotopic compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Guijian; Liu, Houqi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-10-01

    A historical perspective of past 59 years (1955-2014) for contamination and isotopic composition of Pb in sediment core system of the Huaihe River, Huainan City, Anhui Province of China is presented. Detailed investigation regarding changes in Pb sources, enrichment factor, sequential extraction and isotopic analysis revealed that high Pb concentrations were detected along the core, especially during the first two decades (1955-1974). Large variations in Pb isotopic compositions were observed, with 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb values ranging from 1.1504-1.1694, and 2.0817-2.1380, respectively. Diverse Pb sources were identified for sediment contamination over the time. Among anthropogenic sources, metallurgic dust and leaded petrol were on top during 1955-1974, especially when the Great Leap Forward Movement (1958-1960) was in progress in China, the time numerous small industries were established without wastewater treatment facility. However, coal and coal combustion were recognized as the primary sources of Pb emissions for the recent four decades (1974-2014) due to tremendous increase of coal consumption for power and heat generation. Unleaded vehicle exhaust, waste incineration and industrial emission were also sources of Pb during the years 1974-2014. Our estimates based on geochemical and lead isotopic approaches have shown that anthropogenic Pb contributions varied from 4.35 to 92.01%, and 13.28-99.06%, respectively. Assessment of lead speciation indicated an overwhelming presence of reducible fraction (Fe-Mn hydro-(oxides)) in the sediment core, except during 1995-1997, which was thought to be affected by water pollution accidents caused by heavy rainfall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The Objective for 2006 was to complete all of the CMS Tracker sub-detectors and to start the integration of the sub-detectors into the Tracker Support Tube (TST). The Objective for 2007 is to deliver to CMS a completed, installed, commissioned and calibrated Tracking System (Silicon Strip and Pixels) aligned to < 100µ in April 2008 ready for the first physics collisions at LHC. In November 2006 all of the sub-detectors had been delivered to the Tracker Integration facility (TIF) at CERN and the tests and QA procedures to be carried out on each sub-detector before integration had been established. In December 2006, TIB/TID+ was integrated into TOB+, TIB/TID- was being prepared for integration, and TEC+ was undergoing tests at the final tracker operating temperature (-100 C) in the Lyon cold room. In February 2007, TIB/TID- has been integrated into TOB-, and the installation of the pixel support tube and the services for TI...

  10. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...

  11. The effects of Moringa lieifera seed powder on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium spp. in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. H.; Wolsey, I.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    or water used for postharvest washing of the produce is contaminated. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in Danish wastewater. To each of five time points, 12 replicates...

  12. Acute diarrhoea associated with Cryptosporidium sp in Belém, Brazil (preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Carlos Brito Loureiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium sp was detected in faeces from three children suffering from acute diarrhoea. In two cases no other concomitant agents were detected and in a 3rd. this agent was associated with Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Chilomastix mesnili and Pentatricbomonas hominis.

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  14. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  15. North American tree squirrels and ground squirrels with overlapping ranges host different Cryptosporidium species and genotypes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stenger, B.L.S.; Clark, M.E.; Kváč, Martin; Khan, E.; Giddings, C.W.; Prediger, Jitka; McEvoy, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, 2015-Dec (2015), s. 287-293 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium * Tree squirrels * Ground squirrels * Host specificity * Zoonotic Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.591, year: 2015

  16. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  17. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kellnerová, K.; Holubová, Nikola; Jandova, Anna; Vejcik, A.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, JUN (2017), s. 108-113 ISSN 0932-4739 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01090S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Chinchillas * Cryptosporidium * gp60 * Foxes * Mink * Nutrias Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  18. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF DETECTION METHODS FOR GIARDIA CYSTS AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-20th century Giardia was classified as a non-pathogenic commensal organism and Cryptosporidium was not recognized yet. However as early as 1946 a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis was suspected. From 1965 to 1979 it became clear that Giardia lamblia was indeed a human ...

  19. The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infection Among Renal Transplanted Patients in Hamadan City, West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Opportunistic infections have become much more considerable in the last decades, especially in immunocompromised patients and due to the medical interventions. Cryptosporidium is a pathogenic protozoan parasite causing diarrhea in children and some times acts as a life threatening opportunistic pathogen in the immunocompromised adults. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium infection among patients undergone renal transplantation, who are at risk for this infection. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study and the sample collection consisted of 180 renal transplanted patients referred to Shaheed-Beheshti Hospital, Hamadan city, Iran. The stool specimens were concentrated using formalin-ether technique and then the fecal smears were prepared from the sediments. Afterwards, the slides were stained using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and then examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Results One out of 180 fecal samples was positive for Cryptosporidium infection. The infected patient was a 51-year-old woman who had a renal transplantation six years earlier, with continuous use of CellCept® (mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. The patient had been referred to the hospital with gastrointestinal symptoms. Conclusions Based on the results of this study the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis was very low in renal transplanted patients in Hamadan city, Iran. It could be concluded that cryptosporidiosis is not a life threatening risk in this region and it probably showed well post-transplantation hygienic status of the patients and/or low oocysts load in the area.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF A CRYPTOSPORIDIUM MURIS INFECTION AND REINFECTION IN CF-1 MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To establish control values for circulating cells and immune associated organs over the course of a self-limiting Cryptosporidium muris infection and rechallenge infection, mice were evaluated at intervals starting before oral inoculation and ending after oocyst shedding had ceas...

  1. Improved Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts propagation using dexamethasone suppressed CF-1 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst production in dexamethasone suppressed CF-1 and C57BL/6 mice. Both models can yield 1 x 109 total oocysts over a 20 day production period; however, only 20 CF-1 mice are required to reliably achieve this goal compared...

  2. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  3. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitorin...

  4. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitoring ...

  5. Prevalence of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium on three organic pig farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Jianmin, Wang; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    in the environment and is resistant to many common disinfectants. In order to estimate the prevalence of the zoonotic parasite Cryptosporidium in organic pigs and to improve our knowledge of the parasite epidemiology, the prevalence was monitored four times between September 2011 and June 2012 in three Danish...

  6. Procesamiento de muestras fecales en el estudio de Cryptosporidium sp. mediante PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe un protocolo aplicado a muestras de heces de ganado bovino para el aislamiento y purificación de ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y el eventual uso de los mismos para estudios genéticos mediante PCR.

  7. Long-Term Storage of Cryptosporidium parvum for In Vitro Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewska-Harris, Anna; Schoone, Gerard; Schallig, Henk D F H

    2017-11-02

    The long-term storage of Cryptosporidium life-cycle stages is a prerequisite for in vitro culture of the parasite. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, sporozoites and intracellular forms inside infected host cells were stored for 6 to 12 mo in liquid nitrogen utilizing different cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO], glycerol and fetal calf serum [FCS]), then cultured in vitro. Performance in vitro was quantified by estimating the total Cryptosporidium copy number using qPCR in 3- and 7-day-old cultures. While only few parasites were recovered either from stored oocysts or from infected host cells, sporozoites stored in liquid nitrogen recovered from freezing successfully. More copies of parasite DNA were obtained from culturing those sporozoites than sporozoites excysted from oocysts kept at 4 C for the same period. The best performance was observed for sporozoites stored in RPMI with 10% FCS and 5% DMSO, which generated 240% and 330% greater number of parasite DNA copies (on days 3- and 7-post-infection, respectively) compared to controls. Storage of sporozoites in liquid nitrogen is more effective than oocyst storage at 4 C and represents a more consistent approach for storage of viable infective Cryptosporidium aliquots for in vitro culture.

  8. Emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen via huishoudelijk afvalwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven JF; Medema GJ; Nijs ACM de; Elzenga JG; MGB

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative description is presented on the emissions and distribution of the pathogens mentioned through domestic waste water. The emissions were modelled with PROMISE based on average concentrations in untreated wastewater and the average removal by sewage treatment. Emission of Cryptosporidium

  9. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometrie als extra zuiveringsstap heeft de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten in water verbeterd. Door middel van flow cytometrie kunnen (oo)cysten gescheiden worden van het meeste debris dat in waterconcentraten aanwezig is, waardoor de toepassing van fluorogene

  10. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Nederlandse waterleidingbedrijven zijn verplicht om te berekenen of als gevolg van consumptie van drinkwater infectie met Cryptosporidium of Giardia kan optreden. De kans hierop moet kleiner dan een infectie per 10000 personen per jaar zijn. De berekening (risicoanalyse) wordt gebaseerd op de

  11. Modellering van de verwijdering van Cryptosporidium parvum,Giardia lamblia en enterovirussen in spaarbekkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak CH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    De protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia hebben de laatste decennia in de Verenigde Staten en in Groot-Brittannie een aanzienlijk aantal grote en kleine epidemieen van maag-darminfecties via drinkwater veroorzaakt. Wiskundige modellen kunnen worden gebruikt om de verwijdering van pathogene

  12. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Dutch drinking water legislation requires drinking water companies to perform a quantitative risk assessment for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The risk of infection through consumption of drinking water should be below one infection in 10,000 persons per year. Risk assessment is based on the number

  13. Genetic Diversity and Zoonotic Potential of Cryptosporidium parvum Causing Foal Diarrhea▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, A.; Learmonth, J.; Kwan, E.; Pomroy, W.; Lopez Villalobos, N.; Gibson, I.; Widmer, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidium isolates from diarrheic foals in New Zealand (n = 9) were identified as C. parvum, subtyped at two polymorphic loci, and compared with human (n = 45) and bovine (n = 8) isolates. Foal C. parvum isolates were genetically diverse, markedly similar to human and bovine isolates, and carried GP60 IIaA18G3R1 alleles, indicating a zoonotic potential. PMID:18508944

  14. PCR-mediated recombination between Cryptosporidium spp. of lizards and snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling; Yang, Chunfu; Xiao, Lihua

    2003-01-01

    The presence or absence of genetic recombination has often been used as one of the criteria for Cryptosporidium species designation and population structure delineation. During a recent study of cryptosporidiosis in reptiles that were housed in the same room, 4 lizards were found to have concurrent infections of C. serpentis (a gastric parasite) and C. saurophilum (an intestinal parasite), and 6 snakes were concurrently infected with C. serpentis, C. saurophilum and a new Cryptosporidium as indicated by PCR-RFLP analysis of the SSU rRNA gene. DNA sequence analysis of cloned PCR products confirmed the diagnosis of mixed infections. Surprisingly, it appeared that 11 of the 22 clones (8 and 14 clones from a lizard and a snake, respectively) had chimeric sequences of two Cryptosporidium spp. BootScan analysis indicated the existence of recombinants among the cloned sequences and detection of the informative sites confirmed the BootScan results. Because the probability for genetic recombination between gastric and intestinal parasites is small, these hybrid sequences were likely results of PCR artifacts due to the presence of multiple templates. This was confirmed by PCR-sequencing analysis of single-copy templates using diluted DNA samples. Direct sequencing of 69 PCR products from 100- to 1,000-fold diluted DNAs from the same snake and lizard produced only sequences of C. serpentis, C. saurophilum and the unnamed Cryptosporidium sp. Thus, care should be taken to eliminate PCR artifacts when determining the presence of genetic recombination or interpreting results of population genetic studies.

  15. Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Akbar; Haghighi, Ali; Athari, Amid; Kazemi, Bahram; Abadi, Alireza; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2009-03-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, variability with host age, and the genotypes of species of Cryptosporidium in cattle from 15 dairy farms in Qazvin province, Iran. Fecal samples, collected from 272 cattle during May 2006 to December 2007, were characterized microscopically. Oocysts from 51 positive samples were analyzed using PCR assay of 18S SSU rRNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. We identified 72.6% of the positive samples as Cryptosporidium parvum, 17.7% as Cryptosporidium andersoni, 7.8% as Cryptosporidium bovis and 1.9% as a novel genotype of C. parvum possessing a single mutation on MboII restriction. An infection rate of 19.5% of C. parvum among 174 pre-weaned calves was significantly higher than the 3.1% among 98 post-weaned calves (P<0.0006). This is the first report of C. bovis and the new subgenotype of C. parvum in Iranian cattle.

  16. Evaluating the transport of bacillus subtilis spores as a potential surrogate for Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has recommended the use of aerobic spores as an indicator for Cryptosporidium oocysts when determining groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Surface properties, interaction energies, transport, retention, and release behavior of B. subtilis spores were measured over a r...

  17. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  18. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation of flow cytometry as an additional purification step has improved the detection method for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Flow cytometry allows separation of (oo)cysts from interfering debris particles present in water concentrates and thus enables the

  19. Physical, epidemiological, and molecular evaluation of infection by Cryptosporidium galli in Passeriformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Deuvânia C; Homem, Camila G; Nakamura, Alex A; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício P; Perri, Sílvia Helena V; Meireles, Marcelo V

    2010-07-01

    Due to the scarcity of information related to the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in passerine birds, this study aimed to determine the periodicity of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts, after natural infection, and its clinical signs, mortality, and molecular characterization. Four hundred eighty fecal samples were collected from 40 birds, including 372 samples from 31 adult birds and 108 samples from nine young birds (up to 12 months old), housed in five aviaries, monthly from September 2007 to September 2008, with the exception of April. The birds originated from aviaries in which the following species were raised: great-billed seed-finch (Oryzoborus maximiliani), lesser seed-finch (Oryzoborus angolensis), ultramarine grosbeak (Cyanocompsa brissonii), and rusty-collared seedeater (Sporophila collaris). The samples were preserved in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 4 degrees C until processing. The oocysts were purified by centrifugal flotation in Sheather's solution, followed by genomic DNA extraction and molecular characterization of oocysts using the nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene. Intermittent shedding of oocysts was observed by positive amplification for Cryptosporidium spp. in 91 (24.5%) samples of adult birds and 14 (13%) of young birds. The sequencing of the amplified fragments enabled the identification of Cryptosporidium galli. Although all the aviaries had birds positive for C. galli, morbidity or mortality was observed in only one aviary and was associated with concomitant infection with Escherichia coli and Isospora sp.

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  1. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite of humans and animals worldwide, causes diarrheal disease that is typically self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts but often life-threatening to immunocompromised individuals. However, there is a lack of completely efficient therapy available. P...

  2. Using chemical and microbiological indicators to track the impacts from the land application of treated municipal wastewater and other sources on groundwater quality in a karstic springs basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Brian G.; Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-08-01

    Multiple chemical constituents (nutrients; N, O, H, C stable isotopes; 64 organic wastewater compounds, 16 pharmaceutical compounds) and microbiological indicators were used to assess the impact on groundwater quality from the land application of approximately 9.5 million liters per day of treated municipal sewage effluent to a sprayfield in the 960-km2 Ichetucknee Springs basin, northern Florida. Enriched stable isotope signatures (δ18O and δ2H) were found in water from the effluent reservoir and a sprayfield monitoring well (MW-7) due to evaporation; however, groundwater samples downgradient from the sprayfield have δ18O and δ2H concentrations that represented recharge of meteoric water. Boron and chloride concentrations also were elevated in water from the sprayfield effluent reservoir and MW-7, but concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially with distance downgradient to background levels in the springs (about 12 km) and indicated at least a tenfold dilution factor. Nitrate-nitrogen isotope (δ15N NO3) values above 10 ‰ in most water samples were indicative of organic nitrogen sources except Blue Hole Spring (δ15N NO3 = 4.6 4.9 ‰), which indicated an inorganic source of nitrogen (fertilizers). The detection of low concentrations the insect repellent N, N-diethyl-metatoluamide (DEET), and other organic compounds associated with domestic wastewater in Devil’s Eye Spring indicated that leakage from a nearby septic tank drainfield likely has occurred. Elevated levels of fecal coliforms and enterococci were found in Blue Hole Spring during higher flow conditions, which likely resulted from hydraulic connections to upgradient sinkholes and are consistent with previoius dye-trace studies. Enteroviruses were not detected in the sprayfield effluent reservoir, but were found in low concentrations in water samples from a downgradient well and Blue Hole Spring during high-flow conditions indicating a human wastewater source. The Upper Floridan aquifer

  3. Current status and future trends in Cryptosporidium and Giardia epidemiology in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Y A L; Ahmad, R A; Smith, H V

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoeal diseases of humans worldwide, and are included in the World Health Organisation's 'Neglected Diseases Initiative'. Cryptosporidium and Giardia occur commonly in Malaysian human and non-human populations, but their impact on disease, morbidity and cost of illness is not known. The commonness of contributions from human (STW effluents, indiscriminate defaecation) and non-human (calving, lambing, muck spreading, slurry spraying, pasturing/grazing of domestic animals, infected wild animals) hosts indicate that many Malaysian environments, particularly water and soil, are sufficiently contaminated to act as potential vehicles for the transmission of disease. To gain insight into the morbidity and mortality caused by human cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, they should be included into differential diagnoses, and routine laboratory testing should be performed and (as for many infectious diseases) reported to a centralised public health agency. To understand transmission routes and the significance of environmental contamination better will require further multidisciplinary approaches and shared resources, including raising national perceptions of the parasitological quality of drinking water. Here, the detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia should be an integral part of the water quality requirement. A multidisciplinary approach among public health professionals in the water industry and other relevant health- and environment-associated agencies is also required in order to determine the significance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination of Malaysian drinking water. Lastly, adoption of validated methods to determine the species, genotype and subgenotype of Cryptosporidium and Giardia present in Malaysia will assist in developing effective risk assessment, management and communication models.

  4. Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae in multiple Spermophilus ground squirrel species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xunde Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously we reported the unique Cryptosporidium sp. “c” genotype (e.g., Sbey03c, Sbey05c, Sbld05c, Sltl05c from three species of Spermophilus ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi, Spermophilus beldingi, Spermophilus lateralis located throughout California, USA. This follow-up work characterizes the morphology and animal infectivity of this novel genotype as the final step in proposing it as a new species of Cryptosporidium. Analysis of sequences of 18S rRNA, actin, and HSP70 genes of additional Cryptosporidium isolates from recently sampled California ground squirrels (S. beecheyi confirms the presence of the unique Sbey-c genotype in S. beecheyi. Phylogenetic and BLAST analysis indicates that the c-genotype in Spermophilus ground squirrels is distinct from Cryptosporidium species/genotypes from other host species currently available in GenBank. We propose to name this c-genotype found in Spermophilus ground squirrels as Cryptosporidium rubeyi n. sp. The mean size of C. rubeyi n. sp. oocysts is 4.67 (4.4–5.0 μm × 4.34 (4.0–5.0 μm, with a length/width index of 1.08 (n = 220. Oocysts of C. rubeyi n. sp. are not infectious to neonatal BALB/c mice and Holstein calves. GenBank accession numbers for C. rubeyi n. sp. are DQ295012, AY462233, and KM010224 for the 18S rRNA gene, KM010227 for the actin gene, and KM010229 for the HSP70 gene.

  5. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and [i]Giardia[/i] spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] and [i]Giardia[/i] identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266 from [i]A. agrarius[/i],[i] A. flavicollis[/i] and [i]M. glareolus[/i], were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for [i]Giardia[/i] spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and [i]Giardia[/i] infection where[i] A. agrarius[/i] was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of [i]Giardia[/i] spp. and [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from [i]A. agrarius[/i] (from a semi-aquatic, urban area was identified as [i]C. parvum[/i] and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the [i]C. parvum[/i] zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of [i]C. ubiquitum[/i] from three small rodent species.

  6. Molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium isolated from diarrheic calves in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Shahinaz; Elmalik, Khitma; Bangoura, Berit; Lendner, Matthias; Mossaad, Ehab; Daugschies, Arwid

    2017-11-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan infection causing morbidity and mortality in young cattle and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans. So far, there is no data available on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Sudan. The aim of this study was to isolate, identify, and genotype Cryptosporidium oocysts sampled from diarrheic calves housed at different farms in three different municipalities in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Khartoum North, Omdurman). A total of 149 fecal samples were evaluated microscopically for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and 87 (58.3%) samples tested positive. Positive and negative samples were further analyzed by nested PCR targeting the SSU rRNA region. Positive samples were subjected to restriction enzyme analysis of PCR amplicons (PCR-RFLP). Nested PCR identified Cryptosporidium DNA in 53 samples (35.5%); restriction digestion of the PCR products revealed the presence of C. parvum (73.5%), C. ryanae (13.2%), C. andersoni (7.5%), and C. bovis (1.8%). Species distribution was clearly related to age with C. parvum being the predominant species in dysenteric pre-weaned calves. Sequencing of three genes (SSU rRNA, COWP, and GP60) for three C. parvum isolates originating from the three different municipalities showed that all belong to C. parvum subtype family IId. Based on data obtained by GP60, sequencing the two C. parvum isolates from Khartoum and Omdurman represent subtype IIdA18G1, whereas oocysts isolated in Khartoum North belong to subtype IIdA19G1. The observed genotypes are zoonotic and thus C. parvum in calves is potentially a health risk to humans in Khartoum State, Sudan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to characterize Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle in the Sudan.

  7. [Investigation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium prevalence with different methods in Adana food workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Özlem; Pekmezci, Deniz; Başarı, Fesem

    2013-01-01

    Carriage detection in food workers is very important in protecting public health from Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections which are two of the major causes of food borne outbreaks. However, false negative results can be reported with routine methods such as native-lugol and acid-fast staining in the carriers. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate method for carrier screening by comparison of the different analyses used in the diagnosis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in food workers. Stool specimens of 500 food worker who applied to our laboratory for carrier screening were investigate by routine microscopic examination with native-lugol and Kinyoun acid-fast stain method and searched for Giardia and Cryptosporidium antigens with Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) and immunochromatographic assay. As a result of the study, Giardia spp. was detected with native-lugol staining method, immunochromatographic assay and DFA assay as 13 (2.6%), 8 (1.6%), 24 (4.8%) respectively of specimens whereas Cryptosporidium spp. was not determined. When DFA assay was considered the reference method, sensitivity and specificity of the native lugol method and immunochromatographic assay were found to be 54.1%, 100% and 33.3%, 100% respectively. In our study, we were found low sensitivity of immunochromatographic method and it is inappropriate as a test for detecting carriers in food workers. We concluded that, to be able to detect other parasites, the native-lugol method must be performed for screening şekilcarriers, and patients who were found Giardia and Cryptosporidium negative by this assay should be confirmed with more sensitive immunodiagnostic method.

  8. Molecular assays for targeting human and bovine enteric viruses in coastal waters and their application for library-independent source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, T.-T.; Griffin, Dale W.; Lipp, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid population growth and urban development along waterways and coastal areas have led to decreasing water quality. To examine the effects of upstream anthropogenic activities on microbiological water quality, methods for source-specific testing are required. In this study, molecular assays targeting human enteroviruses (HEV), bovine enteroviruses (BEV), and human adenoviruses (HAdV) were developed and used to identify major sources of fecal contamination in the lower Altamaha River, Georgia. Two-liter grab samples were collected monthly from five tidally influenced stations between July and December 2002. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription- and nested-PCR. PCR results were confirmed by dot blot hybridization. Eleven and 17 of the 30 surface water samples tested positive for HAdV and HEV, respectively. Two-thirds of the samples tested positive for either HEV or HAdV, and the viruses occurred simultaneously in 26% of samples. BEV were detected in 11 of 30 surface water samples. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of both human and bovine enteric viruses was not significantly related to either fecal coliform or total coliform levels. The presence of these viruses was directly related to dissolved oxygen and streamflow but inversely related to water temperature, rainfall in the 30 days preceding sampling, and chlorophyll-?? concentrations. The stringent host specificity of enteric viruses makes them good library-independent indicators for identification of water pollution sources. Viral pathogen detection by PCR is a highly sensitive and easy-to-use tool for rapid assessment of water quality and fecal contamination when public health risk characterization is not necessary. Copyright ?? 2005, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. Oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Eveline Wilma Coutinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important contaminants of water, causing waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide. To monitor and understand the public health significance of this pathogen in environmental samples, several methods have been developed to isolate and detect Cryptosporidium oocysts. The purpose of this study was to perform the first investigation on the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The oocysts were concentrated by flocculation and membrane filtration. The results showed the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in all wastewater samples analyzed, indicating a possible risk for dissemination of these pathogens in aquatic environment and in the community.

  10. MODELING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYST INACTIVATION AND BROMATE IN A FLOW-THROUGH OZONE CONTACTOR TREATING NATURAL WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reactive transport model was developed to simultaneously predict Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inactivation and bromate formation during ozonation of natural water. A mechanistic model previously established to predict bromate formation in organic-free synthetic waters w...

  11. Evaluation of Four RNA Extraction Methods for Gene Expression Analyses of Cryptosporidium parvum and Toxoplasma gondii Oocys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are important coccidian parasites that have caused waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide. Techniques like subtractive hybridization, microarrays, and quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (...

  12. RNA Extraction Methods for Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analyses of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts - 2nd Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion pr...

  13. RNA Extraction Methods for Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR and Microarray Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma gondii Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of infectious oocyst forms of Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium spp. to resist disinfection treatments and cause disease may have significant public health implications. Currently, little is known about oocyst-specific factors involved during host cell invasion p...

  14. Evaluation of immunofluorescence microscopy and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in asymptomatic dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimhanen-Finne, R.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kolehmainen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The performance of immunofluorescence microscopy (IF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in canine feces was evaluated. IF and Cryptosporidium ELISA detected 10(5) oocysts/g, while the detection limit for Giardia ELISA was 10(4) cysts/g. The Cryptosporidium ELISA showed 94% specificity...... but only 71% sensitivity. The Giardia ELISA correlated well with IF (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%) and was capable of detecting animal specific Giardia duodenalis genotypes. Visual interpretation appeared appropriate for assessment of ELISA results. The proportion of positive samples and possible...... zoonotic character of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in 150 asymptomatic Finnish dogs from the Helsinki area were studied. The overall proportion of dogs positive for Cryptosporidium was 5% (7/150) and that for Giardia 5% (8/150). In dogs...

  15. CHANGES IN MOUSE CIRULATING LEUKOCYTE NUMBERS IN C57BL/6 MICE IMMUNOSUPPRESSED FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYST PRODUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Iowa strain of Cryptosporidium parvum will not propagate in immunocompetent mice, but will successfully infect genetically immunocompromised Nude or SCID mice as well as immunocompetent mice which have been immunosuppressed with glucocorticoids. Using dexamethasone - tetracy...

  16. Cryptosporidium meleagridis infection: the first report in Poland of its occurrence in an HIV-positive woman

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wesołowska, M.; Szostakowska, B.; Kicia, M.; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin; Knysz, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 3 (2016), s. 239-241 ISSN 2299-0631 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Cryptosporidium meleagridis * HIV * AIDS * opportunistic parasites * immunocompromised patients Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  17. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated

  18. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Parvum and Isospora Belli Infections among Children Presenting with Diarrhoea at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Kamwendo; Lameck Manda; Mphatso Makanda; Isaac Thom Shawa; Daniel Lawadi Banda; G. Tom Heikens

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Diarrhoea in children is a common problem in low resourced countries including Malawi. It is caused by many intestinal parasites including Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli. Both infections are prevalent in severely immunocompromised individuals and may cause severe life-threatening diarrhoea. The main aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli infections among children presenting with diarrhoea admitted to QECH - paediatrics wa...

  19. Application of an ELISA-type screen printed electrode-based potentiometric assay to the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczka, Olivier; Skillman, Lucy; Ditcham, William G; Hamdorf, Brenton; Wong, Danny K Y; Bergquist, Peter; Sunna, Anwar

    2013-11-01

    We report a novel electrochemical method for the rapid detection of the parasitic protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum. An antibody-based capture format was transferred onto screen-printed electrodes and the presence of horseradish peroxidase-labelled antibodies binding to the oocysts was potentiometrically detected. This method allowed the detection of 5 × 10(2)Cryptosporidium oocysts per mL in 60 min. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Asp...

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves from 11 farms in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coklin, Tatjana; Uehlinger, Fabienne D; Farber, Jeffrey M; Barkema, Herman W; O'Handley, Ryan M; Dixon, Brent R

    2009-03-23

    Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans and livestock, worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves in Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the potential for transmission of this parasite between dairy calves and humans. Fecal samples were collected from 183 dairy calves from 11 farms in Prince Edward Island. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in these animals was determined by examining for the presence of oocysts in the fecal samples, using immunofluorescence microscopy. Molecular characterization was done using a nested-PCR protocol to amplify fragments of the Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 gene, followed by DNA sequencing. Ten calves (6.2%), representing 4 out of 11 farms tested, were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. DNA sequence analysis on five PCR positive samples demonstrated that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species present in the calves tested, suggesting that there is a potential risk of zoonotic transmission between dairy calves and humans in this region.

  2. Diversity of Cryptosporidium in brush-tailed rock-wallabies (Petrogale penicillata managed within a species recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke T. Vermeulen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Host–parasite relationships are likely to be impacted by conservation management practices, potentially increasing the susceptibility of wildlife to emerging disease. Cryptosporidium, a parasitic protozoan genus comprising host-adapted and host-specific species, was used as an indicator of parasite movement between populations of a threatened marsupial, the brush-tailed rock-wallaby (Petrogale penicillata. PCR screening of faecal samples (n = 324 from seven wallaby populations across New South Wales, identified Cryptosporidium in 7.1% of samples. The sampled populations were characterised as captive, supplemented and wild populations. No significant difference was found in Cryptosporidium detection between each of the three population categories. The positive samples, detected using 18S rRNA screening, were amplified using the actin and gp60 loci. Multi-locus sequence analysis revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium fayeri, a marsupial-specific species, and C. meleagridis, which has a broad host range, in samples from the three population categories. Cryptosporidium meleagridis has not been previously reported in marsupials and hence the pathogenicity of this species to brush-tailed rock-wallabies is unknown. Based on these findings, we recommend further study into Cryptosporidium in animals undergoing conservation management, as well as surveying wild animals in release areas, to further understand the diversity and epidemiology of this parasite in threatened wildlife.

  3. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN in July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker was ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC have been installed, together with the Tracker cable channels, in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services. All of the Tracker Safety, Power, DCS and the VME Readout Systems have been installed at P5 and are being tested and commissioned with CMS. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS before Christmas. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on Y...

  4. INNER TRACKING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sharp

    The CMS Inner Tracking Detector continues to make good progress. The successful commissioning of ~ 25% of the Silicon Strip Tracker was completed in the Tracker Integration Facility (TIF) at CERN on 18 July 2007 and the Tracker has since been prepared for moving and installation into CMS at P5. The Tracker will be ready to move on schedule in September 2007. The Installation of the Tracker cooling pipes and LV cables between Patch Panel 1 (PP1) on the inside the CMS magnet cryostat, and the cooling plants and power system racks on the balconies has been completed. The optical fibres from PP1 to the readout FEDs in the USC will be installed in parallel with the installation of the EB/HB services, and will be completed in October. It is planned to install the Tracker into CMS at the end of October, after the completion of the installation of the EB/HB services. The Tracker will then be connected to the pre-installed services on YB0 and commissioned with CMS in December. The FPix and BPix continue to make ...

  5. The Sources of Carbon and Nitrogen in Mountain Lakes and the Role of Human Activity in Their Modification Determined by Tracking Stable Isotope Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gąsiorowski, Michał; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2013-04-01

    We studied the isotopic composition of organic matter in the sediments of eight mountain lakes located in the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland). The sediments of the lakes were fine and course detritus gyttja, mud, and sand. The total organic carbon content varied from 0.5 to 53 %. The C/N ratio indicated that in-lake primary production is the major source of the organic matter in the lakes located above the treeline, whereas terrestrial plant fragments are the major organic compounds in the sediments of dystrophic forest lakes. We also found that a clear trend of isotopic curves toward lower values of δ13C and δ15N (both ~3 ‰) began in the 1960s. This trend is a sign of the deposition of greater amounts of NO x from the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly by vehicle engines. The combustion of fossil fuels in electric plants and other factories had a smaller influence on the isotopic composition. This trend has been weaker since the 1990s. Animal and human wastes from pastures and tourism had a surprisingly minor effect on lake environments. These data are contrary to previous data regarding lake biota and suggest the high sensitivity of living organisms to organic pollution.

  6. Diversity of Cryptosporidium species occurring in sheep and goat breeds reared in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupke, Agnieszka; Michalski, Mirosław M; Rzeżutka, Artur

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and assessment of their prevalence in different breeds of sheep and goat reared in Poland. In addition, the relationship between animal age, breed type, and the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections was determined. Fecal samples from 234 lambs and 105 goat kids aged up to 9 weeks, representing 24 breeds and their cross-breeds were collected from 71 small ruminant farms across Poland. The identification of Cryptosporidium species was performed at the 18 SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and COWP loci followed by subtyping of C. parvum and C. hominis strains at GP60 gene locus. The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA at the 18 SSU rRNA locus was detected in 45/234 (19.2%) lamb feces samples and in 39/105 (37.1%) taken from goats. The following Cryptosporidium species: C. xiaoi, C. bovis, C. ubiquitum, C. parvum, and C. hominis were detected in small ruminants. Infections caused by C. xiaoi were predominant without favoring any tested animal species. Subsequent GP60 subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum IIaA17G1R1 subtype in sheep and IIdA23G1 subtype in goats. IIdA23G1 subtype was detected in a goat host for the first time. There were no significant differences found in frequency of infections between the age groups ( 0.05) or goat kids (P = 0.06, α > 0.05). In addition, there was no correlation observed between the frequency in occurrence of particular parasite species and breed type in relation to native sheep breeds (F = 0.11; P = 0.990 > 0.05). In the case of goats, more breed-related differences in parasite occurrence were found. The results of this study improve our knowledge on the breed-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in the population of small ruminants reared in Poland.

  7. Aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Ching; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tiong Kai; Roslan, Muhammad Aidil; Ithoi, Init; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2014-01-01

    An aquatic biomonitoring of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in river water corresponding to five villages situated in three states in peninsular Malaysia was determined. There were 51.3% (20/39) and 23.1% (9/39) samples positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts, respectively. Overall mean concentration between villages for Giardia cysts ranged from 0.10 to 25.80 cysts/l whilst Cryptosporidium oocysts ranged from 0.10 to 0.90 oocysts/l. Detailed results of the river samples from five villages indicated that Kuala Pangsun 100% (9/9), Kemensah 77.8% (7/9), Pos Piah 33.3% (3/9) and Paya Lebar 33.3% (1/3) were contaminated with Giardia cysts whilst Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts were only detected in Kemensah (100 %; 9/9) and Kuala Pangsun (66.6%; 6/9). However, the water samples from Bentong were all negative for these waterborne parasites. Samples were collected from lower point, midpoint and upper point. Midpoint refers to the section of the river where the studied communities are highly populated. Meanwhile, the position of the lower point is at least 2 km southward of the midpoint and upper point is at least 2 km northward of the midpoint. The highest mean concentration for (oo)cysts was found at the lower points [3.15 ± 6.09 (oo)cysts/l], followed by midpoints [0.66 ± 1.10 (oo)cysts/l] and upper points [0.66 ± 0.92 (oo)cysts/l]. The mean concentration of Giardia cysts was highest at Kuala Pangsun (i.e. 5.97 ± 7.0 cysts/l), followed by Kemensah (0.83 ± 0.81 cysts/l), Pos Piah (0.20 ± 0.35 cysts/l) and Paya Lebar (0.10 ± 0.19 cysts/l). On the other hand, the mean concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts was higher at Kemensah (0.31 ± 0.19 cysts/l) compared to Kuala Pangsun (0.03 ± 0.03cysts/l). All the physical and chemical parameters did not show significant correlation with both protozoa. In future, viability status and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium should be applied to identify

  8. Monitoring and source tracking of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater adjacent to swine production facilities over a 3-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, S.; Krapac, I.G.; Oliver, H.D.; Yannarell, A.C.; Chee-Sanford, J. C.; Aminov, R.I.; Mackie, R.I.

    2007-01-01

    To monitor the dissemination of resistance genes into the environment, we determined the occurrence of tetracycline resistance (Tcr) genes in groundwater underlying two swine confinement operations. Monitoring well networks (16 wells at site A and 6 wells at site C) were established around the lagoons at each facility. Groundwater (n = 124) and lagoon (n = 12) samples were collected from the two sites at six sampling times from 2000 through 2003. Total DNA was extracted, and PCR was used to detect seven Tcr genes [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W), tet(C), tet(H), and tet(Z)]. The concentration of Tcr genes was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. To confirm the Tcr gene source in groundwater, comparative analysis of tet(W) gene sequences was performed on groundwater and lagoon samples. All seven Tcr genes were continually detected in groundwater during the 3-year monitoring period at both sites. At site A, elevated detection frequency and concentration of Tcr genes were observed in the wells located down-gradient of the lagoon. Comparative analysis of tet(W) sequences revealed that the impacted groundwater contained gene sequences almost identical (99.8% identity) to those in the lagoon, but these genes were not found in background libraries. Novel sequence clusters and unique indigenous resistance gene pools were also found in the groundwater. Thus, antibiotic resistance genes in groundwater are affected by swine manure, but they are also part of the indigenous gene pool. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers of Bacteroidales for source tracking of fecal pollution in the subtropical coastal seawater of Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rulong; Chiang, Miranda H Y; Lun, Clare H I; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Lau, Stanley C K

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the diversity of Bacteroidales communities in the feces of eight host species in Hong Kong (subtropical Asia), including human (in the form of sewage), cow, pig, horse, cat, dog, rabbit and rat. The analysis of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) in the 16S rRNA genes revealed significant differences in Bacteroidales communities among all host species, with the exception of dog and cat. Manual examination of TRFLP profiles resulted in six terminal restriction fragments (TRFs) that were potentially specific to the sewage (one TRF), cow (three TRFs) or pig (two TRFs) samples. All six TRFs were (1) present in 100% of the samples of the respective target host, (2) absent in other hosts or present only in low frequency and low intensity, and (3) verified for sizes using in silico digestion of DNA sequences in clone libraries. The six TRFs could reliably indicate the source of fecal contaminations in natural seawater amended with sewage, cow or pig fecal samples. In field tests conducted for two polluted and one unpolluted coastal site, the sewage-specific TRF was detected in all seawater samples of the sites known to be impacted by raw and treated sewage. However, only two of three cow-specific TRFs were detected for the two polluted sites, which also received fecal input from feral cows. No pig-specific TRF was detected, although one of the coastal sites was chronically polluted by pig farm run-offs. Nevertheless, the total absence of the six potentially host-specific TRFs in the seawater of an unpolluted site demonstrated the specificity of the TRFs as gene markers in indicating actual pollution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collection Methods and Quality Assessment for Escherichia coli, Water Quality, and Microbial Source Tracking Data within Tumacácori National Historical Park and the Upper Santa Cruz River, Arizona, 2015-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paretti, Nicholas; Coes, Alissa L.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Mayo, Justine

    2018-03-05

    Tumacácori National Historical Park protects the culturally important Mission, San José de Tumacácori, while also managing a portion of the ecologically diverse riparian corridor of the Santa Cruz River. This report describes the methods and quality assurance procedures used in the collection of water samples for the analysis of Escherichia coli (E. coli), microbial source tracking markers, suspended sediment, water-quality parameters, turbidity, and the data collection for discharge and stage; the process for data review and approval is also described. Finally, this report provides a quantitative assessment of the quality of the E. coli, microbial source tracking, and suspended sediment data.The data-quality assessment revealed that bias attributed to field and laboratory contamination was minimal, with E. coli detections in only 3 out of 33 field blank samples analyzed. Concentrations in the field blanks were several orders of magnitude lower than environmental concentrations. The microbial source tracking (MST) field blank was below the detection limit for all MST markers analyzed. Laboratory blanks for E. coli at the USGS Arizona Water Science Center and laboratory blanks for MST markers at the USGS Ohio Water Microbiology Laboratory were all below the detection limit. Irreplicate data for E. coli and suspended sediment indicated that bias was not introduced to the data by combining samples collected using discrete sampling methods with samples collected using automatic sampling methods.The split and sequential E. coli replicate data showed consistent analytical variability and a single equation was developed to explain the variability of E. coli concentrations. An additional analysis of analytical variability for E. coli indicated analytical variability around 18 percent relative standard deviation and no trend was observed in the concentration during the processing and analysis of multiple split-replicates. Two replicate samples were

  11. Intelligent Human Tracking Based on Multimodal Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Asano, Futoshi; Nakajima, Hirofumi; Ince, Gökhan

    Localization and tracking of humans are essential research topics in robotics. In particular, Sound Source Localization (SSL) has been of great interest. Despite the numerous reported methods, SSL in a real environment had mainly three issues; robustness against noise with high power, no framework for selective listening to sound sources, and tracking of inactive and/or noisy sound sources. For the first issue, we extended Multiple SIgnal Classification by incorporating Generalized Eigen Value Decomposition (GEVD-MUSIC) so that it can deal with high power noise and can select target sound sources. For the second issue, we proposed Sound Source Identification (SSI) based on hierarchical Gaussian mixture models and integrated it with GEVD-MUSIC to realize a function to listen to a specific sound source according to the sort of the sound source. For the third issue, auditory and visual human tracking were integrated using particle filtering. These three techniques are integrated into an intelligent human tracking system. Experimental results showed that integration of SSL and SSI successfully achieved human tracking only by audition, and the audio-visual integration showed considerable improvement in tracking by compensating the loss of auditory or visual information.

  12. Upper respiratory tract infection caused by Cryptosporidium baileyi in three mixed-bred falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Y R A; Schoemaker, N J; Kik, M J L; van der Giessend, J W B

    2008-06-01

    Three mixed-bred raptors (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug) from a German falcon breeder were presented with a history of respiratory distress. In one bird a laryngeal stridor was noted, and oral examination revealed an epiglottal swelling. In the other two birds, nasal discharge and sneezing were the main clinical symptoms. Nasal flushing samples and biopsies were collected for pathologic, bacteriologic, and parasitologic examination. Results confirmed a cryptosporidial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA analysis identified the causative agent to be Cryptosporidium baileyi. No cryptosporidia were detected in fecal samples, indicating the infection was confined to the respiratory system. Analysis of prey animals (pigeons, quail) failed to identify the source of infection. Treatment was initiated with paromomycin in all three birds, whereas in two birds an additional therapy with azithromycin was given. However, no clinical improvement was seen after several weeks of treatment, and the birds either died or were euthanatized. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first confirmed cases of disease caused by cryptosporidia in the order of Falconiformes.

  13. Hydrologic and vegetative removal of Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii Surrogate microspheres in coastal wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Conrad, Patricia A; Shapiro, Karen; Hardin, Dane; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2013-03-01

    Constructed wetland systems are used to reduce pollutants and pathogens in wastewater effluent, but comparatively little is known about pathogen transport through natural wetland habitats. Fecal protozoans, including Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, and Toxoplasma gondii, are waterborne pathogens of humans and animals, which are carried by surface waters from land-based sources into coastal waters. This study evaluated key factors of coastal wetlands for the reduction of protozoal parasites in surface waters using settling column and recirculating mesocosm tank experiments. Settling column experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, temperature, and water type ("pure" versus "environmental") on the vertical settling velocities of C. parvum, G. lamblia, and T. gondii surrogates, with salinity and water type found to significantly affect settling of the parasites. The mesocosm tank experiments evaluated the effects of salinity, flow rate, and vegetation parameters on parasite and surrogate counts, with increased salinity and the presence of vegetation found to be significant factors for removal of parasites in a unidirectional transport wetland system. Overall, this study highlights the importance of water type, salinity, and vegetation parameters for pathogen transport within wetland systems, with implications for wetland management, restoration efforts, and coastal water quality.

  14. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  15. Methane Tracking and Mitigation Options - EPA CMOP

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the sub-model for EPA's MARKAL model, which tracks methane emissions from the energy system, and limited other sources (landfills and manure...

  16. Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Grants Reporting and Tracking System (GRTS) is the primary tool for management and oversight of EPA's Nonpoint Source (NPS) Pollution Control Program. GRTS pulls...

  17. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of ducks in Nineveh governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examining 100 fecal samples of ducks from different locations of Nineveh governorate revealed 77% infection with Cryptosporidium by using modified acid fast (hot stain, whereas the percentages of infection were 63% and 56% by staining with iodine and flotation with sugar solution technique, respectively. The dimensions of the oocysts of the parasite were 1.9-6.6 (4.7 m length and 1.9-5.7 (3.8 m width. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between females and males and the percentage of infection appeared in high rate in female ducks (87.6%. No significant difference appeared between seasons. The percentage of infection with Cryptosporidium in ducks appeared in high rate in Al-Rashidiah and Quban region (90%.

  18. La cryptosporidiose zoonosique humaine due à Cryptosporidium felis dans le monde

    OpenAIRE

    Raccurt C.P.

    2007-01-01

    La cryptosporidiose est l’une des principales causes de diarrhée aiguë de l’enfant dans les pays en voie de développement, et de diarrhée chronique chez les sujets immunodéprimés infectés par le virus de l’immunidéficience humaine (VIHj. L’identification de l’espèce est impossible par les méthodes conventionnelles et fait appel aux techniques de biologie moléculaire. La cryptosporidiose humaine est due le plus souvent à Cryptosporidium hominis et à Cryptosporidium parvum. Des espèces et des g...

  19. New system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, Jens; Klinting, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, cause diarrhea worldwide. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The reported low recovery rates of the currently used filter methods...... motivate the development of systems with higher recovery rates. Materials and methods: Five replicates of IMS purified Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts (N=2x103) were injected into a specially coated filter unit with a carefully chosen pore size. Following filtration, sonication was performed...... were 85% were recorded when the filter was sonicated. Sonication usually affects parasite viability but could be tuned into a useful tool for enhanced backwash collection of parasites using a specially constructed filter unit and a sonication protocol. The filtration...

  20. Proton Collision Event with 4 Muons(Actual Event) An animation created of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The four muons are picked out as long blue tracks.Source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/4-muon-event.html

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS Experiment

    2011-01-01

    Proton Collision Event with 4 Muons(Actual Event) An animation created of an actual ATLAS proton collision event in 2011. The four muons are picked out as long blue tracks.Source: http://www.atlas.ch/multimedia/4-muon-event.html