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Sample records for cryptosporidium hominis subtype

  1. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China.

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    Liu, Xuehan; Xie, Na; Li, Wei; Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya'an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis.

  2. Genomic Variation in IbA10G2 and Other Patient-Derived Cryptosporidium hominis Subtypes.

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    Sikora, Per; Andersson, Sofia; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Hallström, Björn; Alsmark, Cecilia; Troell, Karin; Beser, Jessica; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve genotyping and epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp., genomic data need to be generated directly from a broad range of clinical specimens. Utilizing a robust method that we developed for the purification and generation of amplified target DNA, we present its application for the successful isolation and whole-genome sequencing of 14 different Cryptosporidium hominis patient specimens. Six isolates of subtype IbA10G2 were analyzed together with a single representative each of 8 other subtypes: IaA20R3, IaA23R3, IbA9G3, IbA13G3, IdA14, IeA11G3T3, IfA12G1, and IkA18G1. Parasite burden was measured over a range of more than 2 orders of magnitude for all samples, while the genomes were sequenced to mean depths of between 17× and 490× coverage. Sequence homology-based functional annotation identified several genes of interest, including the gene encoding Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein 9 (COWP9), which presented a predicted loss-of-function mutation in all the sequence subtypes, except for that seen with IbA10G2, which has a sequence identical to the Cryptosporidium parvum reference Iowa II sequence. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that all the IbA10G2 genomes form a monophyletic clade in the C. hominis tree as expected and yet display some heterogeneity within the IbA10G2 subtype. The current report validates the aforementioned method for isolating and sequencing Cryptosporidium directly from clinical stool samples. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the potential in mining data generated from sequencing multiple whole genomes of Cryptosporidium from human fecal samples, while alluding to the potential for a higher degree of genotyping within Cryptosporidium epidemiology.

  3. Laboratory Model for Cryptosporidium hominis IbA19G2 Subtype in Mongolian Gerbils%人隐孢子虫IbA19G2基因亚型蒙古沙鼠感染模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 杨楠; 菅复春; 王荣军; 宁长申; 张龙现

    2011-01-01

    人隐孢子虫Cryptosporidium hominis是人类的主要感染虫株,目前已获取且传代保存的国内分离株较少,在生物学特性研究也未见报道.在本试验自感染前第10天起至排卵囊结束后14天,采用胃管灌服地塞米松(0.75 mg/(只·2天))抑制蒙古沙鼠免疫力,对国内C.hominis Ib亚型分离株生物学特性进行研究.结果显示,感染后第3天,感染组有卵囊排出,感染后第6天出现高峰期,此后逐渐下降直至感染后第10或11天排卵囊结束.感染前后基于18S rRNA和gp60基因分析,表明遗传学无差异.建立了持续稳定的C.hominis Ib亚型分离株啮齿动物模型,为C.hominis卵囊扩增和进一步研究其生物学特性等提供了重要的参考依据.%Researches have sbown that Cryptosporidium hominis is one of the main Cryptosporidium parasites for human cryptosporidiosis in China. However, only a few isolates of C. hominis were obtained and aerially sub-cultivated in laboratory up to date, so the biological characteristics of C. hominis remaina unreported in our country. In the present work, Mongolian gerbils (Meiiones unguiculataus) were orally inoculated with 0. 75 mg of dexamethasone/animal by using gastric tube drench every two days from the 1Oth day before oocyst ingestion. The results showed that the gerbils started to shed oocysts in the third day after inoculation ( DAI) , the number of shed oocysts increased obviously, reached the peak value at the 6th DAI,and then dropped graduaUy until lOth or llth DAI. The 18S rRNA and gp60 gene analysis performed before and after inoculation revealed no genetic difference of C. hominis oocysts. A stable rodent model of C. homiais Ib subtype infection has been successfully established, which may be an important value for the further study on the biological characteriatica of C. hominis.

  4. Cryptosporidium hominis Is a Newly Recognized Pathogen in the Arctic Region of Nunavik, Canada: Molecular Characterization of an Outbreak.

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    Karine Thivierge

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings, and has been repeatedly associated with impaired physical and cognitive development. In May 2013, an outbreak of diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in the Arctic region of Nunavik, Quebec. Human cryptosporidiosis transmission was previously unknown in this region, and very few previous studies have reported it elsewhere in the Arctic. We report clinical, molecular, and epidemiologic details of a multi-village Cryptosporidium outbreak in the Canadian Arctic.We investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis using a descriptive study of cases with onset between April 2013 and April 2014. Cases were defined as Nunavik inhabitants of any age presenting with diarrhea of any duration, in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by stool microscopy in a specialised reference laboratory. Cryptosporidium was identified in stool from 51 of 283 individuals. The overall annual incidence rate (IR was 420 / 100,000 inhabitants. The IR was highest among children aged less than 5 years (1290 /100,000 persons. Genetic subtyping for stool specimens from 14/51 cases was determined by DNA sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Sequences aligned with C. hominis subtype Id in all cases. No common food or water source of infection was identified.In this first observed outbreak of human cryptosporidiosis in this Arctic region, the high IR seen is cause for concern about the possible long-term effects on growth and development of children in Inuit communities, who face myriad other challenges such as overcrowding and food-insecurity. The temporal and geographic distribution of cases, as well as the identification of C. hominis subtype Id, suggest anthroponotic rather than zoonotic transmission. Barriers to timely diagnosis delayed the recognition of human cryptosporidiosis in this remote setting.

  5. Genotypic Characterization of Cryptosporidium hominis from Water Samples in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Araújo, Ronalda S.; Dropa, Milena; Fernandes, Licia N.; Carvalho, Terezinha T.; Sato, Maria Inês Z.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Matté, Glavur R.; Matté, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of Cryptosporidium present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to Cryptosporidium 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, C. hominis and Cryptosporidium sp. were identified in recreational water and C. meleagridis was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of C. hominis in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of Cryptosporidium is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil. PMID:22049036

  6. Detection of Cryptosporidium hominis and novel Cryptosporidium bat genotypes in wild and captive Pteropus hosts in Australia.

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    Schiller, Sabine Eva; Webster, Koa Narelle; Power, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    Spillover of zoonotic pathogens from wildlife to humans has been identified as a primary threat to global health. In contrast, the process of reverse pathogen transmission (zooanthroponosis), whereby pathogens move from humans into wildlife species is still largely unexplored. Globally, increasing urbanisation and habitat loss are driving many wildlife species into urban and regional centres. In Australia, large numbers of flying foxes now live in close proximity to humans, increasing the risk of zooanthroponosis. The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is an emerging zoonotic parasite that infects a wide range of vertebrates yet there are limited studies on transmission potential of Cryptosporidium between humans and urban wildlife. To explore the presence of zooanthroponosis in flying foxes in Australia the occurrence and diversity of Cryptosporidium was investigated in urbanised wild and captive flying foxes. PCR screening of faecal samples (n=281) from seven wild sites and two captive facilities identified the presence of Cryptosporidium in 3.2% (95% CI 1.5% to 6.0%) of faecal samples. In faecal samples from wild sites Cryptosporidium occurrence was 1.7% (95% CI 0.3% to 4.8%) versus 5.9% (95% CI 2.2% to 12.4%) in samples from captive individuals, with no significant difference between captive and wild sites (p=0.077). Multilocus sequencing using three loci, 18s rDNA, actin and gp60 was used to identify Cryptosporidium in flying fox species. The host specific Cryptosporidium hominis was identified in faecal samples from two captive flying foxes, and one of these samples was confirmed as C. hominis at both actin and gp60. Sequencing of the 18s rDNA also revealed four novel Cryptosporidium genotypes in wild and captive individuals, actin and gp60 amplification and sequencing were unreliable for all four novel genotypes. These novel genotypes have been designated Cryptosporidium bat genotypes VIII-XI. This first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in Australian flying

  7. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium hominis associated with diarrhea outbreak in a day care unit in São Paulo Genotipagem de multilocus de Cryptosporidium hominis associado a surto diarréico em creche de São Paulo

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    Elenice Messias do Nascimento Gonçalves

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of species of Cryptosporidium are associated with diarrhea worldwide. Little data exists regarding the genotypes and species of Cryptosporidium associated with cases of infections in Brazil. PURPOSE: In the present study, we ascertained by molecular methods the species and the genotype of Cryptosporidium sp from a diarrhea outbreak diagnosed in a day care at the Hospital Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specific identification and typing of the isolates associated with the outbreak was done by DNA sequencing analysis of fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR from 3 different Cryptosporidium loci: the SSUrRNA coding region, the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP gene, and the microsatellite locus 1 (ML1, a tandem GAG-trinucleotide repeat containing substitutions that differentiate the genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis. RESULTS: A total of 29 positive samples from the outbreak were studied by the molecular methods described. Our study revealed the presence of a single genotype of Cryptosporidium hominis in all samples. CONCLUSION: The molecular analysis reinforced the hypothesis that the transmission of Cryptosporidium hominis during the period the samples were collected occurred in an outbreak pattern, possibly by person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. As far as we know, this is the first time that molecular tools have been used to identify the species and the genotype of isolates showing the presence of the ML1 genotype in samples from Brazilian patients.Mundialmente, diferentes espécies de Cryptosporidium estão relacionadas com doenças diarréicas. No Brasil há poucos dados sobre os genótipos das espécies de Cryptosporidium associadas a infecções. OBJETIVO: No presente estudo, caracterizamos, por métodos moleculares, a espécie e o genótipo de Cryptosporidium sp diagnosticado em surto diarréico ocorrido na creche do

  8. Comparison of Assays for Sensitive and Reproducible Detection of Cell Culture-Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in Drinking Water

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    Di Giovanni, George D.; Rochelle, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the three most commonly used assays for detecting Cryptosporidium sp. infections in cell culture: immunofluorescent antibody and microscopy assay (IFA), PCR targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific DNA, and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) targeting Cryptosporidium sp.-specific mRNA. Monolayers of HCT-8 cells, grown in 8-well chamber slides or 96-well plates, were inoculated with a variety of viable and inactivated oocysts to assess assay performance. All assays detected infection with low doses of flow cytometry-enumerated Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, including infection with one oocyst and three oocysts. All methods also detected infection with Cryptosporidium hominis. The RT-PCR assay, IFA, and PCR assay detected infection in 23%, 25%, and 51% of monolayers inoculated with three C. parvum oocysts and 10%, 9%, and 16% of monolayers inoculated with one oocyst, respectively. The PCR assay was the most sensitive, but it had the highest frequency of false positives with mock-infected cells and inactivated oocysts. IFA was the only infection detection assay that did not produce false positives with mock-infected monolayers. IFA was also the only assay that detected infections in all experiments with spiked oocysts recovered from Envirochek capsules following filtration of 1,000 liters of treated water. Consequently, cell culture with IFA detection is the most appropriate method for routine and sensitive detection of infectious Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis in drinking water. PMID:22038611

  9. [Cryptosporidium hominis diarrhea outbreak and transmission linked to diaper infant use].

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    Teresa Ortega, María; Vergara, Alberto; Guimbao, Joaquín; Clavel, Antonio; Gavín, Patricia; Ruiz, Andrés

    2006-11-04

    On the basis of several cases of cryptosporidiosis detected in a child day-care center, we stablished the extent of the outbreak and investigated causes of parasite transmission. A retrospective cohort study was designed on all children attending day-care center and care givers to determine their infection status and identify risk factors associated to the outbreak. 24 cases of cryptosporidiosis were detected, with an attack rate of 0.46 (24/52); 12 of them were parasitologycally confirmed. All care givers were negative for Cryptosporidium and none of them reported symptoms of acute gastroenteritis. Transmission pattern was compatible with person to person modes. Among the factors investigated, two were associated with the risk of disease: diaper wear (relative risk = 2.06; p = 0.059); and diarrhea in relatives (relative risk = 2.05; p = 0.01). In all confirmed cases, Cryptosporidium hominis (previously known as C. parvum, genotype 1), was identified. Cryptosporidiosis should be considered as a possible cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis at day-care centers. Increasing care on diaper changing practices, specially over children with diarrhea, may be the key factor to prevent transmission of Cryptosporidium.

  10. Revisiting the reference genomes of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species: reannotation of C. parvum Iowa and a new C. hominis reference

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    Isaza, Juan P.; Galván, Ana Luz; Polanco, Victor; Huang, Bernice; Matveyev, Andrey V.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Manque, Patricio; Buck, Gregory A.; Alzate, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are the most relevant species of this genus for human health. Both cause a self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent individuals, but cause potentially life-threatening disease in the immunocompromised. Despite the importance of these pathogens, only one reference genome of each has been analyzed and published. These two reference genomes were sequenced using automated capillary sequencing; as of yet, no next generation sequencing technology has been applied to improve their assemblies and annotations. For C. hominis, the main challenge that prevents a larger number of genomes to be sequenced is its resistance to axenic culture. In the present study, we employed next generation technology to analyse the genomic DNA and RNA to generate a new reference genome sequence of a C. hominis strain isolated directly from human stool and a new genome annotation of the C. parvum Iowa reference genome. PMID:26549794

  11. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

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    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors.

  12. Multicenter Evaluation of BD Max Enteric Parasite Real-Time PCR Assay for Detection of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica

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    Relich, R. F.; Doyle, L.; Espina, N.; Fuller, D.; Karchmer, T.; Lainesse, A.; Mortensen, J. E.; Pancholi, P.; Veros, W.; Harrington, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    Common causes of chronic diarrhea among travelers worldwide include protozoan parasites. The majority of parasitic infections are caused by Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis. Similarly, these species cause the majority of parasitic diarrhea acquired in the United States. Detection of parasites by gold standard microscopic methods is time-consuming and requires considerable expertise; enzyme immunoassays and direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) stains have lowered hands-on time for testing, but improvements in sensitivity and technical time may be possible with a PCR assay. We performed a clinical evaluation of a multiplex PCR panel, the enteric parasite panel (EPP), for the detection of these common parasites using the BD Max instrument, which performs automated extraction and amplification. A total of 2,495 compliant specimens were enrolled, including 2,104 (84%) specimens collected prospectively and 391 (16%) specimens collected retrospectively. Approximately equal numbers were received in 10% formalin (1,273 specimens) and unpreserved (1,222 specimens). The results from the EPP were compared to those from alternate PCR and bidirectional sequencing (APCR), as well as DFA (G. duodenalis and C. parvum or C. hominis) or trichrome stain (E. histolytica). The sensitivity and specificity for prospective and retrospective specimens combined were 98.2% and 99.5% for G. duodenalis, 95.5% and 99.6 for C. parvum or C. hominis, and 100% and 100% for E. histolytica, respectively. The performance of the FDA-approved BD Max EPP compared well to the reference methods and may be an appropriate substitute for microscopic examination or immunoassays. PMID:27535690

  13. Two geographically separated food-borne outbreaks in Sweden linked by an unusual Cryptosporidium parvum subtype, October 2010.

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    Gherasim, A; Lebbad, M; Insulander, M; Decraene, V; Kling, A; Hjertqvist, M; Wallensten, A

    2012-11-15

    The number of sporadic cases of Cryptosporidium identified in the Stockholm county area increased above the expected limit during October 2010. Additionally, two food-borne outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis occurred in two other Swedish cities: Umeå (4 October) and Örebro (9 October). The outbreak investigations did not reveal any responsible food item, however fresh herbs were suspected. Thirty stool samples, originating from all three events, tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) revealed that 27 individuals were infected with C. parvum, two with C. hominis, and one with C. felis. Using sequence analysis of the GP60 glycoprotein gene, a polymorphic marker with high intra-species diversity, we identified the same C. parvum subtype IIdA24G1 in samples from both the Umeå outbreak and the Stockholm area cases, thus indicating a possible outbreak in the Stockholm area and establishing a link between these two events. C. parvum IIdA24G1 has not previously been described in connection with a food-borne outbreak. For the outbreak in Örebro, another subtype was identified: C. parvum IIdA20G1e. These findings demonstrate that subtyping C. parvum isolates using GP60 gene amplification can be used to link cases in an outbreak investigation and we recommend its use in future similar events.

  14. The first report of Cryptosporidium andersoni in horses with diarrhea and multilocus subtype analysis.

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    Liu, Aiqin; Zhang, Jia; Zhao, Jingmin; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian

    2015-09-22

    Horses interact with humans in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits as well as in working activities. Cryptosporidium spp are one of the most important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals. The reports of Cryptosporidium in horses and the findings of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes show a necessity to carry out molecular identification of Cryptosporidium in horses, especially in diarrheic ones. The aim of the present study was to understand Cryptosporidium infection and species/genotypes in diarrheic horses, and to trace the source of infection of horse-derived Cryptosporidium isolates at a subtype level. Fecal specimens of 29 diarrheic adult horses were collected in Taikang County in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts were concentrated by Sheather's sugar flotation technique, and then examined by a bright-field microscope. Meanwhile, all the specimens were subjected to PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium. C. andersoni isolates were further subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16). One and two Cryptosporidium-positive isolates were obtained in horses by microscopy and by PCR, respectively. The two C. andersoni isolates were identified by sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Both of them were identical to each other at the MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16 loci, and MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 was found here. This is the first report of C. andersoni in horses. The fact that the MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 was reported in cattle suggests a large possibility of transmission of C. andersoni between cattle and horses.

  15. Evaluation of the BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica.

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    Perry, Michael D; Corden, Sally A; Lewis White, P

    2017-08-01

    Conventional laboratory detection methods for gastrointestinal parasites are time consuming, require considerable technical expertise and may suffer from poor analytical sensitivity. This study sought to evaluate the automated BD MAX Enteric Parasite Panel (EPP) for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia duodenalis.Methodolgy. A total of 104 known positive samples (43 Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and 61 G. duodenalis), 15 simulated samples (E. histolytica and other Entamoeba species) and 745 patient stool samples, submitted for enteric pathogen culture and microscopy, were inoculated into BD MAX EPP sample buffer tubes (SBTs). All specimens were blinded and tested within 7 days of SBT inoculation using the BD MAX EPP assay with results compared to those generated by microscopy.Results/Key findings. Combining the results from the known positive samples and anonymously tested patient samples, the sensitivity of the BD MAX EPP assay was 100 % for both Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Specificities of 99.7 and 98.9 % were calculated for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis respectively. Insufficient clinical specimen data was available to determine the performance of the assay for E. histolytica detection. The findings of this study indicate that the BD MAX EPP is suitable for the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis and G. duodenalis from clinical specimens with reduced hands-on time and complexity compared to microscopy. Results for the detection of E. histolytica were promising although further work is required to evaluate the assay for the detection of this pathogen.

  16. Cryptosporidium parvum GP60 subtypes in dairy cattle from Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Cryptosporidium parvum from 73 dairy calves less than two months old from Buenos Aires province (Argentina) were molecularly characterized using sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Seventy five sequences were obtained, and seven different subtypes were identified, all belonging to the IIa subtype f...

  17. First description of Cryptosporidium ubiquitum XIIa subtype family in farmed fur animals.

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    Kellnerová, Klára; Holubová, Nikola; Jandová, Anna; Vejčík, Antonín; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil; Kváč, Martin

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in farmed fur animals in the Czech Republic and Poland. A total of 480 faecal samples were collected from fur animals, including 300 American mink (Mustela vison), 60 silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 50 long-tailed chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera), and 70 nutrias (Myocastor coypus), at 14 farms. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium using microscopy (following aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining) and sequence analysis of PCR amplified products. Three mink and two chinchillas from two different farms tested positive for Cryptosporidium ubiquitum DNA. The presence of C. ubiquitum DNA was not associated with diarrhoea. Subtyping of C. ubiquitum isolates by sequence analysis of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene showed that isolates belonged to the XIIa subtype family, which was previously restricted to humans and ruminants. This suggests that C. ubiquitum subtype XIIa has a broader host range than previously reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Genotyping and subtyping of Giardia and Cryptosporidium isolates from commensal rodents in China.

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    Zhao, Z; Wang, R; Zhao, W; Qi, M; Zhao, J; Zhang, L; Li, J; Liu, A

    2015-05-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important zoonotic intestinal parasites responsible for diarrhoea in humans and other animals worldwide. Rodents, as reservoirs or carriers of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are abundant and globally widespread. In the present study, we collected 232 fecal specimens from commensal rodents captured in animal farms and farm neighbourhoods in China. We collected 33 Asian house rats, 168 brown rats and 31 house mice. 6.0% (14/232) and 8.2% (19/232) of these rodents were microscopy-positive for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively. All 14 Giardia isolates were identified as Giardia duodenalis assemblage G at a minimum of one or maximum of three gene loci (tpi, gdh and bg). By small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequencing, Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 12) and Cryptosporidium muris (n = 7) were identified. The gp60 gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was successfully amplified and sequenced in nine C. parvum isolates, all of which belonged to the IIdA15G1 subtype. Observation of the same IIdA15G1 subtype in humans (previously) and in rodents (here) suggests that rodents infected with Cryptosporidium have the potential to transmit cryptosporidiosis to humans.

  19. Natural infection with zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum in Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) from Brazil.

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    Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Bonello, Fábio; Gennari, Solange Maria

    2007-06-20

    A total of 145 capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) fecal samples from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts using the malachite green method. Eight samples (5.52%) showed positive results and were further submitted to nested PCR reaction for amplification of fragments of 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene for determination of species, alleles and subtypes of Cryptosporidium. Sequencing of the PCR products of the 18S rRNA gene fragments and 60-kDa glycoprotein gene fragments showed that for both genes all Cryptosporidium isolates from capybara were respectively 100% genetically similar to a bovine isolate of C. parvum and to C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in this rodent. The finding of zoonotic C. parvum infection in a semi-aquatic mammal that inhabits anthroponotic habitats raises the concern that human water supplies may be contaminated with zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts from wildlife.

  20. Multilocus sequence subtyping and genetic structure of Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni.

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    Wang, Rongjun; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Ning, Changshen; Liu, Aiqin; Zhao, Jinfeng; Feng, Yaoyu; Qi, Meng; Wang, Helei; Lv, Chaochao; Zhao, Guanghui; Xiao, Lihua

    2012-01-01

    In this study, nine C. muris and 43 C. andersoni isolates from various animals in China were subtyped by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) tool. DNA sequence analyses showed the presence of 1-2 subtypes of C. muris and 2-6 subtypes of C. andersoni at each of the four loci (MS1, MS2, MS3, and MS16), nine of which represented new subtypes. Altogether, two C. muris and 10 C. andersoni MLST subtypes were detected. Linkage disequilibrium analysis indicated although the overall population structure of the two parasites was clonal, the Chinese C. andersoni in cattle has an epidemic structure. Three and two clusters were produced in the C. muris and C. andersoni populations by Structure 2.3.3 analysis, with Chinese C. muris and C. andersoni substructures differing from other countries. Thus, this study suggested the prevalence of C. andersoni in China is not attributed to the introduction of dairy cattle. More studies involving more genetic loci and systematic sampling are needed to better elucidate the population genetic structure of C. muris and C. andersoni in the world and the genetic basis for the difference in host specificity among the two most common gastric parasites.

  1. A multi-locus study of cryptosporidium parasites isolated from patients living in iran, Malawi, Nigeria, the United kingdom, and Vietnam.

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    Salman Ghaffari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium species are important cause of diarrheal diseases in both developing and developed countries. This study aimed to compare the performance of several molecular methods for identification of Cryptosporidium species, and to detect genetic variation among each of these species isolated from Iran, Malawi, Nigeria, Vietnam and the United Kingdom.The oocysts DNA samples were derived from 106 Cryptosporidium positive feces. Polymerase chain reaction, PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocysts wall protein genes; PCR and DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of 70 kDa heat shock protein and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes were carried out.Based on these analysis, three species of Cryptosporidium including C. hominis, C. parvum and C. meleagridis, and both C. hominis and C. parvum were found in Iranian and the UK samples, respectively. Also, three C. hominis (Ib, Ib3& Id and three C. parvum (IIa, IIc & IId subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the GP60 gene. Of these, C. hominis Ib was predominant and interestingly, one subgenotype (C. hominis Ib A10G2 accounted for the majority of the samples.The current study demonstrates the complex subtypes of Cryptosporidium isolates in both developing and developed countries. This is the first report of C. parvum IId subgenotype and three new subtypes of C. parvum IIa in the UK, a new subtype of C. hominis Id from Malawi; and the first multi-locus study of three species of Cryptosporidium in human from Iran.

  2. Cryptosporidium: from laboratory diagnosis to surveillance and outbreaks

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    Chalmers R.M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The burden of disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium is unknown. However, routine laboratory diagnosis and surveillance enables the basic epidemiology to be described, changes to be monitored and under-ascertainment to be measured. Although the two main species involved in human disease in developed countries, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis, have differing epidemiologies and risk factors, national surveillance is generally from isolates identified to the genus level only. Enhancing the data by typing, at least to identify the isolates to the species level, removes some of the noise generated and better identifies the risks than when reports are not species-specific. This level of identification is also valuable for outbreak investigations, but further investigation of the population genetics of C. parvum and C. hominis is required for the development of more readily applied subtyping tools.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species and Giardia duodenalis from Symptomatic Cambodian Children.

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    Catrin E Moore

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a prospective study, 498 single faecal samples from children aged under 16 years attending an outpatient clinic in the Angkor Hospital for Children, northwest Cambodia, were examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts using microscopy and molecular assays.Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 2.2% (11/498 of samples using microscopy and in 7.7% (38/498 with molecular tests. Giardia duodenalis cysts were detected in 18.9% (94/498 by microscopy and 27.7% (138/498 by molecular tests; 82% of the positive samples (by either method were from children aged 1-10 years. Cryptosporidium hominis was the most common species of Cryptosporidium, detected in 13 (34.2% samples, followed by Cryptosporidium meleagridis in 9 (23.7%, Cryptosporidium parvum in 8 (21.1%, Cryptosporidium canis in 5 (13.2%, and Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample each. Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum positive samples were subtyped by sequencing the GP60 gene: C. hominis IaA16R6 and C. parvum IIeA7G1 were the most abundant subtypes. Giardia duodenalis was typed using a multiplex real-time PCR targeting assemblages A and B. Assemblage B (106; 76.8% of all Giardia positive samples was most common followed by A (12.3% and mixed infections (5.1%. Risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium were malnutrition (AOR 9.63, 95% CI 1.67-55.46, chronic medical diagnoses (AOR 4.51, 95% CI 1.79-11.34 and the presence of birds in the household (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.16-7.73; specifically C. hominis (p = 0.03 and C. meleagridis (p<0.001 were associated with the presence of birds. The use of soap was protective against Giardia infection (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95.This is the first report to describe the different Cryptosporidium species and subtypes and Giardia duodenalis assemblages in Cambodian children. The variety of Cryptosporidium species detected indicates both anthroponotic and zoonotic transmission in this population. Interventions to improve

  4. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  5. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in children from Mexico.

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    Olivia Valenzuela

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60 gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries.

  6. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Olivia; González-Díaz, Mariana; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Cano, Manuel; Durazo, María; Bernal, Rosa M.; Hernandez, Jesús; Xiao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by Cryptosporidium spp. In immunocompetent individuals, it usually causes an acute and self-limited diarrhea; in infants, infection with Cryptosporidium spp. can cause malnutrition and growth retardation, and declined cognitive ability. In this study, we described for the first time the distribution of C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes in 12 children in Mexico by sequence characterization of the 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene of Cryptosporidium. Altogether, 7 subtypes belonging to 4 subtype families of C. hominis (Ia, Ib, Id and Ie) and 1 subtype family of C. parvum (IIa) were detected, including IaA14R3, IaA15R3, IbA10G2, IdA17, IeA11G3T3, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA16G1R1. The frequency of the subtype families and subtypes in the samples analyzed in this study differed from what was observed in other countries. PMID:24755606

  7. Parasitoses intestinais de indígenas da comunidade Mapuera (Oriximiná, Estado do Pará, Brasil: elevada prevalência de Blastocystis hominis e encontro de Cryptosporidium sp e Cyclospora cayetanensis Intestinal parasitosis in Indians of the Mapuera community (Oriximiná, State of Pará, Brazil: high prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and finding of Cryptosporidium sp and Cyclospora cayetanensis

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    Jaila Dias Borges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais em indígenas da aldeia Mapuera (Oriximiná, Estado do Pará, Brasil. No contexto de apreciações congêneres, expressa contribuição para adequado conhecimento do assunto, significativo sob o ponto de vista médico-sanitário. O exame parasitológico das fezes, de 83 pessoas, realizado por meio de quatro métodos, pode ser considerado como dotado de razoável amplitude para estabelecer diagnósticos. Ocorreu encontro de cistos de protozoários e de ovos de helmintos de múltiplos tipos, até mesmo em expressivas porcentagens, merecendo destaque a muito freqüente presença de Blastocystis hominis (57,8%, como também o encontro de Cryptosporidium sp (3,6% e de Cyclospora cayetanensis (10,8%, comentado especificamente. O verificado demonstra que tais índios vivem em ambiente onde prevalecem más condições higiênicas, em especial, facilitador da disseminação de protozoários e helmintos pelo contato com o solo ou ingestão de água e alimentos contaminados.Occurrences of intestinal parasitosis in Indians of the Mapuera community (Oriximiná, State of Pará, Brazil were evaluated. Within the context of group assessment, this study makes a contribution towards adequate knowledge of this subject, which is significant from a medical-sanitary point of view. Parasitological examination of feces from 83 individuals, performed using four different methods, could be considered to have reasonable amplitude for establishing diagnoses. Protozoan cysts and helminth eggs of many types were found, even with significant percentages. The frequent presence of Blastocystis hominis (57.8%, along with findings of Cryptosporidium sp (3.6% and Cyclospora cayetanensis (10.8%, deserved highlighting with specific comments. The findings show that these Indians live in an environment in which poor hygiene conditions prevail. In particular, these facilitate the dissemination of protozoa and helminths through

  8. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium identified in clinical samples from cities in Brazil and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Regina Helena Saramago; Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; Cunha, Flavia de Souza; Pantano, María Laura; Sodré, Fernando Campos; da Silva, Sidnei; Astudillo, Osvaldo Germán; Peralta, José Mauro; Carnevale, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    The identification and characterisation of Cryptosporidiumgenotypes and subtypes are fundamental to the study of cryptosporidiosis epidemiology, aiding in prevention and control strategies. The objective was to determine the genetic diversity ofCryptosporidium in samples obtained from hospitals of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Samples were analysed by microscopy and TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays forCryptosporidium detection, genotyped by nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and subtyped by DNA sequencing of the gp60 gene. Among the 89 samples from Rio de Janeiro, Cryptosporidium spp were detected in 26 by microscopy/TaqMan PCR. In samples from Buenos Aires,Cryptosporidium was diagnosed in 15 patients of the 132 studied. The TaqMan PCR and the nested-PCR-RFLP detected Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, and co-infections of both species. In Brazilian samples, the subtypes IbA10G2 and IIcA5G3 were observed. The subtypes found in Argentinean samples were IbA10G2, IaA10G1R4, IaA11G1R4, and IeA11G3T3, and mixed subtypes of Ia and IIa families were detected in the co-infections. C. hominis was the species more frequently detected, and subtype family Ib was reported in both countries. Subtype diversity was higher in Buenos Aires than in Rio de Janeiro and two new subtypes were described for the first time. PMID:26814641

  9. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium identified in clinical samples from cities in Brazil and Argentina

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    Regina Helena Saramago Peralta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterisation of Cryptosporidiumgenotypes and subtypes are fundamental to the study of cryptosporidiosis epidemiology, aiding in prevention and control strategies. The objective was to determine the genetic diversity ofCryptosporidium in samples obtained from hospitals of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Samples were analysed by microscopy and TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays forCryptosporidium detection, genotyped by nested-PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and subtyped by DNA sequencing of the gp60 gene. Among the 89 samples from Rio de Janeiro, Cryptosporidium spp were detected in 26 by microscopy/TaqMan PCR. In samples from Buenos Aires,Cryptosporidium was diagnosed in 15 patients of the 132 studied. The TaqMan PCR and the nested-PCR-RFLP detected Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, and co-infections of both species. In Brazilian samples, the subtypes IbA10G2 and IIcA5G3 were observed. The subtypes found in Argentinean samples were IbA10G2, IaA10G1R4, IaA11G1R4, and IeA11G3T3, and mixed subtypes of Ia and IIa families were detected in the co-infections. C. hominis was the species more frequently detected, and subtype family Ib was reported in both countries. Subtype diversity was higher in Buenos Aires than in Rio de Janeiro and two new subtypes were described for the first time.

  10. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China

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    Yang Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150 of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65 of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150 of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12, D (n = 3, Type IV (n = 2, Peru6 (n = 1, and I (n = 1, and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2, VbA29 (n = 16, and VbA32 (n = 3. All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits.

  11. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ziyin; Zhao, Wei; Shen, Yujuan; Zhang, Weizhe; Shi, Ying; Ren, Guangxu; Yang, Di; Ling, Hong; Yang, Fengkun; Liu, Aiqin; Cao, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150) of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65) of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150) of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12), D (n = 3), Type IV (n = 2), Peru6 (n = 1), and I (n = 1), and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each) were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2), VbA29 (n = 16), and VbA32 (n = 3). All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits. © Z. Yang et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  12. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

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    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  13. Is real-time PCR-based diagnosis similar in performance to routine parasitological examination for the identification of Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica from stool samples? Evaluation of a new commercial multiplex PCR assay and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, A; Valot, S; Desoubeaux, G; Argy, N; Nourrisson, C; Pomares, C; Machouart, M; Le Govic, Y; Dalle, F; Botterel, F; Bourgeois, N; Cateau, E; Leterrier, M; Le Pape, P; Morio, F

    2016-02-01

    Microscopy is the reference standard for routine laboratory diagnosis in faecal parasitology but there is growing interest in alternative methods to overcome the limitations of microscopic examination, which is time-consuming and highly dependent on an operator's skills and expertise. Compared with microscopy, DNA detection by PCR is simple and can offer a better turnaround time. However, PCR performances remain difficult to assess as most studies have been conducted on a limited number of positive clinical samples and used in-house PCR methods. Our aim was to evaluate a new multiplex PCR assay (G-DiaParaTrio; Diagenode Diagnostics), targeting Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum/Cryptosporidium hominis and Entamoeba histolytica. To minimize the turnaround time, PCR was coupled with automated DNA extraction (QiaSymphony; Qiagen). The PCR assay was evaluated using a reference panel of 185 samples established by routine microscopic examination using a standardized protocol including Ziehl-Neelsen staining and adhesin detection by ELISA (E. histolytica II; TechLab). This panel, collected from 12 French parasitology laboratories, included 135 positive samples for G. intestinalis (n = 38), C. parvum/C. hominis (n = 26), E. histolytica (n = 5), 21 other gastrointestinal parasites, together with 50 negative samples. In all, the G-DiaParaTrio multiplex PCR assay identified 38 G. intestinalis, 25 C. parvum/C. hominis and five E. histolytica leading to sensitivity/specificity of 92%/100%, 96%/100% and 100%/100% for G. intestinalis, C. parvum/C. hominis and E. histolytica, respectively. This new multiplex PCR assay offers fast and reliable results, similar to microscopy-driven diagnosis for the detection of these gastrointestinal protozoa, allowing its implementation in routine clinical practice.

  14. Epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium isolated from cattle, buffaloes, and humans in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M A; Abdel-Ghany, A E; Abdel-Latef, G K; Abdel-Aziz, S A; Aboelhadid, S M

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiology and public health significance of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were investigated in Beni-Suef Governorate, Egypt. A total of 610 animal fecal samples (480 from cattle and 130 from buffaloes) beside 290 stool samples from humans were collected in the period between January and December 2014. Based on the microscopic examination, the overall estimated prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle, buffaloes, and humans was 10.2, 12.3, and 19 %, respectively. The highest detection rates were in calves less than 2 months of age (17.1 %) and diarrheic animals (13.0 %). Likewise in humans, the highest prevalence of Cryptosporidium was in infants (31.3 %) and diarrheic individuals (21.1 %). The gender distribution in humans denoted that Cryptosporidium was reported more frequently in males (21.7 %) than females (14.5 %). Based on the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and gp60 genes were successfully amplified in 36 out of 50 samples subjected to genotyping. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the COWP fragments revealed that Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species detected in cattle (12 isolates) and buffaloes (4 isolates), while in humans, the detected species were Cryptosporidium hominis (15 isolates) and C. parvum (5 isolates). Sequence analysis of the gp60 gene identified the subtype IIdA20G1 within C. parvum isolated from both animals and humans. The common occurrence of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum in cattle and buffaloes highlights the potential role of these animals as significant reservoirs of infection to humans. Also, the presence of C. hominis and C. parvum in humans indicates that both anthroponotic and zoonotic pathways are expected.

  15. Multilocus typing and population structure of Cryptosporidium from children in Zaragoza, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Ana; Quílez, Joaquín; Vergara-Castiblanco, Claudia; Monteagudo, Luis; Del Cacho, Emilio; Clavel, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A multilocus typing approach with eight variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci and the GP60 gene was used to analyze the inter- and intra-species variation of 44 Cryptosporidium isolates from pediatric patients in Zaragoza city (NE, Spain). Restriction and sequence analyses of the SSU rRNA gene revealed that Cryptosporidium transmission is mostly anthroponotic in this area, with the predominance of Cryptosporidium hominis (n: 41) over Cryptosporidium parvum (n: 3). GP60 subtyping showed limited genetic diversity and four subtypes were identified, including IbA10G2 (n: 35), IaA24R3 (n: 6), IIaA15G1R1 (n: 1) and IIaA15G2R1 (n: 2). Five out of eight VNTR loci showed a discriminatory power higher than the GP60 gene, although each locus had a predominant allele exhibited by more than 50% of isolates. All but four alleles were associated to either C. hominis or C. parvum and linked alleles at different loci were found. Multilocus typing substantially increased the discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index: 0.807, 95% CI, 0.683-0.926) and revealed that genetic diversity is much higher than that reported by GP60 sequencing, since 17 multilocus subtypes (MLTs) were identified. Nearly half of the specimens were allocated to a single major MLT. However, no more than three specimens were allocated to each of the remaining MLTs. Both phylogenetic and population analyses revealed a population clustering of C. hominis according to the GP60 subtype, which indicates the robustness of this marker to differentiate genetic subpopulations. Subpopulations had an overall clonal genetic structure, although traces of genetic flow between them were also observed.

  16. Blastocytosis hominis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blastocystis hominis infection Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Blastocystis hominis is a microscopic organism that may be ... people who aren't having any digestive symptoms. Blastocystis hominis is also sometimes found in the stools ...

  17. Diversity of Cryptosporidium species occurring in sheep and goat breeds reared in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupke, Agnieszka; Michalski, Mirosław M; Rzeżutka, Artur

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species and assessment of their prevalence in different breeds of sheep and goat reared in Poland. In addition, the relationship between animal age, breed type, and the frequency of Cryptosporidium infections was determined. Fecal samples from 234 lambs and 105 goat kids aged up to 9 weeks, representing 24 breeds and their cross-breeds were collected from 71 small ruminant farms across Poland. The identification of Cryptosporidium species was performed at the 18 SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and COWP loci followed by subtyping of C. parvum and C. hominis strains at GP60 gene locus. The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA at the 18 SSU rRNA locus was detected in 45/234 (19.2%) lamb feces samples and in 39/105 (37.1%) taken from goats. The following Cryptosporidium species: C. xiaoi, C. bovis, C. ubiquitum, C. parvum, and C. hominis were detected in small ruminants. Infections caused by C. xiaoi were predominant without favoring any tested animal species. Subsequent GP60 subtyping revealed the presence of C. parvum IIaA17G1R1 subtype in sheep and IIdA23G1 subtype in goats. IIdA23G1 subtype was detected in a goat host for the first time. There were no significant differences found in frequency of infections between the age groups ( 0.05) or goat kids (P = 0.06, α > 0.05). In addition, there was no correlation observed between the frequency in occurrence of particular parasite species and breed type in relation to native sheep breeds (F = 0.11; P = 0.990 > 0.05). In the case of goats, more breed-related differences in parasite occurrence were found. The results of this study improve our knowledge on the breed-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium infections in the population of small ruminants reared in Poland.

  18. Presence of Cryptosporidium scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Presedo, Ignacio; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes; Gómez-Bautista, Mercedes; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel; Castro-Hermida, José Antonio

    2013-09-23

    The aim of the present study was to identify the species of Cryptosporidium infecting Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Galicia (NW, Spain). A sampling of 209 wild boars shot in different game preserves was carried out during the hunting season in 2009-2010. All samples were examined for Cryptosporidium infection, using both immunological and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts in faecal samples were identified using a direct immunofluorescence technique with monoclonal antibodies (DFA). The presence of Cryptosporidium DNA was determined using nested PCR involving amplification of a fragment of the small-subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rRNA). A total of 35 (16.7%) samples tested positive with both techniques. However, sequencing was only possible in 27 samples. Cryptosporidium scrofarum, Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were identified in 19, 5 and 3 of the samples, respectively. Moreover, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting all age groups (juveniles, sub adults and adults). Sequence analyses of the glycoprotein (GP60) gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 in 2 juveniles and IIaA13G1R1 in 1 sub adult wild boar. These species and subtypes have previously been described in human patients, indicating that isolates from asymptomatic wild boars might have zoonotic potential. This is the first report of the presence of C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum subtypes IIaA16G2R1 and IIaA13G1R1 in wild boars (S. scrofa) in Spain.

  19. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.; Vestergaard, L. S.

    2009-01-01

    analytical epidemiological studies were performed; an initial case-control study followed by a cohort study using an electronic questionnaire. Disease was associated with eating from the canteen salad bar on one, possibly two, specific weekdays [relative risk 4-1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-8.3]. Three...

  20. Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife or livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Abu Samra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium infection is one of the most common causes of parasitic diarrhoea worldwide in cattle and humans. In developing countries, human cryptosporidiosis is most prevalent during early childhood and links between zoonotic infection and animal related activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the prevalence and species/genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium among children (< 5 years and calves (< 6 months living in a rural farming area adjacent to the Kruger National Park in South Africa, where interactions between humans and wild and domestic animals are known to occur. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8/143 stool samples of children recruited within the hospital system (5.6%; 95% CI 2.4%, 10.7% and in 2/352 faecal samples of calves (0.6%; 95% CI 0.1%, 2.0% using the modified Ziehl–Neelsen (MZN staining technique. Microscopy positive samples from children were further analysed by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and identified as Cryptosporidium hominis (3/4 and Cryptosporidium meleagridis (1/4. Regardless of the microscopy outcome, randomly selected samples (n = 36 from calves 0–4 months of age were amplified and sequenced at the 18S rRNA gene using nested PCR. Two calves tested positive (5.6%; 95% CI 1.7%, 18.7%, and revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis. The detection of only two zoonotic species (C. parvum in one calf and C. meleagridis in one child suggests that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is not currently widespread in our study area; however, the potential exists for amplification of transmission in an immunocompromised population.Keywords: Cryptosporidium; children; calves; South Africa; genotyping; GP60 subtyping

  1. Cryptosporidium enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000617.htm Cryptosporidium enteritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cryptosporidium enteritis is an infection of the small intestine that ...

  2. Detection and molecular characterisation of Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba spp. among patients with gastrointestinal symptoms in Gambo Hospital, Oromia Region, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, María J; Benavides, Cynthia M; Tissiano, Gabriel; Tesfamariam, Abraham; Cuadros, Juan; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; Cano, Lourdes; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2015-09-01

    To assess the prevalence and genetic diversity of the enteric protozoa species G. duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp. and Entamoeba histolytica in individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms compatible with infections by these pathogens seeking medical attention in a rural area in southern Ethiopia. A total of 92 stool samples were initially screened by direct microscopy and immunochromatography and further confirmed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis-positive samples were molecularly characterised by multilocus genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein was used for the subtyping of Cryptosporidium isolates. Detection and differential diagnosis of E. histolytica/dispar were conducted by real-time PCR. PCR-based prevalences were 10.9% for G. duodenalis, 1.1% for Cryptosporidium spp. and 3.3% for Entamoeba spp. Seven (four novel and three known) subtypes of G. duodenalis assemblage B were identified at the GDH locus and 5 (one novel and four known) at the BG locus. A novel variant of C. hominis subtype IbA9G3 was also identified. Two Entamoeba isolates were assigned to E. dispar and an additional one to E. histolytica. Although preliminary, our results strongly suggest that giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis represent a significant burden in Ethiopian rural population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  4. Dermatobia hominis infestation.

    OpenAIRE

    Nunzi, E.; Rongioletti, F; Rebora, A

    1984-01-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested.

  5. Dermatobia hominis infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunzi, E; Rongioletti, F; Rebora, A

    1984-02-01

    A patient is reported who, after leaving Venezuela, developed some boils on the left upper limb inhabited by Dermatobia hominis larvae. The curious life-cycle of this tropical fly is described with some considerations about the diagnostic problem. A simple unreported way of larvae extraction is suggested.

  6. A new genotype of Cryptosporidium from giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuehan; He, Tingmei; Zhong, Zhijun; Zhang, Hemin; Wang, Rongjun; Dong, Haiju; Wang, Chengdong; Li, Desheng; Deng, Jiabo; Peng, Guangneng; Zhang, Longxian

    2013-10-01

    Fifty-seven fecal samples were collected from giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the China Conservation and Research Centre for the Giant Panda (CCRCGP) in Sichuan and examined for Cryptosporidium oocysts by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. An 18-year-old male giant panda was Cryptosporidium positive, with oocysts of an average size of 4.60×3.99 μm (n=50). The isolate was genetically analyzed using the partial 18S rRNA, 70 kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Multi-locus genetic characterization indicated that the present isolate was different from known Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. The closest relative was the Cryptosporidium bear genotype, with 11, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the 18S rRNA, HSP70, and actin genes, respectively. Significant differences were also observed in the COWP gene compared to Cryptosporidium mongoose genotype. The homology to the bear genotype at the 18S rRNA locus was 98.6%, which is comparable to that between Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis (99.2%), or between Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium andersoni (99.4%). Therefore, the Cryptosporidium in giant pandas in this study is considered as a new genotype: the Cryptosporidium giant panda genotype.

  7. Structure-activity relationship study of selective benzimidazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH

    OpenAIRE

    Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Sharling, Lisa; Zhang, Minjia; Liu, Xiaoping; Ray, Soumya S.; Iain S. MacPherson; Striepen, Boris; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Gregory D Cuny

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parasites are important waterborne pathogens of both humans and animals. The C. parvum and C. hominis genomes indicate that the only route to guanine nucleotides is via inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Thus the inhibition of the parasite IMPDH presents a potential strategy for treating Cryptosporidium infections. A selective benzimidazole-based inhibitor of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) was previously identified in a high throughput screen. Here we report a structur...

  8. Molecular Epidemiology of Giardia, Blastocystis and Cryptosporidium among Indigenous Children from the Colombian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Angie; Munoz, Marina; Gómez, Natalia; Tabares, Juan; Segura, Laura; Salazar, Ángela; Restrepo, Cristian; Ruíz, Miguel; Reyes, Patricia; Qian, Yuchen; Xiao, Lihua; López, Myriam C.; Ramírez, Juan D.

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of intestinal parasites in children is most likely due to lack of natural or acquired resistance and differences in behavior and habits closely related to environmental and socioeconomic determinants. The most important protozoa that parasitize humans are Giardia, Entamoeba, Blastocystis, and Cryptosporidium. These parasites present wide intraspecific genetic diversity and subsequently classified into assemblages and subtypes. The Amazon basin is the largest in the world and is the fifth freshwater reserve on the planet. Contradictorily, people living in these areas (Indigenous populations) have poor quality of life, which favors the infection of diseases of fecal-oral transmission. The aim of this work was to unravel the molecular epidemiology of Giardia, Blastocystis and Cryptosporidium across four communities (Puerto Nariño, San Juan del Soco, Villa Andrea and Nuevo Paraíso). We obtained 284 fecal samples from children under 15 years old that were analyzed by direct microscopy (261 samples) and Real Time PCR (qPCR) (284 samples). The positive samples for these protozoa were further characterized by several molecular markers to depict assemblages and subtypes. We observed a frequency of Giardia infection by microscopy of 23.7% (62 samples) and by qPCR of 64.8% (184 samples); for Blastocystis by microscopy of 35.2% (92 samples) and by qPCR of 88.7% (252 samples) and for Cryptosporidium only 1.9% (5 samples) were positive by microscopy and qPCR 1.8% (5 samples). Regarding the Giardia assemblages, using the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) marker we observed AI, BIII and BIV assemblages and when using triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) we observed assemblages AI, AII, BIII and BIV. In contrast, Blastocystis STs detected were 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Lastly, the species C. viatorum, C. hominis (with the subtypes IdA19 and IaA12R8) and C. parvum (with the subtype IIcA5G3c) were identified. We observed a high profile of zoonotic transmission

  9. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium isolates from human clinical cases in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Cacciò, Simone M; Wolska-Kuśnierz, Beata; Heropolitanska-Pliszka, Edyta; Bernatowska, Ewa; Wielopolska, Małgorzata; Paziewska, Anna; Welc-faleciak, Renata; Siński, Edward

    2008-06-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. infection is usually self-limited in immunocompetent hosts but can be severe and life threatening in children and in immunocompromised individuals including those with primary or acquired immunodeficiencies. One hundred and three faecal samples were collected from 35 hospitalised patients with different symptoms and tested for the presence of the parasite. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in four of 35 patients (11.4%) using Ziehl-Neelsen staining of faecal smears and immunofluorescence assay, whereas 12 (34.3%) samples tested positive by nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Cryptosporidium DNA was detected in one bile sample but not in a liver tissue biopsy sample collected from a patient who suffered from sclerosing cholangitis. Sequence analysis of oocyst wall protein and beta-tubulin gene fragments revealed three different parasite species (Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium meleagridis and Cryptosporidium parvum) in children with primary immunodeficiencies, whereas only C. parvum was found in immunocompetent individuals and in those with secondary immunodeficiencies. This study has revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in hospitalised patients in Poland and confirmed that molecular techniques enable a more sensitive detection of the parasite.

  10. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  11. Prevalence of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium on three organic pig farms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Jianmin, Wang; Mejer, Helena;

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are a potential source of contamination with Cryptosporidium spp., which can lead to infection in humans. Two species C. parvum and C. hominis can cause an acute diarrheal illness in humans, which can become severe in e.g. patients with HIV. The oocyst can survive for long periods in the env...

  12. Occurrence and potential health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchments in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Paulussen, Jef; De Coster, Lut; Schoemaker, Toon; Chalmers, Rachel; Grit, Grietje; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-02-01

    Human wastewater and livestock can contribute to contamination of surface water with Cryptosporidium and Giardia. In countries where a substantial proportion of drinking water is produced from surface water, e.g., Belgium, this poses a constant threat on drinking water safety. Our objective was to monitor the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different water catchment sites in Belgium and to discriminate between (oo)cysts from human or animal origin using genotyping. Monthly samples were collected from raw water and purified drinking water at four catchment sites. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected using USEPA method 1623 and positive samples were genotyped. No contamination was found in purified water at any site. In three catchments, only low numbers of (oo)cysts were recovered from raw water samples (Giardia (92 %) and Cryptosporidium (96 %), especially in winter and spring. Genotyping of Giardia in 38 water samples identified the presence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage AI, AII, BIV, BIV-like, and E. Cryptosporidium andersoni, Cryptosporidium suis, Cryptosporidium horse genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Cryptosporidium hominis were detected. The genotyping results suggest that agriculture may be a more important source of surface water contamination than human waste in this catchment. In catchment sites with contaminated surface water, such as the Blankaart, continuous monitoring of treated water for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia would be justified and (point) sources of surface water contamination should be identified.

  13. Equine cryptosporidial infection associated with Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatamna, Abd Elkarim; Wagnerová, Pavla; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Aissi, Miriem; Rost, Michael; Kváč, Martin

    2013-10-18

    Faecal samples from two horse farms in Algeria keeping Arabian, Thoroughbred, and Barb horses were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium in 2010-2011. A total of 138 faecal samples (16 from a farm keeping 50 animals and 122 from a farm with 267 horses) were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. infection using molecular tools. DNA was extracted from all samples. Nested PCR was performed to amplify fragments of the SSU rDNA and gp60 genes to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Sequence analyses of SSU and gp60 genes revealed four animals positive for the presence of subtype XIIIa A22R9 of the Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype. The infections were not associated with diarrhoea. This study reports, for the first time, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in Algeria and the first occurrence of the hedgehog genotype in horses. These findings support the potential role of infected horses in sylvatic-domestic transmission of Cryptosporidium.

  14. Multiplex PCR detection of waterborne intestinal protozoa: microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hyun; Joung, Migyo; Yoon, Sejoung; Choi, Kyoungjin; Park, Woo-Yoon; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2010-12-01

    Recently, emerging waterborne protozoa, such as microsporidia, Cyclospora, and Cryptosporidium, have become a challenge to human health worldwide. Rapid, simple, and economical detection methods for these major waterborne protozoa in environmental and clinical samples are necessary to control infection and improve public health. In the present study, we developed a multiplex PCR test that is able to detect all these 3 major waterborne protozoa at the same time. Detection limits of the multiplex PCR method ranged from 10(1) to 10(2) oocysts or spores. The primers for microsporidia or Cryptosporidium used in this study can detect both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, or both Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, respectively. Restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products with BsaBI or BsiEI makes it possible to distinguish the 2 species of microsporidia or Cryptosporidium, respectively. This simple, rapid, and cost-effective multiplex PCR method will be useful for detecting outbreaks or sporadic cases of waterborne protozoa infections.

  15. AIDS-associated diarrhea and wasting in northeast Brazil is associated with subtherapeutic plasma levels of antiretroviral medications and with both bovine and human subtypes of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K. Brantley

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced HIV infection is frequently complicated by diarrhea, disruption of bowel structure and function, and malnutrition. Resulting malabsorption of or pharmacokinetic changes in antiretroviral agents might lead to subtherapeutic drug dosing and treatment failure in individual patients, and could require dose adjustment and/or dietary supplements during periods of diarrheal illness. We determined the plasma levels of antiretroviral medications in patients that had already been started on medication by their physicians in an urban infectious diseases hospital in northeast Brazil. We also obtained blood samples from patients hospitalized for diarrhea or AIDS-associated wasting, and we found reduced stavudine and didanosine levels in comparison with outpatients without diarrhea or wasting who had been treated at the same hospital clinic. There was a predominance of the protozoal pathogens Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli, typical opportunistic pathogens of AIDS-infected humans, in the stool samples of inpatients with diarrhea. We conclude that severe diarrhea and wasting in this population is associated with both protozoal pathogens and subtherapeutic levels of antiretroviral medications.

  16. Glycoproteins and Gal-GalNAc cause Cryptosporidium to switch from an invasive sporozoite to a replicative trophozoite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwinson, Adam; Widmer, Giovanni; McEvoy, John

    2016-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium causes cryptosporidiosis, a diarrheal disease that can become chronic and life threatening in immunocompromised and malnourished people. There is no effective drug treatment for those most at risk of severe cryptosporidiosis. The disease pathology is due to a repeated cycle of host cell invasion and parasite replication that amplifies parasite numbers and destroys the intestinal epithelium. This study aimed to better understand the Cryptosporidium replication cycle by identifying molecules that trigger the switch from invasive sporozoite to replicative trophozoite. Our approach was to treat sporozoites of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis, the species causing most human cryptosporidiosis, with various media under axenic conditions and examine the parasites for rounding and nuclear division as markers of trophozoite development and replication, respectively. FBS had a concentration-dependent effect on trophozoite development in both species. Trophozoite development in C. parvum, but not C. hominis, was enhanced when RPMI supplemented with 10% FBS (RPMI-FBS) was conditioned by HCT-8 cells for 3h. The effect of non-conditioned and HCT-8 conditioned RPMI-FBS on trophozoite development was abrogated by proteinase K and sodium metaperiodate pretreatment, indicating a glycoprotein trigger. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis trophozoite development also was triggered by Gal-GalNAc in a concentration-dependent manner. Cryptosporidium parvum replication was greatest following treatments with Gal-GalNAc, followed by conditioned RPMI-FBS and non-conditioned RPMI-FBS (PGalNAc (1mM).

  17. Cryptosporidium and Giardia as foodborne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H V; Cacciò, S M; Cook, N; Nichols, R A B; Tait, A

    2007-10-21

    recombination between alleles at different loci, the generation of a very large number of different genotypes and a high level of resolution between isolates. In contrast, genetic exchange appears rare in Cryptosporidium hominis and populations are essentially clonal with far fewer combinations of alleles at different loci, resulting in a much lower resolution between isolates with many being of the same genotype. Clearly, more markers provide more resolution and high throughput sequencing of a variety of genes, as in multilocus sequence typing, is a way forward. Sub-genotyping tools offer increased discrimination, specificity and sensitivity, which can be exploited for investigating the epidemiology of disease, the role of asymptomatic carriers and contaminated fomites and for source and disease tracking for food and water contaminated with small numbers of (oo)cysts.

  18. Cryptosporidium species from human immunodeficiency-infected patients with chronic diarrhea in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Agnes; Dwintasari, Sri W; Connelly, Lisa; Nichols, Rosely A B; Yunihastuti, Evy; Karyadi, Teguh; Djauzi, Samsuridjal

    2013-11-01

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic parasite that manifests as chronic and severe diarrhea in the immune-compromised subject. We investigated the species of Cryptosporidium to understand the epidemiology, mode of transmission, response to treatment, and prevention. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 18 S rRNA gene and sequencing were performed on 41 Cryptosporidium-positive stools from 36 patients with HIV AIDS, which comprised 36 pretreatment stools and 5 stools after treatment with Paromomycin. C. hominis, C. meleagridis, C. felis, and C. parvum were detected; 28 of 36 (77.7%) patients were infected with C. hominis and two (5.5%) patients with multiple species of Cryptosporidium. Treatment with Paromomycin resulted in different outcomes, perhaps because patients harbored other intestinal parasitic infections. Multiple infection with various Cryptosporidium species in the presence of other intestinal parasites occurs in patients with HIV AIDS suffering from chronic diarrhea who are severely immune-compromised. Common transmission of Cryptosporidium is anthroponotic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium by real-time polymerase chain reaction in stool samples from patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Flávia Ribeiro Rolando

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the first genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium isolates in Brazil using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A total of 1,197 faecal specimens from children and 10 specimens from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients were collected between 1999-2010 and screened using microscopy. Forty-eight Cryptosporidium oocyst-positive isolates were identified and analysed using a generic TaqMan assay targeting the 18S rRNA to detect Cryptosporidium species and two other TaqMan assays to identify Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum. The 18S rRNA assay detected Cryptosporidium species in all 48 of the stool specimens. The C. parvum TaqMan assay correctly identified five/48 stool samples, while 37/48 stool specimens were correctly amplified in the C. hominis TaqMan assay. The results obtained in this study support previous findings showing that C. hominis infections are more prevalent than C. parvum infections in Brazil and they demonstrate that the TaqMan RT-PCR procedure is a simple, fast and valuable tool for the detection and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species.

  20. Molecular Insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Soil-Transmitted Helminths from a Facility-Based Surveillance System in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Daniel E.; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A.; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Roellig, Dawn M.; Kahn, Geoffrey D.; Lindblade, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the β-tubulin mutation described for benzimidazole resistance, suggesting potential usefulness in mass drug administration campaigns. PMID:22144459

  1. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5% was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%, postweaned juveniles (9.0%, and adult cattle (4.94%. The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease.

  2. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  3. Cutaneous myiasis from Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, S T; Tieszen, M E

    1997-08-01

    We present a case report of cutaneous myiasis in a foreign traveler who was infected by Dermatobia hominis while visiting South America. This patient developed a painful furuncular lesion on the anterior scalp and noted that the lesion drained a serosanguinous fluid for more than a month before definitive treatment. Invasion of mammalian tissue by the larval forms of D. hominis typically results in the formation of a classic furuncular lesion. For persons who present with a lesion that contains a central draining stoma located on an exposed body surface, the diagnosis of myiasis should always be considered. In addition to the case report, we present a discussion of furuncular myiasis and describe the peculiar life cycle of the human botfly. We also describe the various therapies that may be employed for treating cutaneous myiasis, including surgical extraction of the larva and asphyxiation of the larva by application of petroleum jelly or other fat derivatives to the central stoma or breathing aperture.

  4. Structure-activity relationship study of selective benzimidazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum IMPDH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Sharling, Lisa; Zhang, Minjia; Liu, Xiaoping; Ray, Soumya S.; MacPherson, Iain S.; Striepen, Boris; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parasites are important waterborne pathogens of both humans and animals. The C. parvum and C. hominis genomes indicate that the only route to guanine nucleotides is via inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Thus the inhibition of the parasite IMPDH presents a potential strategy for treating Cryptosporidium infections. A selective benzimidazole-based inhibitor of C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) was previously identified in a high throughput screen. Here we report a structure-activity relationship study of benzimidazole-based compounds that resulted in potent and selective inhibitors of CpIMPDH. Several compounds display potent antiparasitic activity in vitro. PMID:22310229

  5. Identification and differentiation of Cryptosporidium species by capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Michelle L; Holley, Marita; Ryan, Una M; Worden, Paul; Gillings, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Cryptosporidium species generally lack distinguishing morphological traits, and consequently, molecular methods are commonly used for parasite identification. Various methods for Cryptosporidium identification have been proposed, each with their advantages and disadvantages. In this study, we show that capillary electrophoresis coupled with single-strand conformation polymorphism (CE-SSCP) is a rapid, simple and cost-effective method for the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. Species could be readily differentiated based on the SSCP mobility of amplified 18S rRNA gene molecules. Clones that differed by single-nucleotide polymorphisms could be distinguished on CE-SSCP mobility. Profiles of species known to have heterogenic copies of 18S rRNA gene contained multiple peaks. Cloning and sequencing of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium fayeri and Cryptosporidium possum genotype 18S rRNA gene amplicons confirmed that these multiple peaks represented type A and type B 18S rRNA gene copies. CE-SSCP provides a reliable and sensitive analysis for epidemiological studies, environmental detection and diversity screening.

  6. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats.

  7. Determination of recombination in Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Boesen, Thomas; Mygind, Tina

    2002-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis has been previously described as a heterogeneous species, and in the present study intraspecies diversity of 20 M. hominis isolates from different individuals was analyzed using parts of the unlinked gyrase B (gyrB), elongation factor Tu (tuf), SRalpha homolog (ftsY), hitB-hitL...

  8. Evolution of mitosome metabolism and invasion-related proteins in Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyou; Roellig, Dawn M; Guo, Yaqiong; Li, Na; Frace, Michael A; Tang, Kevin; Zhang, Longxian; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-12-08

    The switch from photosynthetic or predatory to parasitic life strategies by apicomplexans is accompanied with a reductive evolution of genomes and losses of metabolic capabilities. Cryptosporidium is an extreme example of reductive evolution among apicomplexans, with losses of both the mitosome genome and many metabolic pathways. Previous observations on reductive evolution were largely based on comparative studies of various groups of apicomplexans. In this study, we sequenced two divergent Cryptosporidium species and conducted a comparative genomic analysis to infer the reductive evolution of metabolic pathways and differential evolution of invasion-related proteins within the Cryptosporidium lineage. In energy metabolism, Cryptosporidium species differ from each other mostly in mitosome metabolic pathways. Compared with C. parvum and C. hominis, C. andersoni possesses more aerobic metabolism and a conventional electron transport chain, whereas C. ubiquitum has further reductions in ubiquinone and polyisprenoid biosynthesis and has lost both the conventional and alternative electron transport systems. For invasion-associated proteins, similar to C. hominis, a reduction in the number of genes encoding secreted MEDLE and insulinase-like proteins in the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes 5 and 6 was also observed in C. ubiquitum and C. andersoni, whereas mucin-type glycoproteins are highly divergent between the gastric C. andersoni and intestinal Cryptosporidium species. Results of the study suggest that rapidly evolving mitosome metabolism and secreted invasion-related proteins could be involved in tissue tropism and host specificity in Cryptosporidium spp. The finding of progressive reduction in mitosome metabolism among Cryptosporidium species improves our knowledge of organelle evolution within apicomplexans.

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from HIV infected patients from an urban area of Brazil Caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. de pacientes de área urbana do Brasil infectados por HIV

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    Patrícia de Lucca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are important cause of enteric disease in humans, but may also infect animals. This study describes the relative frequency of several Cryptosporidium species found in human specimens from HIV infected patients in the São Paulo municipality obtained from January to July 2007. Sequence analysis of the products of nested-PCR based on small subunit rRNA and Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein coding genes revealed 17 (63.0% isolates of C. hominis, four (14.8% C. parvum, five (18.5% C. felis and one (3.7% C. canis. These findings suggest that, in urban environments of Brazil, the cat adapted C. felis may play a potential role in the zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis whereas the anthroponotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis caused by C. hominis seems to predominate.Cryptosporidium spp. são importantes causas de doenças entéricas em humanos, mas podem também ser encontrados em animais. O presente estudo descreve a frequência relativa de diversas espécies de Cryptosporidium em amostras de humanos da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil, obtidas de janeiro a julho de 2007. Análises de sequências de produtos de nested PCR direcionadas ao genes codificadores da menor unidade ribosomal e da proteina de parede de oocistos revelaram 17 (63,0% isolados de C. hominis, quatro (14,8% C. parvum, cinco (18,5% C. felis, e um (3,7% C. canis. Estes resultados sugerem que, em ambientes urbanos no Brasil, o genótipo adaptado ao gato pode desempenhar potencial papel na transmissão zoonótica de criptosporidiose, enquanto a transmissão antroponótica da criptosporidiose causada pelo C. hominis parece predominar.

  10. Investigating source water Cryptosporidium concentration, species and infectivity rates during rainfall-runoff in a multi-use catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaffer, Brooke A; Vial, Hayley M; King, Brendon J; Daly, Robert; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Monis, Paul T

    2014-12-15

    Protozoan pathogens present a significant human health concern, and prevention of contamination into potable networks remains a key focus for drinking water providers. Here, we monitored the change in Cryptosporidium concentration in source water during high flow events in a multi-use catchment. Furthermore, we investigated the diversity of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes present in the source water, and delivered an oocyst infectivity fraction. There was a positive and significant correlation between Cryptosporidium concentration and flow (ρ = 0.756) and turbidity (ρ = 0.631) for all rainfall-runoff events, despite variable source water pathogen concentrations. Cell culture assays measured oocyst infectivity and suggested an overall source water infectious fraction of 3.1%. No infectious Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium hominis were detected, although molecular testing detected C. parvum in 7% of the samples analysed using PCR-based molecular techniques. Twelve Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified using molecular techniques, and were reflective of the host animals typically found in remnant vegetation and agricultural areas. The inclusion of molecular approaches to identify Cryptosporidium species and genotypes highlighted the diversity of pathogens in water, which originated from various sources across the catchment. We suggest this mixing of runoff water from a range of landuses containing diverse Cryptosporidium hosts is a key explanation for the often-cited difficulty forming strong pathogen-indicator relationships.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, I; Sim, B L H; Brent, R D; Johari, S; Yvonne Lim, A L

    2015-06-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a particular concern in immunocompromised individuals where symptoms may be severe. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia in order to identify risk factors and facilitate control measures. A modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast staining method was used to test for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools of 346 HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Standard coproscopical methods were used to identify infections with other protozoan or helminths parasites. To identify the species of Cryptosporidium, DNA was extracted and nested-PCR was used to amplify a portion of the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 43 (12.4%) HIV-infected patients were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Of the 43 Cryptosporidium-positive HIV patients, 10 (23.3%) also harboured other protozoa, and 15 (34.9%) had both protozoa and helminths. The highest rates of cryptosporidiosis were found in adult males of Malay background, intravenous drug users, and those with low CD4 T cell counts (i.e., < 200 cells/mm3). Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DNA sequence analysis of 32 Cryptosporidium isolates identified C. parvum (84.3%), C. hominis (6.3%), C. meleagridis (6.3%), and C. felis (3.1%). The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients. The results also confirmed the potential significance of zoonotic transmission of C. parvum in HIV infected patients, as it was the predominant species found in this study. However, these patients were found to be susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates provides clinicians and researchers with further information regarding the origin of the infection, and may enhance treatment and control

  12. Assessment of zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and humans in rural villages in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Amimul M; Geurden, Thomas; Casaert, Stijn; Parvin, Sonia M; Islam, Taohidul M; Ahmed, Uddin M; Levecke, Bruno; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are important causes of diarrhoea in Bangladesh. The high prevalence of both parasites in humans and cattle in rural Bangladesh and the common use of water ponds by village inhabitants and their animals suggest a potential for zoonotic transmission. Direct transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between cattle and their handlers and indirect transmission through water ponds was investigated. Faecal/stool samples were collected from 623 calves and 125 calf handlers in a cross-sectional survey. In two villages, water samples were collected monthly from water ponds and faecal/stool samples were collected monthly from inhabitants and their cattle. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in water samples and in faecal/stool samples and positive samples were genotyped, to determine their human or animal origin. The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in calves was 22% and 5% respectively. In calf handlers, the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was 11.2% and 3.2% respectively. Both in the cross-sectional survey and in the longitudinal study in the villages, G. duodenalis assemblage E was most prevalent in calves, while in humans assemblage AII, BIII and BIV were found. In cattle, Cryptosporidium parvum, C. bovis and C. andersoni were identified, but no Cryptosporidium sequences were obtained from humans. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 14/24 and 12/24 water samples respectively. G. duodenalis assemblage E and BIV (-like), as well as C. andersoni and C. hominis were identified. Although the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in both water ponds suggests that water-borne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium is possible, the genotyping results indicate that there is no significant direct or indirect (water-borne) transmission of Giardia between cattle and people in this area of rural Bangladesh. No conclusions could be drawn for Cryptosporidium, because of the low number of sequences that

  13. Putative cis-regulatory elements associated with heat shock genes activated during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum.

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    Benjamin Cohn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is a ubiquitous infectious disease, caused by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum, leading to acute, persistent and chronic diarrhea worldwide. Although the complications of this disease can be serious, even fatal, in immunocompromised patients of any age, they have also been found to lead to long term effects, including growth inhibition and impaired cognitive development, in infected immunocompetent children. The Cryptosporidium life cycle alternates between a dormant stage, the oocyst, and a highly replicative phase that includes both asexual vegetative stages as well as sexual stages, implying fine genetic regulatory mechanisms. The parasite is extremely difficult to study because it cannot be cultured in vitro and animal models are equally challenging. The recent publication of the genome sequence of C. hominis and C. parvum has, however, significantly advanced our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of this parasite. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, our goal was to identify cis-regulatory elements associated with heat shock response in Cryptosporidium using a combination of in silico and real time RT-PCR strategies. Analysis with Gibbs-Sampling algorithms of upstream non-translated regions of twelve genes annotated as heat shock proteins in the Cryptosporidium genome identified a highly conserved over-represented sequence motif in eleven of them. RT-PCR analyses, described herein and also by others, show that these eleven genes bearing the putative element are induced concurrent with excystation of parasite oocysts via heat shock. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses suggest that occurrences of a motif identified in the upstream regions of the Cryptosporidium heat shock genes represent parts of the transcriptional apparatus and function as stress response elements that activate expression of these genes during excystation, and possibly at other stages in the life

  14. Molecular-based investigation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from animals in water catchments in southeastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Matthew J; Jex, Aaron R; Koehler, Anson V; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-01

    There has been no large-scale systematic molecular epidemiological investigation of the waterborne protozoans, Cryptosporidium or Giardia, in southeastern Australia. Here, we explored, for the first time, the genetic composition of these genera in faecal samples from animals in nine Melbourne Water reservoir areas, collected over a period of two-years. We employed PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and phylogenetic analyses of loci (pSSU and pgp60) in the small subunit (SSU) of ribosomal RNA and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes to detect and characterise Cryptosporidium, and another locus (ptpi) in the triose-phosphate isomerase (tpi) gene to identify and characterise Giardia. Cryptosporidium was detected in 2.8% of the 2009 samples examined; the analysis of all amplicons defined 14 distinct sequence types for each of pSSU and pgp60, representing Cryptosporidium hominis (genotype Ib - subgenotype IbA10G2R2), Cryptosporidium parvum (genotype IIa - subgenotypes IIaA15G2R1, IIaA19G2R1, IIaA19G3R1, IIaA19G4R1, IIaA20G3R1, IIaA20G4R1, IIaA20G3R2 and IIaA21G3R1), Cryptosporidium cuniculus (genotype Vb - subgenotypes VbA22R4, VbA23R3, VbA24R3, VbA25R4 and VbA26R4), and Cryptosporidium canis, Cryptosporidium fayeri, Cryptosporidium macropodum and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum as well as six new pSSU sequence types. In addition, Giardia was identified in 3.4% of the samples; all 28 distinct ptpi sequence types defined were linked to assemblage A of Giardia duodenalis. Of all 56 sequence types characterised, eight and one have been recorded previously in Cryptosporidium and Giardia, respectively, from humans. In contrast, nothing is known about the zoonotic potential of 35 new genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia recorded here for the first time. Future work aims to focus on estimating the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia genotypes in humans and a wide range of animals in Victoria and elsewhere in Australia. (Nucleotide sequences reported in

  15. Clinical significance and taxonomy of Actinobacillus hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Møller, Alice; Christensen, J J; Fussing, V;

    2001-01-01

    Clinical findings in 36 immunosuppressed patients with lower respiratory tract infection or bacteremia with Actinobacillus hominis are described. Animal contact was only recorded for three patients; nine patients died despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Although infections with this micr...

  16. Presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; García-Presedo, Ignacio; Almeida, André; González-Warleta, Marta; Correia Da Costa, José Manuel; Mezo, Mercedes

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in the influent and final effluent of sixteen drinking water treatment plants located in a hydrographic basin in Galicia (NW Spain) - in which the principal river is recognised as a Site of Community Importance (SCI) - estimate the efficiency of treatment plants in removing these protozoans and determine the species and genotypes of the parasites by means of a molecular assay. All plant samples of influent and final effluent (50-100 l) were examined in the spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2007. A total of 128 samples were analysed by method 1623, developed by US Environmental Protection Agency for isolation and detection of both parasites. To identify the genotypes present the following genes were amplified and sequenced: 18S SSU rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp.) and b-giardina (G. duodenalis). The mean concentrations of parasites in the influent were 0.0-10.5 Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts per litre and 1.0-12.8 of G. duodenalis cysts per litre. In the final treated effluent, the mean concentration of parasites ranged from 0.0-3.0 oocysts per litre and 0.5-4.0 cysts per litre. The distribution of results by season revealed that in all plants, the highest numbers of (oo)cysts were recorded in spring and summer. Cryptosporidium parvum, C. andersoni, C. hominis and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were detected. Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis were consistently found at high concentrations in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in the hydrographic basin under study, in Galicia (NW Spain). It is important that drinking water treatment authorities rethink the relevance of contamination levels of both parasites in drinking water and develop adequate countermeasures.

  17. First genetic analysis of Cryptosporidium from humans from Tasmania, and identification of a new genotype from a traveller to Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Anson V; Whipp, Margaret; Hogg, Geoff; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the molecular composition of Cryptosporidium species from humans living in the insular state of Tasmania, Australia. In the present study, we genetically characterized 82 samples of Cryptosporidium from humans following conventional coproscopic testing in a routine, diagnostic laboratory. Using a PCR-coupled single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique, targeting portions of the small subunit rRNA (SSU), and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci, we identified two species of Cryptosporidium, including C. hominis (subgenotypes IbA10G2, IdA16, IeA12G3T3, and IfA19G1) and C. parvum (IIaA16G1R1 and IIaA18G3), and a new operational taxonomic unit (OTU) that genetically closely resembled C. wrairi. This OTU was further characterized using markers in the actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP), and 70 kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) genes. This study provides the first characterization of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium from Tasmania, and presents clear genetic evidence, using five independent genetic loci, for a new genotype or species of Cryptosporidium in a Tasmanian person with a recent history of travelling to Bali, Indonesia. It would be interesting to undertake detailed molecular-based studies of Cryptosporidium in Indonesia and neighbouring countries, in conjunction with morphological and experimental investigations of new genotypes.

  18. Cryptosporidium cuniculus and Giardia duodenalis in rabbits: genetic diversity and possible zoonotic transmission.

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    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the two important zoonotic pathogens causing diarrhea of humans and animals worldwide. Considering the human cryptosporidiosis outbreak and sporadic cases caused by C. cuniculus, the important public health significance of G. duodenalis and little obtained information regarding rabbit infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in China, the aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and molecularly characterize Cryptosporidium and Giardia in rabbits in Heilongjiang Province, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 378 fecal samples were obtained from rabbits in Heilongjiang Province. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using Sheather's sugar flotation technique and Lugol's iodine stain method, respectively. The infection rates of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were 2.38% (9/378 and 7.41% (28/378, respectively. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. was done by DNA sequencing of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA gene and all the nine isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium cuniculus. The nine isolates were further subtyped using the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene and two subtypes were detected, including VbA32 (n = 3 and a new subtype VbA21 (n = 6. G. duodenalis genotypes and subtypes were identified by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI gene. The assemblage B (belonging to eight different subtypes B-I to B-VIII was found in 28 G. duodenalis-positive samples. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rabbits have been infected with Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Heilongjiang Province. The results show that the rabbits pose a threat to human health in the studied areas. Genotypes and subgenotypes of C. cuniculus and G. duodenalis in this study might present the endemic genetic characterization of population structure of the two parasites.

  19. Mycoplasma hominis Induces Mediastinitis after a Tonsillar Abscess

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    Anna Grancini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma hominis is commonly involved in genitourinary tract infections. We report a 59-year-old man who developed a M. hominis-associated mediastinitis following acute tonsillar infection.

  20. Acute suppurative appendicitis with Blastocystis hominis

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    Poppy M Lintong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis is an anaerobic protozoan parasite, which lives in human and animal ’s intestines. It is commonly found in the tropical area. The parasite is low pathogen and its infection causes gastrointestinal disease with diarrhea symptom as reported from many studies. B. hominis is rarely seen in tissue section. The clinical diagnoses are usually confirmed with the microscopic examination of the stool, which can directly detect the parasite through trichrom stain and Kinyoun acid fast technique. We reported a case of 52 years old man with abdominal pain and suspected as perforated appendicitis and tumor of appendix as the differential diagnosis. The macroscopic features of the appendix mass were 7 cm in length and 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter. The cut section showed a widening of the appendix lumen, and the distal part filled with a gelatinous mass. The microscopic examination with HE stain showed the infiltration of PMN inflammatory cells in the muscle layer of the appendix and foci of a number of round structures in the sub mucosal layer known as B. hominis. Some authors reported results from the endoscopy and biopsy examinations that B. hominis does not infiltrate in the intestinal mucosa; nevertheless, in this case we found the infiltration of the parasite towards the mucosal and sub mucosal layers of the appendix.

  1. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-11-01

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory evidence of a CNS infection. No systemic maternal infection or maternal genitourinary tract infection occurred at the time of delivery. Empirical treatment was initiated, consisting of amoxicillin, cefotaxime, and aciclovir. After clinical deterioration, 16S ribosomal DNA PCR in cerebrospinal fluid detected M hominis, antibiotic treatment was switched to moxifloxacin, and pharmacokinetic data were obtained. This Grand Round illustrates the challenges that exist in the diagnosis and treatment of M hominis meningoencephalitis: bacterial cultures are often negative and recommended empirical antimicrobials do not provide adequate antimicrobial coverage. Optimal antimicrobial treatment regimens for M hominis meningoencephalitis are unknown. Although we describe successful treatment of a neonate with a complicated M hominis meningoencephalitis with moxifloxacin, caution with fluoroquinolone monotherapy (including moxifloxacin) has to be taken into account because resistance to fluoroquinolones has previously been described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identifying host sources, human health risk and indicators of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in a Canadian watershed influenced by urban and rural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michele I; Ong, Corinne S L; Prystajecky, Natalie A; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Huck, Peter M

    2012-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia were characterized in a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada, over a 2½ year period. River samples were collected every two weeks, primarily near a municipal drinking water treatment plant intake. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were frequently detected with an overall occurrence rate of 88 and 97%, respectively. Giardia concentrations were higher than Cryptosporidium, with median values of 80 cysts 100 L(-1) and 12 oocysts 100 L(-1), respectively. Although pathogens rarely show a significant relationship with fecal or water quality indicators, this study determined that Cryptosporidium, but not Giardia, was significantly correlated with Escherichia coli, turbidity and river flow. There was no correlation between the two types of protozoa, and only Giardia showed a seasonal trend with higher concentrations at cold water temperatures. Cryptosporidium genotyping of all samples found that farm animals and wildlife were an important contributor of oocysts in the watershed, and that Cryptosporidium strains/genotypes of medium to high risk for human infection (C. hominis, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum) were detected in 16% of samples. This study was able to identify Cryptosporidium host sources and human health risk, and to identify differences between Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in the watershed.

  3. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in dairy cattle in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuhuang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhenjie; Li, Junqiang; Wang, Chenrong; Zhao, Jinfeng; Hu, Suhui; Wang, Rongjun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Ming

    2016-03-30

    822 fecal samples from cattle in six areas of Beijing were examined with microscopy for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. The overall infection rates for Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 2.55% and 1.09%, respectively. Cryptosporidium was only detected in calves and heifers, whereas G. duodenalis was found in all age groups. Cryptosporidium spp. were characterized with a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Two Cryptosporidium species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n=12) and Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=9). Six C. parvum isolates were successfully subtyped with the gp60 gene and three subtypes were detected: IIdA19G1 (n=1), IIdA17G1 (n=1), and IIdA15G1 (n=4). Subtype IIdA17G1 is reported for the first time in cattle worldwide. Nine G. duodenalis isolates were analyzed by sequencing the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene, and only G. duodenalis assemblage E was identified. Therefore, the predominance of C. parvum detected in calves was identical to that found in the Xinjiang Uyghur and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Regions, but differed considerably from that in Henan, Heilongjiang, and Shannxi Provinces. In contrast, the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblage E was more or less similar to its predominance in other areas of China or countries. Our findings confirm the unique character of the C. parvum IId subtypes in China. More systematic studies are required to better understand the transmission of Cryptosporidium and G. duodenalis in cattle in China.

  4. Diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of Mycoplasma hominis meningitis in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Elisabeth H. L.; Winter, Heinrich L. J.; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Metzemaekers, Joannes D. M.; Arends, Jan P.

    2012-01-01

    Meningitis in adults due to infection with Mycoplasma hominis is rarely reported. Here, we document the third case of M. hominis meningitis in an adult individual, developed upon neurosurgery following a subarachnoid haemorrhage. Our findings are noteworthy, because the presence of M. hominis in cer

  5. Genetic analysis of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from people in Northern Australia using PCR-based tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Janine; Koehler, Anson V; Robertson, Gemma; Bradbury, Richard S; Jex, Aaron R; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Norton, Robert; Joachim, Anja; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-12-01

    To date, there has been limited genetic study of the gastrointestinal pathogens Giardia and Cryptosporidium in northern parts of Australia. Here, PCR-based methods were used for the genetic characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from 695 people with histories of gastrointestinal disorders from the tropical North of Australia. Genomic DNAs from fecal samples were subjected to PCR-based analyses of regions from the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), small subunit (SSU) of the nuclear ribosomal RNA and/or the glycoprotein (gp60) genes. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 13 and four of the 695 samples, respectively. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B were found in 4 (31%) and 9 (69%) of the 13 samples in persons of <9 years of age. Cryptosporidium hominis (subgenotype IdA18), Cryptosporidium mink genotype (subgenotype IIA16R1) and C. felis were also identified in single patients of 11-21 years of age. Future studies might focus on a comparative study of these and other protists in rural communities in Northern Australia.

  6. Genotyping Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available The present study examined the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium andersoni in cattle in Shaanxi province, China. A total of 2071 fecal samples (847 from Qinchuan cattle and 1224 from dairy cattle were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts, and 70 samples (3.4% were C. andersoni-positive and those positive samples were identified by PCR amplification of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA and the Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP genes. C. andersoni was the only species found in the examined cattle in this province. Fifty-seven C. andersoni isolates were characterized into 5 MLST subtypes using multilocus sequence typing analysis, including a new subtype in the native beef breed Qinchuan cattle. All of these C. andersoni isolates presented a clonal genetic structure. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates in Shaanxi province and basic data of Cryptosporidium prevalence status, which in turn have implications for controlling cryptosporidiosis in this province.

  7. Molecular genotyping and sub-genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates from symptomatic individuals attending two major public hospitals in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucio, Aida; Merino, Francisco J; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Bailo, Begoña; Aguilera, María; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Infections by members of the protozoan genus Cryptosporidium are among the most common causes of human gastrointestinal illness worldwide. In Spain cryptosporidiosis is not a compulsory notifiable disease, so the actual burden of the infection in both clinical and general populations remains largely unknown. We present here data on the diversity and frequency of the Cryptosporidium species and sub-genotypes identified in symptomatic individuals seeking medical care in two major hospitals in Madrid, Spain, between December 2013 and January 2015. Initial detection of the parasite was conducted on a total of 122 stool samples collected from 120 patients by microscopy with modified Ziehl-Neelsen and/or immunochromatographic tests. We used immunofluorescence, PCR-based methods and sequence analyses of the 60-kDa (GP60) glycoprotein and the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes for confirmatory purposes and to characterize Cryptosporidium isolates. A total of 110 patients were confirmed with cryptosporidiosis. Overall, 101 isolates were successfully sub-genotyped at the GP60 locus, and an additional seven at the SSU rRNA locus. The analyses of all amplicons defined 10 distinct sequence types representing the GP60 family sub-genotypes IbA10G2 (78.7%), IeA11G3T3 (3.7%) of C. hominis, and the GP60 family sub-types IIaA15G2R1 (5.6%), IIaA18G6R1 (0.9%), IIcA5G3a (0.9%), IIdA18G1 (0.9%), IIdA19G1 (0.9%), IIdA21G1 (0.9%), and IIdA22G1 (0.9%) of C. parvum. A single isolate was assigned to C. felis (0.9%), two C. parvum isolates (1.9%) could not be characterized at the sub-genotype level and an additional four isolates (3.7%) were not typable. These results strongly suggest that transmission of cryptosporidiosis is mostly anthroponotic in origin in the clinical sample under study. We expect that our molecular epidemiological data will make a significant contribution to unravel the actual epidemiological situation of cryptosporidiosis in Spain, providing health care and

  8. Homo homini : [luuletused] / Valeria Ränik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ränik, Valeria, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."

  9. Dermatobia hominis infestation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, M A; McEvoy, P L

    1992-12-01

    The hazards presented by the Central American tropical environment are myriad. We report a case of cutaneous myiasis caused by the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in a soldier who had participated in military operations in Central America. The clinical presentation, treatment, and unique life cycle of the human botfly is discussed.

  10. Neonate with Mycoplasma hominis meningoencephalitis given moxifloxacin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Said, Ines; Jaeger, Bregje; van Hest, Reinier M; van de Beek, Diederik; Pajkrt, Dasja

    Mycoplasma hominis is a commensal organism in the genitourinary tract that can cause life-threatening CNS infections in neonates after intrauterine infection or through vertical transmission during birth. We present a case of an 11-day-old neonate presenting with fever and supporting laboratory

  11. Molecular design of Mycoplasma hominis Vaa adhesin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Fedosova, Natalya U.; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The variable adherence-associated (Vaa) adhesin of the opportunistic human pathogen Mycoplasma hominis is a surface-exposed, membrane-associated protein involved in the attachment of the bacterium to host cells. The molecular masses of recombinant 1 and 2 cassette forms of the protein determined...

  12. Homo homini : [luuletused] / Valeria Ränik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ränik, Valeria, 1964-

    2004-01-01

    Sisu: Homo homini ; "Tegelikult on täiuslik kõik..." ; Mõned kõned ; "Vihmadest lekib lagi..." ; "Sündisid siia, et maksta maksu..." ; "Mingis kohas, mingil ajal..." ; "Emajõgi, Amme jõgi..." ; Kaktus ; Eraelamus ; "Minevikule vesi peale..."

  13. Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru Prasad Manderwad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy.

  14. Cardiobacterium hominis-induced acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderwad, Guru Prasad; Kodiganti, Manjulatha; Ali, Mohammad Javed

    2014-04-01

    Cardiobacterium hominis is a member of the HACEK (Haemophilus sp., Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C. hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae) group commonly associated with endocarditits and is normally present in the respiratory tract. We describe the first case of acute dacryocystitis with lacrimal abscess caused by C. hominis along with a brief review of the literature. The patient responded to oral and topical ciprofloxacin after incision and drainage and awaits dacryocystorhinostomy.

  15. Cryptosporidium muris: Infectivity and Illness in Healthy Adult Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Cynthia L.; Okhuysen, Pablo C.; Langer-Curry, Rebecca C.; Lupo, Philip J.; Widmer, Giovanni; Tzipori, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Although Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis cause the majority of human cryptosporidiosis cases, other Cryptosporidium species are also capable of infecting humans, particularly when individuals are immunocompromised. Ten C. muris cases have been reported, primarily in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -positive patients with diarrhea. However, asymptomatic cases were reported in two HIV-negative children, and in another case, age and immune status were not described. This study examines the infectivity of C. muris in six healthy adults. Volunteers were challenged with 105 C. muris oocysts and monitored for 6 weeks for infection and/or illness. All six patients became infected. Two patients experienced a self-limited diarrheal illness. Total oocysts shed during the study ranged from 6.7 × 106 to 4.1 × 108, and the number was slightly higher in volunteers with diarrhea (2.8 × 108) than asymptomatic shedders (4.4 × 107). C. muris-infected subjects shed oocysts longer than occurred with other species studied in healthy volunteers. Three volunteers shed oocysts for 7 months. Physical examinations were normal, with no reported recurrence of diarrhea or other gastrointestinal complaints. Two persistent shedders were treated with nitazoxanide, and the infection was resolved. Thus, healthy adults are susceptible to C. muris, which can cause mild diarrhea and result in persistent, asymptomatic infection. PMID:25311695

  16. Palpebral myiasis in a Danish traveler caused by the human bot-fly (Dermatobia hominis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsgaard, Regitze; Holst, Bengt; Krogh, Erik

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis......ophthalmology, dermatobia hominis, human bot-fly, palpebral myiasis, parasite infection, myiasis...

  17. Common occurrence of zoonotic pathogen Cryptosporidium meleagridis in broiler chickens and turkeys in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroudi, Djamel; Khelef, Djamel; Goucem, Rachid; Adjou, Karim T; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua

    2013-09-23

    Only a small number of birds have been identified by molecular techniques as having Cryptosporidium meleagridis, the third most important species for human cryptosporidiosis. In this study, using PCR-RFLP analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, we examined the ileum of 90 dead chickens from 23 farms and 57 dead turkeys from 16 farms in Algeria for Cryptosporidium spp. C. meleagridis-positive specimens were subtyped by sequence analysis of the 60 kDa glycoprotein gene. Cryptosporidium infection rates were 34% and 44% in chickens and turkeys, respectively, with all positive turkeys (25) and most positive chickens (26/31) having C. meleagridis. All C. meleagridis specimens belonged to a new subtype family. The frequent occurrence of C. meleagridis in chickens and turkeys illustrates the potential for zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in Algeria.

  18. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Álava, North of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Guillermo A; Carabin, Hélène; Goñi, Pilar; Arriola, Larraitz; Robinson, Guy; Fernández-Crespo, Juan C; Clavel, Antonio; Chalmers, Rachel M; Carmena, David

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Álava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B+A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Álava.

  19. Identification and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children and cattle populations from the province of Alava, North of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardona, Guillermo A. [Livestock Laboratory, Regional Government of Alava, Ctra. de Azua 4, 01520 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Carabin, Helene [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, College of Public Health, Oklahoma University Health Sciences Center, 801 Northeast 13th Street, Room 309, Oklahoma City, OK 73104 (United States); Goni, Pilar [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Arriola, Larraitz [Epidemiology Unit, Public Health Division of Guipuzcoa, Basque Government, Av. Navarra 4, 2013 San Sebastian (Spain); Robinson, Guy [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Fernandez-Crespo, Juan C. [Sub-direction of Public Health of Alava, Department of Health, Basque Government, Avda. Santiago 11, 01002 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain); Clavel, Antonio [Department of Microbiology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Domingo Miral s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Chalmers, Rachel M. [UK Cryptosporidium Reference Unit, Public Health Wales, Microbiology ABM, Swansea, Singleton Hospital, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Carmena, David, E-mail: d.carmena@imperial.ac.uk [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    The prevalence of and factors associated with the protozoan enteropathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have been investigated in selected children and cattle populations from the province of Alava (Northern Spain). The presence of these organisms was detected in fecal samples using commercially available coproantigen-ELISA (CpAg-ELISA) and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. A total of 327 caregivers of children participants were asked to answer questions on risk factors potentially associated to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, including water-use practices, water sports and contact with domestic or pet animals. Molecular analyses were conducted using a nested-PCR technique to amplify the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium and the triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene of Giardia. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were found in 3 and 16 samples using the CpAg-ELISA, and in 5 and 9 samples using the ICT test, respectively. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were also found in 7 and 17 samples by CpAg-ELISA, and 4 and 14 samples by ICT, respectively, of 227 cattle fecal samples. The overall Cryptosporidium and Giardia infection prevalences, based on a Bayesian approach accounting for the imperfect sensitivities and specificities of both diagnostic tests, were estimated to 1.0% (95% BCI: 0.2%-2.8%) and 3.1% (1.5%-5.3%) in children and 3.0% (0.5%-9.2%) and 1.4% (0.0%-6.4%) in cattle, respectively. In humans, a single Cryptosporidium isolate was characterized as C. hominis. Of seven Giardia isolates, four were identified as assemblage B, two as assemblage A-II and one was a mixed assemblage B + A-II infection. No Cryptosporidium or Giardia isolates could be obtained from cattle samples. Although limited, these results seem to suggest that cattle are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia in the province of Alava.

  20. Cryptosporidium genotypes in children and calves living at the wildlife or livestock interface of the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Samra, Nada; Jori, Ferran; Cacciò, Simone M; Frean, John; Poonsamy, Bhavani; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-05-20

    Cryptosporidium infection is one of the most common causes of parasitic diarrhoea worldwide in cattle and humans. In developing countries, human cryptosporidiosis is most prevalent during early childhood and links between zoonotic infection and animal related activities have been demonstrated. This study investigated the prevalence and species/genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium among children (Kruger National Park in South Africa, where interactions between humans and wild and domestic animals are known to occur. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 8/143 stool samples of children recruited within the hospital system (5.6%; 95% CI 2.4%, 10.7%) and in 2/352 faecal samples of calves (0.6%; 95% CI 0.1%, 2.0%) using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) staining technique. Microscopy positive samples from children were further analysed by PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and identified as Cryptosporidium hominis (3/4) and Cryptosporidium meleagridis (1/4). Regardless of the microscopy outcome, randomly selected samples (n = 36) from calves 0-4 months of age were amplified and sequenced at the 18S rRNA gene using nested PCR. Two calves tested positive (5.6%; 95% CI 1.7%, 18.7%), and revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium bovis. The detection of only two zoonotic species (C. parvum in one calf and C. meleagridis in one child) suggests that zoonotic cryptosporidiosis is not currently widespread in our study area; however, the potential exists for amplification of transmission in an immunocompromised population.

  1. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.;

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular compos...

  2. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Spp. In Diarrheic Children from Gonbad Kavoos City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra SHARBATKHORI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is an intestinal protozean parasite causing water­borne and foodborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases. The present study was per­formed in order to find prevalence and subtypes of Cryptosporidium among children with diarrhea in Gonbad Kavoos City, Northern Iran.Methods: Diarrheic samples were collected from 547 children. The initial parasitologi­cal diagnosis was made based on detection of oocysts using the modi­fied Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method. The positive microscopically samples were selected for sequence analysis of partial 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene. Results: Out of 547 collected samples, 27 (4.94% were positive for Cryptosporid­ium oocysts. Fifteen from 27 positive samples successfully amplified in PCR. Se­quences analysis of gp60 gene in 15 Cryptosporidium isolates revealed that all of them (100% were C. parvum. The results showed three subtypes of IIa subtype family (7 cases including IIaA16G2R1, IIaA17G1R1, IIaA22G3R1 and one subtype of IId subtype family (8 cases. The most common allele was IId A17G1d (53.3%. Conclusion: The predominance of zoonotic subtype families of C. parvum species (IIa, IId in the present study is in concordance with previous studies in Iran and emphasizes the significance of zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis in the country.

  3. Antibody responses to the immunodominant Cryptosporidium gp15 antigen and gp15 polymorphisms in a case-control study of cryptosporidiosis in children in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Genève M; Rogers, Kathleen A; Borad, Anoli; Ahmed, Sabeena; Karim, Mohammad Mahbubul; Kane, Anne V; Hibberd, Patricia L; Naumova, Elena N; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Khan, Wasif A; Ward, Honorine D

    2011-07-01

    Although Cryptospridium hominis is the dominant Cryptosporidium species infecting humans, immune responses to cognate antigens in C. hominis-infected persons have not been reported. We investigated antibody responses to the immunodominant gp15 antigen from C. hominis and C. parvum, in C. hominis-infected Bangladeshi children less than five years of age with diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls). We also investigated polymorphisms in the C. hominis gp15 sequence from cases. Serum IgG responses to gp15 from both species were significantly greater in cases than controls. In spite of polymorphisms in the gp15 sequence, there was a significant correlation between antibody levels to gp15 from both species, indicating cross-reactivity to conserved epitopes. Cases with acute diarrhea had a significantly greater serum IgA response to gp15 compared with those with persistent diarrhea, suggesting that this response may be associated with protection from prolonged disease. These findings support further investigation of gp15 as a vaccine candidate.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis Infections in Children Under Ten Years Old, Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Nowadays, parasitic infections are a major health problem throughout the world, particularly in the developing countries. Objectives Considering the high susceptibility of children against parasitic infections, the current study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of intestinal parasitic infections among children less than 10 years old in urban and rural areas of Hamadan district. Patients and Methods The current study was conducted on 395 children (214 males and 181 females, referred to urban and rural health centers in Hamadan district in 2013. Stool samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration technique, and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. The results were analyzed by chi-square test. Results Of the 395 studied children, 112 (28.4% were infected with intestinal parasites. Blastocystis hominis was the most frequently detected parasite with the prevalence of 18.5%, followed by Giardia lamblia (10.9%, Entamoeba coli (2.8%, Dientamoeba fragilis (0.8%, Iodamoeba buetschlii (0.8%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.5%, Cryptosporidium spp. (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.3% and Entamoeba hartmanni (0.3%. No cases of infection with helminth parasites were found. Conclusions The results of the study showed a high prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Blastocystis hominis in rural areas compared to urban regions. Therefore it is necessary to promote the public health awareness in the rural population, in order to reduce the frequency of parasitic infections.

  5. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM HOMINIS N. SP (APICOMPLEXA : CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE) FROM HOMO SAPIENS. (R826138)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Cryptosporidium infections in children in Durban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-03-16

    Mar 16, 1991 ... diarrhoea were found to be passing Cryptosporidium oocysts compared with only 2,4% ... this increase in morbidity and mortality in Cryptosporidium- associated .... taminated water.34 It is possible that contamination of rivers.

  7. Molecular detection and characterization of Cryptosporidium species in household dogs, pet shop puppies, and dogs kept in a school of veterinary nursing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Naoyuki; Oohashi, Yoshino; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichi; Saeki, Hideharu; Kanai, Kazutaka; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Hoshi, Fumio; Higuchi, Seiichi

    2014-03-01

    school in Japan. However, because Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum are the most common causes of human infections, it is likely that the risk of zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium species from dogs to humans is low.

  8. [Cryptosporidium sp infections and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia state, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freites, Azael; Colmenares, Deisy; Pérez, Marly; García, María; Díaz de Suárez, Odelis

    2009-03-01

    Cryptosporidiosis in food handlers from Venezuela is unknown, being this an important public health problem in immunosuppressed patients. To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp and other intestinal parasites in food handlers from Zulia State, one hundred nineteen fecal samples were evaluated by wet mount, concentrated according to Ritchie and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Fourteen (11.8%) were positive for Cryptosporidium sp and associated with other protozoosis (P < 0.05), being most frequent Endolimax nana (42.9%). The general prevalence of the intestinal parasitism was 48.7%, emphasizing E. nana (41.2%), followed by Blastocystis hominis (38.7%) and Entamoeba coli (17.6%). The most frequent pathogenic protozoa was Giardia lamblia (13.4%), followed by the complex Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (9.2%). 4.1% were positive for intestinal helminthes. The infection by Cryptosporidium sp is frequent in food handlers from Zulia State. Given to the results of this investigation and the nonexistence of studies in this population, is necessary to deepen in the impact of this parasitism in food handlers and the consumers of their products.

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in dairy calves from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, Marcelo V; de Oliveira, Fernando P; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício P; Coelho, William M D; Mendes, Luiz Cláudio N

    2011-09-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a common protozoan disease observed in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including ruminants. Cattle can be a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., leading to environmental contamination with oocysts of zoonotic species. The molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, was accomplished using nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of fragments of the 18S rRNA gene and the glycoprotein GP60 gene, following sequencing of amplified fragments. Positivity for Cryptosporidium was found in 10.7% (21/196) of the samples. Four species of Cryptosporidium were identified: C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1, and C. ryanae. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of infection by C. ryanae and C. parvum IIaA15G2R1 in cattle from Brazil.

  10. Genetic characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from dairy calves: discovery of species/genotypes consistent with those found in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; Nolan, Matthew J; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; McAnulty, Robin W; Gasser, Robin B

    2012-12-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important genera of parasitic protists that can cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in humans and other animals. Depending on the species/genotype of parasite, human infection may be acquired via anthroponotic or zoonotic transmission routes. Here, we undertook a molecular epidemiological investigation of these two genera of parasites in pre- and post-weaned calves from eight locations in Canterbury, New Zealand, by PCR-coupled sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of sequence data for regions in the 60 kDa glycoprotein (pgp60) gene of Cryptosporidium and/or the triose-phosphate isomerase (ptpi) gene of Giardia. The pgp60 and ptpi regions were specifically amplified from 15 (8.3%) and 11 (6.1%) of the 180 individual faecal samples, respectively. The sequences derived from all of the amplicons were aligned with homologous reference sequences and subjected to phylogenetic analysis by Bayesian inference. For Cryptosporidium, three samples contained Cryptosporidium parvum genotype IIa, subgenotypes IIaA15G3R1, IIaA19G3R1 and IIaA23G4. Twelve samples contained Cryptosporidium hominis genotype Ib, subgenotype IbA10G2R2. While subgenotypes IIaA15G3R1 and IIaA23G4 are new records, IIaA19G3R1 and IbA10G2R2 are commonly found in humans in various countries. For Giardia, two samples contained Giardia duodenalis assemblage A, also common in humans. In contrast, nine samples contained G. duodenalis assemblage E, which is the first report of this assemblage in cattle in New Zealand. Therefore, the present results indicate that dairy calves on the South Island of New Zealand harbour 'zoonotic' genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which is likely to have significant public health implications.

  11. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in farmers and their ruminant livestock from the Coastal Savannah zone of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Sylvia Afriyie; Yang, Rongchang; Robertson, Ian; Ayi, Irene; Ryan, Una

    2017-09-21

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are major causes of diarrhoea in developing countries including Ghana, however, nothing is known about the species and subtypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in farmers and their ruminant livestock in this country. A total of 925 faecal samples from humans (n=95), cattle (n=328), sheep (n=217) and goats (n=285), were screened for Cryptosporidium and Giardia by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at the 18S rRNA and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) loci respectively. Cryptosporidium positives were typed by sequence analysis of 18S and 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci amplicons. Giardia positives were typed at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), beta-giardin (bg) and gdh loci. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by qPCR was 8.4% and 10.5% in humans, 26.5% and 8.5% in cattle, 34.1% and 12.9% in sheep, and 33.3% and 12.3% in goat faecal samples, respectively. G. duodenalis assemblages A and B were detected in humans and assemblage E was detected in livestock. Cryptosporidium parvum was the only species identified in humans; C. andersoni, C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. ubiquitum were identified in cattle; C. xiaoi, C. ubiquitum and C. bovis in sheep; and C. xiaoi, C. baileyi and C. parvum in goats. This is the first molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in livestock in Ghana. The identification of zoonotic species and the identification of C. parvum subtype IIcA5G3q in livestock, which has previously been identified in children in Ghana, suggests potential zoonotic transmission. Further studies on larger numbers of human and animal samples, and on younger livestock are required to better understand the epidemiology and transmission of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Ghana. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed...... no identity or cluster formation between strains. Variation within M. hominis rRNA genes was analyzed by Southern hybridization of EcoRI-cleaved DNA hybridized with a cloned fragment of the rRNA gene from the mycoplasma strain PG50. Five of the M. hominis strains showed identical hybridization patterns....... These hybridization patterns were compared with those of 12 other mycoplasma species, which showed a much more complex band pattern. Cloned nonribosomal RNA gene fragments of M. hominis PG21 DNA were analyzed, and the fragments were used to demonstrate heterogeneity among the strains. A monoclonal antibody against...

  13. The Burden of Cryptosporidium Diarrheal Disease among Children < 24 Months of Age in Moderate/High Mortality Regions of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, Utilizing Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samba O Sow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Cryptosporidium as a pediatric enteropathogen in developing countries is recognized.Data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS, a 3-year, 7-site, case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD and GEMS-1A (1-year study of MSD and less-severe diarrhea [LSD] were analyzed. Stools from 12,110 MSD and 3,174 LSD cases among children aged <60 months and from 21,527 randomly-selected controls matched by age, sex and community were immunoassay-tested for Cryptosporidium. Species of a subset of Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were identified by PCR; GP60 sequencing identified anthroponotic C. parvum. Combined annual Cryptosporidium-attributable diarrhea incidences among children aged <24 months for African and Asian GEMS sites were extrapolated to sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian regions to estimate region-wide MSD and LSD burdens. Attributable and excess mortality due to Cryptosporidium diarrhea were estimated.Cryptosporidium was significantly associated with MSD and LSD below age 24 months. Among Cryptosporidium-positive MSD cases, C. hominis was detected in 77.8% (95% CI, 73.0%-81.9% and C. parvum in 9.9% (95% CI, 7.1%-13.6%; 92% of C. parvum tested were anthroponotic genotypes. Annual Cryptosporidium-attributable MSD incidence was 3.48 (95% CI, 2.27-4.67 and 3.18 (95% CI, 1.85-4.52 per 100 child-years in African and Asian infants, respectively, and 1.41 (95% CI, 0.73-2.08 and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.66-2.05 per 100 child-years in toddlers. Corresponding Cryptosporidium-attributable LSD incidences per 100 child-years were 2.52 (95% CI, 0.33-5.01 and 4.88 (95% CI, 0.82-8.92 in infants and 4.04 (95% CI, 0.56-7.51 and 4.71 (95% CI, 0.24-9.18 in toddlers. We estimate 2.9 and 4.7 million Cryptosporidium-attributable cases annually in children aged <24 months in the sub-Saharan Africa and India/Pakistan/Bangladesh/Nepal/Afghanistan regions, respectively, and ~202,000 Cryptosporidium-attributable deaths (regions combined. ~59

  14. [Fine Structures Of Trichomonas Tenax And Trichomonas Hominis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Min; Cho, Kee Mok

    1973-04-01

    Trichomonas tenax(T. tenax) and Trichomonas hominis (T. hominis) were collected, cultured and sampled for comparative microscopical studies using electron microscope. 1. Both flagellates were oval in shape and surrounded by a distinct outer membrane. Five recurrent flagella and one anterior flagellum had, each, 9 paris of peripheral and 1 pair of central fibrils, Undulating membrane was curved over the recurrent flagella, and bended in the middle at right angles with cell surface. Cytostome, engulfing bacteria, was observed in T. hominis. 2. In the cytoplasm, there were fine dense glycogen particles, and vacuoles containing ingested materials. Dense pigment rods were also observed in both flagellates, but the rods were not distributed around the vacuoles in T. hominis. 3. In T. tenax axostyle appeared as a cup-shaped structure comprising a single row of 41 fibrils, each about 120 a in diameter. It enclosed glycogen particles, and the open side was faced to the nucleus. 4. Endoplasmic reticulum was observed around the nucleus, but it was less developed in T. hominis. 5. Nucleus was ovoid having double nuclear membrane, which was clearly defined in T. hominis. 6. Blepharoplast, parabasal body, Golgi appartus and mitochondrion was not observed in both flagellates.

  15. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from pre-weaned calves in western France in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Anaïs; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2013-10-18

    Eighteen pre-weaned female calves from a single beef cattle herd in western France were sampled weekly from birth to 21/2 months of age in order to characterize Cryptosporidium oocyst output. 182 fecal samples were screened for the presence of oocysts after concentration using immunofluorescence analysis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and a PCR-RFLP protocol, with the restriction enzyme SspI and MboII, to amplify the partial SSU rRNA gene was performed. For the subtyping of Cryptosporidium parvum, a gp60 PCR was carried out. All animals excreted oocysts at at least one sampling date and 80% of the calves presented a mild diarrhea at at least one occasion, with no mortality. The prevalence of excretion reached 94% when calves were 17-23 days of age. The mean number of oocysts at the peak of excretion (10-16 days) was 5 × 10(5) oocysts per gram of feces. PCR-RFLP analysis was successful for 61 of 84 positive samples: 14 were identified as C. parvum, 15 as Cryptosporidium bovis, and 22 as Cryptosporidium ryanae. Ten mixed infections with all combinations of these species were also identified. Calves excreted the following Cryptosporidium species: C. parvum between 7 and 27 days of age, C. bovis between 11 and 38 days and C. ryanae from 19 to 72 days. The IIaA15G2R1 zoonotic subtype of C. parvum subtype was the only subtype identified. We observed the presence of different Cryptosporidium species depending on the age of the animals. This study showed that C. parvum and C. bovis can infect beef calf neonates at similar levels of oocyst excretion with or without clinical signs and that C. parvum isolates had zoonotic potential. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection and molecular diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheltered dogs and cats in Northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Horacio; Cano, Lourdes; de Lucio, Aida; Bailo, Begoña; de Mingo, Marta Hernández; Cardona, Guillermo A; Fernández-Basterra, José A; Aramburu-Aguirre, Juan; López-Molina, Nuria; Carmena, David

    2017-06-01

    Domestic dogs and cats may act as natural reservoirs of a large number of zoonotic pathogens, including the enteric parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., the most relevant protozoan species causing gastrointestinal disease worldwide. A cross-sectional epidemiological study aiming to assess the prevalence and molecular diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. was conducted in an animal rescue centre in the province of Álava (Northern Spain). A total of 194 and 65 faecal dropping samples from individual dogs and cats, respectively, were collected between November 2013 and June 2016. G. duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by direct fluorescence microscopy and PCR-based methods targeting the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of these parasites. Overall, G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 33% (63/194) and 4.1% (8/194) of dogs, and 9.2% (6/65) and 4.6% (3/65) of cats, respectively. G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium co-infections were observed in 1.5% (3/194) of dogs, but not in cats. No significant differences in infection rates could be demonstrated among dogs or cats according to their sex, age group, status, or geographical origin. Multi-locus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of G. duodenalis allowed the characterization of 19 canine isolates that were unambiguously assigned to sub-assemblages AII (n=7), BIII (n=1), and BIV (n=7), and assemblages C (n=3) and D (n=1). Two feline isolates were genotyped as assemblages A and F, respectively. No mixed assemblage or sub-assemblage infections were identified. C. canis (n=5) and C. hominis (n=1) were the Cryptosporidium species found in dogs, whereas C. felis (n=1) was identified in cats. The finding of G. duodenalis sub-assemblages AII, BIII, and BIV circulating in dogs (but not cats) may have zoonotic potential, although most of the AII and BIV isolates sub-genotyped corresponded to genetic variants not

  17. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Leman in France.

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    Gabriela Certad

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%, distributed as follows: 13 (87% C. parvum, 1 (7% C. molnari, and 1 (7% mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari. C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by

  18. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  19. Identification of Cryptosporidium Species in Fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certad, Gabriela; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Gantois, Nausicaa; Hammouma-Ghelboun, Ourida; Pottier, Muriel; Guyot, Karine; Benamrouz, Sadia; Osman, Marwan; Delaire, Baptiste; Creusy, Colette; Viscogliosi, Eric; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat-Denis, Cecile Marie; Follet, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium, a protozoan parasite that can cause severe diarrhea in a wide range of vertebrates including humans, is increasingly recognized as a parasite of a diverse range of wildlife species. However, little data are available regarding the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in wild aquatic environments, and more particularly in edible freshwater fish. To evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidiumspp. in fish from Lake Geneva (Lac Léman) in France, 41 entire fish and 100 fillets (cuts of fish flesh) were collected from fishery suppliers around the lake. Nested PCR using degenerate primers followed by sequence analysis was used. Five fish species were identified as potential hosts of Cryptosporidium: Salvelinus alpinus, Esox lucius, Coregonus lavaretus, Perca fluviatilis, and Rutilus rutilus. The presence of Cryptosporidium spp. was found in 15 out of 41 fish (37%), distributed as follows: 13 (87%) C. parvum, 1 (7%) C. molnari, and 1 (7%) mixed infection (C. parvum and C. molnari). C. molnari was identified in the stomach, while C. parvum was found in the stomach and intestine. C. molnari was also detected in 1 out of 100 analyzed fillets. In order to identify Cryptosporidium subtypes, sequencing of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) was performed. Among the C. parvum positive samples, three gp60 subtypes were identified: IIaA15G2R1, IIaA16G2R1, and IIaA17G2R1. Histological examination confirmed the presence of potential developmental stages of C. parvum within digestive epithelial cells. These observations suggest that C. parvum is infecting fish, rather than being passively carried. Since C. parvum is a zoonotic species, fish potentially contaminated by the same subtypes found in terrestrial mammals would be an additional source of infection for humans and animals, and may also contribute to the contamination of the environment with this parasite. Moreover, the risk of human transmission is strengthened by the

  20. Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavent, Tina Bennett; Nielsen, Xiaohui Chen; Kristensen, Kjeld Skødebjerg

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiobacterium hominis and Cardiobacterium valvarum are well known, though rare, etiologic agents of infective endocarditis. Cardiac devices are increasingly implanted. Case Reports: Two cases of infective episodes in pacemaker (PM) treated patients with respectively C. hominis and C...

  1. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and other intestinal parasites in young children in Lobata province, Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luísa Lobo

    Full Text Available Rare systemic studies concerning prevalence of intestinal parasites in children have been conducted in the second smallest country in Africa, the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe. Fecal specimens from 348 children (214 in-hospital attending the Aires de Menezes Hospital and 134 from Agostinho Neto village in São Tome Island were studied by parasitological and molecular methods. Of the 134 children from Agostinho Neto, 52.2% presented intestinal parasites. 32.1% and 20.2% of these children had monoparasitism and polyparasitism, respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides (27.6%, G. duodenalis (7.5%, T. trichiura (4.5% and Entamoeba coli (10.5% were the more frequent species identified in the children of this village. Giardia duodenalis (7.5% and E. bieneusi (5.2% were identified by PCR. Nested-PCR targeting G. duodenalis TPI identified Assemblage A (60% and Assemblage B (40%. The E. bieneusi ITS-based sequence identified genotypes K (57.1%, KIN1 (28.6% and KIN3 (14.3%. Among the 214 in-hospital children, 29.4% presented intestinal parasites. In 22.4% and 7.0% of the parasitized children, respectively, one or more species were concurrently detected. By microscopy, A. lumbricoides (10.3% and Trichiuris trichiura (6.5% were the most prevalent species among these children, and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR in 8.9% of children. GP60 locus analysis identified 6.5% of C. hominis (subtypes IaA27R3 [35.7%], IaA23R3 [14.3%], IeA11G3T3 [28.6%] and IeA11G3T3R1 [21.4%] and 2.3% of C. parvum (subtypes IIaA16G2R1 [20.0%], IIaA15G2R1 [20.0%], IIdA26G1 [40.0%] and IIdA21G1a [20.0%]. G. duodenalis and E. bieneusi were identified in 0.5% and 8.9% of the in-hospital children, respectively. G. duodenalis Assemblage B was characterized. The E. bieneusi genotypes K (52.6%, D (26.4%, A (10.5% and KIN1 (10.5% were identified. Although further studies are required to clarify the epidemiology of these infectious diseases in this endemic region the significance

  2. The General Biology of Cryptosporidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium infect all classes of vertebrate animals. Of the sixteen valid species and nearly forty genotypes, three species are responsible for the majority of economic losses to livestock and morbidity and mortality to humans. This chapter summari...

  3. Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Walkty

    2005-01-01

    The present case report describes the clinical course of a patient who presented with Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis. A review of the literature follows the case presentation. C hominis, a fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, is a member of the HACEK group of microorganisms (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae). Endocarditis caused by C hominis is uncommon and generally follows a subacute course. Patients may presen...

  4. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis as pathogenic contaminants of water in Galicia, Spain: the need for safe drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Hermida, José Antonio; González-Warleta, Marta; Mezo, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in drinking water treatments plants (DWTPs) in Galicia (NW Spain) and to identify which species and genotype of these pathogenic protozoans are present in the water. Samples of untreated water (surface or ground water sources) and of treated drinking water (in total, 254 samples) were collected from 127 DWTPs and analysed by an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR. Considering the untreated water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 69 samples (54.3%) by IFAT, and DNA of this parasite was detected in 57 samples (44.8%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 76 samples (59.8%) by IFAT and in 56 samples (44.0%) by PCR. Considering the treated drinking water samples, Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 52 samples (40.9%) by IFAT, and the parasite DNA was detected in 51 samples (40.1%) by PCR, whereas G. duodenalis was detected in 58 samples (45.6%) by IFAT and in 43 samples (33.8%) by PCR. The percentage viability of the (oo)cysts ranged between 90.0% and 95.0% in all samples analysed. Cryptosporidium andersoni, C. hominis, C. parvum and assemblages A-I, A-II, E of G. duodenalis were identified. The results indicate that Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis are widespread in the environment and that DWTPs are largely ineffective in reducing/inactivating these pathogens in drinking water destined for human and animal consumption in Galicia. In conclusion, the findings suggest the need for better monitoring of water quality and identification of sources of contamination.

  5. Serological differentiation of microsporidia with special reference to Trachipleistophora hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney S.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Myositis is a common clinical syndrome in advanced stages of AIDS. Trachipleistophora hominis (phylum Microspora has been detected in several cases of painful, immobilising myositis in AIDS patients. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs and Western blotting of protein profiles separated by SDS PAGE were used to determine whether this species could be detected and differentiated by serology. Sixteen microsporidia, including several species known to infect man and species infecting fish, crustaceans and a mosquito, were used as antigen. Each species had a unique profile of SDS PAGE-separated proteins. In Western blots, mouse antiserum, raised to T. hominis and selected for its high ELISA specificity, bound to antigens ranging from less than 25 kDa to greater than 250 kDa with major bands at 39-44 kDa and 98-150 kDa on T. hominis protein profiles. The serum also recognised some high molecular weight antigens in the profiles of Vavraia culicis, Heterosporis anguillarum, and three species of Pleistophora but none in the remaining genera examined. It was concluded that ELISA and Western blotting could be used to detect and differentiate T. hominis in muscle biopsy tissue from patients with myositis. However, sera from T. hominis infected patients in the terminal stages of AIDS would not be useful for detection of infections because of a sharp decline in antibody level.

  6. Association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS

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    Azadeh Darabian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the association between Blastocystis hominis and irritable bowel syndrome(IBS. In this case-control study that conducted in Mashhad, Iran in 2014-2015, one hundred IBS cases and one hundred matched (age and sex healthy people were participated. Direct stool examination, formalin-ether concentration technique and trichrome staining were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS20 with Fisher's exact test and T-test. One hundred IBS patients (31 males and 69 females had a mean age of 29.5 (±7.4 years. B. hominis were positive in 26% of IBS participants, and 9% in control group (P-value=0.002,Risk Estimate=3.5. Giardia lamblia were positive in 6% of IBS participants, and in none of control participants (P-value=0.01. Trichrome staining for detection of B. hominis was more sensitive than direct examination and formalin-ether concentration technique (P-value <0/001. B. hominis was more frequent in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. For detection of B. hominis, trichrome staining was more sensitive than other methods. Authors suggest that in patients with IBS, stool should be examined with different methods for three times to obtain a more reliable diagnosis.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bygdeman, S M; Mårdh, P A

    1983-01-01

    The determination of the minimal growth-inhibiting concentration (MIC), the minimal metabolism-inhibiting concentration (MMC), and the minimal mycoplasmacidal concentration (MCC) of various antimicrobial compounds for Mycoplasma hominis is influenced by the pH of the test media, the inoculum size, and the incubation time, although each of these factors generally do not affect the minimal concentration more than fourfold. M. hominis is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics, vancomycin, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B. There are great differences in the susceptibility of M. hominis to various macrolide antibiotics. Thus the organism is resistant to erythromycin and oleandomycin, moderately resistant to tylosin and spiramycin, susceptible to josamycin as well as to another macrolide drug, labelled M-4365G. M. hominis is also highly susceptible to the macrolide-like compound rosaramicin and to the tetracyclines (although resistant strains occur). It is susceptible to lincomycin and clindamycin, and moderately susceptible to chloramphenicol and rifampicin. The aminoglycosides have limited activity against M. hominis.

  8. Distributed Subtyping

    OpenAIRE

    Baehni, Sébastien; Barreto, Joao; Guerraoui, Rachid

    2006-01-01

    One of the most frequent operations in object-oriented programs is the "instanceof" test, also called the "subtyping" test or the "type inclusion" test. This test determines if a given object is an instance of some type. Surprisingly, despite a lot of research on distributed object-oriented languages and systems, almost no work has been devoted to the implementation of this test in a distributed environment. This paper presents the first algorithm to implement the "subtyping" test on an obje...

  9. Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Harald; Hönigsmann, Herbert

    2004-02-01

    Myiasis is a common travel-associated dermatosis. Travelers to many parts of Central and South America are susceptible to infestation by Dermatobia hominis. Despite the common name of human botfly, D hominis infests a broad range of mammals and is a severe pest to economically important farm animals in endemic regions. The adult female does not lay the eggs on the host. Instead, the adult female infests hosts indirectly by using blood-feeding arthropods to serve as phoretic vectors to transport the eggs. We present a patient who acquired Dermatobia when bitten by a day-active mosquito during a visit to Guatemala. He had a locally painful, firm furuncular lesion with a central pore that drained serosanguineous exudates. The patient applied an occlusive ointment and recovered the larva after it emerged. In this report we discuss the life cycle of D hominis, the differential diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches.

  10. Mussels (Perna perna as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Ferreira Mariné Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60 were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21 and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21. The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2 were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  11. Mussels (Perna perna) as bioindicator of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium species with zoonotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariné Oliveira, Geisi Ferreira; do Couto, Melissa Carvalho Machado; de Freitas Lima, Marcelo; do Bomfim, Teresa Cristina Bergamo

    2016-04-01

    Sources of contamination such as animal feces runoff, organic fertilizer application, and the release of partially treated or untreated sewage can lead to the contamination of aquatic environments by Cryptosporidium spp. The quality of mussels as food is closely related to the sanitary conditions of the marine environment where these bivalves are found. Marine mollusks are filter feeders that are able to retain Cryptosporidium oocysts in their tissue, thus functioning as bioindicators. A total of 72 pooled mussel samples of the species Perna perna were collected at two sites (A and B) in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling involved removal of 30 mussels, from each collection site every month for one year. The 30 mussels from each sampling were then allocated into three groups of 10. Two Cryptosporidium spp. genes (18S and GP60) were targeted for DNA amplification from the samples obtained. After purification, all of the products obtained were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Of the 72 samples analyzed using the nested-PCR for the 18S gene target, 29.2% were positive for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Of these samples, 52.4% were collected at site A (ie 11/21) and 47.6% at site B (ie 10/21). The 18S genes of all the samples considered positive for Cryptosporidium spp. were sequenced, and the following three species were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum, C. meleagridis, and C. andersoni. Three distinct C. parvum subtypes (IIaA19G2R2; IIaA20G2R2; IIaA20G3R2) were identified using the GP60 gene. More studies to evaluate the zoonotic potential of this species should be performed as both sampling locations contain human and/or animal fecal contaminants.

  12. Assessment of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. as a microbial source tracking tool for surface water: application in a mixed-use watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystajecky, Natalie; Huck, Peter M; Schreier, Hans; Isaac-Renton, Judith L

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge of host specificity, combined with genomic sequencing of Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp., has demonstrated a microbial source tracking (MST) utility for these common waterborne microbes. To explore the source attribution potential of these pathogens, water samples were collected in a mixed rural-urban watershed in the Township of Langley, in southwestern British Columbia (BC), Canada, over a 2-year period. Cryptosporidium was detected in 63% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from no positive detection (NPD) to 20,600 oocysts per 100 liters. Giardia was detected in 86% of surface water samples at concentrations ranging from NPD to 3,800 cysts per 100 liters of water. Sequencing at the 18S rRNA locus revealed that 50% of Cryptosporidium samples and 98% of Giardia samples contained species/genotypes (Cryptosporidium) or assemblages (Giardia) that are capable of infecting humans, based on current knowledge of host specificity and taxonomy. Cryptosporidium genotyping data were more promising for source tracking potential, due to the greater number of host-adapted (i.e., narrow-host-range) species/genotypes compared to Giardia, since 98% of Giardia isolates were zoonotic and the potential host could not be predicted. This report highlights the benefits of parasite genomic sequencing to complement Method 1623 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and shows that Cryptosporidium subtyping for MST purposes is superior to the use of Giardia subtyping, based on better detection limits for Cryptosporidium-positive samples than for Giardia-positive samples and on greater host specificity among Cryptosporidium species. These additional tools could be used for risk assessment in public health and watershed management decisions.

  13. Molecular characterization of Danish Cryptosporidium parvum isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Juel, Cynthia Dawn

    2002-01-01

    was characterized as C. meleagridis. The porcine Cryptosporidium isolates (N = 4) revealed a pattern which was genetically distinct from human and bovine isolates. Cryptosporidium in a hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus L.) was identified for the first time. By microsatellite sequencing the hedgehog isolate showed...

  14. Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederlandse zwembaden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    2003-01-01

    Swimming-pool associated outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been frequently reported in the UK and USA. Cryptosporidium oocysts could sometimes be detected in the pool water or the filter backwash water in cases where the source of the outbreak was confirmed. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium and G

  15. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    In this study, the relative contributions of the pathogenic protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia by manure of farm animals in The Netherlands to the total yearly environmental load was studied. Manure of veal calves forms a very large source of Cryptosporidium (1.5 m 10 square 16 oocysts per year) a

  16. Genomic and gene variation in Mycoplasma hominis strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Gunna; Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend;

    1987-01-01

    DNAs from 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis isolated from various habitats, including strain PG21, were analyzed for genomic heterogeneity. DNA-DNA filter hybridization values were from 51 to 91%. Restriction endonuclease digestion patterns, analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis, revealed no ide...

  17. Infection of a brain abscess of Mycoplasma hominis.

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, D G; Seigal, N; Madoff, S

    1981-01-01

    Persistent fever in a young man after evacuation of a subdural hematoma caused by a depressed skull fracture made it necessary to carry out a computerized tomographic exam of the head that demonstrated a left frontal lobe brain abscess. Mycoplasma hominis was recovered from this abscess as the sole infecting organism. Serial computerized tomographic scans showed resolution after aspiration and antibiotic therapy.

  18. [Staphylococcus aureus variety hominis in a cattle herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, R; Meene, G

    1979-01-01

    A site-linked hominis variety of Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from a cattle herd. The find coincided with accumulated occurrence of clinical mastitis in cows and the affliction of one milker with a nose furuncle. The origin of the strain was not elucidated. The same strain had been isolated throughout three years of observation from clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as from chronic udder affection of cows, but no extraordinary accumulation of clinically manifest mastitis had been observed. The hominis site variety was quite rare among Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from other cow herds. Enterotoxin formation was recorded from strains of the hominis site variety and from strains which could not be coordinated with any other of the known site varieties and fell under crystal-violet Type A. No enterotoxin formation was recordable from the strains of the bovis variety. The same applied to the group of staphylococci of crystal-violet Type C which could not be coordinated either with any known site variety and which is assumed to have originated from the hominis site variety. The above findings do not support any conclusion as to whether the cows had been infected by the milker or vice versa.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of the Human Gut Symbiont Roseburia hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travis, Anthony J.; Kelly, Denise; Flint, Harry J;

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of the human gut symbiont Roseburia hominis A2-183(T) (= DSM 16839(T) = NCIMB 14029(T)), isolated from human feces. The genome is represented by a 3,592,125-bp chromosome with 3,405 coding sequences. A number of potential functions contributing to host-...

  20. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration in Rio de Janeiro Detecção de Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças com diarréia aguda e desidratação grave no Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium spp and other intestinal parasites in dehydrated children with gastroenteritis who were admitted to a pediatric hospital. Stool examinations from 218 children were performed. Cryptosporidium spp was identified in eighteen out of 193 stool samples (9.3% subjected to safranin-methylene blue staining. Giardia lamblia was detected in ten out of 213 (4.7% samples examined via the direct or Ritchie methods. Other parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides (4.2%, Blastocystis hominis (1.4%, Entamoeba coli (0.9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0.5%, Endolimax nana (0.5%, Trichuris trichiura (0.5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0.5%.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a freqüência das infecções por Cryptosporidium spp e outros parasitas intestinais em crianças desidratadas com gastroenterite, internadas em um hospital pediátrico. Exames de fezes de 218 crianças foram realizados. Cryptosporidium spp foi detectado em 18 de 193 (9,3% amostras fecais submetidas à coloração pela safranina/azul-de-metileno. Giardia lamblia foi detectada em dez de 213 (4,7% amostras submetidas ao exame direto ou ao método de Ritchie. Também foram identificados Ascaris lumbricoides (4,2%, Blastocystis hominis (1,4%, Entamoeba coli (0,9%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (0,5%, Endolimax nana (0,5%, Trichuris trichiura (0,5% and Enterobius vermicularis (0,5%.

  1. Concurrent infections with Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Blastocystis spp. in naturally infected dairy cattle from birth to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal specimens were collected directly at weekly and then monthly intervals from each of 30 dairy calves from birth to 24 months to determine the prevalence and age distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis assemblages, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotypes, and Blastocystis spp subtypes...

  2. Cryptosporidium infection in a veal calf cohort in France: molecular characterization of species in a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Follet Jérôme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Feces from 142 animals were collected on 15 farms in the region of Brittany, France. Each sample was directly collected from the rectum of the animal and identified with the ear tag number. Animals were sampled three times, at 5, 15 and 22 weeks of age. After DNA extraction from stool samples, nested PCR was performed to amplify partial 18S-rDNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein genes of Cryptosporidium. The parasite was detected on all farms. One hundred out of 142 calves (70.4% were found to be parasitized by Cryptosporidium. Amplified fragments were sequenced for Cryptosporidium species identification and revealed the presence of C. parvum (43.8%, C. ryanae (28.5%, and C. bovis (27%. One animal was infected with Cryptosporidium ubiquitum. The prevalence of these species was related to the age of the animal. C. parvum caused 86.7% of Cryptosporidium infections in 5-week-old calves but only 1.7% in 15-week-old animals. The analysis of the results showed that animals could be infected successively by C. parvum, C. ryanae, and C. bovis for the study period. C. parvum gp60 genotyping identifies 6 IIa subtypes of which 74.5% were represented by IIaA15G2R1. This work confirms previous studies in other countries showing that zoonotic C. parvum is the dominant species seen in young calves.

  3. Microbiological and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus hominis isolates from blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Mendoza-Olazarán

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS, Staphylococcus hominis represents the third most common organism recoverable from the blood of immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to characterize biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, define the SCCmec (Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec type, and genetic relatedness of clinical S. hominis isolates. METHODOLOGY: S. hominis blood isolates (n = 21 were screened for biofilm formation using crystal violet staining. Methicillin resistance was evaluated using the cefoxitin disk test and the mecA gene was detected by PCR. Antibiotic resistance was determined by the broth microdilution method. Genetic relatedness was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and SCCmec typed by multiplex PCR using two different methodologies described for Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of the S. hominis isolates screened, 47.6% (10/21 were categorized as strong biofilm producers and 23.8% (5/21 as weak producers. Furthermore, 81% (17/21 of the isolates were methicillin resistant and mecA gene carriers. Resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and trimethoprim was observed in >70% of isolates screened. Each isolate showed a different PFGE macrorestriction pattern with similarity ranging between 0-95%. Among mecA-positive isolates, 14 (82% harbored a non-typeable SCCmec type: eight isolates were not positive for any ccr complex; four contained the mec complex A ccrAB1 and ccrC, one isolate contained mec complex A, ccrAB4 and ccrC, and one isolate contained the mec complex A, ccrAB1, ccrAB4, and ccrC. Two isolates harbored the association: mec complex A and ccrAB1. Only one strain was typeable as SCCmec III. CONCLUSIONS: The S. hominis isolates analyzed were variable biofilm producers had a high prevalence of methicillin resistance and resistance to other antibiotics, and high genetic diversity. The results of this study strongly suggested that S. hominis isolates harbor

  4. Classification of Cryptosporidium species from patients with sporadic cryptosporidiosis by use of sequence-based multilocus analysis following mutation scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, Aaron R; Pangasa, Aradhana; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Whipp, Margaret; Hogg, Geoff; Sinclair, Martha I; Stevens, Melita; Gasser, Robin B

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, we analyzed genetic variation in Cryptosporidium species from humans (n = 62) with clinical cryptosporidiosis in South Australia. Sequence variation was assessed in regions within the small subunit of nuclear rRNA (p-SSU), the 70-kDa heat shock protein (p-hsp70), and the 60-kDa glycoprotein (p-gp60) genes by employing single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and sequencing. Based on the analyses of p-SSU and p-hsp70, Cryptosporidium hominis (n = 38) and Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 24) were identified. The analysis of p-gp60 revealed eight distinct subgenotypes, classified as C. hominis IaA17R1 (n = 3), IbA9G3R2 (n = 14), IbA10G2R2 (n = 20), and IfA12G1R1 (n = 1), as well as C. parvum IIaA18G3R1 (n = 15), IIaA20G3R1 (n = 6), IIaA22G4R1 (n = 2), and IIcA5G3R2 (n = 1). Subgenotypes IaA17R1 and IIaA22G4R1 are new. Of the six other subgenotypes, IbA10G2R2, IIaA18G3R1, IIaA20G3R1, and IIcA5G3R2 were reported previously from the state of Victoria. This is the fourth record in Australia of C. parvum subgenotype IIaA18G3R1 from humans, which, to date, has been isolated only from cattle in other countries. This subgenotype might be a significant contributor to sporadic human cryptosporidiosis and may indicate a greater zoonotic contribution to the infection of humans in the area of study. Comparative analyses revealed, for the first time, the differences in the genetic makeup of Cryptosporidium populations between two relatively close, major metropolitan cities.

  5. Presence of an Active Efflux System in the Fluoroquinolones Resistance of Mycoplasma Hominis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艳冰; 吴移谋; 朱翠明; 曾铁兵; 曾焱华

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible presence of an active efflux system in resistance to fluoroqninolones in Mycoplasma hominis. Methods: The resistant strains of M. hominis were selected from one hundred and three clinical strains of M. homlnls by broth microdilution method. The ac-cumulation of ciprofloxacin in M. hominis and the in-fluence of carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl- hydrazone (CCCP) and reserpine were measured by a fluores-cence method. Results: Two resistant strains and two susceptible strains of M. hominis were selected in vitro. The accu-mulation of ciprofloxacin for resistant strains is lower than that of susceptible strains. CCCP and reserpine had different influence on clinical strains of M.hominis. Reserpine could dramatically increase the accumulation of ciprofloxacin, however CCCP had a little effect on it. Conclusion: These results suggest that the pres-ence of an active efflux system implicated in the fluoroouinolones-resistant in M. hominis.

  6. Cryptosporidium testudinis sp. n., Cryptosporidium ducismarci Traversa, 2010 and Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype III (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in tortoises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezkova, Jana; Horcickova, Michaela; Hlaskova, Lenka; Sak, Bohumil; Kvetonova, Dana; Novak, Jan; Hofmannova, Lada; McEvoy, John; Kvac, Martin

    2016-10-14

    Understanding of the diversity of species of Cryptosporidium Tyzzer, 1910 in tortoises remains incomplete due to the limited number of studies on these hosts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the genetic diversity and biology of cryptosporidia in tortoises of the family Testudinidae Batsch. Faecal samples were individually collected immediately after defecation and were screened for presence of cryptosporidia by microscopy using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining, and by PCR amplification and sequence analysis targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein (COWP) and actin genes. Out of 387 faecal samples from 16 tortoise species belonging to 11 genera, 10 and 46 were positive for cryptosporidia by microscopy and PCR, respectively. All samples positive by microscopy were also PCR positive. Sequence analysis of amplified genes revealed the presence of the Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I (n = 22), C. ducismarci Traversa, 2010 (n = 23) and tortoise genotype III (n = 1). Phylogenetic analyses of SSU, COWP and actin gene sequences revealed that Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci are genetically distinct from previously described species of Cryptosporidium. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I, measuring 5.8-6.9 µm × 5.3-6.5 µm, are morphologically distinguishable from C. ducismarci, measuring 4.4-5.4 µm × 4.3-5.3 µm. Oocysts of Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci obtained from naturally infected Russian tortoises (Testudo horsfieldii Gray) were infectious for the same tortoise but not for Reeve's turtles (Mauremys reevesii [Gray]), common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis [Linnaeus]), zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata [Vieillot]) and SCID mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus). The prepatent period was 11 and 6 days post infection (DPI) for Cryptosporidium tortoise genotype I and C. ducismarci, respectively; the patent period was longer than 200 days for both cryptosporidia

  7. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. I...

  8. Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis endophthalmitis following cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won JY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jun Yeon Won,1 Moosang Kim21Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea; 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, KoreaAbstract: We report a case of acute postoperative endophthalmitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus hominis, treated at our hospital. An 80-year-old male presented 2 days after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation, with a 24-hour history of progressive visual loss and redness in the operated (right eye. On examination, best corrected visual acuity was counting fingers. Anterior segment examination revealed conjunctival injection, chemosis, corneal edema, and hypopyon. B-scan ultrasonography showed vitreous opacification, but no retinal detachment. Acute postoperative endophthalmitis was diagnosed. We performed vitrectomy with vancomycin in the irrigating solution, intraocular lens removal, and silicone oil tamponade. Culture of the vitreous grew Staphylococcus hominis. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed the isolate was sensitive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and teicoplanin but resistant to ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, cefazolin, and vancomycin. At 3 months, the visual acuity of the silicone oil-treated eye was 20/400.Keywords: endophthalmitis, Staphylococcus hominis, vancomycin

  9. Dermatobia hominis: Potencial risk of resistance to macrocyclic lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, José Henrique; Carvalho, Nadino; Amarante, Alessandro F T

    2015-09-15

    Dermatobia hominis is an ectoparasite that infests various species of mammals, including cattle, impairing the quality of cowhides and leather. After observing natural infestation with D. hominis larvae in cattle on two farms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, we evaluated the efficacy of two macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin and moxidectin, against this parasite. The drugs were administered to 10 animals in each group, following the manufacturer's instructions. The groups were: Group 1-treated with ivermectin (0.2mg/kg of body weight (BW)); Group 2-treated with moxidectin (0.2mg/kg BW); and Group 3-control (untreated). On the farm in Pardinho, a total of 12 and 16 live larvae were found in 6 and in 8 animals 10 days after the treatment with ivermectin and moxidectin, respectively, while in the control group 4 bovines had a total of 7 live larvae. On the farm in Anhembi, 2, 4 and 6 live larvae were extracted from ivermectin, moxidectin and control groups, respectively, after the treatment. This is the first report of the presence of live D. hominis larvae after the treatment of cattle with ivermectin and moxidectin in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Cryptosporidium Infections Among Children in Peru

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-09-25

    Cryptosporidium is a waterborne bacteria that can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting. In this podcast, Dr. Vita Cama, CDC microbiologist, discusses an article in the October 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases. The paper examines Cryptosporidium infections among children in Peru, including the number of infections, symptoms experienced, and what species of Crypto were responsible.  Created: 9/25/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 9/25/2008.

  11. 40 CFR 141.712 - Unfiltered system Cryptosporidium treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, or viruses. ... systems must meet the combined Cryptosporidium inactivation requirements of this section and Giardia lamblia and virus inactivation requirements of § 141.72(a) using a minimum of two disinfectants, and...

  12. Evidence for a new species of Cryptosporidium infecting tortoises: Cryptosporidium ducismarci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cryptosporidiosis affects the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract of humans as well as of a wide range of companion, farm, laboratory and wild animals. In the past few years, three independent studies have provided strong evidence for the existence of a distinct Cryptosporidium species affecting tortoises and likely circulating in other reptile species as well. A new Cryptosporidium genotype was firstly detected and genetically characterized in a marginated tortoise in Italy in 2007 and named Cryptosporidium sp. ex Testudo marginata CrIT-20. The phylogenetic analysis of this isolate indicated that this Cryptosporidium was unique and belonged to the intestinal clade. These findings were later on confirmed by the detection of genetic homologies of isolates from a python and a chameleon from Spain and by recent research in the United States. The latter study presented both the occurrence of intestinal lesions in a pancake tortoise and a Russian tortoise and the genetic characterization of the isolates, together with the first pictures of the endogenous stages of Cryptosporidium CrIT-20. Phylogenetic inference based on the sequences representing small subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU of these isolates confirmed the pathological findings because this Cryptosporidium was related to the intestinal group and supported previous results in T. marginata from Italy. The present scientific data on the Cryptosporidium CrIT-20 support its classification as a new species of Cryptosporidium causing intestinal diseases in tortoises. Although further morphological (i.e. exogenous stages and biological aspects (i.e. complete host range are yet to be elucidated, it is proposed that this Cryptosporidium is designated Cryptosporidium ducismarci.

  13. Cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis: a report of six cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, P M; Hepburn, N C; Williams, A E; Bunney, M H

    1995-05-01

    We report six cases of Dermatobia hominis myiasis imported into the U.K. from Belize. With increasing international travel, myiasis may be encountered more frequently in countries in which the parasites are not indigenous. The life-cycle of D. hominis is described, and scanning electron micrographs show the detailed appearance of the larva.

  14. The Case Report of Trigger Finger Improved with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Kim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The Purpose of this study is to investigate and report the effectiveness of Hominis Placenta using Pharmacopuncture treatment for trigger finger. Methods : 3 Patients are admitted at Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation, Bu-Chun Jaseng Oriental Medicine Hospital, diagnosed as Trigger finger and treated with Hominis Placenta Pharmacopuncture. Each cases are measured and assessed by Quinnell's classification of triggering and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale scores. Results : 3 Patients of trigger finger have a different kind of cause and fingers lesion they have, but nodules are not significantly found up, so we could classify all of 3 patients to diffuse type. After treatment of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture, spontaneous pain and tenderness, grades of triggering are decreased significantly. We would expect that Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture has a effect on degenerative diseases of diffuse type's tendon sheath. Conclusions : Trigger finger is generally divided into two stages, inflammatory and degenerative stage, and when degenerative stage, Hominis placenta pharmacopuncture appears to be effective.

  15. An epidemiological survey of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in gynaecological outpatients, Rome, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verteramo, R; Patella, A; Calzolari, E; Recine, N; Marcone, V; Osborn, J; Chiarini, F; Degener, A M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections and to investigate associations between their presence in the lower female genital tract and lifestyle characteristics. The study was performed on a population of 3115 women, comparing the demographic and behavioural characteristics of 872 women with U. urealyticum infection and 142 women with M. hominis with uninfected women, using univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of infection with U. urealyticum was 28% and M. hominis was 4.6%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, intrauterine device, number of sexual partners and age (<35 years) were significantly associated with U. urealyticum while previous induced abortion, condom use and young age at first intercourse (<16 years) were associated with M. hominis infection. U. urealyticum infection presents the same demographic and behavioural characteristics of a sexually transmitted disease. The unprotective role of condom use suggests a non-sexual mode of transmission of M. hominis infection.

  16. Global modelling of Cryptosporidium in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Lucie; Hofstra, Nynke

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Waterborne pathogens that cause diarrhoea, such as Cryptosporidium, pose a health risk all over the world. In many regions quantitative information on pathogens in surface water is unavailable. Our main objective is to model Cryptosporidium concentrations in surface waters worldwide. We present the GloWPa-Crypto model and use the model in a scenario analysis. A first exploration of global Cryptosporidium emissions to surface waters has been published by Hofstra et al. (2013). Further work has focused on modelling emissions of Cryptosporidium and Rotavirus to surface waters from human sources (Vermeulen et al 2015, Kiulia et al 2015). A global waterborne pathogen model can provide valuable insights by (1) providing quantitative information on pathogen levels in data-sparse regions, (2) identifying pathogen hotspots, (3) enabling future projections under global change scenarios and (4) supporting decision making. Material and Methods GloWPa-Crypto runs on a monthly time step and represents conditions for approximately the year 2010. The spatial resolution is a 0.5 x 0.5 degree latitude x longitude grid for the world. We use livestock maps (http://livestock.geo-wiki.org/) combined with literature estimates to calculate spatially explicit livestock Cryptosporidium emissions. For human Cryptosporidium emissions, we use UN population estimates, the WHO/UNICEF JMP sanitation country data and literature estimates of wastewater treatment. We combine our emissions model with a river routing model and data from the VIC hydrological model (http://vic.readthedocs.org/en/master/) to calculate concentrations in surface water. Cryptosporidium survival during transport depends on UV radiation and water temperature. We explore pathogen emissions and concentrations in 2050 with the new Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs) 1 and 3. These scenarios describe plausible future trends in demographics, economic development and the degree of global integration. Results and

  17. The Effect of Hominis Placenta Herbal Acupuncture on Bell's palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jeong-hun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available This report was done to observe the effect of Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture on Bell's palsy. The study group comprised 16 patients who arrived at Woo-suk university oriental hospital from January, 1999 till January, 2000 for Bell's palsy. All patients were divided into two group. One was herbal acupunture group, and the other was control group. Acupunture group was done herbal acupuncture therapy on the facial acupuncture points. Followings are achievement and a term of each group. In herbal acupuncture group, 100% motor recovery was 7 case, 75% was 1 case, and 25% motor recovery term was 7.38±5.21 days, 50% was 11.00±6.16 days, 75% was 15.13±9.55 days, 100% was 23.14±7.97 days. In control group, 100% motor recovery was 4 case, 75% was 2 case, 25% below was 2 case and 25% motor recovery term was 11.17±4.96days, 50% was 18.17±6.82 days, 75% was 29.50±6.95 days, 100% was 44.00±11.49 days. The above results indicate that Hominis placenta herbal acupuncture is a useful effect on Bell's palsy. thus, continuous herbal acupunture study will be needed for more clinical application on Bell' palsy.

  18. Possible involvement of Mycoplasma hominis in inhibiting the formation of biofilms by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangnam; Go, Gwang-Woong; Choi, Nag-Jin; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Younghoon

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined the involvement of Mycoplasma hominis in the formation of biofilms by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073. Initially, we thought that M. hominis does not affect the fitness of UPEC, including the growth and production of signaling molecules, such as autoinducer-2 and indole. We found, however, that the presence of M. hominis significantly decreased the degree of biofilm formation by UPEC CFT073 (approximately a 60% reduction for 10(5) ccu/mL of M. hominis as compared with UPEC alone). We also found that it had a slight effect in inhibiting the attachment and cytotoxicity of UPEC CFT073. These findings are specific to these UPEC strains rather than to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains, found in normal intestinal flora. In addition, we performed whole-transcriptome profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. This indicated that the PhoPQ system and the anti-termination protein (encoded by ybcQ) were involved in the reduction of biofilm formation by M. hominis (corroborated by qRT-PCR). Furthermore, our results indicate that M. hominis raises the degree of transcription of toxin genes, including hha and pasT. Hence, we suggest a possible role of M. hominis in affecting the formation of biofilms by UPEC in the urinary tract.

  19. Prevalence of Pentatrichomonas hominis infections in six farmed wildlife species in Jilin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianhe; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Xichen; Yang, Zhengtao; Yang, Ju; Gong, Pengtao

    2017-09-15

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic flagellated protozoan that primarily parasitizes the gastrointestinal tract and is a conditional pathogen. It has an extensive host range and is well known as a potential causative agent of zoonotic disease. The objective of this study was to provide the first findings of the prevalence of P. hominis in six farmed wildlife species, sika deer (S.D.), Rex rabbits (R.R.), blue foxes (B.F.), silver foxes (S.F.), raccoon dogs (R.D.) and minks (M.), that are commercially important in Jilin Province, China. In this study, 450 faecal samples were tested for P. hominis infection by culturing and nested PCR assays. The average prevalence of P. hominis infections were as follows: S.D. 20% (26/130), R.R. 16.25% (13/80), B.F. 45% (27/60), S.F. 43.33% (26/60), R.D. 53.33% (32/60) and M. 48.33% (29/60). The prevalence in herbivores (18.57% for S.D. and R.R.) was significantly lower than that in non-herbivores (47.5%). PCR product sequencing indicated that infections were mainly caused by the P. hominis strain Changchun Canine 1, and we found a P. hominis strain with a mutated sequence, Changchun-RR, which had three mutations compared with the referenced homologous P. hominis sequences. Morphological observations of the Changchun-RR strain showed that it was similar to P. hominis. Our study suggests that P. hominis is widespread in six farmed wildlife species in Jilin Province and provides baseline information for the presence of this parasite in these animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical significance and frequency of Blastocystis hominis in Turkish patients with hematological malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taşova Y

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised subjects has been the subject of debate in recent years, mostly in response to its unknown pathogenicity and frequency of occurrence. We performed a non-randomised, open labelled, single institute study in our hospital in order to investigate the clinical significance and frequency of B. hominis in patients suffering from hematological malignancy (HM who displayed symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases during the period of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The presence and potential role of other intestinal inclusive of parasites were also studied. At least 3 stool samples from each of 206 HM patients with gastrointestinal complaints (the HM group were studied. These were compared with stool samples from a control group of 200 patients without HM who were also suffering from gastrointestinal complaints. Samples were studied with saline-lugol, formalin-ether, and trichome staining methods. Groups were comparable in terms of gender, age and type of gastrointestinal complaints. In the HM group, the most common parasite was B. hominis. In this group, 23 patients (13% had B. hominis, while in the control group only 2 patients (1% had B. hominis. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Symptoms were non-specific for B. hominis or other parasites in the HM group. The predominant symptoms in both groups were abdominal pain (87-89.5%, diarrhea (70-89.5%, and flatulence (74-68.4%. Although all patients with HM were symptom-free at the end of treatment with oral metranidazol (1,500 mg per day for 10 days 2 patients with HM had positive stool samples containing an insignificant number of parasites (< 5 cells per field. In conclusion, it appears that B. hominis is not rare and should be considered in patients with HM who have gastrointestinal complaints while being treated with chemotherapy. Furthermore, metranidazol appears to be effective in

  1. Identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle in Brazil Identificação de espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium em bovinos leiteiros no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Medeiros Paz e Silva

    Full Text Available In this study, we identified Cryptosporidium species and genotypes present in dairy cattle in the central region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fecal specimens were collected from 200 animals (100 calves and 100 cows in ten dairy farms. Fecal samples were examined using microscopic examination (ME, enzyme immunoassay (EIA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Cryptosporidium species and genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP or DNA sequencing analysis of the SSU-rRNA and GP60 genes. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection was 14% (28/200. The occurrence in calves (26% was significantly higher than in cows (2%. Of the 27 Cryptosporidium-positive specimens submitted to genotyping, C. andersoni was identified in 23 (85.1%, C. bovis in three (11.1%, and the zoonotic C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 in one (3.7%. The study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. infection was common and widespread in dairy cattle in this region and that calves have a high prevalence of C. andersoni. Furthermore, the presence of C. parvum subtype IIaA15G2R1 indicates that dairy calves from this region should be considered a potential source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts.No presente estudo foram identificadas espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium originadas de bovinos leiteiros na região central do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Amostras fecais foram coletadas de 200 animais (100 bezerros e 100 vacas em 10 propriedades leiteiras. As amostras foram examinadas utilizando os métodos de microscopia óptica (MO, ensaio imunoenzimático (EI e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR. As espécies e genótipos de Cryptosporidium foram determinados pelo método de polimorfismo no tamanho dos fragmentos de restrição (RFLP ou sequenciamento dos genes SSU-rRNA e GP60. A infecção por Cryptosporidium spp. teve ocorrência de 14% (28/200. A ocorrência em bezerros (26% foi significativamente maior do que em vacas (2%. Do total de 27

  2. Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium scrofarum in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Janiszewski, Paweł; Forejtek, Pavel; Rajský, Dušan; Ravaszová, Petra; McEvoy, John; Kváč, Martin

    2013-11-08

    From 2011 to 2012, to identify Cryptosporidium spp. occurrence in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) 29 randomly selected localities (both forest areas and enclosures) across the Central European countries of Austria, the Czech Republic, Poland, and the Slovak Republic were investigated. Cryptosporidium oocysts were microscopicaly detected in 11 out of 460 faecal samples examined using aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining. Sixty-one Cryptosporidium infections, including the 11 infections that were detected by microscopy, were detected using genus- or species-specific nested PCR amplification of SSU rDNA. This represents a 5.5 fold greater sensitivity for PCR relative to microscopy. Combining genus- and species-specific PCR tools significantly changes the perspective on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in wild boars. While RFLP and direct sequencing of genus specific PCR-amplified products revealed 56 C. suis (20) and C. scrofarum (36) monoinfections and only 5 mixed infections of these species, species-specific molecular tools showed 44 monoinfections and 17 mixed infections with these species. PCR analysis of the gp60 gene did not reveal any other Cryptosporidium infections. Similar to domestic pigs, C. scrofarum was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa). Cryptosporidium infected wild boars did not show signs of clinical disease. This report is perhaps the most comprehensive survey of cryptosporidial infection in wild boars.

  3. Ruling out nosocomial transmission of Cryptosporidium in a renal transplantation unit: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, J; Lemoine, J P; Pesson, B; Valot, S; Sautour, M; Dalle, F; Muller, C; Borni-Duval, C; Caillard, S; Moulin, B; Pfaff, A W; Razakandrainibe, R; Abou-Bacar, A; Favennec, L; Candolfi, E

    2016-08-02

    Cryptosporidium spp. is a ubiquitous parasite affecting humans as well as domestic and wild vertebrates, causing diarrhea in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts worldwide. Its transmission occurs primarily by the fecal-oral route. In humans, C. parvum and C. hominis are the most prevalent species, whereas immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals can also be infected by other zoonotic species. Renal transplant patients are prone to develop cryptosporidiosis, which can induce severe and life-threatening diarrhea. We report here a series of nearly concomitant cases of acute symptomatic cryptosporidiosis in three renal transplant patients attending the Strasbourg University Hospital Nephrology Unit. The clinical presentation was persistent diarrhea and acute renal failure. The diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic stool examination using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and species identification by molecular tools. All patients were treated with nitazoxanide and recovered from diarrhea after 14 days of therapy. Genotypic species identification was not consistent with an epidemic context, thus underlining the need for genotyping to monitor at risk patients.

  4. A new set of primers directed to 18S rRNA gene for molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. and their performance in the detection and differentiation of oocysts shed by synanthropic rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sheila O S; Richtzenhain, Leonardo J; Barros, Iracema N; Gomes, Alessandra M M C; Silva, Aristeu V; Kozerski, Noemila D; de Araújo Ceranto, Jaqueline B; Keid, Lara B; Soares, Rodrigo M

    2013-11-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. are cosmopolitan protozoa that infect fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals. More than 20 species are recognized within this genus. Rodents are a group of abundant and ubiquitous organisms that have been considered reservoirs of Cryptosporidium for humans and livestock. The aim of this study was to design specific primers for the gene encoding 18S rRNA, potentially capable of amplifying any species or genotype of Cryptosporidium spp. and evaluate the diagnostic attributes of the nested-PCR based on such probes. The primers were designed to amplify the shortest segment as possible to maximize the sensitivity of the test, but preserving the discriminatory potential of the amplified sequences for phylogenetic inferences. The nested-PCR standardized in this study (nPCR-SH) was compared in terms of sensitivity with another similar assay (nPCR-XIAO) that has been largely used for the detection and identification of Cryptosporidium spp. worldwide. We also aimed to molecularly characterize samples of Cryptosporidum spp. isolated from synanthropic rodents using these probes. Forty-five rodents were captured in urban areas of the municipality of Umuarama, Paraná State, Brazil. Fecal samples were submitted to three molecular tests (nested-PCRs), two of them targeted to the 18S rDNA gene (nPCR-SH and nPCR-XIAO) and the third targeted to the gene encoding actin (nPCR-actin). The nPCR-SH was tested positive on samples of Cryptosporidum parvum, Cryptosporidum andersoni, Cryptosporidum meleagridis, Cryptosporidum hominis, Cryptosporidum canis, and Cryptosporidum serpentis. Sixteen samples of rodents were positive by nPCR-SH, six by nPCR-XIAO and five by nPCR-actin. Sequencing of amplified fragments allowed the identification of Cryptosporidum muris in three samples of Rattus rattus, and two genotypes of Cryptosporidium, the genotypes mouse II and III. Cryptosporidium genotype mouse II was found in one sample of Mus musculus and genotype mouse III

  5. Emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia door landbouwhuisdieren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijven JF; Bruin HAM de; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    1999-01-01

    Het hier gepresenteerde deelonderzoek richt zich op de relatieve bijdrage van verschillende populaties landbouwhuisdieren via mest en afvalwater aan de totale emissie van Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederland. Vleeskalveren vormen per jaar in Nederland via hun mest een grote emissiebron van be

  6. Cryptosporidium en Giardia in Nederlandse zwembaden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Engels GB; Leenen EJTM; MGB

    2003-01-01

    Zwembad gerelateerde explosies van cryptosporidiose zijn regelmatig gerapporteerd in Groot-Brittannie en de Verenigde Staten. De bron van de explosie kon soms achterhaald worden doordat Cryptosporidium oocysten in het zwembadwater of in het terugspoelwater van de zwembadfilters konden worden gedete

  7. The first report on Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa) (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němejc, Karel; Sak, Bohumil; Květoňová, Dana; Hanzal, Vladimír; Jeníková, Martina; Kváč, Martin

    2012-03-23

    A total of 193 faecal samples of adult Eurasian wild boars were collected at 12 enclosures across the Czech Republic and examined for Cryptosporidium infection using both microscopic and molecular tools. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the 193 faecal samples examined using the aniline-carbol-methyl violet staining method. Thirty-two positive cases of Cryptosporidium infection were detected using either genus- or species-specific nested PCR. Mono-infection with Cryptosporidium suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were found in 13 and 7 cases, respectively. Five mixed infections of C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II were detected using PCR/RFLP with genus specific primers. The number of detected mixed infections increased 2.4 fold when a species-specific PCR was employed. No other Cryptosporidium spp. was detected. Unlike cryptosporidiosis of domestic pigs, C. suis was detected as a dominant species infecting adult Eurasian wild boars. There was no association between diarrhoea and the presence of Cryptosporidium infection in the Eurasian wild boars studied. This is the first report on the Cryptosporidium infection caused by C. suis and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in Eurasian wild boars (Sus scrofa).

  8. Comparative diagnostic techniques for cryptosporidium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Beauty E; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Udem, Chukwuneke S; Okonkwo, Francis O

    2014-02-24

    Diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium is usually mild in immune competent individuals but severe in the young and those with underlying disease leading to compromised immunity. The conventional diagnosis of Cryptosporidium requires observation of the infective oocysts however, their tiny size yields indistinct results, thus limiting the effectiveness of the conventional diagnostic technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) differential staining. Consequent to the abovementioned limitation, ZN staining, sandwich antigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (sad-ELISA) and a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay techniques were evaluated for diagnostic efficacy. Stool samples were collected from 180 consenting adult patients attending outpatient and inpatient clinics at Victoria Hospital, Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Subjects were stratified as; 35 HIV-positive and diarrhoeagenic, 125 HIV-negative diarrhoeagenic and 20 apparently healthy controls. Cryptosporidium incidence following diagnostic techniques were 13 (37.1%; ZN staining), 26 (74.3%; sad-ELISA) and 23 (65.7%; PCR), respectively, among HIV-positive diarrhoeagenic patients and 34 (27.2%; ZN staining), 96 (76.8%; sad-ELISA) and 89 (71.2%; PCR) among HIV-negative diarrhoeagenic patients. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the diagnostic techniques' efficiency were: sensitivity: 46.2% (HIV-positive) and 32.3% (HIV-negative) against the ZN technique and 96.9% against sad-ELISA and PCR, respectively, for both HIV-positive and -negative patients; specificity was 88.9% (HIV-positive) and 96.6% (HIV-negative) against the ZN technique. Lastly, the predictive values were 92.3% (HIV-positive) and 96.9% (HIV-negative), respectively, following ZN staining. The sad-ELISA technique proved more suitable for the determination of the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The high incidence of Cryptosporidium in HIV-positive subjects as compared to the HIV-negative population accentuates

  9. Comparative Diagnostic Techniques for Cryptosporidium Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauty E. Omoruyi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium is usually mild in immune competent individuals but severe in the young and those with underlying disease leading to compromised immunity. The conventional diagnosis of Cryptosporidium requires observation of the infective oocysts however, their tiny size yields indistinct results, thus limiting the effectiveness of the conventional diagnostic technique, modified Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN differential staining. Consequent to the abovementioned limitation, ZN staining, sandwich antigen detection enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (sad-ELISA and a direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay techniques were evaluated for diagnostic efficacy. Stool samples were collected from 180 consenting adult patients attending outpatient and inpatient clinics at Victoria Hospital, Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Subjects were stratified as; 35 HIV-positive and diarrhoeagenic, 125 HIV-negative diarrhoeagenic and 20 apparently healthy controls. Cryptosporidium incidence following diagnostic techniques were 13 (37.1%; ZN staining, 26 (74.3%; sad-ELISA and 23 (65.7%; PCR, respectively, among HIV-positive diarrhoeagenic patients and 34 (27.2%; ZN staining, 96 (76.8%; sad-ELISA and 89 (71.2%; PCR among HIV-negative diarrhoeagenic patients. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the diagnostic techniques’ efficiency were: sensitivity: 46.2% (HIV-positive and 32.3% (HIV-negative against the ZN technique and 96.9% against sad-ELISA and PCR, respectively, for both HIV-positive and -negative patients; specificity was 88.9% (HIV-positive and 96.6% (HIV-negative against the ZN technique. Lastly, the predictive values were 92.3% (HIV-positive and 96.9% (HIV-negative, respectively, following ZN staining. The sad-ELISA technique proved more suitable for the determination of the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. The high incidence of Cryptosporidium in HIV-positive subjects as compared to the HIV-negative population

  10. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis organisms isolated from human lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaneshiro, E S; Amit, Z; Chandra, Jan Suresh

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting...... mammalian lungs. The dominant sterol present in the organism is cholesterol (which is believed to be scavenged from the host), but other sterols in P. carinii carinii have an alkyl group at C-24 of the sterol side chain (C(28) and C(29) 24-alkylsterols) and a double bond at C-7 of the nucleus. Recently...... in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human...

  11. Characteristics of Factors of Protozoa Blastocystis hominis Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potaturkina-Nesterova, N I; Il'ina, N A; Bugero, N V; Nesterov, A S

    2016-10-01

    Persistence activity manifested in the expression of anti-lysozyme, anti-lactoferrin, and antihistone factors promoting inactivation of natural anti-infection resistance factors in the body was revealed in Blastocystis hominis protozoa. Activities of these factors were ranged. The frequency of these factors in clinical isolates of blastocyst decreased in the following order: anti-lactoferrin activity (84.5±3.7%)→anti-lysozyme activity (64.8±5.7%)→anti-histone activity (48.1±2.3%). In healthy humans, the corresponding parameters were 7.3±1.3, 5.3±0.9, and 3.3±0.4%, respectively (pprotozoa.

  12. Campylobacter hominis sp nov., from the human gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson, A.J.; On, Stephen L.W.; Logan, J.M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Sequences of 16S rDNA of a novel campylobacter from faeces of healthy humans were previously shown to originate from a new taxon, 'Candidatus Campylobacter hominis', which could not be cultured. Since phylogenetic analysis suggested that anaerobic conditions might be required for growth......, an isolation strategy was developed employing initial non-selective membrane filtration onto fastidious anaerobe agar. Campylobacters were then isolated from the resulting mixed microbial flora by a dilution strategy and/or by immunomagnetic separation with genus-specific polyclonal antibody. Isolates were...... identified by a genus and taxon-specific PCR assay, and 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analysis was carried out. All isolates exhibited the typical Campylobacter characteristics of being non-fermentative, oxidase-positive, catalase-negative and Gram-negative. Unusually, however, they were straight rods lacking...

  13. Simple and effective field extraction of human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, using a venom extractor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    West, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    .... The patient reported feeling movement and intermittent lancinating pains under the skin. The history and examination were consistent with cutaneous myiasis, likely secondary to the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis...

  14. Mycoplasma hominis septic arthritis and common variable immunodeficiency in a postpartum patient:a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randy A. McCool

    2012-01-01

    Postpartum patients with an unrecognized primary immunodeficiency disease, including common variable immunodeficiency, demonstrate increased susceptibility to Mycoplasma hominis infection. Diagnosis, treatment, and clinical course in a postpartum patient presenting with joint pain and episodic fever are presented.

  15. An initial survey of the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarino, Mario A; Garcia, Omar; Fussell, Weyman; Preston, Kelly; Wagner, Gale G

    2003-12-12

    After the civil war and the Hurricane-Mitch disaster, cattlemen in Nicaragua were forced to transport their cattle from lowland areas to higher, dryer areas of the country. These areas are natural ecological niches for the cattle grub Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) (Diptera: Cuterebridae). To determine the importance of this infestation, the Agricultural and Livestock-Forestry Ministry selected a central area of Nicaragua to run a pioneer survey program to acquire information about hosts involved, number of cases, treatments applied and general knowledge of 42 farmers about the life cycle of the parasite. The subjects were either farm owners or farm managers. Ninety-five percentage of the farms indicated cases of D. hominis infestation in their animals, with cattle being the most affected host (100% of the affected farms). There was poor understanding of the D. hominis life cycle, vectors and control methods. A misuse of insecticides for the treatment of larval infestation by D. hominis was indicated.

  16. [Effects of the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis on ferredoxin gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong; Wen, Wenjing; Xue, Changgui

    2011-08-01

    We isolated 30 Trichomonas vaginalis for the PCR detection from the gynecological outpatients in the Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University using the specific 16s rDNA primers of Mycoplasma hominis. The results showed that there were 25 cases of Mycoplasma hominis infection, with the infection rate of 83.33%. This gave a clew that the symbiosis of Trichomonas vaginalis with Mycoplasma hominis may be of certain generality in China. We sequenced the ferredoxin gene of 10 Trichomonas vaginalis where 5 Mycoplasma hominis were positive and five negative, and found that the ferredoxin (Fd) gene of the 10 Trichomonas vaginalis were exactly the same. But compared to the genes in the GenBank, a comparative analysis of the gene revealed that there were 3 more ctg bases at the 200th position of encoding leucine, but this did not lead to changes in reading frame. The gene homology was 99%.

  17. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitanshu Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  18. Pentatrichomonas hominis: prevalence and molecular characterization in humans, dogs, and monkeys in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chao; Ying, Meng; Gong, Peng-Tao; Li, Jian-Hua; Yang, Ju; Li, He; Zhang, Xi-Chen

    2016-02-01

    Pentatrichomonas hominis is an anaerobic amitochondrial flagellated protist that primarily colonizes the large intestines of a number of species, including cats, dogs, nonhuman primates, and humans. The prevalence of this parasite in dogs, monkeys, and humans is, however, poorly understood. In this study, a total of 362 fecal samples including 252 dogs, 60 monkeys, and 50 humans from northern China were collected for an epidemiological survey of P. hominis infection.The average prevalence of P. hominis infection determined by nested PCR was 27.38% (69/252), 4.00% (2/50), and 46.67% (28/60) in dogs, humans, and monkeys, respectively. The prevalence was significantly higher in 6-month-old dogs (41.53%) and children (7.69%) than in older dogs (14.39%) and adults (0%) (P monkeys, and humans, especially in children and young dogs. Given the infection prevalence, P. hominis may pose a risk of zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission.

  19. Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana Co-Infection Resulting in Chronic Diarrhea in an Immunocompetent Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Mitanshu; Tan, Christopher Bryan; Rajan, Dhyan; Ahmed, Shadab; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Rizvon, Kaleem; Mustacchia, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis and Endolimax nana exist as two separate parasitic organisms; however co-infection with the two individual parasites has been well documented. Although often symptomatic in immunocompromised individuals, the pathogenicity of the organisms in immunocompetent subjects causing gastrointestinal symptoms has been debated, with studies revealing mixed results. Clinically, both B. hominis and E. nana infection may result in acute or chronic diarrhea, generalized abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, flatulence and anorexia. We report the case of a 24-year-old immunocompetent male presenting with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain secondary to B. hominis and E. nana treated with metronidazole, resulting in symptom resolution and eradication of the organisms. Our case illustrates that clinicians should be cognizant of both B. hominis and E. nana infection as a cause of chronic diarrhea in an immunocompetent host. Such awareness will aid in a timely diagnosis and possible parasitic eradication with resolution of gastrointestinal symptoms.

  20. Surface lipoproteome of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 and differential expression after contact with human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goret, Julien; Le Roy, Chloé; Touati, Arabella; Mesureur, Jennifer; Renaudin, Hélène; Claverol, Stéphane; Bébéar, Cécile; Béven, Laure; Pereyre, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    To assess the lipoproteins that are involved in the interaction between Mycoplasma hominis and human dendritic cells. The surface lipoproteome of M. hominis PG21 was characterized by using Triton X-114 extraction and LC-MS/MS identification. The transcriptional changes in lipoprotein genes upon contact with human dendritic cells were determined by using reverse transcription quantitative PCR after identification of reference genes suitable for normalization. A large-scale overexpression of lipoprotein genes was observed with 21 upregulated transcripts. Seven genes of unknown function were M. hominis species specific and six genes were putatively associated with increased nutrient capture from the host cell and adhesion. M. hominis regulates lipoprotein gene expression and may use species-specific mechanisms during the host colonization process.

  1. Sterols of Pneumocystis carinii hominis Organisms Isolated from Human Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneshiro, Edna S.; Amit, Zunika; Chandra, Jyotsna; Baughman, Robert P.; Contini, Carlo; Lundgren, Bettina

    1999-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pneumocystis carinii causes pneumonia (P. carinii pneumonia, or PCP) in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. Rat-derived P. carinii carinii organisms have distinct sterols which are not synthesized by mammals and not found in other microbes infecting mammalian lungs. The dominant sterol present in the organism is cholesterol (which is believed to be scavenged from the host), but other sterols in P. carinii carinii have an alkyl group at C-24 of the sterol side chain (C28 and C29 24-alkylsterols) and a double bond at C-7 of the nucleus. Recently, pneumocysterol (C32), which is essentially lanosterol with a C-24 ethylidene group, was detected in lipids extracted from a formalin-fixed human P. carinii-infected lung, and its structures were elucidated by gas-liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry in conjunction with analyses of chemically synthesized authentic standards. The sterol composition of isolated P. carinii hominis organisms has yet to be reported. If P. carinii from animal models is to be used for identifying potential drug targets and for developing chemotherapeutic approaches to clear human infections, it is important to determine whether the 24-alkylsterols of organisms found in rats are also present in organisms in humans. In the present study, sterol analyses of P. carinii hominis organisms isolated from cryopreserved human P. carinii-infected lungs and from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were performed. Several of the same distinct sterols (e.g., fungisterol and methylcholest-7-ene-3β-ol) previously identified in P. carinii carinii were also present in organisms isolated from human specimens. Pneumocysterol was detected in only some of the samples. PMID:10548595

  2. Stress exacerbates infectivity and pathogenicity of Blastocystis hominis: in vitro and in vivo evidences.

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    Samudi Chandramathi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress alters the oxidant-antioxidant state and immune cell responses which disrupts its function to combat infection. Blastocystis hominis, a common intestinal protozoan has been reported to be opportunistic in immunocompromised patients namely cancer. B. hominis infectivity in other altered immune system conditions especially stress is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate the stress effects towards the susceptibility and pathogenicity of B. hominis infection. METHODS/FINDINGS: Three-week-old Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (acontrol; (bstress-induced; (cB. hominis infected; (dstress-induced with B. hominis infection; (n = 20 respectively. Stress was induced for an hour daily (30 days using a Belly Dancer Shaker. Weight gain was monitored, stool samples were collected for B. hominis screening and blood for the determination of differential count, levels of immunoglobulin, oxidative damage, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation upon induction with solubilized antigen of B. hominis (Blasto-Ag. Group (b exhibited the highest level of weight gain. Group (d had higher levels of parasite cyst count in stools, serum IgE, oxidized protein and lipid compared to the group (c. Levels of monocyte and antioxidant in group (d were decreased and their PBMCs showed highest inhibition of proliferation level when exposed to Blasto-Ag. Monocyte level in Group (b showed insignificant difference compared to group (a but was significantly lower compared to group (c. Antioxidant levels in group (c were generally lower compared to group (a and (b. Inhibition level exhibited by Blasto-Ag treated PBMCs of group (c was higher compared to group (a and (b. CONCLUSION: The pathogenicity and augmentation of B. hominis infection is enhanced when stress is present. Lifestyles today are becoming increasingly stressed and the present findings suggest that the parasite which has been reported to be one of the most common organisms seen in

  3. Blastocystis hominis among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shazly, Atef M; Abdel-Magied, Aida A; El-Beshbishi, Samar N; El-Nahas, Hala A; Fouad, Mahmoud A H; Monib, Mohamed S M

    2005-08-01

    Blastocystis hominis is now getting acceptance as an agent of human intestinal disease. B. hominis in stool samples of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals was evaluated as a possible cause of gastro-intestinal troubles. B. hominis was found in 106 (10.1%) out of 1050 individuals examined from six villages and one city in Talkha Center, Dakahlia Governorate. The highest infection rate was in Manshayt El-Badawy village (25.47%), whereas Talkha City showed the lowest rate (4.73%). Age group 10-20 years had higher infection (13.3%). In twenty-three symptomatic patients, B. hominis represented the only causative parasitic agent. The most common symptoms were diarrhoea (30.4%), abdominal pain (26.1%), flatulence (21.7%). vomiting (13.1%) and fatigue (8.7%). High concentrations of B. hominis were found in symptomatic patients than in asymptomatic ones with statistical significant difference (8.2 cells/100 x field versus 3.8 respectively). The mean number of B. hominis was significantly high in patients complaining of diarrhoea and abdominal pain.

  4. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis sensitivity to bacteriocins produced by two Lactobacilli strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, M; Ruiz, F; Pascual, L; Barberis, L

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the inhibitory activities of two bacteriocins, produced by lactobacilli, against genital mycoplasmas. In this study, infections produced by genital mycoplasmas were studied; of these, 1.3% were caused by Mycoplasma hominis, 10.7% by Ureaplasma urealyticum and 5.6% by U. urealyticum + M. hominis. U. urealyticum was isolated from 75 out of 123 patients with genital mycoplasmas, while M. hominis was isolated from 9 patients (7.3%) and both U. urealyticum and M. hominis from 39 patients (31.7%). Bacteriocins, L23 and L60, produced by Lactobacillus fermentum and L. rhamnosus, respectively, appear to be two novel inhibitors of bacterial infection with potential antibacterial activity. Both bacteriocins proved to be active against 100% of strains tested; MICs of bacteriocin L23 ranged between 320 and 160 UA ml(-1) for 78% of the M. hominis strains and between 320 and 80 UA ml(-1) for 95% of the U. urealyticum strains. In addition, bacteriocin L60 was still active at 160 UA ml(-1) for a high percentage (56%) of M. hominis strains, and at 80 UA ml(-1) for 53% of the U. urealyticum strains. Interestingly, these antimicrobial substances produced by lactobacilli showed an inhibitory activity against genital mycoplasmas even when diluted. Altogether, our study indicates that the bacteriocins, L23 and L60, are good candidates for the treatment or prevention of genital infections in women.

  5. Cardiobacterium hominis Endocarditis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Andrew Walkty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report describes the clinical course of a patient who presented with Cardiobacterium hominis endocarditis. A review of the literature follows the case presentation. C hominis, a fastidious Gram-negative bacillus, is a member of the HACEK group of microorganisms (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, C hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella kingae. Endocarditis caused by C hominis is uncommon and generally follows a subacute course. Patients may present with constitutional symptoms, symptoms related to valvular destruction or symptoms secondary to embolic events. Diagnosis requires identification of the pathogen from blood or vegetation by either culture or molecular techniques. Blood cultures may require prolonged incubation, highlighting the importance of incubating blood cultures for at least two to three weeks in patients with suspected endocarditis. In the past, C hominis was generally sensitive to penicillin. However, reports of beta-lactamase-producing C hominis have appeared in the literature over the past decade. The current recommendation for first-line treatment is a third-generation cephalosporin (ceftriaxone for four weeks (six weeks if a prosthetic valve is in place.

  6. Removal of Cryptosporidium by wastewater treatment processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2016-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that infects humans and various animal species. The environmental stability and the low infectious dose of Cryptosporidium facilitate its transmission by water and food. Discharge of untreated wastewater may result in waterborne or foodborne Cryptosporidium outbreaks, therefore a suitable treatment may prevent its dissemination. Most studies on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have reported a concentration range between 10 and 200 oocysts/L and a prevalence of 6 to 100%. Activated sludge has been found to be ineffective for the removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands are efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from wastewater, especially when the retention time is longer than 20 days at suitable sunlight and temperature. High rate filtration and chlorine disinfection are inefficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium from effluents, whereas ultrafiltration and UV irradiation were found to be very efficient for the reduction of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Adequate tertiary treatment may result in high quality effluent with low risk of Cryptosporidium for unrestricted irrigation and other non-potable applications.

  7. Presencia de Blastocystis Hominis como agente causal de enfermedades gatrointestinales en la comuna 7 (Gaira) del Distrito de Santa Marta

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Liliana Lozano Socarras

    2013-01-01

    La Blastocystis hominis es un protozoo que causa cuadros diarreicos. Es altamente prevalente en poblaciones que no cuentan con servicios adecuados de higiene, alcantarillado y salud pública. La infección con Blastocystis hominis frecuentemente concomita con otros enteropatógenos de reconocida patogenicidad, además se ha reportado como parásito oportunista en pacientes con VIII SIDA. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la presencia de Blastocystis hominis en pacientes de consulta ex...

  8. Potential cryptosporidium surrogates and evaluation of compressible oocysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.Y.; Goodrich, J.A.; Owens, J.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Cryptosporidium has been recognized as an important waterborne agent of gastroenteritis and a biological contaminant in drinking water. The widespread presence of Cryptosporidium in surface source water and either untreated or insufficiently treated drinking water has led to Cryptosporidium outbreaks in the United States and worldwide. Among the conventional control practices, filtration and high temperature distillation appear to be the potentially viable technologies for protection against Cryptosporidium in drinking water. As employed in many water plants, filtration is likely to be the most practical treatment technology utilized for Cryptosporidium removal in the near future. Consequently, accurate and reliable methods for evaluation of Cryptosporidium removal rates for filtration-based systems are necessary to assist States in determining drinking water quality and complying with the up-coming national standard for Cryptosporidium in drinking water. Furthermore, searching for reliable and non-hazardous surrogates for evaluation of treatment plant efficiency has been intensified because of the potential health risk associated with Cryptosporidium. Additionally, during the filtration procedure Cryptosporidium may squeeze and fold through pores size of the filtration systems that are smaller than the diameter of the organism; a fraction of these Cryptosporidium oocysts may still remain a certain degree of viability. These uncertainties are critical for the evaluation and optimization of filtration-based physical treatment systems. The in-house research studies described below consist of two parts. One is a potential surrogate study using bag filtration systems at the US EPA Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, Ohio. The second is Cryptosporidium compressibility and viability investigation.

  9. Investigation of the blastocystis hominis frequency in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayram Pektaş

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AimIn this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between Blastocystis hominis infection and inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS. Methods: In this study, the frequency of B. hominis in the stool samples of 52 patients applied to Microbiology laboratory and pre-diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome in January 2013-June 2013 was investigated, retrospectively. Microscopic investigations were evaluated after macroscopic examination. For this purpose, the stool samples of the diarrheal cases were investigated by trichrome staining after they were prepared by native-lugol and formol ethyl acetate concentration method. The results were compared with the examination of 2160 stool samples sent to our laboratory during the same period. Results: Stool samples of 52 patients pre-diagnosed with IBS were accepted to our laboratory in January 2013-June 2013. 13 of the patients were found as B. hominis positive. Weight loss and anorexia was identified only in one patient while abdominal pain, diarrhea and gas complaints were identified in all of the IBH and B. hominis positive patients. During the same period, parasites were detected in 96 (4.4% of 2160 stool samples sent to our laboratory and the most common was B. hominis 48 (2.2%. 452 of these patients applied with diarrhea symptoms and B. hominis was detected in 36 samples (7.96%. Conclusion: The limited studies investigating the presence of B. hominis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome are far from illuminating the role of this agent in disease pathogenesis. We believe that further investigations should be performed. In this study, 25% of the patients were found as positive. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 242-245

  10. Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates

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    Meng Dong-Ya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX, intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX and Sparfloxacin (SFX, and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

  11. Molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Dong-Ya; Sun, Chang-Jian; Yu, Jing-Bo; Ma, Jun; Xue, Wen-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolones resistance in Mycoplasma hominis (MH) clinical strains isolated from urogenital specimens. 15 MH clinical isolates with different phenotypes of resistance to fluoroquinolones antibiotics were screened for mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) and topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) in comparison with the reference strain PG21, which is susceptible to fluoroquinolones antibiotics. 15 MH isolates with three kinds of quinolone resistance phenotypes were obtained. Thirteen out of these quinolone-resistant isolates were found to carry nucleotide substitutions in either gyrA or parC. There were no alterations in gyrB and no mutations were found in the isolates with a phenotype of resistance to Ofloxacin (OFX), intermediate resistant to Levofloxacin (LVX) and Sparfloxacin (SFX), and those susceptible to all three tested antibiotics. The molecular mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical isolates of MH was reported in this study. The single amino acid mutation in ParC of MH may relate to the resistance to OFX and LVX and the high-level resistance to fluoroquinolones for MH is likely associated with mutations in both DNA gyrase and the ParC subunit of topoisomerase IV.

  12. Myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis: countries with increased risk for travelers going to neotropic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Guiehdani; Vega-Memije, Maria Elisa; Maravilla, Pablo; Martinez-Hernandez, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    Here, we review the human botfly (Dermatobia hominis), which belongs to a group of Diptera generically known as "myiasis-causing flies," characterized by the ability of their larvae to develop in animal flesh. In addition to its medical and economic importance, there is an academic interest in this botfly because of its peculiar biology, particularly because a phoretic diptera is needed to complete the life cycle. The larvae penetrate the host's skin, causing furuncle-like lesions that are pruritic, painful, and resemble subcutaneous nodules, producing irreversible perforations in the skin. Although D. hominis is distributed from Mexico to Argentina, a review performed by our working group from 1999 to 2015 determined that the countries with the highest infection rates in travelers are Belize, Bolivia, and Brazil. Interestingly, infected men show a higher variation in the distribution of the lesions than in women. Many treatment schemes have been suggested, including the application of highly dense liquids to the lesion to cause anoxia in the D. hominis larvae. We showed, for the first time, a Bayesian inference between D. hominis and other myiasis-causing flies. The flies grouped into two main clusters according to their capacity to produce facultative and obligatory myiasis, and D. hominis was phylogenetically close to Cuterebra spp. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. [Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Ixora; Hernández, Yessica; Ramsay, Mario; Salazar, Carmen; Devera, Rodolfo

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela) in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%), 107 (25.78%) of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05), but there was a significant difference between ages (chi(2) = 12.17; g.l. = 4), with infection more frequent between 18 and 27 years. In 71.02% of the cases, B. hominis was the only parasite. Giardia lamblia was the parasite most frequently associated with B. hominis (2.41%). In the majority (85%) of infected individuals, less than five microorganisms per microscopic field were observed. We conclude that B. hominis is a frequent intestinal parasite among food handlers in Caroní Municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela.

  14. The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and other protozoan parasites in soldiers returning from peacekeeping missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Blastocystis hominis is a common intestinal parasite found in humans living in poor sanitary conditions, living in tropical and subtropical climates, exposed to infected animals, or consuming contaminated food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of B. hominis in Polish military personnel returning from peacekeeping missions in Iraq and Afghanistan. In total, 1,826 stool samples were examined. Gastrointestinal parasites were detected in 17% of the soldiers. The examined stool samples most frequently contained vacuolar forms of B. hominis (15.3%) and cysts of Entamoeba coli (1.0%) or Giardia lamblia (0.7%). In 97.1% of stool samples from infected soldiers, we observed less than five developmental forms of B. hominis in the field of view (40×). The parasite infections in soldiers were diagnosed in the autumn and the spring. There was no statistical correlation between age and B. hominis infection. Our results show that peacekeeping missions in countries with tropical or subtropical climates could be associated with risk for parasitic diseases, including blastocystosis.

  15. Blastocystis hominis infection in a post-cardiotomy patient on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsuan Chen

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: This is the first published article showing that the opportunistic pathogen, B. hominis, can cause severe infection in patients on ECMO support, a result that should be kept in mind when patients come from a place with a high prevalence of B. hominis. The prophylactic medication should be administered routinely when patients live in the region and extracorporeal life-support is used.

  16. The infection of Mycoplasma hominis after total knee replacement: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jiu Qiu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mycoplasma hominis infection is a rare postoperative complication after joint replacement. Based on our knowledge, there were only two cases reported by Korea all over the world currently. A case of postoperative Mycoplasma hominis infection after total knee replacement in our hospital was reported in this article. It was confirmed through mass spectrometer and Mycoplasma cultivation and treated by the first stage debridement, polyethylene insert replacement, and then drainage and irrigation combined with sensitive antibiotics after the operation. We observed that the C reactive protein (CRP level correlates with the development of disease, while the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR remains at a high level, indicating the relevance between the Mycoplasma hominis infection caused by knee joint replacement and CRP. This study aims to report the case and review relevant literature.

  17. Eradication of Blastocystis hominis prevents the development of symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajič, Borko; Arapović, Jurica; Raguž, Kazimir; Bošković, Mladen; Babić, Senaida Marina; Maslać, Suzana

    2015-07-30

    In this case report we describe a 49 year-old man who presented with chronic urticaria, angioedema and soft stool consistency. During diagnostic examinations Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found even though the patient never had clear symptoms of this disease. Blastocystis hominis was isolated through a stool microbiologic examination, implicating that this parasite can cause the development of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria. After two-weeks treatment with metronidazole the Blastocystis hominis was eradicated, then urticaria and angioedema disappeared. During the four years of follow-up, the patient presented without any symptoms, whereas thyroid hormones were normalized and anti-thyroid antibodies declined. For the first time in the literature we show that eradication of Blastocystis hominis can prevent the development of both symptomatic Hashimoto's thyroiditis and chronic urticaria.

  18. Cloning, sequencing and variability analysis of the gap gene from Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Tina; Jacobsen, Iben Søgaard; Melkova, Renata

    2000-01-01

    The gap gene encodes the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The gene was cloned and sequenced from the Mycoplasma hominis type strain PG21(T). The intraspecies variability was investigated by inspection of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns...... after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the gap gene from 15 strains and furthermore by sequencing of part of the gene in eight strains. The M. hominis gap gene was found to vary more than the Escherichia coli counterpart, but the variation at nucleotide level gave rise to only a few...... to a 104-kDa band in addition to the expected 36-kDa band. The protein reacting at 104 kDa is a M. hominis protein with either an epitope similar to one on GAPDH, or it is an immunoglobulin binding protein...

  19. Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins isolated from human skin implicates metabolic versatility and several virulence determinants

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    Shelby Calkins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus hominis is a predominant member of the human skin microbiome. We here report on the genomic analysis of Staphylococcus hominis strain Hudgins that was isolated from the wrist area of human skin. The partial genome assembly of S. hominis Hudgins consists of 2,211,863 bp of DNA with 2174 protein-coding genes and 90 RNA genes. Based on the genomic analysis of KEGG pathways, the organism is expected to be a versatile heterotroph potentially capable of hydrolyzing the sugars glucose, fructose, mannose, and the amino acids alanine, aspartate, glutamate, glycine, threonine, cysteine, methionine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, arginine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan for energy production through aerobic respiration, with occasional lactate and acetate fermentation. Evidence for poly-gamma glutamate capsule and type IV Com system pili were identified in the genome. Based on COG analysis, the genome of S. hominis Hudgins clusters away from the previously published S. hominis genome ZBW5.

  20. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in patients with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulżyc-Bielicka, Violetta; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Jaczewska, Sylwia; Bielicki, Dariusz; Kładny, Józef; Safranow, Krzysztof

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic protozoans of the Cryptosporidium genus are intracellular intestinal parasites of mammals, causing cryptosporidiosis. Clinically, cryptosporidiosis manifests as chronic diarrhoea. Individuals with immune disorders, including those with neoplasms, are at risk of symptomatic invasion. Was the evaluation of Cryptosporidium sp. prevalence in patients with diagnosed colorectal cancer. The studied group encompassed 87 patients with diagnosed colorectal cancer, undergoing surgery at the Department of General and Oncological Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University, in the years 2009-2010. Immunoenzymatic tests for Cryptosporidium sp. on faeces samples were performed with the use of commercial test kit, ProSpecT(®)Cryptosporidium Microplate Assay (Remel Inc). The presence of Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 12.6% of studied patients with colorectal cancer. The performed statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between Cryptosporidium sp. infection and gender, age, neoplasm advancement stage as per Astler-Coller scale, neoplasm differentiation grade, or neoplastic tumour localisation in relation to the splenic flexure. There was found high prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in patients with colorectal cancer. It was comparable to the prevalence reported for patients with immune deficiency.

  1. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius. PMID:27658593

  2. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; Sanyathitiseree, Pornchai; Inpankaew, Tawin; Kamyingkird, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-08-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropeltis getula), rock python (Python sebae), rainbow boa (Epicrates cenchria), and carpet python (Morelia spilota). Cryptosporidium oocysts were examined using the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-modified acid-fast staining and a molecular method based on nested-PCR, PCR-RFLP analysis, and sequencing amplification of the SSU rRNA gene. DMSO-modified acid-fast staining revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in 12 out of 165 (7.3%) samples, whereas PCR produced positive results in 40 (24.2%) samples. Molecular characterization indicated the presence of Cryptosporidium parvum (mouse genotype) as the most common species in 24 samples (60%) from 5 species of snake followed by Cryptosporidium serpentis in 9 samples (22.5%) from 2 species of snake and Cryptosporidium muris in 3 samples (7.5%) from P. regius.

  3. Late prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Cardiobacterium hominis, an unusual complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakasha S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by Cardiobacterium hominis in a patient who had undergone atrial septal defect closure and mitral valve replacement of the heart in 1978. He presented with pyrexia of unknown origin and congestive cardiac failure. Investigations revealed infective endocarditis of prosthetic valve in mitral portion. Blood culture samples grew C. hominis . The patient was empirically started on vancomycin and gentamicin intravenously and ceftriaxone was added after isolation of the organism. Though subsequent blood cultures were negative, patient remained in congestive cardiac failure and died due to complications.

  4. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis among Danish patients requesting abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Hvid, Malene; Lamy, P;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine lower genital tract carriage rate of Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) and to compare it to the carriage rates of Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis ) and Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) among 102 women requesting termination of pregnancy at the Horsens...... Hospital in Denmark. Real-Time PCR was used for the detection of bacterial DNA, and the presence of antibodies to the three microorganisms was determined by ELISA and immunoblotting. Real-Time PCR detected M. genitalium in one swab sample (0.98%) only, while the prevalence of C. trachomatis was high (15...

  5. Comparison of commercially available media for detection and isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.

    OpenAIRE

    Broitman, N L; Floyd, C M; Johnson, C. A.; de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M

    1992-01-01

    The Mycotrim Triphasic flask system (Irvine Scientific, Irvine, Calif.) was compared with a system composed of Mycotrim GU broth (Irvine Scientific) and A7 or A8 agar (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) for the ability to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from 129 genital specimens. Of the 64 specimens positive for U. urealyticum, 25, 98, and 100% were detected on Mycotrim Triphasic agar and A7 and A8 agars, respectively. All 18 specimens that grew M. hominis were detected by A7 and A8 ...

  6. Cryptosporidium varanii infection in leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dellarupe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is observed in reptiles with high morbidity and considerable mortality. The objective of this study was to achieve the molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in pet leopard geckos (Eublepharis macularius from a breeder colony in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Oocysts comparable to those of Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in three geckos with a history of diarrhea, anorexia and cachexia. Molecular identification methods confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum. This agent was considered to be the primary cause of the observed clinical disease. This is the first description of C. varanii infection in pet reptiles in Argentina.

  7. Effects of drinking-water filtration on Cryptosporidium seroepidemiology, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Colin N; Wagner, Adam P; Robertson, Chris; Smith, Huw V; Pollock, Kevin G J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous exposure to low levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts is associated with production of protective antibodies. We investigated prevalence of antibodies against the 27-kDa Cryptosporidium oocyst antigen among blood donors in 2 areas of Scotland supplied by drinking water from different sources with different filtration standards: Glasgow (not filtered) and Dundee (filtered). During 2006-2009, seroprevalence and risk factor data were collected; this period includes 2007, when enhanced filtration was introduced to the Glasgow supply. A serologic response to the 27-kDa antigen was found for ≈75% of donors in the 2 cohorts combined. Mixed regression modeling indicated a 32% step-change reduction in seroprevalence of antibodies against Cryptosporidium among persons in the Glasgow area, which was associated with introduction of enhanced filtration treatment. Removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water reduces the risk for waterborne exposure, sporadic infections, and outbreaks. Paradoxically, however, oocyst removal might lower immunity and increase the risk for infection from other sources.

  8. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiriadou Isaia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  9. Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in environmental soil and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Semie; Kim, Kyungjin; Yoon, Sejoung; Park, Woo-Yoon; Sim, Seobo; Yu, Jae-Ran

    2014-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidial enteritis. Numerous outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been reported worldwide. Cryptosporidium is transmitted to hosts via consumption of contaminated water and food but also by direct contact with contaminated soil or infected hosts. The present study investigated farm soil collected from 34 locations along the western Korean peninsula and 24 vegetables purchased from local grocery markets in Seoul. The soil and vegetable samples were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to estimate the risk of infection. Eleven of 34 locations (32.4%) and 3 of 24 vegetable samples (12.5%) were contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum, as confirmed by TaqI enzyme digestion of qPCR products and DNA sequencing. It is suggested that Cryptosporidium infection can be mediated via farm soil and vegetables. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce contamination of this organism in view of public health.

  10. Molecular identification of Giardia and Cryptosporidium from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriadou, Isaia; Pantchev, Nikola; Gassmann, Doreen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to diagnose the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in household animals using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis. One hundred faecal samples obtained from 81 dogs and 19 cats were investigated. The Cryptosporidium genotypes were determined by sequencing a fragment of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, while the Giardia Assemblages were determined through analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) locus. Isolates from five dogs and two cats were positive by PCR for the presence of Giardia, and their sequences matched the zoonotic Assemblage A of Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from one dog and one cat were both found to be C. parvum. One dog isolate harboured a mixed infection of C. parvum and Giardia Assemblage A. These findings support the growing evidence that household animals are potential reservoirs of the zoonotic pathogens Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. for infections in humans.

  11. Clinical and subclinical infections with Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are frequent parasites of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife, raising questions about the clinical significance of such infections. Infections with both parasites have a wide spectrum of symptoms that can vary between asymptomatic infections to serious infection ...

  12. Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in Ogun state, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-06-30

    Jun 30, 2014 ... different studies to identify Cryptosporidium spp. (Kaur et al., 2002; Mahdi .... Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, .... Empty rectum and caudal abdominal pain with crepitating .... 1.pdf, retrieved 25-05-2012. Anonymous ...

  13. METHODS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SP. AND GIARDIA SP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    There have been several waterborne outbreaks of giardiasis caused by infection with Giardia lamblia, and cryptosporidiosis, caused by infection with Cryptosporidium parvum. These outbreaks have created a need to detect these organisms in source and finished drinking water. The pr...

  14. Heterogeneity of Mycoplasma hominis as detected by a probe for atp genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C; Christiansen, Gunna; Rasmussen, OF

    1987-01-01

    Use of a plasmid containing part of the atp operon of Mycoplasma PG50 as a probe in Southern blots show that this region can be used to detect the presence of Mycoplasma species in general. DNA from 14 different strains of M. hominis was analyzed for restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP...

  15. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: "I've got you under my skin".

    OpenAIRE

    MacNamara, A; Durham, S

    1997-01-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described.

  16. Dermatobia hominis in the accident and emergency department: "I've got you under my skin".

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, A; Durham, S

    1997-05-01

    An unusual form of larval infestation from South America is presented which, in view of increasing tourism to South america's tropical areas, may present to any accident and emergency department. Infestation with Dermatobia hominis is reviewed in terms of clinical recognition and life cycle. Techniques of removal are described.

  17. The Effects of the Hominis Placenta Herbal acupuncture on Sleep pattern disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Hyoun-min

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study has been designed and performed to identify the effects of Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture which is usually used in reducing sleep pattern disturbances. Methods : The study subjects studied included 48 patients who were admitted in hospital located in Pusan, and they were classified into 2 groups : 25 patients in the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture and 23 patients in the control group who were treated by acupuncture. The both group injected on GB20, GB12 and HT7 for 5 days without medicine. The sleep pattern disturbance score was measured by using 15 questions according to Korean Sleep Scale A(Oh, Jin Joo. Song, Mi Soon. Kim, Shin Mi. 1998. Results & conclusions : The sleep pattern disturbance score of the experimental group who injected Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture was significantly lower than that of the control group. (t= 7.00 p= .00 These results provided that Hominis Placenta herbal acupuncture of GB20, GB12 and HT7 was effective for relieving sleep pattern disturbances, it is need more sample's number and more treatmentt's duration.

  18. Charcterization of Type Ⅱ Topoisomerase Gene Mutations in Clinical Isolates of Mycoplasma Hominis Resistant to Fluoroquinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴移谋; 张文波; 姚艳冰

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze type Ⅱ topoisomerase genes inclinical isolates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Mycoplasmahominis. Methods: Eight isolates of M.hominis cross resistant to 6fluoroquinolones were selected from 103 clinical strains ofM.hominis using a broth microdilution method. Type IItopoisomerase genes were amplified by PCR and directlysequenced. Nucleotide sequences were compared to sequencesfrom a susceptible strain (M.hominis PG2I). Results: MICs of resistant Mh isolates were 4- to 512-fold higher than MICs from the susceptible reference strain.Sequence comparison revealed a C to T change at 113nt ingyrA QRDR led to the substitution of Ser83 by Leucine and noamino acid change in gyrB. A change of G to T at 134nt inparC QRDR led to the substitution of Ser80 by Isoleucine anda G to A change at 70nt in parE QRDR led to the substitutionof Aspartic acid by Asparagine. Conclusion: These results suggest that a C to T change atll3nt in gyrA, a G to T change at 134nt in parC and a G to Achange at 70nt in patrE are associated with fluoroquinoloneresistance of M.hominis.

  19. A case of cutaneous myiasis due to Dermatobia hominis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamori, Katsushi; Katayama, Toshiko; Kumagai, Masahiro

    2007-08-01

    We report the 34th imported case of cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis in Japan, which is not a habitat of the fly. A 41-year-old Japanese man noticed an insect-sting-like papule on his left upper back during his stay in Ecuador in March 2004. After his return home, the lesion gradually increased to become a red subcutaneous nodule with a central pore from which serosanguineous fluid drained. Because antimicrobial treatment under a diagnosis of inflammatory atheroma was ineffective, the lesion was incised and a 3rd instar larva of D. hominis was then found and removed. We checked the literature on D. hominis myiasis reported from Japan, and noted the fact, which nobody had previously pointed out, that in Japan only one case of D. hominis myiasis had been diagnosed correctly before a larva was found, and most of the cases were misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated, including 11 cases given unnecessary resection of the nodules. Doctors in Japan should be aware of myiasis so that patients are neither anxious about the disease nor suffer pain, and doctors avoid performing unnecessary resections of the lesions.

  20. Development of Cultivation Technology for the Escherichia coli Recombinant Strain Producing Argininedeiminase of Mycoplasma hominis

    OpenAIRE

    Fayura, L R; Boretsky, Yu.R.; Pynyaha, Yu.V.; Martynyuk, N.B.; Skorohod, V.V.; Sybyrny, А.А.

    2014-01-01

    The recombinant Escherichia coli strain producing arginine deiminase of Mycoplasma hominis has been constructed. Storage conditions that provide stabilization of most productive clones of the producer were found. Terms for cultivation of the arginine deiminase producer using bioreactors of different volume were optimized. Highly purified samples of arginine deiminase were obtained and their longterm storage conditions were selected.

  1. Development of Cultivation Technology for the Escherichia coli Recombinant Strain Producing Argininedeiminase of Mycoplasma hominis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayura, L.R.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant Escherichia coli strain producing arginine deiminase of Mycoplasma hominis has been constructed. Storage conditions that provide stabilization of most productive clones of the producer were found. Terms for cultivation of the arginine deiminase producer using bioreactors of different volume were optimized. Highly purified samples of arginine deiminase were obtained and their longterm storage conditions were selected.

  2. Hydrophobic and electrostatic cell surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, C; Schwartzbrod, J

    1996-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons and microelectrophoresis were investigated in order to characterize the surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts exhibited low removal rates by octane (only 20% on average), suggesting that the Cryptosporidium sp. does not demonstrate marked hydrophobic properties. A zeta potential close to -25 mV at pH 6 to 6.5 in deionized water was observed for the parasite. Measurements of hydrophobicity and zeta potential were performed as a function of pH ...

  3. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins from Mycoplasma hominis strains detected by SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1987-01-01

    The proteins of 14 strains of Mycoplasma hominis were compared by SDS-PAGE in gradient gels, by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis of extracts of 35S-labelled cells and by immunoblot analysis of cell proteins. The strains examined included the M. hominis type strain PG21 and 13 others...... isolated variously from genital tract, mouth, blood, upper urinary tract and a wound. These 14 strains shared 76-99% of proteins in SDS-gradient gel analysis and 41-72% in the 2D gels. As expected, the immunoblot analysis likewise revealed the existence of an extensive common protein pattern in M. hominis...

  4. Study on Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Mostoophi, A; Shemshadi, B

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, an increase in the number of cases of food-borne illnesses linked to fresh vegetables has been reported. One of the causative agents of these infections is Cryptosporidium and it appears that one route of transmission to humans is food-borne, so fruits and vegetables have important roles. The goal of this study was to determine the level of Cryptosporidium contamination in vegetable farms around Tehran, Iran. A total of 496 samples from 115 vegetable farms in different regions around Tehran (Capital city of Iran) were collected and different types of vegetables were investigated for the parasite in June and July, 2012. A sediment concentration method followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen's acid-fast staining was used to determine the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Our findings revealed that 6.6% of studied samples were contaminated with Cryptosporidium species. The highest rate of contamination was reported in Bagher Abad (South of Tehran) (11.1%), and green onions were more commonly contaminated (14.8%) than any other vegetables tested. Furthermore, when waste water was used to irrigate vegetable farms, the contamination rate was (33.3%). Statistical analysis showed a correlation between contamination with Cryptosporidium spp. and studied risk factors including: different regions around Tehran, type of vegetables, and type of water used for farm irrigation. Therefore, vegetables may provide a route by which Cryptosporidium can be transmitted to humans, and control strategies should be considered.

  5. Co-infection by Tritrichomonas foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in asymptomatic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Spitz dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tritrichomonas foetus, a parasite well known for its significance as a venereally transmitted pathogen in cattle, has been identified as a cause of chronic large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats in many countries of the world. In Brazil, several studies on the diagnosis of bovine trichomoniasis have been performed, but until now, no study was made regarding feline trichomoniasis. Thus, this is the first study to report the occurrence of T. foetus and Pentatrichomonas hominis in cats using morphological and molecular analysis. Feces from 77 cats were examined, four of which (5.2% were positive for the presence of parabasalids. Morphological analysis of stained smears revealed piriform trophozoites showing the three anterior flagella, elongated nucleus and axostyle ending abruptly in fillet, characteristic of T. foetus. In scanning and transmission electron microscopy, identification characters similar to those previously reported for T. foetus were observed. The cultures containing trophozoites were submitted for molecular analysis, which resulted positive for T. foetus DNA using specific primers (TFR3 and TFR4, and all samples were positive and subjected to sequencing in which they showed 99.7-100% similarity with another isolate sequencing of T. foetus (JX960422. Although no trophozoite with consistent morphology of P. hominis has been visualized in the samples, differential diagnosis was performed using specific primers for P. hominis (TH3 and TH5 amplicon. In three of the four samples (3.89% sequencing revealed 100% similarity when compared with another sequence of P. hominis deposited in Genbank (KC623939. Therefore, the present study revealed through the diagnostic techniques employed the simultaneous infection by T. foetus and P. hominis in the feces of cats. However, it was necessary to use more than one technique for the diagnosis of the co-infection. These results demonstrate the importance of a correct diagnosis to allow an

  6. Ureaplasma Urealyticum or Mycoplasma Hominis Infections and Semen Quality of Infertile Men in Abidjan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zinzendorf NY; Kouassi-Agbessi BT; Lathro JS; Don C; Kouadio L; Loukou YG

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of U.urealvticum and M.hominis in semen samples collected from men admitted in clinic for infertility,and to compare the quality of these semen samples.Methods A total of 1058 semen samples collected were investigated.Sperm semiological assays were performed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organisation(WHO).Semen were examined by Mycoplasma IST for the detection of mycoplasma.Semen culture on agar media was used to detect other microorganisms.Chlamydia was detected using direct fluorescent assay(DFA)of Clamydia Trachomatis.Results Among 1058 semen samples,microorganisms were detected in 638(60.3%).The infected sperms consisted of mycoplasma alone in 507 cases(47.9%).mycoplasma and other microorganisms in 98(9.3%),giving in all 605(57.2%)samples infected with mycoplasma.The last 33(3.1%)consisted of other microorganisms alone.The frequency of U.urealyticum.M.hominis and mixed genital infections detected in semen samples of infertile men were 39%,23.8% and 5.6%,respectively.The rates of abnormal semen parameters recorded among patients infected with mycoplasma were for volume(22.2%-25%),viscosity(29.6%-43.5%),pH(64.7%-72.9%),motility(80.8%-93.8%),morphology(36.3%-47.9%),sperm concentration(53.3%-58.3%)and leukocyte count(51.4%-58.3%).Conclusion Frequency of U.urealyticum infection was higher than that of M.hominis.Mycoplasma infections were associated with disorders of pH,motility and sperm concentration.In addition M.hominis infection affected spermatozoa morphology.Therefore,screening of U.urealyticum and M.hominis for routine semen analysis is clinically relevant in Abidjan.

  7. Parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em Coendou villosus Parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in Coendou villosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fabio Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o possível parasitismo por Giardia sp. e Cryptosporidium sp. em amostras de fezes de ouriço-cacheiro (Coendou villosus. As amostras foram analisadas pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco e apresentaram elevada infecção por cistos de Giardia sp. e por oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp., embora os animais não apresentassem sinal clínico decorrente disso.This research was aimed at verifing the possible parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in porcupine (Coendou villosus faeces samples. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulphate and showed high infection by cysts of Giardia sp. and by oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp., although the animals did not show any associated clinical sign.

  8. EVALUATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, thepathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, andnational concern. Both organisms have been the causative agent of many gastrointestinalilln...

  9. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human.

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from beef calves under one month of age over three successive years in one herd in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Anaïs; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2014-05-28

    Cohorts of pre-weaned calves were studied for Cryptosporidium infection over three successive years (2010-2012) in one beef cattle herd in western France. Each year 25-34 calves were sampled weekly from 3 days to one month of age in order to characterize oocyst output, Cryptosporidium species and clinical features associated with infection. Faecal samples were screened for the presence of oocysts using immunofluorescence analysis. DNA was extracted from positive samples and a PCR SSU rRNA followed by RFLP or sequencing was performed. For the subtyping of C. parvum, a gp60 PCR was carried out. Regardless of the year, 92-100% of the animals excreted oocysts on at least one sampling date. Depending on the year of observation, the age of highest prevalence varied. In contrast, the peak of excretion was systematically observed almost at the same age (2nd-3rd week of life) with excretion levels ranging from between 100 and 1.7 × 10(7)oocysts/g of faeces. Differences concerning clinical signs depending on the year of sampling were observed. Different species patterns were observed, with a predominance of C. bovis in the 1st year and a predominance of C. parvum in the last year. Moreover, two zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1, were recorded in different years. This study shows that, in a given farm, the Cryptosporidium species and C. parvum subtypes identified as well as the prevalence of infection and level of excretion may vary greatly and show distinct patterns according to the year. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Subtyping Stuttering II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Carol Hubbard; Watkins, Ruth V.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Shigeto, Aya

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two articles exploring subtypes of stuttering, and it addresses the question of whether and how language ability and temperament variables may be relevant to the study of subtypes within the larger population of children who stutter. Despite observations of varied profiles among young children who stutter, efforts to identify and characterize subtypes of stuttering have had limited influence on theoretical or clinical understanding of the disorder. This manuscript briefly highlights research on language and temperament in young children who stutter, and considers whether the results can provide guidance for efforts to more effectively investigate and elucidate subtypes in childhood stuttering. Issues from the literature that appear relevant to research on stuttering subtypes include: (a) the question of whether stuttering is best characterized as categorical or continuous; (b) interpretation of individual differences in skills and profiles; and (c) the fact that, during the preschool years, the interaction among domains such as language and temperament are changing very rapidly, resulting in large differences in developmental profiles within relatively brief chronological age periods. PMID:17825669

  12. [Comparative immunoelectrophoretic studies of total water-soluble extracts of Trichomonas vaginalis, T. tenax and T. hominis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkova, A; Komandarev, S; Mihov, L; Andreeva, N; Isev, V

    1987-05-01

    An antigen characterization was carried out by the method of two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, and on this basis the antigen community and the antigenic differences between the 3 Trichomonas species parasitic in man were investigated. In the homologous antigen-antibody-systems a maximum number of precipitation curves is formed--21 in T. vaginalis and 20 each in T. tenax and T. hominis. According to our setting of the experiment T. vaginalis has 5 specific antigens in regard to T. tenax and 3 in regard to T. hominis. T. tenax has 2 specific antigens in regard to T. vaginalis and 7 in regard to T. hominis, T. hominis has 2 specific antigens in regard to T. vaginalis and 3 in regard to T. tenax. The presence of antigenic differences is important for the immunological characterization of the 3 species and demonstrates their validity.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21T. Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Strain Sprott (ATCC 33131), Isolated from a Patient with Nongonococcal Urethritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-07-09

    Presented here is the complete and annotated genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis Sprott (ATCC 33131). The chromosome comprises 695,214 bp, which is approximately 30 kb larger than the syntenic genome of M. hominis PG21(T). Tetracycline resistance of strain Sprott is most probably conferred by the tetM determinant, harbored on a mosaic transposon-like structure.

  15. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recycled waters used for irrigation and first description of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. muris in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Biba, Anastasia; Mavridou, Athena; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-05-01

    Here, we present the first time findings regarding the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in sewage waters and the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species in Greece. Biological treatment plants from three regions in Greece have been investigated. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts was by modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast (MZN-AF) and by immunofluorescence microscopy (IFT) for Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts, whereas nested PCR based on the SSU rDNA assay was used for molecular detection of Cryptosporidium followed by sequencing for the genetic characterization of the species. In total, 73 samples (37 raw sewage samples and 38 of treated water samples) were collected and analyzed. Of the 73 water samples, 4 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by IFT and staining, 12 samples were Cryptosporidium-positive by nested PCR; 9 samples were Giardia-positive by IFT. We showed that Cryptosporidium cysts are found both in the input and the discharge of the biological treatment plants. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium based on the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene resulted in the determination of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium muris Greek isolates. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium and Giardia occurrence in wastewaters and the first molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Greek environments. As the treated water is used for irrigation, or it is discharged into the sea, our findings indicate that biological treatment facilities constitute a possible risk for public health because the related species are prevalent in humans; the results invite for further epidemiological investigations to evaluate the real public health risk in Greece.

  16. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P.; Fiori, Pier L.

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host. PMID:27379081

  17. Symbiotic Association with Mycoplasma hominis Can Influence Growth Rate, ATP Production, Cytolysis and Inflammatory Response of Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarita, Valentina; Rappelli, Paola; Dessì, Daniele; Pintus, Gianfranco; Hirt, Robert P; Fiori, Pier L

    2016-01-01

    The symbiosis between the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and the opportunistic bacterium Mycoplasma hominis is the only one currently described involving two obligate human mucosal symbionts with pathogenic capabilities that can cause independent diseases in the same anatomical site: the lower urogenital tract. Although several aspects of this intriguing microbial partnership have been investigated, many questions on the influence of this symbiosis on the parasite pathobiology still remain unanswered. Here, we examined with in vitro cultures how M. hominis could influence the pathobiology of T. vaginalis by investigating the influence of M. hominis on parasite replication rate, haemolytic activity and ATP production. By comparing isogenic mycoplasma-free T. vaginalis and parasites stably associated with M. hominis we could demonstrate that the latter show a higher replication rate, increased haemolytic activity and are able to produce larger amounts of ATP. In addition, we demonstrated in a T. vaginalis-macrophage co-culture system that M. hominis could modulate an aspect of the innate immuno-response to T. vaginalis infections by influencing the production of nitric oxide (NO) by human macrophages, with the parasite-bacteria symbiosis outcompeting the human cells for the key substrate arginine. These results support a model in which the symbiosis between T. vaginalis and M. hominis influences host-microbes interactions to the benefit of both microbial partners during infections and to the detriment of their host.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2017-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis is an active research area in China. The use of genotyping and subtyping tools in prevalence studies has led to the identification of unique characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals. Human cryptosporidiosis in China is exemplified by the high diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. at species and subtype levels, with dominant C. hominis and C. parvum subtypes being rarely detected in other countries. Similarly, preweaned dairy calves, lambs, and goat kids are mostly infected with non-pathogenic Cryptosporidium species (C. bovis in calves and C. xiaoi in lambs and goat kids), with C. parvum starting to appear in dairy calves as a consequence of concentrated animal feeding operations. The latter Cryptosporidium species is dominated by IId subtypes, with IIa subtypes largely absent from the country. Unlike elsewhere, rodents in China appear to be commonly infected with C. parvum IId subtypes, with identical subtypes being found in these animals, calves, other livestock, and humans. In addition to cattle, pigs and chickens appear to be significant contributors to Cryptosporidium contamination in drinking water sources, as reflected by the frequent detection of C. suis, C. baileyi, and C. meleagridis in water samples. Chinese scientists have also made significant contributions to the development of new molecular epidemiological tools for Cryptosporidium spp. and improvements in our understanding of the mechanism involved in the emergence of hyper-transmissible and virulent C. hominis and C. parvum subtypes. Despite this progress, coordinated research efforts should be made to address changes in Cryptosporidium transmission because of rapid economic development in China and to prevent the introduction and spread of virulent and zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in farm animals. PMID:28932217

  19. Cryptosporidium infections in Denmark, 2010-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stensvold, Christen Rune; Ethelberg, Steen; Hansen, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cryptosporidiosis in Denmark is unknown. Here, we present the number of cases detected in the 2010-2014 period along with data on species and subtypes. METHODS: Complete national data retrieved from the Danish Microbiology Database and Statens Serum Institut (SSI......) comprised test results on cryptosporidia detected by microscopy or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between 1 January 2010 and 30 April 2014. Samples that tested positive at the SSI were submitted to species and subtype analysis by conventional PCR and sequencing of ribosomal and gp60 genes, respectively...

  20. Interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the Intestinal Ecosystem

    KAUST Repository

    Douvropoulou, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an apicomplexan protozoan parasite commonly causing diarrhea, particularly in infants in developing countries. The research challenges faced in the development of therapies against Cryptosporidium slow down the process of drug discovery. However, advancement of knowledge towards the interactions of the intestinal ecosystem and the parasite could provide alternative approaches to tackle the disease. Under this perspective, the primary focus of this work was to study interactions between Cryptosporidium parvum and the intestinal ecosystem in a mouse model. Mice were treated with antibiotics with different activity spectra and the resulted perturbation of the native gut microbiota was identified by microbiome studies. In particular, 16S amplicon sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) were used to determine the bacterial composition and the genetic repertoire of the fecal microbial communities in the mouse gut. Following alteration of the microbial communities of mice by application of antibiotic treatment, Cryptosporidium parasites were propagated in mice with perturbed microbiota and the severity of the infection was quantified. This approach enabled the prediction of the functional capacity of the microbial communities in the mouse gut and led to the identification of bacterial taxa that positively or negatively correlate in abundance with Cryptosporidium proliferation.

  1. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in cetaceans on the European Atlantic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Martínez-Cedeira, José A; Romero-Suances, Rafael; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in cetacean specimens stranded on the northwestern coast of Spain (European Atlantic coast) by analysis of 65 samples of large intestine from eight species. The parasites were identified by direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and by PCR amplification of the β-giardin gene, the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and the SSU-rDNA gene of Giardia and the SSU-rDNA gene of Cryptosporidium. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in 7 (10.8 %) and 9 samples (13.8 %), respectively. In two samples, co-infection with both parasites was observed. Giardia duodenalis assemblages A, C, D and F, and Cryptosporidium parvum were identified. This is the first report of G. duodenalis in Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Kogia breviceps and Stenella coeruleoalba and also the first report of Cryptosporidium sp. in B. acutorostrata and of C. parvum in S. coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus. These results extend the known host range of these waterborne enteroparasites.

  2. Cryptosporidium parvum vaccine candidates are incompletely modified with O-linked-N-acetylgalactosamine or contain N-terminal N-myristate and S-palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haserick, John R; Klein, Joshua A; Costello, Catherine E; Samuelson, John

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (studied here) and Cryptosporidium hominis are important causes of diarrhea in infants and immunosuppressed persons. C. parvum vaccine candidates, which are on the surface of sporozoites, include glycoproteins with Ser- and Thr-rich domains (Gp15, Gp40, and Gp900) and a low complexity, acidic protein (Cp23). Here we used mass spectrometry to determine that O-linked GalNAc is present in dense arrays on a glycopeptide with consecutive Ser derived from Gp40 and on glycopeptides with consecutive Thr derived from Gp20, a novel C. parvum glycoprotein with a formula weight of ~20 kDa. In contrast, the occupied Ser or Thr residues in glycopeptides from Gp15 and Gp900 are isolated from one another. Gly at the N-terminus of Cp23 is N-myristoylated, while Cys, the second amino acid, is S-palmitoylated. In summary, C. parvum O-GalNAc transferases, which are homologs of host enzymes, densely modify arrays of Ser or Thr, as well as isolated Ser and Thr residues on C. parvum vaccine candidates. The N-terminus of an immunodominant antigen has lipid modifications similar to those of host cells and other apicomplexan parasites. Mass spectrometric demonstration here of glycopeptides with O-glycans complements previous identification C. parvum O-GalNAc transferases, lectin binding to vaccine candidates, and human and mouse antibodies binding to glycopeptides. The significance of these post-translational modifications is discussed with regards to the function of these proteins and the design of serological tests and vaccines.

  3. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    & metronidazole (6 days) Clindamycin: S Tetracycline: S 2 31 Elective caesarean section Intraperitoneal abscess Surgical site infection Cefuroxime & metronidazole (8 days) MIC moxifloxacin: 0.047 μg/mL MIC ciprofloxacin: 0.094 μg/mLTetracycline: S Clindamycin: R 3 35 Vaginal delivery (complicated by uterine......Objectives: M. hominis is part of the normal mucosal flora and is primarily associated with infections in the genitourinary tract. Most infections occur following delivery or genitourinary instrumentation, but are also seen in immunocompromised patients. We present 4 cases diagnosed by routine...... in the genitourinary tract or endometritis. M. hominis infection was preceded by one instance of either caesarean section, vaginal hysterectomy, or a complicated vaginal delivery. The fourth patient was admitted at term with PROM and signs of chorioamnionitis and developed endometritis postpartum. The patients did...

  4. Comparison of commercially available media for detection and isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, N L; Floyd, C M; Johnson, C A; de la Maza, L M; Peterson, E M

    1992-05-01

    The Mycotrim Triphasic flask system (Irvine Scientific, Irvine, Calif.) was compared with a system composed of Mycotrim GU broth (Irvine Scientific) and A7 or A8 agar (Remel, Lenexa, Kans.) for the ability to detect Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis from 129 genital specimens. Of the 64 specimens positive for U. urealyticum, 25, 98, and 100% were detected on Mycotrim Triphasic agar and A7 and A8 agars, respectively. All 18 specimens that grew M. hominis were detected by A7 and A8 agars, and 94% grew on Mycotrim Triphasic agar. Mycotrim GU broth detected all of the positive specimens, and Mycotrim Triphasic broth detected all but one. Mycotrim GU broth inoculated simultaneously with either A7 or A8 agar was found to be more sensitive and cost-effective than the Mycotrim Triphasic flask system.

  5. Pathological Gambling Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Although pathological gambling (PG) is regarded in the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a unitary diagnostic construct, it is likely composed of distinct subtypes. In the current report, the authors used cluster analyses of personality traits with a…

  6. Case report: cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Kanishka W; Singh, Virtaj

    2007-05-01

    Cutaneous myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly, involves the infestation of human tissue with fly larvae, and is common in Central and South America. We report a case of a 57-year-old man with cutaneous myiasis imported into the US from Belize. The epidemiology, biological life cycle, clinical presentation, and various methods of larval extraction, including incision and drainage, are discussed.

  7. Myiasis secondary to Sermatobia hominis (human botfly) presenting as a long-standing breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, D G

    1999-09-01

    A case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with a breast mass is reported. Histologically, a chronic granulomatous inflammatory response was observed. The response was associated with an organism diagnosed as a fly larva, Dermatobia hominis (human botfly). The incidence of myiasis, infestation by fly larvae, presenting as a long-standing breast mass and mimicking a neoplasm is extremely rare, especially in the United States.

  8. Pilot trials on the treatment of Dermatobia hominis infections in cattle with closantel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaia, G; Chiari, L; da Silva, D C; Guerrero, J

    1981-07-01

    The therapeutic and prophylactic activities of closantel given to calves inoculated with larvae of Dermatobia hominis were studied. Calves (n = 9 principals, plus 3 nontreated controls) were given closantel at different dosages (8 to 12.5 mg/kg) and schedules of treatment. The largest dosage of closantel (12.5 mg/kg) had the most efficacious therapeutic activity (97.3%). Prophylactic activity was also seen in calves given the drug before they were experimentally inoculated.

  9. Dermatobia hominis misdiagnosed as abscesses in a traveler returning from Brazil to Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonas; Nejsum, Peter; Jemec, Gregor Borut Ernst

    2017-06-01

    We present the case of a 62-year-old woman that consulted us for two boil-like lesions on her thighs after returning from a trip to São Paulo, Brazil, where she had swum in a freshwater lake. After consulting three specialist doctors and undergoing two antibiotic treatments, she was diagnosed with furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis. The parasites were excised with no complications.

  10. "Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Badami

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6% of infertile females compare with 18 (7.2% of normal population. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 41 (32.8% of infertile females compare to 48 (19.2% of normal population. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct IF in 11 (8.8% of infertile and 2 (0.8% control group. The antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured in both groups of infertile and normal population and a positive titer of 1/16 and above was detected in 26 (20.8% of infertile cases and in 8 (3.2% of control group. The rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in case and control groups was significant (respectively P<0.0001, P<0.0001, p= 0.0018.

  11. Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes from northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Jiyipong, Tawisa; Wongpanit, Kannika; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Kengradomkij, Chanya; Xuan, Xuenan; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xiao, Lihua; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the individual and herd-level prevalence and genotype of Cryptosporidium and to identify putative risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infections in water buffaloes in northeast Thailand. Fecal samples from 600 water buffaloes of 287 farms in six provinces were collected and tested using DMSO-modified acid-fast staining and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in buffaloes was 5.7 and 8.7% among individual animals and herds, respectively. The provinces with highest infected Cryptosporidium were located in the Sakon Nakhon Basin in the northern part of the region. In addition, higher herd prevalence was observed among farms with more than five buffaloes (30%) than those with five or less animals (16.2%). Thirty (88.2%) of the 34 Cryptosporidium-positive samples were Cryptosporidium parvum and four (11.8%) were Cryptosporidium ryanae.

  12. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088

  13. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in recreational water in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, Md Amimul; Casaert, Stijn; Levecke, Bruno; Van Rooy, Liesbet; Pelicaen, Joachim; Smis, Anne; De Backer, Joke; Vervaeke, Bart; De Smedt, Sandra; Schoonbaert, Filip; Lammens, Saskia; Warmoes, Thierry; Geurden, Thomas; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in different recreational water bodies in Belgium and to estimate the infection risk associated with swimming and other recreational activities. Cryptosporidium oocysts and/or Giardia cysts were detected in three out of 37 swimming pools, seven out of 10 recreational lakes, two out of seven splash parks and four out of 16 water fountains. In the swimming pools no infection risk for Cryptosporidium could be calculated, since oocysts were only detected in filter backwash water. The risk of Giardia infection in the swimming pools varied from 1.13×10(-6) to 2.49×10(-6) per swim per person. In recreational lakes, the infection risk varied from 2.79×10(-5) to 5.74×10(-5) per swim per person for Cryptosporidium and from 7.04×10(-5) to 1.46×10(-4) for Giardia. For other outdoor water recreation activities the estimated infection risk was 5.71×10(-6) for Cryptosporidium and 1.47×10(-5) for Giardia. However, most positive samples in the recreational lakes belonged to species/genotypes that are either animal-specific or predominantly found in animals. No Cryptosporidium was found in splash parks and water fountains, but the presence of Giardia cysts suggests a risk for human infection. The infection risk of Giardia infection during a 3.5-minute visit to a splash park for children equalled 1.68×10(-4).

  14. Cryptosporidium cell culture infectivity assay design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, B J; Keegan, A R; Robinson, B S; Monis, P T

    2011-05-01

    Members of the genus Cryptosporidium, which cause the gastrointestinal disease cryptosporidiosis, still represent a significant cause of water-borne disease worldwide. While intensive efforts have been invested in the development of techniques for parasite culture, in vitro growth has been hampered by a number of factors including low levels of infectivity as well as delayed life-cycle development and poor synchronicity. In this study we examined factors affecting the timing of contact between excysted sporozoites and target host cells and the subsequent impact of this upon the establishment of infection. We demonstrate that excystation rate impacts upon establishment of infection and that in our standard assay format the majority of sporozoites are not close enough to the cell monolayer when they are released from the oocyst to successfully establish infection. However, this can be easily overcome by centrifugation of oocysts onto the cell monolayer, resulting in approximately 4-fold increases in sporozoite attachment and subsequent infection. We further demonstrate that excystation procedures can be tailored to control excystation rate to match the assay end purpose and that excystation rate can influence data interpretation. Finally, the addition of both a centrifugation and washing step post-sporozoite attachment may be appropriate when considering the design of in vitro culture experiments for developmental analysis and stage-specific gene expression as this appears to increase the synchronicity of early developmental stages.

  15. High rates of double-stranded RNA viruses and Mycoplasma hominis in Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates in South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz Becker, Débora; dos Santos, Odelta; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-08-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiological agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in world, with 276.4 million new cases each year. T. vaginalis can be naturally infected with Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonasvirus species. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of T. vaginalis infected with four distinct T. vaginalis viruses (TVVs) and M. hominis among isolates from patients in Porto Alegre city, South Brazil. An additional goal of this study was to investigate whether there is association between metronidazole resistance and the presence of M. hominis during TVV infection. The RNA expression level of the pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) gene was also evaluated among metronidazole-resistant and metronidazole-sensitive T. vaginalis isolates. A total of 530 urine samples were evaluated, and 5.7% samples were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Among them, 4.51% were isolated from female patients and 1.12% were from male patients. Remarkably, the prevalence rates of M. hominis and TVV-positive T. vaginalis isolates were 56.7% and 90%, respectively. Most of the T. vaginalis isolates were metronidazole-sensitive (86.7%), and only four isolates (13.3%) were resistant. There is no statistically significant association between infection by M. hominis and infection by TVVs. Our results refute the hypothesis that the presence of the M. hominis and TVVs is enough to confer metronidazole resistance to T. vaginalis isolates. Additionally, the role of PFOR RNA expression levels in metronidazole resistance as the main mechanism of resistance to metronidazole could not be established. This study is the first report of the T. vaginalis infection by M. hominis and TVVs in a large collection of isolates from South Brazil.

  16. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    that they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure......About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate...

  17. The Cryptosporidium parvum ApiAP2 gene family: insights into the evolution of apicomplexan AP2 regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Pumpalova, Yoanna; Schieler, Ariel; Llinás, Manuel; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2014-07-01

    We provide the first comprehensive analysis of any transcription factor family in Cryptosporidium, a basal-branching apicomplexan that is the second leading cause of infant diarrhea globally. AP2 domain-containing proteins have evolved to be the major regulatory family in the phylum to the exclusion of canonical regulators. We show that apicomplexan and perkinsid AP2 domains cluster distinctly from other chromalveolate AP2s. Protein-binding specificity assays of C. parvum AP2 domains combined with motif conservation upstream of co-regulated gene clusters allowed the construction of putative AP2 regulons across the in vitro life cycle. Orthologous Apicomplexan AP2 (ApiAP2) expression has been rearranged relative to the malaria parasite P. falciparum, suggesting ApiAP2 network rewiring during evolution. C. hominis orthologs of putative C. parvum ApiAP2 proteins and target genes show greater than average variation. C. parvum AP2 domains display reduced binding diversity relative to P. falciparum, with multiple domains binding the 5'-TGCAT-3', 5'-CACACA-3' and G-box motifs (5'-G[T/C]GGGG-3'). Many overrepresented motifs in C. parvum upstream regions are not AP2 binding motifs. We propose that C. parvum is less reliant on ApiAP2 regulators in part because it utilizes E2F/DP1 transcription factors. C. parvum may provide clues to the ancestral state of apicomplexan transcriptional regulation, pre-AP2 domination. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Genome Anatomy of Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis UM 256, a Multidrug Resistant Strain Isolated from Skin Scraping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Chan, Chai Ling; Na, Shiang Ling; Lee, Kok Wei; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng; Kuan, Chee Sian

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenochaeta unguis-hominis is a rare human pathogen that causes infection in human skin and nail. P. unguis-hominis has received little attention, and thus, the basic biology and pathogenicity of this fungus is not fully understood. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of the P. unguis-hominis UM 256 genome that was isolated from the skin scraping of a dermatitis patient. The isolate was identified to species level using a comprehensive multilocus phylogenetic analysis of the genus Pyrenochaeta. The assembled UM 256 genome has a size of 35.5 Mb and encodes 12,545 putative genes, and 0.34% of the assembled genome is predicted transposable elements. Its genomic features propose that the fungus is a heterothallic fungus that encodes a wide array of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, peptidases, and secondary metabolite biosynthetic enzymes. Antifungal drug resistance genes including MDR, CDR, and ERG11/CYP51 were identified in P. unguis-hominis UM 256, which may confer resistance to this fungus. The genome analysis of P. unguis-hominis provides an insight into molecular and genetic basis of the fungal lifestyles, understanding the unrevealed biology of antifungal resistance in this fungus.

  19. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  20. Cryptosporidium infection in infancy as a cause of malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbak, Kare; Andersen, M; Aaby, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum causes persistent diarrhea in young children in developing countries. To determine the interaction between nutritional status and cryptosporidiosis, an open cohort of 1064 children younger than 3 y of age was followed for 1441 child-years by weekly diarrhea recall visits. A...

  1. Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum - evaluation of an animal infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi; Lind, Peter

    2003-01-01

    With the intention of developing a standardised method for assessment of pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum, the CPB-0 isolate was studied by propagation in 1-day-old calves followed by inoculation into specific pathogen free (SPF) piglets. The experiment was repeated. Diarrhoea and shedding...

  2. ENHANCED DAPI STAINING FOR CRYPTOSPORIDIUM IN WATER SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Method 1623 is used to detect and quantify the presence of {ital Cryptosporidium} spp. oocysts in water. The protocol consists of concentrating a sample, staining this concentrate with a fluorescent antibody, and examining the sample mi...

  3. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in small ruminants from Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp. that can affect domestic animal and human populations. In newborn ruminants, cryptosporidiosis is characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea, which can result in high morbidity and economic impact. The aim of t...

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Africa: current and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Sylvia Afriyie; Ryan, Una

    2017-04-20

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important causes of diarrhoeal illness. Adequate knowledge of the molecular diversity and geographical distribution of these parasites and the environmental and climatic variables that influence their prevalence is important for effective control of infection in at-risk populations, yet relatively little is known about the epidemiology of these parasites in Africa. Cryptosporidium is associated with moderate to severe diarrhoea and increased mortality in African countries and both parasites negatively affect child growth and development. Malnutrition and HIV status are also important contributors to the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in African countries. Molecular typing of both parasites in humans, domestic animals and wildlife to date indicates a complex picture of both anthroponotic, zoonotic and spill-back transmission cycles that requires further investigation. For Cryptosporidium, the only available drug (nitazoxanide) is ineffective in HIV and malnourished individuals and therefore more effective drugs are a high priority. Several classes of drugs with good efficacy exist for Giardia, but dosing regimens are suboptimal and emerging resistance threatens clinical utility. Climate change and population growth are also predicted to increase both malnutrition and the prevalence of these parasites in water sources. Dedicated and co-ordinated commitments from African governments involving "One Health" initiatives with multidisciplinary teams of veterinarians, medical workers, relevant government authorities, and public health specialists working together are essential to control and prevent the burden of disease caused by these parasites.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are enteric protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. Infections with both parasites are known as one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and livestock. The epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardias...

  6. Eliminatie van virussen, Cryptosporidium en Giardia door drinkwaterzuiveringsprocessen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema GJ; Theunissen J; MGB

    1996-01-01

    A study on the removal efficiency of drinking water treatment processes for viruses and protozoa (Cryptosporidium/Giardia). The description is based on the best available Dutch and, if data on the Dutch situation are absent, international research data. The approach is valid for well-designed and

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia: new challenges to the water industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia intestinalis have emerged as significant waterborne pathogens over the past decades. Many outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis have been recorded,primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom.Chapter 1 gives an ov

  8. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria A Burmistrova

    Full Text Available Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh, for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection.

  9. Probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of farmer exposure to Cryptosporidium spp. in irrigation water within Kumasi Metropolis-Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampson, Angelina; Owusu-Ansah, Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson; Mills-Robertson, Felix C.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite which can be transmitted via food and water. Some studies have shown irrigation water to be routes of transmission for Cryptosporidium into the food chain, however, little information is known about Cryptosporidium levels in wastewater used for irrigation...... causing gastroenteritis. The results indicate high positive levels of Cryptosporidium in the irrigation water, however, the levels of Cryptosporidium decreases during the rainfall seasons, risk assessment results show that, farmers face a higher risk of being infected by Cryptosporidium due to frequent...

  10. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise Torp; Ladefoged, Søren; Birkelund, Svend

    1995-01-01

    Three mutants of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 were isolated and shown to contain alterations in the size of a repeat-containing gene encoding a surface-localized 135-kDa antigen designated Lmp1. The mutants were isolated by cultivating M. hominis for a 3-month period in the presence of Lmp1-specific...... characterized. The mutants showed deletions of a various number of repeats. The deletions were accompanied by a decrease in size of the proteins. With increasing size of deletions, agglutination and growth inhibition by MAb 552 became less pronounced. Spontaneous aggregation of the mutant M. hominis cells...... in culture medium was, however, increased, indicating that the repeated elements may be of importance for repulsion of the cells....

  11. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  12. Cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae: Molecular and Biological Evidence of Cryptic Species within Gastric Cryptosporidium of Mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kváč

    Full Text Available The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium muris strain TS03 are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium proliferans n. sp. is proposed. Cryptosporidium proliferans obtained from a naturally infected East African mole rat (Tachyoryctes splendens in Kenya was propagated under laboratory conditions in rodents (SCID mice and southern multimammate mice, Mastomys coucha and used in experiments to examine oocyst morphology and transmission. DNA from the propagated C. proliferans isolate, and C. proliferans DNA isolated from the feces of an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer in Central African Republic, a donkey (Equus africanus in Algeria, and a domestic horse (Equus caballus in the Czech Republic were used for phylogenetic analyses. Oocysts of C. proliferans are morphologically distinguishable from C. parvum and C. muris HZ206, measuring 6.8-8.8 (mean = 7.7 μm × 4.8-6.2 μm (mean = 5.3 with a length to width ratio of 1.48 (n = 100. Experimental studies using an isolate originated from T. splendens have shown that the course of C. proliferans infection in rodent hosts differs from that of C. muris and C. andersoni. The prepatent period of 18-21 days post infection (DPI for C. proliferans in southern multimammate mice (Mastomys coucha was similar to that of C. andersoni and longer than the 6-8 DPI prepatent period for C. muris RN66 and HZ206 in the same host. Histopatologicaly, stomach glands of southern multimammate mice infected with C. proliferans were markedly dilated and filled with necrotic material, mucus, and numerous Cryptosporidium developmental stages. Epithelial cells of infected glands were atrophic, exhibited cuboidal or squamous metaplasia, and significantly proliferated into the lumen of the stomach, forming papillary structures. The epithelial height and stomach weight were six-fold greater than in non-infected controls. Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, Cryptosporidium

  13. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like infection in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius of northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhchali M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a ubiquitous enteropathogen protozoan infection affecting livestock worldwide. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different age groups of dromedary camels in northwestern Iran from November 2009 to July 2010. A total number of 170 fecal samples were collected and examined using modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN staining under light microscope. Examination of stained fecal smears revealed that 17 camels (10% were positive for Cryptosporidium-like. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like was significantly higher in camel calves (< 1 years old (20% than other age groups, in which the diarrhoeic calves had the prevalence of 16%. In adult camels the prevalence was 6.5%. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium-like between male and female camels. It is concluded that Cryptosporidium infection is a problem in camel husbandry and could be of public health concern in the region.

  14. Development of polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitarello, Bárbara Domingues; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira; Lyra, Mariana Lúcio; DE Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe the development of 17 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, an obligatory parasite of mammals of great veterinary importance in Latin America. The number of alleles ranged from 5 to 21 per locus, with a mean of 12.2 alleles per locus. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.2571 to 0.9206 and from 0.2984 to 0.9291 in two populations from Brazil. These markers should provide a high resolution tool for assessment of the fine-scale genetic structure of natural populations of the human botfly. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Human botfly (Dermatobia hominis) larva in a child's scalp mimicking osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Kanupriya; Kalapos, Paul; Makkar, Abhishek; Engbrecht, Brett; Agarwal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis is endemic throughout Central and South America. However, because of widespread travel, furuncular myiasis has become more common in North America. Misdiagnosis and mismanagement can occur owing to limited awareness of the condition outside endemic areas. We report a case of furuncular myiasis in an immigrant from El Salvador with magnetic resonance imaging findings. The case is unique because neuroimaging was obtained upon the clinical suspicion of calvarial osteomyelitis. Parasitic infestation should be included in the differential diagnosis of a new skin lesion in patients who have traveled to endemic areas.

  16. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  17. Centriole behaviour during meiosis of male germ cells of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera:Cuterebridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagio-Grassiotto, I; de Lello, E

    1996-01-01

    During the meiotic division of Dermatobia hominis spermatogenesis, the centrioles duplicate only in prophase I, giving rise to short cilia which are exposed on the cellular surface. In metaphase I they are internalized and distributed to the daughter cells. Consequently, the secondary spermatocytes have two centrioles which repeat the cycle of cilia externalization followed by internalization. The spermatids receive only one centriole, which changes into a basal body and originates a flagellum. This centriole behaviour seems to be a general feature in insect male germ cell meiosis.

  18. Myiasis Dermatobia hominis, Linn: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, I J; Neuberger, D

    1977-01-01

    A description of the life cycle of the tropical botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is presented. The entomology of this parasite is discussed along with the pathologic manifestations of human infestation and a description of the various modes of treatment. A recent case of multiple botfly infestation in a young man during a trip to Central America is reported. A review of the literature including the earliest reported case (1904) is presented, along with a brief discussion of the epidemiology and public health aspects of this problem.

  19. Molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in raw water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Norma J; Bounsombath, Niravanh; Wallis, Peter; Ong, Corinne S L; Isaac-Renton, Judith L; Neumann, Norman F

    2005-12-01

    The emerging concept of host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. was exploited to characterize sources of fecal contamination in a watershed. A method of molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium oocysts on microscope slides prepared from raw water samples processed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 was developed. The method was based on a repetitive nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-DNA sequencing approach that permitted the resolution of multiple species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium in a single water sample.

  20. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alex Akira; Simões, Daniel Castendo; Antunes, Rômulo Godik; da Silva, Deuvânia Carvalho; Meireles, Marcelo Vasconcelos

    2009-12-03

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in birds kept in captivity in Brazil. A total of 966 samples from 18 families of birds was collected and stored in 5% potassium dichromate solution at 4 degrees C until processing. Oocysts were purified in Sheather sugar solution following extraction of genomic DNA. Molecular analyses were performed using nested-PCR for amplification of fragments of the 18S subunit of rRNA gene and of the actin gene. Amplification of Cryptosporidium DNA fragments was obtained in 47 (4.86%) samples. Sequencing of amplified fragments and phylogenetic analyses allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium baileyi in a black vulture (Coragyps atratus), a domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) and a saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola); Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) and lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis); Cryptosporidium meleagridis in a domestic chicken (G. g. domesticus); Cryptosporidium parvum in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype I in a canary (S. canaria) and an Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus); Cryptosporidium avian genotype II in ostriches (Struthio camelus) and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in a cockatiel (N. hollandicus) and a peach-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicolis).

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  2. Simple and effective field extraction of human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, using a venom extractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jonathan K

    2013-03-01

    After a trip to Belize, a 25-year-old man noticed an erythematous papule on his upper right chest that enlarged over a 6-week period and formed a central aperture. The patient reported feeling movement and intermittent lancinating pains under the skin. The history and examination were consistent with cutaneous myiasis, likely secondary to the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis. The objective of reporting this case is to present a simple method of extraction of a botfly larva using a commercial venom extractor. The patient's upper chest was prepared, and an occlusive dressing was placed over the lesion for 30 minutes. The Extractor Pump (Sawyer Products, Safety Harbor, FL) was applied and activated, and the larva was rapidly extracted completely intact with no significant discomfort to the patient. The wound fully healed without complication. D hominis is a common etiology of cutaneous myiasis endemic to Belize. The larva burrows under the skin of mammals where it develops for a period of weeks before erupting and falling to the soil to pupate. The diagnosis and treatment of botfly infestation is pertinent to doctors in the United States as Central and South America are common travel destinations for North Americans. In this case, a commercially available venom extractor was demonstrated to be a safe, noninvasive, and painless method for botfly extraction in the field without use of hospital resources. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scanning electron microscopy studies on the first-instar larva of Dermatobia hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Filippis, T; Leite, A C

    1997-04-01

    First-instar larvae of Dermatobia hominis collected 1, 4 and 7 days after having penetrated experimentally infected rats, were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation. On the pseudocephalon there are basiconic and trichoid sensilla (antennal sensory complex), and basiconic, coeloconic and campaniform sensilla (maxillary sensory complex). The thoracic segments bear several rows of small, backwardly pointed, spines, and trichoid, campaniform, coeloconic and pit sensilla. The anterior spiracle is a minute opening. Both small and large spines directed posteriorly are on the first to fourth abdominal segments, which also bear coeloconic and companiform sensilla. These sensilla are present on the unarmed (fifth and sixth) and armed (seventh) abdominal segments. The seventh and the last (eight) abdominal segments have forwardly directed spines. Each spiracular plate has two spiracular openings and four spatulate-like structures called sun rays. The anus and the coeloconic sensilla are proeminent on the last segment. The results are compared with other parasitic dipteran larvae, and emphasize that the multiple types of sensilla on D.hominis larva may have importance in establishing the parasitic phase of the life cycle of this insect.

  4. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  5. [Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, João Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Glória; Machado, Erilane de Castro Lima

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio--FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4',6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI) staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.

  6. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  7. Selection of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 deletion mutants by cultivation in the presence of monoclonal antibody 552

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Ladefoged, S; Birkelund, S;

    1995-01-01

    characterized. The mutants showed deletions of a various number of repeats. The deletions were accompanied by a decrease in size of the proteins. With increasing size of deletions, agglutination and growth inhibition by MAb 552 became less pronounced. Spontaneous aggregation of the mutant M. hominis cells...

  8. A high-affinity human monoclonal IgM antibody reacting with multiple strains of Mycoplasma hominis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, SA; Birkelund, Svend; Borrebaeck, CA

    1990-01-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies were produced against Mycoplasma hominis by in vitro immunization of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a healthy seropositive donor using low amounts of antigen (5 ng/ml). The immune B lymphocytes were subsequently immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus transformation...

  9. Presencia de Blastocystis Hominis como agente causal de enfermedades gatrointestinales en la comuna 7 (Gaira del Distrito de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Liliana Lozano Socarras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La Blastocystis hominis es un protozoo que causa cuadros diarreicos. Es altamente prevalente en poblaciones que no cuentan con servicios adecuados de higiene, alcantarillado y salud pública. La infección con Blastocystis hominis frecuentemente concomita con otros enteropatógenos de reconocida patogenicidad, además se ha reportado como parásito oportunista en pacientes con VIII SIDA. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar la presencia de Blastocystis hominis en pacientes de consulta externa con síntomas asociados a enfermedades gastrointestinales, en la comuna 7 del distrito de Santa Marta, Colombia, durante el mes de Enero a Diciembre de 2004. El método de diagnóstico utilizado fue examen coproparasitológico seriado y el número de pacientes analiza-dos fue de 291. Los resultados muestran una alta presencia de Blastocystis hominken pacientes con enfermedad diarreica residentes en Gaira. Un alto porcentaje de la población parasitada (62,6% presento como único agente causal de la enfermedad diarreica al Blastocystis hominis lo que sugiere la presencia de otras enfermedades que pueden involucrar un compromiso inmunológico, el efecto será una respuesta inmune débil contra el parásito.

  10. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in pigs on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; Hurnik, Daniel; Estey, Chelsie; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    In a cross-sectional study of 633 pigs from 21 herds on Prince Edward Island, Canada (PEI), the prevalence of infection with Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and the genotypes and species of isolates were determined in order to establish the zoonotic potential of pigs in this region. As determined by direct immunofluorescence microscopy (DFA), 18 herds (86%) and 163 animals (26%; 95% CI: 22-29%) tested positive for Cryptosporidium, while just 3 herds (14%) and 6 animals (1%; 95% CI: 0.4-2%) tested positive for Giardia. Cryptosporidium spp. isolates were detected in 39% (95% CI: 34-44%) of weanlings (1-3 months of age) and 9% (95% CI: 6-13) of sows (>8months of age). Molecular characterization using the 18S rDNA and HSP70 gene fragments revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II, C. suis, C. parvum, and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype. Among the 113 isolates of Cryptosporidium spp. successfully genotyped, pig genotype II (61%) predominated, with C. suis (36%) being the next most prominant isolate. C. parvum (2%; two isolates) and Cryptosporidium sp. mouse genotype (0.9%; one isolate) were only occasionally isolated. The only two Cryptosporidium-positive genotyped isolates from sows included one each of C. suis and Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II. All but one of the six Giardia positive isolates were detected in weanling pigs. None of the Giardia-positive isolates was amenable to PCR. This study demonstrates that Cryptosporidium spp. are highly prevalent in pigs on PEI, Canada, are found mostly in weanlings (1-3 months of age). Furthermore, the pigs are primarily infected by the host-specific genotypes and species, Cryptosporidium sp. pig genotype II and C. suis, whereas the zoonotic C. parvum is rare. Giardia duodenalis is only occasionally found in pigs. These findings suggest that domestic pigs on PEI, Canada, likely do not pose a significant health risk to humans from these parasites.

  11. Molecular characterization of isolates of waterborne Cryptosporidium spp. collected during an outbreak of gastroenteritis in South Burgundy, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Frédéric; Roz, Pascale; Dautin, Guillaume; Di-Palma, Marc; Kohli, Evelyne; Sire-Bidault, C; Fleischmann, Marie George; Gallay, Anne; Carbonel, Sylvia; Bon, Fabienne; Tillier, Claude; Beaudeau, Pascal; Bonnin, Alain

    2003-06-01

    In September 2001, a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in eastern France. Of 31 fecal samples from symptomatic individuals, 19 tested positive for Cryptosporidium with two PCRs targeting the Hsp70 and the 18S rRNA genes of CRYPTOSPORIDIUM: Sequencing of the PCR fragments produced sequences identical to that of Cryptosporidium parvum genotype 1.

  12. Cryptosporidium parvum, a potential cause of colic adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinon Anthony

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis represents a major public health problem. This infection has been reported worldwide as a frequent cause of diarrhoea. Particularly, it remains a clinically significant opportunistic infection among immunocompromised patients, causing potentially life-threatening diarrhoea in HIV-infected persons. However, the understanding about different aspects of this infection such as invasion, transmission and pathogenesis is problematic. Additionally, it has been difficult to find suitable animal models for propagation of this parasite. Efforts are needed to develop reproducible animal models allowing both the routine passage of different species and approaching unclear aspects of Cryptosporidium infection, especially in the pathophysiology field. Results We developed a model using adult severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum or Cryptosporidium muris while treated or not with Dexamethasone (Dex in order to investigate divergences in prepatent period, oocyst shedding or clinical and histopathological manifestations. C. muris-infected mice showed high levels of oocysts excretion, whatever the chemical immunosuppression status. Pre-patent periods were 11 days and 9.7 days in average in Dex treated and untreated mice, respectively. Parasite infection was restricted to the stomach, and had a clear preferential colonization for fundic area in both groups. Among C. parvum-infected mice, Dex-treated SCID mice became chronic shedders with a prepatent period of 6.2 days in average. C. parvum-inoculated mice treated with Dex developed glandular cystic polyps with areas of intraepithelial neoplasia, and also with the presence of intramucosal adenocarcinoma. Conclusion For the first time C. parvum is associated with the formation of polyps and adenocarcinoma lesions in the gut of Dex-treated SCID mice. Additionally, we have developed a model to compare chronic muris and parvum

  13. Quantitative-PCR Assessment of Cryptosporidium parvum Cell Culture Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, George D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative TaqMan PCR method was developed for assessing the Cryptosporidium parvum infection of in vitro cultivated human ileocecal adenocarcinoma (HCT-8) cell cultures. This method, termed cell culture quantitative sequence detection (CC-QSD), has numerous applications, several of which are presented. CC-QSD was used to investigate parasite infection in cell culture over time, the effects of oocyst treatment on infectivity and infectivity assessment of different C. parvum isolates. CC-Q...

  14. La confusa taxonomía de Cryptosporidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Los últimos descubrimientos en la biología y filogenética de Cryptosporidium refuerzan la necesidad de una exhaustiva revisión del ciclo de vida y la taxonomía de este parásito. Tanto futuros estudios de cultivo in vitro e in vivo así como estudios moleculares y genéticos permitirán avanzar en el profundo conocimiento de este interesante parásito.

  15. Effective removal of Cryptosporidium by a novel bioflocculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Moushumi; Pathak, Santosh; Ganguli, Abhijit

    2009-02-01

    Extracellular biopolymer produced from Klebsiella terrigena was found to have excellent flocculating ability over a wide range of colloid particles (0.5 to 25micro). The biopolymer was thermostable, with an optimum temperature for flocculation of 30 degrees C. Analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR) shows that the biopolymer mainly possesses hydroxyl, carboxyl, and methoxyl groups, with neutral sugar and uronic acid as its major and minor components, and the structure of a polysaccharide. The average molecular weight of the biopolymer was greater than 2 x 10(3) kilodalton (KDa), as determined by gel permeation chromatography. Scanning electron microscopy indicated a porous morphology of the biopolymer. At a dosage of 2 mg/L, the purified biopolymer could remove 62.3% of Cryptosporidium oocysts (1 x 10(6)) spiked in tap water samples. Calcium (5mM) was required for effective removal. The removal efficiency of Cryptosporidium oocysts by the biopolymer remained unaltered over a pH range of 6 to 8. The results of this study indicates a possible utility of the Klebsiella terrigena biopolymer as an alternative to typically used chemical flocculants for removal of Cryptosporidium oocysts from water.

  16. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide tablets on inactivation of cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Haas, Charles N; Arrowood, Michael J; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-05-20

    The ability of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to achieve 2-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in drinking water has been documented. No studies have specifically addressed the effects of ClO2 on C. parvum oocyst infectivity in chlorinated recreational water venues (e.g., pools). The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of ClO2 as an alternative to existing hyperchlorination protocols that are used to achieve a 3-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in such venues. To obtain a 3-log inactivation of C. parvum Iowa oocysts, contact times of 105 and 128 min for a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 2.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. Contact times of 294 and 857 min for a solution containing 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 3.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. The hyperchlorination control (21 mg/L free chlorine only) required 455 min for a 3-log inactivation. Use of a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 and solutions containing 5 or 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with the addition of free chlorine appears to be a promising alternative to hyperchlorination for inactivating Cryptosporidium in chlorinated recreational water venues, but further studies are required to evaluate safety constraints on use.

  17. Hydrophobic and electrostatic cell surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, C; Schwartzbrod, J

    1996-04-01

    Microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons and microelectrophoresis were investigated in order to characterize the surface properties of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts exhibited low removal rates by octane (only 20% on average), suggesting that the Cryptosporidium sp. does not demonstrate marked hydrophobic properties. A zeta potential close to -25 mV at pH 6 to 6.5 in deionized water was observed for the parasite. Measurements of hydrophobicity and zeta potential were performed as a function of pH and ionic strength or conductivity. Hydrophobicity maxima were observed at extreme pH values, with 40% of adhesion of oocysts to octane. It also appeared that ionic strength (estimated by conductivity) could influence the hydrophobic properties of oocysts. Cryptosporidium oocysts showed a pH-dependent surface charge, with zeta potentials becoming less negative as pH was reduced, starting at -35 mV for alkaline pH and reaching 0 at isoelectric points for pH 2.5. On the other hand, variation of surface charge with respect to conductivity of the suspension tested in this work was quite small. The knowledge of hydrophobic properties and surface charge of the parasite provides information useful in, for example, the choice of various flocculation treatments, membrane filters, and cleaning agents in connection with oocyst recovery.

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Cryptosporidiosis in Iranian Children, Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Zali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryptosporidium is a worldwide protozoan parasite and one of the most common causes of infection and diarrhea in humans and cattle. The aim of the present study was determina­tion of subtypes of Cryptosporidium among children with diarrhea in Tehran by se­quence analysis of the highly polymorphic 60-kDa glycoprotein (GP60 gene.Methods: Fecal samples were collected from 794 diarrheic children. Initial identification of Crypto­spo­ridium was carried out on stool samples by Ziehl-Neelsen acid-fast staining method. DNA was extracted from positive microscopically samples and Cryptosporidium genotypes and subtypes were determined, accordingly."nResults: Out of 794 collected samples, 19 (2.40 % were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Sequences analysis of GP60 gene showed that 17 (89.47 % of the positive isolates were Crypto­spori­dium parvum and 2 (10.52 % were C. hominis. All subtypes of C. parvum isolates belonged to allele families IIa (6/17 and IId (11/17. The most common allele in all 17 isolates belonged to IId A20G1a (41.18%. A22G1 (IF subtype was detected in two C. hominis isolates of the chil­dren."nConclusion: The predominancy of C. parvum species (specially, IId A20G1a sub­type in current study underlines the importance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium transmission in Iran.

  19. Molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium in small caged pets in northeast China: host specificity and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiao; Li, Lu; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Lin, Yongchao; Li, Wei

    2016-07-01

    This study screened 151 pet-derived fecal specimens randomly collected from four commercial markets in northeast China for the presence of Cryptosporidium by genus-specific nested PCRs of the small subunit rRNA gene. Of these, 14 specimens (9.3 %) from nine species of birds, two types of rodents, and a hedgehog were positive for Cryptosporidium. Sequence analysis on the PCR-positive isolates facilitated identification of three Cryptosporidium species (C. baileyi, C. galli, and C. ubiquitum) and two Cryptosporidium genotypes (ferret genotype and avian genotype V). The study birds were affected predominantly with bird-specific C. baileyi (Atlantic canary, budgerigar, crested myna, rock dove, and silky fowl), C. galli (Chinese hwamei), and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (Fischer's lovebird and rosy-faced lovebird). Cryptosporidium ferret genotype previously considered rodent-adapted was identified in three specimens from budgerigar, chipmunk, and red squirrel. Two specimens collected from common hill myna and hedgehog were positive for C. ubiquitum. The species of birds that can be colonized by Cryptosporidium were extended. Moreover, the data expanded the host range of Cryptosporidium ferret genotype and C. ubiquitum, especially the birds. The carriage of zoonotic C. ubiquitum in small caged pets is of public health importance.

  20. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium in giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Chen, Zuqin; Xie, Yue; Hou, Rong; Wu, Qidun; Gu, Xiaobing; Lai, Weiming; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2015-06-25

    Cryptosporidium spp. have been extensively reported to cause significant diarrheal disease in humans and domestic animals. On the contrary, little information is available on the prevalence and characterization of Cryptosporidium in wild animals in China, especially in giant pandas. The aim of the present study was to detect Cryptosporidium infections and identify Cryptosporidium species at the molecular level in both captive and wild giant pandas in Sichuan province, China. Using a PCR approach, we amplified and sequenced the 18S rRNA gene from 322 giant pandas fecal samples (122 from 122 captive individuals and 200 collected from four habitats) in Sichuan province, China. The Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified via a BLAST comparison against published Cryptosporidium sequences available in GenBank followed by phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that both captive and wild giant pandas were infected with a single Cryptosporidium species, C. andersoni, at a prevalence of 15.6% (19/122) and 0.5% (1/200) in captive and wild giant pandas, respectively. The present study revealed the existence of C. andersoni in both captive and wild giant panda fecal samples for the first time, and also provided useful fundamental data for further research on the molecular epidemiology and control of Cryptosporidium infection in giant pandas.

  1. Cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts on salad products irrigated with contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorós, Inmaculada; Alonso, José L; Cuesta, Gonzalo

    2010-06-01

    A field study in Valencia, Spain, was done to determine the occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium on salad products that are frequently eaten raw, such as lettuces and Chinese cabbage, and in irrigation waters. Four water samples were taken weekly 1 month before harvesting the vegetables. All water samples were analyzed using techniques included in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623. Standard methods for detecting protozoan parasites on salad vegetables are not available. Published techniques for the isolation of parasites from vegetables generally have low and variable recovery efficiencies. In this study, vegetables were analyzed using a recently reported method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on salad products. The waters tested were positive for both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Of 19 salad products studied, we observed Cryptosporidium in 12 samples and Giardia in 10 samples. Recoveries of the Texas Red-stained Cryptosporidium and Giardia, which were used as internal controls, were 24.5% +/- 3.5% for Cryptosporidium and 16.7% +/- 8.1% for Giardia (n = 8). This study provides data on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in salad products in Spain. The method was useful in the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts on the vegetables tested, and it provides a useful analytical tool for occurrence monitoring.

  2. Prevalence and Multilocus Genotyping Analysis of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Isolates from Dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahatchai Tangtrongsup

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis isolated from dogs in Chiang Mai, Thailand were determined. Fecal samples were collected from 109 dogs between July and August 2008. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was determined by immunofluorescent assay (IFA, PCR assays that amplify Cryptosporidium heat-shock protein 70 kDa (hsp70, and two PCR assays that amplify a small subunit-ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA. Giardia duodenalis infection was identified using zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, IFA, and four PCR assays that amplify the Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh, beta-giardin (bg, and generic and dog-specific assays of triosephosphate isomerase (tpi genes. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 31.2% and 45.9%, respectively. Sequence analysis of 22 Cryptosporidium-positive samples and 21 Giardia-positive samples revealed the presence of C. canis in 15, and C. parvum in 7, G. duodenalis Assemblage C in 8, D in 11, and mixed of C and D in 2 dogs. Dogs in Chiang Mai were commonly exposed to Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis. Cryptosporidium parvum can be isolated from the feces of dogs, and all G. duodenalis assemblages were dog-specific. Dogs could be a reservoir for a zoonotic Cryptosporidium infection in humans, but further studies will be required to determine the clinical and zoonotic importance.

  3. The first large scale molecular study of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of species and genotypes of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in horses is poorly known. The present study examined feces from 195 horses, 1 month to 17 years of age, in 4 locations in Colombia. Prevalence and age distribution of Giardia and Cryptosporidium were determined by PCR. All PCR p...

  4. INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW (CSO) AND STORMWATER RUNOFF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreaks occurred in the 1980s and the massive 1993 Milwaukee, WI outbreak affected more than 400,000 people, the concern over the public health risks related to protozoan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia has g...

  5. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN STORMWATER AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, the pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, and national concern. In the last decade, these organisms have been the causative agent of many gastroint...

  6. Prevalence rates of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among diarrheic patients in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natividad, Filipinas F; Buerano, Corazon C; Lago, Catherine B; Mapua, Cynthia A; de Guzman, Blanquita B; Seraspe, Ebonia B; Samentar, Lorena P; Endo, Takuro

    2008-11-01

    The prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium among 3,456 diarrheic patients corrected from May 2004 to May 2005 in the Philippines was determined. Of 133 (3.8%) positive samples, 69 (2.0%) were positive for Giardia and 67 (1.9%) for Cryptosporidium. Three samples had co-infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Luzon had the highest positive samples (5.0%) followed by Mindanao (4.9%), then Visayas (2.2%). Giardia was most prevalent in Mindanao (3.6%) while Cryptosporidium was most prevalent in Luzon (3.1%). The prevalence of Giardia (2.0%) among pediatric patients (0-18 years) did not significantly differ from that (1.9%) among adults (> 18 years old). However, for Cryptosporidium, the prevalence (2.9%) among pediatric patients was significantly higher compared to that (0.2%) among adult patients. In the pediatric population, the highest percentage of patients with Giardia was the 5-9 year old age group, while that of Cryptosporidium was in the 0-4 year old group. The prevalence of Giardia, but not Cryptosporidium, was significantly higher in male than female adults. Seasonality had a distinct peak in September with Cryptosporidium more prevalent in the rainy (2.6%) than dry season (0.9%).

  7. Prevalence and genetic diversity of the intestinal parasites Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in household dogs in France and evaluation of zoonotic transmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Marwan; Bories, Jessica; El Safadi, Dima; Poirel, Marie-Thérèse; Gantois, Nausicaa; Benamrouz-Vanneste, Sadia; Delhaes, Laurence; Hugonnard, Marine; Certad, Gabriela; Zenner, Lionel; Viscogliosi, Eric

    2015-11-30

    Several parasites including the protozoa Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. may be causative agents of gastrointestinal symptoms in domestic dogs, and there may be a potential risk of transmission to owners. While France is one of the largest European countries in terms of its canine population, little data is available about the molecular epidemiology of these two parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in household dogs in France, and to evaluate the zoonotic risk of Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. by genotyping the corresponding isolates. To this end, 116 faecal samples were collected from household dogs regardless of breed, age or gender, living in the Lyons area, France. Various intestinal protozoa and helminths were identified by light microscopy. Screening for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were subsequently performed by PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rDNA coding region, followed by direct sequencing of the PCR products and analysis of the sequences obtained for genotyping. The overall prevalence of dogs infected with at least one gastrointestinal parasite was 42.2% (49/116). After light microscopy examination of faecal samples, the most common parasites found were the protozoa Giardia sp. (25.0%) and Cystoisospora sp. (19.8%). Using molecular methods, four dogs (3.4%) were shown to be infected by Blastocystis sp. and carried either subtype (ST) 2, commonly identified in various animal groups, or ST10, frequently found in bovids. Three dogs (2.6%) were positive for C. canis, infecting humans episodically. The low prevalence of both parasites, combined with the identification of C. canis and Blastocystis sp. ST2 and ST10 in the canine population, strongly suggests that dogs play a negligible role as zoonotic reservoirs for both parasites and do not seem to be natural hosts of Blastocystis sp.

  8. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebai Tarek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen specimens collected from infertile men, and at comparing the seminological variables of semen from infected and non-infected men with these microorganisms. Methods A total of 120 semen samples collected from infertile men were investigated. Semen specimens were examined by in-house PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for the presence of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas DNA. Semen analysis was assessed according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization. Standard parametric techniques (t-tests and nonparametric techniques (Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis. Results The frequency of genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas detected in semen samples of infertile men was respectively 19.2% (23/120 and 15.8% (19/120. The frequency of Ureaplasma urealyticum (15% was higher than that of Mycoplasma hominis (10.8%, Ureaplasma parvum (4.2% and Mycoplasma genitalium (5%. Mixed species of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas were detected in 6.7% of semen samples. Comparison of the parameters of the standard semen analysis between the male partners of the infertile couples with and without genital ureaplasmas and mycoplasmas infection showed that the presence of Mycoplasma hominis DNA in semen samples is associated with low sperm concentration (p = 0.007 and abnormal sperm morphology (p = 0.03 and a negative correlation between sperm concentration and the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in semen samples of infertile men (p = 0.05. The mean values of seminal

  9. P80, the HinT interacting membrane protein, is a secreted antigen of Mycoplasma hominis

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    Henrich Birgit

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmas are cell wall-less bacteria which encode a minimal set of proteins. In Mycoplasma hominis, the genes encoding the surface-localized membrane complex P60/P80 are in an operon with a gene encoding a cytoplasmic, nucleotide-binding protein with a characteristic Histidine triad motif (HinT. HinT is found in both procaryotes and eukaryotes and known to hydrolyze adenosine nucleotides in eukaryotes. Immuno-precipitation and BIACore analysis revealed an interaction between HinT and the P80 domain of the membrane complex. As the membrane anchored P80 carries an N-terminal uncleaved signal peptide we have proposed that the N-terminus extends into the cytoplasm and interacts with the cytosolic HinT. Results Further characterization of P80 suggested that the 4.7 kDa signal peptide is protected from cleavage only in the membrane bound form. We found several proteins were released into the supernatant of a logarithmic phase mycoplasma culture, including P80, which was reduced in size by 10 kDa. Western blot analysis of recombinant P80 mutants expressed in E. coli and differing in the N-terminal region revealed that mutation of the +1 position of the mature protein (Asn to Pro which is important for signal peptidase I recognition resulted in reduced P80 secretion. All other P80 variants were released into the supernatant, in general as a 74 kDa protein encompassing the helical part of P80. Incubation of M. hominis cells in phosphate buffered saline supplemented with divalent cations revealed that the release of mycoplasma proteins into the supernatant was inhibited by high concentrations of calciumions. Conclusions Our model for secretion of the P80 protein of M. hominis implies a two-step process. In general the P80 protein is transported across the membrane and remains complexed to P60, surface-exposed and membrane anchored via the uncleaved signal sequence. Loss of the 4.7 kDa signal peptide seems to be a pre-requisite for P

  10. Molecular analysis of Cryptosporidium from cattle from five states of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Nan Jiun; Koehler, Anson V; Ebner, Janine; Tan, Tiong Kai; Lim, Yvonne A L; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of the cattle industry in Malaysia, there are very few studies of the diversity and public health significance of bovine cryptosporidiosis in this country. In the present study, we used a PCR-based approach to detect and genetically characterize Cryptosporidium DNA in faecal samples from a cohort of 215 asymptomatic cattle (of different ages) from six farms from five states of Peninsular Malaysia. Cattle on four of the six farms were test-positive for Cryptosporidium, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%. Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium ryanae were detected in two (0.9%) and five (2.3%) samples tested; this low prevalence likely relates to the age of the cattle tested, as most (73%) of the samples tested originated from cattle that were ≥2 years of age. Future studies should investigate the zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and weaned calves in rural communities of Malaysia.

  11. Dermatobia hominis (botfly) infestation of the lower extremity: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottom, James M; Hyer, Christopher F; Lee, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    We present a report of myiasis, which is the infestation of the body by the larva of flies. In this particular case the patient traveled to Belize and was infested in her foot and leg by Dermatobia hominis or the human botfly. Treatment was initiated once she returned to the United States. She ultimately underwent surgical excision of the larva, which was noted to be alive and moving upon removal. This is a rare larval infestation in humans, but is frequently seen in domestic and livestock animals in Central and South America. With increased international travel, the foot and ankle surgeon should be aware of this parasitic infection in recent travelers to Central and South American countries. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 4.

  12. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated....... Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...... in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung....

  13. Attempts to culture the parasitic stage of Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr.) in vitro (Diptera: Cuterebridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeledón, R; Silva, S

    1987-10-01

    Dermatobia hominis larvae were cultured in a semidefined liquid medium. First-instar larvae (L1) grew well up to 44 days; 29.1% molted in a mean period of 8.62 days. Two larvae reached the third instar but lived only 1 and 18 days, respectively, after the second molt. The increase in size, measured in 4 larvae, was about 10-fold. Second- and third-instar larvae, obtained from the skin of cattle, survived and grew in the medium for up to 2 mo; 39.0% of the L2 molted while 77.3% of the L3 pupated, and some produced flies when transferred to sand after 14.84 +/- 10.08 days in the culture medium. Some maturation factor, obtained from the skin, may be necessary for the larvae to grow satisfactorily and to complete the full parasitic cycle in vitro.

  14. Clinical Review of the Effects of Hominis Placental Pharmacopuncture in the Treatment of Facial Spasm Patients

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    Jo Na-Young

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of treatment with Hominis Placental pharmacopuncture (HPP for 32 patients with hemifacial spasm. Methods: We treated facial spasm patients with acupuncture and HPP at Sabaek (ST2, Seung-eup (ST1, Gwallyeo (SI18, Chanjuk (BL2, Sajukgong (TE23, Hagwan (ST7, Hyeopgeo (ST6, Jichang (ST4, Wan-gol (SI4 and Yepung (TE17, and we investigated the effect by using Scott’s scale. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS/10.0 for windows program with descriptive statistics, the paired t-test, and the Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Results: After treatment, the grade of the spasm’s intensity based on Scott’s description were decreased significantly. About 72% of the patients felt that the combination treatment had produced excellent results. Conclusion: These data suggested that HPP can be useful for treating facial spasm patients.

  15. Analysis of the Complete Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 Genome Sequence Reveals Strain-Variable Prophage Insertion and Distinctive Repeat-Containing Surface Protein Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 has been determined and the gene content ascribed. The 715,165-bp chromosome contains 620 genes, including 14 carried by a strain-variable prophage genome related to Mycoplasma fermentans MFV-1 and Mycoplasma arthritidis MAV-1. Comparative analysis with the genome of M. hominis PG21T reveals distinctive arrangements of repeat-containing surface proteins.

  16. Analysis of the Complete Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 Genome Sequence Reveals Strain-Variable Prophage Insertion and Distinctive Repeat-Containing Surface Protein Arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Michael J; Foecking, Mark F

    2015-02-26

    The complete genome sequence of Mycoplasma hominis LBD-4 has been determined and the gene content ascribed. The 715,165-bp chromosome contains 620 genes, including 14 carried by a strain-variable prophage genome related to Mycoplasma fermentans MFV-1 and Mycoplasma arthritidis MAV-1. Comparative analysis with the genome of M. hominis PG21(T) reveals distinctive arrangements of repeat-containing surface proteins.

  17. A GTP-binding protein of Mycoplasma hominis: a small sized homolog to the signal recognition particle receptor FtsY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    A protein homologous to the Escherichia coli FtsY which in turn has characteristics in common with the alpha-subunit of the eukaryotic signal recognition particle receptor (SRalpha) in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, was identified in Mycoplasma hominis and its encoding DNA sequenced......-anchoring fragment. Comparison of sequenced SRalpha homologue indicates that M. hominis together with Bacillus subtilis comprise a distinct cluster of similar small SRP receptors....

  18. Phylogeny of some mycoplasmas from ruminants based on 16S rRNA sequences and definition of a new cluster within the hominis group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, B; Uhlén, M; Johansson, K E

    1996-10-01

    Almost complete (> 96%) 16S rRNA sequences from nine ruminant mycoplasmas have been determined by solid-phase DNA sequencing. Polymorphisms were found in four of the 16S rRNA sequences, which indicated the existence of two different rRNA operons. Seven polymorphisms were found in Mycoplasma agalatiae, three were found in Mycoplasma bovis, one was found in Mycoplasma alkalescens, and one was found in Mycoplasma bovirhinis. The sequence data were used for construction of phylogenetic trees. All but one of the ruminant mycoplasmas sequenced in this work clustered in the hominis group. A close relationship was found between M. agalactiae and M. bovis, with a 99% nucleotide similarity between their 16S rRNA sequences. They were also found to be members of the Mycoplasma lipophilum cluster of the hominis group. Furthermore, the 16S rRNA comparisons showed that Mycoplasma alkalescens and Mycoplasma canadense are closely related (> 98.5%), and these species were found to cluster in the Mycoplasma hominis cluster of the hominis group. Interestingly, M. bovirhinis grouped in a new phylogenetic cluster of the hominis group. The new cluster, which was supported by bootstrap percentage values, signature nucleotide analysis, and higher-order structural elements, was named the Mycoplasma synoviae cluster. Mycoplasma bovoculi, Mycoplasma conjunctivae, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae clustered in the Mycoplasma neurolyticum cluster of the hominis group. Mycoplasma alvi clustered with Mycoplasma pirum in the M. pneumoniae cluster of the pneumoniae group.

  19. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en vendedores ambulantes de comida del municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela Prevalence of Blastocystis hominis among food handlers from Caroni municipality, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en una muestra de vendedores ambulantes de comida, aparentemente sanos, se realizó un estudio seccional con 415 personas que acudieron al Ambulatorio Urbano tipo III "Manoa" (Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, Programa de Higiene del Adulto, a solicitar el certificado de salud para trabajar como vendedores de comida. Una muestra de heces obtenida por evacuación espontánea fue analizada mediante la técnica de examen directo y método de concentración de Willis. Se encontraron 150 personas parasitadas (36,14%, de ellas 107 (25,78% con B. hominis. No se observó predilección por el sexo (p > 0,05, pero sí con relación a la edad, siendo las personas de 18 a 27 años las más afectados (ji² = 12,17; g.l. = 4. En el 71,02% de los casos se encontró como parásito único y en 28,98% de los casos asociados a otros parásitos, siendo el más frecuentemente asociado Giardia lamblia (2,41%. En la mayoría de las personas parasitadas (85% el protozoario se observó en un número menor de cinco células por campo. Se concluye que B. hominis es un parásito frecuente en manipuladores de alimentos del Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela.A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Blastocystis hominis infection in a random sample of apparently healthy food handlers. A total of 415 individuals attending the Manoa Urban Outpatient Clinic (Caroní Municipality, Bolívar State, Venezuela in the Adult Hygiene Program and who requested health certification to work as food handlers were studied. Stool samples obtained by spontaneous evacuation were examined by direct microscopy and the Willis concentration method. A total of 150 individuals were infected (36.14%, 107 (25.78% of whom with B. hominis. There was no difference between males and females (p > 0.05, but there was a significant difference between ages (chi² = 12.17; g.l. = 4, with infection more

  20. Viability of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, R J; Mawdsley, J L; Brooks, A E; Davies, D R

    1997-01-01

    The survival of Cryptosporidium parvum during ensilage of perennial ryegrass was examined in laboratory silos with herbage prepared in one of three different ways; either untreated, inoculated with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum or by direct acidification with formic acid. The pH values of all silages initially fell below 4.5, but only formic acid-treated silage remained stable at less than pH 4 after 106 d, with the pH of the untreated and inoculant-treated silages rising to above 6. The formic acid-treated silage had a high lactic acid concentration (109 g kg-1 dry matter (DM)) and low concentrations of propionic and butyric acids after 106 d. However, the untreated and inoculant-treated silages showed an inverse relationship, with low lactic acid concentrations and high concentrations of acetic, propionic and butyric acids. These silages also contained ammonia-N concentrations in excess of 9 g kg-1 DM. In terms of the viability of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts very few differences were seen after 14 d of ensilage with ca 50% remaining viable, irrespective of treatment and total numbers had declined from the initial level of 5.9 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(4) g(-1) fresh matter. Total oocyst numbers remained approximately the same until the end of the ensiling period, with the percentage of viable oocysts declining to 46, 41 and 32% respectively for formic acid, inoculant and untreated silages. The results are discussed in terms of changes occurring during the silage fermentation, in particular the products which may influence the survival of Cryptosporidium and implications for agricultural practice and the health of silage fed livestock.

  1. Origin of a major infectious disease in vertebrates: The timing of Cryptosporidium evolution and its hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-R, Juan C; Hayman, David T S

    2016-11-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Cryptosporidium infect all vertebrate groups and display some host specificity in their infections. It is therefore possible to assume that Cryptosporidium parasites evolved intimately aside with vertebrate lineages. Here we propose a scenario of Cryptosporidium-Vertebrata coevolution testing the hypothesis that the origin of Cryptosporidium parasites follows that of the origin of modern vertebrates. We use calibrated molecular clocks and cophylogeny analyses to provide and compare age estimates and patterns of association between these clades. Our study provides strong support for the evolution of parasitism of Cryptosporidium with the rise of the vertebrates about 600 million years ago (Mya). Interestingly, periods of increased diversification in Cryptosporidium coincides with diversification of crown mammalian and avian orders after the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) boundary, suggesting that adaptive radiation to new mammalian and avian hosts triggered the diversification of this parasite lineage. Despite evidence for ongoing host shifts we also found significant correlation between protozoan parasites and vertebrate hosts trees in the cophylogenetic analysis. These results help us to understand the underlying macroevolutionary mechanisms driving evolution in Cryptosporidium and may have important implications for the ecology, dynamics and epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis disease in humans and other animals.

  2. [Molecular Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium Species in Pet Dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    GU, You-fang; WANG, Kai; LIU, De-yi; MEI, Nan; CHEN, Cheng; CHEN, Tao; HAN, Min-min; ZHOU, Li; CAO, Jia-tong; ZHANG, Heng; ZHANG, Xue-liang; FAN, Zi-lai; LI, Wen-chao

    2015-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium species infection in pet dogs, and identify the G. lamblia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species. A total of 315 fresh fecal samples were collected from pet clinics in five counties of Anhui Province and in Hangzhou of Zhejiang Province. Hemi-nested-PCR targeting the GDH gene of G. lamblia and nested-PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium were performed in all the fecal samples. The PCR products were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics methods to identify the G. lamblia assemblages and Cryptosporidium species. The positive rates of G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. infections in the 315 fecal samples were 3.2% (10/315) and 1.6% (5/315), respectively. Specifically, the two indicators were both significantly higher in dogs ≤12 months (17.8% and 11.1%, respectively) than in adult dogs (0.7% and 0.0%)(Plamblia assemblages were identified, assemblages B (n=6) and D (n=4). Sequence analysis of PCR products of the SSU rRNA gene showed that the five Cryptosporidium isolates were C. canis (n =5). The prevalences of G. lamblia and Cryptosporidium infection in pet dogs in Anhui and Zhejiang Provinces were 3.2 % and 1.6 %, respectively. The assemblages of G. lamblia in this study are of types B and D.

  3. Age-related Infection with Cryptosporidium Species and Genotype in Pigs in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jian Hai; YUAN Zhong Ying; CAI Hui Xia; SHEN Yu Juan; JIANG Yan Yan; ZHANG Jing; WANG Yan Juan; CAO Jian Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pigs, as hosts of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species/genotypes, are domestic animals with public health significance. The present study was to characterize the infection rate and species/genotype of Cryptosporidium in pre-weaned and post-weaned pigs from Shanghai and Shaoxing, China. Methods A total of 208 fecal samples (42 from pre-weaned piglets, and 166 from post-weaned pigs) were examined by nested PCR of the 18S rRNA gene and analyzed by phylogenetic DNA fragment sequencing of secondary PCR products. Results Infection was detected in 79 samples (19/42 pre-weaned piglets, and 60/166 post-weaned pigs). C. suis (14/79) and Cryptosporidium pig genotype II (65/79) were identified; piglets were more susceptible to the former (13/14) and post-weaned pigs to the latter (59/65). Conclusion Infection of Cryptosporidium spp. in pigs was age-specific;piglets were more susceptible to C. suis while pigs were more susceptible to Cryptosporidium pig genotype II. These findings combined with the isolation of the two Cryptosporidium from water suggest that pigs may be a source of zoonotic Cryptosporidium water pollution. Improvements in pig feeding practices, sewage discharge, feces disposal and field worker protection are therefore important to prevent potential public health problems.

  4. Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Swimming Pools, Atlanta, Georgia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-29

    In this podcast, Dan Rutz speaks with Dr. Joan Shields, a guest researcher with the Healthy Swimming Program at CDC, about an article in June 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases reporting on the results of a test of swimming pools in the greater Atlanta, Georgia area. Dr. Shields tested 160 pools in metro Atlanta last year for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. These germs cause most recreational water associated outbreaks.  Created: 5/29/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  5. A Clinical Study on 1 Case of Patient with Bilateral Simultaneous Bell's Palsy Treated by Hominis Placenta Herbal-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon, Kang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was carried out to investigate the progress of bilateral simultaneous facial palsy and the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies. Methods : We used two methods to research the progress of disease. 1. Diagnosis - Facial muscle test, Taste test, Hearing test, Photographies, Lab-finding 2. Treatment - Acupuncture, Herbal-acupuncture, Electroacupuncture, Herb-med Results : The onset of Rt. facial palsy was earlier than Lt. facial palsy 3days. The reaction on the treatment of Rt. facial palsy was more dull than Lt. facial palsy. In terms of treatment period, Rt. facial palsy was very longer than Lt. facial palsy. Conclusion : According to the above results, we discoveried that Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies had good influence on the bilateral simultaneous facial palsy. In the future, we should endeavor to know influence between Rt. and Lt. face in case of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.

  6. Fatal nosocomial meningitis caused by Mycoplasma hominis in an adult patient: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Reissier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis due to Mycoplasma hominis in adults is rarely described, with only three cases having been reported to date. A case of fatal meningitis in a 39-year-old patient after a neurosurgical procedure for a subarachnoid haemorrhage is reported herein. Identification and treatment were significantly delayed because of the rarity of the aetiology and difficulty identifying this organism with the routinely used conventional methods, such as Gram staining and agar growth on standard agar plates. Clinical procedures and the treatment of ‘culture-negative’ central nervous system infections is a real challenge for clinical microbiologists and clinicians, and M. hominis has to be considered as a potential, although very uncommon, pathogen.

  7. Experimental transmission of Cryptosporidium oocyst isolates from mammals, birds and reptiles to captive snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T K; Cranfield, M R

    1998-01-01

    Groups of four to five, 3-month-old rat snakes (Elaphe obsoleta) were separately gastrically inoculated with 2.0 x 10(6) viable oocysts of Cryptosporidium muris (mice and calves), C. muris-like (Bactrian camels), C. wrairi (guinea pigs), C. baileyi (chickens), C. meleagridis (turkeys), Cryptosporidium sp. (turtles, tortoises, chameleons and lizards) and C. serpentis from clinically (fatal case) and subclinically infected snakes. None of the snakes inoculated with oocysts originating from homothermous vertebrates developed infection as determined by histology and serology, whereas all snakes challenged with reptilian oocyst isolates were infected with Cryptosporidium on weeks 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). One week 10 PI, the snakes displayed mild to serve, multifocal to widespread, thinning and disorganization of gastric epithelium and nine out of twelve snakes infected by oocysts originating from reptiles other than snakes displayed severe gastric hyperplasia. Three out of ten snakes infected oocysts originating from snakes had ELISA-detectable Cryptosporidium-specific antibody (Ab) titers on week 6 PI; all snakes were Cryptosporidium-seroconverted on week 10 PI and their serum Ab titer significantly increased. The study demonstrated that Cryptosporidium infections in snakes maintained on the diet of rodents or birds cannot be initiated via ingestion of an infected food item; however, snakes can void ingested oocysts. Lack of host specificity among reptiles to this pathogen, demonstrated for the first time in the present study, indicates that snake-attributed C. serpentis is not distinct from Cryptosporidium sp. infecting reptiles other than snakes, and that clinical manifestations and virulence of Cryptosporidium in snakes in modulated by the species of the host. Housing of snakes with other reptiles can enhance transmission of Cryptosporidium to snakes, and therefore should be avoided.

  8. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the water resources of the Kuang River catchment, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Mukhaidin, Nabila; Choy, Seow Huey; Smith, Gavin J D; Mendenhall, Ian H; Lim, Yvonne A L; Ziegler, Alan D

    2016-08-15

    A catchment-scale investigation of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Kuang River Basin was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. Water samples were collected from the Kuang River and its tributaries as well as a major irrigation canal at the study site. We also investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection among dairy and beef cattle hosts. Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia were detected in all the rivers considered for this study, reflecting their ubiquity within the Kuang River Basin. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium/Giardia in the upper Kuang River and Lai River is of a particular concern as both drain into the Mae Kuang Reservoir, a vital source of drinking-water to many local towns and villages at the research area. We did not, however, detected neither Cryptosporidium nor Giardia were in the irrigation canal. The frequency of Cryptosporidium/Giardia detection nearly doubled during the rainy season compared to the dry season, highlighting the importance of water as an agent of transport. In addition to the overland transport of these protozoa from their land sources (e.g. cattle manure, cess pits), Cryptosporidium/Giardia may also be re-suspended from the streambeds (a potentially important repository) into the water column of rivers during storm events. Faecal samples from dairy and beef cattle showed high infection rates from various intestinal parasites - 97% and 94%, respectively. However, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were only detected in beef cattle. The difference in management style between beef (freeranging) and dairy cattle (confined) may account for this disparity. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Cryptosporidium/Giardia-positive samples contained C. ryanae (non-zoonotic) as well as Giardia intestinalis assemblages B (zoonotic) and E (non-zoonotic). With only basic water treatment facilities afforded to them, the communities of the rural area relying on these water supplies are

  9. Prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em serpentes de cativeiro Prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in captive snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Custório Ruggiero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium é um protozoário encontrado em uma grande variedade de espécies animais como responsável por casos de gastrite e enterite, porém com epidemiologia pouco conhecida em animais silvestres. A presente investigação teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de Cryptosporidium serpentis em lavado gástrico de serpentes mantidas em cativeiro no serpentário do Instituto Butantan (São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta foi realizada uma semana após alimentação, evitando, assim, a regurgitação devido à manipulação. Foram realizados esfregaços do sedimento do lavado gástrico, obtido por centrifugação, corados pela técnica de coloração de Kinyoun. Parte do sedimento foi submetido à técnica de RFLP-PCR para identificação da espécie de Cryptosporidium. O serpentário é dividido em três seções, por espécie - a primeira com oito jibóias (Boa constrictor amarali, a segunda com dez jararacas (Bothropoides jararaca e a última com sete cascavéis (Caudisona durissa. A prevalência de C. serpentis encontrada neste estudo para as serpentes C. durissa, B. jararaca e Boa c. amarali, foi de 57,14% (04/07, 40% (04/10 e 37,5% (03/08, respectivamente, revelando importante ocorrência desse protozoário em serpentes de cativeiro. Apesar da alta prevalência encontrada, apenas as jiboias apresentaram sintomas como perda de peso e regurgitação, refletindo uma sensibilidade diferente da espécie para C. serpentis.Cryptosporidium is a protozoan found in a wide variety of animal species which is responsible for gastritis and enteritis, but its epidemiology is poorly known in wild animals. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in gastric aspirate of captive snakes from the public serpentarium of the Butantan Institute (São Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was performed preferably one week after feeding, thereby preventing regurgitation due to manipulation. Smears were done from the gastric

  10. A Clinical Study on 1 Case of Patient with Bilateral Simultaneous Bell's Palsy Treated by Hominis Placenta Herbal-Acupuncture

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Objective : This study was carried out to investigate the progress of bilateral simultaneous facial palsy and the effect of Hominis Placenta herbal-acupunture and the other oriental medical therapies. Methods : We used two methods to research the progress of disease. 1. Diagnosis - Facial muscle test, Taste test, Hearing test, Photographies, Lab-finding 2. Treatment - Acupuncture, Herbal-acupuncture, Electroacupuncture, Herb-med Results : The onset of Rt. facial palsy was earlier ...

  11. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa El-Dien M.S. Hosny

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding. Both young age (< 20 years and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care.

  12. Interaction of Mycoplasma hominis PG21 with Human Dendritic Cells: Interleukin-23-Inducing Mycoplasmal Lipoproteins and Inflammasome Activation of the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goret, J; Béven, L; Faustin, B; Contin-Bordes, C; Le Roy, C; Claverol, S; Renaudin, H; Bébéar, C; Pereyre, S

    2017-08-01

    Mycoplasma hominis lacks a cell wall, and lipoproteins anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane are in direct contact with the host components. A Triton X-114 extract of M. hominis enriched with lipoproteins was shown to stimulate the production of interleukin-23 (IL-23) by human dendritic cells (hDCs). The inflammasome activation of the host cell has never been reported upon M. hominis infection. We studied here the interaction between M. hominis PG21 and hDCs by analyzing both the inflammation-inducing mycoplasmal lipoproteins and the inflammasome activation of the host cell. IL-23-inducing lipoproteins were determined using a sequential extraction strategy with two nondenaturing detergents, Sarkosyl and Triton X-114, followed by SDS-PAGE separation and mass spectrometry identification. The activation of the hDC inflammasome was assessed using PCR array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We defined a list of 24 lipoproteins that could induce the secretion of IL-23 by hDCs, 5 with a molecular mass between 20 and 35 kDa and 19 with a molecular mass between 40 and 100 kDa. Among them, lipoprotein MHO_4720 was identified as potentially bioactive, and a synthetic lipopeptide corresponding to the N-terminal part of the lipoprotein was subsequently shown to induce IL-23 release by hDCs. Regarding the hDC innate immune response, inflammasome activation with caspase-dependent production of IL-1β was observed. After 24 h of coincubation of hDCs with M. hominis, downregulation of the NLRP3-encoding gene and of the adaptor PYCARD-encoding gene was noticed. Overall, this study provides insight into both protagonists of the interaction of M. hominis and hDCs.IMPORTANCEMycoplasma hominis is a human urogenital pathogen involved in gynecologic and opportunistic infections. M. hominis lacks a cell wall, and its membrane contains many lipoproteins that are anchored to the extracellular side of the plasma membrane. In the present study, we focused on

  13. Removal of Cryptosporidium sized particle under different filtration temperature, flow rate and alum dosing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guo-ren; Fitzpatrick S. B. Caroline; Gregory John; DENG Lin-yu

    2007-01-01

    Recent Cryptosporidium outbreaks have highlighted concerns about filter efficiency and in particular particle breakthrough. It is essential to ascertain the causes of Cryptosporidium sized particle breakthrough for Cryptosporidium cannot be destroyed by conventional chlorine disinfection. This research tried to investigate the influence of temperature, flow rate and chemical dosing on particle breakthrough during filtration. The results showed that higher temperatures and coagulant doses could reduce particle breakthrough. The increase of filtration rate made the residual particle counts become larger. There was an optimal dose in filtration and was well correlated to ζ potential.

  14. [Progress on the application of Cryptosporidium infected animal models and in vitro cultivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jian-Hai; Shen, Yu-Juan; Cao, Jian-Ping

    2010-10-30

    The genus Cryptosporidium is composed of protozoan parasites that infect epithelial cells in the microvillus border of the gastrointestinal tract of all classes of vertebrates, and cause severe diarrheal disease in a variety of neonatal animals, children and immunocompromised persons. Establishment of Cryptosporidium infected animal models and its in vitro cultivation system have established a good foundation for characterizing life cycle stage, exploring immunological mechanism, developing vaccines, screening and evaluating potential drugs, as well as assessing oocyst inactivation techniques. This paper reviews recent development and application of the Cryptosporidium infected animal models and its in vitro cultivation.

  15. Importância de Cryptosporidium spp. como causa de diarréia em bezerros Importance of Cryptosporidium spp. as a cause of diarrhea in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco L.F. Feitosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras de fezes de 14 bezerros e de suas mães até a oitava semana pós parição. A maior taxa de excreção de oocistos foi verificada em bezerros com sete dias de idade. Das vacas, 42,8% foram positivas para Cryptosporidium no período pós-parto. Em outra etapa deste estudo, foram acompanhados 57 bezerros positivos para Cryptosporidium, com até 30 dias de idade, provenientes de 32 propriedades leiteiras, e estudouse o grau de eliminação dos oocistos com a possível ocorrência de diarréia. Em todos os animais positivos para Cryptosporidium foi pesquisada a presença de bactérias enteropatogênicas, vírus (Rotavirus e Coronavirus e protozoários (Eimeria spp..The aim of this research was to evaluate the shedding of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples from 14 calves from one dairy farm, from birth until 60 days old and from cows until eight weeks after parturition. The higher percentage of oocysts excreted was observed in 7-day-old calves. In the post-partum period 43.7% of cows were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Further analyses were accomplished in 57 calves from another 32 milk farms, previously known as positive for Cryptosporidium, through oocysts fecal screening and clinical signs analyses until calves were 30 days old. Fecal samples from all animals that presented diarrhea were screened for the presence of bacteria, virus (Rotavirus and Coronavirus and protozoa (Eimeria spp..

  16. Effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture on the Dysmenorrhea (A Pilot study, Single blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Kim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment on Dysmenorrhea of Women. Methods : 49 subjects who were suffering from dysmenorrhea volunteered to answer the MMP(Measure of Menstrual Pain and MSSL(Menstrual Symptom Severity List questionnaire. They were divided into two groups, a Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment group(Experiment al group, n=25 and a Normal Saline(N/S treatment group(Control group, n=24. The two groups were injected on the CV4, S36, Sp9 and Sp6 acupuncture point. They were treated totally five times depending on the individual menstruation cycles. The scores of MMP and MSSL were measured overall three times before and after the menstruation cycle. The collected data were analyzed as paired t-test, independent t-test using SPSS 12.0 WIN Program. Results : As a result of the evaluation by MMP and MSSL, a significant improvement on dysmenorrhea was made in the two groups(p<0.05, and both scores of Experiment group were decreased more than Control group. But there was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusions : The Hominis placenta Pharmacopuncture treatment and the Normal Saline treatment were effective in decreasing the symptom of Dysmenorrhea.

  17. Cryptosporidium parvum has an active hypusine biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nimisha; Morada, Marie; Tripathi, Pankaj; Gowri, V S; Mandal, Swati; Quirch, Alison; Park, Myung Hee; Yarlett, Nigel; Madhubala, Rentala

    2014-06-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe enteric infection and diarrheal disease with substantial morbidity and mortality in untreated AIDS patients and children in developing or resource-limited countries. No fully effective treatment is available. Hypusination of eIF5A is an important post-translational modification essential for cell proliferation. This modification occurs in a two step process catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) followed by deoxyhypusine hydroxylase. An ORF of 1086bp was identified in the C. parvum (Cp) genome which encodes for a putative polypeptide of 362 amino acids. The recombinant CpDHS protein was purified to homogeneity and used to probe the enzyme's mechanism, structure, and inhibition profile in a series of kinetic experiments. Sequence analysis and structural modeling of CpDHS were performed to probe differences with respect to the DHS of other species. Unlike Leishmania, Trypanosomes and Entamoeba, Cryptosporidium contains only a single gene for DHS. Phylogenetic analysis shows that CpDHS is more closely related to apicomplexan DHS than kinetoplastid DHS. Important residues that are essential for the functioning of the enzyme including NAD(+) binding residues, spermidine binding residues and the active site lysine are conserved between CpDHS and human DHS. N(1)-guanyl-1,7-diaminoheptane (GC7), a potent inhibitor of DHS caused an effective inhibition of infection and growth of C. parvum in HCT-8 cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enterocytozoon bieneusi, giardia, and Cryptosporidium infecting white-tailed deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Monica; Fayer, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Despite a white-tailed deer (WTD) population in the United States of approximately 32 million animals extremely little is known of the prevalence and species of the protists that infect these animals. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of potential human protist pathogens in culled WTD in central Maryland. Feces from fawns to adults were examined by molecular methods. The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia was determined by PCR. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the species and genotype(s). Of specimens from 80 WTD, 26 (32.5%) contained 17 genotypes of E. bieneusi. Four genotypes were previously reported (I, J, WL4, LW1) and 13 novel genotypes were identified and named DeerEb1-DeerEb13. Genotypes I, J, and LW1 are known to infect humans. Ten (12.5%) specimens contained the Cryptosporidium deer genotype, and one (1.25%) contained Giardia duodenalis Assemblage A. The identification zoonotic G. duodenalis Assemblage A as well as four E. bieneusi genotypes previously identified in humans suggest that WTD could play a role in the transmission of those parasites to humans.

  19. Drug treatment and novel drug target against Cryptosporidium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargala G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis emergence triggered the screening of many compounds for potential anti-cryptosporidial activity in which the majority were ineffective. The outbreak of cryptosporidiosis which occurred in Milwaukee in 1993 was not only the first significant emergence of Cryptosporidium spp. as a major human pathogen but also a huge waterborne outbreak thickening thousands of people from a major city in North America. Since then, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis are regularly occurring throughout the world. New drugs against this parasite became consequently urgently needed. Among the most commonly used treatments against cryptosporidiosis are paromomycin, and azithromycin, which are partially effective. Nitazoxanide (NTZ’s effectiveness was demonstrated in vitro, and in vivo using several animal models and finally in clinical trials. It significantly shortened the duration of diarrhea and decreased mortality in adults and in malnourished children. NTZ is not effective without an appropriate immune response. In AIDS patients, combination therapy restoring immunity along with antimicrobial treatment of Cryptosporidium infection is necessary. Recent investigations focused on the potential of molecular-based immunotherapy against this parasite. Others tested the effects of probiotic bacteria, but were unable to demonstrate eradication of C. parvum. New synthetic isoflavone derivatives demonstrated excellent activity against C. parvum in vitro and in a gerbil model of infection. Newly synthesized nitroor non nitro- thiazolide compounds, derived from NTZ, have been recently shown to be at least as effective as NTZ against C. parvum in vitro development and are promising new therapeutic agents.

  20. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  1. Electrophysiological Correlates of Dyslexic Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jane M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The construct validity of Boder's typology of dyslexia was investigated using quantified electroencephalography with 39 children (ages 7-11) during a reading task and at rest. Results supported beta frequency differences in anticipated regions by dyslexia subtype during the reading task. However, the direction of difference hypothesis was not…

  2. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Wrinkled Hornbill and other birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohela, M; Lim, Y A L; Jamaiah, I; Khadijah, P Y Y; Laang, S T; Nazri, M H Mohd; Nurulhuda, Z

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of a coccidian parasite, Cryptosporidium, among birds in the Kuala Lumpur National Zoo was investigated in this study. A hundred bird fecal samples were taken from various locations of the zoo. Fecal smears prepared using direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique were stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Samples positive for Cryptosporidium with Ziehl-Neelsen stain were later confirmed using the immunofluorescence technique and viewed under the epifluorescence microscope. Six species of bird feces were confirmed positive with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They included Wrinkled Hornbill (Aceros corrugatus), Great Argus Pheasant (Argusianus argus), Black Swan (Cygnus atratus), Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides), Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus), and Moluccan Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccencis). These birds were located in the aviary and lake, with the Moluccan Cockatoo routinely used as a show bird. Results obtained in this study indicated that animal sanctuaries like zoos and bird parks are important sources of Cryptosporidium infection to humans, especially children and other animals.

  3. Prevalence and molecular identification of Cryptosporidium isolates from pet lizards and snakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldi L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire prevalence and genetic data on Cryptosporidium infections in captive lizards and snakes kept as pets, a survey was conducted on 150 individual reptiles from southern Italy. Fecal samples were preserved in 5% formalin and analyzed using a commercial immunofluorescence assay (IFA for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. IFA revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in nine of the 150 samples examined (6.0%, precisely in 6/125 snakes (4.8% and in 3/25 lizards (12.0%; all fecal samples tested negative for the presence of Giardia cysts. Molecular characterization based on nested PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene, revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium serpentis in three samples from snakes (Boa constrictor constrictor, Elapheguttata guttata guttata and Python molurus.

  4. Literature Reference for Cryptosporidium spp. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2007. 73(13): 4218–4225)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of drinking water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, aerosol, and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR for identification of Cryptosporidium spp.

  5. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  6. Ocurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis, Natterer, 1883

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida da Glória Faustino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexa protozoa Cryptosporidium infects several mammals, including terrestrial and aquatic species. In the epidemiology of this infection, the ingestion of water and/or food contamined with oocysts comprises the main mechanism of transmission to susceptible animals. Among the Sirenians, the occurrence of this coccidium has been reported in dugongs (Dugong dugon and Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus. The present study was conducted with the aim of verifying the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Amazonian manatee. For this purpose, fecal samples were collected from ten free-ranging Amazonian manatees, two specimens in captivity, and 103 supernatants fecal samples. The samples were processed by the sedimentation method in formol-ether and Kinyoun stain technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp.. The positive samples were then submitted to Direct Immunoflorescence Test. The results showed 4.34% (05/115 of positive samples. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. in the Amazonian manatee.

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Joāo Carlos Gomes; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Faustino, Maria Aparecida da Gloria; Marmontel, Miriam

    2011-12-01

    Infections by Cryptosporidium spp. in aquatic mammals is a major concern due to the possibility of the waterborne transmission of oocysts. The aim of the present study was to report the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis) from Brazil. Fecal samples were collected and processed using Kinyoun's method. Positive samples were also submitted to the direct immunofluorescence test. The results revealed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 12.5% (17/136) of the material obtained from the Antillean manatees and in 4.3% (05/115) of the samples from the Amazonian manatees. Cryptosporidium spp. infection was more prevalent in captive animals than in free-ranging specimens.

  8. SPECIES AND STRAIN-SPECIFIC TYPING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARASITES IN CLINICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis has recently attracted attention as an emerging water borne and food borne disease as well as an opportunistic infection in HIV infected indivduals. The lack of genetic information, however, has resulted in confusion in the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium parasites ...

  9. Isolation and enumeration of Giardia cysts, cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs from fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L J; Gjerde, B

    2000-06-01

    Published techniques for recovering parasites from fruit and vegetables are generally inadequate, with low and variable recovery efficiencies. Here we describe an improved methodology for analyzing fruit and vegetables for Giardia cysts, Cryptosporidium oocysts, and Ascaris eggs. The method includes washing procedures, sonication, and, for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, immunomagnetic separation. Identification is by immunofluorescence (Giardia and Cryptosporidium) or brightfield microscopy (Ascaris). Recovery efficiencies from lettuce, Chinese leaves, and strawberries were found to be approximately 67% for Giardia, 42% for Cryptosporidium, and 72% for Ascaris. Recovery efficiencies from bean sprouts tended to be more variable and lower. This could be due to material removed with the parasites during the washing procedures, which, in turn, appeared related to the age of the bean sprouts. It is therefore recommended that fruit and vegetables should be as fresh as possible when analyzed for parasites.

  10. Literature Reference for Cryptosporidium spp. (Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1999. 65(9): 3936–3941)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of animal samples using tissue culture techniques that may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate, liquid and water samples contaminated with Cryptosporidium parvum.

  11. Molecular characterisation of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia and assessment of zoonotic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular characterization of species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia is essential for accurately identifying organisms and assessing zoonotic transmission. Results of recent molecular epidemiologic studies strongly suggest that zoonotic transmission plays an important role in crypt...

  12. EVALUATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS AND GIARDIA CYSTS IN A WATERSHED RESERVOIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation evaluated the occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at 17 sampling locations in Lake Texoma reservoir using method 1623 with standard Envirocheck™ capsule filters. The watershed serves rural agricultural communities active in cattle ranching, ...

  13. Emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen via huishoudelijk afvalwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven JF; Medema GJ; de Nijs ACM; Elzenga JG; MGB

    1996-01-01

    In een kwantitatieve beschrijving van de emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen in de Nederlandse oppervlaktewateren met behulp van emissie- en verspreidingsmodellen zijn concentraties van genoemde pathogenen geschat. De emissies werden met PROMISE gemodelleerd, uitg

  14. SPECIES AND GENUS DIFFERENTIATION OF PARASITES (GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM) BY MALDI - MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  15. MALDI-MIS INVESTIGATIONS OF DRINKING WATER PATHOGENS--GIARDIA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia, have been responsible for numerous waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in the United States. The 1993 cryptosporidiosis outbreak in Milwaukee affected approximately 400,000 people and resulted in o...

  16. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate protozoan parasite found in surface waters. It is the etiological agent for cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that causes severe gastrointestinal illness which is potentially fatal among immuno-compromised individuals. This water borne...

  17. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R829180)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  18. MOLECULAR CLONING AND ANALYSIS OF THE CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM AMINOPEPTIDASE N GENE. (R828035)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum proteases have been associated with release of infective sporozoites from oocysts, and their specific inhibition blocks parasite excystation in vitro. Additionally, proteases have been implicated in the processing of parasite adhesion molecules fo...

  19. Molecular Forensic Profiling of Cryptosporidium Species and Genotypes in Raw Water

    OpenAIRE

    Ruecker, Norma J.; Bounsombath, Niravanh; Wallis, Peter; Ong, Corinne S.L.; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Neumann, Norman F.

    2005-01-01

    The emerging concept of host specificity of Cryptosporidium spp. was exploited to characterize sources of fecal contamination in a watershed. A method of molecular forensic profiling of Cryptosporidium oocysts on microscope slides prepared from raw water samples processed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 was developed. The method was based on a repetitive nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism-DNA sequencing approach that permitted the resolution of multiple sp...

  20. Presence and molecular characterisation of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Couso, Hipólito; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Rosadio-Alcántara, Raúl; Maturrano-Hernández, Lenin; Luna-Espinoza, Luis; Zanabria-Huisa, Víctor; Pedraza-Díaz, Susana

    2012-07-06

    The presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium was investigated in 274 faecal samples of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from 12 herds from Peru by immunofluorescence microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of the ssu-rRNA and β-giardin genes from Giardia spp., as well as the ssu-rRNA gene from Cryptosporidium spp. A total of 137 samples (50.0%) were positive for Giardia spp., and 12 samples (4.4%) for Cryptosporidium spp. In ten samples (3.6%), co-infection by both pathogens was found. Herd prevalence was found to be 91.7% (11/12 herds) for Giardia and 58.3% (7/12 herds) for Cryptosporidium. Regarding the age of the animals, although Giardia was detected in animals as young as 1 week, the prevalence increased with age, reaching 80% by 8 weeks. Similarly, the highest percentage of Cryptosporidium detection (20%) was also found in the 8 week-old group. By PCR, 92 of the 274 analysed samples were positive for Giardia. Sequencing of the amplicons showed the existence of Giardia duodenalis assemblage A in 67 samples; G. duodenalis assemblage E in 24 samples; and inconsistent results between the two molecular markers used in a further sample. Cryptosporidium was only detected by PCR in 3 of the 274 samples; Cryptosporidium parvum was identified in two samples and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in one sample. This study is the first performing molecular characterisation of both parasites in Peruvian alpacas, and the first report of C. ubiquitum in this host. The identification of G. duodenalis assemblage A, C. parvum and C. ubiquitum, suggests that zoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens between alpacas and humans is possible.

  1. Intensive exploitation of a karst aquifer leads to Cryptosporidium water supply contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaldi, S; Ratajczak, M; Gargala, G; Fournier, M; Berthe, T; Favennec, L; Dupont, J P

    2011-04-01

    Groundwater from karst aquifers is an important source of drinking water worldwide. Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis linked to surface water and treated public water are regularly reported. Cryptosporidium oocysts are resistant to conventional drinking water disinfectants and are a major concern for the water industry. Here, we examined conditions associated with oocyst transport along a karstic hydrosystem, and the impact of intensive exploitation on Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination of the water supply. We studied a well-characterized karstic hydrosystem composed of a sinkhole, a spring and a wellbore. Thirty-six surface water and groundwater samples were analyzed for suspended particulate matter, turbidity, electrical conductivity, and Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cyst concentrations. (Oo)cysts were identified and counted by means of solid-phase cytometry (ChemScan RDI(®)), a highly sensitive method. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 78% of both surface water and groundwater samples, while Giardia cysts were found in respectively 22% and 8% of surface water and groundwater samples. Mean Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations were 29, 13 and 4/100 L at the sinkhole, spring and wellbore, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were transported from the sinkhole to the spring and the wellbore, with respective release rates of 45% and 14%, suggesting that oocysts are subject to storage and remobilization in karst conduits. Principal components analysis showed that Cryptosporidium oocyst concentrations depended on variations in hydrological forcing factors. All water samples collected during intensive exploitation contained oocysts. Control of Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination during intensive exploitation is therefore necessary to ensure drinking water quality. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Studies in vitro on the relative efficacy of current acaricides for Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, S F; Myerscough, M R; Currie, B J

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of Sarcoptes scabiei to various topical therapies has been described, but clinical assessment of treatment failure is problematic and in-vitro assays are generally not available. We describe a simple in-vitro analysis used to evaluate the relative efficacy of a range of topical, oral, and herbal treatments available in Australia for the treatment of scabies. S. scabiei var. hominis mites were collected from skin scrapings obtained from 7 crusted scabies patients over a period of 2 years (1997 and 1998). Larvae, nymphal instars, and adult mites were tested within 3 h of collection and continuously exposed to selected commercially available treatment products until death, with the elapsed time recorded. Neem was the only product to show little acaricidal activity. Survival curves indicated that, of the other agents, 5% permethrin (Lyclear) had the slowest killing time, with 35% of mites still alive after 3 h, and 4% still alive after 18-22 h of constant exposure. In contrast, no mites were alive after 3 h exposure to 25% benzyl benzoate (Ascabiol), 1% lindane (Quellada), 5% tea tree oil and 100-8000 ng/g of ivermectin (Equimec). Despite the slower killing time with 5% permethrin, there was no evidence of any mite tolerance in vivo or treatment failure in any patients or contact cases.

  3. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in wild birds in Galicia (Northwest Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboredo-Fernández, Aurora; Ares-Mazás, Elvira; Cacciò, Simone M; Gómez-Couso, Hipólito

    2015-06-01

    Faecal samples were obtained from 433 wild birds being treated in wildlife recovery centres in Galicia (Northwest Spain), between February 2007 and September 2009. The birds belonged to 64 species representing 17 different orders. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by an immunofluorescence antibody test and identified at the molecular level by established PCR-sequencing methods. The overall prevalence of Giardia was 2·1% and that of Cryptosporidium, 8·3%. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Giardia sp. in Tyto alba and Caprimulgus europaeus; and of Cryptosporidium sp. in Apus apus, Athene noctua, C. europaeus, Falco tinnunculus, Morus bassanus, Parabuteo unicinctus and Strix aluco. Furthermore, the first PCR-sequence confirmed detection of Giardia duodenalis assemblage B in, Buteo buteo, Coturnix coturnix and Pica pica; G. duodenalis assemblage D in Garrulus glandarius; and G. duodenalis assemblage F in Anas platyrhynchos; Cryptosporidium parvum in Accipiter nisus, B. buteo, Milvus migrans, Pernis apivorus and P. pica; and Cryptosporidium meleagridis in Streptopelia turtur. The study findings demonstrate the wide spread of Giardia and Cryptosporidium between wild birds.

  4. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis) from shell-fish markets of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, M; Wiwanitkit, Viroj; Saksirisampant, W; Karanis, P

    2009-09-01

    Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis), the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24) and Samut Prakan (n = 32) a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels' cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA) in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels' population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6%) than in Bangkok market (8.3%). These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  5. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), Lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria), and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and fecal samples were examined by Sheather's sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311) and 0.64% (2/311) by ELISA and Sheather's sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  6. Prevalence and Genotyping of Cryptosporidium Infection in Pet Parrots in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Xuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium spp., sometimes leading to severe diarrhea in humans and animals. In the present study, 311 parrots, belonging to four species, namely, Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus, Lovebirds (Agapornis sp., Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria, and Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus, from Beijing and Weifang cities, were examined for Cryptosporidium spp. infection. Blood samples of each bird were examined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and fecal samples were examined by Sheather’s sugar flotation technique. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection were 3.22% (10/311 and 0.64% (2/311 by ELISA and Sheather’s sugar flotation technique, respectively. Seroprevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in different breeds varied from 0 to 15.39%. Sequencing analysis showed that both positive samples from fecal samples belonged to Cryptosporidium avian genotype V. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium avian genotype V in Budgerigars. The results of the present study provided foundation-data for prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in pet birds in China.

  7. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels (Perna viridis from shell-fish markets of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisuphanunt M.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mussels filter large volumes of water and can concentrate pathogenic organisms, which may act as potential vehicles of transmission to the consumer. A survey study was carried out to investigate the presence of Cryptosporidium protozoan parasites in green mussels (Perna viridis, the smussles pecies most destined for consumption in Thailand. In total, 56 samples were examined from Bangkok (n = 24 and Samut Prakan (n = 32 a wholesale shell-fish markets located at the mouth of the Chao Phraya River. The market for green mussels was closed to the mussel culture placed along the coastal line and this localization may have significant economical impact if the mussels’ cultures are found contaminated. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected by the immunofluorescence antibody method (IFA in 12.5% of the samples examined. The detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in green mussels’ population of Samut Prakan was higher (15.6% than in Bangkok market (8.3%. These differences in positive samples from the two locations may be caused by physical, ecological and anthropogenic conditions. This could relay to different contamination levels of marine water by Cryptosporidium oocysts and consequently to contamination of harvested shellfish populations. The results demonstrate that the Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were found indigenous in mussels from the coastal line of Thailand, indicating that mussels may act as a reservoir of Cryptosporidium foodborne infections for humans.

  8. Occurence of Cryptosporidium spp. in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T. B.; Petersen, H. H.; Abaidoo, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contaminat......Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp....... contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period of, September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours...... to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes after. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3268 per 10 L water and 11 – 118 oocyst per...

  9. Genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. from domestic animals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, F; da Silva, S; Bomfim, T C B; Teixeira, K R S; Bello, A R

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of the present study was the genetic characterization, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequences of Cryptosporidium isolates obtained from different animal hosts in Brazil. Fecal samples containing Cryptosporidium oocysts were obtained from chickens, ducks, quails, guinea pigs, dairy calves, dogs and cats. For amplification of 18S rDNA sequences the Secondary-PCR product of the extracted DNA from fecal suspension of each studied animal was utilized. The primary genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium sp. was performed using RFLP with the enzymes SspI and VspI. DNA samples were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The results showed C. baileyi infecting two ducks and one quail and C. melagridis infecting one chicken. The sequences obtained from Cryptosporidium sp. infecting guinea pigs were not identified within groups of known Cryptosporidium species. The isolates found parasitizing cats and one dog were diagnosed as C. felis and C. canis, respectively. One isolate of calf origin was identified as C. parvum. The phylogenetic analysis showed clear distribution of isolates between two Cryptosporidium sp. groups according to their gastric or intestinal parasitism. A great genetic distance was observed between C. felis and C. canis from Brazil when compared to the reference sequences obtained from GenBank. The results obtained during this study constitute the first report of rDNA sequences from C. baileyi, C. meleagridis, C. felis, C. canis and C. parvum isolated in Brazil.

  10. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Mori, Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Pintong, Ai-rada; Popruk, Supaluk; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  11. Development of Sensitive Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Surface Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Taghipour Lailabadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia are known to occur widely in both raw and drinking waters. They are two of the causative agents of waterborne out-breaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. In the present study, a PCR assay and FA were developed for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst in environmental samples. Methods: We have detected Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts and Giardia cysts in seeded and un-seeded environmental water samples by PCR method. Water samples were spiked with oocysts (50, 100,300,500 and filtrated with a 1.2-µm pore size cellulose nitrate and follow by DNA extrac¬tion and purification by QIAamp DNA mini kit. Nested-PCR assay amplified an 850 bp fragment of 18s rRNA gene specific for Cryptosporidium and 435 bp fragment of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH target gene for Giardia. Also many river water from north of Iran, be checked by these methods. Results: Cryptosporidium and Giardia DNAs were detected in seeded water sample and Giardia was detected in all 5 water samples from river in north of Iran by nested- PCR and FA. Also in one river water sample, Cryptosporidium was detected.Conclusion: This protocol is effective for detection of these waterborne parasites in treated and untreated water samples. This study can also serve as a platform for further investigations and research water source in Iran.

  12. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koompapong Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  13. Cryptosporidium huwi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Una; Paparini, Andrea; Tong, Kaising; Yang, Rongchang; Gibson-Kueh, Susan; O'Hara, Amanda; Lymbery, Alan; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium piscine genotype 1 from the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium huwi n. sp. is proposed to reflect its genetic and biological differences from gastric and intestinal Cryptosporidium species. Oocysts of C.huwi n. sp. over-lap in size with Cryptosporidium molnari, measuring approximately 4.4-4.9 µm (mean 4.6) by 4.0-4.8 µm (mean 4.4 µm) with a length to width ratio of 1.04 (0.92-1.35) (n = 50). Similar to C.molnari, C.huwi n. sp. was identified in the stomach only and clusters of oogonial and sporogonial stages were identified deep within the epithelium. However, phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences indicated that C. huwi n. sp. exhibited 8.5-9.2% and 3.5% genetic distance from C.molnari isolates and piscine genotype 7 respectively. At the actin locus, the genetic distance between C.huwi n. sp. and C.molnari was 16.6%. The genetic distance between C.huwi n. sp. and other Cryptosporidium species at the 18S locus was 13.2%-17% and at the actin locus was 18.9%-26.3%. Therefore C. huwi n. sp. is genetically distinct from previously described Cryptosporidium species.

  14. An IC-PCR method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in natural surface waters in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Hörman, Ari; Ronkainen, Pilvi; Hänninen, Marja Liisa

    2002-08-01

    We developed an immunocapture-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts in surface water. Using primer pairs Cry9/Cry15 and LaxA/LaxB for Cryptosporidium and Gdh1/Gdh4 for Giardia, the sensitivity of the entire detection procedure (dealing with concentration, separation, DNA purification and PCR amplification) was at the level of 50-100 oocysts and cysts. Of 54 surface water samples, 4 were positive for Cryptosporidium and 1 for Giardia. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected for the first time in surface water in Finland.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in smallholder dairy cattle in Iringa and Tanga Regions of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S. Swai

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in a cross-sectional study of dairy cattle, from two contrasting dairying regions in Tanzania, were determined by staining smears of faecal samples with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Of the 1 126 faecal samples screened, 19.7% were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence was lower in Tanga Region than in Iringa Region. The prevalence of affected farms was 20% in Tanga and 21% in Iringa. In both regions, the probability of detecting Cryptosporidium oocysts in faeces varied with animal class, but these were not consistent in both regions. In Tanga Region, Cryptosporidium oocysts were significantly more likely to be found in the faeces of milking cows. In Iringa Region, the likelihood that cattle had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces declined with age, and milking cattle were significantly less likely to have Cryptosporidium positive faeces. In this region, 7% of cattle were housed within the family house at night, and this was marginally associated with a higher likelihood that animals had Cryptosporidium-positive faeces. Our study suggests that even though herd sizes are small, Cryptosporidium spp. are endemic on many Tanzanian smallholder dairy farms. These protozoa may impact on animal health and production, but also on human health, given the close associations between the cattle and their keepers. Further studies are required to assess these risks in more detail, and understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp. in this management system.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND THE SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  17. EPA ORD/EPA REGION 2/PITTSBURGH WSA COOPERATIVE EFFORT: EVALUATING CRYPTOSPORIDIUM AND GIARDIA IN COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOW AS A THREAT TO DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the first identified Cryptosporidium outbreak in the United Kingdom in 1983, emerging protozoa pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia have become the subject of growing local, state, and national concerns. Both organisms have been the causative agent of many gastrointestina...

  18. Photocatalytic inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum on nanostructured titanium dioxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnotel, O; Verdoold, R; Dunlop, P S M; Snelling, W J; Lowery, C J; Dooley, J S G; Moore, J E; Byrne, J A

    2010-03-01

    Control of waterborne gastrointestinal parasites represents a major concern to water industries worldwide. In developed countries, pathogens in drinking water supplies are normally removed by sand filtration followed by chemical disinfection. Cryptosporidium spp. are generally resistant to common disinfection techniques and alternative control strategies are being sought. In the current study, the photocatalytic inactivation of C. parvum oocysts was shown to occur in buffer solution (78.4% after 180 min) and surface water (73.7% after 180 min). Viability was assessed by dye exclusion, excystation, direct examination of oocysts and a novel gene expression assay based on lactate dehydrogenase 1 (LDH1) expression levels. Collectively, this confirmed the inactivation of oocysts and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed cleavage at the suture line of oocyst cell walls, revealing large numbers of empty (ghost) cells after exposure to photocatalytic treatment.

  19. Changes in Escherichia coli to Cryptosporidium ratios for various fecal pollution sources and drinking water intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Cindy; Papineau, Isabelle; Payment, Pierre; Dorner, Sarah; Servais, Pierre; Barbeau, Benoit; Di Giovanni, George D; Prévost, Michèle

    2014-05-15

    Assessing the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium oocysts in surface water remains a significant water treatment and public health challenge. Most drinking water suppliers rely on fecal indicators, such as the well-established Escherichia coli (E. coli), to avoid costly Cryptosporidium assays. However, the use of E. coli has significant limitations in predicting the concentration, the removal and the transport of Cryptosporidium. This study presents a meta-analysis of E. coli to Cryptosporidium concentration paired ratios to compare their complex relationships in eight municipal wastewater sources, five agricultural fecal pollution sources and at 13 drinking water intakes (DWI) to a risk threshold based on US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Ratios lower than the USEPA risk threshold suggested higher concentrations of oocysts in relation to E. coli concentrations, revealing an underestimed risk for Cryptosporidium based on E. coli measurements. In raw sewage (RS), high ratios proved E. coli (or fecal coliforms) concentrations were a conservative indicator of Cryptosporidium concentrations, which was also typically true for secondary treated wastewater (TWW). Removals of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and parasites were quantified in WWTPs and their differences are put forward as a plausible explanation of the sporadic ratio shift. Ratios measured from agricultural runoff surface water were typically lower than the USEPA risk threshold and within the range of risk misinterpretation. Indeed, heavy precipitation events in the agricultural watershed led to high oocyst concentrations but not to E. coli or enterococci concentrations. More importantly, ratios established in variously impacted DWI from 13 Canadian drinking water plants were found to be related to dominant fecal pollution sources, namely municipal sewage. In most cases, when DWIs were mainly influenced by municipal sewage, E. coli or fecal coliforms concentrations agreed with

  20. The associated microflora to the larvae of human bot fly Dermatobia hominis L. Jr. (Diptera: Cuterebridae and its furuncular lesions in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sancho

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The microflora associated to furuncular lesions, larvae and pupae of Dermatobia hominis, as well as the relationships between parasite, host and microflora associated, as a comprehensive microsystem, has been studied. One hundred and two furuncular myiasis due to D. hominis larvae in several breeds of cattle were studied and the following bacterial species were significant: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. warneri, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Closely related, the microflora associated to 141 samples from first, second, third instar larva and both external surface and larval cavities has been studied. The representative associated microflora to the larvae were: S. aureus, B. subtilis, S. hycus and Moraxella phenylpiruvica, Moerella wisconsiensis, Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris, M. phenylpiruvica, M. wisconsiensis, P. mirabilis and P. rettgeri were the representative microflora associated to 64 pupae of D. hominis.

  1. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en vendedores ambulantes de comida del municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en una muestra de vendedores ambulantes de comida, aparentemente sanos, se realizó un estudio seccional con 415 personas que acudieron al Ambulatorio Urbano tipo III "Manoa" (Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, Programa de Higiene del Adulto, a solicitar el certificado de salud para trabajar como vendedores de comida. Una muestra de heces obtenida por evacuación espontánea fue analizada mediante la técnica de examen directo y método de concentración de Willis. Se encontraron 150 personas parasitadas (36,14%, de ellas 107 (25,78% con B. hominis. No se observó predilección por el sexo (p > 0,05, pero sí con relación a la edad, siendo las personas de 18 a 27 años las más afectados (ji² = 12,17; g.l. = 4. En el 71,02% de los casos se encontró como parásito único y en 28,98% de los casos asociados a otros parásitos, siendo el más frecuentemente asociado Giardia lamblia (2,41%. En la mayoría de las personas parasitadas (85% el protozoario se observó en un número menor de cinco células por campo. Se concluye que B. hominis es un parásito frecuente en manipuladores de alimentos del Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela.

  2. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en vendedores ambulantes de comida del municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Requena Ixora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar la prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en una muestra de vendedores ambulantes de comida, aparentemente sanos, se realizó un estudio seccional con 415 personas que acudieron al Ambulatorio Urbano tipo III "Manoa" (Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela, Programa de Higiene del Adulto, a solicitar el certificado de salud para trabajar como vendedores de comida. Una muestra de heces obtenida por evacuación espontánea fue analizada mediante la técnica de examen directo y método de concentración de Willis. Se encontraron 150 personas parasitadas (36,14%, de ellas 107 (25,78% con B. hominis. No se observó predilección por el sexo (p > 0,05, pero sí con relación a la edad, siendo las personas de 18 a 27 años las más afectados (ji² = 12,17; g.l. = 4. En el 71,02% de los casos se encontró como parásito único y en 28,98% de los casos asociados a otros parásitos, siendo el más frecuentemente asociado Giardia lamblia (2,41%. En la mayoría de las personas parasitadas (85% el protozoario se observó en un número menor de cinco células por campo. Se concluye que B. hominis es un parásito frecuente en manipuladores de alimentos del Municipio Caroní, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela.

  3. Detection of T. vaginalis,M. hominis,M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and U. urealyticum using Multiplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Brunelli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intoduction. The sexually transmitted diseases include a large group of infections affecting both the sexes. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the Prato area during the period September 2010 – July 2011. Methods.We analysed different kind of samples (urine, endocervical swabs, urethral swabs, seminal fluids from hospitalized patients or referred to the Prato clinic subjects.The DNA was obtained using EZ1-DNA extraction kit and EZ1 instrument.The DNA was then amplified using the Seeplex STD6 kit (Seegene, Korea, identifying multiple pathogens simultaneously (T. vaginalis, M. hominis, M. genitalium, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae e U. urealyticum. The revelation was performed by electrophoresis on microchip (instrument Multina, Shimadzu, Japan. Results. 1136 samples from Italian and foreign patients were examined: 876 were endocervical swabs (77%, 103 urethral swabs (9%, 103 seminal fluids (9%, and 54 urines (5%. The number of females was higher than males [894 (78.7% vs 242 (21.3%]; the mean age of females was 37.0±11.6 years, whereas that of males was 41.5 ±12.63 years.The prevalence of urogenital pathogens was: 15 positive samples for T. vaginalis (1.3%, 56 for M. hominis (4.9%, 13 for M. genitalium (1.1%, 28 for C. trachomatis (2.5%, 8 for N. gonorrhoeae (0.7% and 87 for U. urealyticum (7.7%.Among all positive, 25 subjects were positive for more than one pathogen and in particular: one was positive for the presence of 4 pathogens, five presented 3 pathogens simultaneously and the remaining nineteen for 2 pathogens. Conclusions. This study provides data on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in the hospital of Prato.

  4. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in genital samples collected over 6 years at a Serbian university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Skiljevic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are implicated in a wide array of infectious diseases in adults and children. Since some species have innate or acquired resistance to certain types of antibiotics, antibiotic susceptibility testing of mycoplasma isolated from the urogenital tract assumes increasing importance. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of M. hominis and U. urealyticum in genital samples collected between 2007 and 2012. Methods: Three hundred and seventy three patients presenting with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases, infertility or risky sexual behaviour, who had not taken antibiotics in the previous 6 weeks and had ≥10 WBC per high power field on genital smears were studied. Urethral samples were taken in men and endocervical samples in women. The mycoplasma IST-2 kit was used for organism identification and for testing susceptibility to doxycycline, josamycin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and pristinamycin. Results: U. urealyticum was isolated from 42 patients and M. hominis from 11 patients. From 9.8% of isolates, both organisms were grown. All M. hominis isolates were resistant to tetracycline, clarithromycin and erythromycin while U. urealyticum was highly resistant to clarithromycin (94.6%, tetracycline (86.5%, ciprofloxacin (83.8% and erythromycin (83.8%. M. hominis was sensitive to doxycycline (83.3% and ofloxacin (66.7% while most U. urealyticum strains were sensitive to doxycycline (94.6%. Limitations: Inability of the commercial kit used in the study to detect other potentially pathogenic urogenital mycoplasmas (Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium. Conclusion: There is significant resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to tetracycline and macrolides. The most active tetracycline for genital mycoplasmas was found to be doxycycline, which continues to be the drug of first choice.

  5. Growth-promoting activity of Hominis Placenta extract on regenerating sciatic nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae-beom SEO; Dong-hee KIM; Seung-kiel PARK; Deok-chun YANG; Uk NAMGUNG; In-sun HAN; Jin-hwan YOON; In-chan SEOL; Yun-sik KIM; Hyun-kyung JO; Joung-jo AN; Kwon-eui HONG; Young-bae SEO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Extract of Hominis Placenta (HP) has been used in oriental medicine as an agent for improving physiological function. The present study was conducted to investigate whether HP treatment in an experimental sciatic nerve injury animal model produces growth-promoting effects on regenerating peripheral nerve fibers after injury. Methods: After HP was injected into a sciatic nerve injury site, changes in protein levels were analyzed in the regenerating nerve area by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining analyses. For quantitative assessment of axonal regeneration, a retrograde tracing technique was used to identify the neuronal cell bodies corresponding to regenerating axons, and the extent of neurite outgrowth in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons prepared from animals that had experienced a sciatic nerve crush injury 7 d before neuron collection was analyzed. Results: Induction levels of axonal growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the injured sciatic nerves were elevated by HP treatment. HP treatment also upregulated cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein levels in the distal stump of the injured sciatic nerve. Induced Cdc2 protein was detected in Schwann cells, suggesting that Cdc2 kinase activity may be involved in the growth-promoting activity of regenerating axons via Schwann cell proliferation. Cell body measurement by retrograde tracing indicated that HP treatment produced significant increases in regenerating motor axons. Finally, HP treatment of cultured DRG sensory neurons significantly increased neurite arborization and elongation.Conclusion: HP promotes the regeneration of injured sciatic axons by upregulating the synthesis of regeneration-related protein factors such as GAP-43 and Cdc2.

  6. Therapeutic effects of Hominis placenta herb-acupuncture in adjuvant-induced arthritis rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MiJung Yeom

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, characterized by leukocyte infiltration, a chronic inflammation of the joint, a pannus formation and the extensive destruction of the articular cartilage and bone. Several proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been implicated in the pathological mechanisms of synovial tissue proliferation, joint destruction and programmed cell death in rheumatoid joint. In the Korean traditional medicine, Hominis placenta (HP as an herbal solution of herb-acupuncture has been widely used to treat the inflammatory diseases including RA. In order to study the medicinal effect of HP herb-acupuncture on rheumatoid joint, an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA was generated by the injection of 1.5 mg of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, emulsified in squalene, to the base of the tail of Spraque-Dawley (SD rats. After onset stage of polyarthritis, HP was daily injected to the Zusanli (ST36 acupuncture points in both of rat lags and the expression patterns of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the knee joint were analyzed using immunostaining and RT-PCR. The HP herb-acupuncture was found to be effective to alleviate the arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats as regards the joint appearance and the expression profiles of inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, therapeutic effects of HP herb-acupuncture on the rat with AIA might be related to anti-inflammatory activities of the hurb-acupuncture.

  7. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of cryptosporidium to surface waters: A case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, J.; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  8. Modelling the impact of sanitation, population growth and urbanization on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters—a case study for Bangladesh and India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, L.C.; Kraker, Dummy; Hofstra, N.; Kroeze, C.; Medema, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite that can cause diarrhoea. Human faeces are an important source of Cryptosporidium in surface waters. We present a model to study the impact of sanitation, urbanization and population growth on human emissions of Cryptosporidium to surface waters. We build on a

  9. First report of furuncular myiasis caused by the larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, in a Taiwanese traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Je-Ming; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chao, Li-Lian; Lee, Chung-Shinn; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2013-03-01

    A case of furuncular myiasis was reported for the first time in a 29-year-old young Taiwanese traveler returning from an ecotourism in Peru. Furuncle-like lesions were observed on the top of his head and he complained of crawling sensations within his scalp. The invasive larva of botfly, Dermatobia hominis, was extruded from the furuncular lesion of the patient. Awareness of cutaneous myiasis for clinicians should be considered for a patient who has a furuncular lesion and has recently returned from a botfly-endemic area.

  10. Caracterização da variabilidade da mosca do berne Dermatobia hominis (Diptera : oestridae) atraves de dois marcadores moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Taila Andrade Lemos

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: Dermatobia hominis (Linnaus Jr.) conhecida popularmente como mosca do berne. É uma das principais causadoras de miíase primária em vertebrados. sendo uma das principais pragas da pecuária nacional. causando grandes prejuízos à industria coureira. laticínios e frigoríficos. A mosca do berne apresenta uma biologia interessante e ciclo de vida bastante peculiar. o que dificuta a observação da espécie na natureza e a manutenção desta em laboratório. Por estes motivos. a caracterização da ...

  11. Dípteros fanídeos vetores de ovos de Dermatobia hominis em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Patrícia R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a importância epidemiológica de dípteros Fanniidae na infestação de mosca-do-berne, por meio da identificação das espécies presentes, da determinação daquelas utilizadas por Dermatobia hominis na veiculação de seus ovos, bem como, pelo conhecimento da dinâmica populacional das espécies mais abundantes. Foram utilizadas cinco armadilhas iscadas com fígado bovino cru deteriorado e colocadas em uma mata ciliar margeada por uma área de pastagem com presença constante de bovinos. O estudo foi desenvolvido em uma área da Embrapa Gado de Corte, em Campo Grande, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, localizada a 20º27'S e 54º37'W. A captura dos insetos foi realizada semanalmente durante o período de 09/08/1999 a 03/08/2000. Foi capturado um total de 40.629 moscas da família Fanniidae, pertencendo a cinco espécies do gênero Fannia: F. pusio, F. heydenii, F. bahiensis e F. longipila, e uma a ser identificada. A espécie mais freqüente foi F. pusio, com 63,20% do total capturado, seguida de F. heydenii, com 28,82%. Somente 0,44% do total de fêmeas de F. heydenii (45 exemplares capturadas, principalmente nos meses de agosto e setembro, portavam ovos de D. hominis e o número médio, por indivíduo, foi de 15,98±7,13. Observaram-se ovos de D. hominis apenas na região abdominal dos vetores. F. heydenii predominou no período seco (maio a setembro e início do período chuvoso do ano (outubro e novembro. O número de exemplares portando ovos de D. hominis foi maior no final do período seco do ano, o que explica a alta incidência deste parasito em bovinos nos meses de setembro e outubro.

  12. Physical and genetic mapping of the genomes of five Mycoplasma hominis strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1992-01-01

    We present the complete maps of five Mycoplasma hominis genomes, including a detailed restriction map and the locations of a number of genetic loci. The restriction fragments were resolved by field inversion gel electrophoresis or by the contour-clamped homogeneous-electric-field system of pulsed...... was inverted. The numbers and order of mapped restriction sites were only partly conserved, and this conservation was restricted to certain regions. The gene order was compared with the gene order established for other bacteria and was found to be identical to that of the phylogenetically related Clostridium...

  13. Dermabacter hominis: a usually daptomycin-resistant gram-positive organism infrequently isolated from human clinical samples

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Natal, I.; Sáez-Nieto, J A; Medina-Pascual, M J; Albersmeier, A.; Valdezate, S.; Guerra-Laso, J M; H. Rodríguez; Marrodán, T; Parras, T; TAUCH, A.; Soriano, F

    2014-01-01

    During a 12-year period, Dermabacter hominis was isolated from 21 clinical samples belonging to 14 patients attending a tertiary hospital in León, Spain. Samples included blood cultures (14), peritoneal dialysis catheter exit sites (three), cutaneous abscesses (two), an infected vascular catheter (one) and a wound swab (one). Identification was made by API Coryne™ V2.0, Biolog™ GP2 and 16S rRNA gene amplification. Six febrile patients had positive blood cultures (one, two or three sets) and a...

  14. PCR-Múltiple para el diagnóstico de Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Rodríguez-Preval

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum y Ureaplasma urealyticum son especies relacionadas con enfermedades del tracto genitourinario, y particularmente con la uretritis no gonocócica (UNG en el hombre. Los cultivos de estos microorganismos resultan complicados, por lo que las técnicas moleculares, principalmente la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR, se han convertido en el principal método de detección de estos organismos. Objetivo: Implementar un método molecular basado en tecnología de genes para el diagnóstico de estas cuatro especies de micoplasmas genitales, aplicándolo en muestras clínicas de pacientes con UNG. Material y métodos: Se crearon las condiciones para un PCR-Múltiple para identificar estas especies empleando como muestra ADN de referencia, utilizando los juegos de cebadores complementarios a fragmentos de los genes de la proteína adhesiva de M. genitalium (MgPa, ARN ribosomal 16S de M. hominis, región espaciadora entre los genes del ARN ribosomal 16S y 23S de U. parvum, y de la región espaciadora adyacente al gen de la ureasa y específico para U. urealyticum, siendo un método específico y sensible. Resultados: Al analizar 34 muestras de exudado uretral, 27 correspondieron a la clase Mollicutes, obteniéndose 14,8% de positividad a M. genitalium, 18,5% a M. hominis, 11,1% a U. urealyticum y 3,7%. a U. parvum. Con este trabajo se realizó por primera vez el diagnóstico de M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. parvum y U. urealyticum en muestras uretrales de pacientes cubanos. Conclusión: Se recomienda incluir el diagnóstico de estas especies en un mayor número de pacientes cubanos con síntomas uretrales, para validar el método propuesto y conocer la relación de estos microorganismos con la UNG.

  15. Household Socioeconomic and Demographic Correlates of Cryptosporidium Seropositivity in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Becker

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium are parasitic protozoa that infect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife globally. In the United States, cryptosporidiosis occurs in an estimated 750,000 persons annually, and is primarily caused by either of the Cryptosporidium parvum genotypes 1 and 2, exposure to which occurs through ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocytes shed from infected hosts. Although most cryptosporidiosis cases are caused by genotype 1 and are of human origin, the zoonotic sources of genotype 2, such as livestock, are increasingly recognized as important for understanding human disease patterns. Social inequality could mediate patterns of human exposure and infection by placing individuals in environments where food or water contamination and livestock contact is high or through reducing the availability of educational and sanitary resources required to avoid exposure.We here analyzed data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES between 1999 and 2000, and related seropositivity to Cryptosporidium parvum to correlates of social inequality at the household and individual scale. After accounting for the complex sampling design of NHANES and confounding by individual demographics and household conditions, we found impaired household food adequacy was associated with greater odds of Cryptosporidium seropositivity. Additionally, we identified individuals of non-white race and ethnicity and those born outside the United States as having significantly greater risk than white, domestic-born counterparts. Furthermore, we provide suggestive evidence for direct effects of family wealth on Cryptosporidium seropositivity, in that persons from low-income households and from families close to the poverty threshold had elevated odds of seropositivity relative to those in high-income families and in households far above the poverty line.These results refute assertions that cryptosporidiosis in the United States is independent of

  16. Potential molecular tools for assessing the public health risk associated with waterborne Cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothavade, Rajendra J

    2012-08-01

    The use of multiple barrier stages at water and wastewater treatment facilities allows for the effective removal of the vast majority of coliforms and other enteric and non-enteric microbes. Subsequent disinfection steps (chlorine, ozone and UV irradiation) are utilized to inactivate microbes that escape the preceding treatment stages. Most viruses, bacteria and protozoa, such as Giardia, are effectively inactivated by chlorination; however, Cryptosporidium is relatively more resistant to environmental conditions and to chlorination. Therefore, UV disinfection has been introduced at many water and wastewater treatment plants to increase log inactivation. Any accidental treatment failure may pose a significant risk to public health. Waterborne transmission of coccidian parasites such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia continues to be a major public health concern. No effective therapies currently exist to treat cryptosporidiosis and the global increase in immunocompromised populations has emphasized the need for water utilities and public health laboratories to have immediate and reliable access to highly sensitive test methods that can determine the host specificity, viability and infectivity of protozoa in the water supply. The most common method used for monitoring Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts at intermediate treatment stages and in finished drinking water is the US EPA Method 1623. Although Cryptosporidium species are morphologically indistinguishable, they differ greatly in their host specificity and infectivity. Method 1623 provides quantitative information about Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination but cannot distinguish between species for intervention purposes in outbreak situations, nor is this method reliable for determining whether the oocyst on the slide is infective for humans. Molecular methods have proven valuable in diagnosing infectious diseases, especially those for which the causative agent is difficult to grow in culture, and

  17. A perspective on Cryptosporidium and Giardia, with an emphasis on bovines and recent epidemiological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B

    2015-04-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two common aetiological agents of infectious enteritis in humans and animals worldwide. These parasitic protists are usually transmitted by the faecal-oral route, following the ingestion of infective stages (oocysts or cysts). An essential component of the control of these parasitic infections, from a public health perspective, is an understanding of the sources and routes of transmission in different geographical regions. Bovines are considered potential sources of infection for humans, because species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infecting humans have also been isolated from cattle in molecular parasitological studies. However, species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia of bovids, and the extent of zoonotic transmission in different geographical regions in the world, are still relatively poorly understood. The purpose of this article is to (1) provide a brief background on Cryptosporidium and Giardia, (2) review some key aspects of the molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in animals, with an emphasis on bovines, (3) summarize research of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from cattle and water buffaloes in parts of Australasia and Sri Lanka, considering public health aspects and (4) provide a perspective on future avenues of study. Recent studies reinforce that bovines harbour Cryptosporidium and Giardia that likely pose a human health risk and highlight the need for future investigations of the biology, population genetics and transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cattle, water buffaloes and other ruminants in different geographical regions, the fate and transport of infective stages following their release into the environment, as well as for improved strategies for the control and prevention of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis, guided by molecular epidemiological studies.

  18. First molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywardena, Harshanie; Jex, Aaron R; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg; Haydon, Shane R; Stevens, Melita A; Gasser, Robin B

    2013-12-01

    We conducted a molecular epidemiological survey of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from Bubalus bubalis (water buffalo) on two extensive farms (450 km apart) in Victoria, Australia. Faecal samples (n=476) were collected from different age groups of water buffalo at two time points (six months apart) and tested using a PCR-based mutation scanning-targeted sequencing-phylogenetic approach, employing markers within the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (designated pSSU) and triose phosphate isomerase (ptpi) genes. Based on pSSU data, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium genotypes 1, 2 (each 99% similar genetically to Cryptosporidium ryanae) and 3 (99% similar to Cryptosporidium suis) were detected in two (0.4%), one (0.2%), 38 (8.0%), 16 (3.4%) and one (0.2%) of the 476 samples tested, respectively. Using ptpi, Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and E were detected in totals of 56 (11.8%) and six (1.3%) of these samples, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected on both farms, whereas Giardia was detected only on farm B, and both genera were detected in 1.5% of all samples tested. The study showed that water buffaloes on these farms excreted C. parvum and/or G. duodenalis assemblage A, which are consistent with those found in humans, inferring that these particular pathogens are of zoonotic significance. Future work should focus on investigating, in a temporal and spatial manner, the prevalence and intensity of such infections in water buffaloes in various geographical regions in Australia and in other countries.

  19. Cryptosporidium spp. in pet birds: genetic diversity and potential public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Ning, Changshen; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Longxian; Jian, Fuchun; Sun, Yanru; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-08-01

    To characterize the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species/genotypes in pet birds in Henan, China, 434 fecal samples were acquired from 14 families of birds in pet shops. The overall prevalence of Cryptopsoridium was 8.1% (35/434) by the Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The Cryptosporidium-positive samples were analyzed by DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. Three Cryptosporidium species and two genotypes were identified, including C. baileyi (18/35 or 51.4%) in five red-billed leiothrixes (Leiothrix lutea), four white Java sparrows (Padda oryzivora), four common mynas (Acridotheres tristis), two zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), a crested Lark (Galerida cristata), a Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae), and a black-billed magpie (Pica pica); Cryptosporidium meleagridis (3/35 or 8.6%) in a Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus), a Rufous turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis), and a fan-tailed pigeon (Columba livia); Cryptosporidium galli (5/35 or 14.3%) in four Bohemian waxwings (Bombycilla garrulus) and a silver-eared Mesia (Leiothrix argentauris); Cryptosporidium avian genotype III (3/35 or 8.6%) in two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and a red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha); and Cryptosporidium avian genotype V (6/35 or 17.1%) in six cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus). Among the pet birds, 12 species represented new hosts for Cryptosporidum infections. The presence of C. meleagridis raises questions on potential zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis from pet birds to humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Funada, Mikaela Renata; Richtzenhain, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marta Brito; Souza, Sheila de Oliveira; Allegretti, Luciana; Sinhorini, Juliana Anaya; Duarte, Vanessa Vertematti; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2011-01-10

    In wild and domestic birds, cryptosporidiosis is often associated with infections by Cryptosporidium galli, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis. In addition to these species, a number of avian Cryptosporidium species yet to be fully characterized are commonly found among exotic and wild avian isolates. The present study aimed to detect and identify samples of Cryptosporidium spp. from free-living wild birds, in order to contribute to the knowledge of the variability of this parasite in the free-living population of Brazil. Stool samples were collected from 242 birds, with the following proportions of individuals: 50 Emberizidae (20.7%), 112 Psittacidae (46.3%), 44 Cardinalidae (18.2%), 12 Turdidae (5.0%), eight Ramphastidae (3.3%), seven Icteridae (2.9%), three Estrilididae (1.2%), two Contigidae (0.8%), two Thraupidae (0.8%) and two Fringilidae (0.8%). Among the 242 fecal samples from wild birds, 16 (6.6%) were positive for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium. Molecular characterization of the 16 samples of Cryptosporidium, were performed with phylogenetic reconstructions employing 292 positions of 18S rDNA. None of the samples of birds was characterized as C. meleagridis. C. galli was identified in one rufous-bellied thrush (Turdus rufiventris), five green-winged saltators (Saltator similis), one slate-coloured seedeater (Sporophila schistacea), one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) and three saffron finches (Sicalis flaveola). One goldfinch isolate, one buffy-fronted seedeater (Sporophila frontalis), one red-cowled cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) and one other saffron finch (S. flaveola) were identified as C. baileyi. Avian genotype II was found in an isolate from a white-eyed parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalma). Clinical symptoms of cryptosporidiosis in birds have already been described and the number of wild birds which were shedding parasites was high. Therefore, further epidemiological research and disease surveillance of birds in the

  1. Observações sobre Blastocystis hominis e Cyclospora cayetanensis em exames parasitológicos efetuados rotineiramente Observations on Blastocystis hominis and Cyclospora cayetanensis in routine parasitological examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Semira Rodriguez Alarcón

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos algumas observações, efetuadas com exames parasitológicos de fezes, em atividades rotineiras: os métodos de Faust e cols e de sedimentação espontânea em água não servem para evidenciação de Blastocystis hominis; foram encontradas expressivas porcentagens de presença desse protozoário, sobretudo quando realizada coloração pela hematoxilina férrica; houve 0,7% de registro de positividade para Cyclospora cayetanensis, sugerindo inclusão habitual de pesquisa, por técnicas apropriadas, de tal parasita.We report some observations made from routine parasitological examinations on feces. The methods of Faust et al. and of spontaneous sedimentation in water are not enough to identify Blastocystis hominis. Significant percentage presence of this protozoan was found, especially when staining with iron hematoxylin was performed. Cyclospora cayetanensis was found in 0.7% of the cases, which suggests that this parasite should also routinely be investigated by appropriate techniques.

  2. HIV-1 LTR subtype and perinatal transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, J T; Renjifo, B; Fawzi, W; Hertzmark, E; Msamanga, G; Mwakagile, D; Hunter, D; Spiegelman, D; Sharghi, N; Kagoma, C; Essex, M

    2001-09-01

    Multiple subtypes of HIV-1 have been identified; however, there is little data on the relative transmissibility of viruses belonging to different subtypes. A matched case-control study addressed whether viruses with different long terminal repeat (LTR) subtypes were transmitted equally from mother to infant. The LTR subtype was determined for 45 matched cases and controls who participated in a clinical trial in Tanzania. HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D and intersubtype recombinant sequences were identified. Exact matched logistic regression analysis showed that viruses containing subtype A or intersubtype recombinant LTRs were 3.2 and 4.8 times more likely to be transmitted from mother to infant than viruses with subtype D LTRs. Viruses containing subtype C LTRs were 6.1 times more likely to be transmitted than those with subtype D LTRs. These differences in transmission were independent of maternal CD4 at enrollment. Thus, it appears that HIV-1 subtype may be associated with differing rates of perinatal transmission in Tanzania. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, Shawn K. K.; Morris, Robert

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  4. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli in HIV-infected patients

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    Dnieber Chagas Assis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli are monoxenic protozoa that have been recognized as the causative agents of chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised individuals, especially HIV-infected subjects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of these intestinal protozoa in HIV-positive patients in the Triângulo Mineiro region of Brazil and to correlate the presence of these infections with clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data of the patients. Oocysts were detected in stool samples of 10 (16.9% of the 59 patients studied, while Cryptosporidium spp. were present in 10.1% (6/59 and C. belli in 6.7% (4/59. The frequency of these parasites was higher among patients with diarrheic syndrome and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts < 200 cells/mm 3 , demonstrating the opportunistic characteristic of these infections. A significant association was observed between the lack of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and/or C. belli. Parasitism with Cryptosporidium spp. was more frequent in February and April, the months following the period of high rainfall. The same was not observed for C. belli. Genetic characterization of two isolates led to the identification of Cryptosporidium parvum, one of the main species associated with the zoonotic transmission of cryptosporidiosis.

  5. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnam, S; Paddock, J; McDonald, E; Whitty, D; Jong, M; Cooper, R

    1985-01-01

    During a 7-month period, 2,252 fecal samples submitted for routine microbiological examination from 1,621 patients were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts by the auramine staining method with Kinyoun acid-fast stain as the confirmatory stain. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in fecal samples from 19 (1.2%) patients, 18 of whom had gastroenteritis. Diarrheic stools from 14 of these 18 patients were negative for the usual enteropathogens but contained the oocysts in moderate to large numbers. Although Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in patients of all ages, they occurred slightly more frequently in infants and children than in the rest. Cryptosporidium species was one of the common enteropathogens identified in fecal samples submitted for routine parasitological examination during the period of the survey and was second only to Giardia species in terms of frequency. Considering cryptosporidiosis in the differential diagnosis of gastroenteritis in immunocompetent persons and including a search for Cryptosporidium oocysts in routine parasitological examinations of fecal samples appear warranted. PMID:4044798

  6. Prevalence and Diversity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia Identified Among Feral Pigs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rivera, Lorraine D; Cummings, Kevin J; McNeely, Isaac; Suchodolski, Jan S; Scorza, Andrea V; Lappin, Michael R; Mesenbrink, Brian T; Leland, Bruce R; Bodenchuk, Michael J

    2016-12-01

    The population size and geographic range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding. Nevertheless, the role of this invasive species in the ecology and transmission of zoonotic enteric pathogens is poorly understood. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for infection. Fecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were detected using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and genotyping of positive samples was performed. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium shedding was 1.6% (6/370), and C. scrofarum and C. suis were identified. The prevalence of Giardia shedding was 4.3% (16/370), and assemblages A and E were identified. Cryptosporidium shedding was significantly more common among juvenile and subadult pigs than among adult pigs, but age group was not associated with Giardia shedding status. Feral pigs may serve as a source of Cryptosporidium and Giardia transmission to humans and livestock.

  7. Removal of Cryptosporidium and polystyrene microspheres from swimming pool water with sand, cartridge, and precoat filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amburgey, James E; Walsh, Kimberly J; Fielding, Roy R; Arrowood, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium has caused the majority of waterborne disease outbreaks in treated recreational water venues in the USA for many years running. This research project evaluated some common US swimming pool filters for removing Cryptosporidium oocysts, 5-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres, and 1-µm diameter polystyrene microspheres. A 946 L hot tub with interchangeable sand, cartridge, and precoat filters was used at room temperature for this research. Simulated pool water for each experiment was created from Charlotte, NC (USA) tap water supplemented with alkalinity, hardness, chlorine, and a mixture of artificial sweat and urine. Precoat (i.e., diatomaceous earth and perlite) filters demonstrated pathogen removal efficiencies of 2.3 to 4.4 log (or 99.4-99.996%). However, sand and cartridge filters had average Cryptosporidium removals of 0.19 log (36%) or less. The combined low filter removal efficiencies of sand and cartridge filters along with the chlorine-resistant properties of Cryptosporidium oocysts could indicate a regulatory gap warranting further attention and having significant implications on the protection of public health in recreational water facilities. The 5-µm microspheres were a good surrogate for Cryptosporidium oocysts in this study and hold promise for use in future research projects, field trials, and/or product testing on swimming pool filters.

  8. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum by direct immunofluorescence assay in stool specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Hossain, M A; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Islam, A; Ehsan, M A; Alam, M M; Kabir, M R; Sarkar, S R

    2014-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the pathogens which transmitted through contaminated soil and contaminated water are significant causes of diarrhea and nutritional disorders in institutional and community peoples. Children and immune compromise persons are more vulnerable for these infections. Both Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis were included in 2004 as WHO Neglected Disease. So this is a major public health problem in developing countries. The present study was carried out to detect the Giardia and Cryptosporidium from diarrheic or patient having loose stool by Direct Immunofluorescence assay. The study was conducted during July 20012 to February 2013 and the work was done in Mymensingh Medical College in the department of Microbiology and in Bangladesh Agricultural University in the department of Veterinary Medicine. A total of 100 loose stools were collected from school children of different area and hospital under sadar upazilla, Mymensingh. The detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum showed the individual prevalence 8% and 4% respectively. The highest cyst/oocyst count was 85,000 and 1,000/gm of stool and the lowest being 100 and 50/gm of stool for Giardiasis and Cryptosporidiosis respectively. The detection rate of Giardia and Cryptosporidium by Immunofluorescence assay was relatively higher than the previous study done in Bangladesh and this was the first report from Bangladesh over human stool specimen using Immunofluorescence assay. So, Immunofluorescence assay could be adapted for rapid and accurate detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

  9. Waterborne transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium at river beaches in Southern Europe (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlio, Cláudia; Sá, Cátia; Ferreira, Idalina; Martins, Susana; Oleastro, Mónica; Angelo, Helena; Guerreiro, José; Tenreiro, Rogério

    2012-09-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are the most frequent enteric protozoa causing gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Intense recreational activity at Portuguese river beaches triggered the opportunity for a 2-year seasonal survey of 19 large river basin beaches. A total of 74 samples were collected and processed according to USEPA Method 1623 to detect Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts. Faecal indicators (thermotolerant/total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci) and physicochemical parameters were also analysed according to the EU Bath Water Directive (BWD). Results pointed to a widespread presence of these protozoa at Portuguese river beaches. The percentage of samples testing positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium were 85 and 82% respectively, with no significant differences between wet and dry seasons (p > 0.05). Although Portuguese river beaches present a very low exposure risk for infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium (under 10(-3)), a few particular cases revealed values over 0.2%, and were related to stormy wet events. The correlation between levels of Giardia and thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli and enterococci, was high (r ≥ 0.87, p Giardia and Cryptosporidium whenever the values of those faecal indicators approach the maximum allowed level of the EU BWD.

  10. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium spp. infection in young domestic livestock in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Prem Sagar; Rakesh, Radhamma Lakshmipathy; Pradeep, Balaraju; Kumar, Saroj; Kundu, Krishnendu; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kumar, Ashok; Banerjee, Partha Sarathi

    2013-04-01

    A total of 938 faecal samples (461 cattle calves, 264 buffalo calves, 55 lambs, 116 kids and 42 piglets) from different livestock farms and individual small holdings in six targeted states of India were collected and screened by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and its association with age, sex, season and faecal consistency in domesticated animals. Overall, 16.2 % of the animals were positive for Cryptosporidium infection with prevalence of 16.3, 24.2, 1.8, 3.5 and 19.1 % in cattle calves, buffalo calves, lambs, kids and piglets, respectively. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher (p0.05) was recorded in females than in males. Seasons had a significant effect (p0.05) in post-monsoon than in monsoon season. A high degree of association was noticed between Cryptosporidium infection and diarrhoea in ruminants screened during the present study. But, in case of pigs, the prevalence was higher in non-diarrhoeic than in diarrhoeic animals. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. based on nested PCR amplification of partial 18S rRNA and its subsequent digestion with SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes revealed prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum in representative number of positive samples of cattle, buffalo and goats.

  12. Método rápido para la observación de Cryptosporidium en heces Rapid method for detection of cryptosporidium in stools

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    Graciela Barona

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1990 y diciembre de 1991 se examinaron 120 muestras de materia fecal de niños o adultos que consultaron por diarrea, sugestiva de ser causada por Cryptosporidium spp. En todos los casos se realizó la coloración con Lugol-Nigroslna, que proponemos, y se hizo la confirmación con la de Ziehl Neelsen modificada, pese a su limitación de teñir con el mismo patrón de coloración el Cryptosporldium y estructuras diferentes a él. En 20 (16.6% muestras (12 de niños y 8 de adultos se identificaron ooquistes de Cryptosporldlum spp y todas se confirmaron como positivas por la coloración de Ziehl Neelsen modificada. Dado que no siempre es fácil la observación de parásitos de poca prevalencia sugerimos esta coloración como ensayo de rutina porque ayuda a distinguir los ooquistes de Cryptosporidium y mejora la observación de todos los protozoarios.

    We examined 120 stool specimens from patients with diarrheal disease, suspected of being infected with Cryptosporidium. Preliminary observation was made with a Lugol-Nigrosine stain and confirmation with modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Twenty specimens (12 from children and 8 from adults (16.6% were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts andevery one of them was confirmed with ZN stain. Since It may be difficult to detect low-prevalence parasites we suggest routine use of Lugol-Nigrosine which is useful for the detection of Cryptosporidium as well as of other protozoa.

  13. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Harvested from two lakes and artificial ponds in Zaria, Northern Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joy Cecilia Atawodi; Armayau Hamisu Bichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) harvested from two lakes and ponds in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria.Methods:Catfish samples (n=200) from two lakes and (n=200) from two private fish ponds were collected and their gills and gastrointestinal tract samples were analysed for Cryptosporidium oocysts using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique was used, followed by microscopy. Results: Oocysts of Cryptosporidium species were found in all the sampling sites with an overall positivity rate of 49.75%. A comparison between the lakes and ponds as sampling sites revealed a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher percentage of occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocyst from the lakes (39.25%) than from the ponds (10.50%). Conclusions: These findings document for the first time the natural occurrence ofCryptosporidium sp. in catfish intended for human consumption and therefore, underlines the need for public enlightenment to guard against any possible zoonotic transmission.

  14. Association between preterm labor and genitourinary tract infections caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Gram-negative bacilli, and coryneforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Alaa El-Dien M S; El-Khayat, Waleed; Kashef, Mona T; Fakhry, Mohsen N

    2017-09-01

    Preterm labor (PTL) is responsible for most cases of neonatal death. In most of these cases, the causes of PTL have not been established although several risk factors have been described. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for PTL before 37 gestational weeks among Egyptian women. In this case-control study, 117 pregnant women without risk factors for PTL were chosen. The control group (n=45) had term labor (gestational weeks≥37 weeks), and the case group (n=72) had PTL (gestational weeks 5, a positive whiff test, Trichomonas vaginalis infection, Mycoplasma hominis infection, coryneforms heavy vaginal growth, and any vaginal growth of Gram-negative bacilli. Urinary tract infection with any colony count was not associated with PTL. Our study demonstrated that the main risk factors for PTL were vaginal infection with T. vaginalis, M. hominis, coryneforms, and Gram-negative bacilli, and their determinants (vaginal pH>5, positive whiff test, heavy vaginal bleeding). Both young age (< 20 years) and poor obstetric history were also the risk factors. Therefore, screening for genitourinary tract infections is strongly recommended to be included in prenatal care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. [Furuncular myiasis caused by Dermatobia hominis. Fortuitous diagnosis on extemporaneous macroscopic analysis of an excised cutaneous nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, G; Jeandel, R; Biechler, M; Boivin, J-F; Hillion, B

    2015-12-01

    Furuncular myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the development of human botfly larva in the skin. It affects people living in tropical countries and travelers returning from these countries and concerns a number of medical specialties. One form of treatment involves surgical extraction of the parasites. We report the case of a 47-year-old man returning from Guyana presenting two furuncle-like nodules of the skin on the right buttock and on the right shoulder blade. Extemporaneous intraoperative macroscopic examination of the buttock nodule resulted in diagnosis of myiasis caused by the human botfly, Dermatobia hominis. The diagnosis of furuncular myiasis is made primarily on clinical grounds and should be suspected on observation of an abscess in subjects returning from a tropical region. It is consequently rare to find D. hominis in biopsy specimens. In the present case, macroscopic examination showed an extremely rare image of the edge of the intact larva in a longitudinal cut, which to our knowledge has never been published to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment for intractable anemia with the traditional Chinese medicines Hominis Placenta and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue

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    Yasuyo Hijikata

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuyo Hijikata1, Takashi Kano2, Lu Xi31Toyodo Hijikata Clinic, Osaka, Japan; 2Kano Clinic, Osaka city, Osaka, Japan; 3Traditional Chinese Medicine Institute, Si-chuan Province, ChinaObjective: Intractable anemia, such as aplastic anemia or that presumably associated with chronic herpes virus infections, sometimes require bone marrow transplant. We investigated the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for the treatment of intractable anemia. Method: Placenta Hominis (PH, steam boiled and roasted, and Cervi Cornus Colla (deer antler glue has been used in China for hundreds of years to treat anemia. After consent was obtained, we prescribed these two materials for a 74-year-old female with aplastic anemia and a 26-year-old male with presumably a virus-induced anemia. Concomitant conventional therapy was continued in both patients as prescribed by their respective attending physicians. Conclusion: Conventional therapy with steroid hormones, immunosuppressive drugs, platelet and erythrocyte transfusions were not effective in these patients. In addition, both patients suffered from serious side effects. In two patients, ingestion of Placenta Hominis and Cervi Cornus Colla with TCM prescriptions increased the platelet and enhanced the hemoglobin concentration in several months of therapy accompanied by a dramatic improvement in quality of life. The addition to conventional therapy of PH and Cervi Cornus Colla, the latter of which is very easy to obtain, may be one of the potentially advantageous choices in case of otherwise intractable anemia.Keywords: placenta, antler glue, Cervi Cornus Colla, anemia, aplastic anemia

  17. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

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    Ernest V. Boiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT, M. hominis (MH, and U. urealyticum (UU infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED, since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n=114 and nondry eye control (n=98 groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them.

  18. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT), M. hominis (MH), and U. urealyticum (UU) infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED), since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n = 114) and nondry eye control (n = 98) groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them. PMID:24967096

  19. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, A; Saikku, P; Jansson, E; Paavonen, J

    1986-01-01

    We studied selected epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and microbiologic findings and their interrelationships among 57 women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Cervical cultures positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae alone and for both N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were associated with young age, nulliparity, and use of birth-control pills. Positive serologic findings for C. trachomatis were associated with the isolation of C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae from the cervix and predicted the presence of a pelvic mass. High levels of antibody to Mycoplasma hominis were associated with increasing age and parity, and predicted a low concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), a long hospital stay, and a high convalescent-phase erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Women with recurrent PID had higher titers of antibody to C. trachomatis than those with primary PID. The use of an intrauterine contraceptive device predicted high CRP, high acute-phase ESR, long hospital stay, and was frequently associated with positive serologic tests for M. hominis. These results demonstrate that the clinical picture of PID depends not only on the microorganisms involved but also on many epidemiologic factors such as age, contraceptive method, and parity.

  20. High occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes 1-3 and Giardia intestinalis assemblage B among patients in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsell, Joakim; Granlund, Margareta; Samuelsson, Linn; Koskiniemi, Satu; Edebro, Helén; Evengård, Birgitta

    2016-06-29

    Blastocystis is a common intestinal parasite with worldwide distribution but the distribution of Blastocystis and its subtypes in East Africa is largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the distribution of Blastocystis subtypes in Zanzibar, Tanzania and report the prevalence of intestinal parasites using both molecular methods and microscopy. Stool samples were collected from both diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic outpatients in Zanzibar. In addition to microscopy, real-time PCR for Blastocystis, Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Dientamoeba fragilis was used. Blastocystis subtypes were determined by a conventional PCR followed by partial sequencing of the SSU-rRNA gene. Genetic assemblages of Giardia were determined by PCR with assemblage specific primers. Intestinal parasites were detected in 85 % of the 174 participants, with two or more parasites present in 56 %. Blastocystis sp. and Giardia intestinalis were the most common parasites, identified by PCR in 61 and 53 % of the stool samples respectively, but no correlation between carriage of Blastocystis and Giardia was found. The Blastocystis subtype distribution was ST1 34.0 %, ST2 26.4 %, ST3 25.5 %, ST7 0.9 %, and 13.2 % were positive only by qPCR (non-typable). The Giardia genetic assemblages identified were A 6.5 %, B 85 %, A + B 4.3 %, and non-typable 4.3 %. The detection rate with microscopy was substantially lower than with PCR, 20 % for Blastocystis and 13.8 % for Giardia. The prevalence of Blastocystis increased significantly with age while Giardia was most prevalent in children two to five years old. No correlation between diarrhoea and the identification of Giardia, Blastocystis, or their respective genetic subtypes could be shown and, as a possible indication of parasite load, the mean cycle threshold values in the qPCR for Giardia were equal in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic patients. Carriage of intestinal parasites was very

  1. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed using principal components analyses to identify subtypes of aggression, and structural equation modeling to carry out genetic analyses. Two aggression subtypes were identified: relational and direct...

  2. Epidemiological survey of Blastocystis hominis in Huainan City, Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xia Wang; Chao-Pin Li; Jian Wang; Yu-Bao Cui

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To provide scientific evidence for prevention andcontrolling of blastocystosis, the infection of Blastocystishomonis and to study its clinical significance in Huainan City,Anhui Province, China.METHODS: Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools taken from100 infants, 100 pupils, 100 middle school students and403 patients with diarrhea was smeared and detected withmethod of iodine staining and hematoxylin staining. Afterpreliminary direct microscopy, the shape and size ofBlastocystis homonis were observed with high power lens.The cellular immune function of the patients withblastocystosis was detected with biotin-streptavidin (BSA).RESULTS: The positive rates of Blastocystis homonis inflesh stools taken from the infants, pupils, middle schoolstudents and the patients with diarrhea, were 1.0 % (1/100),1.0 % (1/100), 0 % (0/100) and 5.96 % (24/403)respectively. Furthermore, the positive rates of Blastocystishomonis in the stool samples taken from the patients withmild diarrhea, intermediate diarrhea, severe diarrhea andobstinate diarrhea were 6.03 % (14/232), 2.25 % (2/89),0 % (0/17) and 12.31% (8/65) respectively. The positiverates of Blastocystis homonis in fresh stools of male andfemale patients with diarrhea were 7.52 % (17/226) and3.95 % (7/177) respectively, and those of patients in urbanand rural areas were 4.56 % (11/241) and 8.02 % (13/162)respectively. There was no significant difference betweenthem (P>0.05). The positive rates of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ inserum of Blastocystis homonis-positive and-negativeindividuals were 0.64±0.06, 0.44±0.06, 0.28±0.04 and0.60±0.05, 0.40±0.05 and 0.30±0.05 respectively, andthe ratio of CD4+/CD8+ of the two groups were 1.53±0.34and 1.27±0.22. There was significant difference betweenthe two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Blastocystis hominis asan enteric pathogen in human seems not to be associatedwith gender and living environment, and that Blastocystishominis is more common in stool samples of

  3. Discovery and validation of breast cancer subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukholm Ida RK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated breast cancer tumor tissue samples could be classified into different subtypes based upon DNA microarray profiles. The most recent study presented evidence for the existence of five different subtypes: normal breast-like, basal, luminal A, luminal B, and ERBB2+. Results Based upon the analysis of 599 microarrays (five separate cDNA microarray datasets using a novel approach, we present evidence in support of the most consistently identifiable subtypes of breast cancer tumor tissue microarrays being: ESR1+/ERBB2-, ESR1-/ERBB2-, and ERBB2+ (collectively called the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes. We validate all three subtypes statistically and show the subtype to which a sample belongs is a significant predictor of overall survival and distant-metastasis free probability. Conclusion As a consequence of the statistical validation procedure we have a set of centroids which can be applied to any microarray (indexed by UniGene Cluster ID to classify it to one of the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes. Moreover, the method used to define the ESR1/ERBB2 subtypes is not specific to the disease. The method can be used to identify subtypes in any disease for which there are at least two independent microarray datasets of disease samples.

  4. Update on Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis typing based on nucleotide sequence variations in internal transcribed spacer regions of rRNA genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, C H; Helweg-Larsen, J; Tang, X

    1998-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis isolates from 207 clinical specimens from nine countries were typed based on nucleotide sequence variations in the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2, respectively) of rRNA genes. The number of ITS1 nucleotides has been revised from the...

  5. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, T; Birkelund, Svend; Christiansen, Gunna

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the intraspecies heterogeneity within the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma hominis, five isolates with diverse antigenic profiles, variable/identical P120 hypervariable domains, and different 16S rRNA gene RFLP patterns were analysed. The 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon was amplified...

  6. A GTP-binding protein of Mycoplasma hominis: a small sized homolog to the signal recognition particle receptor FtsY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladefoged, Søren; Christiansen, Gunna

    1997-01-01

    A protein homologous to the Escherichia coli FtsY which in turn has characteristics in common with the alpha-subunit of the eukaryotic signal recognition particle receptor (SRalpha) in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum, was identified in Mycoplasma hominis and its encoding DNA sequenced...

  7. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Hodžić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis among free-living red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in Bosnia and Herzegovina. For this purpose, a total of 123 fecal samples fromred foxes, shot during hunting seasons between January 2011 and March 2012 were examined using immunofluorescent microscopy. Overall, observed prevalences of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis were 3.2 % (4/123 and 7.3% (9/123, respectively. The results show that foxes might play the role of potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites, but further molecular analysis are necessary to elucidate the source of infection, routes of transmission and zoonotic potential of these two pathogens.

  8. Natural infections with Cryptosporidium in the endangered spotted souslik (Spermophilus suslicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloch, Agnieszka; Bajer, Anna

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium is an intestinal protozoan parasite prevalent in a wide range of mammals. Although it has been recorded in many hosts, its impact on endangered species is poorly understood. Here we present a preliminary study of four populations of the highly threatened spotted souslik (Spermophilus suslicus), living in the westernmost part of the species range. The populations inhabit fragmented habitats and suffer from loss of genetic variation. An IFA test revealed that 35.9% of sampled animals (41/114) was infected with Cryptosporidium and none with Giardia. The prevalence and infection intensity differed among the populations. In areas grazed by cattle it was about 3 folds higher, which suggests a possible transmission route. To the authors best knowledge the present study is the first report of Cryptosporidium infections in S. suslicus.

  9. Quantitative health risk assessment of Cryptosporidium in rivers of southern China based on continuous monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Wei; Zhang, Dongqing; Xiao, Shumin; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Min

    2011-06-01

    The concentrations of Cryptosporidium in the source water of several cities of Zhejiang Province, China were determined to be in the range of 0-17 oocysts/10 L in the rainy season in 2008, with a mean value of 7 oocysts/10 L. Based on the investigation data, comprehensive risk assessment of Cryptosporidium infection was performed by considering different water intake routes as well as water consumption. Intakes of unboiled tapwater (including drinking and tooth-brushing and food and dish washing) and source water (through swimming in rivers) were estimated to be 2.59-25.9 and 0.32-0.74 L/year-person, respectively. The mortality due to Cryptosporidium infection for people in this region, excluding HIV-infected patients, was calculated as 0-0.0146 per 10(5) persons using a conditional probability formula. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used to quantify the risk of Cryptosporidium infection, for which uncertainty was analyzed. For people who consumed conventionally treated water, the DALYs due to Cryptosporidium infection were 6.51 per 10(5) (95% CI: 2.16 × 10(-5)-22.35 × 10(-5)) persons, which were higher than a risk judged acceptable by some (1.97 × 10(-5) DALYs per year), and the risk for those consuming ozone-treated water became 0.0689 × 10(-5) DALYs per year. The major risk of infection resulted from swimming in the river. This study provides a method to establish the risk of Cryptosporidium infection and optimize the scheme for reducing the risk effectively, which is useful for the modification of water quality standards based on cost utility analysis given use of DALYs.

  10. Cryptosporidium in pet snakes from Italy: molecular characterization and zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, P; Rota, S; Marchesi, B; López, C; Panadero, R; Fernández, G; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo, P; Poglayen, G

    2013-10-18

    To provide information on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in captive snakes from Italy, faecal specimens from 120 snakes belonging to 13 different genera of the families Boidae, Colubridae and Pythonidae were collected. Faecal samples were taken from the ground of the terrarium when available; otherwise cloacal cotton swabs were used. No clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis were observed in any animal at the time of sampling. Samples were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium by using a direct immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and two-step nested PCR at the small subunit (SSU) rRNA locus. PCR-positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with the endonucleases SspI and VspI. By IFAT, 42 out of 120 snakes (35.0%) were found to be shedding Cryptosporidium oocysts. A significant higher percentage of positive ophidians were detected by using faecal specimens obtained from the terrarium (55.5%) than by cloacal cotton swabs (29.0%). SSU rRNA gene products were obtained from 25 isolates. Twenty samples tested positive to both microscopy and molecular techniques. Our data reveal a wide extent of cryptosporidial infections in snake-food animals since most of the identified isolates belonged to Cryptosporidium species, some of them with zoonotic potential, considered specific for rodents and resulting from ingestion of infected preys. The reptilian-specific species Cryptosporidium serpentis was identified in only one isolate. The common presence of reptile non-specific and, in some cases, zoonotic Cryptosporidium oocysts in snake faeces should to be taken into consideration in order to avoid the misidentification of the protozoan as well as the possible public health implications.

  11. Determination of the recovery efficiency of cryptosporidium oocysts and giardia cysts from seeded bivalve mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schets, Franciska M; van den Berg, Harold H J L; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia are transmitted by water and food and cause human gastroenteritis. Filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, such as oysters and mussels, filter large volumes of water and thus concentrate such pathogens, which makes these bivalves potential vectors of disease. To assess the risk of infection from consumption of contaminated bivalves, parasite numbers and parasite recovery data are required. A modified immunomagnetic separation (IMS) procedure was used to determine Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst numbers in individually homogenized oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Mytilus edulis). About 12% of the commercial bivalves were positive, with low (oo)cyst numbers per specimen. The recovery efficiency of the IMS procedure was systematically evaluated. Experiments included seeding of homogenized bivalves and whole animals with 100 to 1,000 (oo)cysts. Both seeding procedures yielded highly variable recovery rates. Median Cryptosporidium recoveries were 7.9 to 21% in oysters and 62% in mussels. Median Giardia recoveries were 10 to 25% in oysters and 110% in mussels. Giardia recovery was significantly higher than Cryptosporidium recovery. (Oo)cysts were less efficiently recovered from seeded whole animals than from seeded homogenates, with median Cryptosporidium recoveries of 5.3% in oysters and 45% in mussels and median Giardia recoveries of 4.0% in oysters and 82% in mussels. Both bivalve homogenate seeding and whole animal seeding yielded higher (oo)cyst recovery in mussels than in oysters, likely because of the presence of less shellfish tissue in IMS when analyzing the smaller mussels compared with the larger oysters, resulting in more efficient (oo)cyst extraction. The data generated in this study may be used in the quantitative assessment of the risk of infection with Cryptosporidium or Giardia associated with the consumption of raw bivalve mollusks. This information may be used for making risk management

  12. The Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Children, Taiz District, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Al-Shamiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first work done on cryptosporidiosis among the children in Taiz, Yemen.Methods: A number of 712 samples were collected from children of different ages (ranging from 1 month to 12 years from Dec 2006 to Aug 2007. The collected samples were examined by Sheather's sugar floatation and Modified Ziehl- Neelsen stain as well as ELISA methods. The test results were statistically analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The overall positive percentage was 43.7%. The higher incidence (36.2 % was oc­curred in males while the lowest incidence (32.7 % was observed in females (r= 0.876; P= 0.001. The correlation between infected cases and the type of drinking water was r =0.121. Among the cases examined by ELISA (92 cases, 26.1 % were infected. The correlation be­tween seropositivity and gender was r= 0.652 (P=0.031.Conclusion: Cryptosporidium spp. is a significant pathogen among children at Taiz. Fresh water supplies, education, eating habits and domestic animals are considered the main sources for transmission of cryptosporidiosis.

  13. Isolation of Small Number of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocyst Using Immunochromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ebrahimzade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum causes severe gastroenteritis in immunocompromised human and new borne animals. The organism can be transmitted through water. Since small number of C. parvum is infectious, the aim of the present study was to develop a chromatography method for the isolation of C. parvum oocyst in samples with limited number of oocysts.Antibody was prepared against whole antigen from C. parvum oocysts, the achieved Ab bound to the sepharose 4B and used for the isolation of oocysts. Antibody against P23 bound to the sepharose 4B, used also for the isolation of C. parvum oocyst. In comparison to these both methods, 2 traditional methods (Salt floatation and 55% sucrose floatation were also performed.Both chromatography methods could bind oocysts with capacity depends on the column size. The isolated oocysts were free of bacteria. Our results showed that the traditional methods are useful for the isolation of oocysts from feces, in its smear stained with ziehl-nelsen, at least 3 oocyts are detectable in each microscopic field under 1000 X magnification. In contrast to the chromatography methods, the bacterial contamination was always observed in oocysts isolated with traditional methods.Immunochromatography could be used for the successful isolation of C. parvum oocysts from the samples containing limited number of oocysts.

  14. [The ecology of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in small rodent populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, A; Bednarska, M; Siński, E

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence and abundance of Cryptosporidium parvum were studied over a three year period (1997-1999) in three species of rodents sampled from forest and abandoned fields in the Mazury Lake District, Poland. The overall prevalence was consistently higher in voles compared with Apodemus flavicollis (70.6% in Clethrionomys glareolus, 73.0% in Microtus arvalis and 27.8% in A. flavicollis). The prevalence and abundance of infection also varied across the 3 years of the study with 1998 being the year of higher prevalence and abundance of the parasite. Fewer older animals carried the infection, and their infections were relatively mild. We found no consistent pattern of seasonal changes despite the significance of seasonal differences. Host sex did not influence either the prevalence or abundance of infection with C. parvum. A great proportion of recaptured voles developed chronic infections between consecutive trapping sessions and only a small number of animals recovered. However, yellow-necked mice seem to be much more resistant to infection that became self-limiting. Our results firmly establish that the common woodland and grassland wild rodents in the Mazury Lake District constitute a significant and hazardous reservoir of C. parvum for animals and humans.

  15. Biofilm roughness determines Cryptosporidium parvum retention in environmental biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCesare, E A Wolyniak; Hargreaves, B R; Jellison, K L

    2012-06-01

    The genus Cryptosporidium is a group of waterborne protozoan parasites that have been implicated in significant outbreaks of gastrointestinal infections throughout the world. Biofilms trap these pathogens and can contaminate water supplies through subsequent release. Biofilm microbial assemblages were collected seasonally from three streams in eastern Pennsylvania and used to grow biofilms in laboratory microcosms. Daily oocyst counts in the influx and efflux flow allowed the calculation of daily oocyst retention in the biofilm. Following the removal of oocysts from the influx water, oocyst attachment to the biofilm declined to an equilibrium state within 5 days that was sustained for at least 25 days. Varying the oocyst loading rate for the system showed that biofilm retention could be saturated, suggesting that discrete binding sites determined the maximum number of oocysts retained. Oocyst retention varied seasonally but was consistent across all three sites; however, seasonal oocyst retention was not consistent across years at the same site. No correlation between oocyst attachment and any measured water quality parameter was found. However, oocyst retention was strongly correlated with biofilm surface roughness and roughness varied among seasons and across years. We hypothesize that biofilm roughness and oocyst retention are dependent on environmentally driven changes in the biofilm community rather than directly on water quality conditions. It is important to understand oocyst transport dynamics to reduce risks of human infection. Better understanding of factors controlling biofilm retention of oocysts should improve our understanding of oocyst transport at different scales.

  16. Detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia doudenalis in equines in Nineveh, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. T. Butty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 107 fecal samples of equines from different regions in Nineveh, were colleted from January 2007 till December 2007 and examined for Cryptosporidium sp., and Giardia doudenalis by using different methods (wet mount, flotation, lugol's iodine, modified Ziehl Nelsecn (hot and Giemsa stain Just for Giardia doudenalis. The animal age examined ranged from 4 to 10 years. The total prevalence of cryptosporidium sp. was 27.10% (29 out of 107, while the prevalence of Giardia doudenalis was 19.63% (21 out of 107. This study represents the first trial to explore cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis in equines as in Nineveh there is no survey of these intestinal protozoa.

  17. [Cryptosporidium parvum in wild gastropods as bioindicators of fecal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira O, Patricia; Muñoz S, Nelson; Stanley V, Bárbara; Gosh C, Marianne; Rosales L, M José

    2010-06-01

    Cryptosporidium sp oocysts were detected in snails (Helix aspersa Miller) and slug (Deroceras reticulatum Miller) from the Valparaiso Region, Chile. Snails and slug were collected from public squares and private domestic gardens. Cryptosporidium sp oocysts were recovered from faeces of both species. Ziehl Neelsen stain, nested PCR, and sequencing analysis demonstrated a profile similar to that described for genotype C or 2 of the parasite. These results demonstrate that snails and slug could act as a reservoir and mechanic vector of C. parvum infection for humans and animals. Moreover, gastropods could serve as bioindicators of fecal soil contamination.

  18. The Structural Basis of Cryptosporidium-Specific IMP Dehydrogenase Inhibitor Selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPherson, Iain S.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Riera, Thomas V.; D’Aquino, J. Alejandro; Zhang, Minjia; Cuny, Gregory D.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth (BWH); (Brandeis)

    2010-03-29

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a potential biowarfare agent, an important AIDS pathogen, and a major cause of diarrhea and malnutrition. No vaccines or effective drug treatment exist to combat Cryptosporidium infection. This parasite relies on inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) to obtain guanine nucleotides, and inhibition of this enzyme blocks parasite proliferation. Here, we report the first crystal structures of CpIMPDH. These structures reveal the structural basis of inhibitor selectivity and suggest a strategy for further optimization. Using this information, we have synthesized low-nanomolar inhibitors that display 10{sup 3} selectivity for the parasite enzyme over human IMPDH2.

  19. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S;

    2001-01-01

    , exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  20. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    , exceeded only by Giardia lamblia which was found in 14.8% of the samples. The highest prevalence of cryptosporidium was found in children aged 6-11 months, whereas the prevalence of other enteric parasites increased with age. Cryptosporidiosis showed a marked seasonal variation, with peak prevalences found...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in effluent from sewage treatment plant from eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroka, Jacek; Stojecki, Krzysztof; Zdybel, Jolanta; Karamon, Jacek; Cencek, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia lamblia (synonyms: Giardia duodenalis, Giardia intestinalis) are emerging protozoa causing disease in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites can pose a serious threat to immunocompromised people, for whom the symptoms are more severe and may include abdominal pain, watery diarrhoea, nausea, headaches, malaise, and fever. One of the sources of these parasites can be treated wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WTPs). Samples of treated wastewater (effluent), each of 10 L volume, were collected from 13 municipal WTPs located in eastern Poland. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were separated by the immunomagnetic method. The presence and/or concentration of protozoan (oo)cysts in effluent samples were determined by direct immunofluorescent microscopy, nested PCR and Real Time PCR. Viability of (oo)cysts was determined by double-staining with the use of Live/Dead BacLight kit (Invitrogen). Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were detected in 8 WTPs (61.5%) and Giardia spp. cysts in 11 WTPs (84.6%) by microscopic analysis. Both pathogens were detected in samples from 7 WTPs. Median concentrations of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in 13 examined samples were 2.2/L and 6.6/L, respectively, while mean concentrations were 28.5/L and 113.6/L, respectively. In positive samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts concentrations ranged from 0.4 - 154.1 oocysts per litre, and Giardia cysts concentrations ranged from 0.7 - 660 cysts per litre. By nested PCR, Giardia DNA was detected in 4 samples of the 13 examined, (30.8%) while Cryptosporidium DNA was never detected. In Real Time PCR, positive results for Giardia were obtained in 5 samples (38.5%) and in none of the samples for Cryptosporidium, with the exception of one equivocal result. Viable (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 3 out of 4 samples examined, in the ranges of 12.5 - 60% and 50 - 100% of total (oo)cysts, respectively. In view of our preliminary

  2. The rapid detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species in clinical stools using the Quik Chek immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire L; Niebel, Marc; Jones, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Diagnostic testing in the United Kingdom for Cryptosporidium and Giardia species is routinely performed by microscopy. In this study, two hundred stool samples from human clinical cases were examined for the presence of these two parasites comparing microscopy with an antigen immunoassay, Quik Chek (Techlab, Inc.). The Quik Chek assay was shown to have a sensitivity and specificity for Cryptosporidium detection of 87.6% and 98.9% respectively and for Giardia detection, 93.3% and 99.4% respectively. The high correlation with microscopy data provides evidence to support implementation of this rapid test within diagnostic microbiology laboratories.

  3. The public health and clinical significance of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew; Palmer, Carlysle S; O'Handley, Ryan

    2008-07-01

    Giardia and Cryptosporidium are common enteric parasites of domestic animals, particularly dogs, cats and livestock. Their occurrence is of potential significance from both clinical and public health perspectives yet, until recently, confusion over the taxonomy of these organisms prevented a clear understanding of the epidemiology of infections with both Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The recent application of molecular epidemiological tools has helped to resolve taxonomic issues, allowing cycles of transmission to be determined. In addition, advances have been made in elucidating mechanisms associated with pathogenesis, whereas only limited progress has been achieved in the areas of chemotherapy and prophylaxis.

  4. Mycoplasma hominis infection of Trichomonas vaginalis is not associated with metronidazole-resistant trichomoniasis in clinical isolates from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sara E; Augostini, Peter; Secor, W Evan

    2010-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that is the cause of the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease, trichomoniasis. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of T. vaginalis infections in the USA. However, drug resistance exists and some patients are allergic to these medications. Furthermore, the exact mechanism of metronidazole resistance remains undefined and current testing methods require several weeks before results are available. Identification of the mechanism of drug resistance may lead to the development of molecular tools to detect drug resistance, and quicker results for clinical treatment. In a recent study, Chinese T. vaginalis isolates that were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for Mycoplasma hominis DNA demonstrated greater in vitro resistance to metronidazole than isolates with no evidence of M. hominis infection. To evaluate this finding in isolates from a distinct epidemiologic setting, we tested 55 T. vaginalis isolates collected from patients in the USA through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention metronidazole susceptibility testing service. One half of the isolates demonstrated resistance to metronidazole by an in vitro sensitivity assay. Of the metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates, 18% were PCR positive for M. hominis, as were 22% of the metronidazole-susceptible T. vaginalis isolates (p = 0.746). We also observed no change in metronidazole sensitivity of two infected T. vaginalis isolates after they were cleared of their M. hominis infection by culturing the isolates in antibiotics. Thus, M. hominis infection of USA T. vaginalis isolates did not correlate with in vitro resistance to metronidazole.

  5. Prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in cats and dogs in Heilongjiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yijing; Song, Mingxin; Lu, Yixin; Yang, Jinping; Tao, Wei; Jiang, Yanxue; Wan, Qiang; Zhang, Siwen; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-03-15

    This study investigated 319 fecal specimens of cats (n=52) and dogs (n=267) from Heilongjiang province, China for the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis. PCR and DNA sequence analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene identified C. felis and C. parvum in one cat each (3.8%) and C. canis and C. ubiquitum in 6 dogs (2.2%). Polymorphisms in the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and phylogenetic analysis characterized zoonotic E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, NED1, and NED2 and host-adapted ones NED3, NED4, and PtEb IX in 18 dogs (6.7%) and human-pathogenic genotypes D and IV in 3 cats (5.8%). Genotyping based on the hypermutation of G. duodenalis triosephosphate isomerase gene (TPI) facilitated identification of assemblage F in a cat (1.9%) and assemblages C and E in 12 dogs (4.5%). Subtypes of G. duodenalis isolates were determined by measuring the diversity of both TPI nucleotide and amino acid sequences. C. canis, C. felis, C. parvum, E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV, and G. duodenalis assemblage C identified herein have been documented in human infections in China. C. canis, C. parvum, C. ubiquitum, and E. bieneusi genotypes D, EbpC, and IV carried by cats or dogs also existed in wastewater in China. The finding suggested pet animals could be reservoirs for human cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and giardiasis and potential sources of water contamination in China.

  6. SUBTYPES OF JUVENILE SYSTEMIC SCLERODERMA

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    M N Slarovoitova

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to allot clinical forms of juvenile systemic scleroderma (JSSD. Material and methods: investigation and dynamic observation of 60 patients aged 14-54 (mean age 25.1 ±7.2 with onset of disease in child's and adolescent’s ages from 1 to 16 years old ( in average 11. 4±3.8 year old and disease duration from 1 to 39 years (in average 13.1 ±7.9. Results: 55% of patients demonstrated JSSD subtype with focal cutaneous lesion of different localization. The possibility of overlap-syndrome development in JSSD patients with onset in adolescent age typical for SSD-rheumatoid arthritis, SSD-polymvositis should be underlined. Conclusion: knowledge of different clinical forms and courses of the disease, modern diagnostics and early beginning of differential JSSD treatment will enable us to improve the prognosis and disease outcome.

  7. Transsexual subtypes : Clinical and theoretical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, YLS; van Goozen, SHM; Kuiper, AJ; Cohen-Kettenis, PT

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether transsexuals can be validly subdivided into subtypes on the basis of sexual orientation, and whether differences between subtypes of transsexuals are similar for male-to-female (ME) and female-to-male transsexuals (FMs). Within a large transsexua

  8. Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and aerobic bacteria present in the semen from men attending infertility service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Victoria Rodríguez Pendás

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: las infecciones en el semen humano pueden alterar la calidad espermática, y vincularse con problemas de infertilidad masculina. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia de infecciones por Micoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum y bacterias aeróbicas en el semen de hombres que consultan por infertilidad, e identificar si existe relación entre las infecciones encontradas y las alteraciones en las variables de calidad del semen. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, para evaluar muestras de semen de 140 hombres, con edades entre 20 y 45 años, provenientes de las consultas de infertilidad del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología. Se realizó un espermograma completo, que incluyó leucocitospermia, siguiendo los lineamientos de la OMS, para determinar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen. Las muestras de semen fueron cultivadas en agar sangre y agar chocolate a 37° C en atmósfera de CO2 para investigar bacterias aeróbicas, y se utilizó un juego de reactivos (Mycoplasma System Plus que permite realizar el cultivo, la identificación, el conteo semicuantitativo y el antibiograma de micoplasmas/ureaplasma urogenitales. Se tuvo en cuenta los aspectos éticos, y los resultados obtenidos se analizaron mediante cálculo de por cientos y la aplicación de la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: de las 140 muestras de semen evaluadas, 58 (41,4 % mostraron la presencia de infecciones, de ellas 37 correspondieron a Ureaplasma urealyticum (25,7 %, 2 a Micoplasma hominis (1,4 % y 19 a bacterias aeróbicas (13,8 %. Al comparar las variables cualitativas y cuantitativas del semen con los sujetos infectados y no infectados, no se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en ninguna de las variables de calidad espermática evaluadas. Conclusiones: la frecuencia total de infecciones, en la muestra estudiada, fue relativamente alta, pero no asociada a alteraciones en las variables seminales

  9. Determination of the level of parasitic infection (Cryptosporidium and Giardia of the vegetables marketed in Ilam city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyad Avazpoor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infected with intestinal parasites is one of the most important health and economical problems, which could have different effects, such as diarrheal diseases or death associated. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia parasites in the vegetable marketed in Ilam city. Methods: This study was performed on 280 samples of fresh vegetables and lettuce in Ilam. The samples were taken at the level of 500 grams from the places where vegetables and lettuce are sold. Micro liters of each sample was placed on the slide using automatic micropipette, and Logel and Zyl-Nelson stainings were performed in order to identify Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Results: From 200 samples, 54 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte and 13 samples to Giardia cysts. From 80 lettuce samples also 32 samples were contaminated to Cryptosporidium oocyte, and 6 samples contaminated to Giardia cysts. The results showed that the overall infection was 37%. Infection with Giardia cysts was 6.8% and infection with Cryptosporidium oocyte was 30.7%, and Cryptosporidium infection rates in vegetables and lettuce were different. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: As a result of this research it is determined that the prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Ilam vegetables is significantly higher, and the contamination of lettuce is far greater. Therefore, authorities should be more attentive to the field of education and the control of parasitic diseases.

  10. Prevalencia de Blastocystis hominis en menores de 12 años de una población mexicana urbana Prevalance of Blastocytosis hominis in children under 12 in a Mexican urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Teresa Velarde del Río

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis hominis es un protozoario causante potencial de enfermedad gastrointestinal inespecífica. Su prevalencia mundial oscila entre 0,3 % y 54,0 % y está estrechamente ligado a condiciones malas de saneamiento básico, hacinamiento y malnutrición. Con el objetivo de conocer su prevalencia en zona urbana, solo o asociado a otras parasitosis en los niños mexicanos de 0 a 12 años de edad, se realizó un estudio transversal, de marzo a junio de 2003, en el que se utilizaron muestras de materia fecal colectadas durante 3 días, para realizar el examen de concentración de Ritchie. Se estudiaron las muestras triples de 321 infantes, procedentes de 4 zonas de la ciudad de San Luis Potosí, capital. Estaban parasitados 175 niños del total y 14 casos fueron identificados plenamente con Blastoscysitis hominis, lo que corresponde a una prevalencia de 4,3 % y a una frecuencia de 8 % de la población parasitada. Según su clasificación morfológica, encontramos 13 de forma vacuolada y uno, granular. La prevalencia en México se ha reportado desde 1,4 % en Guadalajara hasta 44 % en las zonas rurales de la región huasteca potosina. En la población urbana que estudiamos hemos encontrado cifras bajas intermedias, lo cual es debido a las diferentes condiciones de saneamiento ambiental que existen entre la zona urbana y rural.

  11. Prevalence and genetic characterizations of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhe Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoa of humans and animals. There have been few studies conducted on the molecular characterizations of pig-derived Cryptosporidium isolates worldwide, especially in China. Thus, the aim of the present study was to understand the prevalence, distribution and genotypes of Cryptosporidium in pigs in Heilongjiang Province, China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 568 fecal samples from pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets were collected from eight pig farms from four areas of Heilongjiang Province. The average infection rate of Cryptosporidium was 1.6% (9/568 by microscopy. 113 samples were subjected to PCR amplification of the small subunit (SSU rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium, with 55.8% (63/113 being positive for Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium suis (n = 31 and C. scrofarumn (n = 32 were identified by DNA sequencing of the SSU rRNA gene. Three types of C. scrofarumn were found at the SSU rRNA locus, with one novel type being detected. Using species/genotype-specific primers for pig-adapted Cryptosporidium spp., 22 and 23 respectively belonged to C. suis and C. scrofarum mono-infections, with 18 co-infections detected. The infection peaks for C. suis (60%, 24/40 and C. scrofarum (51.2%, 21/41 were respectively found in the piglets of 5 to 8 weeks and more than 8 weeks. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The detection of C. suis and C. scrofarum in pre-weaned and post-weaned piglets has public health implications, due to the fact that the two species are both zoonotic Cryptosporidium. The novel C. scrofarum type detected may be endemic to China.

  12. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. Faraone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI, inattentive (IA and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3% received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD - hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive subtype as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.

  13. Statistical support for subtypes in posttraumatic stress disorder: the how and why of subtype analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalenberg, Constance J; Glaser, Dale; Alhassoon, Omar M

    2012-08-01

    A number of researchers have argued for the existence of different subtypes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the current paper we present criteria by which to assess these putative subtypes, clarify potential pitfalls of the statistical methods employed to determine them, and propose alternative methods for such determinations. Specifically, three PTSD subtypes are examined: (1) complex PTSD, (2) externalizing/internalizing PTSD, and (3) dissociative/nondissociative PTSD. In addition, three criteria are proposed for subtype evaluation, these are the need for (1) reliability and clarity of definition, (2) distinctions between subtypes either structurally or by mechanism, and (3) clinical meaningfulness. Common statistical evidence for subtyping, such as statistical mean difference and cluster analysis, are presented and evaluated. Finally, more robust statistical methods are suggested for future research on PTSD subtyping. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 论“情理共同体”%Development as Civitas Homini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林曦

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development in a transitioning society will surely bring to fore as many positive consequences as negative ones. Drawing upon Amartya Sen and Fromm, this concept of Entwicklungsdialektik is put forward to generalize the pathological representation of this highly mixed record of development.The solution to such Entwicklungsparadox lies in the shift from mechanical solidarity (as a characteristic of traditional society)to organic solidarity (typical of a modern one),enabling the latter to increase in both scale and depth in the society.A critical reflection on the Durkheimian thesis on “occupational groups/corporation”paves the way for us to propose the new concept of civitas homini ,which is characterized by “the new quintochomy of human relations,”“an all-in-all consideration of both Vernünftigkeit and Rationalität,” “priority to individual choice preferences,” and “intersubjective recognition.” This concept is of greater hermeneutic value and empirical validity for the reality in contemporary China.%对于一个转型社会而言,高速的发展必然会带来同样多的积极和消极结果。在综合阿玛蒂亚·森和弗洛姆论说的基础上,笔者提出了“发展辩证法”的概念,来总括这种由发展而导致的“喜忧参半”的社会病理学状况。解决这种“发展悖论”的方式在于从传统社会的“机械团结”过渡到现代社会的“有机团结”,促进“有机团结”在转型社会中的扩大和增加。笔者在批判吸收迪尔凯姆“职业团体”论说的基础上提出了“情理共同体”这一概念,指出了其所包含的“新五伦说”、“情理兼顾”、“个体选择优先”、“主体间性承认”等四个基本特征,并认为这样一种“非理想”的理论概念能够更有效地应用于当下中国转型社会的现实。

  15. Morphology of human Fallopian tubes after infection with Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis--in vitro organ culture study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baczynska, Agata; Funch, P; Fedder, J

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female infertility can be caused by scarring and occlusion of the Fallopian tubes. Sexually transmitted bacteria can damage the delicate epithelial layer of human Fallopian tubes (HFT). Genital mycoplasmas are associated with human reproductive failure. Yet, there is not enough evidence...... that mycoplasmas can cause tubal factor infertility. We analysed the effects of infections with Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium on the HFT epithelium and compared them with the effects of infections with genital pathogens: Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. METHODS: We used an in vitro...... changes in the morphology of the ciliated cells were observed in M. genitalium-infected tissue. Five days post-infection, the cilia were abnormally swollen and some of the ciliated cells fell off the epithelium. These effects could be inhibited by pre-incubation of M. genitalium with antibody directed...

  16. Ocorrência de infecção Cryptosporidium spp. em peixe-boi marinho (Trichechus manatus Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Gomes Borges

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A criptosporidiose constitui-se como uma zoonose que pode afetar o homem e uma ampla variedade de animais domésticos e silvestres, principalmente indivíduos imunodeficientes. O objetivo desse trabalho foi registrar a ocorrência de infecção por Cryptosporidium em peixe-boi marinho. Após ser constatada a mudança de comportamento de um peixe-boi marinho mantido nos oceanários do Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, animal foi submetido à exame clínico e, posteriormente, à coleta de amostra fecal. As amostras fecais foram analisadas pela técnica de Kinyoun, teste de imunofluorescência direta e pelo corante 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenilindole (DAPI. No exame clínico, o animal apresentou sinais de desconforto abdominal. Os resultados obtidos nas análises de microscopia de luz e fluorescente revelaram a presença de oocistos de Cryptosporidium nas fezes desse peixe-boi.Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonosis which can affect man and a wide range of domestic and wild animals, mainly immunodeficient individuals. The objective of this paper was reported the occurrence of a Cryptosporidium infection in Antillean manatee. After an unusual behavior of an Antillean manatee kept in captivity at the Centro Mamíferos Aquáticos, ICMBio - FMA, clinical examination and posterior fecal sampling was performed. Fecal samples were examined by the Kinyoun technique, Direct Immunofluorescence Test and also examined by 4'.6'-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole (DAPI staining. At the clinical examination, the animal showed signs of abdominal pain. The results obtained by light and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst in feces of this manatee.

  17. Acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: in vitro sensitivity of sarcoptes scabiei var hominis to terpinen-4-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Shelley F; McKinnon, Melita; Pizzutto, Susan; Dougall, Annette; Williams, Edwina; Currie, Bart J

    2004-05-01

    To compare the acaricidal activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) and some of its individual active components on the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. In vitro acaricide sensitivity assessment. The Menzies School of Health Research laboratory, located near the Infectious Diseases Ward of the Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia, where patients are admitted and treated for crusted scabies. Scabies mites (S scabiei var hominis) were collected from a 20-year-old Aboriginal woman admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital with crusted scabies. Interventions Within 3 hours of collection, scabies mites were placed in continuous direct contact with the TTO products and control acaricides and were observed at regular intervals. Percentage of mites dead at regular observation intervals between 5 minutes and 24 hours during continuous exposure to the TTO products and acaricides. The 5% TTO and active component terpinen-4-ol were highly effective in reducing mite survival times. Statistically significant differences in mite survival curves were observed for 5% TTO, 2.1% terpinen-4-ol, 5% permethrin, and ivermectin (100 microg/g of Emulsifying Ointment British Pharmacopoeia 88). In vivo effectiveness was also observed. Documentation of resistance against antiectoparasitic compounds is increasing. Reported S scabiei treatment failures with lindane, crotamiton, and benzyl benzoate, as well as likely emerging resistance to 5% permethrin and oral ivermectin, are of concern and advocate for the identification and development of novel acaricidal drugs. Tea tree oil is a membrane-active biocide extracted from the tree M alternifolia. It is a principal antimicrobial in a wide range of pharmaceuticals sold in Australia, with the main active component being oxygenated terpenoids. The results suggest that TTO has a potential role as a new topical acaricide and confirm terpinen-4-ol as the primary active component.

  18. Effect of Mycoplasma hominis and cytomegalovirus infection on pregnancy outcome: A prospective study of 200 Mongolian women and their newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbaatar, Gunchin; Tsogtsaikhan, Sandag; Enkhtsetseg, Jamsranjav; Enkhjargal, Altangerel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Adams, Ortwin; Battogtokh, Chimeddorj

    2017-01-01

    In Mongolia, diagnostic tests for the detection of the sexually transmitted mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are currently not routinely used in clinical settings and the frequency of these STIs are enigmatic. The prevalence of these STI pathogens were prospectively evaluated among 200 Mongolian pregnant women and their newborns and correlated with pregnancy outcome. TaqMan PCRs were used to detect bacterial and viral STI pathogens in pre-birth vaginal swabs of the pregnant women and in oral swabs of their newborns. A standardized questionnaire concerning former and present pregnancies was developed and linear regression analysis was used to correlate pathogen detection with pregnancy outcome. Ureaplasmas were the most prevalent of the tested pathogens (positive in 90.5% positive women and 47.5% newborns), followed by mycoplasmas (32.5% and 7.5%), chlamydia (14.5% and 7.5%), trichomonas (8.5% and 4.0%) and gonococcus (0.5% and 0%). CMV was found in 46.5% of the pregnant women and in 10.5% of their newborns, whereas HSV-2 was detected in only two mothers. Multiple regression analyses indicate that colonization of the mothers with U. urealyticum, M. hominis, T. vaginalis or CMV is associated with transmission to newborns and that transmission of M. hominis or CMV from Mongolian pregnant women to offspring is associated with reduced neonatal length and gestational age. Thus, diagnostic tests for their detection should be implemented in the clinical settings in Mongolia. PMID:28257513

  19. El tópico optimum non nasci y las argumentaciones humanísticas de miseria hominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez, Jesús

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of eulogies about human dignity or indignity includes, with rhetorical variations, topoi authorized by the Greek and Latin tradition; amongst them, the topos of seeing life as a punishment, therefore it being better not being born (optimum non nasci or dying as soon as possible. This study examines Sedeño’s interpretation of this topos in his Coloquio de bienaventuranza (1536, according to the humanistic discussions de miseria hominis. Sedeño recreates Solon’s reasoning, which stems from his interview with king Croesus (following Herodotus account, without resorting to the mystery of salvation or any other Christian beliefs, therefore highlighting the singularity of his viewpoint in the humanistic debate about human happiness.El paradigma de las apologías sobre la dignidad o indignidad humana incluye, con variantes retóricas, tópicos autorizados por la tradición grecolatina, entre los cuales destaca el que entiende la vida como castigo, y que estima que es mejor no nacer (optimum non nasci o, en su defecto, morir lo más pronto posible. El presente trabajo examina la utilización que hace Sedeño, en su Coloquio de bienaventuranza (1536, del mencionado tópico a la luz de las argumentaciones humanísticas de miseria hominis. Sedeño recrea el razonamiento de Solón, derivado de su entrevista con el rey Creso según el relato de Heródoto, sin apelar desde una perspectiva religiosa al misterio de la salvación ni a otras creencias propias de la fe cristiana, por lo que sobresale la singularidad del punto de vista que introduce en el debate humanístico sobre la felicidad humana.

  20. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia on beef farms and water sources within the vicinity of the farms on Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budu-Amoako, Ebo; Greenwood, Spencer J; Dixon, Brent R; Barkema, Herman W; McClure, J T

    2012-02-28

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and assemblages of Giardia and species of Cryptosporidium on beef farms in Prince Edward Island (PEI), Canada, including the water sources associated with the farms, and to determine risk factors for infection of cattle with these parasites. Twenty beef farms were selected based on the presence of surface waterGiardia was detected in 42% (95% CI: 38-46%) of fecal samples from 100% farms while Cryptosporidium was detected in 17% (95% CI: 14-19%) of fecal samples from 80% of farms. The most predominant Giardia assemblage isolated was the livestock specific assemblage E (89%). The zoonotic assemblages A and B were found in 4 and 7% of the Giardia isolates that were genotyped, respectively. The Giardia assemblages were detected equally between the cows and calves examined. Overall, the most common Cryptosporidium species detected in this study was Cryptosporidium andersoni (49%), predominantly found in cattle > 6 mo of age, while most Cryptosporidium bovis and Cryptosporidium pestis (previously Cryptosporidium parvum 'bovine genotype') isolates were detected in calves ≤ 6 mo of age. All Cryptosporidium ryanae isolates (four) were found in calves. Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 14 and 93% of surface water samples of 14 farms, respectively. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in three (15%) ground water samples of 20 farms. One Cryptosporidium-positive water sample, which was the only surface water sample amenable to genotyping, contained C. parvum. The farm-level risk factors investigated in this study, age of animals and location of the farm, were not associated with the risk of infection in cattle with either Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia duodenalis. We conclude that beef cattle are a potential reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis that could contaminate source water. There is the possibility of further transmission to humans on PEI if the source water is not

  1. Evaluating the transport of bacillus subtilis spores as a potential surrogate for Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has recommended the use of aerobic spores as an indicator for Cryptosporidium oocysts when determining groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Surface properties, interaction energies, transport, retention, and release behavior of B. subtilis spores were measured over a r...

  2. Low-level detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in field water using optical microfluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Scott V.; Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2012-03-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a difficult-to-detect protozoan that causes diarrhea in the healthy adults and death in immunocompromised individuals. While it is easy to understand the transmission routes of Cryptosporidium, it is currently difficult to identify low concentrations of Cryptosporidium, especially when following EPA method 1623, which can easily require tens of liters of water to get a positive signal. The current detection method is unacceptable and severely inefficient when taking into account the time that goes into concentrating a sample, actual assays, and training associated with the assays. Using our method, it is possible to use only 15 μL of sample, which is an immunoagglutination assay that uses Mie scatter intensity changes to detect different Cryptosporidium concentrations. In addition to creating a standard curve using a clean sample matrix (i.e., phosphate buffered saline), field samples were collected from a chlorine treated swimming pool, a sump located on a farm, and a turtle pond. Each sample had different intensity changes but the trend represented within the data was the same. This assay has a detection limit of 100-101 oocysts/mL and can be done in as little as 10 minutes.

  3. Possible Transmission of Cryptosporidium canis among Children and a Dog in a Household▿

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Ortega, Ynes; Pearson, Julie; Gilman, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal cohort diarrhea study, a girl living in Lima, Peru, and her brother and dog were diagnosed with Cryptosporidium canis infections during the same period. Both children had transient diarrhea, but the dog was asymptomatic. This is the first report of possible transmission of cryptosporidiosis between humans and dogs.

  4. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  5. A new system for higher recovery rate of water borne Cryptosporidium and Giardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Gad, J.; Berg, T.

    2012-01-01

    The two most common water borne pathogenic protozoa, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are a common cause of outbreaks of diarrhea. Detecting these parasites in water samples depends on effective parasite recovery from the water matrix. The recovery rates of the currently used filter methods are low a...

  6. Survey of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in lemurs from the Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasambainarivo, Fidisoa T; Gillespie, Thomas R; Wright, Patricia C; Arsenault, Julie; Villeneuve, Alain; Lair, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    We detected Cryptosporidium sp. by direct immunofluorescence in fecal samples from greater bamboo lemurs (Prolemur simus) and eastern rufous mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) inhabiting the Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. This is the first report of an occurrence of these potentially zoonotic parasites in free-ranging lemurs in the rain forest of Madagascar.

  7. A new in vitro model using small intestinal epithelial cells to enhance infection of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand and study the infection of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum, a more sensitive in vitro assay is required. In vivo, this parasite infects the epithelial cells of the microvilli layer in the small intestine. While cell infection models using colon,...

  8. Examination of Naturally-Exposed Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) live-captured in coastal South Carolina and Florida as well as dolphins stranded in coastal South Carolina were examined for the presence of Microsporidia, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. DNA extracted from feces or rectal swabs was amplified by PCR using para...

  9. Cryptosporidium andersoni from a Danish cattle herd: identification and preliminary characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Lowery, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    In November 1997, Cryptosporidium andersoni, for the first time, was isolated from a Danish heifer. The isolate was characterised morphologically, molecularly, and furthermore inoculated into mice and one calf. Data on the distribution of cryptosporidia in the herd of origin were obtained at two ...

  10. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    The incorporation of flow cytometry as an additional purification step has improved the detection method for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in water. Flow cytometry allows separation of (oo)cysts from interfering debris particles present in water concentrates and thus enables the applicat

  11. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121 on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium is an opportunistic protozoan parasite of humans and animals worldwide, causes diarrheal disease that is typically self-limiting in immunocompetent hosts but often life-threatening to immunocompromised individuals. However, there is a lack of completely efficient therapy available. P...

  12. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues REINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment.

  13. Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma Parasites Are Inhibited by a Benzoxaborole Targeting Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru-Juan; Lukarska, Maria; Gut, Jiri; Bougdour, Alexandre; Touquet, Bastien; Wang, En-Duo; Li, Xianfeng; Alley, M. R. K.; Freund, Yvonne R.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali

    2016-01-01

    The apicomplexan parasites Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma are serious threats to human health. Cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrheal disease in malnourished children and immunocompromised individuals, with the only FDA-approved drug treatment currently being nitazoxanide. The existing therapies for toxoplasmosis, an important pathology in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women, also have serious limitations. With the aim of developing alternative therapeutic options to address these health problems, we tested a number of benzoxaboroles, boron-containing compounds shown to be active against various infectious agents, for inhibition of the growth of Cryptosporidium parasites in mammalian cells. A 3-aminomethyl benzoxaborole, AN6426, with activity in the micromolar range and with activity comparable to that of nitazoxanide, was identified and further characterized using biophysical measurements of affinity and crystal structures of complexes with the editing domain of Cryptosporidium leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS). The same compound was shown to be active against Toxoplasma parasites, with the activity being enhanced in the presence of norvaline, an amino acid that can be mischarged by LeuRS. Our observations are consistent with AN6426 inhibiting protein synthesis in both Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma by forming a covalent adduct with tRNALeu in the LeuRS editing active site and suggest that further exploitation of the benzoxaborole scaffold is a valid strategy to develop novel, much needed antiparasitic agents. PMID:27431220

  14. The survey of Cryptosporidium infection among young children in kindergartens in Anhui province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Chaopin Li; Shan Jiang; Song Ye

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the Cryptospondium infection among young children in Anhui province, and to explore the best way to diagnose the disease. Methods: Stool specimens of 1204 children were collected; oocysts of Cryptosporidium were identified with auramine O-modified staining, acid-fast staining, safranine T and methylene blue staining, and auramine O-modified acid-fast staining. Results:The detectable rate of Cryptosporidium in four stainings were respectively 2.46%, 1.50%, 1.98% and 3.46%, and there was a higher significant difference in the rate between auramine O-modified acid-fast staining and the others(P < 0.005). The detectable rate was significantly lower in urban children(2.14%, 15/684) than in rural ones(5.19%, 27/520). Boys and girls had similar detectable rate (1.99%, 24/1 204 vs. 1.50%, 18/1 204). Cryptosporidium infection was usually subclinical, and its major clinical features included benign diarrhea, mild abdominal pain and nausea. Conclusion:Cryptospondium infection was relatively common in kindergartens and a higher infection rate was found in rural children. As the majority of the Cryptosporidium infections were subclinical, diagnosis is important although difficult.

  15. Modellering van de verwijdering van Cryptosporidium parvum,Giardia lamblia en enterovirussen in spaarbekkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak CH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    De protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia hebben de laatste decennia in de Verenigde Staten en in Groot-Brittannie een aanzienlijk aantal grote en kleine epidemieen van maag-darminfecties via drinkwater veroorzaakt. Wiskundige modellen kunnen worden gebruikt om de verwijdering van pathogene micro-o

  16. Acid-fast lipids are important structural components of oocyst walls of Cryptosporidium, Toxoplasma, and Eimeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidia are protozoan parasites that cause significant human disease and are of major agricultural importance. Cryptosporidium spp.cause diarrhea in humans and animals, while congenital Toxoplasma infections causes blindness and death. Eimeria kills chickens, so all poultry feed contain antibioti...

  17. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: 12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (pEimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, pEimeria species.

  18. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from pigs and cattle in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold; Vigre, Håkan; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2007-01-01

    . suis, pig genotype II, C. parvum (cattle genotype), C. bovis, Cryptosporidium deer-like genotype and a novel C. suis-like genotype. For both cattle and pigs, a host age-related change in distribution of species/genotypes was observed. The zoonotic C. parvum (cattle genotype) was most prevalent in young...... purely by isolates of the livestock group, Assemblage E....

  19. Modellering van de verwijdering van Cryptosporidium parvum,Giardia lamblia en enterovirussen in spaarbekkens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsak CH; MGB

    1996-01-01

    De protozoa Cryptosporidium en Giardia hebben de laatste decennia in de Verenigde Staten en in Groot-Brittannie een aanzienlijk aantal grote en kleine epidemieen van maag-darminfecties via drinkwater veroorzaakt. Wiskundige modellen kunnen worden gebruikt om de verwijdering van pathogene

  20. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF DETECTION METHODS FOR GIARDIA CYSTS AND CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the mid-20th century Giardia was classified as a non-pathogenic commensal organism and Cryptosporidium was not recognized yet. However as early as 1946 a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis was suspected. From 1965 to 1979 it became clear that Giardia lamblia was indeed a human ...

  1. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karasawa Andréa Satie Matsubara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidiidae in the snake Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae. Fifty animals were evaluated for the presence of oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. at the time of arrival and 30 and 60 days later. Intestinal washings with saline solution (1% body weight, fecal samples, and organ scrapings were collected during the study. Oocysts were concentrated by an ether-phosphate-buffered saline sedimentation technique and then separated by a density gradient centrifugation technique. Smears were made with the sediment and submitted to modified acid-fast and auramine-rhodamine staining. Cryptosporidium-positive smears were used as controls for the experimental findings. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts was 14%. Among the positive snakes, oocysts were detected only in the intestinal washing in two specimens, only in the feces in four specimens, and in both materials at least once in one specimen. The positive snakes were predominantly from Santa Maria da Serra city State of São Paulo (57.1%. We also observed that all of the examinations that presented positive results were obtained at least 27 days after the capture of the animals.

  2. EVALUATION OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium spp. IN DOMICILED DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Ramos da Silva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Cryptosporidium consists of protozoa with large reproduction and dissemination capacity. Transmission can occur indirectly by ingestion of water contaminated with viable oocysts or directly between animals, between humans, or between animals and human. In various parts of the world, pets have been cited as potential sources of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of natural Cryptosporidium spp. infection in domestic dogs in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, as well as the association of the infection with epidemiological and sanitary data. Stool samples from 97 dogs were analyzed using the techniques of centrifugal sedimentation in formalin-ether with subsequent staining by Kinyoun method. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test of Pearson and Fisher Exact test, with significance level of 5.0%. Positivity was detected in 31.9% (31/97 of samples. It was the first record of infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs from northeastern Brazil. We verified significant association between the rate of infection and veterinary medical care, vaccination, and type of environment in which the dogs were kept. Keywords: canine; cryptosporidiosis; epidemiology; zoonosis.

  3. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

  4. Emissie en verspreiding van Cryptosporidium, Giardia en enterovirussen via huishoudelijk afvalwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven JF; Medema GJ; Nijs ACM de; Elzenga JG; MGB

    1996-01-01

    A quantitative description is presented on the emissions and distribution of the pathogens mentioned through domestic waste water. The emissions were modelled with PROMISE based on average concentrations in untreated wastewater and the average removal by sewage treatment. Emission of Cryptosporidium

  5. Zoonotic Giardia and Cryptosporidium: Progress on research to safeguard human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans, livestock, companion animals, and wildlife caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium is a very important pathogen transmitted in drinking water and has been detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United...

  6. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia in brazilian captive birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 85 fecal samples from captive birds collected from October 2013 to September 2014 in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil) were evaluated for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Cryptosporidium, and Giardia by PCR. Of these, 3 birds were found positive f...

  7. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Nederlandse waterleidingbedrijven zijn verplicht om te berekenen of als gevolg van consumptie van drinkwater infectie met Cryptosporidium of Giardia kan optreden. De kans hierop moet kleiner dan een infectie per 10000 personen per jaar zijn. De berekening (risicoanalyse) wordt gebaseerd op de aant

  8. Viability staining of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts combined with flow cytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; MGB

    1998-01-01

    Flow cytometrie als extra zuiveringsstap heeft de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium oocysten en Giardia cysten in water verbeterd. Door middel van flow cytometrie kunnen (oo)cysten gescheiden worden van het meeste debris dat in waterconcentraten aanwezig is, waardoor de toepassing van fluorogene

  9. Improvement of detection method of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in reclaimed water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong ZHANG; Xing XIE; Hongying HU; Yudong SONG; Qianyuan WU; Zusheng ZONG

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two typical species of pathogenic protozoans that seriously endanger water quality. Previous works indicated that detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia with modified United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEpA) method-1623 using a membrane filtration-elution for sample con-centration attained better recovery and lower cost com-pared to the USEPA method-1623. Several improvements of membrane filtration-elution step as well as immuno-magnetic separation (IMS) steps were investigated and an optimized method for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wastewater reclamation system was recom-mended in this paper. The experimental results show that an overnight soak of the membrane after scraping and vortex agitation before elution could enhance and stabil-ize the recovery. Increasing turbidity to 4 NTU by adding kaolin clay before filtration could effectively improve the recovery of low-turbidity water. Washing the concentrate after centrifugation and twice acid dissociation both reduced the impact of water quality to protozoan recov-ery. Protozoans in different water samples were deter-mined by this optimized method, and the recovery of Cryptosporidium and Giardia were above 70% and 80% respectively, much higher than the acceptance of method-1623.

  10. Het rendement van de detectiemethode voor Cryptosporidium en Giardia in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schets FM; Medema GJ; Schijven JF; MGB

    2004-01-01

    Dutch drinking water legislation requires drinking water companies to perform a quantitative risk assessment for Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The risk of infection through consumption of drinking water should be below one infection in 10,000 persons per year. Risk assessment is based on the number

  11. First molecular investigation of Cryptosporidium spp. in young calves in Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhouda, Djahida; Hakem, Ahcène; Sannella, Anna Rosa; Benhouda, Afaf; Cacciò, Simone M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, no information is available on the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in cattle in Algeria. In this study, 17 dairy farms in the province of Batna, located in the northeast of the country, were visited to collect 132 fecal samples from young calves (Algeria. PMID:28497744

  12. INTESTINAL AND PULMONARY INFECTION BY Cryptosporidium parvum IN TWO PATIENTS WITH HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    REINA, Fábio Tadeu Rodrigues; RIBEIRO, Camila Aparecida; de ARAÚJO, Ronalda Silva; MATTÉ, Maria Helena; CASTANHO, Roberto Esteves Pires; TANAKA, Ioshie Ibara; VIGGIANI, Ana Maria Ferreira Sornas; MARTINS, Luciamáre Perinetti Alves

    2016-01-01

    We describe two patients with HIV/AIDS who presented pulmonary and intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, with a fatal outcome. The lack of available description of changes in clinical signs and radiographic characteristics of this disease when it is located in the extra-intestinal region causes low prevalence of early diagnosis and a subsequent lack of treatment. PMID:27007564

  13. Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Akbar; Haghighi, Ali; Athari, Amid; Kazemi, Bahram; Abadi, Alireza; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2009-03-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, variability with host age, and the genotypes of species of Cryptosporidium in cattle from 15 dairy farms in Qazvin province, Iran. Fecal samples, collected from 272 cattle during May 2006 to December 2007, were characterized microscopically. Oocysts from 51 positive samples were analyzed using PCR assay of 18S SSU rRNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. We identified 72.6% of the positive samples as Cryptosporidium parvum, 17.7% as Cryptosporidium andersoni, 7.8% as Cryptosporidium bovis and 1.9% as a novel genotype of C. parvum possessing a single mutation on MboII restriction. An infection rate of 19.5% of C. parvum among 174 pre-weaned calves was significantly higher than the 3.1% among 98 post-weaned calves (P<0.0006). This is the first report of C. bovis and the new subgenotype of C. parvum in Iranian cattle.

  14. Development of a Cryptosporidium oocyst assay using an automated fiber optic-based biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer Marianne F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An intestinal protozoan parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum, is a major cause of waterborne gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in potable water is a high priority for the water treatment industry to reduce potential outbreaks among the consumer populace. Anti-Cryptosporidium oocyst polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were tested as capture and detection reagents for use in a fiber optic biosensor assay for the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Antibodies were validated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, flow cytometry, Western blotting and fluorescent microscopy. Oocysts could be detected at a concentration of 105 oocysts/ml when the polyclonal antibodies were used as the capture and detection reagents. When oocysts were boiled prior to detection, a ten-fold increase in sensitivity was achieved using the polyclonal antibody. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed that both the monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies recognize a large (>300 kDa molecular weight mucin-like antigen present on the surface of the oocyst wall. The polyclonal antibody also reacted with a small (105 kDa molecular weight antigen that was present in boiled samples of oocysts. Preliminary steps to design an in-line biosensor assay system have shown that oocysts would have to be concentrated from water samples and heat treated to allow detection by a biosensor assay.

  15. Procesamiento de muestras fecales en el estudio de Cryptosporidium sp. mediante PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Pérez-Cordón

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo describe un protocolo aplicado a muestras de heces de ganado bovino para el aislamiento y purificación de ooquistes de Cryptosporidium sp. y el eventual uso de los mismos para estudios genéticos mediante PCR.

  16. [Semi-aquatic animals as a source of water contamination with Cryptosporidium and Giardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Paziewska, Anna; Romanowski, Jerzy; Siński, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. are parasitic protozoa localized in the alimentary tract of many animal species and humans. Each of these parasite species produces very resistant invasive forms (cysts and oocysts) excreted to the environment with feces of infected hosts. Water contaminated with cysts/oocysts constitutes one of the main transmission routes and is responsible for the majority of infections in humans. Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. were found in many different species of animals, including livestock, pets and free living animals. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of these protozoa in selected species of semi-aquatic mammals and to estimate their role in water contamination. In years 1996-98 the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections was high in muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) (58 and 87%, respectively). The origin of animals (farmed or free living) affected the prevalence of both parasites in European beavers (Castor fiber). The prevalence of infection increased in second period of study and was 4 and 19% for Cryptosporidium and 0 and 8% for Giardia spp. in the two studied periods, respectively. Both parasite species were also identified in water vole (Arvicola terrestris) and rat (Rattus norvegicus).

  17. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitorin...

  18. AGING OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM OOCYSTS STUDIED BY MALDI-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite, and it causes a potentially fatal gastrointestinal illness. This water borne pathogen has been the subject of several high profile disease outbreaks in the US and abroad. C. parvum presents challenges for both compliance monitoring ...

  19. The effects of Moringa lieifera seed powder on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium spp. in wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H. H.; Wolsey, I.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    or water used for postharvest washing of the produce is contaminated. A laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of a coagulant from the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in Danish wastewater. To each of five time points, 12 replicates...

  20. Wastewater treatment with Moringa oleifera seed extract: Impact on turbidity and sedimentation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Heidi H.; Woolsey, Ian; Dalsgaard, Anders

    produced from seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree (MO) in reducing Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts and turbidity in wastewater. To a total of 5 x 12 glass jars containing 500 ml wastewater samples from a Danish treatment plant, 1.2 x 106 ± 1.2 x 105 oocysts L-1 were added. To half of the wastewater samples 8...