WorldWideScience

Sample records for cryptic dietary components

  1. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Haub

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.

  2. Influence of dietary components on regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navikas, Shohreh; Teimer, Roman; Bockermann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    It is no longer a myth that a balanced diet is fundamental for general health. Common dietary components including vitamins A and D, omega-3 and probiotics are now widely accepted to be essential to protect against many diseases with an inflammatory nature. On the other hand, high fat diets...... components on diseases in which Tregs play a seminal role will be discussed. Among chronic diseases where dietary factors could have a direct influence via modulation of Tregs homeostasis and functions, we will review chronic tissue-specific autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as IBD, T1D, MS, RA...

  3. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Estimating Ratios of Two Dietary Components that are Consumed Nearly Every Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a bivariate distribution of usual intake of two dietary components that are consumed nearly every day and to calculate percentiles of the population distribution of the ratio of usual intakes.

  4. Dietary components in the development of leptin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R; Scarpace, Philip J; Harris, Ruth B S; Banks, William A

    2013-03-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity.

  5. Dietary Components in the Development of Leptin Resistance123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, Joseph R.; Scarpace, Philip J.; Harris, Ruth B. S.; Banks, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, leptin resistance has been associated with increased body fat and circulating leptin levels, and the condition is believed to contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of obesity. Although a great deal is known about the central nervous system mechanisms mediating leptin resistance, considerably less is known about the role of diet in establishing and maintaining this altered hormonal state. An exciting new finding has recently been published demonstrating the existence of leptin resistance in normal-weight rats with lean leptin levels by feeding them a high-concentration-fructose diet. This finding has opened the possibility that specific macronutrients may be capable of inducing leptin resistance, independently of the amount of body fat or circulating leptin present in the treated animals. This review describes several lines of research that have recently emerged indicating that specific types of dietary sugars and fats are capable of inducing leptin resistance in experimental rodent models. The results further show that diet-induced leptin resistance is capable of increasing energy intake and elevating body weight gain under appropriate dietary challenges. It appears that biological mechanisms on multiple levels may underlie the dietary induction of leptin resistance, including alterations in the leptin blood-to-brain transport system, in peripheral glucose metabolism, and in central leptin receptor signaling pathways. What is clear from the findings reviewed here is that diet-induced leptin resistance can occur in the absence of elevated circulating leptin levels and body weight, rendering it a potential cause and/or predisposing factor to excess body weight gain and obesity. PMID:23493533

  6. Effect of the dietary inclusion of soybean components on the innate immune system in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Appelgren, Pamela; Opazo, Rafael; Barros, Luis; Feijoó, Carmen G; Urzúa, Victoria; Romero, Jaime

    2014-02-01

    Some components of plant-based meals, such as saponins and vegetal proteins, have been proposed as inducers of intestinal inflammation in some fish. However, the molecular and cellular bases for this phenomenon have not been reported. In this work, zebrafish were used as a model to evaluate the effects of individual soybean meal components, such as saponins and soy proteins. Zebrafish larvae fed a fish meal feed containing soy components were assessed according to low and high inclusion levels. The granulocytes associated with the digestive tract and the induction of genes related to the immune system were quantitated as markers of the effects of the dietary components. A significant increase in the number of granulocytes was observed after feeding fish diets containing high saponin or soy protein contents. These dietary components also induced the expression of genes related to the innate immune system, including myeloid-specific peroxidase, as well as the complement protein and cytokines. These results reveal the influence of dietary components on the stimulation of the immune system. These observations could be significant to understanding the contributions of saponin and soy protein to the onset of enteritis in aqua-cultured fish, and this knowledge may aid in defining the role of the innate immune system in other inflammatory diseases involving dietary components in mammals.

  7. 21 CFR 111.455 - What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What requirements apply to holding components, dietary supplements, packaging, and labels? 111.455 Section 111.455 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD...

  8. Gut microbiota and cardiometabolic outcomes: influence of dietary patterns and their associated components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Julia M W

    2014-07-01

    Many dietary patterns have been associated with cardiometabolic risk reduction. A commonality between these dietary patterns is the emphasis on plant-based foods. Studies in individuals who consume vegetarian and vegan diets have shown a reduced risk of cardiovascular events and incidence of diabetes. Plant-based dietary patterns may promote a more favorable gut microbial profile. Such diets are high in dietary fiber and fermentable substrate (ie, nondigestible or undigested carbohydrates), which are sources of metabolic fuel for gut microbial fermentation and, in turn, result in end products that may be used by the host (eg, short-chain fatty acids). These end products may have direct or indirect effects on modulating the health of their host. Modulation of the gut microbiota is an area of growing interest, and it has been suggested to have the potential to reduce risk factors associated with chronic diseases. Examples of dietary components that alter the gut microbial composition include prebiotics and resistant starches. Emerging evidence also suggests a potential link between interindividual differences in the gut microbiota and variations in physiology or predisposition to certain chronic disease risk factors. Alterations in the gut microbiota may also stimulate certain populations and may assist in biotransformation of bioactive components found in plant foods. Strategies to modify microbial communities may therefore provide a novel approach in the treatment and management of chronic diseases. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Does Dietary Fiber Affect the Levels of Nutritional Components after Feed Formulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidu Adams

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dietary fiber and nutrient bioavailability have gained an increasing interest in both human and animal nutrition. Questions are increasingly being asked regarding the faith of nutrient components such as proteins, minerals, vitamins, and lipids after feed formulation. The aim of this review is to evaluate the evidence with the perspective of fiber usage in feed formulation. The consumption of dietary fiber may affect the absorption of nutrients in different ways. The physicochemical factors of dietary fiber, such as fermentation, bulking ability, binding ability, viscosity and gel formation, water-holding capacity and solubility affect nutrient absorption. The dietary fiber intake influences the different methods in which nutrients are absorbed. The increase in the total fiber content of the diet may delay the glycemic response. Soluble fiber decreased blood glucose content whereas purified insoluble fiber has a little or no effect on the blood glucose levels after a meal. Dietary fiber and prebiotics influence the host animal well-being by regulating blood glucose or insulin levels, stool bulking effects, increasing the acidity of the gut, constructive synthesis of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, decreasing intestinal transit time, stimulating the growth of intestinal microbes, and increasing blood parameters. Previous studies suggest that fiber affects the bioavailability of nutrients, and maintains the host wellness.

  10. Rumen bacteria: interaction with particulate dietary components and response to dietary variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K J; Akin, D E; Costerton, J W

    1977-02-01

    The bovine rumen resembles many other ecosystems in that its component bacterial cells are universally surrounded and protected by extracellular structures. The most common form of these structures is a fibrous carbohydrate slime that extends away from the cell and may mediate the attachment of the bacterium to a surface. This attachment is relatively specific and it may occur at the surface of the rumen epithelium or on the cell walls of a specific tissue within the plant-derived food of the animal. The production of the extracellular slime is under nutritional control and slime may be overproduced when soluble carbohydrates are available in high concentration. This overproduction results in cell-cell adhesion among the rumen bacteria with the eventual formation of slime-enclosed microcolonies and, in extreme cases, the generation of sufficient viscosity to cause feedlot bloat.

  11. Detection of cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, A.F.; Jensen, T.; Seawright, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author)

  12. Detection of cryptic species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, A F; Jensen, T; Seawright, J A [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Medical and Veterinary Entomology Research Lab., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Morphologically similar cryptic species are common in insects. In Anopheles mosquitoes morphologically described species are complexes of cryptic species. Cryptic species are of great practical importance for two reasons: first, one or more species of the complex might not be a pest and control efforts directed at the complex as a whole would therefore be partly wasted; and second, genetic (and perhaps biological) control strategies directed against one species of the complex would not affect other species of the complex. At least one SIT effort has failed because the released sterile insect were of a different species and therefore did not mate with the wild insects being targeted. We use a multidisciplinary approach for detection of cryptic species complexes, focusing first on identifying variability in wild populations using RFLPs of mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes (mtDNA and rDNA); followed by confirmation using a variety of other techniques. For rapid identification of wild individuals of field collections, we use a DNA dot blot assay. DNA probes can be isolated by differential screening, however we are currently focusing on the sequencing of the rDNA extragenic spacers. These regions are repeated several hundred times per genome in mosquitoes and evolve rapidly. Molecular drive tends to keen the individual genes homogeneous within a species. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  13. Fitting a Bivariate Measurement Error Model for Episodically Consumed Dietary Components

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Saijuan

    2011-01-06

    There has been great public health interest in estimating usual, i.e., long-term average, intake of episodically consumed dietary components that are not consumed daily by everyone, e.g., fish, red meat and whole grains. Short-term measurements of episodically consumed dietary components have zero-inflated skewed distributions. So-called two-part models have been developed for such data in order to correct for measurement error due to within-person variation and to estimate the distribution of usual intake of the dietary component in the univariate case. However, there is arguably much greater public health interest in the usual intake of an episodically consumed dietary component adjusted for energy (caloric) intake, e.g., ounces of whole grains per 1000 kilo-calories, which reflects usual dietary composition and adjusts for different total amounts of caloric intake. Because of this public health interest, it is important to have models to fit such data, and it is important that the model-fitting methods can be applied to all episodically consumed dietary components.We have recently developed a nonlinear mixed effects model (Kipnis, et al., 2010), and have fit it by maximum likelihood using nonlinear mixed effects programs and methodology (the SAS NLMIXED procedure). Maximum likelihood fitting of such a nonlinear mixed model is generally slow because of 3-dimensional adaptive Gaussian quadrature, and there are times when the programs either fail to converge or converge to models with a singular covariance matrix. For these reasons, we develop a Monte-Carlo (MCMC) computation of fitting this model, which allows for both frequentist and Bayesian inference. There are technical challenges to developing this solution because one of the covariance matrices in the model is patterned. Our main application is to the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, where we illustrate our methods for modeling the energy-adjusted usual intake of fish and whole

  14. Fitting a Bivariate Measurement Error Model for Episodically Consumed Dietary Components

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Saijuan; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Midthune, Douglas; Perez, Adriana; Buckman, Dennis W.; Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Carroll, Raymond J

    2011-01-01

    There has been great public health interest in estimating usual, i.e., long-term average, intake of episodically consumed dietary components that are not consumed daily by everyone, e.g., fish, red meat and whole grains. Short-term measurements of episodically consumed dietary components have zero-inflated skewed distributions. So-called two-part models have been developed for such data in order to correct for measurement error due to within-person variation and to estimate the distribution of usual intake of the dietary component in the univariate case. However, there is arguably much greater public health interest in the usual intake of an episodically consumed dietary component adjusted for energy (caloric) intake, e.g., ounces of whole grains per 1000 kilo-calories, which reflects usual dietary composition and adjusts for different total amounts of caloric intake. Because of this public health interest, it is important to have models to fit such data, and it is important that the model-fitting methods can be applied to all episodically consumed dietary components.We have recently developed a nonlinear mixed effects model (Kipnis, et al., 2010), and have fit it by maximum likelihood using nonlinear mixed effects programs and methodology (the SAS NLMIXED procedure). Maximum likelihood fitting of such a nonlinear mixed model is generally slow because of 3-dimensional adaptive Gaussian quadrature, and there are times when the programs either fail to converge or converge to models with a singular covariance matrix. For these reasons, we develop a Monte-Carlo (MCMC) computation of fitting this model, which allows for both frequentist and Bayesian inference. There are technical challenges to developing this solution because one of the covariance matrices in the model is patterned. Our main application is to the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, where we illustrate our methods for modeling the energy-adjusted usual intake of fish and whole

  15. Activity concentration and population dose from 226Ra due to consumption of dietary components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagh, S.S.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1620 years, α-energy 4.78 MeV, 4.59 MeV, γ-energy 186 keV), a product of natural uranium decay series, is abundantly observed in natural environment. Radium, along with its homologue calcium, an essential element in the plant system, is absorbed from the soil by plants and gets redistributed. within different parts of the plants. Because of the long half-life of 226 Ra, it gets accumulated in the human body for along time. The hazard due to ingestion of 226 Ra dissolved in water is reported to be about 40 times higher than that of 90 Sr. This paper deals with the concentration of 226 Ra in different dietary components and ingestion dose from 226 Ra due to consumption of dietary components. Internal radiation exposure to non-human biota due to 226 Ra is also discussed

  16. Comparison of cluster and principal component analysis techniques to derive dietary patterns in Irish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearty, Aine P; Gibney, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine and compare dietary patterns in adults using cluster and factor analyses and to examine the format of the dietary variables on the pattern solutions (i.e. expressed as grams/day (g/d) of each food group or as the percentage contribution to total energy intake). Food intake data were derived from the North/South Ireland Food Consumption Survey 1997-9, which was a randomised cross-sectional study of 7 d recorded food and nutrient intakes of a representative sample of 1379 Irish adults aged 18-64 years. Cluster analysis was performed using the k-means algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) was used to extract dietary factors. Food data were reduced to thirty-three food groups. For cluster analysis, the most suitable format of the food-group variable was found to be the percentage contribution to energy intake, which produced six clusters: 'Traditional Irish'; 'Continental'; 'Unhealthy foods'; 'Light-meal foods & low-fat milk'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Wholemeal bread & desserts'. For PCA, food groups in the format of g/d were found to be the most suitable format, and this revealed four dietary patterns: 'Unhealthy foods & high alcohol'; 'Traditional Irish'; 'Healthy foods'; 'Sweet convenience foods & low alcohol'. In summary, cluster and PCA identified similar dietary patterns when presented with the same dataset. However, the two dietary pattern methods required a different format of the food-group variable, and the most appropriate format of the input variable should be considered in future studies.

  17. Pathways and mechanisms linking dietary components to cardiometabolic disease: thinking beyond calories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, K L; Goran, M I; Bosy-Westphal, A; King, J C; Schmidt, L A; Schwarz, J-M; Stice, E; Sylvetsky, A C; Turnbaugh, P J; Bray, G A; Gardner, C D; Havel, P J; Malik, V; Mason, A E; Ravussin, E; Rosenbaum, M; Welsh, J A; Allister-Price, C; Sigala, D M; Greenwood, M R C; Astrup, A; Krauss, R M

    2018-05-14

    Calories from any food have the potential to increase risk for obesity and cardiometabolic disease because all calories can directly contribute to positive energy balance and fat gain. However, various dietary components or patterns may promote obesity and cardiometabolic disease by additional mechanisms that are not mediated solely by caloric content. Researchers explored this topic at the 2017 CrossFit Foundation Academic Conference 'Diet and Cardiometabolic Health - Beyond Calories', and this paper summarizes the presentations and follow-up discussions. Regarding the health effects of dietary fat, sugar and non-nutritive sweeteners, it is concluded that food-specific saturated fatty acids and sugar-sweetened beverages promote cardiometabolic diseases by mechanisms that are additional to their contribution of calories to positive energy balance and that aspartame does not promote weight gain. The challenges involved in conducting and interpreting clinical nutritional research, which preclude more extensive conclusions, are detailed. Emerging research is presented exploring the possibility that responses to certain dietary components/patterns are influenced by the metabolic status, developmental period or genotype of the individual; by the responsiveness of brain regions associated with reward to food cues; or by the microbiome. More research regarding these potential 'beyond calories' mechanisms may lead to new strategies for attenuating the obesity crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity Federation.

  18. Information accessibility and cryptic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, John R; Ellison, Christopher J; Crutchfield, James P [Complexity Sciences Center and Physics Department, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)], E-mail: jrmahoney@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: cellison@cse.ucdavis.edu, E-mail: chaos@cse.ucdavis.edu

    2009-09-11

    We give a systematic expansion of the crypticity-a recently introduced measure of the inaccessibility of a stationary process's internal state information. This leads to a hierarchy of k-cryptic processes and allows us to identify finite-state processes that have infinite cryptic order-the internal state information is present across arbitrarily long, observed sequences. The crypticity expansion is exact in both the finite- and infinite-order cases. It turns out that k-crypticity is complementary to the Markovian finite-order property that describes state information in processes. One application of these results is an efficient expansion of the excess entropy-the mutual information between a process's infinite past and infinite future-that is finite and exact for finite-order cryptic processes. (fast track communication)

  19. Multielemental analysis of vegetarian human diets and dietary components by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samudralwar, D.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    Two vegetarian diet samples representative of the Indian sub-continent were prepared (in raw form) by the proportionate blending method for adolescent and adult age groups. These along with its components, viz. wheat, rice flours and pulses, were analyzed for 12 minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. Bowen's kale was also analyzed to check the accuracy of the method. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mn and P are comparable to the non-vegetarian American and European diets. Zinc concentrations are however lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the western non-vegetarian diets. (orig.)

  20. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30 g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3 weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentrations of milk protein and solids non-fat in groups fed diets containing both conventional and lutein-fortified chlorella were significantly higher than those of the control group (P milk fat among groups. The levels of plasma glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 were not influenced by the dietary treatments. Lutein content in milk was significantly increased in groups fed lutein-fortified chlorella as compared with those of conventional chlorella and control, respectively (P lutein-fortified chlorella has positive effects on milk components and the use of lutein-fortified chlorella in a dairy diet is effective in the production of milk enriched with lutein.

  1. Additional self-monitoring tools in the dietary modification component of The Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Henry, Holly; Rodabough, Rebecca; Bragg, Charlotte; Brewer, Amy; Freed, Trish; Kinzel, Laura; Pedersen, Margaret; Soule, C Oehme; Vosburg, Shirley

    2004-01-01

    Self-monitoring promotes behavior changes by promoting awareness of eating habits and creates self-efficacy. It is an important component of the Women's Health Initiative dietary intervention. During the first year of intervention, 74% of the total sample of 19,542 dietary intervention participants self-monitored. As the study progressed the self-monitoring rate declined to 59% by spring 2000. Participants were challenged by inability to accurately estimate fat content of restaurant foods and the inconvenience of carrying bulky self-monitoring tools. In 1996, a Self-Monitoring Working Group was organized to develop additional self-monitoring options that were responsive to participant needs. This article describes the original and additional self-monitoring tools and trends in tool use over time. Original tools were the Food Diary and Fat Scan. Additional tools include the Keeping Track of Goals, Quick Scan, Picture Tracker, and Eating Pattern Changes instruments. The additional tools were used by the majority of participants (5,353 of 10,260 or 52% of participants who were self-monitoring) by spring 2000. Developing self-monitoring tools that are responsive to participant needs increases the likelihood that self-monitoring can enhance dietary reporting adherence, especially in long-term clinical trials.

  2. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  3. Dietary Components Affect the Plasma and Tissue Levels of Lutein in Aged Rats with Lutein Deficiency--A Repeated Gavage and Dietary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshappa, Mamatha Bangera; Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Bhatiwada, Nidhi; Talahalli, Ramprasad Ravichandra; Vallikannan, Baskaran

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the influence of selected dietary components on plasma and tissue response of repeated micellar and dietary lutein in aged rats with lutein deficiency. In repeated (16 d) gavage study, micellar lutein was co-ingested with either phosphatidylcholine (PC), lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), β-carotene, dietary fiber or vegetable fat (3% soybean oil). In dietary study, rats were fed (4 wk) semi-synthetic diet either with lutein + PC, lutein + dietary fiber or B. alba (lutein source) + PC. The post-prandial plasma and tissue response of lutein was measured by HPLC. Results showed that micellar fat, PC and lysoPC significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the lutein levels in plasma (31.1%, 26.8%, and 34.9%), liver (27.4%, 29.5%, and 8.6%), and eyes (63.5%, 90.2%, and 86%) compared to the control group (group gavaged micelles with no dietary components studied). Similarly, dietary study showed an enhanced plasma, liver, and eye lutein levels by 44.8%, 24.1%, and 42.0% (lutein + PC group) and 51.7%, 39.8%, and 31.7% (B.alba + PC group), respectively compared to control. The activity of antioxidant enzymes in plasma and liver of both the studies were also affected compared to control. Result reveals, that PC enhance the intestinal absorption of both micellar and dietary lutein which is either in free or bound form with food matrices in aged rats with lutein deficiency. Hence, PC at a concentration used in this study can be considered to improve the lutein bioavailability in lutein deficiency. Lutein and zeaxanthin are macular pigments acquired mostly from greens, that play an significant role in protecting vision from Age related macular degeneration (AMD). However, their biological availability is poor and affected by dietary components. This study demonstrates the positive influence of dietary PC and lyso PC in improving intestinal uptake of lutein. Our previous and present finding shows there is a possibility of developing functional

  4. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruk, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Sani; Adamu, Ahmed; Rafindadi, Abdulmumini Hassan; Ukwenya, Yahaya; Iliyasu, Yawale; Adamu, Abdullahi; Aminu, Surajo Mohammed; Shehu, Mohammed Sani; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Mohammed, Abdullahi; Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Idoko, John; Ntekim, Atara; Suleiman, Aishatu Maude; Shah, Khalid Zahir; Adoke, Kasimu Umar

    2018-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14), mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls ( P fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans "today."

  5. Multielemental analysis of vegetarian human diets and dietary components by neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudralwar, D.L. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry); Garg, A.N. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-03-01

    Two vegetarian diet samples representative of the Indian sub-continent were prepared (in raw form) by the proportionate blending method for adolescent and adult age groups. These along with its components, viz. wheat, rice flours and pulses, were analyzed for 12 minor and trace elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and high resolution [gamma]-ray spectrometry. Bowen's kale was also analyzed to check the accuracy of the method. The concentrations of Br, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mn and P are comparable to the non-vegetarian American and European diets. Zinc concentrations are however lower than the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) and the western non-vegetarian diets. (orig.)

  6. Contribution to the understanding of how principal component analysis-derived dietary patterns emerge from habitual data on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedhelm, Carolina; Iqbal, Khalid; Knüppel, Sven; Schwingshackl, Lukas; Boeing, Heiner

    2018-02-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a widely used exploratory method in epidemiology to derive dietary patterns from habitual diet. Such dietary patterns seem to originate from intakes on multiple days and eating occasions. Therefore, analyzing food intake of study populations with different levels of food consumption can provide additional insights as to how habitual dietary patterns are formed. We analyzed the food intake data of German adults in terms of the relations among food groups from three 24-h dietary recalls (24hDRs) on the habitual, single-day, and main-meal levels, and investigated the contribution of each level to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Three 24hDRs were collected in 2010-2012 from 816 adults for an European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam subcohort study. We identified PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns and compared cross-sectional food consumption data in terms of correlation (Spearman), consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient), and frequency of consumption across all days and main meals. Contribution to the formation of the dietary patterns was obtained through Spearman correlation of the dietary pattern scores. Among the meals, breakfast appeared to be the most consistent eating occasion within individuals. Dinner showed the strongest correlations with "Prudent" (Spearman correlation = 0.60), "Western" (Spearman correlation = 0.59), and "Traditional" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) dietary patterns identified on the habitual level, and lunch showed the strongest correlations with the "Cereals and legumes" (Spearman correlation = 0.60) habitual dietary pattern. Higher meal consistency was related to lower contributions to the formation of PCA-derived habitual dietary patterns. Absolute amounts of food consumption did not strongly conform to the habitual dietary patterns by meals, suggesting that these patterns are formed by complex combinations of variable food

  7. An analysis of dietary fiber and fecal fiber components including pH in rural Africans with colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Faruk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Colorectal cancer (CRC is now a major public health problem with heavy morbidity and mortality in rural Africans despite the lingering dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs consumption. Studies have shown that increased intake of dietary fiber which contribute to low fecal pH and also influences the activity of intestinal microbiota, is associated with a lowered risk for CRC. However, whether or not the apparent high dietary fiber consumption by Africans do not longer protects against CRC risk is unknown. This study evaluated dietary fiber intake, fecal fiber components and pH levels in CRC patients. Methods: Thirty-five subjects (CRC=21, control=14, mean age 45 years were recruited for the study. A truncated food frequency questionnaire and modified Goering and Van Soest procedures were used. Results: We found that all subjects consumed variety of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs. There is slight preponderance in consumption of dietary fiber by the control group than the CRC patients. We also found a significant difference in the mean fecal neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin contents from the CRC patients compared to the controls (P<0.05. The CRC patients had significantly more fecal pH level than the matched apparently healthy controls (P=0.017. Conclusions: The identified differences in the fecal fiber components and stool pH levels between the 2 groups may relate to CRC incidence and mortality in rural Africans. There is crucial need for more hypothesis-driven research with adequate funding on the cumulative preventive role of dietary fiber-rich foodstuffs against colorectal cancer in rural Africans “today.”

  8. Dietary Aloe vera components' effects on cholesterol lowering and estrogenic responses in juvenile goldfish, Carassius auratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Francesco A; Cocci, Paolo; Angeletti, Mauro; Felici, Alberto; Polzonetti-Magni, Alberta Maria; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2013-08-01

    Aloes are now considered a very interesting source of bioactive compounds among which phytosterols should play a major role. The present study is an attempt to investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of Aloe vera associated with its impact on the reproductive status of juvenile goldfish. Therefore, the short- and long-term effects of feeding supplementary diet containing aloe components (20 mg aloe/g diet; 2%) on plasma lipids, plasma vitellogenin, and hepatic estrogen receptor α/β1 mRNA levels in goldfish were examined. Results of GC-MS for phytosterols show high abundance of β-sitosterol in freeze-dried powder of Aloe vera whole leaves. Moreover, a 2% aloe powder dietary supplement was not found estrogenic in juvenile goldfish after either 7- or 30-day treatment, but was consistent in plasma hypocholesterolemic effects following long-term exposure. The present data further support that plasma cholesterol modulation induced by phytosterols may not be related to estrogen-like activity.

  9. Testing the relative associations of different components of dietary restraint on psychological functioning in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Newton, Richard; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Jenkins, Zoe; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Castle, David

    2018-05-25

    Although empirical evidence identifies dietary restraint as a transdiagnostic eating disorder maintaining mechanism, the distinctiveness and significance of the different behavioural and cognitive components of dietary restraint are poorly understood. The present study examined the relative associations of the purportedly distinct dietary restraint components (intention to restrict, delayed eating, food avoidance, and diet rules) with measures of psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress), disability, and core eating disorder symptoms (overvaluation and binge eating) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Data were analysed from a treatment-seeking sample of individuals with AN (n = 124) and BN (n = 54). Intention to restrict, food avoidance, and diet rules were strongly related to each other (all r's > 0.78), but only weakly-moderately related to delayed eating behaviours (all r's psychological distress. Patient diagnosis did not moderate these associations. Overall, findings indicate that delayed eating behaviours may be a distinct component from other indices of dietary restraint (e.g., intention to restrict, food avoidance, diet rules). This study highlights the potential importance of ensuring that delayed eating behaviours are screened, assessed, and targeted early in treatment for patients with AN and BN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CONCENTRATION-DEPENDENT LINKAGE OF DIETARY METHIONINE RESTRICTION TO THE COMPONENTS OF ITS METABOLIC PHENOTYPE

    OpenAIRE

    Forney, Laura A.; Wanders, Desiree; Stone, Kirsten P.; Pierse, Alicia; Gettys, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Restricting dietary methionine to 0.17% produces a series of physiological responses through coordinated transcriptional effects in liver and adipose tissue. The goal of the present work was to determine the threshold concentrations above and below 0.17% at which the beneficial responses to 0.17% dietary methionine are preserved. Methods Diets were formulated to restrict methionine to different degrees, followed by evaluation of the transcriptional and physiological responses to the...

  11. Association of Dietary Patterns with Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Inflammation among Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Syauqy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP, while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS.

  12. Dietary effects of lutein-fortified chlorella on milk components of Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Jin-Young; Park, Keun-Kyu; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Jang, Seung-Wan; Moon, Byung-Hern; An, Byoung-Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella on milk production and lutein incorporation in milk. Fifteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used in a 3???3 Latin square design each with a 21-day period. Cows were top-dressed daily with 30?g of conventional or lutein-fortified chlorella for 3?weeks. Cows without chlorella served as the control. The feed intake and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. The concentration...

  13. Using both principal component analysis and reduced rank regression to study dietary patterns and diabetes in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Carolina; Mendez, Michelle A; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Adair, Linda; Popkin, Barry

    2016-02-01

    We examined the association between dietary patterns and diabetes using the strengths of two methods: principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the eating patterns of the population and reduced rank regression (RRR) to derive a pattern that explains the variation in glycated Hb (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose. We measured diet over a 3 d period with 24 h recalls and a household food inventory in 2006 and used it to derive PCA and RRR dietary patterns. The outcomes were measured in 2009. Adults (n 4316) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. The adjusted odds ratio for diabetes prevalence (HbA1c≥6·5 %), comparing the highest dietary pattern score quartile with the lowest, was 1·26 (95 % CI 0·76, 2·08) for a modern high-wheat pattern (PCA; wheat products, fruits, eggs, milk, instant noodles and frozen dumplings), 0·76 (95 % CI 0·49, 1·17) for a traditional southern pattern (PCA; rice, meat, poultry and fish) and 2·37 (95 % CI 1·56, 3·60) for the pattern derived with RRR. By comparing the dietary pattern structures of RRR and PCA, we found that the RRR pattern was also behaviourally meaningful. It combined the deleterious effects of the modern high-wheat pattern (high intakes of wheat buns and breads, deep-fried wheat and soya milk) with the deleterious effects of consuming the opposite of the traditional southern pattern (low intakes of rice, poultry and game, fish and seafood). Our findings suggest that using both PCA and RRR provided useful insights when studying the association of dietary patterns with diabetes.

  14. Storage related changes of cell wall based dietary fiber components of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Stanojlovic, Luisa; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2017-03-01

    Storage related changes in the cell wall composition potentially affect the texture of plant-based foods and the physiological effects of cell wall based dietary fiber components. Therefore, a detailed characterization of cell wall polysaccharides and lignins from broccoli stems was performed. Freshly harvested broccoli and broccoli stored at 20°C and 1°C for different periods of time were analyzed. Effects on dietary fiber contents, polysaccharide composition, and on lignin contents/composition were much more pronounced during storage at 20°C than at 1°C. During storage, insoluble dietary fiber contents of broccoli stems increased up to 13%. Storage related polysaccharide modifications include an increase of the portions of cellulose, xylans, and homogalacturonans and a decrease of the neutral pectic side-chains arabinans and galactans. Broccoli stem lignins are generally rich in guaiacyl units. Lignins from freshly harvested broccoli stems contain slightly larger amounts of p-hydroxyphenyl units than syringyl units. Syringyl units are predominantly incorporated into the lignin polymers during storage, resulting in increased acetyl bromide soluble lignin contents. NMR-based analysis of the interunit linkage types of broccoli stem lignins revealed comparably large portions of resinol structures for a guaiacyl rich lignin. Incorporation of syringyl units into the polymers over storage predominantly occurs through β-O-4-linkages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level.

  16. Toxins in botanical dietary supplements: blue cohosh components disrupt cellular respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B; Khan, Ikhlas A; Nagle, Dale G; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-24

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA "black box" warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3), exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage.

  17. Toxins in Botanical Dietary Supplements: Blue Cohosh Components Disrupt Cellular Respiration and Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Mahdi, Fakhri; Ali, Zulfiqar; Jekabsons, Mika B.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Certain botanical dietary supplements have been associated with idiosyncratic organ-specific toxicity. Similar toxicological events, caused by drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, have forced the withdrawal or U.S. FDA “Black Box” warnings of major pharmaceuticals. To assess the potential mitochondrial liability of botanical dietary supplements, extracts from 352 authenticated plant samples used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbal medicine were evaluated for the ability to disrupt cellular respiration. Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) methanol extract exhibited mitochondriotoxic activity. Used by some U.S. midwives to help induce labor, blue cohosh has been associated with perinatal stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, multiple organ injury, and neonatal shock. The potential link between mitochondrial disruption and idiosyncratic herbal intoxication prompted further examination. The C. thalictroides methanol extract and three saponins, cauloside A (1), saponin PE (2), and cauloside C (3) exhibited concentration- and time-dependent mitochondriotoxic activities. Upon treatment, cell respiration rate rapidly increased and then dramatically decreased within minutes. Mechanistic studies revealed that C. thalictroides constituents impair mitochondrial function by disrupting membrane integrity. These studies provide a potential etiological link between this mitochondria-sensitive form of cytotoxicity and idiosyncratic organ damage. PMID:24328138

  18. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins.

  19. Effects of dietary components on testosterone metabolism via UDP‐glucuronosyltransferase (UGT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl eJenkinson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential interference in testosterone metabolism through ingested substances has ramifications for: i a range of pathologies such as prostate cancer, ii medication contra-indications, iii disruption to the endocrine system, and iv potential confounding effects on doping tests. Conjugation of anabolic steroids during phase II metabolism, mainly driven by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT 2B7, 2B15 and 2B17, has been shown to be impaired in vitro by a range of compounds including xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals. Following early reports on the effects of a range of xenobiotics on UGT activity in vitro, the work was extended to reveal similar effects with common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Notably, recent studies have evidenced inhibitory effects of the common foodstuffs green tea and red wine, along with their constituent flavonoids and catechins. This review amalgamates the existing evidence for the inhibitory effects of various pharmaceutical and dietary substances on the rate of UGT glucuronidation of testosterone; and evaluates the potential consequences for health linked to steroid levels, interaction with treatment drugs metabolised by the UGT enzyme and steroid abuse in sport.

  20. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  1. Cryptic or pseudocryptic: can morphological methods inform copepod taxonomy? An analysis of publications and a case study of the Eurytemora affinis species complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajus, Dmitry; Sukhikh, Natalia; Alekseev, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Interest in cryptic species has increased significantly with current progress in genetic methods. The large number of cryptic species suggests that the resolution of traditional morphological techniques may be insufficient for taxonomical research. However, some species now considered to be cryptic may, in fact, be designated pseudocryptic after close morphological examination. Thus the “cryptic or pseudocryptic” dilemma speaks to the resolution of morphological analysis and its utility for identifying species. We address this dilemma first by systematically reviewing data published from 1980 to 2013 on cryptic species of Copepoda and then by performing an in-depth morphological study of the former Eurytemora affinis complex of cryptic species. Analyzing the published data showed that, in 5 of 24 revisions eligible for systematic review, cryptic species assignment was based solely on the genetic variation of forms without detailed morphological analysis to confirm the assignment. Therefore, some newly described cryptic species might be designated pseudocryptic under more detailed morphological analysis as happened with Eurytemora affinis complex. Recent genetic analyses of the complex found high levels of heterogeneity without morphological differences; it is argued to be cryptic. However, next detailed morphological analyses allowed to describe a number of valid species. Our study, using deep statistical analyses usually not applied for new species describing, of this species complex confirmed considerable differences between former cryptic species. In particular, fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the random variation of left and right structures, was significantly different between forms and provided independent information about their status. Our work showed that multivariate statistical approaches, such as principal component analysis, can be powerful techniques for the morphological discrimination of cryptic taxons. Despite increasing cryptic species

  2. Features of cryptic promoters and their varied reliance on bromodomain-containing factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha G Pattenden

    Full Text Available The Set2-Rpd3S pathway is important for the control of transcription memory. Mutation of components of this pathway results in cryptic transcription initiation within the coding region of approximately 30% of yeast genes. Specifically, deletion of the Set2 histone methyltransferase or Rco1, a component of the Rpd3S histone deacetylase complex leads to hyperacetylation of certain open reading frames (ORFs. We used this mutant as a system to study the role of histone modifications and co-activator recruitment in preinitiation complex (PIC formation. Specifically, we looked at the dependence of promoters on the bromodomain-containing RSC complex and the Bdf1 protein. We found that the dependence of cryptic promoters for these proteins varied. Overall, our data indicate that cryptic promoters are independently regulated, and their activation is dependent on factors that govern gene activation at canonical promoters.

  3. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Philip H

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression. Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months. Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring. No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long

  4. Influence of selected dietary components on the functioning of the human nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Stefańska, Ewa; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    The diet is directly connected not only with the physical status but also with the functioning of the brain and the mental status. The potentially beneficial nutrients with a protective effect on the nervous system function include amino acids (tryptophan, phenylalanine, tyrosine, taurine), glucose and vitamins C, E, D and beta-carotene, B group vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, vitamin B4, vitamin B1) and minerals (selenium, zinc, magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, manganese, iodine). The presence of antioxidants in the diet protects against oxidative damage to nervous system cells. Biochemical data indicate that polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) as structural components of the nervous system play a key role in its function. The nutrition of the entire body also influences the production of neurotransmitters in the brain. A diet without an appropriate supply of protein, mineral nutrients or vitamins may result in a failure to form appropriately balanced numbers of neurotransmitters, which, as a result, may lead to neurotransmission dysfunction. This is the reason why proper nutrition is based on vegetables, fruits, whole-grain cereal products supplemented with products providing full-value protein (dairy products, fish, lean meat) and high-quality fat products (vegetable oils, fish fats).

  5. Dietary rice bran component γ-oryzanol inhibits tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effects of rice bran and components on tumor growth in mice. Mice fed standard diets supplemented with rice bran, γ-oryzanol, Ricetrienol®, ferulic acid, or phytic acid for 2 weeks were inoculated with CT-26 colon cancer cells and fed the same diet for two additional weeks. Tumor mass was significantly lower in the γ-oryzanol and less so in the phytic acid group. Tumor inhibition was associated with the following biomarkers: increases in cytolytic activity of splenic natural killer (NK) cells; partial restoration of nitric oxide production and phagocytosis in peritoneal macrophages increases in released the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from macrophages; and reductions in the number of blood vessels inside the tumor. Pro-angiogenic biomarkers vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and 5-lipoxygenase-5 (5-LOX) were also significantly reduced in mRNA and protein expression by tumor genes. ELISA of tumor cells confirmed reduced expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX up to 30%. Reduced COX-2 and 5-LOX expression downregulated VEGF and inhibited neoangiogenesis inside the tumors. Induction of NK activity, activation of macrophages, and inhibition of angiogenesis seem to contribute to the inhibitory mechanism of tumor regression by γ-oryzanol. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Cryptic Sebastes norvegicus species in Greenland waters revealed by microsatellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saha, Atal; Hauser, Lorenz; Hedeholm, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Identification of cryptic species can have profound implications in fishery management, conservation and biodiversity contexts. In the North Atlantic, the genus Sebastes is currently represented by four species, although additional cryptic species have been assumed. The connectivity of the gene...

  7. Dietary approach to stop hypertension (DASH: diet components may be related to lower prevalence of different kinds of cancer: A review on the related documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Onvani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH eating plan is a healthy dietary pattern. Our object is to review surveys in the field of major components of DASH diet and different kinds of cancers. Materials and Methods: Our search result from PubMed search engine recruited to find related articles. Results: Adherence to the DASH diet components was significantly related to lower prevalence of various cancers due to their high content of fiber, nutrients, vitamins, mineral, and antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: In this review, positive association of DASH diet components and different cancers were observed. However, the exact association of DASH with cancers should be clarified in future longitudinal studies due to potential interaction among foods and nutrients.

  8. A simplified approach to estimating the distribution of occasionally-consumed dietary components, applied to alcohol intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Chernova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within-person variation in dietary records can lead to biased estimates of the distribution of food intake. Quantile estimation is especially relevant in the case of skewed distributions and in the estimation of under- or over-consumption. The analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods presents further challenges due to the high frequency of zero records. Two-part mixed-effects models account for excess-zeros, daily variation and correlation arising from repeated individual dietary records. In practice, the application of the two-part model with random effects involves Monte Carlo (MC simulations. However, these can be time-consuming and the precision of MC estimates depends on the size of the simulated data which can hinder reproducibility of results. Methods We propose a new approach based on numerical integration as an alternative to MC simulations to estimate the distribution of occasionally-consumed foods in sub-populations. The proposed approach and MC methods are compared by analysing the alcohol intake distribution in a sub-population of individuals at risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Results The rate of convergence of the results of MC simulations to the results of our proposed method is model-specific, depends on the number of draws from the target distribution, and is relatively slower at the tails of the distribution. Our data analyses also show that model misspecification can lead to incorrect model parameter estimates. For example, under the wrong model assumption of zero correlation between the components, one of the predictors turned out as non-significant at 5 % significance level (p-value 0.062 but it was estimated as significant in the correctly specified model (p-value 0.016. Conclusions The proposed approach for the analysis of the intake distributions of occasionally-consumed foods provides a quicker and more precise alternative to MC simulation methods, particularly in the

  9. Population genetics and cryptic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheron, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    Does the definition of a species matter for pest management purposes? Taxonomists provide us with tools - usually morphological characters - to identify a group of organisms that we call a species. The implication of this identification is that all of the individuals that fit the provided description are members of the species in question. The taxonomists have considered the range of variation among individuals in defining the species, but this variation is often forgotten when we take the concept of species to the level of management. Just as there is morphological variation among individuals, there is also variation in practically any character we might imagine, which has implications for the short and long term success of our management tactics. The rich literature on insecticide resistance should be a constant reminder of the fact that the pressure on pest survival and reproduction applied by our management approaches frequently leads to evolutionary changes within the pest species. The degree of variation within a particular species is a defining characteristic of that species. This level of variability may have very important implications for successful management, so it is very important to measure variation and, whenever possible, the genetic basis of that variation, in a target species. Population genetic approaches can provide evidence of genetic structure (or lack thereof) among populations of a species. These types of data can be used to discuss the movement of pest populations on a local or global scale. In other cases, we may have a complex of species that share some, but not all, characteristics. Species complexes that share morphological characters (i.e., cannot be easily distinguished) but not biological characters are referred to as sibling or cryptic species

  10. Dietary determinants of subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia and components of the metabolic syndrome in overweight children: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmermann, M.B.; Aeberli, I.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review and summarize the dietary determinants of the metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation and dyslipidemia in overweight children. Design: Review of the current literature, focusing on pediatric studies. Participants: Normal weight, overweight, or obese children and

  11. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Honda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly (RJ produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA, the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS, indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  12. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA further extended the lifespan of the daf-2 mutants, which exhibit long lifespan through reducing insulin-like signaling (ILS), indicating that 10-HDA extended lifespan independently of ILS. On the other hand, 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the eat-2 mutants, which show long lifespan through dietary restriction caused by a food-intake defect. This finding indicates that 10-HDA extends lifespan through dietary restriction signaling. We further found that 10-HDA did not extend the lifespan of the long-lived mutants in daf-15, which encodes Raptor, a target of rapamycin (TOR) components, indicating that 10-HDA shared some longevity control mechanisms with TOR signaling. Additionally, 10-HDA was found to confer tolerance against thermal and oxidative stress. 10-HDA increases longevity not through ILS but through dietary restriction and TOR signaling in C. elegans.

  13. Dietary patterns derived from principal component- and k-means cluster analysis: long-term association with coronary heart disease and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, M D; Onland-Moret, N C; Boer, J M A; van der Schouw, Y T; Verschuren, W M M; May, A M; Peeters, P H M; Beulens, J W J

    2013-03-01

    Studies comparing dietary patterns derived from different a posteriori methods in view of predicting disease risk are scarce. We aimed to explore differences between dietary patterns derived from principal component- (PCA) and k-means cluster analysis (KCA) in relation to their food group composition and ability to predict CHD and stroke risk. The study was conducted in the EPIC-NL cohort that consists of 40,011 men and women. Baseline dietary intake was measured using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Food items were consolidated into 31 food groups. Occurrence of CHD and stroke was assessed through linkage with registries. After 13 years of follow-up, 1,843 CHD and 588 stroke cases were documented. Both PCA and KCA extracted a prudent pattern (high intakes of fish, high-fiber products, raw vegetables, wine) and a western pattern (high consumption of French fries, fast food, low-fiber products, other alcoholic drinks, soft drinks with sugar) with small variation between components and clusters. The prudent component was associated with a reduced risk of CHD (HR for extreme quartiles: 0.87; 95%-CI: 0.75-1.00) and stroke (0.68; 0.53-0.88). The western component was not related to any outcome. The prudent cluster was related with a lower risk of CHD (0.91; 0.82-1.00) and stroke (0.79; 0.67-0.94) compared to the western cluster. PCA and KCA found similar underlying patterns with comparable associations with CHD and stroke risk. A prudent pattern reduced the risk of CHD and stroke. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phylogeographic insights into cryptic glacial refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Jim; Bennett, K D

    2008-10-01

    The glacial episodes of the Quaternary (2.6 million years ago-present) were a major factor in shaping the present-day distributions of extant flora and fauna, with expansions and contractions of the ice sheets rendering large areas uninhabitable for most species. Fossil records suggest that many species survived glacial maxima by retreating to refugia, usually at lower latitudes. Recently, phylogeographic studies have given support to the existence of previously unknown, or cryptic, refugia. Here we summarise many of these insights into the glacial histories of species in cryptic refugia gained through phylogeographic approaches. Understanding such refugia might be important as the Earth heads into another period of climate change, in terms of predicting the effects on species distribution and survival.

  15. Firefly luciferase gene contains a cryptic promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vopálenský, V.; Mašek, T.; Horváth, Ondřej; Vicenová, B.; Mokrejš, M.; Pospíšek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2008), s. 1720-1729 ISSN 1355-8382 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA204/03/1487; GAČR(CZ) GA301/07/0607; Mšk(CZ) LC06066 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : luciferase * cryptic promoter * hepatitis C virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.018, year: 2008

  16. Characterization of Cell Wall Components and Their Modifications during Postharvest Storage of Asparagus officinalis L.: Storage-Related Changes in Dietary Fiber Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wagner, Steffen; Trierweiler, Bernhard; Bunzel, Mirko

    2016-01-20

    Changes in cell wall composition during storage of plant foods potentially alter the physiological effects of dietary fiber components. To investigate postharvest cell wall modifications of asparagus and their consequences in terms of insoluble dietary fiber structures, asparagus was stored at 20 and 1 °C for different periods of time. Structural analyses demonstrated postharvest changes in the polysaccharide profile, dominated by decreased portions of galactans. Increasing lignin contents correlated with compositional changes (monolignol ratios and linkage types) of the lignin polymer as demonstrated by chemical and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) methods. Depending on the storage time and temperature, syringyl units were preferentially incorporated into the lignin polymer. Furthermore, a drastic increase in the level of ester-linked phenolic monomers (i.e., p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) and polymer cross-links (di- and triferulic acids) was detected. The attachment of p-coumaric acid to lignin was demonstrated by 2D-NMR experiments. Potential consequences of postharvest modifications on physiological effects of asparagus dietary fiber are discussed.

  17. Biofluorescence as a survey tool for cryptic marine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brauwer, Maarten; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Jompa, Jamaluddin; Harvey, Euan S; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2017-10-06

    As ecosystems come under increasing anthropogenic pressure, rare species face the highest risk of extinction. Paradoxically, data necessary to evaluate the conservation status of rare species are often lacking because of the challenges of detecting species with low abundance. One group of fishes subject to this undersampling bias are those with cryptic body patterns. Twenty-one percent of cryptic fish species assessed for their extinction risk (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN]) are data deficient. We developed a nondestructive method for surveying cryptically patterned marine fishes based on the presence of biofluorescence (underwater biofluorescence census, UBC). Blue LED torches were used to investigate how widespread biofluorescence was in cryptic reef fishes in the Coral Triangle region. The effectiveness of UBC to generate abundance data was tested on a data-deficient pygmy seahorse species (Hippocampus bargibanti) and compared with data obtained from standard underwater visual census (UVC) surveys. We recorded 95 reef fish species displaying biofluorescence, 73 of which had not been previously described as biofluorescent. Of those fish with cryptic patterns, 87% were biofluorescent compared with 9% for noncryptic fishes. The probability of species displaying biofluorescence was 70.9 times greater for cryptic species than for noncryptic species. Almost twice the number of H. bargibanti was counted using the UBC compared with UVC. For 2 triplefin species (Ucla xenogrammus, Enneapterygius tutuilae), the abundance detected with UBC was triple that detected with UVC. The UBC method was effective at finding cryptic species that would otherwise be difficult to detect and thus will reduce interobserver variability inherent to UVC surveys. Biofluorescence is ubiquitous in cryptic fishes, making this method applicable across a wide range of species. Data collected using UBC could be used with multiple IUCN criteria to assess the extinction risk of

  18. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M. [ECU School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  19. Forward modeling of fluctuating dietary 13C signals to validate 13C turnover models of milk and milk components from a diet-switch experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Braun

    Full Text Available Isotopic variation of food stuffs propagates through trophic systems. But, this variation is dampened in each trophic step, due to buffering effects of metabolic and storage pools. Thus, understanding of isotopic variation in trophic systems requires knowledge of isotopic turnover. In animals, turnover is usually quantified in diet-switch experiments in controlled conditions. Such experiments usually involve changes in diet chemical composition, which may affect turnover. Furthermore, it is uncertain if diet-switch based turnover models are applicable under conditions with randomly fluctuating dietary input signals. Here, we investigate if turnover information derived from diet-switch experiments with dairy cows can predict the isotopic composition of metabolic products (milk, milk components and feces under natural fluctuations of dietary isotope and chemical composition. First, a diet-switch from a C3-grass/maize diet to a pure C3-grass diet was used to quantify carbon turnover in whole milk, lactose, casein, milk fat and feces. Data were analyzed with a compartmental mixed effects model, which allowed for multiple pools and intra-population variability, and included a delay between feed ingestion and first tracer appearance in outputs. The delay for milk components and whole milk was ~12 h, and that of feces ~20 h. The half-life (t½ for carbon in the feces was 9 h, while lactose, casein and milk fat had a t½ of 10, 18 and 19 h. The (13C kinetics of whole milk revealed two pools, a fast pool with a t½ of 10 h (likely representing lactose, and a slower pool with a t½ of 21 h (likely including casein and milk fat. The diet-switch based turnover information provided a precise prediction (RMSE ~0.2 ‰ of the natural (13C fluctuations in outputs during a 30 days-long period when cows ingested a pure C3 grass with naturally fluctuating isotope composition.

  20. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  1. Is Eucalyptus Cryptically Self-incompatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Tasmien N; Johnson, Steven D

    2007-12-01

    The probability that seeds will be fertilized from self- versus cross-pollen depends strongly on whether plants have self-incompatibility systems, and how these systems influence the fate of pollen tubes. In this study of breeding systems in Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis, epifluorescence microscopy was used to study pollen tube growth in styles following self- and cross-pollinations. Pollen tubes from self-pollen took significantly longer than those from cross-pollen to grow to the base of the style in both E. urophylla (120 h vs. 96 h) and E. grandis (96 h vs. 72 h). In addition, both species exhibited reduced seed yields following self-pollination compared with cross-pollination. The present observations suggest that, in addition to a late-acting self-incompatibility barrier, cryptic self-incompatibility could be a mechanism responsible for the preferential out-crossing system in these two eucalypt species.

  2. Balancing selection maintains cryptic colour morphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenreuther, Maren

    2017-11-01

    Animals display incredibly diverse colour patterns, a testament to evolution's endless innovation in shaping life. In many species, the interplay between males and females in the pursuit of mates has driven the evolution of a myriad of colour forms, from the flashy peacock tail feathers to the tiniest colour markings in damselflies. In others, colour provides crypsis by allowing to blend into the background and to escape the eyes of predators. While the obvious benefits of this dazzling diversity for reproduction and survival seem straightforward, its maintenance is not. Theory predicts that genetic drift and various forms of selection reduce variation over time, making the persistence of colour variants over generations a puzzle. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Lindtke et al. () study the cryptic colour morphs of Timema cristinae walking sticks to shed light on the genetic architecture and mechanisms that allow colour polymorphism maintenance over long timescales. By combining genome-wide data with phenotyping information from natural populations, they were able to map the green and melanistic colour to one genomic region with highly reduced effective recombination rate between two main chromosomal variants, consistent with an inversion polymorphism. These two main chromosomal variants showed geographically widespread heterozygote excess, and genomic signatures consistent with long-term balancing selection. A younger chromosomal variant was detected for the third morph, the green-striped colour morphs, in the same genomic regions as the melanistic and the green-unstriped morphs. Together, these results suggest that the genetic architecture of cryptic T. cristinae morphs is caused by nonrecombining genomic blocks that have been maintained over extended time periods by balancing selection making this study one of the few available empirical examples documenting that balancing selection of various forms may play an important role in maintaining adaptive genetic

  3. Arsenic and other elements in drinking water and dietary components from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India: Health risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Ramanathan, A L; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the level of contamination and health risk assessment for arsenic (As) and other elements in drinking water, vegetables and other food components in two blocks (Mohiuddinagar and Mohanpur) from the Samastipur district, Bihar, India. Groundwater (80%) samples exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value (10μg/L) of As while Mn exceeded the previous WHO limit of 400μg/L in 28% samples. The estimated daily intake of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from drinking water and food components were 169, 19, 26, 882, 4645, 14582, 474, 1449 and 12,955μg, respectively (estimated exposure 3.70, 0.41, 0.57, 19.61, 103.22, 324.05, 10.53, 32.21 and 287.90μg per kg bw, respectively). Twelve of 15 cooked rice contained high As concentration compared to uncooked rice. Water contributes (67%) considerable As to daily exposure followed by rice and vegetables. Whereas food is the major contributor of other elements to the dietary exposure. Correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated natural source for As but for other elements, presence of diffused anthropogenic activities were responsible. The chronic daily intake (CDI) and health risk index (HRI) were also estimated from the generated data. The HRI were >1 for As in drinking water, vegetables and rice, for Mn in drinking water, vegetables, rice and wheat, for Pb in rice and wheat indicated the potential health risk to the local population. An assessment of As and other elements of other food components should be conducted to understand the actual health hazards caused by ingestion of food in people residing in the middle Gangetic plain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryptic biodiversity and phylogeographic patterns of Seychellois Ligia isopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Santamaria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ligia isopods are conspicuous inhabitants of rocky intertidal habitats exhibiting several biological traits that severely limit their dispersal potential. Their presence in patchy habitats and low vagility may lead to long term isolation, allopatric isolation and possible cryptic speciation. Indeed, various species of Ligia have been suggested to represent instead cryptic species complexes. Past studies; however, have largely focused in Eastern Pacific and Atlantic species of Ligia, leaving in doubt whether cryptic diversity occurs in other highly biodiverse areas. The Seychelles consists of 115 islands of different ages and geological origins spread across the western Indian Ocean. They are well known for their rich biodiversity with recent reports of cryptic species in terrestrial Seychellois organisms. Despite these studies, it is unclear whether coastal invertebrates from the Seychelles harbor any cryptic diversity. In this study, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and isolation within Ligia isopods across the Seychelles archipelago by characterizing individuals from locations across both inner and outer islands of the Seychelles using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. We report the presence of highly divergent lineages of independent origin. At Aldabra Atoll, we uncovered a lineage closely related to the Ligia vitiensis cryptic species complex. Within the inner islands of Cousine, Silhouette, and Mahé we detected the presence of two moderately divergent and geographically disjunct lineages most closely related to Ligia dentipes. Our findings suggest that the Seychelles may harbor at least three novel species of Ligia in need of description and that these species may have originated independently.

  5. CD4+ T cells targeting dominant and cryptic epitopes from Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eAscough

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an endemic infection in many countries, particularly in the developing world. The causative agent, Bacillus anthracis, mediates disease through the secretion of binary exotoxins. Until recently, research into adaptive immunity targeting this bacterial pathogen has largely focused on the humoral response to these toxins. There is, however, growing recognition that cellular immune responses involving IFNγ producing CD4+ T cells also contribute significantly to a protective memory response. An established concept in adaptive immunity to infection is that during infection of host cells, new microbial epitopes may be revealed, leading to immune recognition of so called ‘cryptic’ or ‘subdominant’ epitopes. We analysed the response to both cryptic and immunodominant T cell epitopes derived from the toxin component lethal factor and presented by a range of HLA-DR alleles. Using IFNγ-ELISPOT assays we characterised epitopes that elicited a response following immunisation with synthetic peptide and the whole protein and tested their capacities to bind purified HLA-DR molecules in vitro. We found that DR1 transgenics demonstrated T cell responses to a greater number of domain III cryptic epitopes than other HLA-DR transgenics, and that this pattern was repeated with the immunodominant epitopes, a greater proportion of these epitopes induced a T cell response when presented within the context of the whole protein. Immunodominant epitopes LF457-476 and LF467-487 were found to induce a T cell response to the peptide, as well as to the whole native LF protein in DR1 and DR15, but not in DR4 trangenics. The analysis of Domain I revealed the presence of several unique cryptic epitopes all of which showed a strong to moderate relative binding affinity to HLA-DR4 molecules. However, none of the cryptic epitopes from either domain III or I displayed notably high binding affinities across all HLA-DR alleles assayed. These responses were

  6. Ionizing radiation modulates the exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope within collagen type IV during angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Peter C.; Roth, Jennifer M.; Lymberis, Stella C.; DeWyngaert, Keith; Broek, Daniel; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of the research on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation has focused on the impact of radiation on cells in terms of gene expression, DNA damage, and cytotoxicity. In comparison, little information is available concerning the direct effects of radiation on the extracellular microenvironment, specifically the extracellular matrix and its main component, collagen. We have developed a series of monoclonal antibodies that bind to cryptic epitopes of collagen Type IV that are differentially exposed during matrix remodeling and are key mediators of angiogenesis. We have hypothesized that ionizing radiation might affect the process of angiogenesis through a direct effect on the extracellular matrix and specifically on collagen Type IV. Methods and Materials: Angiogenesis was induced in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model; 24 h later, a single-dose treatment with ionizing radiation (0.5, 5, and 20 cGy) was administered. Angiogenesis was assessed, and the exposure of two cryptic regulatory epitopes within collagen Type IV (HUI77 and HUIV26) was studied in vitro by solid-phase ELISA and in vivo by immunofluorescence staining. Results: A dose-dependent reduction of angiogenesis with maximum inhibition (85%-90%) occurring at 20 cGy was demonstrated in the CAM model. Exposure of the cryptic HUIV26 site, an angiogenesis control element, was inhibited both in vitro and in vivo by the same radiation dose, whereas little if any change was observed for the HUI77 cryptic epitope. Conclusions: A dose-dependent alteration of the functional exposure of the HUIV26 cryptic epitope is induced by radiation in vitro and in the CAM model in vivo. This radiation-induced change in protein structure and function may contribute to the inhibitory effects of ionizing radiation on new blood vessel growth and warrants further studies in other models

  7. Cryptic Genetic Variation in Evolutionary Developmental Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalise B. Paaby

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary developmental genetics has traditionally been conducted by two groups: Molecular evolutionists who emphasize divergence between species or higher taxa, and quantitative geneticists who study variation within species. Neither approach really comes to grips with the complexities of evolutionary transitions, particularly in light of the realization from genome-wide association studies that most complex traits fit an infinitesimal architecture, being influenced by thousands of loci. This paper discusses robustness, plasticity and lability, phenomena that we argue potentiate major evolutionary changes and provide a bridge between the conceptual treatments of macro- and micro-evolution. We offer cryptic genetic variation and conditional neutrality as mechanisms by which standing genetic variation can lead to developmental system drift and, sheltered within canalized processes, may facilitate developmental transitions and the evolution of novelty. Synthesis of the two dominant perspectives will require recognition that adaptation, divergence, drift and stability all depend on similar underlying quantitative genetic processes—processes that cannot be fully observed in continuously varying visible traits.

  8. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  9. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megonigal, Patrick [Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States); Pitz, Scott [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  10. Molecular characterization of a novel cryptic virus infecting pigeonpea plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Kumar

    Full Text Available A new member of the genus Deltapartitivirus was identified containing three dsRNAs with an estimated size of 1.71, 1.49 and 1.43 kb. The dsRNAs were extracted from symptomless pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh] plants cv. Erra Kandulu. This new virus with 4.64 kb genome was tentatively named Arhar cryptic virus-1 (ArCV-1. The genomic RNAs were amplified and characterized by sequence independent single primer amplification. The dsRNAs shared a highly conserved 16 nt 5' non-coding region (5'-GATAATGATCCAAGGA-3'. The largest dsRNA (dsRNA-1 was identified as the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase (replicase, predicted to encode a putative 55.34 kDa protein (P1. The two other smaller dsRNAs (dsRNA-2 and dsRNA-3 predicted to encode for putative capsid proteins of 38.50kDa (P2 and 38.51kDa (P3, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ArCV-1 formed a clade together with Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus, Rosa multiflora cryptic virus and Rose cryptic virus-1, indicating that ArCV-1 could be a new member of the genus Deltapartitivirus. ArCV-1 3Dpol structure revealed several interesting features. The 3Dpol in its full-length shares structural similarities with members of the family Caliciviridaeand family Picornaviridae. In addition, fourth dsRNA molecule (dsRNA-2A, not related to ArCV-1 genome, was found in the same plant tissue. The dsRNA-2A (1.6 kb encodes a protein (P4, with a predicted size of 44.5 kDa. P4 shares similarity with coat protein genes of several cryptic viruses, in particular the bipartite cryptic viruses including Raphanus sativus cryptic virus-3. This is the first report of occurrence of a cryptic virus in pigeonpea plants.

  11. Cryptic sexual size dimorphism in Malagasy plovers Charadrius spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taken together, our work reports SSD in small African plovers that exhibit monomorphic plumage, and we propose that SSD may be more common than currently acknowledged; we term this 'cryptic sexual size dimorphism'. Our results also suggest sexual selection and/or natural selection exert different pressures on body ...

  12. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  13. Towards a genetic architecture of cryptic genetic variation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 3. Towards a genetic architecture of cryptic genetic variation and genetic assimilation: the contribution of K. G. Bateman. Ian Dworkin. Commentary on J. Genet. Classic Volume 84 Issue 3 December 2005 pp 223-226 ...

  14. Inhibition of Binding of the AB5-Type Enterotoxins LT-I and Cholera Toxin to Ganglioside GM1 by Galactose-Rich Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Widjaja-Greefkes, H.C.A.; Wikselaar, van P.G.

    2010-01-01

    Cholera, travelers' diarrhea, or colibacillosis in pigs can possibly be prevented or attenuated by dietary provision of competitive inhibitors that react with the GM1-binding sites of the enterotoxins cholera toxin (CT), human Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin of serogroup I (LTh-I), and

  15. Please mind the gap - Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, John K; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-07-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106-500 μm and 500-2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  16. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2016-04-26

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  17. Please mind the gap – Visual census and cryptic biodiversity assessment at central Red Sea coral reefs

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.; Anlauf, Holger; Irigoien, Xabier; Carvalho, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs harbor the most diverse assemblages in the ocean, however, a large proportion of the diversity is cryptic and, therefore, undetected by standard visual census techniques. Cryptic and exposed communities differ considerably in species composition and ecological function. This study compares three different coral reef assessment protocols: i) visual benthic reef surveys: ii) visual census of Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) plates; and iii) metabarcoding techniques of the ARMS (including sessile, 106–500 μm and 500–2000 μm size fractions), that target the cryptic and exposed communities of three reefs in the central Red Sea. Visual census showed a dominance of Cnidaria (Anthozoa) and Rhodophyta on the reef substrate, while Porifera, Bryozoa and Rhodophyta were the most abundant groups on the ARMS plates. Metabarcoding, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, significantly increased estimates of the species diversity (p < 0.001); revealing that Annelida were generally the dominant phyla (in terms of reads) of all fractions and reefs. Furthermore, metabarcoding detected microbial eukaryotic groups such as Syndiniophyceae, Mamiellophyceae and Bacillariophyceae as relevant components of the sessile fraction. ANOSIM analysis showed that the three reef sites showed no differences based on the visual census data. Metabarcoding showed a higher sensitivity for identifying differences between reef communities at smaller geographic scales than standard visual census techniques as significant differences in the assemblages were observed amongst the reefs. Comparison of the techniques showed no similar patterns for the visual techniques while the metabarcoding of the ARMS showed similar patterns amongst fractions. Establishing ARMS as a standard tool in reef monitoring will not only advance our understanding of local processes and ecological community response to environmental changes, as different faunal components will provide complementary information but

  18. Impact of Food Components on in vitro Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Secretion—A Potential Mechanism for Dietary Influence on Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Slavin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP is a pivotal messenger in the inflammatory process in migraine. Limited evidence indicates that diet impacts circulating levels of CGRP, suggesting that certain elements in the diet may influence migraine outcomes. Interruption of calcium signaling, a mechanism which can trigger CGRP release, has been suggested as one potential route by which exogenous food substances may impact CGRP secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of foods and a dietary supplement on two migraine-related mechanisms in vitro: CGRP secretion from neuroendocrine CA77 cells, and calcium uptake by differentiated PC12 cells. Ginger and grape pomace extracts were selected for their anecdotal connections to reducing or promoting migraine. S-petasin was selected as a suspected active constituent of butterbur extract, the migraine prophylactic dietary supplement. Results showed a statistically significant decrease in stimulated CGRP secretion from CA77 cells following treatment with ginger (0.2 mg dry ginger equivalent/mL and two doses of grape pomace (0.25 and 1.0 mg dry pomace equivalent/mL extracts. Relative to vehicle control, CGRP secretion decreased by 22%, 43%, and 87%, respectively. S-petasin at 1.0 μM also decreased CGRP secretion by 24%. Meanwhile, S-petasin and ginger extract showed inhibition of calcium influx, whereas grape pomace had no effect on calcium. These results suggest that grape pomace and ginger extracts, and S-petasin may have anti-inflammatory propensity by preventing CGRP release in migraine, although potentially by different mechanisms, which future studies may elucidate further.

  19. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. PMID:28973577

  20. Cryptic Species Identification and Composition of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Complex in Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu, Min; Hu, Jian; Wang, Lun-Ji; Dong, Jun-Feng; Song, Yue-Qin; Sun, Hui-Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex, causing significant crop losses in China during the last decade. Although knowledge of cryptic species composition and dynamics within B. tabaci complex is critical for developing sustainable pest management strategies, limited information is available on this pest in the Henan province of China. A systematic survey of the cryptic species composition and distribution of B. tabaci complex in different locations of Henan province was conducted in 2012. The results of RAPD-PCR and the gene for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (mtCOI) based phylogenetic relationships established using Bayesian method indicated there were four known cryptic species MEAM1, MED, Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and a new cryptic species named China 6 in Henan province. In the survey, the invasive cryptic species MED and MEAM1 were found to be predominant with wide spread distribution across the surveyed regions. On the contrary, the indigenous B. tabaci cryptic species including Asia II 3, Asia II 9 and China 6 remained with low prevalence in some surveyed regions. Cryptic species MEAM1 and MED have not completely displaced the native B. tabaci in Henan province. This current study for the first time unifies our knowledge of the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci across Henan province of China. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  1. Biofilm architecture of Phanerozoic cryptic carbonate marine veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riding, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Thin (mushrooms, and plumes. All can be interpreted as characteristics of attached bacterial communities, i.e., aggregates as microcolonies, originally embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances; channels as water conduits and/or uncolonized nutrient-poor spaces; external protuberances as localized growths; and plumes as surface streamers. Cryptic habitat favored pristine biofilm preservation by precluding disturbance and overgrowth, and suggests aphotic and anoxic conditions. These examples provide diagnostic morphologic criteria for wider recognition of biofilm in Phanerozoic and older carbonates.

  2. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c...... oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy...

  3. Cryptic chemical identification as a crime intelligence aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturaro, A; Rella, R; Parvoli, G; Doretti, L

    1999-01-01

    A dead body was found near the sea and a commercial port in north-east Italy. The man had been shot and then burnt, by using a large volume of fire accelerant. The chemical composition of the flammable mixture had to be determined in order to aid police investigations. GC-MS analysis of residual cloth and soil identified a common gasoline, together with some unrelated compounds deriving from the container used to carry the inflammable liquid. A reconstruction of the event, an examination of the surroundings where the crime took place and the cryptic chemicals found, enabled the investigators to restrict and intensify their enquiries within a specific area.

  4. Aspergillus niger contains the cryptic phylogenetic species A. awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Aspergillus section Nigri is an important group of species for food and medical mycology, and biotechnology. The Aspergillus niger 'aggregate' represents its most complicated taxonomic subgroup containing eight morphologically indistinguishable taxa: A. niger, Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus acidus, Aspergillus brasiliensis, Aspergillus costaricaensis, Aspergillus lacticoffeatus, Aspergillus piperis, and Aspergillus vadensis. Aspergillus awamori, first described by Nakazawa, has been compared taxonomically with other black aspergilli and recently it has been treated as a synonym of A. niger. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM), and the translation elongation factor-1 alpha (TEF-1α) of a population of A. niger strains isolated from grapes in Europe revealed the presence of a cryptic phylogenetic species within this population, A. awamori. Morphological, physiological, ecological and chemical data overlap occurred between A. niger and the cryptic A. awamori, however the splitting of these two species was also supported by AFLP analysis of the full genome. Isolates in both phylospecies can produce the mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B₂, and they also share the production of pyranonigrin A, tensidol B, funalenone, malformins, and naphtho-γ-pyrones. In addition, sequence analysis of four putative A. awamori strains from Japan, used in the koji industrial fermentation, revealed that none of these strains belong to the A. awamori phylospecies. Copyright © 2011 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Allopatric speciation within a cryptic species complex of Australasian octopuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Michael D; Norman, Mark D; Cameron, Hayley E; Strugnell, Jan M

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive revisions over recent decades, the taxonomy of benthic octopuses (Family Octopodidae) remains in a considerable flux. Among groups of unresolved status is a species complex of morphologically similar shallow-water octopods from subtropical Australasia, including: Allopatric populations of Octopus tetricus on the eastern and western coasts of Australia, of which the Western Australian form is speculated to be a distinct or sub-species; and Octopus gibbsi from New Zealand, a proposed synonym of Australian forms. This study employed a combination of molecular and morphological techniques to resolve the taxonomic status of the 'tetricus complex'. Phylogenetic analyses (based on five mitochondrial genes: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, COIII and Cytb) and Generalised Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis (based on COI, COIII and Cytb) distinguished eastern and Western Australian O. tetricus as distinct species, while O. gibbsi was found to be synonymous with the east Australian form (BS = >97, PP = 1; GMYC p = 0.01). Discrete morphological differences in mature male octopuses (based on sixteen morphological traits) provided further evidence of cryptic speciation between east (including New Zealand) and west coast populations; although females proved less useful in morphological distinction among members of the tetricus complex. In addition, phylogenetic analyses suggested populations of octopuses currently treated under the name Octopus vulgaris are paraphyletic; providing evidence of cryptic speciation among global populations of O. vulgaris, the most commercially valuable octopus species worldwide.

  6. Allopatric Speciation within a Cryptic Species Complex of Australasian Octopuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Michael D.; Norman, Mark D.; Cameron, Hayley E.; Strugnell, Jan M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive revisions over recent decades, the taxonomy of benthic octopuses (Family Octopodidae) remains in a considerable flux. Among groups of unresolved status is a species complex of morphologically similar shallow-water octopods from subtropical Australasia, including: Allopatric populations of Octopus tetricus on the eastern and western coasts of Australia, of which the Western Australian form is speculated to be a distinct or sub-species; and Octopus gibbsi from New Zealand, a proposed synonym of Australian forms. This study employed a combination of molecular and morphological techniques to resolve the taxonomic status of the ‘tetricus complex’. Phylogenetic analyses (based on five mitochondrial genes: 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, COI, COIII and Cytb) and Generalised Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis (based on COI, COIII and Cytb) distinguished eastern and Western Australian O. tetricus as distinct species, while O. gibbsi was found to be synonymous with the east Australian form (BS = >97, PP = 1; GMYC p = 0.01). Discrete morphological differences in mature male octopuses (based on sixteen morphological traits) provided further evidence of cryptic speciation between east (including New Zealand) and west coast populations; although females proved less useful in morphological distinction among members of the tetricus complex. In addition, phylogenetic analyses suggested populations of octopuses currently treated under the name Octopus vulgaris are paraphyletic; providing evidence of cryptic speciation among global populations of O. vulgaris, the most commercially valuable octopus species worldwide. PMID:24964133

  7. Minimized state complexity of quantum-encoded cryptic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-05-01

    The predictive information required for proper trajectory sampling of a stochastic process can be more efficiently transmitted via a quantum channel than a classical one. This recent discovery allows quantum information processing to drastically reduce the memory necessary to simulate complex classical stochastic processes. It also points to a new perspective on the intrinsic complexity that nature must employ in generating the processes we observe. The quantum advantage increases with codeword length: the length of process sequences used in constructing the quantum communication scheme. In analogy with the classical complexity measure, statistical complexity, we use this reduced communication cost as an entropic measure of state complexity in the quantum representation. Previously difficult to compute, the quantum advantage is expressed here in closed form using spectral decomposition. This allows for efficient numerical computation of the quantum-reduced state complexity at all encoding lengths, including infinite. Additionally, it makes clear how finite-codeword reduction in state complexity is controlled by the classical process's cryptic order, and it allows asymptotic analysis of infinite-cryptic-order processes.

  8. Monitoring cryptic amphibians and reptiles in a Florida state park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard M; Meshaka, Walter E; Severson, Robert; Severson, Mary Ann; Kaufman, Greg; Groninger, N Paige; Smith, Henry T

    2016-04-01

    We monitored cryptic herpetofauna at Savannas Preserve State Park, Florida, by combining artificial cover counts with a quantitative paradigm for constructing and calculating population indices. Weekly indices were calculated from two consecutive days of data collection each week for 7 months from mid-winter to mid-summer in three habitats. Seventeen species were observed at least once, and time trends using index values were followed for six species. Among these, abundance and seasonal pattern information were obtained for an exotic species (greenhouse frog) and a species identified by the Florida Committee on Rare and Endangered Plants and Animals as threatened (Florida scrub lizard). We identified winter as the optimal time in this area to monitor populations for conducting annual assessments. This combined observation and indexing approach could provide managers or researchers with an economical means to quantitatively index population trends for multiple cryptic herpetofauna species simultaneously. Using artificial cover to sample within a population indexing design can be generalized beyond monitoring herpetofauna. Other forms of artificial cover that can be used as observation stations include aquatic artificial substrates, artificial tree cavities, artificial reefs, and other artificial aquatic structures and artificial sea grass units, among many others, and a wide range of taxa are suitable for population monitoring using artificial cover as observation stations in the approach we present, including insects, soil invertebrates, micro and macro aquatic invertebrates, fish, crustaceans, and small mammals.

  9. Influence of non-dietary factors on the prevalence of abdominal obesity as a major component of the metabolic syndrome among 17-18-year-old youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Ewa; Broniecka, Anna; Biernat, Jadwiga; Wyka, Joanna; Bronkowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Youth nutrition and their nutritional status are conditioned by many factors, some of the main ones being: economic, social, climatic, cultural, and psychological factors as well as nutritional knowledge. With the growing problem of overweight and obesity among children and young people, the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is also increasing. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of demographic, sociological and psychological factors on the incidence of obesity among 17-18-year-old adolescents from Wroclaw and vicinity as a major risk factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome. The study was conducted in three upper-secondary schools in Wroclaw, Poland. In the surveyed group (17-18 years old, n = 269) girls accounted for 59.5% and boys constituted 40.5%. Majority of young people were Wroclaw citizens (72.9%). Centile charts elaborated by the Children's Memorial Health Institute were adopted for the evaluation of anthropometric parameters. Evaluation of the impact of non-dietary factors on the manner of nutrition was carried out using own questionnaire. Based on the tests, abdominal obesity was determined among 34.5% of adolescents aged 17 years and among 65.5% of these aged 18 years. Obesity was more common in girls carrying genetic burden of the disease. Youth with the largest waist circumference most often declared to use slimming diets - 6.7%, and the lowest hunger sensation in stress - 3.4%. In addition, 30.5% of the adolescents with the smallest waist circumference and 11.5% with the largest waist circumference declared to be non-smoking. Occasional alcohol consumption was declared by 30.1% of young people with the smallest waist circumference, and 13.4% with the largest waist circumference. Youth with abdominal obesity significantly more likely than those with normal waist circumference applied slimming diets. Significant impact on the formation of abdominal obesity among girls had inherited disease burden.

  10. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid, the Major Lipid Component of Royal Jelly, Extends the Lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through Dietary Restriction and Target of Rapamycin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Yoko; Araki, Yoko; Hata, Taketoshi; Ichihara, Kenji; Ito, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masashi; Honda, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by honeybees has been reported to possess diverse health-beneficial properties and has been implicated to have a function in longevity across diverse species as well as honeybees. 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), the major lipid component of RJ produced by honeybees, was previously shown to increase the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. The objective of this study is to elucidate signaling pathways that are involved in the lifespan extension by 10-HDA. 10-HDA f...

  11. Focused Principal Component Analysis: a graphical method for exploring dietary patterns Análise de Componente Principal Focada: um método gráfico para explorar padrões alimentares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Canuto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to introduce Focused Principal Component Analysis (FPCA as a novel exploratory method for providing insight into dietary patterns that emerge based on a given characteristic of the sample. To demonstrate the use of FPCA, we used a database of 1,968 adults. Food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire covering 26 food items. The focus variables used for analysis were age, income, and schooling. All analyses were carried out using R software. The graphs generated show evidence of socioeconomic inequities in dietary patterns. Intake of whole-wheat foods, fruit, and vegetables was positively correlated with income and schooling, whereas for refined cereals, animal fats (lard, and white bread this correlation was negative. Age was inversely associated with intake of fast-food and processed foods and directly associated with a pattern that included fruit, green salads, and other vegetables. In an easy and direct fashion, FPCA allowed us to visualize dietary patterns based on a given focus variable.O presente estudo teve objetivo de apresentar a Análise de Componentes Principais Focada (ACPF como um método exploratório para investigar padrões alimentares a partir de características da amostra. Para exemplificar utilizou-se as variáveis idade, renda e escolaridade de um banco de dados de 1.968 adultos. O consumo alimentar foi obtido através questionário de frequência alimentar (QFA com 26 itens alimentares. As análises foram realizadas no programa R. Os gráficos gerados evidenciaram iniquidades socioeconômicas na conformação dos padrões alimentares. Alimentos integrais, frutas e verduras foram diretamente correlacionados com renda e escolaridade, e cereais refinados, gordura animal e pão branco tiveram associação inversa. A idade mostrou-se como associada inversamente a alimentos fast-food e industrializados e, diretamente, a um padrão "saudável" que inclui frutas, salada verde e

  12. Differential responses of cryptic bat species to the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Barlow, Kate; Bunnefeld, Nils; Briggs, Philip; Gajas Roig, Clara; Park, Kirsty J

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is a key global driver in the modification of land use and has been linked to population declines even in widespread and relatively common species. Cities comprise a complex assortment of habitat types yet we know relatively little about the effects of their composition and spatial configuration on species distribution. Although many bat species exploit human resources, the majority of species are negatively impacted by urbanization. Here, we use data from the National Bat Monitoring Programme, a long-running citizen science scheme, to assess how two cryptic European bat species respond to the urban landscape. A total of 124 × 1 km(2) sites throughout Britain were surveyed. The landscape surrounding each site was mapped and classified into discrete biotope types (e.g., woodland). Generalized linear models were used to assess differences in the response to the urban environment between the two species, and which landscape factors were associated with the distributions of P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus. The relative prevalence of P. pygmaeus compared to P. pipistrellus was greater in urban landscapes with a higher density of rivers and lakes, whereas P. pipistrellus was frequently detected in landscapes comprising a high proportion of green space (e.g., parklands). Although P. pipistrellus is thought to be well adapted to the urban landscape, we found a strong negative response to urbanization at a relatively local scale (1 km), whilst P. pygmaeus was detected more regularly in wooded urban landscapes containing freshwater. These results show differential habitat use at a landscape scale of two morphologically similar species, indicating that cryptic species may respond differently to anthropogenic disturbance. Even species considered relatively common and well adapted to the urban landscape may respond negatively to the built environment highlighting the future challenges involved in maintaining biodiversity within an increasingly urbanized

  13. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  14. Causative Agents of Aspergillosis Including Cryptic Aspergillus Species and A. fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyotome, Takahito

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. The causative agents are Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus, of which A. fumigatus is the most prevalent. Cryptic Aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each Aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. Most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, from those representative species. On the other hand, azole-resistant A. fumigatus strains in clinical specimens and in the environment have been reported. Therefore, it is imperative to precisely identify the species, including cryptic Aspergillus spp., and evaluate the susceptibility of isolates.In this manuscript, some of the causative cryptic Aspergillus spp. are briefly reviewed. In addition, the exometabolome of Aspergillus section Fumigati is described. Finally, azole resistance of A. fumigatus is also discussed, in reference to several studies from Japan.

  15. Seven new species of Oculatella (Pseudanabaenales, Cyanobacteria): taxonomically recognizing cryptic diversification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Osorio-Santos, K.; Pietrasiak, N.; Bohunická, Markéta; Miscoe, L. H.; Kováčik, L.; Martin, M.P.; Johansen, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2014), s. 450-470 ISSN 0967-0262 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cryptic species * cyanobacteria * Pseudanabaenaceae Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.912, year: 2014

  16. The Paradox of Ingestion of Dietary Cholesterol in "Vegans"-Reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, Peter; Deliens, Tom; Huybrechts, Inge; Deriemaeker, Peter; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Keyzer, Willem; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2017-07-21

    In a comment on several articles on the vegan dietary pattern, Antoniazzi & Acosta-Navarro (2017) mentioned the paradox of the presence of dietary cholesterol as a nutritional component in the analysis of the vegan dietary pattern [1]. [...].

  17. Volatile compounds in cryptic species of the Aneura pinguis complex and Aneura maxima (Marchantiophyta, Metzgeriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzyniak, Rafał; Wasiak, Wiesław; Bączkiewicz, Alina; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    Aneura pinguis is one of the liverwort species complexes that consist of several cryptic species. Ten samples collected from different regions in Poland are in the focus of our research. Eight of the A. pinguis complex belonging to four cryptic species (A, B, C, E) and two samples of closely related species Aneura maxima were tested for the composition of volatile compounds. The HS-SPME technique coupled to GC/FID and GC/MS analysis has been applied. The fiber coated with DVB/CAR/PDMS has been used. The results of the present study, revealed the qualitative and quantitative differences in the composition of the volatile compounds between the studied species. Mainly they are from the group of sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The statistical methods (CA and PCA) showed that detected volatile compounds allow to distinguish cryptic species of A. pinguis. All examined cryptic species of the A. pinguis complex differ from A. maxima. Species A and E of A. pinguis, in CA and PCA, form separate clusters remote from two remaining cryptic species of A. pinguis (B and C) and A. maxima. Relationship between the cryptic species appeared from the chemical studies are in accordance with that revealed on the basis of DNA sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA barcoding applied to ex situ tropical amphibian conservation programme reveals cryptic diversity in captive populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Andrew J; Cruz, Catalina; Griffith, Edgardo; Ross, Heidi; Ibáñez, Roberto; Lips, Karen R; Driskell, Amy C; Bermingham, Eldredge; Crump, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Amphibians constitute a diverse yet still incompletely characterized clade of vertebrates, in which new species are still being discovered and described at a high rate. Amphibians are also increasingly endangered, due in part to disease-driven threats of extinctions. As an emergency response, conservationists have begun ex situ assurance colonies for priority species. The abundance of cryptic amphibian diversity, however, may cause problems for ex situ conservation. In this study we used a DNA barcoding approach to survey mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in captive populations of 10 species of Neotropical amphibians maintained in an ex situ assurance programme at El Valle Amphibian Conservation Center (EVACC) in the Republic of Panama. We combined these mtDNA sequences with genetic data from presumably conspecific wild populations sampled from across Panama, and applied genetic distance-based and character-based analyses to identify cryptic lineages. We found that three of ten species harboured substantial cryptic genetic diversity within EVACC, and an additional three species harboured cryptic diversity among wild populations, but not in captivity. Ex situ conservation efforts focused on amphibians are therefore vulnerable to an incomplete taxonomy leading to misidentification among cryptic species. DNA barcoding may therefore provide a simple, standardized protocol to identify cryptic diversity readily applicable to any amphibian community. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of New Zealand earthworms (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) reveals ancient clades and cryptic taxonomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas R; James, Sam; Allwood, Julia; Bartlam, Scott; Howitt, Robyn; Prada, Diana

    2011-01-01

    We have constructed the first ever phylogeny for the New Zealand earthworm fauna (Megascolecinae and Acanthodrilinae) including representatives from other major continental regions. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed from 427 base pairs from the mitochondrial large subunit (16S) rRNA gene and 661 base pairs from the nuclear large subunit (28S) rRNA gene. Within the Acanthodrilinae we were able to identify a number of well-supported clades that were restricted to continental landmasses. Estimates of nodal support for these major clades were generally high, but relationships among clades were poorly resolved. The phylogenetic analyses revealed several independent lineages in New Zealand, some of which had a comparable phylogenetic depth to monophyletic groups sampled from Madagascar, Africa, North America and Australia. These results are consistent with at least some of these clades having inhabited New Zealand since rifting from Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. Within the New Zealand Acanthodrilinae, major clades tended to be restricted to specific regions of New Zealand, with the central North Island and Cook Strait representing major biogeographic boundaries. Our field surveys of New Zealand and subsequent identification has also revealed extensive cryptic taxonomic diversity with approximately 48 new species sampled in addition to the 199 species recognized by previous authors. Our results indicate that further survey and taxonomic work is required to establish a foundation for future biogeographic and ecological research on this vitally important component of the New Zealand biota. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  1. Confounding by dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  2. Generalizability of dietary patterns of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome this limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  3. Confounding by dietary pattern of the inverse association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiology of dietary components and disease risk limits interpretability due to potential residual confounding by correlated dietary components. Dietary pattern analyses by factor analysis or partial least squares may overcome the limitation. To examine confounding by dietary pattern as well as ...

  4. Introduced cryptic species of parasites exhibit different invasion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Osamu; Torchin, Mark E; Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F; Chiba, Satoshi

    2006-12-26

    Sometimes infectious agents invade and become established in new geographic regions. Others may be introduced yet never become established because of the absence of suitable hosts in the new region. This phenomenon may be particularly true for the many parasites with complex life cycles, where various life stages require different host species. Homogenization of the world's biota through human-mediated invasions may reunite hosts and parasites, resulting in disease outbreaks in novel regions. Here we use molecular genetics to differentiate invasion pathways for two digenean trematode parasites and their exotic host, the Asian mud snail, Batillaria attramentaria. All of the snail haplotypes found in introduced populations in North America were identical to haplotypes common in the areas of Japan that provided oysters for cultivation in North America, supporting the hypothesis that the snails were introduced from Japan with seed oysters. Two cryptic trematode species were introduced to North American populations in high frequencies. We found a marked reduction of genetic variation in one of these species, suggesting it experienced a bottleneck or founder event comparable to that of the host snail. In contrast, no genetic variation was lost in the other parasite species. We hypothesize that this parasite was and is dispersed naturally by migratory shorebirds and was able to establish only after the host snail, B. attramentaria, was introduced to North America. Evaluation of the nature of invasion pathways and postinvasion consequences will aid mitigation of spreading diseases of humans, livestock, and wildlife in an increasingly globalized world.

  5. Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cryptic angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shinichi; Sano, Keiji; Kwak, Suyong; Saito, Isamu.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 44 patients with hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and nine patients with cerebellar hemorrhage caused by small angiomas is described. Hypertensive hemorrhage occurred most frequently in the patients in their seventies, whereas the onset of angioma-caused hemorrhage was often seen below the age of 40. Clinical syndromes of cerebellar hemorrhages can be categorized into three basic types: the vertigo syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction syndrome and brain stem compression syndrome. Patients with small (>= 2 cm in diameter in CT scans) and medium-sized (2 cm = 3 cm) hematomas deteriorated into unresponsive conditions and developed signs of brain stem compression. Surgical mortality was 32% in the hypertensive group, while it was 0% in the angioma group. Mortality as well as morbidity in both groups was strongly influenced by the preoperative status of consciousness. Our results suggest that substantial improvement could be obtained in the overall outcome of this disease by emergency craniectomy and removal of hematomas in all patients with large hematomas regardless of the levels of consciousness and regardless of the causes of bleeding. Furthermore, when clinical information and CT findings are suggestive of a ''cryptic'' angioma as the causative lesion, posterior fossa surgery may be indicated to extirpate the lesion, even if the hematoma is small. (author)

  6. Cryptic within cryptic: genetics, morphometrics, and bioacoustics delimitate a new species of Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from Eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ariel; Dugo-Cota, Álvaro; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Bosch, Roberto Alonso; Vences, Miguel; Vilà, Carles

    2017-01-20

    We studied the variation in genetics, bioacustics, and morphology in Eleutherodactylus glamyrus, a regionally endemic frog species restricted to high elevations in the Sierra Maestra Massif, Western Cuba that was originally described as a cryptic species hidden under the name E. auriculatus. Genetic analysis of mtDNA sequences of the 16S and cob genes identify two allopatric and strongly supported mitochondrial clades (phylogroups) which also showed no haplotype sharing in the nuclear Rag-1 gene. Bioacustic, and morphological comparisons concordantly identify these two phylogroups as independent evolutionary lineages. Therefore, we herein restrict the name Eleutherodactylus glamyrus Estrada and Hedges to populations represented in our analyses as the western phylogroup (Cordillera del Turquino to Pico La Bayamesa) and consider specimens from the eastern phylogroup (Sierra del Cobre) to represent a new species described and named as Eleutherodactylus cattus. Our results add to the growing list of Eleutherodactylus species endemic to Cuba and highlight the importance of combining different sources of evidence for obtaining robust assessments of species limits in amphibians.

  7. Cryptic invasion of Northern Leopard Frogs (Rana pipiens) across phylogeographic boundaries and a dilemma for conservation of a declining amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of species is a major contributor to loss of biodiversity. Translocations within the range of a species are less frequently recognized, but have the potential for negative effects as well. Genetic mixing may lead to loss of local adaptations or further decline through outbreeding depression. These cryptic invasions may be quite difficult to recognize, but genetic tools can be used to recognize and monitor such intraspecific introductions. Conversely, translocations within species can be an important conservation tool to reduce inbreeding depression and replace lost genetic diversity. Thus, cryptic invasions can be either an aid or a hindrance to conservation efforts. We tested for the presence of non-native genotypes and assessed the extent and nature of introgression in populations of Northern Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens) in the southwestern US, where populations have declined to a few remnant populations. The most abundant and diverse complex of populations in the region contained a mitochondrial haplotype that was not native to the western US, probably resulting from the introduction of released pets, laboratory animals, or release during fish stocking. These non-native haplotypes were well integrated into a large complex of ponds and lakes, contributing to high genetic diversity in this area. Logistically, the geographic extent of non-native genetic influence within this population precludes eliminating or controlling the non-native component of this population. We recommend assessing the progress and fate of the introgression over time—along with population fitness parameters—to determine whether this introduction is beneficial or detrimental to population persistence. Meanwhile, translocations from nearby locations with similar environmental conditions have the best prospects for avoiding problems with outbreeding depression in other declining populations and will also most effectively preserve regional genetic diversity.

  8. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Lee Grismer, L; Das, Indraneil; McGuire, Jimmy A

    2012-11-01

    The closed-canopy forests of Southeast Asia are home to an impressive number of vertebrates that have independently evolved morphologies that enhance directed aerial descent (gliding, parachuting). These assemblages include numerous mammal, frog, snake, and lizard clades. Several genera of gekkonid lizards, in particular, have evolved specialized structures such as cutaneous expansions, flaps, and midbody patagia, that enhance lift generation in the context of unique gliding and parachuting locomotion. The genus Ptychozoon represents arguably the most morphologically extreme, highly specialized clade of gliding geckos. Despite their notoriety and celebrated locomotor ability, members of the genus Ptychozoon have never been the subject of a species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis. In this paper, we utilize molecular sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear gene fragments to estimate the evolutionary relationships of this unique group of flying geckos. Capitalizing on the recent availability of genetic samples for even the rarest of known species, we include the majority of known taxa and use model-based phylogenetic methods to reconstruct their evolutionary history. Because one species, P. kuhli, exhibits an unusually wide distribution coupled with an impressive range of morphological variation, we additionally use intensive phylogeographic/population genetic sampling, phylogenetic network analyses, and Bayesian species delimitation procedures to evaluate this taxon for the possible presence of cryptic evolutionary lineages. Our results suggest that P. kuhli may consist of between five and nine unrecognized, distinct species. Although we do not elevate these lineages to species status here, our findings suggest that lineage diversity in Ptychozoon is likely dramatically underestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diversity and environmental relations of cryptic, systemic Botrytis infections in symptomless hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Shaw

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis species are generally considered to be aggressive, necrotrophic plant pathogens. By contrast to this general perception, however, Botrytis species could frequently be isolated from the interior of multiple tissues in apparently healthy hosts of many species. Infection frequencies reached 50% of samples or more, but were commonly less, and cryptic infections were rare or absent in some plant species. Prevalence varied substantially from year to year and from tissue to tissue, but some host species routinely had high prevalence. The same genotype was found to occur throughout a host, representing mycelial spread. B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea are the species that most commonly occur as cryptic infections, but phylogenetically distant isolates of Botrytis were also detected, one of which does not correspond to previously described species. Sporulation and visible damage occurred only when infected tissues were stressed, or became mature or senescent. There was no evidence of cryptic infection having a deleterious effect on growth of the host, and prevalence was probably greater in plants grown in high light conditions. Isolates from cryptic infections were often capable of causing disease (to varying extents when spore suspensions were inoculated onto their own host as well as on distinct host species, arguing against co-adaptation between cryptic isolates and their hosts. These data collectively suggest that several Botrytis species, including the most notorious pathogenic species, exist frequently in cryptic form to an extent that has thus far largely been neglected, and do not need to cause disease on healthy hosts in order to complete their life-cycles.

  10. Risk of Gonadoblastoma Development in Patients with Turner Syndrome with Cryptic Y Chromosome Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahreum; Hyun, Sei Eun; Jung, Mo Kyung; Chae, Hyun Wook; Lee, Woo Jung; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2017-06-01

    Current guidelines recommend that testing for Y chromosome material should be performed only in patients with Turner syndrome harboring a marker chromosome and exhibiting virilization in order to detect individuals who are at high risk of gonadoblastoma. However, cryptic Y chromosome material is suggested to be a risk factor for gonadoblastoma in patients with Turner syndrome. Here, we aimed to estimate the frequency of cryptic Y chromosome material in patients with Turner syndrome and determine whether Y chromosome material increased the risk for development of gonadoblastoma. A total of 124 patients who were diagnosed with Turner syndrome by conventional cytogenetic techniques underwent additional molecular analysis to detect cryptic Y chromosome material. In addition, patients with Turner syndrome harboring Y chromosome cell lines had their ovaries removed prophylactically. Finally, we assessed the occurrence of gonadoblastoma in patients with Turner syndrome. Molecular analysis demonstrated that 10 patients had Y chromosome material among 118 patients without overt Y chromosome (8.5%). Six patients with overt Y chromosome and four patients with cryptic Y chromosome material underwent oophorectomy. Histopathological analysis revealed that the occurrence of gonadoblastoma in the total group was 2.4%, and gonadoblastoma occurred in one of six patients with an overt Y chromosome (16.7%) and 2 of 10 patients with cryptic Y chromosome material (20.0%). The risk of developing gonadoblastoma in patients with cryptic Y chromosome material was similar to that in patients with overt Y chromosome. Therefore, molecular screening for Y chromosome material should be recommended for all patients with Turner syndrome to detect individuals at a high risk of gonadoblastoma and to facilitate proper management of the disease.

  11. Dietary and health biomarkers-time for an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragsted, L.O.; Gao Qizian,; Praticò, G.; Manach, Claudine; Wishart, D.S.; Scalbert, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health.

  12. High-throughput sequencing offers insight into mechanisms of resource partitioning in cryptic bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razgour, Orly; Clare, Elizabeth L.; Zeale, Matt R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Sympatric cryptic species, characterized by low morphological differentiation, pose a challenge to understanding the role of interspecific competition in structuring ecological communities. We used traditional (morphological) and novel molecular methods of diet analysis to study the diet of two...... of the cryptic bats, 60% of which were assigned to a likely species or genus. The findings from the molecular study supported the results of microscopic analyses in showing that the diets of both species were dominated by lepidopterans. However, HTS provided a sufficiently high resolution of prey identification...

  13. Predation cues rather than resource availability promote cryptic behaviour in a habitat-forming sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyksma, Arie J P; Taylor, Richard B; Shears, Nick T

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that predators often influence the foraging behaviour of prey through the so-called "fear effect". However, it is also possible that predators could change prey behaviour indirectly by altering the prey's food supply through a trophic cascade. The predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade is widely assumed to be driven by the removal of sea urchins by predators, but changes in sea urchin behaviour in response to predators or increased food availability could also play an important role. We tested whether increased crevice occupancy by herbivorous sea urchins in the presence of abundant predatory fishes and lobsters is a response to the increased risk of predation, or an indirect response to higher kelp abundances. Inside two New Zealand marine reserves with abundant predators and kelp, individuals of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus were rarer and remained cryptic (i.e. found in crevices) to larger sizes than on adjacent fished coasts where predators and kelp are rare. In a mesocosm experiment, cryptic behaviour was induced by simulated predation (the addition of crushed conspecifics), but the addition of food in the form of drift kelp did not induce cryptic behaviour. These findings demonstrate that the 'fear' of predators is more important than food availability in promoting sea urchin cryptic behaviour and suggest that both density- and behaviourally mediated interactions are important in the predator-sea urchin-kelp trophic cascade.

  14. ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    Science.gov (United States)

    D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE-STRAND ORIGINS OF CRYPTIC ROLLING-CIRCLE PLASMIDS FROM BACILLUS-SUBTILIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WJJ; VENEMA, G; BRON, S

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe the isolation and characterization of single strand origins (SSOs) of several cryptic Bacillus subtilis plasmids which use the rolling-circle mechanism of replication, The plasmids used in this study involved pTA1015, pTA1020, pTA1030, pTA1040, pTA1050 and pTA1060, The SSO

  16. Reflections on fourteen cryptic issues concerning the nature of statistical inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Salomé, D.; Schaafsma, W; Steerneman, A.G.M.; Willems, J.C; Cox, D.R.

    The present paper provides the original formulation and a joint response of a group of statistically trained scientists to fourteen cryptic issues for discussion, which were handed out to the public by Professor Dr. D.R. Cox after his Bernoulli Lecture 1997 at Groningen University.

  17. Mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets (Acanthopterygii: Mugilidae) suggests high proportion of cryptic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Dominique; Borsa, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The low level of morphometric variability and the poor phylogenetic information borne by the morpho-anatomical characters used thus far in the systematics of grey mullets (Mugilidae) emphasize the utility of molecular systematics in this family. A recent mitochondrial phylogeny of grey mullets has uncovered multiple deep lineages within several species, flagging putative cryptic species. Here, we considered that several of the deeply divergent lineages represent separate species based on either the tree topology, independent data from nuclear markers, geographic distributions, or a combination of the foregoing. By analogy with these well-documented cases, we considered other deep lineages in seven genera we focused on to represent putative cryptic species. Up to two cryptic species were thus potentially detected in the genus Chelon, three in Crenimugil (including two within the single Crenimugil seheli), two in Dajaus, one in Ellochelon, 16 in Mugil (including 13 within the single M. cephalus), two in Osteomugil, and 10 in Planiliza. Wherever possible, we kept the current species epithets to designate those lineages that unambiguously correspond to the type material, based on type locality, and we assigned arbitrary letters (sp. A, B, etc.) to the other lineages. We present a molecular diagnosis for 24 of the species analysed in this work, as well as for 25 putative cryptic species. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ab initio prediction of mutation-induced cryptic splice-site activation and exon skipping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Kvitkovicova, Andrea; Buratti, E.; Vorechovsky, I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 6 (2009), s. 759-765 ISSN 1018-4813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : mutation * cryptic splice site * exon skipping Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.564, year: 2009

  19. Cryptic species of sharp-nosed reed frogs in the Hyperolius nasutus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sharp-nosed reed frog is widespread in Africa. Although currently recognized as one species, suggestions have been made that more than one species might exist. We analysed 237 calls of 69 males from 19 localities in the western to southern parts of Africa. Calls fall into three groups, which we recognize as cryptic ...

  20. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in the "cosmopolitan" excavating sponge Cliona celata (Porifera, Clionaidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xavier, J.R.; Rachello-Dolmen, P.G.; Parra-Velandia, F.; Schönberg, C.H.L.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades molecular tools have shown an enormous potential to aid in the clarification of species boundaries in the marine realm, particularly in morphologically simple groups. In this paper we report a case of cryptic speciation in an allegedly cosmopolitan and ecologically

  1. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, F.; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, V.; Miterpáková, M.; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, H.; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 1 (2018), s. 315-321 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20054S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anophelinae * Maculipennis complex * Anopheles daciae * Mosquitoes * Cryptic species * Vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.329, year: 2016

  2. Molecules and morphology reveal cryptic variation among digeneans infecting sympatric mullets in the Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blasco-Costa, I.; Balbuena, J. A.; Raga, J. A.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Olson, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 2 (2010), s. 287-302 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Digenea * Haploporidae * Saccocoelium * Mugilidae * cryptic species * molecules * morphology * rDNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.522, year: 2010

  3. Field identification of the cryptic vespertilionid bats, Myotis lucifugus and M. yumanensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore J. Weller; Shonene A. Scott; Thomas J. Rodhouse; Patricia C. Ormsbee; Jan M. Zinck

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular techniques have provided new tools for confirming species identities, however they can be expensive and results are not immediately available. Myotis lucificugus and M. yumanensis are morphologically cryptic species of bats sympatric in western North America that can be difficult to distinguish in the...

  4. Cyanomargarita gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria): convergent evolution resulting in a cryptic genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shalygin, S.; Shalygina, R.; Johansen, J. R.; Pietrasiak, N.; Gómez, E. B.; Bohunická, M.; Mareš, Jan; Sheil, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 762-777 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 16S rRNA gene phylogeny * 16S-23S ITS * cryptic genus * Cyanobacteria * Cyanomargarita Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  5. Cyanomargarita gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria): convergent evolution resulting in a cryptic genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shalygin, S.; Shalygina, R.; Johansen, J. R.; Pietrasiak, N.; Gómez, E. B.; Bohunická, Markéta; Mareš, Jan; Sheil, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 762-777 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA gene * cryptic genus * Cyanomargarita Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  6. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.H.G.; Nolet, B.A.; Bankert, D.

    2006-01-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (belowground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series

  7. Allopatric origin of cryptic butterfly species that were discovered feeding on distinct host plants in sympatry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, L.C.; Velzen, van R.; Larsen, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Surveys of tropical insects are increasingly uncovering cryptic species ¿ morphologically similar yet reproductively isolated taxa once thought to comprise a single interbreeding entity. The vast majority of such species are described from a single location. This leaves us with little information on

  8. Targeting a Hidden Enemy: Pyriproxyfen Autodissemination Strategy for the Control of the Container Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Cryptic Habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij Chandel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a vector of dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses. This mosquito inhabits a wide range of artificial water-holding containers in urban and suburban areas making it difficult to control. We tested the hypothesis that female-driven autodissemination of an insect growth regulator could penetrate cryptic oviposition habitats difficult to treat with conventional insecticidal sprays.Oviposition preferences of Ae. albopictus females for open and cryptic cups were tested in semi-field experiments. Two conventional larvicidal sprayers were tested to determine droplet penetration and larvicidal efficacy in open and cryptic habitats using Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti in the field. Finally, the efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations was assessed in cryptic and open cups in residential areas during 2013 and 2014.Gravid females strongly preferred cryptic (53.1±12.9 eggs/cup over open (10.3±4.3 eggs/cup cups for oviposition. Cryptic cups showed limited droplet penetration and produced 0.1-0.3% larval mortality with a conventional backpack and low-volume sprays of Bti. The autodissemination stations effectively contaminated these cryptic cups (59.3-84.6% and produced 29.7-40.8% pupal mortality during 2013-2014. Significant pupal mortality was also observed in open cups.The autodissemination station effectively exploits the oviposition behavior of wild gravid females to deliver pyriproxyfen to targeted oviposition habitats. Although the pupal mortality in cryptic cups was relatively lower than expected for the effective vector control. Autodissemination approach may be a suitable supporting tool to manage Ae. albopictus immatures in the cryptic habitats those are less accessible to conventional larvicidal sprays.

  9. Cryptic species as a window into the paradigm shift of the species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Cene; Robinson, Christopher T; Malard, Florian

    2018-02-01

    The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science, and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new "species" paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category-which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research. Cryptic species fall within this paradigm shift: they are continuously being reported from diverse animal phyla but are poorly considered in current tests of ecological and evolutionary theory. The aim of this review is to integrate cryptic species in biodiversity science. In the first section, we address that the absence of morphological diversification is an evolutionary phenomenon, a "process" counterpart to the long-studied mechanisms of morphological diversification. In the next section regarding taxonomy, we show that molecular delimitation of cryptic species is heavily biased towards distance-based methods. We also stress the importance of formally naming of cryptic species for better integration into research fields that use species as units of analysis. Finally, we show that incorporating cryptic species leads to novel insights regarding biodiversity patterns and processes, including large-scale biodiversity assessments, geographic variation in species distribution and species coexistence. It is time for incorporating multicriteria species approaches aiming to understand speciation across space and taxa, thus allowing integration into biodiversity conservation while accommodating for species uncertainty. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Aerial ULV control of Aedes aegypti with naled (Dibrom) inside simulated rural village and urban cryptic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Aldridge, Robert L; Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Latham, Mark D; Connelly, Peter H; Rush, Mattie J E; Remmers, Jennifer L; Kerce, Jerry D; Silcox, Charles A

    2018-01-01

    We conducted aerial fixed wing ultra low volume (ULV) spray trials with naled to investigate penetration of exposed and simulated cryptic habitat within opened buildings, partially sealed buildings, and outdoor locations targeting sentinel adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in north central Florida. Mortality was observed in open and closed buildings and outdoors, even in mosquitoes placed in cryptic habitats. Observations on the impact of building type, mosquito exposure method such as placement in cryptic habitat, and spray nozzle size on mosquito mortality are described and analyzed.

  11. Divergent trophic levels in two cryptic sibling bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemers, Björn M; Greif, Stefan; Borissov, Ivailo; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L; Voigt, Christian C

    2011-05-01

    Changes in dietary preferences in animal species play a pivotal role in niche specialization. Here, we investigate how divergence of foraging behaviour affects the trophic position of animals and thereby their role for ecosystem processes. As a model, we used two closely related bat species, Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus, that are morphologically very similar and share the same roosts, but show clear behavioural divergence in habitat selection and foraging. Based on previous dietary studies on synanthropic populations in Central Europe, we hypothesised that M. myotis would mainly prey on predatory arthropods (i.e., secondary consumers) while M. blythii oxygnathus would eat herbivorous insects (i.e., primary consumers). We thus expected that the sibling bats would be at different trophic levels. We first conducted a validation experiment with captive bats in the laboratory and measured isotopic discrimination, i.e., the stepwise enrichment of heavy in relation to light isotopes between consumer and diet, in insectivorous bats for the first time. We then tested our trophic level hypothesis in the field at an ancient site of natural coexistence for the two species (Bulgaria, south-eastern Europe) using stable isotope analyses. As predicted, secondary consumer arthropods (carabid beetles; Coleoptera) were more enriched in (15)N than primary consumer arthropods (tettigoniids; Orthoptera), and accordingly wing tissue of M. myotis was more enriched in (15)N than tissue of M. blythii oxygnathus. According to a Bayesian mixing model, M. blythii oxygnathus indeed fed almost exclusively on primary consumers (98%), while M. myotis ate a mix of secondary (50%), but also, and to a considerable extent, primary consumers (50%). Our study highlights that morphologically almost identical, sympatric sibling species may forage at divergent trophic levels, and, thus may have different effects on ecosystem processes.

  12. Dietary fibre in foods: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R T

    2012-06-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods like bakery, drinks, beverages and meat products. Influence of different processing treatments (like extrusion-cooking, canning, grinding, boiling, frying) alters the physico- chemical properties of dietary fibre and improves their functionality. Dietary fibre can be determined by different methods, mainly by: enzymic gravimetric and enzymic-chemical methods. This paper presents the recent developments in the extraction, applications and functions of dietary fibre in different food products.

  13. DNA barcoding, ecology and geography of the cryptic species of Aneura pinguis and their relationships with Aneura maxima and Aneura mirabilis (Metzgeriales, Marchantiophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bączkiewicz, Alina; Szczecińska, Monika; Sawicki, Jakub; Stebel, Adam; Buczkowska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Aneura pinguis is a thalloid liverwort species with broad geographical distribution. It is composed of cryptic species, however, the number of cryptic species within A. pinguis is not known. Five cpDNA regions (matK, rbcL, rpoC1, trnH-psbA and trnL-trnF) and the entire nuclear ITS region were studied in 130 samples of A. pinguis from different geographical regions. The relationships between the cryptic species of A. pinguis, A. maxima and A. mirabilis were analyzed. All of the examined samples were clustered into 10 clades corresponding to 10 cryptic species of A. pinguis (marked A to J). Aneura mirabilis and A. maxima were nested among different cryptic species of A. pinguis, which indicates that A. pinguis is a paraphyletic taxon. Subgroups were found in cryptic species A, B, C and E. As single barcodes, all tested DNA regions had 100% discriminant power and fulfilled DNA barcode criteria for species identification; however, the only combination detected in all subgroups was trnL-trnF with trnH-psbA or ITS2. The distances between cryptic species were 11- to 35-fold higher than intraspecific distances. In all analyzed DNA regions, the distances between most pairs of cryptic A. pinguis species were higher than between A. maxima and A. mirabilis. All cryptic species of A. pinguis clearly differed in their habitat preferences, which suggests that habitat adaptation could be the main driving force behind cryptic speciation within this taxon.

  14. Nest Construction by a Ground-nesting Bird Represents a Potential Trade-off Between Egg Crypticity and Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predation selects against conspicuous colors in bird eggs and nests, while thermoregulatory constraints select for nest building behavior that regulates incubation temperatures. We present results that reveal a trade-off between nest crypticity and thermoregulation of eggs base...

  15. Dietary fibre in foods: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Devinder; Michael, Mona; Rajput, Hradesh; Patil, R. T.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary fibre is that part of plant material in the diet which is resistant to enzymatic digestion which includes cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides such as hemicellulose, pectic substances, gums, mucilages and a non-carbohydrate component lignin. The diets rich in fibre such as cereals, nuts, fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on health since their consumption has been related to decreased incidence of several diseases. Dietary fibre can be used in various functional foods li...

  16. Daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    As part of study on ''Reference Asian Man'' to strengthen radiation protection, the data on the dietary consumption patterns of the Asian region were collected. Eight provided dietary data - Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, and Viet Nam. Whereas the dietary information from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and Viet Nam are preliminary in nature, the dietary information from China, India, Japan and Philippines, on the other hand, is quite substantial. The population of the countries from which sufficient dietary data are available represents more than 2/3 of the population of the Asian region. The details of the individual data available on dietary parameters from different Asian countries are listed below

  17. Cryptic variation in morphological evolution: HSP90 as a capacitor for loss of eyes in cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Nicolas; Jarosz, Dan F; Kowalko, Johanna E; Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R; Borowsky, Richard L; Lindquist, Susan; Tabin, Clifford J

    2013-12-13

    In the process of morphological evolution, the extent to which cryptic, preexisting variation provides a substrate for natural selection has been controversial. We provide evidence that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) phenotypically masks standing eye-size variation in surface populations of the cavefish Astyanax mexicanus. This variation is exposed by HSP90 inhibition and can be selected for, ultimately yielding a reduced-eye phenotype even in the presence of full HSP90 activity. Raising surface fish under conditions found in caves taxes the HSP90 system, unmasking the same phenotypic variation as does direct inhibition of HSP90. These results suggest that cryptic variation played a role in the evolution of eye loss in cavefish and provide the first evidence for HSP90 as a capacitor for morphological evolution in a natural setting.

  18. How to deal with cryptic species in Enchytraeidae, with recommendations on taxonomical descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelz, R. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available During the 12th International Symposium on Enchytraeidae, held in Tihany, Hungary (27–29 June 2016, the participants discussed cryptic species, i.e., species that are morphologically so similar that they are classified as the same species (Bickford et al. 2007, and how to deal with them taxonomically. Here we summarise the discussion together with a few additional comments, and we give recommendations for species descriptions in Enchytraeidae.

  19. Temperature effects on gametophyte life-history traits and geographic distribution of two cryptic kelp species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Valeria Oppliger

    Full Text Available A major determinant of the geographic distribution of a species is expected to be its physiological response to changing abiotic variables over its range. The range of a species often corresponds to the geographic extent of temperature regimes the organism can physiologically tolerate. Many species have very distinct life history stages that may exhibit different responses to environmental factors. In this study we emphasized the critical role of the haploid microscopic stage (gametophyte of the life cycle to explain the difference of edge distribution of two related kelp species. Lessonia nigrescens was recently identified as two cryptic species occurring in parapatry along the Chilean coast: one located north and the other south of a biogeographic boundary at latitude 29-30°S. Six life history traits from microscopic stages were identified and estimated under five treatments of temperature in eight locations distributed along the Chilean coast in order to (1 estimate the role of temperature in the present distribution of the two cryptic L. nigrescens species, (2 compare marginal populations to central populations of the two cryptic species. In addition, we created a periodic matrix model to estimate the population growth rate (λ at the five temperature treatments. Differential tolerance to temperature was demonstrated between the two species, with the gametophytes of the Northern species being more tolerant to higher temperatures than gametophytes from the south. Second, the two species exhibited different life history strategies with a shorter haploid phase in the Northern species contrasted with considerable vegetative growth in the Southern species haploid stage. These results provide strong ecological evidence for the differentiation process of the two cryptic species and show local adaptation of the life cycle at the range limits of the distribution. Ecological and evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Diversity and Distribution of Cryptic Species of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Mariyam; Amin, Imran; Hassan, Ishtiaq; Mansoor, Shahid; Brown, Judith K; Briddon, Rob W

    2017-12-05

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius; Hempitera: Aleyrodidae) is considered to be a cryptic (sibling) species complex, the members of which exhibit morphological invariability while being genetically and behaviorally distinct. Members of the complex are agricultural pests that cause direct damage by feeding on plants, and indirectly by transmitting viruses that cause diseases leading to reduced crop yield and quality. In Pakistan, cotton leaf curl disease, caused by multiple begomovirus species, is the most economically important viral disease of cotton. In the study outlined here, the diversity and geographic distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species was investigated by analyzing a taxonomically informative fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene (mtCOI-3'). The mtCOI-3' sequence was determined for 285 adult whiteflies and found to represent six cryptic species, the most numerous being Asia II-1 and Middle East Asia Minor 1 (MEAM-1), the later also referred to as the B-biotype, which was previously thought to be confined to Sindh province but herein, was also found to be present in the Punjab province. The endemic Asia I was restricted to Sindh province, while an individual in the Asia II-8 was identified in Pakistan for the first time. Also for the first time, samples were collected from northwestern Pakistan and Asia II-1 was identified. Results indicate that in Pakistan the overall diversity of B. tabaci cryptic species is high and, based on comparisons with findings from previous studies, the distribution is dynamic. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Cryptic indirect effects of exurban edges on a woodland community

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. J. Warren; S. M. Pearson; S. Henry; K. Rossouw; J. P. Love; M. J. Olejniczak; Katherine Elliott; M. A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Exurban development (e.g., second homes) in woodlands spreads urban land use impacts beyond suburbs, but because exurban developments often retain many components of original ecosystem structure—such as a forest canopy rather than open lawn—their ecological impacts may be underestimated. Changes in seed-dispersing ant behavior prompted by exurban land use,...

  2. Acoustic divergence in the communication of cryptic species of nocturnal primates (Microcebus ssp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimmermann Elke

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central question in evolutionary biology is how cryptic species maintain species cohesiveness in an area of sympatry. The coexistence of sympatrically living cryptic species requires the evolution of species-specific signalling and recognition systems. In nocturnal, dispersed living species, specific vocalisations have been suggested to act as an ideal premating isolation mechanism. We studied the structure and perception of male advertisement calls of three nocturnal, dispersed living mouse lemur species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the golden brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis and the Goodman's mouse lemur (M. lehilahytsara. The first two species occur sympatrically, the latter lives allopatrically to them. Results A multi-parameter sound analysis revealed prominent differences in the frequency contour and in the duration of advertisement calls. To test whether mouse lemurs respond specifically to calls of the different species, we conducted a playback experiment with M. murinus from the field using advertisement calls and alarm whistle calls of all three species. Individuals responded significantly stronger to conspecific than to heterospecific advertisement calls but there were no differences in response behaviour towards statistically similar whistle calls of the three species. Furthermore, sympatric calls evoked weaker interest than allopatric advertisement calls. Conclusion Our results provide the first evidence for a specific relevance of social calls for speciation in cryptic primates. They furthermore support that specific differences in signalling and recognition systems represent an efficient premating isolation mechanism contributing to species cohesiveness in sympatrically living species.

  3. Widespread prevalence of cryptic Symbiodinium D in the key Caribbean reef builder, Orbicella annularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emma V.; Foster, Nicola L.; Mumby, Peter J.; Stevens, Jamie R.

    2015-06-01

    Symbiodinium D, a relatively rare clade of algal endosymbiont with a global distribution, has attracted interest as some of its sub-cladal types induce increased thermal tolerance and associated trade-offs, including reduced growth rate in its coral hosts. Members of Symbiodinium D are increasingly reported to comprise low-abundance `cryptic' (30 % of corals per site found to harbour the symbiont. When the same samples were analysed using the conventional screening technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, Symbiodinium D1 was only detected in 12 populations and appeared to be hosted by agreement with other reported low prevalence/absences in O. annularis). Cryptic Symbiodinium D1 showed a mainly uniform distribution across the wider Caribbean region, although significantly more Mesoamerican Barrier Reef corals hosted cryptic Symbiodinium D1 than might be expected by chance, possibly as a consequence of intense warming in the region in 1998. Widespread prevalence of thermally tolerant Symbiodinium in O. annularis may potentially reflect a capacity for the coral to temporarily respond to warming events through symbiont shuffling. However, association with reduced coral calcification means that the ubiquitous nature of Symbiodinium D1 in O. annularis populations is unlikely to prevent long-term declines in reef health, at a time when maintaining reef growth is vital to sustain reef ecosystem function.

  4. Children and Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  5. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  6. Dietary intervention in acne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    industrialized food and fast food distribution of Westernized countries. An attenuation of mTORC1 signaling is only possible by increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit, the major components of vegan or Paleolithic diets. The dermatologist bears a tremendous responsibility for his young acne patients who should be advised to modify their dietary habits in order to reduce activating stimuli of mTORC1, not only to improve acne but to prevent the harmful and expensive march to other mTORC1-related chronic diseases later in life. PMID:22870349

  7. Cryptic diversity in the Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria (Crustacea: Squillidae): Allopatric diversification, secondary contact and hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiao; Sha, Zhong-Li

    2017-05-16

    Mounting evidence of cryptic species in the marine realm emphasizes the necessity to thoroughly revise our current perceptions of marine biodiversity and species distributions. Here, we used mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) and nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrDNA ITS) to investigate cryptic diversity and potential hybridization in the Japanese mantis shrimp Oratosquilla oratoria in the Northwestern (NW) Pacific. Both mitochondrial and nuclear gene genealogies revealed two cryptic species in this morphotaxon, which was further confirmed by extensive population-level analyses. One cryptic species is restricted to cold waters with a distribution range corresponding to temperate affinities, while the other dwelled warm waters influenced by the Kuroshio Current. Their divergence was postulated to be attributable to the vicariant event which resulted from the isolation of the Sea of Japan during the middle Pliocene (c. 3.85 Mya, 95% HPD 2.23-6.07 Mya). Allopatric speciation was maintained by limited genetic exchange due to their habitat preferences. Furthermore, the observation of recombinant nrDNA ITS sequence and intra-individual ITS polymorphism suggested recent hybridization event of the two cryptic species occurred in sympatric areas. Our study also illustrated that the Changjiang River outflow might act as an oceanic barrier to gene flow and promoted allopatric diversification in O. oratoria species complex.

  8. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  9. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  10. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arboreal ant colonies as 'hot-points' of cryptic diversity for myrmecophiles: the weaver ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor and its interaction network with its associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez-Lachaud

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Systematic surveys of macrofaunal diversity within ant colonies are lacking, particularly for ants nesting in microhabitats that are difficult to sample. Species associated with ants are generally small and rarely collected organisms, which makes them more likely to be unnoticed. We assumed that this tendency is greater for arthropod communities in microhabitats with low accessibility, such as those found in the nests of arboreal ants that may constitute a source of cryptic biodiversity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the invertebrate diversity associated with an undescribed, but already threatened, Neotropical Camponotus weaver ant. As most of the common sampling methods used in studies of ant diversity are not suited for evaluating myrmecophile diversity within ant nests, we evaluated the macrofauna within ant nests through exhaustive colony sampling of three nests and examination of more than 80,000 individuals. RESULTS: We identified invertebrates from three classes belonging to 18 taxa, some of which were new to science, and recorded the first instance of the co-occurrence of two brood parasitoid wasp families attacking the same ant host colony. This diversity of ant associates corresponded to a highly complex interaction network. Agonistic interactions prevailed, but the prevalence of myrmecophiles was remarkably low. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis of the evolution of low virulence in a variety of symbionts associated with large insect societies. Because most myrmecophiles found in this work are rare, strictly specific, and exhibit highly specialized biology, the risk of extinction for these hitherto unknown invertebrates and their natural enemies is high. The cryptic, far unappreciated diversity within arboreal ant nests in areas at high risk of habitat loss qualifies these nests as 'hot-points' of biodiversity that urgently require special attention as a component of conservation and management

  12. Arboreal ant colonies as 'hot-points' of cryptic diversity for myrmecophiles: the weaver ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor and its interaction network with its associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Systematic surveys of macrofaunal diversity within ant colonies are lacking, particularly for ants nesting in microhabitats that are difficult to sample. Species associated with ants are generally small and rarely collected organisms, which makes them more likely to be unnoticed. We assumed that this tendency is greater for arthropod communities in microhabitats with low accessibility, such as those found in the nests of arboreal ants that may constitute a source of cryptic biodiversity. We investigated the invertebrate diversity associated with an undescribed, but already threatened, Neotropical Camponotus weaver ant. As most of the common sampling methods used in studies of ant diversity are not suited for evaluating myrmecophile diversity within ant nests, we evaluated the macrofauna within ant nests through exhaustive colony sampling of three nests and examination of more than 80,000 individuals. We identified invertebrates from three classes belonging to 18 taxa, some of which were new to science, and recorded the first instance of the co-occurrence of two brood parasitoid wasp families attacking the same ant host colony. This diversity of ant associates corresponded to a highly complex interaction network. Agonistic interactions prevailed, but the prevalence of myrmecophiles was remarkably low. Our data support the hypothesis of the evolution of low virulence in a variety of symbionts associated with large insect societies. Because most myrmecophiles found in this work are rare, strictly specific, and exhibit highly specialized biology, the risk of extinction for these hitherto unknown invertebrates and their natural enemies is high. The cryptic, far unappreciated diversity within arboreal ant nests in areas at high risk of habitat loss qualifies these nests as 'hot-points' of biodiversity that urgently require special attention as a component of conservation and management programs.

  13. Arboreal Ant Colonies as ‘Hot-Points’ of Cryptic Diversity for Myrmecophiles: The Weaver Ant Camponotus sp. aff. textor and Its Interaction Network with Its Associates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lachaud, Gabriela; Lachaud, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systematic surveys of macrofaunal diversity within ant colonies are lacking, particularly for ants nesting in microhabitats that are difficult to sample. Species associated with ants are generally small and rarely collected organisms, which makes them more likely to be unnoticed. We assumed that this tendency is greater for arthropod communities in microhabitats with low accessibility, such as those found in the nests of arboreal ants that may constitute a source of cryptic biodiversity. Materials and Methods We investigated the invertebrate diversity associated with an undescribed, but already threatened, Neotropical Camponotus weaver ant. As most of the common sampling methods used in studies of ant diversity are not suited for evaluating myrmecophile diversity within ant nests, we evaluated the macrofauna within ant nests through exhaustive colony sampling of three nests and examination of more than 80,000 individuals. Results We identified invertebrates from three classes belonging to 18 taxa, some of which were new to science, and recorded the first instance of the co-occurrence of two brood parasitoid wasp families attacking the same ant host colony. This diversity of ant associates corresponded to a highly complex interaction network. Agonistic interactions prevailed, but the prevalence of myrmecophiles was remarkably low. Conclusions Our data support the hypothesis of the evolution of low virulence in a variety of symbionts associated with large insect societies. Because most myrmecophiles found in this work are rare, strictly specific, and exhibit highly specialized biology, the risk of extinction for these hitherto unknown invertebrates and their natural enemies is high. The cryptic, far unappreciated diversity within arboreal ant nests in areas at high risk of habitat loss qualifies these nests as ‘hot-points’ of biodiversity that urgently require special attention as a component of conservation and management programs. PMID:24941047

  14. Members of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Cryptic Species and the Status of Two Invasive Alien Species in the Yunnan Province (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Zhi-Lin; Nardi, Francesco; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Xiao-Rong; Li, Hong-Xiang; Zhang, Zhong-Kai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex that includes some of the most significant pests of agriculture and horticulture worldwide. To understand the diversity and distribution of B. tabaci cryptic species in Yunnan, a famous biodiversity hotspot in China, a large-scale sampling was conducted from year 2010 to 2013 in 10 prefectures. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences were used to identify different cryptic species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using Bayesian methods to assess the position of a new B. tabaci cryptic species in the context of the B. tabaci diversity in Asia. The survey indicates at least eight B. tabaci cryptic species are present in Yunnan, two invasive (MEAM1 and MED) and six indigenous (China 2, China3, China 4, Asia I, Asia II 1, and Asia II 6), MEAM1, MED, and Asia I being the three predominant cryptic species in Yunnan. Compared with MEAM1, MED has a wider distribution. Based on molecular data, a new cryptic species, here named China 4, was identified that appears to be related to China 1, China 2, and China 3. Future efforts should focus on the interactions between predominant B. tabaci cryptic species and begomoviruses and on the development of effective control strategies. PMID:25502045

  15. The taxonomy of the Caloplaca citrina group (Teloschistaceae) in the Black Sea region; with contributions to the cryptic species concept in lichenology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vondrák, Jan; RÍHA, Pavel; ARUP, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    . The variability and taxonomic importance of particular features are discussed. No significant differences in secondary chemistry were observed among the species. Many examples of convergence and some semi-cryptic species were revealed by molecular data. The term ‘semi-cryptic species' is introduced here...

  16. Evaluation of methodologies for assessing the overall diet: dietary quality scores and dietary pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga C

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims to describe different approaches for studying the overall diet with advantages and limitations. Studies of the overall diet have emerged because the relationship between dietary intake and health is very complex with all kinds of interactions. These cannot be captured well by studying single dietary components. Three main approaches to study the overall diet can be distinguished. The first method is researcher-defined scores or indices of diet quality. These are usually based on guidelines for a healthy diet or on diets known to be healthy. The second approach, using principal component or cluster analysis, is driven by the underlying dietary data. In principal component analysis, scales are derived based on the underlying relationships between food groups, whereas in cluster analysis, subgroups of the population are created with people that cluster together based on their dietary intake. A third approach includes methods that are driven by a combination of biological pathways and the underlying dietary data. Reduced rank regression defines linear combinations of food intakes that maximally explain nutrient intakes or intermediate markers of disease. Decision tree analysis identifies subgroups of a population whose members share dietary characteristics that influence (intermediate markers of) disease. It is concluded that all approaches have advantages and limitations and essentially answer different questions. The third approach is still more in an exploration phase, but seems to have great potential with complementary value. More insight into the utility of conducting studies on the overall diet can be gained if more attention is given to methodological issues.

  17. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  18. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  19. DNA barcoding reveals a cryptic nemertean invasion in Atlantic and Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Ángel; Machordom, Annie

    2013-09-01

    For several groups, like nemerteans, morphology-based identification is a hard discipline, but DNA barcoding may help non-experts in the identification process. In this study, DNA barcoding is used to reveal the cryptic invasion of Pacific Cephalothrix cf. simula into Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Although DNA barcoding is a promising method for the identification of Nemertea, only 6 % of the known number of nemertean species is currently associated with a correct DNA barcode. Therefore, additional morphological and molecular studies are necessary to advance the utility of DNA barcoding in the characterisation of possible nemertean alien invasions.

  20. DNA barcoding reveals cryptic diversity within commercially exploited Indo-Malay Carangidae (Teleosteii: Perciformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tun Nurul Aimi Mat Jaafar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcodes, typically focusing on the cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI in many animals, have been used widely as a species-identification tool. The ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species from a range of taxa and to reveal cryptic species has been well documented. Despite the wealth of DNA barcode data for fish from many temperate regions, there are relatively few available from the Southeast Asian region. Here, we target the marine fish Family Carangidae, one of the most commercially-important families from the Indo-Malay Archipelago (IMA, to produce an initial reference DNA barcode library. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, a 652 bp region of COI was sequenced for 723 individuals from 36 putative species of Family Carangidae distributed within IMA waters. Within the newly-generated dataset, three described species exhibited conspecific divergences up to ten times greater (4.32-4.82% than mean estimates (0.24-0.39%, indicating a discrepancy with assigned morphological taxonomic identification, and the existence of cryptic species. Variability of the mitochondrial DNA COI region was compared within and among species to evaluate the COI region's suitability for species identification. The trend in range of mean K2P distances observed was generally in accordance with expectations based on taxonomic hierarchy: 0% to 4.82% between individuals within species, 0% to 16.4% between species within genera, and 8.64% to 25.39% between genera within families. The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P distance between individuals, between species within genera, and between genera within family were 0.37%, 10.53% and 16.56%, respectively. All described species formed monophyletic clusters in the Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree, although three species representing complexes of six potential cryptic species were detected in Indo-Malay Carangidae; Atule mate, Selar crumenophthalmus and Seriolina nigrofasciata. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This

  1. A Cryptic Sulfur Cycle in Oxygen-Minimum-Zone Waters off the Chilean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Don E.; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Dalsgaard, Tage; Delong, Edward F.; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo

    2010-12-01

    Nitrogen cycling is normally thought to dominate the biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of oxygen-minimum zones in marine environments. Through a combination of molecular techniques and process rate measurements, we showed that both sulfate reduction and sulfide oxidation contribute to energy flux and elemental cycling in oxygen-free waters off the coast of northern Chile. These processes may have been overlooked because in nature, the sulfide produced by sulfate reduction immediately oxidizes back to sulfate. This cryptic sulfur cycle is linked to anammox and other nitrogen cycling processes, suggesting that it may influence biogeochemical cycling in the global ocean.

  2. Contrasting patterns of population structure and demographic history in cryptic species of Bostrychia intricata (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta) from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangmai, Narongrit; Fraser, Ceridwen I; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C

    2015-06-01

    Spatial patterns of genetic diversity provide insight into the demography and history of species. Morphologically similar but genetically distinct "cryptic" species are increasingly being recognized in marine organisms through molecular analyses. Such species are, on closer inspection, often discovered to display contrasting life histories or occasionally minor morphological differences; molecular tools can thus be useful indicators of diversity. Bostrychia intricata, a marine red alga, is widely distributed throughout the Southern Hemisphere and comprises many cryptic species. We used mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequences to assess the genetic variation, population genetic structure, and demographic history of B. intricata in New Zealand. Our results supported the existence of three cryptic species of B. intricata (N2, N4, and N5) in New Zealand. Cryptic species N4, which was found throughout New Zealand, showed a higher genetic diversity and wider distribution than the other two species, which were only found in the North Island and northern South Island. Our analyses showed low to moderate genetic differentiation among eastern North Island populations for cryptic species N2, but high differentiation among North and South Island populations for N4, suggesting different population structure between these cryptic species. Data also indicated that N2 has recently undergone population expansion, probably since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), while the higher genetic diversity in N4 populations suggests persistence in situ through the LGM. The contrasting population structures and inferred demographic histories of these species highlight that life history can vary greatly even among morphologically indistinguishable taxa. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Dietary modification of metabolic pathways via nuclear hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzi, Gianella; Wong, Brian S; Ricketts, Marie-Louise

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), as ligand-dependent transcription factors, have emerged as important mediators in the control of whole body metabolism. Because of the promiscuous nature of several members of this superfamily that have been found to bind ligand with lower affinity than the classical steroid NHRs, they consequently display a broader ligand selectivity. This promiscuous nature has facilitated various bioactive dietary components being able to act as agonist ligands for certain members of the NHR superfamily. By binding to these NHRs, bioactive dietary components are able to mediate changes in various metabolic pathways, including, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis among others. This review will provide a general overview of the nuclear hormone receptors that have been shown to be activated by dietary components. The physiological consequences of such receptor activation by these dietary components will then be discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M; Woods, Stephen C; Kalsbeek, A.; Seeley, Randy J; Nawroth, Peter P; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H; Yi, Chun-Xia

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  5. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory

  6. Dietary composition and nutrient content of the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithril, Charlotte; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Meyer, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the dietary composition of the New Nordic Diet (NND) and to compare it with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)/Danish Food-based Dietary Guidelines (DFDG) and with the average Danish diet. Design Dietary components with clear health-promoting properties included...... in the DFDG were included in the NND in amounts at least equivalent to those prescribed by the DFDG. The quantities of the other dietary components in the NND were based on scientific arguments for their potential health-promoting properties together with considerations of acceptability, toxicological...... concerns, availability and the environment. Calculations were conducted for quantifying the dietary and nutrient composition of the NND. Setting Denmark. Subjects None. Results The NND is characterized by a high content of fruits and vegetables (especially berries, cabbages, root vegetables and legumes...

  7. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-02-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake is assessed with considerable measurement error. We were interested in estimating the population distribution of the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005), a multi-component dietary quality index involving ratios of interrelated dietary components to energy, among children aged 2-8 in the United States, using a national survey and incorporating survey weights. We developed a highly nonlinear, multivariate zero-inflated data model with measurement error to address this question. Standard nonlinear mixed model software such as SAS NLMIXED cannot handle this problem. We found that taking a Bayesian approach, and using MCMC, resolved the computational issues and doing so enabled us to provide a realistic distribution estimate for the HEI-2005 total score. While our computation and thinking in solving this problem was Bayesian, we relied on the well-known close relationship between Bayesian posterior means and maximum likelihood, the latter not computationally feasible, and thus were able to develop standard errors using balanced repeated replication, a survey-sampling approach.

  8. Identification and dynamics of a cryptic suture zone in tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, C.; Hoskin, C.J.; MacKenzie, J.B.; Phillips, B.L.; Tonione, M.; Silva, N.; VanDerWal, J.; Williams, S.E.; Graham, C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Suture zones, shared regions of secondary contact between long-isolated lineages, are natural laboratories for studying divergence and speciation. For tropical rainforest, the existence of suture zones and their significance for speciation has been controversial. Using comparative phylogeographic evidence, we locate a morphologically cryptic suture zone in the Australian Wet Tropics rainforest. Fourteen out of 18 contacts involve morphologically cryptic phylogeographic lineages, with mtDNA sequence divergences ranging from 2 to 15 per cent. Contact zones are significantly clustered in a suture zone located between two major Quaternary refugia. Within this area, there is a trend for secondary contacts to occur in regions with low environmental suitability relative to both adjacent refugia and, by inference, the parental lineages. The extent and form of reproductive isolation among interacting lineages varies across species, ranging from random admixture to speciation, in one case via reinforcement. Comparative phylogeographic studies, combined with environmental analysis at a fine-scale and across varying climates, can generate new insights into suture zone formation and to diversification processes in species-rich tropical rainforests. As arenas for evolutionary experimentation, suture zones merit special attention for conservation. PMID:19203915

  9. A human PrM antibody that recognizes a novel cryptic epitope on dengue E glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Hoi Yi Chan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is a major mosquito-borne pathogen infecting up to 100 million people each year; so far no effective treatment or vaccines are available. Recently, highly cross-reactive and infection-enhancing pre-membrane (prM-specific antibodies were found to dominate the anti-DENV immune response in humans, raising concern over vaccine candidates that contain native dengue prM sequences. In this study, we have isolated a broadly cross-reactive prM-specific antibody, D29, during a screen with a non-immunized human Fab-phage library against the four serotypes of DENV. The antibody is capable of restoring the infectivity of virtually non-infectious immature DENV (imDENV in FcγR-bearing K562 cells. Remarkably, D29 also cross-reacted with a cryptic epitope on the envelope (E protein located to the DI/DII junction as evidenced by site-directed mutagenesis. This cryptic epitope, while inaccessible to antibody binding in a native virus particle, may become exposed if E is not properly folded. These findings suggest that generation of anti-prM antibodies that enhance DENV infection may not be completely avoided even with immunization strategies employing E protein alone or subunits of E proteins.

  10. Medical data sheet in safe havens - A tri-layer cryptic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Padmapriya; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan; Thenmozhi, K; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco

    2015-07-01

    Secured sharing of the diagnostic reports and scan images of patients among doctors with complementary expertise for collaborative treatment will help to provide maximum care through faster and decisive decisions. In this context, a tri-layer cryptic solution has been proposed and implemented on Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images to establish a secured communication for effective referrals among peers without compromising the privacy of patients. In this approach, a blend of three cryptic schemes, namely Latin square image cipher (LSIC), discrete Gould transform (DGT) and Rubik׳s encryption, has been adopted. Among them, LSIC provides better substitution, confusion and shuffling of the image blocks; DGT incorporates tamper proofing with authentication; and Rubik renders a permutation of DICOM image pixels. The developed algorithm has been successfully implemented and tested in both the software (MATLAB 7) and hardware Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP) environments. Specifically, the encrypted data were tested by transmitting them through an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel model. Furthermore, the sternness of the implemented algorithm was validated by employing standard metrics such as the unified average changing intensity (UACI), number of pixels change rate (NPCR), correlation values and histograms. The estimated metrics have also been compared with the existing methods and dominate in terms of large key space to defy brute force attack, cropping attack, strong key sensitivity and uniform pixel value distribution on encryption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetics, morphology and ecology reveal a cryptic pika lineage in the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, Nishma; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Lin, Zhenzhen; Solari, Katherine; Hadly, Elizabeth A; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Asian pika species are morphologically ∼similar and have overlapping ranges. This leads to uncertainty and species misidentification in the field. Phylogenetic analyses of such misidentified samples leads to taxonomic ambiguity. The ecology of many pika species remains understudied, particularly in the Himalaya, where sympatric species could be separated by elevation and/or substrate. We sampled, measured, and acquired genetic data from pikas in the Sikkim Himalaya. Our analyses revealed a cryptic lineage, Ochotona sikimaria, previously reported as a subspecies of O. thibetana. The results support the elevation of this lineage to the species level, as it is genetically divergent from O. thibetana, as well as sister species, O. cansus (endemic to central China) and O. curzoniae (endemic to the Tibetan plateau). The Sikkim lineage diverged from its sister species' about 1.7-0.8myrago, coincident with uplift events in the Himalaya. Our results add to the recent spate of cryptic diversity identified from the eastern Himalaya and highlight the need for further study within the Ochotonidae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark; DiBattista, Joseph; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Brett M.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cryptic extended brood care in the facultatively eusocial sweat bee Megalopta genalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, A E; Wcislo, W T

    As a result of different brood cell provisioning strategies, nest-making insects may differ in the extent to which adults regularly provide extended parental care to their brood beyond nest defense. Mass-provisioning species cache the entire food supply needed for larval development prior to the oviposition and typically seal the brood cell. It is usually assumed that there is no regular contact between the adult(s) and brood. Here, we show that the bee, Megalopta genalis , expresses a form of cryptic brood care, which would not be observed during normal development. Following experimental injections of different provisioning materials into brood cells, foundresses reopened manipulated cells and the brood were aborted in some cases, implying that the foundresses assessed conditions within the cells. In aborted cells, foundresses sometimes laid a second egg after first removing dead larvae, previously stored pollen and contaminants. Our results show that hygienic brood care can be cryptic and hence may be more widespread than previously believed, lending support to the hypothesis that extended parental care is a preadaptation toward eusociality.

  14. Unique mitochondrial DNA lineages in Irish stickleback populations: cryptic refugium or rapid recolonization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinet, Mark; Harrod, Chris; Eizaguirre, Christophe; Prodöhl, Paulo A

    2014-06-01

    Repeated recolonization of freshwater environments following Pleistocene glaciations has played a major role in the evolution and adaptation of anadromous taxa. Located at the western fringe of Europe, Ireland and Britain were likely recolonized rapidly by anadromous fishes from the North Atlantic following the last glacial maximum (LGM). While the presence of unique mitochondrial haplotypes in Ireland suggests that a cryptic northern refugium may have played a role in recolonization, no explicit test of this hypothesis has been conducted. The three-spined stickleback is native and ubiquitous to aquatic ecosystems throughout Ireland, making it an excellent model species with which to examine the biogeographical history of anadromous fishes in the region. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to examine the presence of divergent evolutionary lineages and to assess broad-scale patterns of geographical clustering among postglacially isolated populations. Our results confirm that Ireland is a region of secondary contact for divergent mitochondrial lineages and that endemic haplotypes occur in populations in Central and Southern Ireland. To test whether a putative Irish lineage arose from a cryptic Irish refugium, we used approximate Bayesian computation (ABC). However, we found no support for this hypothesis. Instead, the Irish lineage likely diverged from the European lineage as a result of postglacial isolation of freshwater populations by rising sea levels. These findings emphasize the need to rigorously test biogeographical hypothesis and contribute further evidence that postglacial processes may have shaped genetic diversity in temperate fauna.

  15. Shoot, shovel and shut up: cryptic poaching slows restoration of a large carnivore in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberg, Olof; Chapron, Guillaume; Wabakken, Petter; Pedersen, Hans Christian; Hobbs, N Thompson; Sand, Håkan

    2012-03-07

    Poaching is a widespread and well-appreciated problem for the conservation of many threatened species. Because poaching is illegal, there is strong incentive for poachers to conceal their activities, and consequently, little data on the effects of poaching on population dynamics are available. Quantifying poaching mortality should be a required knowledge when developing conservation plans for endangered species but is hampered by methodological challenges. We show that rigorous estimates of the effects of poaching relative to other sources of mortality can be obtained with a hierarchical state-space model combined with multiple sources of data. Using the Scandinavian wolf (Canis lupus) population as an illustrative example, we show that poaching accounted for approximately half of total mortality and more than two-thirds of total poaching remained undetected by conventional methods, a source of mortality we term as 'cryptic poaching'. Our simulations suggest that without poaching during the past decade, the population would have been almost four times as large in 2009. Such a severe impact of poaching on population recovery may be widespread among large carnivores. We believe that conservation strategies for large carnivores considering only observed data may not be adequate and should be revised by including and quantifying cryptic poaching.

  16. Cryptic Transcription and Early Termination in the Control of Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Colin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on yeast transcriptome have revealed the presence of a large set of RNA polymerase II transcripts mapping to intergenic and antisense regions or overlapping canonical genes. Most of these ncRNAs (ncRNAs are subject to termination by the Nrd1-dependent pathway and rapid degradation by the nuclear exosome and have been dubbed cryptic unstable transcripts (CUTs. CUTs are often considered as by-products of transcriptional noise, but in an increasing number of cases they play a central role in the control of gene expression. Regulatory mechanisms involving expression of a CUT are diverse and include attenuation, transcriptional interference, and alternative transcription start site choice. This review focuses on the impact of cryptic transcription on gene expression, describes the role of the Nrd1-complex as the main actor in preventing nonfunctional and potentially harmful transcription, and details a few systems where expression of a CUT has an essential regulatory function. We also summarize the most recent studies concerning other types of ncRNAs and their possible role in regulation.

  17. Small mammals as indicators of cryptic plant species diversity in the central Chilean plant endemicity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Root-Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indicator species could help to compensate for a shortfall of knowledge about the diversity and distributions of undersampled and cryptic species. This paper provides background knowledge about the ecological interactions that affect and are affected by herbaceous diversity in central Chile, as part of the indicator species selection process. We focus on the ecosystem engineering role of small mammals, primarily the degu Octodon degus. We also consider the interacting effects of shrubs, trees, avian activity, livestock, slope, and soil quality on herbaceous communities in central Chile. We sampled herbaceous diversity on a private landholding characterized by a mosaic of savanna, grassland and matorral, across a range of degu disturbance intensities. We find that the strongest factors affecting endemic herbaceous diversity are density of degu runways, shrub cover and avian activity. Our results show that the degu, a charismatic and easily identifiable and countable species, could be used as an indicator species to aid potential conservation actions such as private protected area uptake. We map areas in central Chile where degus may indicate endemic plant diversity. This area is larger than expected, and suggests that significant areas of endemic plant communities may still exist, and should be identified and protected. Keywords: Cryptic species, Diversity, Endemic, Indicator species, Octodon degus, Plant

  18. A bridge too far: dispersal barriers and cryptic speciation in an Arabian Peninsula grouper (Cephalopholis hemistiktos)

    KAUST Repository

    Priest, Mark

    2015-12-12

    Aim: We use genetic and age-based analyses to assess the evidence for a biogeographical barrier to larval dispersal in the yellowfin hind, Cephalopholis hemistiktos, a commercially important species found across the Arabian Peninsula. Location: Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Methods: Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome-c oxidase subunit-I and nuclear DNA (S7) sequences were obtained for C. hemistiktos sampled throughout its distributional range. Phylogeographical and population-level analyses were used to assess patterns of genetic structure and to identify barriers to dispersal. Concurrently, age-based demographic analyses using otoliths determined differences in growth and longevity between regions. Results: Our analyses revealed significant genetic structure congruent with growth parameter differences observed across sampling sites, suggesting cryptic speciation between populations in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden versus the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Gulf. Coalescence analyses indicated these two regions have been isolated for > 800,000 years. Main conclusions: Our results indicate historical disruption to gene flow and a contemporary dispersal barrier in the Arabian Sea, which C. hemistiktos larvae are unable to effectively traverse. This provides yet another example of a (cryptic) species with high dispersive potential whose range is delimited by a lack of suitable habitat between locations or an inability to successfully recruit at the range edge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Integrative taxonomy detects cryptic and overlooked fish species in a neotropical river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Laís Carvalho; Pessali, Tiago Casarim; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; Pompeu, Paulo Santos; Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso

    2015-10-01

    The great freshwater fish diversity found in the neotropical region makes management and conservation actions challenging. Due to shortage of taxonomists and insufficient infrastructure to deal with such great biodiversity (i.e. taxonomic impediment), proposed remedies to accelerate species identification and descriptions include techniques that combine DNA-based identification and concise morphological description. The building of a DNA barcode reference database correlating meristic and genetic data was developed for 75 % of the Mucuri River basin's freshwater fish. We obtained a total of 141 DNA barcode sequences from 37 species belonging to 30 genera, 19 families, and 5 orders. Genetic distances within species, genera, and families were 0.74, 9.5, and 18.86 %, respectively. All species could be clearly identified by the DNA barcodes. Divergences between meristic morphological characteristics and DNA barcodes revealed two cryptic species among the Cyphocharax gilbert and Astyanax gr. bimaculatus specimens, and helped to identify two overlooked species within the Gymnotus and Astyanax taxa. Therefore, using a simplified model of neotropical biodiversity, we tested the efficiency of an integrative taxonomy approach for species discovery, identification of cryptic diversity, and accelerating biodiversity descriptions.

  20. Divergence in cryptic leaf colour provides local camouflage in an alpine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yang; Chen, Zhe; Stevens, Martin; Sun, Hang

    2017-10-11

    The efficacy of camouflage through background matching is highly environment-dependent, often resulting in intraspecific colour divergence in animals to optimize crypsis in different visual environments. This phenomenon is largely unexplored in plants, although several lines of evidence suggest they do use crypsis to avoid damage by herbivores. Using Corydalis hemidicentra, an alpine plant with cryptic leaf colour, we quantified background matching between leaves and surrounding rocks in five populations based on an approximate model of their butterfly enemy's colour perception. We also investigated the pigment basis of leaf colour variation and the association between feeding risk and camouflage efficacy. We show that plants exhibit remarkable colour divergence between populations, consistent with differences in rock appearances. Leaf colour varies because of a different quantitative combination of two basic pigments-chlorophyll and anthocyanin-plus different air spaces. As expected, leaf colours are better matched against their native backgrounds than against foreign ones in the eyes of the butterfly. Furthermore, improved crypsis tends to be associated with a higher level of feeding risk. These results suggest that divergent cryptic leaf colour may have evolved to optimize local camouflage in various visual environments, extending our understanding of colour evolution and intraspecific phenotype diversity in plants. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Hidden in plain view: Cryptic diversity in the emblematic Araucaria of New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhsam, Markus; Clark, Alexandra; Finger, Aline; Wulff, Adrien S; Mill, Robert R; Thomas, Philip I; Gardner, Martin F; Gaudeul, Myriam; Ennos, Richard A; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    Cryptic species represent a conservation challenge, because distributions and threats cannot be accurately assessed until species are recognized and defined. Cryptic species are common in diminutive and morphologically simple organisms, but are rare in charismatic and/or highly visible groups such as conifers. New Caledonia, a small island in the southern Pacific is a hotspot of diversity for the emblematic conifer genus Araucaria (Araucariaceae, Monkey Puzzle trees) where 13 of the 19 recognized species are endemic. We sampled across the entire geographical distribution of two closely related species (Araucaria rulei and A. muelleri) and screened them for genetic variation at 12 nuclear and 14 plastid microsatellites and one plastid minisatellite; a subset of the samples was also examined using leaf morphometrics. The genetic data show that populations of the endangered A. muelleri fall into two clearly distinct genetic groups: one corresponding to montane populations, the other corresponding to trees from lower elevation populations from around the Goro plateau. These Goro plateau populations are more closely related to A. rulei, but are sufficiently genetically and morphological distinct to warrant recognition as a new species. Our study shows the presence of a previously unrecognized species in this flagship group, and that A. muelleri has 30% fewer individuals than previously thought. Combined, this clarification of species diversity and distributions provides important information to aid conservation planning for New Caledonian Araucaria. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  3. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  4. Narrative Dietary Counseling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....

  5. Dietary determinants of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly

  6. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  7. Contamination delays the release of Laricobius osakensis for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid: cryptic diversity in Japanese Laricobius spp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Nathan P. Havill; Carrie S. Jubb; Sean W. Prosser; Brent D. Opell; Scott M. Salom; Loke T. Kok

    2014-01-01

    Laricobius osakensis (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) was imported from Japan to the United States in 2006 for study in quarantine facilities as a potential biological control of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid. Laricobius osakensis was released from quarantine in 2010, but it was soon discovered that the colony also contained a cryptic species...

  8. Resolution of three cryptic agricultural pests (Ceratitis fasciventris, C. anonae, C. rosa, Diptera: Tephritidae) using cuticular hydrocarbon profiling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaníčková, Lucie; Virgilio, M.; Tomčala, Aleš; Břízová, Radka; Ekesi, S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.; De Meyer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2014), s. 631-638 ISSN 0007-4853 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cryptic species complex * genus Ceratitis * cuticular hydrocarbons * polymorphic microsatellite loci * chemotaxonomy Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.910, year: 2014

  9. Cross-shelf investigation of coral reef cryptic benthic organisms reveals diversity patterns of the hidden majority

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.; Leray, M.; Villalobos, R.; Machida, R. J.; Berumen, Michael L.; Knowlton, N.; Carvalho, Susana

    2018-01-01

    (ARMS) and amplicon sequencing methodologies, targeting mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 18S rRNA genes, to investigate changes in the cryptic reef biodiversity. ARMS, deployed at 11 sites across a near- to off-shore gradient in the Red Sea were

  10. DNA barcode reference library for Iberian butterflies enables a continental-scale preview of potential cryptic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincă, Vlad; Montagud, Sergio; Talavera, Gerard; Hernández-Roldán, Juan; Munguira, Miguel L.; García-Barros, Enrique; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Vila, Roger

    2015-01-01

    How common are cryptic species - those overlooked because of their morphological similarity? Despite its wide-ranging implications for biology and conservation, the answer remains open to debate. Butterflies constitute the best-studied invertebrates, playing a similar role as birds do in providing models for vertebrate biology. An accurate assessment of cryptic diversity in this emblematic group requires meticulous case-by-case assessments, but a preview to highlight cases of particular interest will help to direct future studies. We present a survey of mitochondrial genetic diversity for the butterfly fauna of the Iberian Peninsula with unprecedented resolution (3502 DNA barcodes for all 228 species), creating a reliable system for DNA-based identification and for the detection of overlooked diversity. After compiling available data for European butterflies (5782 sequences, 299 species), we applied the Generalized Mixed Yule-Coalescent model to explore potential cryptic diversity at a continental scale. The results indicate that 27.7% of these species include from two to four evolutionary significant units (ESUs), suggesting that cryptic biodiversity may be higher than expected for one of the best-studied invertebrate groups and regions. The ESUs represent important units for conservation, models for studies of evolutionary and speciation processes, and sentinels for future research to unveil hidden diversity. PMID:26205828

  11. Clinical and genetic features of dyskeratosis congenita, cryptic dyskeratosis congenita, and Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Kenichi; Yabe, Miharu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Okuno, Yusuke; Muramatsu, Hideki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Yui, Shunsuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Inokuchi, Koiti; Ito, Etsuro; Ogawa, Seishi; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita (DKC) is an inherited bone marrow failure (BMF) syndrome typified by reticulated skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and mucosal leukoplakia. Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome (HHS) is considered to be a severe form of DKC. Unconventional forms of DKC, which develop slowly in adulthood but without the physical anomalies characteristic of DKC (cryptic DKC), have been reported. Clinical and genetic features of DKC have been investigated in Caucasian, Black, and Hispanic populations, but not in Asian populations. The present study aimed to determine the clinical and genetic features of DKC, HHS, and cryptic DKC among Japanese patients. We analyzed 16 patients diagnosed with DKC, three patients with HHS, and 15 patients with cryptic DKC. We found that platelet count was significantly more depressed than neutrophil count or hemoglobin value in DKC patients, and identified DKC patients with large deletions in the telomerase reverse transcriptase and cryptic DKC patients with RTEL1 mutations on both alleles. This led to some patients previously considered to have unclassifiable BMF being diagnosed with cDKC through identification of new gene mutations. It thus seems important from a clinical viewpoint to re-examine the clinical characteristics, frequency of genetic mutations, and treatment efficacy in DKC, HHS, and cDKC.

  12. Dietary macronutrient recommendations for optimal Dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both resistance and endurance-trained athletes have a higher dietary protein requirement of between 1.2 and 1.8 g protein/kg body weight (BW)/day, with an upper limit of 2 g protein/kg BW/day. To increase the rate of protein synthesis during the recovery period, immediate ingestion of protein postexercise is recommended ...

  13. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  14. Iranian dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hosein; Asadollahi, Khairollah; Davtalab Esmaeili, Elham; Mirzapoor, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC) has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC. This case-control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35-75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases). Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method;"Healthy pattern"and "Iranian pattern". Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI)=1.05-2.19) while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47). Iranian dietary pattern (IDP) seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  15. Iranian Dietary Patterns and Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Azizi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of diet on colorectal cancer (CRC has been considered in terms of single foods and nutrients, but less frequently in terms of dietary patterns in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the association between Iranian dietary patterns and CRC.Methods: This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tabriz City of Iran including 414 participants aged 35–75 years:207 cases with CRC confirmed by pathology and colonoscopy findings were selected and 207 controls free of neoplastic conditions and diet-related chronic diseases (from the same hospital at the same period for the cases. Dietary data were assessed using a 123-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Two dietary patterns were found by using of Principal Component Analysis (PCA method;“Healthy pattern”and “Iranian pattern”. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR for relationship between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the Iranian dietary pattern was significantly associated with an increased odds of colorectal cancer (OR= 1.46; 95% Confidenec Interval (CI=1.05–2.19 while a reduced odds of colorectal cancer was observed with the Healthy dietary pattern (OR=0.18; 95% CI= 0.091-0.47.Conclusion: Iranian dietary pattern (IDP seems to increase the odds of colorectal cancer and protective effect of Healthy dietary pattern.

  16. Background matching and evolution of cryptic colours of selected passerines in deciduous woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bursell, Jens; Dyck, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Most drab plumage colours are probably cryptic. Crypsis (camouflage) occurs when the colour of a significant part of the plumage is similar to the colour of a significant part of the background against which the prey bird may be detected by a potential predator. In this study we compare back...... colours of tits and associated species with colour backgrounds in their habitat during a four-month period in winter. We test the hypothesis that in some of the species back colour is similar to one of the background colours. In addition to colour backgrounds, microhabitats and tree species were also...... recorded. Great Tit Parus major, Nuthatch Sitta europea and Treecreeper Certhia familiaris showed distinct preferences for different colour backgrounds, reflecting their choice of microhabitats and tree species. The data suggest that in the Great Tit the olivemoss green back colour has evolved as crypsis...

  17. Cryptic PML-RARα positive acute promyelocytic leukemia with unusual morphology and cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal Manu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL is different from other forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, to the reason being the potential devastating coagulopathy and the sensitivity to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA and arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 . We hereby present a case of APL, morphologically distinct from the hypergranular APL; however, the flow cytometry revealed a characteristic phenotype showing dim CD45, bright CD13, bright CD33 and dim CD117 positivity. These were negative for CD34, HLA-DR, B-lymphoid and T-lymphoid lineage markers. Conventional cytogenetics revealed a distinct karyotype of a male with translocation t(4;15(q34.2:q26.3. However, interphase florescence-in-situ hybridization (FISH revealed PML/RARA fusion signal on chromosome 15 in 90% cells. The cryptic translocations may be missed on conventional cytogenetics, however, need to be picked by other techniques as FISH.

  18. Cryptic diversity in Australian stick insects (Insecta; Phasmida) uncovered by the DNA barcoding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velonà, A; Brock, P D; Hasenpusch, J; Mantovani, B

    2015-05-18

    The barcoding approach was applied to analyze 16 Australian morphospecies of the order Phasmida, with the aim to test if it could be suitable as a tool for phasmid species identification and if its discrimination power would allow uncovering of cryptic diversity. Both goals were reached. Eighty-two specimens representing twelve morphospecies (Sipyloidea sp. A, Candovia annulata, Candovia sp. A, Candovia sp. B, Candovia sp. C, Denhama austrocarinata, Xeroderus kirbii, Parapodacanthus hasenpuschorum, Tropidoderus childrenii, Cigarrophasma tessellatum, Acrophylla wuelfingi, Eurycantha calcarata) were correctly recovered as clades through the molecular approach, their sequences forming monophyletic and well-supported clusters. In four instances, Neighbor-Joining tree and barcoding gap analyses supported either a specific (Austrocarausius mercurius, Anchiale briareus) or a subspecific (Anchiale austrotessulata, Extatosoma tiaratum) level of divergence within the analyzed morphospecies. The lack of an appropriate database of homologous coxI sequences prevented more detailed identification of undescribed taxa.

  19. Coalescent Modelling Suggests Recent Secondary-Contact of Cryptic Penguin Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosser, Stefanie; Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Waters, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analyses present powerful tools for elucidating demographic and biogeographic histories of taxa. Here we present genetic evidence showing a dynamic history for two cryptic lineages within Eudyptula, the world's smallest penguin. Specifically, we use a suite of genetic markers to reveal that two congeneric taxa ('Australia' and 'New Zealand') co-occur in southern New Zealand, with only low levels of hybridization. Coalescent modelling suggests that the Australian little penguin only recently expanded into southern New Zealand. Analyses conducted under time-dependent molecular evolutionary rates lend support to the hypothesis of recent anthropogenic turnover, consistent with shifts detected in several other New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa. This apparent turnover event highlights the dynamic nature of the region's coastal ecosystem.

  20. Cyanomargarita gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria): convergent evolution resulting in a cryptic genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalygin, Sergei; Shalygina, Regina; Johansen, Jeffrey R; Pietrasiak, Nicole; Berrendero Gómez, Esther; Bohunická, Markéta; Mareš, Jan; Sheil, Christopher A

    2017-08-01

    Two populations of Rivularia-like cyanobacteria were isolated from ecologically distinct and biogeographically distant sites. One population was from an unpolluted stream in the Kola Peninsula of Russia, whereas the other was from a wet wall in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, a desert park-land in Utah. Though both were virtually indistinguishable from Rivularia in field and cultured material, they were both phylogenetically distant from Rivularia and the Rivulariaceae based on both 16S rRNA and rbcLX phylogenies. We here name the new cryptic genus Cyanomargarita gen. nov., with type species C. melechinii sp. nov., and additional species C. calcarea sp. nov. We also name a new family for these taxa, the Cyanomargaritaceae. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Occam’s Quantum Strop: Synchronizing and Compressing Classical Cryptic Processes via a Quantum Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John R.; Aghamohammadi, Cina; Crutchfield, James P.

    2016-02-01

    A stochastic process’ statistical complexity stands out as a fundamental property: the minimum information required to synchronize one process generator to another. How much information is required, though, when synchronizing over a quantum channel? Recent work demonstrated that representing causal similarity as quantum state-indistinguishability provides a quantum advantage. We generalize this to synchronization and offer a sequence of constructions that exploit extended causal structures, finding substantial increase of the quantum advantage. We demonstrate that maximum compression is determined by the process’ cryptic order-a classical, topological property closely allied to Markov order, itself a measure of historical dependence. We introduce an efficient algorithm that computes the quantum advantage and close noting that the advantage comes at a cost-one trades off prediction for generation complexity.

  2. Poinsettia latent virus is not a cryptic virus, but a natural polerovirus-sobemovirus hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siepen, Marc aus dem; Pohl, Jens O.; Koo, Bong-Jin; Wege, Christina; Jeske, Holger

    2005-01-01

    The biochemical and genetic features of Poinsettia latent virus (PnLV, formerly named Poinsettia cryptic virus), which is spread worldwide in commercial cultivars of Euphorbia pulcherrima without inducing symptoms, have been determined using virus-purification, immunological techniques, electron microscopy, cloning, and sequencing. PnLV was found to be a chimeric virus with one 4652 bases, plus strand RNA showing a close relationship to poleroviruses within the first three quarters of its genome but to sobemoviruses in the last quarter. Thus, we propose to classify this virus as 'polemovirus'. Similarities of protein and nucleic acid sequences at the 5' and extreme 3' end of its RNA suggest a replication mode like that of poleroviruses, whereas the coat protein sequence is closely related to that of sobemoviruses. Consistent with these results, PnLV forms stable icosahedra of 34 nm in diameter. The consequences for the taxonomy of PnLV and for gardeners' practice are discussed

  3. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University’s Activity, Food and Attitudes Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla L. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69. CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support.

  4. Molecular evidence of cryptic speciation in the "cosmopolitan" excavating sponge Cliona celata (Porifera, Clionaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J R; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Parra-Velandia, F; Schönberg, C H L; Breeuwer, J A J; van Soest, R W M

    2010-07-01

    Over the past several decades molecular tools have shown an enormous potential to aid in the clarification of species boundaries in the marine realm, particularly in morphologically simple groups. In this paper we report a case of cryptic speciation in an allegedly cosmopolitan and ecologically important species-the excavating sponge Cliona celata (Clionaidae, Hadromerida). In the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean C. celata displays a discontinuous distribution of its putative growth stages (boring, encrusting, and massive) leading us to investigate its specific status. Phylogenetic reconstructions of mitochondrial (COI, Atp8) and nuclear (28S) gene fragments revealed levels of genetic diversity and divergence compatible with interspecific relationships. We therefore demonstrate C. celata as constituting a species complex comprised of at least four morphologically indistinct species, each showing a far more restricted distribution: two species on the Atlantic European coasts and two on the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coasts (Macaronesian islands). Our results provide further confirmation that the different morphotypes do indeed constitute either growth stages or ecologically adapted phenotypes as boring and massive forms were found in two of the four uncovered species. We additionally provide an overview of the cases of cryptic speciation which have been reported to date within the Porifera, and highlight how taxonomic crypsis may confound scientific interpretation and hamper biotechnological advancement. Our work together with previous studies suggests that overconservative systematic traditions but also morphological stasis have led to genetic complexity going undetected and that a DNA-assisted taxonomy may play a key role in uncovering the hidden diversity in this taxonomic group. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Detecting cryptic speciation in the widespread and morphologically conservative carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis) of Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, A M; Ingram, C M; Rakotondravony, H A; Louis, E E; Raxworthy, C J

    2012-07-01

    Species delimitation within recently evolved groups can be challenging because species may be difficult to distinguish morphologically. Following the General Lineage Concept, we apply a multiple evidence approach to assess species limits within the carpet chameleon Furcifer lateralis, which is endemic to Madagascar and exported in large numbers for the pet trade. Cryptic speciation within F. lateralis was considered likely because this species (1) has a vast distribution, (2) occupies exceptionally diverse habitats and (3) exhibits subtle regional differences in morphology. Phylogenetic trees reconstructed using nuclear and mitochondrial genes recovered three well-supported clades corresponding with geography. Morphological results based on canonical variates analysis show that these clades exhibit subtle differences in head casque morphology. Ecological niche modelling results found that these phylogenetic groups also occupy unique environmental space and exhibit patterns of regional endemism typical of other endemic reptiles. Combined, our findings provide diverse yet consistent evidence for the existence of three species. Consequently, we elevate the subspecies F. lateralis major to species rank and name a new species distributed in northern and western Madagascar. Initial ecological divergence, associated with speciation of F. lateralis in humid eastern habitat, fits the Ecographic Constraint model for species diversification in Madagascar. By contrast, the second speciation event provides some support for the Riverine Barrier model, with the Mangoky River possibly causing initial isolation between species. These findings thus support two contrasting models of speciation within closely related species and demonstrate the utility of applying a combined-evidence approach for detecting cryptic speciation. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  7. Cryptic Species Due to Hybridization: A Combined Approach to Describe a New Species (Carex: Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguilla, Enrique; Escudero, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Disappearance of diagnostic morphological characters due to hybridization is considered to be one of the causes of the complex taxonomy of the species-rich (ca. 2000 described species) genus Carex (Cyperaceae). Carex furva s.l. belongs to section Glareosae. It is an endemic species from the high mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal). Previous studies suggested the existence of two different, cryptic taxa within C. furva s.l. Intermediate morphologies found in the southern Iberian Peninsula precluded the description of a new taxa. We aimed to determine whether C. furva s.l. should be split into two different species based on the combination of morphological and molecular data. We sampled ten populations across its full range and performed a morphological study based on measurements on herbarium specimens and silica-dried inflorescences. Both morphological and phylogenetic data support the existence of two different species within C. furva s.l. Nevertheless, intermediate morphologies and sterile specimens were found in one of the southern populations (Sierra Nevada) of C. furva s.l., suggesting the presence of hybrid populations in areas where both supposed species coexist. Hybridization between these two putative species has blurred morphological and genetic limits among them in this hybrid zone. We have proved the utility of combining molecular and morphological data to discover a new cryptic species in a scenario of hybridization. We now recognize a new species, C. lucennoiberica, endemic to the Iberian Peninsula (Sierra Nevada, Central system and Cantabrian Mountains). On the other hand, C. furva s.s. is distributed only in Sierra Nevada, where it may be threatened by hybridization with C. lucennoiberica. The restricted distribution of both species and their specific habitat requirements are the main limiting factors for their conservation.

  8. Genetic networking of the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex reveals pattern of biological invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul De Barro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A challenge within the context of cryptic species is the delimitation of individual species within the complex. Statistical parsimony network analytics offers the opportunity to explore limits in situations where there are insufficient species-specific morphological characters to separate taxa. The results also enable us to explore the spread in taxa that have invaded globally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 657 bp portion of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 from 352 unique haplotypes belonging to the Bemisia tabaci cryptic species complex, the analysis revealed 28 networks plus 7 unconnected individual haplotypes. Of the networks, 24 corresponded to the putative species identified using the rule set devised by Dinsdale et al. (2010. Only two species proposed in Dinsdale et al. (2010 departed substantially from the structure suggested by the analysis. The analysis of the two invasive members of the complex, Mediterranean (MED and Middle East - Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1, showed that in both cases only a small number of haplotypes represent the majority that have spread beyond the home range; one MEAM1 and three MED haplotypes account for >80% of the GenBank records. Israel is a possible source of the globally invasive MEAM1 whereas MED has two possible sources. The first is the eastern Mediterranean which has invaded only the USA, primarily Florida and to a lesser extent California. The second are western Mediterranean haplotypes that have spread to the USA, Asia and South America. The structure for MED supports two home range distributions, a Sub-Saharan range and a Mediterranean range. The MEAM1 network supports the Middle East - Asia Minor region. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The network analyses show a high level of congruence with the species identified in a previous phylogenetic analysis. The analysis of the two globally invasive members of the complex support the view that global invasion often involve very small portions of

  9. Incontinence Treatment: Dietary Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax-deductible donation. Lifestyle Changes Dietary Tips Medication Bowel ... arises requiring an expert’s care. © Copyright 1998-2018 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, Inc. (IFFGD). All ...

  10. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Primary Mitochondrial Disorders Weight Loss A Acai Aloe Vera Anabolic Steroids Antioxidants (see Exercise and Athletic Performance ) ... Pills (see Weight Loss ) Dietary Supplements Vitamin D E Echinacea Ephedra Essiac/Flor-Essence European Elder Evening ...

  11. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and US Department of Agriculture Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database Toggle navigation Menu Home About DSID Mission Current ... values can be saved to build a small database or add to an existing database for national, ...

  12. CRYPTIC AND PSEUDO-CRYPTIC DIVERSITY IN DIATOMS-WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA HASLEANA SP. NOV. AND P. FRYXELLIANA SP. NOV.(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Nina; Bates, Stephen S; Baugh, Keri A; Bill, Brian D; Connell, Laurie B; Léger, Claude; Trainer, Vera L

    2012-04-01

    A high degree of pseudo-cryptic diversity was reported in the well-studied diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Studies off the coast of Washington State revealed the presence of hitherto undescribed diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia. Forty-one clonal strains, representing six different taxa of the P. pseudodelicatissima complex, were studied morphologically using LM and EM, and genetically using genes from three different cellular compartments: the nucleus (D1-D3 of the LSU of rDNA and internal transcribed spacers [ITSs] of rDNA), the mitochondria (cytochrome c oxidase 1), and the plastids (LSU of RUBISCO). Strains in culture at the same time were used in mating studies to study reproductive isolation of species, and selected strains were examined for the production of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA). Two new species, P. hasleana sp. nov. and P. fryxelliana sp. nov., are described based on morphological and molecular data. In all phylogenetic analyses, P. hasleana appeared as sister taxa to a clade comprising P. calliantha and P. mannii, whereas the position of P. fryxelliana was more uncertain. In the phylogenies of ITS, P. fryxelliana appeared to be most closely related to P. cf. turgidula. Morphologically, P. hasleana differed from most other species of the complex because of a lower density of fibulae, whereas P. fryxelliana had fewer sectors in the poroids and a higher poroid density than most of the other species. P. hasleana did not produce detectable levels of DA; P. fryxelliana was unfortunately not tested. In P. cuspidata, production of DA in offspring cultures varied from higher than the parent cultures to undetectable. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Foods, Nutrients, and Dietary Patterns: Interconnections and Implications for Dietary Guidelines12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2016-01-01

    Dietary guidelines provide evidence-based statements on food choices to meet nutritional requirements and reduce the risk of prevailing chronic disease. They involve a substantial amount of research translation, and their implementation has important health consequences. Foods, however, are complex combinations of nutrients and other compounds that act synergistically within the food and across food combinations. In addition, the evidence base underpinning dietary guidelines accesses research that reflects different study designs, with inherent strengths and limitations. We propose a systematic approach for the review of evidence that begins with research on dietary patterns. This research will identify the combinations of foods that best protect, or appear deleterious to, health. Next, we suggest that evidence be sought from research that focuses on the effects of individual foods. Finally, nutrient-based research should be considered to explain the mechanisms by which these foods and dietary patterns exert their effects, take into account the effects of ingredients added to the food supply, and enable assessments of dietary sufficiency. The consideration of individual nutrients and food components (e.g., upper limits for saturated fat, added sugar, and sodium) provides important benchmarks for evaluating overall diet quality. The concepts of core and discretionary foods (nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor foods, respectively) enable distinctions between foods, and this has implications for the relation between food policy and food manufacturing. In summary, evidence supporting healthy dietary patterns provides the foundation for the development of dietary guidelines. Further reference to individual foods and nutrients follows from the foundation of healthy dietary patterns. PMID:27184272

  14. Dietary differentiation and the evolution of population genetic structure in a highly mobile carnivore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pilot

    Full Text Available Recent studies on highly mobile carnivores revealed cryptic population genetic structures correlated to transitions in habitat types and prey species composition. This led to the hypothesis that natal-habitat-biased dispersal may be responsible for generating population genetic structure. However, direct evidence for the concordant ecological and genetic differentiation between populations of highly mobile mammals is rare. To address this we analyzed stable isotope profiles (δ(13C and δ(15N values for Eastern European wolves (Canis lupus as a quantifiable proxy measure of diet for individuals that had been genotyped in an earlier study (showing cryptic genetic structure, to provide a quantitative assessment of the relationship between individual foraging behavior and genotype. We found a significant correlation between genetic distances and dietary differentiation (explaining 46% of the variation in both the marginal test and crucially, when geographic distance was accounted for as a co-variable. These results, interpreted in the context of other possible mechanisms such as allopatry and isolation by distance, reinforce earlier studies suggesting that diet and associated habitat choice are influencing the structuring of populations in highly mobile carnivores.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M Brown

    Full Text Available Analysis of the population genetic structure of microbial species is of fundamental importance to many scientific disciplines because it can identify cryptic species, reveal reproductive mode, and elucidate processes that contribute to pathogen evolution. Here, we examined the population genetic structure and geographic differentiation of the sexual, dimorphic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis.Criteria for Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR applied to seven nuclear loci (arf6, chs2, drk1, fads, pyrF, tub1, and its-2 from 78 clinical and environmental isolates identified two previously unrecognized phylogenetic species. Four of seven single gene phylogenies examined (chs2, drk1, pyrF, and its-2 supported the separation of Phylogenetic Species 1 (PS1 and Phylogenetic Species 2 (PS2 which were also well differentiated in the concatenated chs2-drk1-fads-pyrF-tub1-arf6-its2 genealogy with all isolates falling into one of two evolutionarily independent lineages. Phylogenetic species were genetically distinct with interspecific divergence 4-fold greater than intraspecific divergence and a high Fst value (0.772, P<0.001 indicative of restricted gene flow between PS1 and PS2. Whereas panmixia expected of a single freely recombining population was not observed, recombination was detected when PS1 and PS2 were assessed separately, suggesting reproductive isolation. Random mating among PS1 isolates, which were distributed across North America, was only detected after partitioning isolates into six geographic regions. The PS2 population, found predominantly in the hyper-endemic regions of northwestern Ontario, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, contained a substantial clonal component with random mating detected only among unique genotypes in the population.These analyses provide evidence for a genetically divergent clade within Blastomyces dermatitidis, which we use to describe a novel species

  16. Dietary and health biomarkers - time for an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Lars Ove; Gao, Qian; Pratico, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    for these biomarker classes, and no recent systematic review of all proposed biomarkers for food intake. While advanced databases exist for the human and food metabolomes, additional tools are needed to curate and evaluate current data on dietary and health biomarkers. The Food Biomarkers Alliance (FoodBAll) under......In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health...... much mechanistic insight into the effects of food components and diets. Although hundreds of papers in nutrition are published annually, there is no current ontology for the area, no generally accepted classification terminology for biomarkers in nutrition and health, no systematic validation scheme...

  17. Dietary supplements for football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, P; Maughan, R J; Greenhaff, P L

    2006-07-01

    Physical training and competition in football markedly increase the need for macro- and micronutrient intake. This requirement can generally be met by dietary management without the need for dietary supplements. In fact, the efficacy of most supplements available on the market is unproven. In addition, players must be cautious of inadequate product labelling and supplement impurities that may cause a positive drug test. Nonetheless, a number of dietary supplements may beneficially affect football performance. A high endurance capacity is a prerequisite for optimal match performance, particularly if extra time is played. In this context, the potential of low-dose caffeine ingestion (2 - 5 mg . kg body mass(-1)) to enhance endurance performance is well established. However, in the case of football, care must be taken not to overdose because visual information processing might be impaired. Scoring and preventing goals as a rule requires production of high power output. Dietary creatine supplementation (loading dose: 15 - 20 g . day(-1), 4 - 5 days; maintenance dose: 2 - 5 g g . day(-1)) has been found to increase muscle power output, especially during intermittent sprint exercises. Furthermore, creatine intake can augment muscle adaptations to resistance training. Team success and performance also depend on player availability, and thus injury prevention and health maintenance. Glucosamine or chondroitin may be useful in the treatment of joint pain and osteoarthritis, but there is no evidence to support the view that the administration of these supplements will be preventative. Ephedra-containing weight-loss cocktails should certainly be avoided due to reported adverse health effects and positive doping outcomes. Finally, the efficacy of antioxidant or vitamin C intake in excess of the normal recommended dietary dose is equivocal. Responses to dietary supplements can vary substantially between individuals, and therefore the ingestion of any supplement must be assessed

  18. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  19. One-to-one dietary interventions undertaken in a dental setting to change dietary behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebecca; Gamboa, Ana; Dailey, Yvonne; Ashcroft, Angela

    2012-03-14

    The dental care setting is an appropriate place to deliver dietary assessment and advice as part of patient management. However, we do not know whether this is effective in changing dietary behaviour. To assess the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions for all ages carried out in a dental care setting in changing dietary behaviour. The effectiveness of these interventions in the subsequent changing of oral and general health is also assessed. The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 24 January 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 24 January 2012), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 24 January 2012), CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 24 January 2012), PsycINFO via OVID (1967 to 24 January 2012), and Web of Science (1945 to 12 April 2011). We also undertook an electronic search of key conference proceedings (IADR and ORCA between 2000 and 13 July 2011). Reference lists of relevant articles, thesis publications (Dissertations Abstracts Online 1861 to 2011) were searched. The authors of eligible trials were contacted to identify any unpublished work. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effectiveness of one-to-one dietary interventions delivered in a dental care setting. Abstract screening, eligibility screening and data extraction decisions were all carried out independently and in duplicate by two review authors. Consensus between the two opinions was achieved by discussion, or involvement of a third review author. Five studies met the criteria for inclusion in the review. Two of these were multi-intervention studies where the dietary intervention was one component of a wider programme of prevention, but where data on dietary behaviour change were reported. One of the single intervention studies was concerned with dental caries prevention. The other two concerned general health outcomes. There were no studies

  20. Outdoor time and dietary patterns in children around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mikkilä, Vera; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; LeBlanc, Allana G

    2018-04-19

    Whether outdoor time is linked to dietary patterns of children has yet to be empirically tested. The objective of this study was to examine the association between outdoor time and dietary patterns of children from 12 countries around the world. This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6229 children 9-11 years of age. Children self-reported the time that they spent outside before school, after school and on weekends. A composite score was calculated to reflect overall daily outdoor time. Dietary patterns were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and two components were used for analysis: healthy and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. On average, children spent 2.5 h outside per day. After adjusting for age, sex, parental education, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and body mass index z-score, greater time spent outdoors was associated with healthier dietary pattern scores. No association was found between outdoor time and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. Similar associations between outdoor time and dietary patterns were observed for boys and girls and across study sites. Greater time spent outside was associated with a healthier dietary pattern in this international sample of children. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanisms behind this association.

  1. Identification of a cryptic prokaryotic promoter within the cDNA encoding the 5' end of dengue virus RNA genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsheng Li

    Full Text Available Infectious cDNA clones of RNA viruses are important research tools, but flavivirus cDNA clones have proven difficult to assemble and propagate in bacteria. This has been attributed to genetic instability and/or host cell toxicity, however the mechanism leading to these difficulties has not been fully elucidated. Here we identify and characterize an efficient cryptic bacterial promoter in the cDNA encoding the dengue virus (DENV 5' UTR. Following cryptic transcription in E. coli, protein expression initiated at a conserved in-frame AUG that is downstream from the authentic DENV initiation codon, yielding a DENV polyprotein fragment that was truncated at the N-terminus. A more complete understanding of constitutive viral protein expression in E. coli might help explain the cloning and propagation difficulties generally observed with flavivirus cDNA.

  2. Dietary sugars, not lipids, drive hypothalamic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanqing; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Fleming, Thomas; Grabner, Gernot F.; Foppen, Ewout; Bernhard, Wagner; Guzm?n-Ruiz, Mara; Layritz, Clarita; Legutko, Beata; Zinser, Erwin; Garc?a-C?ceres, Cristina; Buijs, Ruud M.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Seeley, Randy J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The hypothalamus of hypercaloric diet-induced obese animals is featured by a significant increase of microglial reactivity and its associated cytokine production. However, the role of dietary components, in particular fat and carbohydrate, with respect to the hypothalamic inflammatory response and the consequent impact on hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis is yet not clear. Methods: We dissected the different effects of high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diets and low-car...

  3. Dietary ecology of human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Masao

    1990-01-01

    The dietary life of humans varies with the environment where they live and has been changing with time. It has become possible to examine such changes by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition as a chemical tool. The present report outlines recent developments in the application of this tool and compares the dietary ecologies of various human groups from the viewpoint of isotope geochemistry. The history of the application of this tool to dietary analysis is summarized first, and features of the carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in animals and their relations with the food chain are outlined. The dietary ecology of the current people is then discussed in relation to the isotope composition in food, the isotope composition in hair of the current people, and determination of food habit of specific groups of people from such isotope compositions. For prediction of dietary composition, the report presents a flow chart for an algorism which is based on the Monte Carlo method. It also outlines processes for analyzing food habits of people in the prehistoric age, focusing on distribution of isotope composition in humans over the world. (N.K.)

  4. Diversification and reproductive isolation: cryptic species in the only New World high-duty cycle bat, Pteronotus parnellii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular techniques are increasingly employed to recognize the presence of cryptic species, even among commonly observed taxa. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats using high-duty cycle echolocation may be more likely to speciate quickly. Pteronotus parnellii is a widespread Neotropical bat and the only New World species to use high-duty cycle echolocation, a trait otherwise restricted to Old World taxa. Here we analyze morphological and acoustic variation and genetic divergence at the mitochondrial COI gene, the 7th intron region of the y-linked Dby gene and the nuclear recombination-activating gene 2, and provide extensive evidence that P. parnellii is actually a cryptic species complex. Results Central American populations form a single species while three additional species exist in northern South America: one in Venezuela, Trinidad and western Guyana and two occupying sympatric ranges in Guyana and Suriname. Reproductive isolation appears nearly complete (only one potential hybrid individual found. The complex likely arose within the last ~6 million years with all taxa diverging quickly within the last ~1-2 million years, following a pattern consistent with the geological history of Central and northern South America. Significant variation in cranial measures and forearm length exists between three of the four groups, although no individual morphological character can discriminate these in the field. Acoustic analysis reveals small differences (5–10 kHz in echolocation calls between allopatric cryptic taxa that are unlikely to provide access to different prey resources but are consistent with divergence by drift in allopatric species or through selection for social recognition. Conclusions This unique approach, considering morphological, acoustic and multi-locus genetic information inherited maternally, paternally and bi-parentally, provides strong support to conclusions about the cessation of gene flow and

  5. Pinpointing cryptic borders: Fine-scale phylogeography and genetic landscape analysis of the Hormogaster elisae complex (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchán, Daniel F; Fernández, Rosa; de Sosa, Irene; Díaz Cosín, Darío J; Novo, Marta

    2017-07-01

    Spatial and temporal aspects of the evolution of cryptic species complexes have received less attention than species delimitation within them. The phylogeography of the cryptic complex Hormogaster elisae (Oligochaeta, Hormogastridae) lacks knowledge on several aspects, including the small-scale distribution of its lineages or the palaeogeographic context of their diversification. To shed light on these topics, a dense specimen collection was performed in the center of the Iberian Peninsula - resulting in 28 new H. elisae collecting points, some of them as close as 760m from each other- for a higher resolution of the distribution of the cryptic lineages and the relationships between the populations. Seven molecular regions were amplified: mitochondrial subunit 1 of cytochrome c oxidase (COI), 16S rRNA and tRNA Leu, Ala, and Ser (16S t-RNAs), one nuclear ribosomal gene (a fragment of 28S rRNA) and one nuclear protein-encoding gene (histone H3) in order to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Different representation methods of the pairwise divergence in the cytochrome oxidase I sequence (heatmap and genetic landscape graphs) were used to visualize the genetic structure of H. elisae. A nested approach sensu Mairal et al. (2015) (connecting the evolutionary rates of two datasets of different taxonomic coverage) was used to obtain one approximation to a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree based on external Clitellata fossils and a wide molecular dataset. Our results indicate that limited active dispersal ability and ecological or biotic barriers could explain the isolation of the different cryptic lineages, which never co-occur. Rare events of long distance dispersal through hydrochory appear as one of the possible causes of range expansion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cryptic species of Ponto-Caspian bighead goby of the genus Ponticola (Gobiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasil'eva, E. D.; Schwarzhans, Werner; Medvedev, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    . gorlap which inhabits the northern, western, and southern Caspian Sea. These three allopatric species have ctenoid scales to varying degrees on the crown and nape (100% presence in P. kessleri and complete absence in P. iljini), and there are small differences in the shape of the head, the thickness...... of the beginning of divergence of the considered three cryptic species, as well as isolating barriers that led to allopatric speciation, are discussed....

  7. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    OpenAIRE

    Julián Monge-Nájera; Francisco Hernández; María Isabel González; Javier Soley; José Araya; Stefano Zolla

    1998-01-01

    Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853), H. februa (Godart, 1824), H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, ...

  8. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  9. Preferred components for the construction of a new simulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Components for a simulation model are described to predict feed intake, amino acid ... desired food intake, the actual growth rate will be less than the potential gowth rate. ...... Dietary choices made by growing pigs following a period of.

  10. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  11. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Ku; Moon, Jong-Yeol; Lee, Sang-Im; Jablonski, Piotr G

    2013-01-01

    Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i) whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii) what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log) and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature). We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel) to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual). This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  12. Botrytis californica, a new cryptic species in the B. cinerea species complex causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Margosan, D; Michailides, T J; Xiao, C L

    2016-01-01

    The Botrytis cinerea species complex comprises two cryptic species, originally referred to Group I and Group II based on Bc-hch gene RFLP haplotyping. Group I was described as a new cryptic species B. pseudocinerea During a survey of Botrytis spp. causing gray mold in blueberries and table grapes in the Central Valley of California, six isolates, three from blueberries and three from table grapes, were placed in Group I but had a distinct morphological character with conidiophores significantly longer than those of B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea We compared these with B. cinerea and B. pseudocinerea by examining morphological and physiological characters, sensitivity to fenhexamid and phylogenetic analysis inferred from sequences of three nuclear genes. Phylogenetic analysis with the three partial gene sequences encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosate dehydrogenase (G3PDH), heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit II (RPB2) supported the proposal of a new Botrytis species, B. californica, which is closely related genetically to B. cinerea, B. pseudocinerea and B. sinoviticola, all known as causal agents of gray mold of grapes. Botrytis californica caused decay on blueberry and table grape fruit inoculated with the fungus. This study suggests that B. californica is a cryptic species sympatric with B. cinerea on blueberries and table grapes in California. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  13. Dietary antioxidants and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; DeRuisseau, Keith C; Quindry, John; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-01-01

    Muscular exercise promotes the production of radicals and other reactive oxygen species in the working muscle. Growing evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species are responsible for exercise-induced protein oxidation and contribute to muscle fatigue. To protect against exercise-induced oxidative injury, muscle cells contain complex endogenous cellular defence mechanisms (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) to eliminate reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, exogenous dietary antioxidants interact with endogenous antioxidants to form a cooperative network of cellular antioxidants. Knowledge that exercise-induced oxidant formation can contribute to muscle fatigue has resulted in numerous investigations examining the effects of antioxidant supplementation on human exercise performance. To date, there is limited evidence that dietary supplementation with antioxidants will improve human performance. Furthermore, it is currently unclear whether regular vigorous exercise increases the need for dietary intake of antioxidants. Clearly, additional research that analyses the antioxidant requirements of individual athletes is needed.

  14. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  15. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Integrative taxonomy resolves the cryptic and pseudo-cryptic Radula buccinifera complex (Porellales, Jungermanniopsida, including two reinstated and five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Renner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular data from three chloroplast markers resolve individuals attributable to Radula buccinifera in six lineages belonging to two subgenera, indicating the species is polyphyletic as currently circumscribed. All lineages are morphologically diagnosable, but one pair exhibits such morphological overlap that they can be considered cryptic. Molecular and morphological data justify the re-instatement of a broadly circumscribed ecologically variable R. strangulata, of R. mittenii, and the description of five new species. Two species Radula mittenii Steph. and R. notabilis sp. nov. are endemic to the Wet Tropics Bioregion of north-east Queensland, suggesting high diversity and high endemism might characterise the bryoflora of this relatively isolated wet-tropical region. Radula demissa sp. nov. is endemic to southern temperate Australasia, and like R. strangulata occurs on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Radula imposita sp. nov. is a twig and leaf epiphyte found in association with waterways in New South Wales and Queensland. Another species, R. pugioniformis sp. nov., has been confused with Radula buccinifera but was not included in the molecular phylogeny. Morphological data suggest it may belong to subg. Odontoradula. Radula buccinifera is endemic to Australia including Western Australia and Tasmania, and to date is known from south of the Clarence River on the north coast of New South Wales. Nested within R. buccinifera is a morphologically distinct plant from Norfolk Island described as R. anisotoma sp. nov. Radula australiana is resolved as monophyletic, sister to a species occurring in east coast Australian rainforests, and nesting among the R.buccinifera lineages with strong support. The molecular phylogeny suggests several long-distance dispersal events may have occurred. These include two east-west dispersal events from New Zealand to Tasmania and south-east Australia in R. strangulata, one east-west dispersal event from Tasmania to

  17. Cryptic Plutella species show deep divergence despite the capacity to hybridize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kym D; Baker, Gregory J; Powis, Kevin J; Kent, Joanne K; Ward, Christopher M; Baxter, Simon W

    2018-05-29

    Understanding genomic and phenotypic diversity among cryptic pest taxa has important implications for the management of pests and diseases. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., has been intensively studied due to its ability to evolve insecticide resistance and status as the world's most destructive pest of brassicaceous crops. The surprise discovery of a cryptic species endemic to Australia, Plutella australiana Landry & Hebert, raised questions regarding the distribution, ecological traits and pest status of the two species, the capacity for gene flow and whether specific management was required. Here, we collected Plutella from wild and cultivated brassicaceous plants from 75 locations throughout Australia and screened 1447 individuals to identify mtDNA lineages and Wolbachia infections. We genotyped genome-wide SNP markers using RADseq in coexisting populations of each species. In addition, we assessed reproductive compatibility in crossing experiments and insecticide susceptibility phenotypes using bioassays. The two Plutella species coexisted on wild brassicas and canola crops, but only 10% of Plutella individuals were P. australiana. This species was not found on commercial Brassica vegetable crops, which are routinely sprayed with insecticides. Bioassays found that P. australiana was 19-306 fold more susceptible to four commonly-used insecticides than P. xylostella. Laboratory crosses revealed that reproductive isolation was incomplete but directionally asymmetric between the species. However, genome-wide nuclear SNPs revealed striking differences in genetic diversity and strong population structure between coexisting wild populations of each species. Nuclear diversity was 1.5-fold higher in P. australiana, yet both species showed limited variation in mtDNA. Infection with a single Wolbachia subgroup B strain was fixed in P. australiana, suggesting that a selective sweep contributed to low mtDNA diversity, while a subgroup A strain infected just 1

  18. CTL escape mediated by proteasomal destruction of an HIV-1 cryptic epitope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Cardinaud

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs play a critical role in controlling viral infections. HIV-infected individuals develop CTL responses against epitopes derived from viral proteins, but also against cryptic epitopes encoded by viral alternative reading frames (ARF. We studied here the mechanisms of HIV-1 escape from CTLs targeting one such cryptic epitope, Q9VF, encoded by an HIVgag ARF and presented by HLA-B*07. Using PBMCs of HIV-infected patients, we first cloned and sequenced proviral DNA encoding for Q9VF. We identified several polymorphisms with a minority of proviruses encoding at position 5 an aspartic acid (Q9VF/5D and a majority encoding an asparagine (Q9VF/5N. We compared the prevalence of each variant in PBMCs of HLA-B*07+ and HLA-B*07- patients. Proviruses encoding Q9VF/5D were significantly less represented in HLA-B*07+ than in HLA-B*07- patients, suggesting that Q9FV/5D encoding viruses might be under selective pressure in HLA-B*07+ individuals. We thus analyzed ex vivo CTL responses directed against Q9VF/5D and Q9VF/5N. Around 16% of HLA-B*07+ patients exhibited CTL responses targeting Q9VF epitopes. The frequency and the magnitude of CTL responses induced with Q9VF/5D or Q9VF/5N peptides were almost equal indicating a possible cross-reactivity of the same CTLs on the two peptides. We then dissected the cellular mechanisms involved in the presentation of Q9VF variants. As expected, cells infected with HIV strains encoding for Q9VF/5D were recognized by Q9VF/5D-specific CTLs. In contrast, Q9VF/5N-encoding strains were neither recognized by Q9VF/5N- nor by Q9VF/5D-specific CTLs. Using in vitro proteasomal digestions and MS/MS analysis, we demonstrate that the 5N variation introduces a strong proteasomal cleavage site within the epitope, leading to a dramatic reduction of Q9VF epitope production. Our results strongly suggest that HIV-1 escapes CTL surveillance by introducing mutations leading to HIV ARF-epitope destruction by proteasomes.

  19. Dietary Reference Values for choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for choline. In this Opinion, the Panel considers dietary choline including choline compounds (e.g. glycerophosphocholine, phosphocholine...

  20. Immunomodulation by Food: Allergy Mitigation by Dietary Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichers, H.J.; Mes, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Proper and well-balanced immune functioning is of pivotal importance to health and well-being. In the past decades, there has been an apparent decrease in the prevalence of classical infectious diseases, with a concomitant increase in immune-related disorders, including allergies. Causally, a

  1. The Dietary Patterns Methods Project: Synthesis of Findings across Cohorts and Relevance to Dietary Guidance1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Angela D; Krebs-Smith, Susan M; Subar, Amy F; George, Stephanie M; Harmon, Brook E; Neuhouser, Marian L; Boushey, Carol J; Schap, TusaRebecca E; Reedy, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The Dietary Patterns Methods Project (DPMP) was initiated in 2012 to strengthen research evidence on dietary indices, dietary patterns, and health for upcoming revisions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, given that the lack of consistent methodology has impeded development of consistent and reliable conclusions. DPMP investigators developed research questions and a standardized approach to index-based dietary analysis. This article presents a synthesis of findings across the cohorts. Standardized analyses were conducted in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, the Multiethnic Cohort, and the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). Healthy Eating Index 2010, Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), alternate Mediterranean Diet, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) scores were examined across cohorts for correlations between pairs of indices; concordant classifications into index score quintiles; associations with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards models; and dietary intake of foods and nutrients corresponding to index quintiles. Across all cohorts in women and men, there was a high degree of correlation and consistent classifications between index pairs. Higher diet quality (top quintile) was significantly and consistently associated with an 11–28% reduced risk of death due to all causes, CVD, and cancer compared with the lowest quintile, independent of known confounders. This was true for all diet index–mortality associations, with the exception of AHEI-2010 and cancer mortality in WHI-OS women. In all cohorts, survival benefit was greater with a higher-quality diet, and relatively small intake differences distinguished the index quintiles. The reductions in mortality risk started at relatively lower levels of diet quality. Higher scores on each of the indices, signifying higher diet quality, were associated with marked reductions in mortality

  2. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyem, Reema F.; Bawadi, Hiba A.; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M.; AbuMweis, Suhad S.; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Heath, Dennis D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background & aimsDietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. MethodsDietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, g...

  3. Barcoding against a paradox? Combined molecular species delineations reveal multiple cryptic lineages in elusive meiofaunal sea slugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörger Katharina M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many marine meiofaunal species are reported to have wide distributions, which creates a paradox considering their hypothesized low dispersal abilities. Correlated with this paradox is an especially high taxonomic deficit for meiofauna, partly related to a lower taxonomic effort and partly to a high number of putative cryptic species. Molecular-based species delineation and barcoding approaches have been advocated for meiofaunal biodiversity assessments to speed up description processes and uncover cryptic lineages. However, these approaches show sensitivity to sampling coverage (taxonomic and geographic and the success rate has never been explored on mesopsammic Mollusca. Results We collected the meiofaunal sea-slug Pontohedyle (Acochlidia, Heterobranchia from 28 localities worldwide. With a traditional morphological approach, all specimens fall into two morphospecies. However, with a multi-marker genetic approach, we reveal multiple lineages that are reciprocally monophyletic on single and concatenated gene trees in phylogenetic analyses. These lineages are largely concordant with geographical and oceanographic parameters, leading to our primary species hypothesis (PSH. In parallel, we apply four independent methods of molecular based species delineation: General Mixed Yule Coalescent model (GMYC, statistical parsimony, Bayesian Species Delineation (BPP and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD. The secondary species hypothesis (SSH is gained by relying only on uncontradicted results of the different approaches (‘minimum consensus approach’, resulting in the discovery of a radiation of (at least 12 mainly cryptic species, 9 of them new to science, some sympatric and some allopatric with respect to ocean boundaries. However, the meiofaunal paradox still persists in some Pontohedyle species identified here with wide coastal and trans-archipelago distributions. Conclusions Our study confirms extensive, morphologically

  4. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At

  5. Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, N. R.; Quick, J.; Claro, I. M.; Thézé, J.; de Jesus, J. G.; Giovanetti, M.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Hill, S. C.; Black, A.; da Costa, A. C.; Franco, L. C.; Silva, S. P.; Wu, C.-H.; Raghwani, J.; Cauchemez, S.; Du Plessis, L.; Verotti, M. P.; de Oliveira, W. K.; Carmo, E. H.; Coelho, G. E.; Santelli, A. C. F. S.; Vinhal, L. C.; Henriques, C. M.; Simpson, J. T.; Loose, M.; Andersen, K. G.; Grubaugh, N. D.; Somasekar, S.; Chiu, C. Y.; Muñoz-Medina, J. E.; Gonzalez-Bonilla, C. R.; Arias, C. F.; Lewis-Ximenez, L. L.; Baylis, S. A.; Chieppe, A. O.; Aguiar, S. F.; Fernandes, C. A.; Lemos, P. S.; Nascimento, B. L. S.; Monteiro, H. A. O.; Siqueira, I. C.; de Queiroz, M. G.; de Souza, T. R.; Bezerra, J. F.; Lemos, M. R.; Pereira, G. F.; Loudal, D.; Moura, L. C.; Dhalia, R.; França, R. F.; Magalhães, T.; Marques, E. T.; Jaenisch, T.; Wallau, G. L.; de Lima, M. C.; Nascimento, V.; de Cerqueira, E. M.; de Lima, M. M.; Mascarenhas, D. L.; Neto, J. P. Moura; Levin, A. S.; Tozetto-Mendoza, T. R.; Fonseca, S. N.; Mendes-Correa, M. C.; Milagres, F. P.; Segurado, A.; Holmes, E. C.; Rambaut, A.; Bedford, T.; Nunes, M. R. T.; Sabino, E. C.; Alcantara, L. C. J.; Loman, N. J.; Pybus, O. G.

    2017-06-01

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly. Here we address this issue by generating 54 complete or partial ZIKV genomes, mostly from Brazil, and reporting data generated by a mobile genomics laboratory that travelled across northeast Brazil in 2016. One sequence represents the earliest confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Analyses of viral genomes with ecological and epidemiological data yield an estimate that ZIKV was present in northeast Brazil by February 2014 and is likely to have disseminated from there, nationally and internationally, before the first detection of ZIKV in the Americas. Estimated dates for the international spread of ZIKV from Brazil indicate the duration of pre-detection cryptic transmission in recipient regions. The role of northeast Brazil in the establishment of ZIKV in the Americas is further supported by geographic analysis of ZIKV transmission potential and by estimates of the basic reproduction number of the virus.

  6. Differential responses to woodland character and landscape context by cryptic bats in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintott, Paul R; Bunnefeld, Nils; Minderman, Jeroen; Fuentes-Montemayor, Elisa; Mayhew, Rebekah J; Olley, Lena; Park, Kirsty J

    2015-01-01

    Urbanisation is one of the most dramatic forms of land use change which relatively few species can adapt to. Determining how and why species respond differently to urban habitats is important in predicting future biodiversity loss as urban areas rapidly expand. Understanding how morphological or behavioural traits can influence species adaptability to the built environment may enable us to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Although many bat species are able to exploit human resources, bat species richness generally declines with increasing urbanisation and there is considerable variation in the responses of different bat species to urbanisation. Here, we use acoustic recordings from two cryptic, and largely sympatric European bat species to assess differential responses in their use of fragmented urban woodland and the surrounding urban matrix. There was a high probability of P. pygmaeus activity relative to P. pipistrellus in woodlands with low clutter and understory cover which were surrounded by low levels of built environment. Additionally, the probability of recording P. pygmaeus relative to P. pipistrellus was considerably higher in urban woodland interior or edge habitat in contrast to urban grey or non-wooded green space. These results show differential habitat use occurring between two morphologically similar species; whilst the underlying mechanism for this partitioning is unknown it may be driven by competition avoidance over foraging resources. Their differing response to urbanisation indicates the difficulties involved when attempting to assess how adaptable a species is to urbanisation for conservation purposes.

  7. Ecomorphology and disease: cryptic effects of parasitism on host habitat use, thermoregulation, and predator avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Brett A; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2011-03-01

    Parasites can cause dramatic changes in the phenotypes of their hosts, sometimes leading to a higher probability of predation and parasite transmission. Because an organism's morphology directly affects its locomotion, even subtle changes in key morphological traits may affect survival and behavior. However, despite the ubiquity of parasites in natural communities, few studies have incorporated parasites into ecomorphological research. Here, we evaluated the effects of parasite-induced changes in host phenotype on the habitat use, thermal biology, and simulated predator-escape ability of Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla) in natural environments. Frogs with parasite-induced limb malformations were more likely to use ground microhabitats relative to vertical refugia and selected less-angled perches closer to the ground in comparison with normal frogs. Although both groups had similar levels of infection, malformed frogs used warmer microhabitats, which resulted in higher body temperatures. Likely as a result of their morphological abnormalities, malformed frogs allowed a simulated predator to approach closer before escaping and escaped shorter distances relative to normal frogs. These data indicate that parasite-induced morphological changes can significantly alter host behavior and habitat use, highlighting the importance of incorporating the ubiquitous, albeit cryptic, role of parasites into ecomorphological research.

  8. DNA Barcode Analysis of Thrips (Thysanoptera) Diversity in Pakistan Reveals Cryptic Species Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Romana; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Rasool, Akhtar; Hebert, Paul D N

    2016-01-01

    Although thrips are globally important crop pests and vectors of viral disease, species identifications are difficult because of their small size and inconspicuous morphological differences. Sequence variation in the mitochondrial COI-5' (DNA barcode) region has proven effective for the identification of species in many groups of insect pests. We analyzed barcode sequence variation among 471 thrips from various plant hosts in north-central Pakistan. The Barcode Index Number (BIN) system assigned these sequences to 55 BINs, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery detected 56 partitions, a count that coincided with the number of monophyletic lineages recognized by Neighbor-Joining analysis and Bayesian inference. Congeneric species showed an average of 19% sequence divergence (range = 5.6% - 27%) at COI, while intraspecific distances averaged 0.6% (range = 0.0% - 7.6%). BIN analysis suggested that all intraspecific divergence >3.0% actually involved a species complex. In fact, sequences for three major pest species (Haplothrips reuteri, Thrips palmi, Thrips tabaci), and one predatory thrips (Aeolothrips intermedius) showed deep intraspecific divergences, providing evidence that each is a cryptic species complex. The study compiles the first barcode reference library for the thrips of Pakistan, and examines global haplotype diversity in four important pest thrips.

  9. Characterization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for cryptic phthoxazolin A in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Anggraini Suroto

    Full Text Available Phthoxazolin A, an oxazole-containing polyketide, has a broad spectrum of anti-oomycete activity and herbicidal activity. We recently identified phthoxazolin A as a cryptic metabolite of Streptomyces avermitilis that produces the important anthelmintic agent avermectin. Even though genome data of S. avermitilis is publicly available, no plausible biosynthetic gene cluster for phthoxazolin A is apparent in the sequence data. Here, we identified and characterized the phthoxazolin A (ptx biosynthetic gene cluster through genome sequencing, comparative genomic analysis, and gene disruption. Sequence analysis uncovered that the putative ptx biosynthetic genes are laid on an extra genomic region that is not found in the public database, and 8 open reading frames in the extra genomic region could be assigned roles in the biosynthesis of the oxazole ring, triene polyketide and carbamoyl moieties. Disruption of the ptxA gene encoding a discrete acyltransferase resulted in a complete loss of phthoxazolin A production, confirming that the trans-AT type I PKS system is responsible for the phthoxazolin A biosynthesis. Based on the predicted functional domains in the ptx assembly line, we propose the biosynthetic pathway of phthoxazolin A.

  10. Novel Infection Site and Ecology of Cryptic Didymocystis sp. (Trematoda) in the Fish Scomberomorus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrandt, Meagan N; Andres, Michael J; Powers, Sean P; Overstreet, Robin M

    2016-06-01

    An undescribed, cryptic species of Didymocystis, as determined from sequences of 2 ribosomal genes and superficially similar to Didymocystis scomberomori ( MacCallum and MacCallum, 1916 ), infected the skin of the Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus maculatus , in the north-central Gulf of Mexico (GOM). An analysis of 558 fish from 2011 to 2013 from Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida panhandle showed the prevalence of the trematode varied both spatially and temporally but not with sex of the fish host. Month, year, and geographic location were identified by a negative binomial generalized linear model as indicators of the abundance and intensity of infection. Prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infection were greatest in spring and fall months off the Florida panhandle. Furthermore, the abundance and intensity of infection correlated negatively with fork length, weight, and gonad weight of mature fish but positively with longitude. Therefore, smaller adult fish tended to be more infected than larger adults, and prevalence and intensity increased from west to east (Louisiana to Florida). Spatial and temporal trends seemed to result from physical factors (e.g., water temperature, salinity, bottom type), but they also coincided with the annual migration of S. maculatus as fish moved northward along the GOM coastline from the southern tip of Florida in the spring months and returned in the fall, being present in the north-central GOM from late spring through fall. This pattern suggests the possibility that acquisition of infections occurred from a molluscan host in waters off the Florida panhandle.

  11. Hormonal regulation of colour change in eyes of a cryptic fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Nilsson Sköld

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colour change of the skin in lower vertebrates such as fish has been a subject of great scientific and public interest. However, colour change also takes place in eyes of fish and while an increasing amount of data indicates its importance in behaviour, very little is known about its regulation. Here, we report that both eye and skin coloration change in response to white to black background adaptation in live sand goby Pomatoschistus minutes, a bentic marine fish. Through in vitro experiments, we show that noradrenaline and melanocyte concentrating hormone (MCH treatments cause aggregation of pigment organelles in the eye chromatophores. Daylight had no aggregating effect. Combining forskolin to elevate intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP with MCH resulted in complete pigment dispersal and darkening of the eyes, whereas combining prolactin, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH or melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH with MCH resulted in more yellow and red eyes. ACTH and MSH also induced dispersal in the melanophores, resulting in overall darker eyes. By comparing analysis of eyes, skin and peritoneum, we conclude that the regulation pattern is similar between these different tissues in this species which is relevant for the cryptic life strategy of this species. With the exception of ACTH which resulted in most prominent melanophore pigment dispersal in the eyes, all other treatments provided similar results between tissue types. To our knowledge, this is the first study that has directly analysed hormonal regulation of physiological colour change in eyes of fish.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.; Gosliner, Terrence M.

    2017-01-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  13. Correcting for cryptic relatedness by a regression-based genomic control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yaning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic control (GC method is a useful tool to correct for the cryptic relatedness in population-based association studies. It was originally proposed for correcting for the variance inflation of Cochran-Armitage's additive trend test by using information from unlinked null markers, and was later generalized to be applicable to other tests with the additional requirement that the null markers are matched with the candidate marker in allele frequencies. However, matching allele frequencies limits the number of available null markers and thus limits the applicability of the GC method. On the other hand, errors in genotype/allele frequencies may cause further bias and variance inflation and thereby aggravate the effect of GC correction. Results In this paper, we propose a regression-based GC method using null markers that are not necessarily matched in allele frequencies with the candidate marker. Variation of allele frequencies of the null markers is adjusted by a regression method. Conclusion The proposed method can be readily applied to the Cochran-Armitage's trend tests other than the additive trend test, the Pearson's chi-square test and other robust efficiency tests. Simulation results show that the proposed method is effective in controlling type I error in the presence of population substructure.

  14. Vietnam, a Hotspot for Chromosomal Diversity and Cryptic Species in Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Low, Van Lun; Ya’cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Lau, Koon Weng; Pham, Xuan Da

    2016-01-01

    The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country’s status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam. PMID:27695048

  15. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Carolan

    Full Text Available Cryptic diversity within bumblebees (Bombus has the potential to undermine crucial conservation efforts designed to reverse the observed decline in many bumblebee species worldwide. Central to such efforts is the ability to correctly recognise and diagnose species. The B. lucorum complex (Bombus lucorum, B. cryptarum and B. magnus comprises one of the most abundant and important group of wild plant and crop pollinators in northern Europe. Although the workers of these species are notoriously difficult to diagnose morphologically, it has been claimed that queens are readily diagnosable from morphological characters. Here we assess the value of colour-pattern characters in species identification of DNA-barcoded queens from the B. lucorum complex. Three distinct molecular operational taxonomic units were identified each representing one species. However, no uniquely diagnostic colour-pattern character state was found for any of these three molecular units and most colour-pattern characters showed continuous variation among the units. All characters previously deemed to be unique and diagnostic for one species were displayed by specimens molecularly identified as a different species. These results presented here raise questions on the reliability of species determinations in previous studies and highlights the benefits of implementing DNA barcoding prior to ecological, taxonomic and conservation studies of these important key pollinators.

  16. Establishment and cryptic transmission of Zika virus in Brazil and the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, N R; Quick, J; Claro, I M; Thézé, J; de Jesus, J G; Giovanetti, M; Kraemer, M U G; Hill, S C; Black, A; da Costa, A C; Franco, L C; Silva, S P; Wu, C-H; Raghwani, J; Cauchemez, S; du Plessis, L; Verotti, M P; de Oliveira, W K; Carmo, E H; Coelho, G E; Santelli, A C F S; Vinhal, L C; Henriques, C M; Simpson, J T; Loose, M; Andersen, K G; Grubaugh, N D; Somasekar, S; Chiu, C Y; Muñoz-Medina, J E; Gonzalez-Bonilla, C R; Arias, C F; Lewis-Ximenez, L L; Baylis, S A; Chieppe, A O; Aguiar, S F; Fernandes, C A; Lemos, P S; Nascimento, B L S; Monteiro, H A O; Siqueira, I C; de Queiroz, M G; de Souza, T R; Bezerra, J F; Lemos, M R; Pereira, G F; Loudal, D; Moura, L C; Dhalia, R; França, R F; Magalhães, T; Marques, E T; Jaenisch, T; Wallau, G L; de Lima, M C; Nascimento, V; de Cerqueira, E M; de Lima, M M; Mascarenhas, D L; Neto, J P Moura; Levin, A S; Tozetto-Mendoza, T R; Fonseca, S N; Mendes-Correa, M C; Milagres, F P; Segurado, A; Holmes, E C; Rambaut, A; Bedford, T; Nunes, M R T; Sabino, E C; Alcantara, L C J; Loman, N J; Pybus, O G

    2017-06-15

    Transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was first confirmed in May 2015 in northeast Brazil. Brazil has had the highest number of reported ZIKV cases worldwide (more than 200,000 by 24 December 2016) and the most cases associated with microcephaly and other birth defects (2,366 confirmed by 31 December 2016). Since the initial detection of ZIKV in Brazil, more than 45 countries in the Americas have reported local ZIKV transmission, with 24 of these reporting severe ZIKV-associated disease. However, the origin and epidemic history of ZIKV in Brazil and the Americas remain poorly understood, despite the value of this information for interpreting observed trends in reported microcephaly. Here we address this issue by generating 54 complete or partial ZIKV genomes, mostly from Brazil, and reporting data generated by a mobile genomics laboratory that travelled across northeast Brazil in 2016. One sequence represents the earliest confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Analyses of viral genomes with ecological and epidemiological data yield an estimate that ZIKV was present in northeast Brazil by February 2014 and is likely to have disseminated from there, nationally and internationally, before the first detection of ZIKV in the Americas. Estimated dates for the international spread of ZIKV from Brazil indicate the duration of pre-detection cryptic transmission in recipient regions. The role of northeast Brazil in the establishment of ZIKV in the Americas is further supported by geographic analysis of ZIKV transmission potential and by estimates of the basic reproduction number of the virus.

  17. Speciation in ancient cryptic species complexes: evidence from the molecular phylogeny of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Africa; Serra, Manuel; Carvalho, Gary R; Lunt, David H

    2002-07-01

    Continental lake-dwelling zooplanktonic organisms have long been considered cosmopolitan species with little geographic variation in spite of the isolation of their habitats. Evidence of morphological cohesiveness and high dispersal capabilities support this interpretation. However, this view has been challenged recently as many such species have been shown either to comprise cryptic species complexes or to exhibit marked population genetic differentiation and strong phylogeographic structuring at a regional scale. Here we investigate the molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan passively dispersing rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera: Monogononta) species complex using nucleotide sequence variation from both nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1, ITS1) and mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) genes. Analysis of rotifer resting eggs from 27 salt lakes in the Iberian Peninsula plus lakes from four continents revealed nine genetically divergent lineages. The high level of sequence divergence, absence of hybridization, and extensive sympatry observed support the specific status of these lineages. Sequence divergence estimates indicate that the B. plicatilis complex began diversifying many millions of years ago, yet has showed relatively high levels of morphological stasis. We discuss these results in relation to the ecology and genetics of aquatic invertebrates possessing dispersive resting propagules and address the apparent contradiction between zooplanktonic population structure and their morphological stasis.

  18. Spawning segregation and philopatry are major prezygotic barriers in sympatric cryptic Mugil cephalus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, is a commercially vital fish in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Genetic analyses have recently revealed three cryptic species of M. cephalus in the Northwest Pacific. These species are sympatric in Taiwanese waters and specific reproductive behaviors have been suggested to be a major prezygotic barrier. Species composition was evaluated in samples of M. cephalus at different growth stages collected from various habitats (offshore spawning ground, estuarine nursery and feeding areas) over several months or years. The gonadosomatic index of adults and the body length of juveniles were recorded to determine the reproductive season and recruitment periods in estuaries. The results revealed partially temporal spawning isolation between species pairs, spatial segregation on specific spawning grounds and strong philopatry preclude hybridization. Thus, the results imply that traditional fisheries of mature fish in the Taiwan Strait target only one species, whereas aquaculture in Taiwan contain juveniles of all three species collected in estuaries. The ecological niche and demography of these species must be investigated further to estimate the impact of juvenile sources on aquaculture. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Cunea n. g. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) with two cryptic species isolated from different areas of the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. This paper describes a new genus, Cunea n. g., of marine naked amoebae with two cryptic species, Cunea profundata and Cunea thuwala, isolated from distant localities in the ocean and different depths (Brazilian abyssal plain, Western Atlantic Ocean, depth >5. km and the Red Sea off the Saudi Arabian coast, depth ca. 58.7. m). Both species are very similar to each other in the set of light microscopic and ultrastructural characters and might be described as a single species, yet their genetic divergence based on 3 molecular markers (small-subunit ribosomal RNA, actin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) corresponds to the level of variation typically observed between different morphospecies of Amoebozoa. In addition, the studied strains differ strongly in their temperature tolerance ranges, C. profundata isolated from the cold Atlantic deep-sea habitat being able to reproduce under lower temperatures than C. thuwala isolated from the warm Red Sea benthos. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene shows that the new genus robustly branches within the Dactylopodida, but forms an independent clade within this order that does not group with any of its known genera.

  20. Movement of foraging Tundra Swans explained by spatial pattern in cryptic food densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Raymond H G; Nolet, Bart A; Bankert, Daniëlle

    2006-09-01

    We tested whether Tundra Swans use information on the spatial distribution of cryptic food items (below ground Sago pondweed tubers) to shape their movement paths. In a continuous environment, swans create their own food patches by digging craters, which they exploit in several feeding bouts. Series of short (1 m). Tuber biomass densities showed a positive spatial auto-correlation at a short distance (25 g/m2) and to a more distant patch (at 7-8 m) if the food density in the current patch had been low (3 m) from a low-density patch and a short distance (<3 m) from a high-density patch. The quantitative agreement between prediction and observation was greater for swans feeding in pairs than for solitary swans. The result of this movement strategy is that swans visit high-density patches at a higher frequency than on offer and, consequently, achieve a 38% higher long-term gain rate. Swans also take advantage of spatial variance in food abundance by regulating the time in patches, staying longer and consuming more food from rich than from poor patches. We can conclude that the shape of the foraging path is a reflection of the spatial pattern in the distribution of tuber densities and can be understood from an optimal foraging perspective.

  1. A cryptic promoter in potato virus X vector interrupted plasmid construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Ronald D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Potato virus X has been developed into an expression vector for plants. It is widely used to express foreign genes. In molecular manipulation, the foreign genes need to be sub-cloned into the vector. The constructed plasmid needs to be amplified. Usually, during amplification stage, the foreign genes are not expressed. However, if the foreign gene is expressed, the construction work could be interrupted. Two different viral genes were sub-cloned into the vector, but only one foreign gene was successfully sub-cloned. The other foreign gene, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 VP1 could not be sub-cloned into the vector and amplified without mutation (frame shift mutation. Results A cryptic promoter in the PVX vector was discovered with RT-PCR. The promoter activity was studied with Northern blots and Real-time RT-PCR. Conclusion It is important to recognize the homologous promoter sequences in the vector when a virus is developed as an expression vector. During the plasmid amplification stage, an unexpected expression of the CPV-2 VP1 gene (not in the target plants, but in E. coli can interrupt the downstream work.

  2. Cryptic organisation within an apparently irregular rostrocaudal distribution of interneurons in the embryonic zebrafish spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Simon, E-mail: simon.wells@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Conran, John G., E-mail: john.conran@adelaide.edu.au [Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Tamme, Richard, E-mail: rtamme@ttu.ee [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Gaudin, Arnaud, E-mail: a.gaudin@uq.edu.au [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Webb, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.webb@worc.ox.ac.uk [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); Lardelli, Michael, E-mail: michael.lardelli@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Genetics, School of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia); The Special Research Centre for the Molecular Genetics of Development, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005 (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    The molecules and mechanisms involved in patterning the dorsoventral axis of the developing vertebrate spinal cord have been investigated extensively and many are well known. Conversely, knowledge of mechanisms patterning cellular distributions along the rostrocaudal axis is relatively more restricted. Much is known about the rostrocaudal distribution of motoneurons and spinal cord cells derived from neural crest but there is little known about the rostrocaudal patterning of most of the other spinal cord neurons. Here we report data from our analyses of the distribution of dorsal longitudinal ascending (DoLA) interneurons in the developing zebrafish spinal cord. We show that, although apparently distributed irregularly, these cells have cryptic organisation. We present a novel cell-labelling technique that reveals that DoLA interneurons migrate rostrally along the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus of the spinal cord during development. This cell-labelling strategy may be useful for in vivo analysis of factors controlling neuron migration in the central nervous system. Additionally, we show that DoLA interneurons persist in the developing spinal cord for longer than previously reported. These findings illustrate the need to investigate factors and mechanisms that determine 'irregular' patterns of cell distribution, particularly in the central nervous system but also in other tissues of developing embryos.

  3. Regulation of gene expression: Cryptic β-glucoside (bgl operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmesh Harwani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP phenotype to Bgl+ cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  4. Regulation of gene expression: cryptic β-glucoside (bgl) operon of Escherichia coli as a paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various mechanisms to extract utilizable substrates from available resources and consequently acquire fitness advantage over competitors. One of the strategies is the exploitation of cryptic cellular functions encoded by genetic systems that are silent under laboratory conditions, such as the bgl (β-glucoside) operon of E. coli. The bgl operon of Escherichia coli, involved in the uptake and utilization of aromatic β-glucosides salicin and arbutin, is maintained in a silent state in the wild type organism by the presence of structural elements in the regulatory region. This operon can be activated by mutations that disrupt these negative elements. The fact that the silent bgl operon is retained without accumulating deleterious mutations seems paradoxical from an evolutionary view point. Although this operon appears to be silent, specific physiological conditions might be able to regulate its expression and/or the operon might be carrying out function(s) apart from the utilization of aromatic β-glucosides. This is consistent with the observations that the activated operon confers a Growth Advantage in Stationary Phase (GASP) phenotype to Bgl(+) cells and exerts its regulation on at least twelve downstream target genes.

  5. Differential responses to woodland character and landscape context by cryptic bats in urban environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Lintott

    Full Text Available Urbanisation is one of the most dramatic forms of land use change which relatively few species can adapt to. Determining how and why species respond differently to urban habitats is important in predicting future biodiversity loss as urban areas rapidly expand. Understanding how morphological or behavioural traits can influence species adaptability to the built environment may enable us to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. Although many bat species are able to exploit human resources, bat species richness generally declines with increasing urbanisation and there is considerable variation in the responses of different bat species to urbanisation. Here, we use acoustic recordings from two cryptic, and largely sympatric European bat species to assess differential responses in their use of fragmented urban woodland and the surrounding urban matrix. There was a high probability of P. pygmaeus activity relative to P. pipistrellus in woodlands with low clutter and understory cover which were surrounded by low levels of built environment. Additionally, the probability of recording P. pygmaeus relative to P. pipistrellus was considerably higher in urban woodland interior or edge habitat in contrast to urban grey or non-wooded green space. These results show differential habitat use occurring between two morphologically similar species; whilst the underlying mechanism for this partitioning is unknown it may be driven by competition avoidance over foraging resources. Their differing response to urbanisation indicates the difficulties involved when attempting to assess how adaptable a species is to urbanisation for conservation purposes.

  6. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Hiding in Plain Sight: A Case for Cryptic Metapopulations in Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Kazyak

    Full Text Available A fundamental issue in the management and conservation of biodiversity is how to define a population. Spatially contiguous fish occupying a stream network have often been considered to represent a single, homogenous population. However, they may also represent multiple discrete populations, a single population with genetic isolation-by-distance, or a metapopulation. We used microsatellite DNA and a large-scale mark-recapture study to assess population structure in a spatially contiguous sample of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis, a species of conservation concern. We found evidence for limited genetic exchange across small spatial scales and in the absence of barriers to physical movement. Mark-recapture and stationary passive integrated transponder antenna records demonstrated that fish from two tributaries very seldom moved into the opposite tributary, but movements between the tributaries and mainstem were more common. Using Bayesian genetic clustering, we identified two genetic groups that exhibited significantly different growth rates over three years of study, yet survival rates were very similar. Our study highlights the importance of considering the possibility of multiple genetically distinct populations occurring within spatially contiguous habitats, and suggests the existence of a cryptic metapopulation: a spatially continuous distribution of organisms exhibiting metapopulation-like behaviors.

  8. Cryptic sexual dimorphism in spatial memory and hippocampal oxytocin receptors in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Marissa A; Hobbs, Lauren E; Wallace, Kelly J; Ophir, Alexander G

    2017-09-01

    Sex differences are well documented and are conventionally associated with intense sex-specific selection. For example, spatial memory is frequently better in males, presumably due to males' tendency to navigate large spaces to find mates. Alternatively, monogamy (in which sex-specific selection is relatively relaxed) should diminish or eliminate differences in spatial ability and the mechanisms associated with this behavior. Nevertheless, phenotypic differences between monogamous males and females persist, sometimes cryptically. We hypothesize that sex-specific cognitive demands are present in monogamous species that will influence neural and behavioral phenotypes. The effects of these demands should be observable in spatial learning performance and neural structures associated with spatial learning and memory. We analyzed spatial memory performance, hippocampal volume and cell density, and hippocampal oxytocin receptor (OTR) expression in the socially monogamous prairie vole. Compared to females, males performed better in a spatial memory and spatial learning test. Although we found no sex difference in hippocampal volume or cell density, male OTR density was significantly lower than females, suggesting that performance may be regulated by sub-cellular mechanisms within the hippocampus that are less obvious than classic neuroanatomical features. Our results suggest an expanded role for oxytocin beyond facilitating social interactions, which may function in part to integrate social and spatial information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cunea n. g. (Amoebozoa, Dactylopodida) with two cryptic species isolated from different areas of the ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Pawlowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. This paper describes a new genus, Cunea n. g., of marine naked amoebae with two cryptic species, Cunea profundata and Cunea thuwala, isolated from distant localities in the ocean and different depths (Brazilian abyssal plain, Western Atlantic Ocean, depth >5. km and the Red Sea off the Saudi Arabian coast, depth ca. 58.7. m). Both species are very similar to each other in the set of light microscopic and ultrastructural characters and might be described as a single species, yet their genetic divergence based on 3 molecular markers (small-subunit ribosomal RNA, actin and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) corresponds to the level of variation typically observed between different morphospecies of Amoebozoa. In addition, the studied strains differ strongly in their temperature tolerance ranges, C. profundata isolated from the cold Atlantic deep-sea habitat being able to reproduce under lower temperatures than C. thuwala isolated from the warm Red Sea benthos. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rRNA gene shows that the new genus robustly branches within the Dactylopodida, but forms an independent clade within this order that does not group with any of its known genera.

  10. First reported case of intrachromosomal cryptic inv dup del Xp in a boy with developmental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Celine; Lebbar, Aziza; Teinturier, Cecile; Baverel, Françoise; Viot, Geraldine; Le Tessier, Dominique; Le Bozec, Jerome; Cuisset, Laurence; Dupont, Jean-Michel

    2007-06-01

    We report here on a 6-year-old boy referred to the laboratory for karyotyping and SHOX microdeletion testing. The most significant clinical findings in this boy were small stature, Madelung deformity, facial dysmorphism, mild mental retardation and behavioral problems. R-, G- and RTBG-banding chromosome analysis showed a normal male karyotype. Fine molecular characterization, by FISH, of terminal Xp microdeletion revealed an associated partial duplication. Further refinement of the molecular analysis indicated an inverted duplication of the Xp22.31-Xp22.32 (13.7 Mb) region including the STS, VCX-A and KAL1 genes, associated with a terminal Xp deletion Xp22.33-Xpter (3.6 Mb) encompassing the SHOX and ARSE genes. Such rearrangements have been characterized for other chromosomal pairs, but this is the first reported male patient involving the short arm of the X chromosome. Molecular analysis of the maternal and patient's microsatellite markers showed interchromatid mispairing leading to non-allelic homologous recombination to be the most likely mechanism underlying this rearrangement. This case highlights the importance of clinically driven FISH investigations in order to uncover cryptic micro-rearrangements. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Delimitating cryptic species in the Gracilaria domingensis complex (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) using molecular and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyra, Goia de M; Gurgel, C Frederico D; Costa, Emmanuelle da S; de Jesus, Priscila B; Oliveira, Mariana C; Oliveira, Eurico C; Davis, Charles C; Nunes, José Marcos de Castro

    2016-12-01

    Species in the genus Gracilaria that display conspicuously flattened vegetative morphologies are a taxonomically challenging group of marine benthic red algae. This is a result of their species richness, morphological similarity, and broad phenotypic plasticity. Within this group, the Gracilaria domingensis complex is one of the most common, conspicuous, and morphologically variable species along the tropical western Atlantic Ocean. Previous research has identified that members of this complex belong to two distantly related clades. However, despite this increased phylogentic resolution, species delimitations within each of these clades remain unclear. Our study assessed the species diversity within this difficult complex using morphological and molecular data from three genetic markers (cox1, UPA, and rbcL). We additionally applied six single-marker species delimitation methods (SDM: ABGD, GMYCs, GMYCm, SPN, bPTP, and PTP) to rbcL, which were largely in agreement regarding species delimitation. These results, combined with our analysis of morphology, indicate that the G. domingensis complex includes seven distinct species, each of which are not all most closely related: G. cervicornis; a ressurected G. ferox; G. apiculata subsp. apiculata; a new species, Gracilaria baiana sp. nov.; G. intermedia subsp. intermedia; G. venezuelensis; and G. domingensis sensu stricto, which includes the later heterotypic synonym, G. yoneshigueana. Our study demonstrates the value of multipronged strategies, including the use of both molecular and morphological approaches, to decipher cryptic species of red algae. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of Glossodoris (Ehrenberg, 1831) nudibranchs and related genera reveals cryptic and pseudocryptic species complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Matsuda, Shayle B.

    2017-03-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (Chromodorididae) are brightly coloured sea slugs that live in some of the most biodiverse and threatened coral reefs on the planet. However, the evolutionary relationships within this family have not been well understood, especially in the genus Glossodoris. Members of Glossodoris have experienced large-scale taxonomic instability over the last century and have been the subject of repeated taxonomic changes, in part due to morphological characters being the sole traditional taxonomic sources of data. Changing concepts of traditional generic boundaries based on morphology also have contributed to this instability. Despite recent advances in molecular systematics, many aspects of chromodorid taxonomy remain poorly understood, particularly at the traditional species and generic levels. In this study, 77 individuals comprising 32 previously defined species were used to build the most robust phylogenetic tree of Glossodoris and related genera using mitochondrial genes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S, and the nuclear gene 28S. Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony analyses verify the most recent hypothesized evolutionary relationships within Glossodoris. Additionally, a pseudocryptic and cryptic species complex within Glossodoris cincta and a pseudocryptic complex within Glossodoris pallida emerged, and three new species of Doriprismatica are identified.

  13. Cryptic forcible insemination: male snakes exploit female physiology, anatomy, and behavior to obtain coercive matings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Richard; Langkilde, Tracy; Mason, Robert T

    2003-11-01

    Whether males can inseminate uncooperative females is a central determinant of mating system evolution that profoundly affects the interpretation of phenomena such as multiple mating by females, mate choice, reproductive seasonality, and courtship tactics. Forcible insemination is usually inferred from direct physical battles between the sexes and has been dismissed on intuitive grounds for many kinds of animals. For example, snakes have elongate flexible bodies (making it difficult for a male to restrain a female physically), males are typically smaller than females, and copulation requires female cloacal gaping to enable intromission. Male garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) do not display any overt aggression during courtship and simply lie over the female and exhibit rhythmic pulsating caudocephalic waves of muscular contraction; previous studies have interpreted this behavior as a mechanism for eliciting female receptivity. In contrast, we show that male garter snakes forcibly inseminate females. They do so by taking advantage of specific features of snake physiology, respiratory anatomy, and antipredator behavior. The snake lung extends along most of the body, with the large posterior section (the saccular lung) lacking any respiratory exchange surface. Rhythmic caudocephalic waves by courting male garter snakes push anoxic air from the saccular lung forward and across the respiratory surfaces such that females cannot obtain oxygen. Their stress response involves cloacal gaping, which functions in other contexts to repel predators by extruding feces and musk but in this situation permits male intromission. Thus, superficially benign courtship behaviors may involve cryptic coercion even in species for which intuition dismisses any possibility of forcible insemination.

  14. Cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Diptera: Culicidae) found in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blažejová, Hana; Šebesta, Oldřich; Rettich, František; Mendel, Jan; Čabanová, Viktória; Miterpáková, Martina; Betášová, Lenka; Peško, Juraj; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kampen, Helge; Rudolf, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). A total of 691 mosquitoes were analysed using a species-specific multiplex PCR assay to differentiate between the members of the maculipennis complex. In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and Anopheles daciae (49.6%). In Slovakia, only An. messeae (52.1%) and An. daciae (47.9%) were detected. In this study, An. daciae was documented for the first time in the two countries where it represented a markedly higher proportion of maculipennis complex species (with an overall prevalence almost reaching 50%) in comparison to previous reports from Germany, Romania and Poland. The determination of the differential distribution of maculipennis complex species will contribute to assessing risks of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria or dirofilariasis.

  15. Cryptic differentiation in the endemic micromoth Galagete darwini (Lepidoptera, Autostichidae) on Galápagos volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Patrick; Cibois, Alice; Landry, Bernard

    2008-10-27

    To gain insight into the early stages of speciation, we reconstructed a DNA-based phylogeny, using combined mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II: 1008 bp) and nuclear (elongation factor 1-alpha and wingless: 1062 bp) markers of populations of the moth Galagete darwini endemic to the Galápagos, which belongs to an insular radiation similar in size to that of Darwin's finches. Adults of G. darwini were collected in the arid lowlands of 11 of the Galápagos Islands (Baltra, Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Pinta, Pinzón, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Santiago and Seymour) and the humid highlands of a subset of 5 of them (Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Santa Cruz and Santiago). The combined phylogeographic analysis surprisingly revealed that G. darwini populations at higher elevation on the western islands (Fernandina, Isabela and Santiago) represent a distinct lineage from the one in the low arid zones of these same islands. This is the first reported case in the archipelago of genetic cryptic differentiation correlated with elevation on the western Galápagos volcanoes.

  16. The genomic and biological characterization of Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus infecting watermelon in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Min; Cao, Mengji; Liu, Wenwen; Ren, Yingdang; Lu, Chuantao; Wang, Xifeng

    2017-03-15

    A dsRNA virus was detected in the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) samples collected from Kaifeng, Henan province, China through the use of next generation sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus is comprised of dsRNA-1 (1603nt) and dsRNA-2 (1466nt), both of which are single open reading frames and potentially encode a 54.2kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a 45.9kDa coat protein (CP), respectively. The RdRp and CP share the highest amino acid identities 85.3% and 75.4% with a previously reported Israeli strain Citrullus lanatus cryptic virus (CiLCV), respectively. Genome comparisons indicate that this virus is the same species with CiLCV, whereas the reported sequences of the Israeli strain of CiLCV are partial, and our newly identified sequences can represent the complete genome of CiLCV. Futhermore, phylogenetic tree analyses based on the RdRp sequences suggest that CiLCV is one member in the genus Deltapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. In addition, field investigation and seed-borne bioassays show that CiLCV commonly occurs in many varieties and is transmitted though seeds at a very high rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the Distribution of Rare or Cryptic Bird Species of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai-Yu Wu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For the study of the macroecology and conservation of Taiwan’s birds, there was an urgent need to develop distribution models of bird species whose distribution had never before been modeled. Therefore, we here model the distributions of 27 mostly rare and cryptic breeding bird species using a statistical approach which has been shown to be especially reliable for modeling species with a low sample size of presence localities, namely the maximum entropy (Maxent modeling technique. For this purpose, we began with a dedicated attempt to collate as much high-quality distributional data as possible, assembling databases from several scientific reports, contacting individual data recorders and searching publicly accessible database, the internet and the available literature. This effort resulted in 2022 grid cells of 1 × 1 km size being associated with a presence record for one of the 27 species. These records and 10 pre-selected environmental variables were then used to model each species’ probability distribution which we show here with all grid cells below the lowest presence threshold being converted to zeros. We then in detail discuss the interpretation and applicability of these distributions, whereby we pay close attention to habitat requirements, the intactness and fragmentation of their habitat, the general detectability of the species and data reliability. This study is another one in an ongoing series of studies which highlight the usefulness of using large electronic databases and modern analytical methods to help with the monitoring and assessment of Taiwan’s bird species.

  18. Early events in speciation: Cryptic species of Drosophila aldrichi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Vargas, Cynthia; Richmond, Maxi Polihronakis; Ramirez Loustalot Laclette, Mariana; Markow, Therese Ann

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the earliest events in speciation remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Thus identifying species whose populations are beginning to diverge can provide useful systems to study the process of speciation. Drosophila aldrichi , a cactophilic fruit fly species with a broad distribution in North America, has long been assumed to be a single species owing to its morphological uniformity. While previous reports either of genetic divergence or reproductive isolation among different D. aldrichi strains have hinted at the existence of cryptic species, the evolutionary relationships of this species across its range have not been thoroughly investigated. Here we show that D. aldrichi actually is paraphyletic with respect to its closest relative, Drosophila wheeleri , and that divergent D. aldrichi lineages show complete hybrid male sterility when crossed. Our data support the interpretation that there are at least two species of D. aldrichi, making these flies particularly attractive for studies of speciation in an ecological and geographical context.

  19. The first fossil leaf insect: 47 million years of specialized cryptic morphology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedmann, Sonja; Bradler, Sven; Rust, Jes

    2007-01-09

    Stick and leaf insects (insect order Phasmatodea) are represented primarily by twig-imitating slender forms. Only a small percentage ( approximately 1%) of extant phasmids belong to the leaf insects (Phylliinae), which exhibit an extreme form of morphological and behavioral leaf mimicry. Fossils of phasmid insects are extremely rare worldwide. Here we report the first fossil leaf insect, Eophyllium messelensis gen. et sp. nov., from 47-million-year-old deposits at Messel in Germany. The new specimen, a male, is exquisitely preserved and displays the same foliaceous appearance as extant male leaf insects. Clearly, an advanced form of extant angiosperm leaf mimicry had already evolved early in the Eocene. We infer that this trait was combined with a special behavior, catalepsy or "adaptive stillness," enabling Eophyllium to deceive visually oriented predators. Potential predators reported from the Eocene are birds, early primates, and bats. The combination of primitive and derived characters revealed by Eophyllium allows the determination of its exact phylogenetic position and illuminates the evolution of leaf mimicry for this insect group. It provides direct evidence that Phylliinae originated at least 47 Mya. Eophyllium enlarges the known geographical range of Phylliinae, currently restricted to southeast Asia, which is apparently a relict distribution. This fossil leaf insect bears considerable resemblance to extant individuals in size and cryptic morphology, indicating minimal change in 47 million years. This absence of evolutionary change is an outstanding example of morphological and, probably, behavioral stasis.

  20. Barcoding of ancient lake ostracods (crustacea reveals cryptic speciation with extremely low distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Karanovic

    Full Text Available Ostracods are drastically reduced crustaceans, with never more than eight appendages enclosed between two valves, leaving only a limited number of morphological characters for species delineation. Conservative morphology of characters used to define genera, along with high variability of characters used to define species are creating problems in applying a morphospecies concept. A high intraspecific variability in a Lake Biwa (Japan endemic, Physocypria biwaensis (Okubo, 1990, has been observed previously but was never studied in detail. Two sympatric forms, differing in pigmentation and size, suggest a presence of reproductive isolation. The aim of this study is to employ molecular and morphometric tools to aid in species delineation within P. biwaensis complex and reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was amplified from 30 specimens, and an additional 37 specimens were studied for morphological characters. Resulting phylogenies showed that each morphologically distinct form is associated with a distinct phylogenetic group based on mtDNA. The average pairwise distance is very low (5%, indicating a recent divergence time. I speculate that there is a possibility that one of them originated in the lake, while the other probably colonized it afterwards. This seems to be supported with an apparent niche partitioning at different depths. In spite of the fact that traditionally used sexual characters are highly variable in these two species, the morphometric analysis of shell and soft part related characters clearly delineates them and suggests that such characters may be useful for future detection of seemingly cryptic ostracod species.

  1. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy P. Meegan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007 relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014 and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003. No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  2. Socio-economic status and ethnicity are independently associated with dietary patterns: the HELIUS-Dietary Patterns study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H. Dekker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences in dietary patterns between ethnic groups have often been observed. These differences may partially be a reflection of differences in socio-economic status (SES or may be the result of differences in the direction and strength of the association between SES and diet. Objective: We aimed to examine ethnic differences in dietary patterns and the role of socio-economic indicators on dietary patterns within a multi-ethnic population. Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic population-based study. Setting: Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Subjects: Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns among Dutch (n=1,254, South Asian Surinamese (n=425, and African Surinamese (n=784 participants. Levels of education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between ethnicity and dietary pattern scores first and then between socio-economic indicators and dietary patterns within and between ethnic groups. Results: ‘Noodle/rice dishes and white meat’, ‘red meat, snacks, and sweets’ and ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ patterns were identified. Compared to the Dutch origin participants, Surinamese more closely adhered to the ‘noodle/rice dishes and white meat’ pattern which was characterized by foods consumed in a ‘traditional Surinamese diet’. Closer adherence to the other two patterns was observed among Dutch compared to Surinamese origin participants. Ethnic differences in dietary patterns persisted within strata of education and occupation. Surinamese showed greater adherence to a ‘traditional’ pattern independent of SES. Among Dutch participants, a clear socio-economic gradient in all dietary patterns was observed. Such a gradient was only present among Surinamese dietary oatterns to the ‘vegetables, fruit and nuts’ pattern. Conclusions: We found a selective change in the adherence to dietary patterns among Surinamese origin

  3. Dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in 4–14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003–8, where a total of 784 children aged 4–14 years completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns in the age groups 4–6, 7–10 and 11–14 years. Consistently, two dietary patterns, labelled...... patterns may somewhat track between weekdays and weekends, the specific foods actually eaten became less healthy during weekends....

  4. Dietary behaviour and health in Northern Ireland: an exploration of biochemical and haematological associations.

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, M E; McClean, S I; Strain, J J; Thompson, K A

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the relationships between dietary behaviour and biochemical and haematological measures. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional population study. SETTING--The study took place in the general community within Northern Ireland. SUBJECTS--522 randomly selected adults aged 18-64 years took part (65% of the eligible sample). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Four dietary behaviours were identified using principal components analysis from 7 d weighed dietary recor...

  5. Three-year effects on dietary quality of health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Toft, Ulla; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Healthy diet is a core component in prevention and self-management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The long-term efficacy was assessed of a theory-based health education programme 'Ready to Act' on dietary quality in people with screen-detected dysglycaemia.......Healthy diet is a core component in prevention and self-management of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The long-term efficacy was assessed of a theory-based health education programme 'Ready to Act' on dietary quality in people with screen-detected dysglycaemia....

  6. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Persephone; Jurado, Leo-Felix

    2015-12-22

    Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ). Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA). Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA) and dietary intake was determined using the Block's Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ). Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208) = 0.193, p Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  7. Dietary Acculturation among Filipino Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persephone Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acculturation, the subsequent changes that occur in one culture after continuous first hand contact with another culture, impacts the dietary habits and health risks of individuals. This study examines the acculturation, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements in a sample of 210 first generation Filipino American immigrants in New Jersey (NJ. Acculturation was measured using the Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans (ASASFA. Dietary acculturation was measured using the Dietary Acculturation Questionnaire for Filipino Americans (DAQFA and dietary intake was determined using the Block’s Brief Food Frequency Questionnaire (BFFQ. Anthropometric measurements were obtained including weight, height and waist circumference. Acculturation had a significant negative relationship with Filipino Dietary acculturation. Western dietary acculturation was significantly correlated with caloric intake (r(208 = 0.193, p < 0.01, percentage fat intake (r(208 = 0.154, p < 0.05, percentage carbohydrate intake (r(208 = −0.172, p < 0.05, Body Mass Index (BMI (r(208 = 0.216, p < 0.01 and waist circumference (r(208 = 0.161, p < 0.01. There was no significant correlation between Filipino dietary acculturation, dietary intake and anthropometric measurements. The results showed that Filipino American immigrants have increased risks including increased BMI, waist circumference and increased fat intake. Over all, this research highlighted some dietary changes and their effects on dietary intake and health status.

  8. Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Teresa T; Brown, Lisa S

    2013-03-01

    Diet and lifestyle play a significant role in the development of colorectal cancer, but the full complexity of the association is not yet understood. Dietary pattern analysis is an important new technique that may help to elucidate the relationship. This review examines the most common techniques for extrapolating dietary patterns and reviews dietary pattern/colorectal cancer studies published between September 2011 and August 2012. The studies reviewed are consistent with prior research but include a more diverse international population. Results from investigations using a priori dietary patterns (i.e., diet quality scores) and a posteriori methods, which identify existing eating patterns (i.e., principal component analysis), continue to support the benefits of a plant-based diet with some dairy as a means to lower the risk of colorectal cancer, whereas a diet high in meats, refined grains, and added sugar appears to increase risk. The association between colorectal cancer and alcohol remains unclear.

  9. Dietary Proteins and Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both defective and persistent angiogenesis are linked to pathological situations in the adult. Compounds able to modulate angiogenesis have a potential value for the treatment of such pathologies. Several small molecules present in the diet have been shown to have modulatory effects on angiogenesis. This review presents the current state of knowledge on the potential modulatory roles of dietary proteins on angiogenesis. There is currently limited available information on the topic. Milk contains at least three proteins for which modulatory effects on angiogenesis have been previously demonstrated. On the other hand, there is some scarce information on the potential of dietary lectins, edible plant proteins and high protein diets to modulate angiogenesis.

  10. [Dietary counseling in obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice

    2013-02-01

    Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept.

  11. Effecting dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Ashley J; Mathers, John C

    2004-11-01

    A world epidemic of diet-related chronic disease is currently being faced. In the UK incidence of obesity alone has tripled in the last 20 years and this trend is predicted to continue. Consensus exists for the urgent need for a change in diet and other lifestyle factors and for the direction and targets for this change. The evidence for how this change can be achieved is less certain. It has been established that disease processes begin in childhood. Recent evidence indicates that dietary habits too are established in childhood but that these habits are amenable to change. While establishing a healthy lifestyle in childhood is paramount, interventions have the potential to promote positive change throughout the life course. Success in reversing current trends in diet-related disease will depend on commitment from legislators, health professionals, industry and individuals, and this collaboration must seek to address not only the food choices of the individual but also the environment that influences such choices. Recent public health policy development in England, if fully supported and implemented, is a positive move towards this goal. Evidence for effective strategies to promote dietary change at the individual level is emerging and three reviews of this evidence are discussed. In addition, three recent dietary intervention studies, in three different settings and with different methods and aims, are presented to illustrate methods of effecting dietary change. Further work is required on what factors influence the eating behaviour and physical activity of individuals. There is a need for further theory-based research on which to develop more effective strategies to enable individuals to adopt healthier lifestyles.

  12. Dietary fibre: Challenges in production and use of food composition data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, S.; Brunt, K.; Kamp, J.W. van der

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fibre is a heterogeneous group of components for which several definitions and analytical methods were developed over the past decades, causing confusion among users and producers of dietary fibre data in food composition databases. An overview is given of current definitions and analytical

  13. Dietary fiber analysis of common pulses using AOAC 2011.25: Implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber is an important non-nutritive component of food and is believed to have various benefits to human health. In many countries, such as the United States and Canada, the intake of dietary fiber is 50 to 70% below recommended levels in greater than 95% of the population. We recently adva...

  14. Certain dietary patterns are beneficial for the metabolic syndrome: reviewing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calton, Emily K; James, Anthony P; Pannu, Poonam K; Soares, Mario J

    2014-07-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global public health issue of increasing magnitude. The Asia-Pacific region is expected to be hardest hit due to large population numbers, rising obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). This review assessed the protective effects of dietary patterns and their components on MetS. A literature search was conducted using prominent electronic databases and search terms that included in combination: diet, dietary components, dietary patterns, and metabolic syndrome. Articles were restricted to prospective studies and high quality randomized controlled trials that were conducted on humans, reported in the English language, and within the time period of 2000 to 2012. Traditional factors such as age, gender, physical activity, and obesity were associated with risk of MetS; however, these potential confounders were not always accounted for in study outcomes. Three dietary patterns emerged from the review; a Mediterranean dietary pattern, dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet. Potential contributors to their beneficial effects on prevalence of MetS or reduction in MetS components included increases in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy and dairy components, calcium, vitamin D, and whey protein, as well as monounsaturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids. Additional prospective and high quality randomized controlled trial studies that investigate Mediterranean dietary pattern, the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet, and the Nordic Diet would cement the protective benefits of these diets against the MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. the effect of cooking time on the vitamin c, dietary fiber and mineral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (Sandra, 1995). Several methods of processing the vegetables are being use without considering the effect on the vitamin C, dietary fiber and minerals components. This study is designed to determine the effect of cooking time on the Vitamin C, dietary fiber. & mineral constituents of T. occidentalis (FP), V. amygdalina (BL),.

  16. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  17. Natural Dietary Phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2015-01-01

    Most clinical phytosterol studies are performed by adding purified supplements to smaller phytosterol amounts present in the natural diet. However, natural dietary phytosterols themselves may also have important effects on cholesterol metabolism. Epidemiological work using food frequency questionnaires to estimate dietary intake suggest that extremes of normal consumption may be associated with 3-14% changes in LDL cholesterol. Standardized food databases do not have enough phytosterol values to allow calculation of phytosterol intake for individuals outside of specialized studies. Natural diets contain phytosterol amounts ranging from less than 60 mg/2000 kcal to over 500 mg/2000 kcal. Physiological studies in which whole body cholesterol metabolism is investigated show large effects of natural dietary phytosterols on cholesterol absorption efficiency, cholesterol biosynthesis and cholesterol excretion which exceed the magnitude of changes in LDL cholesterol. The dual effects of natural phytosterols on both LDL-C and whole body cholesterol metabolism need to be considered in relating them to potential protection from coronary heart disease risk.

  18. Dietary methanol and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Ralph G; Monte, Woodrow C

    2015-10-01

    The authors sought to establish whether maternal dietary methanol during pregnancy was a factor in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders. A seven item questionnaire was given to women who had given birth to at least one child after 1984. The subjects were solicited from a large primary care practice and several internet sites and separated into two groups - mothers who had given birth to a child with autism and those who had not. Average weekly methanol consumption was calculated based on questionnaire responses. 550 questionnaires were completed by women who gave birth to a non-autistic child. On average these women consumed 66.71mg. of methanol weekly. 161 questionnaires were completed by women who had given birth to an autistic child. The average estimated weekly methanol consumption for this group was 142.31mg. Based on the results of the Wilcoxon rank sum-test, we see a significant difference between the reported methanol consumption rates of the two groups. This study suggests that women who have given birth to an autistic child are likely to have had higher intake of dietary sources of methanol than women who have not. Further investigation of a possible link of dietary methanol to autism is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae: cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A Hamilton

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame.A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups.The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what constitutes an evolutionary lineage recognized as a

  20. Color perception influences microhabitat selection of refugia and affects monitoring success for a cryptic anuran species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bradley S; MacKenzie, Michelle L; Maerz, John C; Farrell, Christopher B; Castleberry, Steven B

    2016-10-01

    Perceptual-biases are important for understanding an animal's natural history, identifying potential ecological traps, and for developing effective means to monitor individuals and populations. Despite research demonstrating anurans having a positive phototactic response towards blue colors, we do not yet understand if color cues are used functionally beyond sexual selection. The aim of our study was to determine if color cues are used in selecting microhabitat, and if anuran's blue-positive phototactic response could increase selection of artificial PVC refugia used to monitor cryptic camouflaging anuran species. We captured 32 Cope's Gray Treefrogs and placed them in mesh enclosures with three PVC tubes painted blue, brown, and white. Concurrently, we placed blue, brown, or unpainted white PVC tubes in stratified arrays around a treefrog breeding pond, and counted the number of occasions treefrogs occupied different colored PVC tubes. In the confined choice experiment, treefrogs selected blue tubes (48.3%) significantly more often than brown (28.5%) or white (23.2%) tubes. Our field experiment mirrored these findings (52.0% of capture events in blue, 29.0% in brown, and 19.0% in unpainted white tubes). Our results suggest color influences Cope's Gray Treefrog microhabitat selection, and they utilize color vision when choosing refugia. We demonstrate simple, small changes based on perceptual-biases can induce behaviors that may in turn have large impacts on sampling techniques used in monitoring and inventorying. Incorporating non-traditional physiological measures into animal inventorying and monitoring programs can be used in the future to improve conservation efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cryptic diversity in Mediterranean gastropods of the genus Aplus (Neogastropoda: Buccinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrifa Aissaoui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean gastropods previously ascribed to the buccinid genus Pollia Gray, 1837 are more correctly classified in the genus Aplus de Gregorio, 1885. Using an integrative taxonomy approach combining molecular, morphological and geographic data, we revisit the limits of the extant species in the area, and propose a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis based on 66 specimens from various localities in the Mediterranean Sea, including type localities of some nominal taxa. We used a preliminary morphological inspection, followed by a DNA-barcoding approach to propose species hypotheses, subsequently consolidated using additional data (phylogenetic, geographic and refined morphological data. Seven species hypotheses were eventually retained within our molecularly assayed samples, versus three classical morphologically recognized species. Among these, three correspond to Aplus dorbignyi (Payreaudeau, 1826 with its hitherto unrecognized geographical cognates A. gaillardoti (Puton, 1856 (eastern Mediterranean and Aplus nodulosus (Bivona Ant., 1832 (Sicily; two closely related, yet considerably divergent, lineages are treated as a single species under Aplus scaber (Locard, 1892; the classically admitted Aplus scacchianus (Philippi, 1844 is confirmed by molecular evidence; Mediterranean populations attributable to Aplus assimilis (Reeve, 1846 may represent either cryptic native populations or an ongoing invasion of the Mediterranean by what was hitherto considered to be a West African species; finally, specimens from the Strait of Gibraltar may represent an undescribed species, but we conservatively refrain from formally introducing it pending the analysis of more material, and it is compared with the similar Aplus campisii (Ardovini, 2014, recently described from Sicily and not assayed molecularly, and Aplus scaber.

  2. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuehl Jennifer V

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae, commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. Results Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. Conclusion Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some

  3. Systematics and plastid genome evolution of the cryptically photosynthetic parasitic plant genus Cuscuta (Convolvulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Joel R; Arumugunathan, Kathiravetpilla; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Depamphilis, Claude W

    2007-12-13

    The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some photosynthetic ability, most likely for nutrient

  4. Phylogeography of a Morphologically Cryptic Golden Mole Assemblage from South-Eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mynhardt

    Full Text Available The Greater Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany (GMPA region of southern Africa was recently designated as a centre of vertebrate endemism. The phylogeography of the vertebrate taxa occupying this region may provide insights into the evolution of faunal endemism in south-eastern Africa. Here we investigate the phylogeographic patterns of an understudied small mammal species assemblage (Amblysomus endemic to the GMPA, to test for cryptic diversity within the genus, and to better understand diversification across the region. We sampled specimens from 50 sites across the distributional range of Amblysomus, with emphasis on the widespread A. hottentotus, to analyse geographic patterns of genetic diversity using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and nuclear intron data. Molecular dating was used to elucidate the evolutionary and phylogeographic history of Amblysomus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions show that A. hottentotus comprises several distinct lineages, or evolutionarily significant units (ESUs, some with restricted geographic ranges and thus worthy of conservation attention. Divergence of the major lineages dated to the early Pliocene, with later radiations in the GMPA during the late-Pliocene to early-Pleistocene. Evolutionary diversification within Amblysomus may have been driven by uplift of the Great Escarpment c. 5-3 million years ago (Ma, habitat changes associated with intensification of the east-west rainfall gradient across South Africa and the influence of subsequent global climatic cycles. These drivers possibly facilitated geographic spread of ancestral lineages, local adaptation and vicariant isolation. Our study adds to growing empirical evidence identifying East and southern Africa as cradles of vertebrate diversity.

  5. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi J L Rowley

    Full Text Available A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA, acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian

  6. Undiagnosed cryptic diversity in small, microendemic frogs (Leptolalax) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Tran, Dao T A; Frankham, Greta J; Dekker, Anthony H; Le, Duong T T; Nguyen, Truong Q; Dau, Vinh Q; Hoang, Huy D

    2015-01-01

    A major obstacle in prioritizing species or habitats for conservation is the degree of unrecognized diversity hidden within complexes of morphologically similar, "cryptic" species. Given that amphibians are one of the most threatened groups of organisms on the planet, our inability to diagnose their true diversity is likely to have significant conservation consequences. This is particularly true in areas undergoing rapid deforestation, such as Southeast Asia. The Southeast Asian genus Leptolalax is a group of small-bodied, morphologically conserved frogs that inhabit the forest-floor. We examined a particularly small-bodied and morphologically conserved subset, the Leptolalax applebyi group, using a combination of molecular, morphometric, and acoustic data to identify previously unknown diversity within. In order to predict the geographic distribution of the group, estimate the effects of habitat loss and assess the degree of habitat protection, we used our locality data to perform ecological niche modelling using MaxEnt. Molecular (mtDNA and nuDNA), acoustic and subtle morphometric differences revealed a significant underestimation of diversity in the L. applebyi group; at least two-thirds of the diversity may be unrecognised. Patterns of diversification and microendemism in the group appear driven by limited dispersal, likely due to their small body size, with several lineages restricted to watershed basins. The L. applebyi group is predicted to have historically occurred over a large area of the Central Highlands of Vietnam, a considerable portion of which has already been deforested. Less than a quarter of the remaining forest predicted to be suitable for the group falls within current protected areas. The predicted distribution of the L. applebyi group extends into unsurveyed watershed basins, each potentially containing unsampled diversity, some of which may have already been lost due to deforestation. Current estimates of amphibian diversity based on

  7. Molecular data raise the possibility of cryptic species in the Brazilian endemic prawn Macrobrachiumpotiuna (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício L de Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A recent taxonomic revision indicated that Macrobrachiumpotiuna, an endemic prawn in Brazilian freshwater drainages, exhibits wide morphological variability along its limited geographical distribution. However, in some cases, taxonomic doubts at the species level have no clear morphological resolution. Considering that no molecular data of M. potiuna along its distribution were available to provide a complete and integrated overview, we analyzed 21 partial sequences (531 bp from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene of M. potiuna and 9 sequences from outgroup species, by maximum likelihood and parsimony, in order to investigate the possibility of the existence of cryptic species, within the morphologically based M. potiuna. The topologies obtained revealed that M. potiuna represents a monophyletic clade. Nevertheless, two clades supported by both analyses were formed within the M. potiuna taxon. The mean genetic divergence between these two groups was 0.044 ± 0.007, and within each group (i.e., M. potiuna "sensu stricto" andM. potiuna "Affinis-Clade" the divergences were 0.010 ± 0.003 and 0.028 ± 0.005, respectively. As far as we know, this is the first report to show a genetic separation between populations of prawns with abbreviated larval development in South American drainages. Pending additional analysis, to propose a conclusive inference, the existence of these distinct genetic groups must be considered in future studies with the morphologically based M. potiuna. In addition, we extended the known northern distribution with a record from the state of Bahia.

  8. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gabaldón

    Full Text Available Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating. Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as

  9. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: the cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Claus-Peter; Riss, Simone; Stadler, Peter

    2011-04-07

    Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels--within and among genealogical species--and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  10. Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riss Simone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg. Most of this variation (67% could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32% at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

  11. Long-term competitive dynamics of two cryptic rotifer species: diapause and fluctuating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Carmen; Carmona, María José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Serra, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Life-history traits may have an important role in promoting species coexistence. However, the complexity of certain life cycles makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the conditions for coexistence or exclusion based on the study of short-term competitive dynamics. Brachionus plicatilis and B. manjavacasare two cryptic rotifer species co-occurring in many lakes on the Iberian Peninsula. They have a complex life cycle in which cyclical parthenogenesis occurs with diapausing stages being the result of sexual reproduction. B. plicatilis and B. manjavacasare identical in morphology and size, their biotic niches are broadly overlapping, and they have similar competitive abilities. However, the species differ in life-history traits involving sexual reproduction and diapause, and respond differently to salinity and temperature. As in the case of certain other species that are extremely similar in morphology, a fluctuating environment are considered to be important for their coexistence. We studied the long-term competitive dynamics of B. plicatilis and B. manjavacas under different salinity regimes (constant and fluctuating). Moreover, we focused on the dynamics of the diapausing egg bank to explore how the outcome of the entire life cycle of these rotifers can work to mediate stable coexistence. We demonstrated that these species do not coexist under constant-salinity environment, as the outcome of competition is affected by the level of salinity-at low salinity, B. plicatilis excluded B. manjavacas, and the opposite outcome occurred at high salinity. Competitive dynamics under fluctuating salinity showed that the dominance of one species over the other also tended to fluctuate. The duration of co-occurrence of these species was favoured by salinity fluctuation and perhaps by the existence of a diapausing egg bank. Stable coexistence was not found in our system, which suggests that other factors or other salinity fluctuation patterns might act as stabilizing

  12. Cryptic host-specific diversity among western hemisphere broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C; Colwell, Alison E L; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Baldwin, Bruce G

    2016-11-01

    The broomrapes, Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), are common root parasites found across Eurasia, Africa and the Americas. All species native to the western hemisphere, recognized as Orobanche sections Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon, form a clade that has a centre of diversity in western North America, but also includes four disjunct species in central and southern South America. The wide ecological distribution coupled with moderate taxonomic diversity make this clade a valuable model system for studying the role, if any, of host-switching in driving the diversification of plant parasites. Two spacer regions of ribosomal nuclear DNA (ITS + ETS), three plastid regions and one low-copy nuclear gene were sampled from 163 exemplars of Orobanche from across the native geographic range in order to infer a detailed phylogeny. Together with comprehensive data on the parasites' native host ranges, associations between phylogenetic lineages and host specificity are tested. Within the two currently recognized species of O. sect. Gymnocaulis, seven strongly supported clades were found. While commonly sympatric, members of these clades each had unique host associations. Strong support for cryptic host-specific diversity was also found in sect. Nothaphyllon, while other taxonomic species were well supported. We also find strong evidence for multiple amphitropical dispersals from central North America into South America. Host-switching is an important driver of diversification in western hemisphere broomrapes, where host specificity has been grossly underestimated. More broadly, host specificity and host-switching probably play fundamental roles in the speciation of parasitic plants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labate, Joanne A; Robertson, Larry D

    2012-08-07

    Many highly beneficial traits (e.g. disease or abiotic stress resistance) have been transferred into crops through crosses with their wild relatives. The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and wild species genes have been extensively used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopersicum and its closest wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile. In order to better understand patterns of S. lycopersicum diversity, we sequenced 47 markers ranging in length from 130 to 1200 bp (total of 24 kb) in genotypes of S. lycopersicum and wild tomato species S. pimpinellifolium, Solanum arcanum, Solanum peruvianum, Solanum pennellii and Solanum habrochaites. Between six and twelve genotypes were comparatively analyzed per marker. Several of the markers had previously been hypothesized as carrying wild species alleles within S. lycopersicum, i.e., cryptic introgressions. Each marker was mapped with high confidence (etomato whole genome shotgun chromosomes (SL2.40) database. Neighbor-joining trees showed high mean bootstrap support (86.8 ± 2.34%) for distinguishing red-fruited from green-fruited taxa for 38 of the markers. Hybridization and parsimony splits networks, genomic map positions of markers relative to documented introgressions, and historical origins of accessions were used to interpret evolutionary patterns at nine markers with putatively introgressed alleles. Of the 47 genetic markers surveyed in this study, four were involved in linkage drag on chromosome 9 during introgression breeding, while alleles at five markers apparently originated from natural hybridization with S. pimpinellifolium and were associated with primitive genotypes of S. lycopersicum. The positive identification of introgressed genes within crop species such as S. lycopersicum will help

  14. Determinants of dietary supplement use - healthy individuals use dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2015-01-01

    influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54 948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements...... and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation...... to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher...

  15. Intronic L1 retrotransposons and nested genes cause transcriptional interference by inducing intron retention, exonization and cryptic polyadenylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristel Kaer

    Full Text Available Transcriptional interference has been recently recognized as an unexpectedly complex and mostly negative regulation of genes. Despite a relatively few studies that emerged in recent years, it has been demonstrated that a readthrough transcription derived from one gene can influence the transcription of another overlapping or nested gene. However, the molecular effects resulting from this interaction are largely unknown.Using in silico chromosome walking, we searched for prematurely terminated transcripts bearing signatures of intron retention or exonization of intronic sequence at their 3' ends upstream to human L1 retrotransposons, protein-coding and noncoding nested genes. We demonstrate that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s (or other repeated DNAs and nested genes could be characterized by intron retention, forced exonization and cryptic polyadenylation. These molecular effects were revealed from the analysis of endogenous transcripts derived from different cell lines and tissues and confirmed by the expression of three minigenes in cell culture. While intron retention and exonization were comparably observed in introns upstream to L1s, forced exonization was preferentially detected in nested genes. Transcriptional interference induced by L1 or nested genes was dependent on the presence or absence of cryptic splice sites, affected the inclusion or exclusion of the upstream exon and the use of cryptic polyadenylation signals.Our results suggest that transcriptional interference induced by intronic L1s and nested genes could influence the transcription of the large number of genes in normal as well as in tumor tissues. Therefore, this type of interference could have a major impact on the regulation of the host gene expression.

  16. An analysis of species boundaries and biogeographic patterns in a cryptic species complex: the rotifer--Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suatoni, Elizabeth; Vicario, Saverio; Rice, Sean; Snell, Terry; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2006-10-01

    Since the advent of molecular phylogenetics, there is increasing evidence that many small aquatic and marine invertebrates--once believed to be single, cosmopolitan species--are in fact cryptic species complexes. Although the application of the biological species concept is central to the identification of species boundaries in these cryptic complexes, tests of reproductive isolation do not frequently accompany phylogenetic studies. Because different species concepts generally identify different boundaries in cryptic complexes, studies that apply multiple species concepts are needed to gain a more detailed understanding of patterns of diversification in these taxa. Here we explore different methods of empirically delimiting species boundaries in the salt water rotifer Brachionus plicatilis by comparing reproductive data (i.e., the traditional biological species concept) to phylogenetic data (the genealogical species concept). Based on a high degree of molecular sequence divergence and largely concordant genetic patterns in COI and ITS1, the genealogical species hypothesis indicates the existence of at least 14 species--the highest estimate for the group thus far. A test of the genealogical species concept with biological crosses shows a fairly high level of concordance, depending on the degree of reproductive success used to draw boundaries. The convergence of species concepts in this group suggests that many of the species within the group may be old. Although the diversity of the group is higher than previously understood, geographic distributions remain broad. Efficient passive dispersal has resulted in global distributions for many species with some evidence of isolation by distance over large geographic scales. These patterns concur with expectations that micro-meiofauna (0.1-1mm) have biogeographies intermediate to microbial organisms and large vertebrates. Sympatry of genetically distant strains is common.

  17. A Dietary Feedback System for the Delivery of Consistent Personalized Dietary Advice in the Web-Based Multicenter Food4Me Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Hannah; Walsh, Marianne C; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; McGirr, Caroline; Daly, E J; O'Riordan, Richard; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Kolossa, Silvia; Hartwig, Kai; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsirigoti, Lydia; Lambrinou, Christina P; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Daniel, Hannelore; Lovegrove, Julie A; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Michael J; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-06-30

    Despite numerous healthy eating campaigns, the prevalence of diets high in saturated fatty acids, sugar, and salt and low in fiber, fruit, and vegetables remains high. With more people than ever accessing the Internet, Web-based dietary assessment instruments have the potential to promote healthier dietary behaviors via personalized dietary advice. The objectives of this study were to develop a dietary feedback system for the delivery of consistent personalized dietary advice in a multicenter study and to examine the impact of automating the advice system. The development of the dietary feedback system included 4 components: (1) designing a system for categorizing nutritional intakes; (2) creating a method for prioritizing 3 nutrient-related goals for subsequent targeted dietary advice; (3) constructing decision tree algorithms linking data on nutritional intake to feedback messages; and (4) developing personal feedback reports. The system was used manually by researchers to provide personalized nutrition advice based on dietary assessment to 369 participants during the Food4Me randomized controlled trial, with an automated version developed on completion of the study. Saturated fatty acid, salt, and dietary fiber were most frequently selected as nutrient-related goals across the 7 centers. Average agreement between the manual and automated systems, in selecting 3 nutrient-related goals for personalized dietary advice across the centers, was highest for nutrient-related goals 1 and 2 and lower for goal 3, averaging at 92%, 87%, and 63%, respectively. Complete agreement between the 2 systems for feedback advice message selection averaged at 87% across the centers. The dietary feedback system was used to deliver personalized dietary advice within a multi-country study. Overall, there was good agreement between the manual and automated feedback systems, giving promise to the use of automated systems for personalizing dietary advice. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01530139

  18. A new cryptic species and review of the east-Andean leaf chafer genus Mesomerodon Ohaus, 1905 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Matthias; Jameson, Mary L; Stone, Rachel L

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropical scarab beetle genus Mesomerodon Ohaus (Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Rutelini) is distributed in the western (lowland) Amazonian region from Colombia to Bolivia. Based on our research, the genus includes three species including a new cryptic species from Ecuador. We use niche modeling to predict potential suitable habitat and identify environmental factors associated with the distribution of Mesomerodon species. We characterize the genus, provide a key to species, diagnose each species, describe a new species, provide spatial and temporal distributions, and discuss distributions of the species in relation to Amazonian landscape biodiversity.

  19. Western Dietary Pattern Increases, and Prudent Dietary Pattern Decreases, Risk of Incident Diverticulitis in a Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Cao, Yin; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2017-04-01

    Dietary fiber is implicated as a risk factor for diverticulitis. Analyses of dietary patterns may provide information on risk beyond those of individual foods or nutrients. We examined whether major dietary patterns are associated with risk of incident diverticulitis. We performed a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men who were free of diverticulitis and known diverticulosis in 1986 (baseline) using data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Each study participant completed a detailed medical and dietary questionnaire at baseline. We sent supplemental questionnaires to men reporting incident diverticulitis on biennial follow-up questionnaires. We assessed diet every 4 years using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Western (high in red meat, refined grains, and high-fat dairy) and prudent (high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains) dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Follow-up time accrued from the date of return of the baseline questionnaire in 1986 until a diagnosis of diverticulitis, diverticulosis or diverticular bleeding; death; or December 31, 2012. The primary end point was incident diverticulitis. During 894,468 person years of follow-up, we identified 1063 incident cases of diverticulitis. After adjustment for other risk factors, men in the highest quintile of Western dietary pattern score had a multivariate hazard ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.20-1.99) for diverticulitis compared to men in the lowest quintile. High vs low prudent scores were associated with decreased risk of diverticulitis (multivariate hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60-0.91). The association between dietary patterns and diverticulitis was predominantly attributable to intake of fiber and red meat. In a prospective cohort study of 46,295 men, a Western dietary pattern was associated with increased risk of diverticulitis, and a prudent pattern was associated with decreased risk. These data can guide dietary interventions for the prevention of

  20. Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara A Stanley

    Full Text Available The Bombus sensu stricto species complex is a widespread group of cryptic bumblebee species which are important pollinators of many crops and wild plants. These cryptic species have, until now, largely been grouped together in ecological studies, and so little is known about their individual colony densities, foraging ranges or habitat requirements, which can be influenced by land use at a landscape scale. We used mass-flowering oilseed rape fields as locations to sample bees of this complex, as well as the second most common visitor to oilseed rape B. lapidarius, and molecular RFLP methods to distinguish between the cryptic species. We then used microsatellite genotyping to identify sisters and estimate colony densities, and related both proportions of cryptic species and their colony densities to the composition of the landscape surrounding the fields. We found B. lucorum was the most common member of the complex present in oilseed rape followed by B. terrestris. B. cryptarum was also present in all but one site, with higher proportions found in the east of the study area. High numbers of bumblebee colonies were estimated to be using oilseed rape fields as a forage resource, with B. terrestris colony numbers higher than previous estimates from non-mass-flowering fields. We also found that the cryptic species responded differently to surrounding landscape composition: both relative proportions of B. cryptarum in samples and colony densities of B. lucorum were negatively associated with the amount of arable land in the landscape, while proportions and colony densities of other species did not respond to landscape variables at the scale measured. This suggests that the cryptic species have different ecological requirements (which may be scale-dependent and that oilseed rape can be an important forage resource for many colonies of bumblebees. Given this, we recommend sustainable management of this crop to benefit bumblebees.

  1. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  2. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simó-Riudalbas

    Full Text Available The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once

  3. Dietary Patterns and Fractures Risk in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Colica

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeAlthough the role of dietary factors in the prevention of bone loss and fractures has been investigated in many studies, few studies have examined the association between dietary patterns and total body bone density. Our aim was to determine the relations between dietary patterns and whole-body bone mineral density (WB-BMD and the association between dietary patterns, fractures, and multiple fractures in the elderly.MethodsThis cross-sectional study included 177 individuals aged ≥65 years. A dual X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed to measure BMD. Dietary patterns were ascertained by a combination of dietary intake assessment and principal components analysis.ResultsOnly three dietary patterns correlated with whole-body bone density. The multivariate-adjusted mean bone density across tertiles of these dietary patterns showed that the highest tertile of both the patterns 1 and 2 had a significantly higher bone density than the lowest tertile (pattern 1: 1.021 ± 0.01 and 1.070 ± 0.01 g/cm2 for T1 and T3, respectively; p = 0.043; pattern 2: 1.023 ± 0.01, and 1.081 ± 0.01 g/cm2 for T1 and T3, respectively; p = 0.003. We also find significant gender difference in these results. The highest adherence to the dietary pattern 5 was associated with decreased odds of having fractures (OR = 0.20, p = 0.009, and adherence to the pattern 1 was negatively associated with multiple fractures.ConclusionA high adherence to the dietary pattern 1 (high intake of grains, fish and olive oil was associated with a high BMD and a low number of fractures. The highest adherence to the dietary pattern 5 (legumes and wine was associated with decreased odds of having fractures. Our finding would suggest a potential bone-preserving properties of specific dietary patterns in the elderly.

  4. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.79.16510 12427 DIETARY CALCIUM INTAKE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    design with both descriptive and analytic components. A total of 170 ... data were used to convert dietary intake into nutrient content. The mean (SD) ... urban centers or those wearing clothing that concealed most of the skin from sun exposure.

  5. Dietary Determinants of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chu, Lisa W

    2005-01-01

    .... Epidemiologic studies suggest that dietary factors may be important in the etiology of PCa. The objective of our research is to determine how nutritional compounds genistein, betasitosterol (STT...

  6. Dietary strategies to treat hyperhomocysteinaemia based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is implicated in various diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Several conditions influence the concentration of homocysteine (Hcy), including demographic, genetic and lifestyle factors. With regard to the latter, dietary components may be manipulated as Hcy can be remethylated ...

  7. Dietary inhibitors of histone deacetylases in intestinal immunity anc homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilderink, R.; Verseijden, C.; de Jonge, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are integral players in homeostasis of immunity and host defense in the gut and are under influence of the intestinal microbiome. Microbial metabolites and dietary components, including short chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate, and butyrate, SCFAs), have an

  8. Vitamins, carotenoids, dietary fiber, and the risk of gastric carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Numerous components of fruit and vegetables are considered to decrease the risk of gastric carcinoma. In the current prospective study, the authors examined the association between the intake of vitamins, carotenoids, and dietary fiber and vitamin supplement use and the incidence rate of

  9. Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Ocké, Marga C; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Peeters, Petra H M; Bamia, Christina; Chloptsios, Yiannis; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Slimani, Nadia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need to gain insight into prevailing eating patterns and their health effects is evident. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and their relation to total mortality in older Dutch women. DESIGN: A principal component analysis of 22 food groups was used to identify

  10. Cryptic species in the nuisance midge Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse (Diptera: Chironomidae) and the status of Tripedilum Kieffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, Peter S; Martin, Jon; Spies, Martin

    2016-02-15

    Polypedilum nubifer (Skuse, 1889), originally described from Australia, is an apparently widespread species of Chironomidae (Diptera) that can attain nuisance densities in some eutrophic water bodies. Appropriate management depends upon the identity and ability to distinguish from potential cryptic taxa. A morphological study of larvae, pupae and adults of both sexes confirmed P. nubifer as widely distributed and frequently abundant, but also revealed two previously cryptic species of limited distribution in northern Australia. These species are described as new and illustrated in all stages here. Polypedilum quasinubifer Cranston sp. n. is described from north-west Queensland, Australia and also from Thailand and Singapore. Polypedilum paranubifer Cranston sp. n. is known only from retention ponds of a uranium mine in Northern Territory, Australia. Unusual morphological features of P. nubifer including alternate Lauterborn organs on the larval antenna, cephalic tubules on the pupa and frontal tubercles on the adult head are present in both new species as well. Newly slide-mounted types of Polypedilum pelostolum Kieffer, 1912 (lectotype designated here) confirm synonymy to Chironomus nubifer Skuse, 1889, examined also as newly-slide mounted types. Reviewed plus new evidence does not support recognition of Tripedilum Kieffer, 1921 as a separate taxon; therefore, Tripedilum is returned to junior synonymy with Polypedilum s. str.

  11. Diagnosis of Familial Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome due to a Paternal Cryptic Chromosomal Rearrangement by Conventional and Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Venegas-Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarrays is necessary for the identification of cryptic rearrangements in the diagnosis of chromosomal syndromes. We report two siblings, a boy of 9 years and 9 months of age and his 7-years- and 5-month-old sister, with the classic Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS phenotype. Using high-resolution GTG- and NOR-banding karyotypes, as well as FISH analysis, we characterized a pure 4p deletion in both sibs and a balanced rearrangement in their father, consisting in an insertion of 4p material within a nucleolar organizing region of chromosome 15. Copy number variant (CNV analysis using SNP arrays showed that both siblings have a similar size of 4p deletion (~6.5 Mb. Our results strongly support the need for conventional cytogenetic and FISH analysis, as well as high-density microarray mapping for the optimal characterization of the genetic imbalance in patients with WHS; parents must always be studied for recognizing cryptic balanced chromosomal rearrangements for an adequate genetic counseling.

  12. Diagnosis of Familial Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome due to a Paternal Cryptic Chromosomal Rearrangement by Conventional and Molecular Cytogenetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Vega, Carlos A.; Zepeda, Luis M.; Garduño-Zarazúa, Luz M.; Berumen, Jaime; Kofman, Susana; Cervantes, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    The use of conventional cytogenetic techniques in combination with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays is necessary for the identification of cryptic rearrangements in the diagnosis of chromosomal syndromes. We report two siblings, a boy of 9 years and 9 months of age and his 7-years- and 5-month-old sister, with the classic Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) phenotype. Using high-resolution GTG- and NOR-banding karyotypes, as well as FISH analysis, we characterized a pure 4p deletion in both sibs and a balanced rearrangement in their father, consisting in an insertion of 4p material within a nucleolar organizing region of chromosome 15. Copy number variant (CNV) analysis using SNP arrays showed that both siblings have a similar size of 4p deletion (~6.5 Mb). Our results strongly support the need for conventional cytogenetic and FISH analysis, as well as high-density microarray mapping for the optimal characterization of the genetic imbalance in patients with WHS; parents must always be studied for recognizing cryptic balanced chromosomal rearrangements for an adequate genetic counseling. PMID:23484094

  13. The Highly Divergent Mitochondrial Genomes Indicate That the Booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) Is a Cryptic Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shiqian; Yang, Qianqian; Li, Hu; Song, Fan; Stejskal, Václav; Opit, George P; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Zhihong; Shao, Renfu

    2018-03-02

    The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila is an important storage pest worldwide. The mitochondrial (mt) genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China) of the L. bostrychophila comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in bilateral animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of L. bostrychophila , however, comprise five and seven chromosomes, respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in L. bostrychophila , and whether L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species, we sequenced the mt genomes of six strains of asexual L. bostrychophila collected from different locations in China, Croatia, and the United States. The mt genomes of all six asexual strains of L. bostrychophila have two chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mt genome sequences divided nine strains of L. bostrychophila into four groups. Each group has a distinct mt genome organization and substantial sequence divergence (48.7-87.4%) from other groups. Furthermore, the seven asexual strains of L. bostrychophila , including the published Beibei strain, are more closely related to two other species of booklice, L. paeta and L. sculptilimacula , than to the sexual strains of L. bostrychophila Our results revealed highly divergent mt genomes in the booklouse, L. bostrychophila , and indicate that L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species. Copyright © 2018 Feng et al.

  14. The Highly Divergent Mitochondrial Genomes Indicate That the Booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae Is a Cryptic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqian Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila is an important storage pest worldwide. The mitochondrial (mt genome of an asexual strain (Beibei, China of the L. bostrychophila comprises two chromosomes; each chromosome contains approximate half of the 37 genes typically found in bilateral animals. The mt genomes of two sexual strains of L. bostrychophila, however, comprise five and seven chromosomes, respectively; each chromosome contains one to six genes. To understand mt genome evolution in L. bostrychophila, and whether L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species, we sequenced the mt genomes of six strains of asexual L. bostrychophila collected from different locations in China, Croatia, and the United States. The mt genomes of all six asexual strains of L. bostrychophila have two chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis of mt genome sequences divided nine strains of L. bostrychophila into four groups. Each group has a distinct mt genome organization and substantial sequence divergence (48.7–87.4% from other groups. Furthermore, the seven asexual strains of L. bostrychophila, including the published Beibei strain, are more closely related to two other species of booklice, L. paeta and L. sculptilimacula, than to the sexual strains of L. bostrychophila. Our results revealed highly divergent mt genomes in the booklouse, L. bostrychophila, and indicate that L. bostrychophila is a cryptic species.

  15. Ecological niche modelling and nDNA sequencing support a new, morphologically cryptic beetle species unveiled by DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Porch, Nick; Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael

    2011-02-09

    DNA sequencing techniques used to estimate biodiversity, such as DNA barcoding, may reveal cryptic species. However, disagreements between barcoding and morphological data have already led to controversy. Species delimitation should therefore not be based on mtDNA alone. Here, we explore the use of nDNA and bioclimatic modelling in a new species of aquatic beetle revealed by mtDNA sequence data. The aquatic beetle fauna of Australia is characterised by high degrees of endemism, including local radiations such as the genus Antiporus. Antiporus femoralis was previously considered to exist in two disjunct, but morphologically indistinguishable populations in south-western and south-eastern Australia. We constructed a phylogeny of Antiporus and detected a deep split between these populations. Diagnostic characters from the highly variable nuclear protein encoding arginine kinase gene confirmed the presence of two isolated populations. We then used ecological niche modelling to examine the climatic niche characteristics of the two populations. All results support the status of the two populations as distinct species. We describe the south-western species as Antiporus occidentalis sp.n. In addition to nDNA sequence data and extended use of mitochondrial sequences, ecological niche modelling has great potential for delineating morphologically cryptic species.

  16. The complex evolutionary history and phylogeography of Caridina typus (Crustacea: Decapoda): long-distance dispersal and cryptic allopatric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Samuel C; Pepato, Almir R; von Rintelen, Thomas; von Rintelen, Kristina; Page, Timothy J; Freitag, Hendrik; de Bruyn, Mark

    2017-08-22

    The evolutionary history of the old, diverse freshwater shrimp genus Caridina is still poorly understood, despite its vast distribution - from Africa to Polynesia. Here, we used nuclear and mitochondrial DNA to infer the phylogeographic and evolutionary history of C. typus, which is one of only four species distributed across the entire range of the genus. Despite this species' potential for high levels of gene flow, questions have been raised regarding its phylogeographic structure and taxonomic status. We identified three distinct lineages that likely diverged in the Miocene. Molecular dating and ancestral range reconstructions are congruent with C. typus' early dispersal to Africa, possibly mediated by the Miocene Indian Ocean Equatorial Jet, followed by back dispersal to Australasia after the Jet's closure. Furthermore, several different species delimitation methods indicate each lineage represents a distinct (cryptic) species, contradicting current morphospecies delimitation of a single C. typus taxon. The evolutionary history of C. typus lineages is complex, in which ancient oceanic current systems and (currently unrecognised) speciation events preceded secondary sympatry of these cryptic species.

  17. Molecular markers reveal spatially segregated cryptic species in a critically endangered fish, the common skate (Dipturus batis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew M; Sims, David W; Cotterell, Stephen P; El Nagar, Aliya; Ellis, Jim R; Lynghammar, Arve; McHugh, Matthew; Neat, Francis C; Pade, Nicolas G; Queiroz, Nuno; Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Rapp, Toby; Wearmouth, Victoria J; Genner, Martin J

    2010-05-22

    Many sharks and skates are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their large size, slow growth, late maturity and low fecundity. In Europe dramatic population declines have taken place in common skate (Dipturus batis L.), one of the largest demersal fish in regional shelf seas, leading to extirpations from substantial parts of its former range. Here we report the discovery of cryptic species in common skate collected from the northeast Atlantic continental shelf. Data from nuclear microsatellite markers indicated two clearly distinct clades and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrated monophyly of each one of them. Capture locations showed evidence of strong spatial segregation, with one taxon occurring mainly in waters off the southern British Isles and around Rockall, while the other was restricted to more northerly shelf waters. These apparently cryptic species showed overlapping substrate and depth preferences, but distributional limits were closely related to temperature gradients, potentially indicating thermal limits to their distributions. This discovery of hidden diversity within a large, critically endangered marine vertebrate demonstrates how marine biodiversity can be underestimated, even in such a relatively well-studied and heavily exploited region.

  18. Molecular markers reveal spatially segregated cryptic species in a critically endangered fish, the common skate (Dipturus batis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Andrew M.; Sims, David W.; Cotterell, Stephen P.; El Nagar, Aliya; Ellis, Jim R.; Lynghammar, Arve; McHugh, Matthew; Neat, Francis C.; Pade, Nicolas G.; Queiroz, Nuno; Serra-Pereira, Bárbara; Rapp, Toby; Wearmouth, Victoria J.; Genner, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    Many sharks and skates are particularly vulnerable to overfishing because of their large size, slow growth, late maturity and low fecundity. In Europe dramatic population declines have taken place in common skate (Dipturus batis L.), one of the largest demersal fish in regional shelf seas, leading to extirpations from substantial parts of its former range. Here we report the discovery of cryptic species in common skate collected from the northeast Atlantic continental shelf. Data from nuclear microsatellite markers indicated two clearly distinct clades and phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences demonstrated monophyly of each one of them. Capture locations showed evidence of strong spatial segregation, with one taxon occurring mainly in waters off the southern British Isles and around Rockall, while the other was restricted to more northerly shelf waters. These apparently cryptic species showed overlapping substrate and depth preferences, but distributional limits were closely related to temperature gradients, potentially indicating thermal limits to their distributions. This discovery of hidden diversity within a large, critically endangered marine vertebrate demonstrates how marine biodiversity can be underestimated, even in such a relatively well-studied and heavily exploited region. PMID:20106849

  19. Cryptic diversity and population genetic structure in the rare, endemic, forest-obligate, slender geckos of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Cameron D; Dececchi, T Alex; Merkord, Chris L; Davis, Drew R; Christiani, Tony J; Brown, Rafe M

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies of forest lizards in Southeast Asia have highlighted spectacular morphological and cryptic genetic diversity in several poorly known clades. Unfortunately, many of the included species have microhabitat preferences for forested environments, and therefore they are threatened by extensive forest destruction throughout the region. This is particularly true in the Philippines, an archipelago with a strikingly high proportion (84%) of endemic geckos. Abundances inferred from historical museum collections suggests that we are in a critical period where apparent declines in population viability and species' abundance have taken place faster than the growth in our understanding of alpha diversity. This phenomenon is exemplified in the exceedingly rare Philippine slender forest geckos of the genus Pseudogekko. Most of the known species are rarely encountered by field biologists, and species boundaries are unclear; this poor state of knowledge impedes effective conservation measures. Using the first multilocus phylogeny for these taxa, and phylogenetic and population genetic approaches, we elucidate evolutionary lineages and delimit species-level conservation targets in this unique radiation of endemic Philippine geckos. The results support the presence of widespread cryptic diversity in the genus, providing a framework for the re-evaluation of conservation priorities aimed at protecting these rare, forest-obligate species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cross-shelf investigation of coral reef cryptic benthic organisms reveals diversity patterns of the hidden majority

    KAUST Repository

    Pearman, John K.

    2018-05-18

    Coral reefs harbor diverse assemblages of organisms yet the majority of this diversity is hidden within the three dimensional structure of the reef and neglected using standard visual surveys. This study uses Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) and amplicon sequencing methodologies, targeting mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 18S rRNA genes, to investigate changes in the cryptic reef biodiversity. ARMS, deployed at 11 sites across a near- to off-shore gradient in the Red Sea were dominated by Porifera (sessile fraction), Arthropoda and Annelida (mobile fractions). The two primer sets detected different taxa lists, but patterns in community composition and structure were similar. While the microhabitat of the ARMS deployment affected the community structure, a clear cross-shelf gradient was observed for all fractions investigated. The partitioning of beta-diversity revealed that replacement (i.e. the substitution of species) made the highest contribution with richness playing a smaller role. Hence, different reef habitats across the shelf are relevant to regional diversity, as they harbor different communities, a result with clear implications for the design of Marine Protected Areas. ARMS can be vital tools to assess biodiversity patterns in the generally neglected but species-rich cryptic benthos, providing invaluable information for the management and conservation of hard-bottomed habitats over local and global scales.

  1. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: the Ohsaki Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Yumi; Chou, Wan-Ting; Tomata, Yasutake; Sugawara, Yumi; Kakizaki, Masako; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in Japanese. We prospectively assessed the association between dietary patterns among the Japanese and the risk of colorectal cancer. Dietary information was collected from 44,097 Japanese men and women aged 40-79 years without a history of cancer at the baseline in 1994. During 11 years of follow-up, we documented 854 cases of colorectal cancer, which included 554 cases of colon cancer and 323 cases of rectal cancer. Factor analysis (principal component analysis) based on a validated food frequency questionnaire identified three dietary patterns: (1) a Japanese dietary pattern, (2) an "animal food" dietary pattern, and (3) a high-dairy, high-fruit-and-vegetable, low-alcohol (DFA) dietary pattern. After adjustment for potential confounders, the DFA pattern was inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (hazard ratio of the highest quartile vs the lowest, 0.76; 95 % confidence interval 0.60-0.97; p for trend = 0.02). When colon and rectal cancers were separated, the inverse association between the DFA pattern and cancer risk was observed for rectal cancer (p for trend = 0.003), but not for colon cancer (p for trend = 0.43). No apparent association was observed for either the Japanese dietary pattern or the "animal food" dietary pattern. The DFA dietary pattern was found to be inversely associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This association was observed for rectal cancer, but not for colon cancer.

  2. Cryptic diversity and deep divergence in an upper Amazonian leaflitter frog, Eleutherodactylus ockendeni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila José A

    2007-12-01

    unsuspected cryptic species diversity within the common leaflitter frog E. ockendeni, with at least three different species in Ecuador. While these clades are clearly geographically circumscribed, they do not coincide with any existing landscape barriers. Divergences are ancient, from the Miocene, before the most dramatic mountain building in the Ecuadorean Andes. Therefore, this diversity is not a product of Pleistocene refuges. Our research coupled with other studies suggests that species richness in the upper Amazon is drastically underestimated by current inventories based on morphospecies.

  3. Cryptic Role of Zero-Valent Sulfur in Metal and Metalloid Geochemistry in Euxinic Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helz, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Natural waters that are isolated from the atmosphere in confined aquifers, euxinic basins and sediment pore waters often become sulfidic. These waters are conventionally described simply as reducing environments. But because nature does not constrain their exposure to reducing equivalents (e.g. from organic matter) and oxidizing equivalents (e.g. from Fe,Mn oxides), these reducing environments in fact vary cryptically in their redox characteristics. The implications for trace metal and metalloid cycles are only beginning to be explored. The activity of zero-valent sulfur (aS0), a virtual thermodynamic property, is a potentially useful index for describing this variation. At a particular temperature and ionic strength, aS0 can be quantified from knowledge of pH and the total S(0) to total S(-II) ratio. Although data are incomplete, the deep waters of the Black Sea (aS0 ca. 0.3) appear to be more reducing than the deep waters of the Cariaco Basin (aS0 ca. 0.5) even though both are perennially sulfidic. An apparent manifestation is a greater preponderance of greigite relative to mackinawite in the Cariaco Basin. Interestingly, greigite is stable relative to mackinawite in both basins but predominates only at the higher aS0. Values of aS0 in sulfidic natural waters span the range over which Hg-polysulfide complexes gain predominance over Hg sulfide complexes. Competition between these ligands is thought to influence biological methylation, mercury's route into aquatic and human food chains. In sulfidic deep ground waters, the redox state and consequent mobility of As, a global human hazard, will depend on aS0. At intermediate sulfide concentrations, higher aS0 favors more highly charged and thus less mobile As(V) species relative to As(III) species despite the overall reducing characteristics of such waters. Helz, G.R. (2014) Activity of zero-valent sulfur in sulfidic natural waters. Geochem. Trans. In press.

  4. Adding to Yersinia enterocolitica Gene Pool Diversity: Two Cryptic Plasmids from a Biotype 1A Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lepka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the nucleotide sequence of two novel cryptic plasmids (4357 and 14 662 base pairs carried by a Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 1A strain isolated from pork. As distinguished from most biotype 1A strains, this isolate, designated 07-04449, exhibited adherence to eukaryotic cells. The smaller plasmid pYe4449-1 carries five attributable open reading frames (ORFs encoding the first CcdA/CcdB-like antitoxin/toxin system described for a Yersinia plasmid, a RepA-like replication initiation protein, and mobilizing factors MobA and MobC. The deduced amino acid sequences showed highest similarity to proteins described in Salmonella (CcdA/B, Klebsiella (RepA, and Plesiomonas (MobA/C indicating genomic fluidity among members of the Enterobacteriaceae. One additional ORF with unknown function, termed ORF5, was identified with an ancestry distinct from the rest of the plasmid. While the C+G content of ORF5 is 38.3%, the rest of pYe4449-1 shows a C+G content of 55.7%. The C+G content of the larger plasmid pYe4449-2 (54.9% was similar to that of pYe4449-1 (53.7% and differed from that of the Y. enterocolitica genome (47.3%. Of the 14 ORFs identified on pYe4449-2, only six ORFs showed significant similarity to database entries. For three of these ORFs likely functions could be ascribed: a TnpR-like resolvase and a phage replication protein, localized each on a low C+G island, and DNA primase TraC. Two ORFs of pYe4449-2, ORF3 and ORF7, seem to encode secretable proteins. Epitope-tagging of ORF3 revealed protein expression at 4°C but not at or above 27°C suggesting adaptation to a habitat outside swine. The hypothetical protein encoded by ORF7 is the member of a novel repeat protein family sharing the DxxGN(xnDxxGN motif. Our findings illustrate the exceptional gene pool diversity within the species Y. enterocolitica driven by horizontal gene transfer events.

  5. Development of a Dietary Index to Assess Overall Diet Quality for Chinese School-Aged Children: The Chinese Children Dietary Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guo; Duan, Ruonan; Kranz, Sibylle; Libuda, Lars; Zhang, Lishi

    2016-04-01

    A composite measure of diet quality is preferable to an index of nutrients, food groups, or health-promoting behaviors in dietary assessment. However, to date, such a tool for Chinese children is lacking. Based on the current Chinese Dietary Guidelines and Dietary Reference Intakes, a dietary index for Chinese school-aged children, the Chinese Children Dietary Index was developed to assess overall diet quality among children in South China. Dietary data were recorded using 24-hour recalls among 1,719 children aged 7 to 15 years between March and June 2013. Inactivity data and sociodemographic information were also collected. The Chinese Children Dietary Index included 16 components, which incorporated nutrients, foods/food groups, and health-promoting behaviors. The range of possible Chinese Children Dietary Index scores was 0 to 160, with a higher score indicating better diet quality. Pearson/Spearman correlation was used to assess relative validity using correlations between total Chinese Children Dietary Index score and age, body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m(2)), inactivity, whole-grain intake, frequency of fried-foods intake, nutrient adequacy ratios for energy intake and 12 nutrients not included in the Chinese Children Dietary Index, and the mean adequacy ratio. Finally, a stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to indicate the factors correlated with Chinese Children Dietary Index. Mean Chinese Children Dietary Index score of this sample was 88.1 points (range=34.2 to 137.8), the Chinese Children Dietary Index score of girls was higher than that of boys and decreased with higher age. Children with higher Chinese Children Dietary Index had lower body mass index and spent less time being inactive. Positive associations were observed between Chinese Children Dietary Index and the majority of nutrient adequacy ratios and the mean adequacy ratio. Age, paternal educational level, and family size were correlated with Chinese Children Dietary

  6. National Children's Study Dietary Assessment Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Children's Study dietary assessment workshop was an opportunity for experts in dietary assessment methodology to gather and discuss the current state of knowledge about methodologies used to assess dietary intake during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence.

  7. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Food Home Food Resources for You Consumers Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know Share Tweet Linkedin ... and nutrients you personally need. What are dietary supplements? Dietary supplements include such ingredients as vitamins, minerals, ...

  8. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  9. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Melville

    Full Text Available Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora, which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1 revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  10. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  11. Depletion, cryptic metasomatism, and modal metasomatism (refertilization) of Variscan lithospheric mantle: Evidence from major elements, trace elements, and Sr-Nd-Os isotopes in a Saxothuringian garnet peridotite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medaris Jr., L. G.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Jelínek, E.; Michels, Z. D.; Erban, V.; Kotková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 226, SI (2015), s. 81-97 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : garnet peridotite * Variscan * Bohemian Massif * Sr-Nd-Os isotopes * depletion cryptic metasomatism and refertilization * P-T conditions Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 3.723, year: 2015

  12. Morphological, molecular and biological evidence reveal two cryptic species in Mecinus janthinus Germar (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a successful biological control agent of Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (Lamiales, Plantaginaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo Tosevski; Roberto Caldara; Jelena Jovic; Gerardo Hernandez-Vera; Cosimo Baviera; Andre Gassmann; Brent C. Emerson

    2011-01-01

    A combined morphological, molecular and biological study shows that the weevil species presently named Mecinus janthinus is actually composed of two different cryptic species: M. janthinus Germar, 1821 and M. janthiniformis Tosevski & Caldara sp.n. These species are morphologically distinguishable from each other by a few very subtle morphological characters. On...

  13. Cryptic species of parasitoids attacking the soybean aphid (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in Asia: Binodoxys communis (Gahan) and Binodoxys koreanus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Desneux, N.; Starý, Petr; Delebecque, C. J.; Gariepy, T. D.; Barta, R. J.; Hoelmer, K. A.; Heimpel, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2009), s. 925-936 ISSN 0013-8746 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : cryptic species * Binodoxys communnis * Binodoxys koreanus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2009

  14. THE ENDOGENOUS BACILLUS-SUBTILIS (NATTO) PLASMIDS PTA1015 AND PTA1040 CONTAIN SIGNAL PEPTIDASE-ENCODING GENES - IDENTIFICATION OF A NEW STRUCTURAL MODULE ON CRYPTIC PLASMIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIJER, WJJ; DEJONG, A; BEA, G; WISMAN, A; TJALSMA, H; VENEMA, G; BRON, S; MAARTEN, J; VANDIJL, JM

    Various strains of Bacillus subtilis (natto) contain small cryptic plasmids that replicate via the rolling-circle mechanism. Like plasmids from other Gram-positive bacteria, these plasmids are composed of several distinct structural modules. A new structural module was identified on the B. subtilis

  15. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...

  16. Validation of a digital photographic method for assessment of dietary quality of school lunch sandwiches brought from home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is a challenge to assess children’s dietary intake. The digital photographic method (DPM) may be an objective method that can overcome some of these challenges. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of a DPM to assess the quality of dietary....... The lunches were photographed using a standardised DPM. From the digital images, the dietary components were estimated by a trained image analyst using weights or household measures and the dietary quality was assessed using a validated Meal Index of Dietary Quality (Meal IQ). The dietary components...... and the Meal IQ obtained from the digital images were validated against the objective weighed foods of the school lunch sandwiches. To determine interrater reliability, the digital images were evaluated by a second image analyst. Results: Correlation coefficients between the DPM and the weighed foods ranged...

  17. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  18. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  19. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet.

  20. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  1. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary adherence in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    This article describes adherence to a low-fat dietary pattern (less than 20% energy from fat, five or more fruit/vegetable and six or more grain servings daily) in Years 1 and 5 of the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, which was designed to examine the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on risk of breast and colorectal cancers and other chronic diseases in postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to a low-fat dietary intervention arm (40%, n=19,542) or a usual diet control arm (60%, n=29,294). Women in the intervention arm completed 18 group sessions during the first year, followed by quarterly annual maintenance sessions. Adherence was assessed as control minus intervention (C-I) group differences in percent total energy from fat as estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. Based on these self-reported dietary data, mean C-I was 10.9 percentage points of energy from fat at Year 1, decreasing to 9.0 at Year 5. Factors associated with poorer adherence were being older, being African American or Hispanic (compared with white), having low income, and being obese. Group session attendance was strongly associated with better dietary adherence. There are many limitations of self-reported dietary data, particularly related to social desirability and intervention-associated bias. Nonetheless, these data indicate that long-term dietary change was achieved in this clinical trial setting and reinforce the potential of the ongoing trial to answer questions of public health importance.

  3. Next generation sequencing yields the complete mitochondrial genome of the flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus cryptic species NWP2 (Teleostei: Mugilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Li, Huei-Ying; Chen, Pei-Lung; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of Northwestern Pacific 2 (NWP2) cryptic species of flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus (Teleostei: Mugilidae) has been amplified by long-range PCR and sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome, consisting of 16,686 bp, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes and a non-coding control region of D-loop. D-loop was 909 bp length and was located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe. The overall base composition of NWP2 M. cephalus was 28.4% for A, 29.8% for C, 26.5% for T and 15.3% for G. The complete mitogenome may provide essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analysis for flathead mullet species complex.

  4. Nuclear and mitochondrial markers reveal evidence for genetically segregated cryptic speciation in giant Pacific octopuses from Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rebecca K.; Scheel, David; Sage, G.K.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple species of large octopus are known from the north Pacific waters around Japan, however only one large species is known in the Gulf of Alaska (the giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini). Current taxonomy of E. dofleini is based on geographic and morphological characteristics, although with advances in genetic technology that is changing. Here, we used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I), three nuclear genes (rhodopsin, octopine dehydrogenase, and paired-box 6), and 18 microsatellite loci for phylogeographic and phylogenetic analyses of octopuses collected from across southcentral and the eastern Aleutian Islands (Dutch Harbor), Alaska. Our results suggest the presence of a cryptic Enteroctopus species that is allied to, but distinguished from E. dofleini in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Existence of an undescribed and previously unrecognized taxon raises important questions about the taxonomy of octopus in southcentral Alaska waters.

  5. Cryptic Coral Reef Diversity Across the Pacific Assessed using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures and Multi-omic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, E. J.; Timmers, M.; Hartmann, A.; Collins, A.; Meyer, C.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reefs harbor diverse and distinct eukaryotic, bacterial and viral communities, which are critically important for their success. The lack of standardized measures for comprehensively assessing reef diversity has been a major obstacle in understanding the complexity of eukaryotic and microbial associations, and the processes that drive ecosystem shifts on reefs. ARMS, which mimic the structural complexity of the reef using artificial settlement plates, were used to systematically measure reef biodiversity across the Indo-Pacific. This device allows for standardized sampling of reef microbes to metazoans, providing the opportunity to investigate the fundamental links between these groups at an ecosystem level. We integrate the use of traditional ecology methods with metagenomics and metabolomics (metabolic predictors) to quantify the taxonomic composition of one of the planet's most diverse ecosystems and to assess the fundamental links between these cryptic communities and ecosystem function along geographical and anthropogenic stress gradients.

  6. Cryptic speciation in the recently discovered American cycliophoran Symbion americanus; genetic structure and population expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, J.M.; Funch, Peter; Giribet, G.

    2007-01-01

      Symbion americanus was recently described as the second species in the phylum Cycliophora, living commensally on the American commercial lobster Homarus americanus. A previous genetic analysis of American and European populations of cycliophorans suggested that haplotype divergence in S....... americanus was much greater than in its European counterpart S. pandora. This study examined the population structure and demographics of 169 individuals thought to belong to S. americanus collected from lobsters over 13 North American localities (Nova Scotia, Canada to Maryland, USA) between October 2003...... and January 2006. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequence data clearly suggested the presence of three cryptic lineages in a species complex, often co-occurring in the same lobster specimens. One of these lineages, named the "G" lineage, was represented by very few individuals and therefore was excluded from...

  7. The Applicability of a Short-term Test for Detection of Modifying Effects of Dietary Factors in Rodent Colon Carcinogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Eva

    The present studies were initiated to develop a short-term rodent model to assess the influence of different dietary components on the development of colon cancer. Diets with different dietary components, i.e. dietary fibre, fat, sucrose, and starches were tested in male rats initiated with DMH-2......HCl or AOM for their modulating effect on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Furthermore the heterocyclic amines IQ and PhIP were introduced in the assay as inducers of ACF in mice and rats and their role in colon carcinogenesis in mice was investigated. ACF were found to be induced...... in rodent colon by the colon carcinogens DMH-2HC1, AOM, IQ, and PhIP and it was shown that the incidence of the induced ACF could be modulated by dietary components such as sucrose, dietary fibre, and starch....

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with obesity in Japanese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Furukori, Hanako; Nakagami, Taku; Ishioka, Masamichi; Kaneko, Sunao

    2014-06-20

    Obesity among patients with schizophrenia is a growing concern because being overweight is widely regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature death. Dietary patterns have been suggested as one modifiable factor that may play a role in development of obesity. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 338) aged 44.0 ± 13.2 (mean ± SD) years with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to four psychiatric hospitals using a cross-sectional design. Diet was assessed with a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Dietary patterns from 52 predefined food groups were extracted by principal component analysis. A total of 61 subjects (18.0%) were classified as obese. Three dietary patterns were identified: the healthy dietary pattern, the processed food dietary pattern, and the alcohol and accompanying dietary patterns. After adjusting for age and gender, patients within the high tertile of each healthy dietary pattern (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.62) and processed food dietary pattern (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.22 to 0.89) had a significantly lower risk for obesity compared with low tertile of dietary pattern. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns, including higher intake of protein, fat, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins, may be related to a decreased prevalence of obesity within patients with schizophrenia. Future longitudinal research exploring dietary patterns and obesity among patients with schizophrenia is warranted.

  9. Landscape epidemiology and control of pathogens with cryptic and long-distance dispersal: sudden oak death in northern Californian forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A N Filipe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exotic pathogens and pests threaten ecosystem service, biodiversity, and crop security globally. If an invasive agent can disperse asymptomatically over long distances, multiple spatial and temporal scales interplay, making identification of effective strategies to regulate, monitor, and control disease extremely difficult. The management of outbreaks is also challenged by limited data on the actual area infested and the dynamics of spatial spread, due to financial, technological, or social constraints. We examine principles of landscape epidemiology important in designing policy to prevent or slow invasion by such organisms, and use Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to illustrate how shortfalls in their understanding can render management applications inappropriate. This pathogen has invaded forests in coastal California, USA, and an isolated but fast-growing epidemic focus in northern California (Humboldt County has the potential for extensive spread. The risk of spread is enhanced by the pathogen's generalist nature and survival. Additionally, the extent of cryptic infection is unknown due to limited surveying resources and access to private land. Here, we use an epidemiological model for transmission in heterogeneous landscapes and Bayesian Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo inference to estimate dispersal and life-cycle parameters of P. ramorum and forecast the distribution of infection and speed of the epidemic front in Humboldt County. We assess the viability of management options for containing the pathogen's northern spread and local impacts. Implementing a stand-alone host-free "barrier" had limited efficacy due to long-distance dispersal, but combining curative with preventive treatments ahead of the front reduced local damage and contained spread. While the large size of this focus makes effective control expensive, early synchronous treatment in newly-identified disease foci should be more cost-effective. We show how the

  10. Nodule worm infection in humans and wild primates in Uganda: cryptic species in a newly identified region of human transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria R Ghai

    Full Text Available Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs are a major health concern in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Oesophagostomum infection is considered endemic to West Africa but has also been identified in Uganda, East Africa, among primates (including humans. However, the taxonomy and ecology of Oesophagostomum in Uganda have not been studied, except for in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, which are infected by both O. bifurcum and O. stephanostomum.We studied Oesophagostomum in Uganda in a community of non-human primates that live in close proximity to humans. Prevalence estimates based on microscopy were lower than those based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR, indicating greater sensitivity of PCR. Prevalence varied among host species, with humans and red colobus (Procolobus rufomitratus infected at lowest prevalence (25% and 41% by PCR, respectively, and chimpanzees, olive baboons (Papio anubis, and l'hoest monkeys (Cercopithecus lhoesti infected at highest prevalence (100% by PCR in all three species. Phylogenetic regression showed that primates travelling further and in smaller groups are at greatest risk of infection. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed three cryptic clades of Oesophagostomum that were not distinguishable based on morphological characteristics of their eggs. Of these, the clade with the greatest host range had not previously been described genetically. This novel clade infects humans, as well as five other species of primates.Multiple cryptic forms of Oesophagostomum circulate in the people and primates of western Uganda, and parasite clades differ in host range and cross-species transmission potential. Our results expand knowledge about human Oesophagostomum infection beyond the West African countries of Togo and Ghana, where the parasite is a known public health concern. Oesophagostomum infection in humans may be common throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, and the transmission of this neglected STH among primates, including zoonotic

  11. Genetic Structure and Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli and Cryptic Clades in Birds with Diverse Human Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Pi, Hongfei; Vangchhia, Belinda; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Johnson, James R; Gordon, David M

    2015-08-01

    The manner and extent to which birds associate with humans may influence the genetic attributes and antimicrobial resistance of their commensal Escherichia communities through strain transmission and altered selection pressures. In this study, we determined whether the distribution of the different Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups and cryptic clades, the occurrence of 49 virulence associated genes, and/or the prevalence of resistance to 12 antimicrobials differed between four groups of birds from Australia with contrasting types of human association. We found that birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas had similar Escherichia communities. The Escherichia communities of backyard domestic poultry were phylogenetically distinct from the Escherichia communities sourced from all other birds, with a large proportion (46%) of poultry strains belonging to phylogenetic group A and a significant minority (17%) belonging to the cryptic clades. Wild birds sampled from veterinary and wildlife rehabilitation centers (in-care birds) carried Escherichia isolates that possessed particular virulence-associated genes more often than Escherichia isolates from birds sampled in suburban and wilderness areas. The Escherichia isolates from both the backyard poultry and in-care birds were more likely to be multidrug resistant than the Escherichia isolates from wild birds. We also detected a multidrug-resistant E. coli strain circulating in a wildlife rehabilitation center, reinforcing the importance of adequate hygiene practices when handling and caring for wildlife. We suggest that the relatively high frequency of antimicrobial resistance in the in-care birds and backyard poultry is due primarily to the use of antimicrobials in these animals, and we recommend that the treatment protocols used for these birds be reviewed. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Cryptic species obscure introduction pathway of the blue Caribbean sponge (Haliclona (Soestella caerulea, (order: Haplosclerida to Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic species are widespread across the phylum Porifera making the identification of non-indigenous species difficult, an issue not easily resolved by the use of morphological characteristics. The widespread order Haplosclerida is a prime example due to limited and plastic morphological features. Here, we study the reported introduction of Haliclona (Soestella caerulea from the Caribbean to Palmyra Atoll via Hawaiʻi using morphological characteristics and genetic analyses based on one nuclear (18s rDNA and three mitochondrial (COI, the barcoding COI extension (COI ext. and rnl rDNA markers. Despite no clear division in lengths of the oxea spicules between the samples, both mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees supported similar topologies resolving two distinct clades. Across the two clades, the concatenated mtDNA tree resolved twelve subclades, with the COI ext. yielding most of the variability between the samples. Low sequence divergence values (0.68% between two of the subclades indicate that the same species is likely to occur at Palmyra, Hawaiʻi and the Caribbean, supporting the hypothesis that H. caerulea was introduced to Palmyra from the Caribbean, although whether species came directly from the Caribbean to Palmyra or from Hawaiʻi remains unresolved. Conversely, the pattern of highly divergent cryptic species supports the notion that traditionally used spicule measurements are taxonomically unreliable in this group. This study illustrates how understanding the scale of within- as opposed to between-species level genetic variation is critical for interpreting biogeographic patterns and inferring the origins of introduced organisms.

  13. Cryptic elevational zonation in trapdoor spiders (Araneae, Antrodiaetidae, Aliatypus janus complex) from the California southern Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, James; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Derkarabetian, Shahan; Hedin, Marshal

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of ecological niche conservatism versus niche divergence in promoting montane speciation remains an important topic in biogeography. Here, our aim was to test whether lineage diversification in a species complex of trapdoor spiders corresponds with riverine barriers or with an ecological gradient associated with elevational tiering. Aliatypus janus was sampled from throughout its range, with emphasis on populations in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. We collected multi-locus genetic data to generate a species tree for A. janus and its close relatives. Coalescent based hypothesis tests were conducted to determine if genetic breaks within A. janus conform to riverine barriers. Ecological niche models (ENM) under current and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) conditions were generated and hypothesis tests of niche conservatism and divergence were performed. Coalescent analyses reveal deeply divergent genetic lineages within A. janus, likely corresponding to cryptic species. Two primary lineages meet along an elevational gradient on the western slopes of the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. ENMs under both current and LGM conditions indicate that these groups occupy largely non-overlapping niches. ENM hypothesis testing rejected niche identity between the two groups, and supported a sharp ecological gradient occurring where the groups meet. However, the niche similarity test indicated that the two groups may not inhabit different background niches. The Sierra Nevada Mountains provide a natural laboratory for simultaneously testing ecological niche divergence and conservatism and their role in speciation across a diverse range of taxa. Aliatypus janus represents a species complex with cryptic lineages that may have diverged due to parapatric speciation along an ecological gradient, or been maintained by the evolution of ecological niche differences following allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Giorgia; Edefonti, Valeria; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    The association of colorectal cancer risk with select foods has been evaluated by dietary pattern analysis. This review of the literature was conducted to thoroughly examine the available evidence for the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancers and adenomas. A total of 32 articles based on worldwide epidemiological studies were identified. Pattern identification was achieved by exploratory data analyses (principal component, factor, and cluster analyses) in most articles, and only a few used a priori-defined scores. Dietary patterns named as healthy, prudent, fruit and vegetables, fat-reduced/diet foods, vegetable/fish/poultry, fruit/whole grain/dairy, and healthy eating index-2005, recommended food and Mediterranean diet scores were all associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and the risk estimates varied from 0.45 to 0.90. In contrast, diets named Western, pork-processed meat-potatoes, meat-eaters, meat and potatoes, traditional patterns, and dietary risk and life summary scores were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer with risk estimates varying from 1.18 to 11.7. Dietary patterns for adenomas were consistent with those identified for colorectal cancer.

  15. [Dietary habits and cancer: the experience of EPIC-Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieri, Sabina; Agnoli, Claudia; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Assedi, Melania; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    to investigate hypothesised relationships between diet and cancer by assessing diet as a whole, in the Italian cohort EPIC. multicentric prospective study. 47,749 volunteers were recruited between 1993 and 1998 in the centres of Varese and Turin (Northern Italy), Florence (Central Italy), Naples and Ragusa (Southern Italy). Information on diet and lifestyle were collected through validated questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken and biological samples collected using standardised protocols. follow-up was carried out by accessing regional cancer and mortality registries, hospital discharge records, and by telephone inquiries (only for Naples). After a median follow-up of 11 years, 879 incident cases of breast cancer, 421 cases of colorectal cancer, and 152 deaths were identified. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate risks in relation to dietary characteristics. the "Olive oil & Salad" dietary pattern, characterised by high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil, was associated with a lower risk of overall mortality in the elderly. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet rich in vegetables and fruit was associated with reduced risk of colon cancer. Consumption of high-glycemic carbohydrates was associated with higher incidence of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Reduced risk of colon cancer was also found in regular consumers of yoghurt. the accuracy and comprehensiveness of EPIC-Italy data made it possible to investigate both individual dietary components and dietary habits as a whole, to thereby provide Italians with dietary and lifestyle advice that will help them to remain healthy.

  16. Dietary iron controls circadian hepatic glucose metabolism through heme synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A

    2015-04-01

    The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Consumption of processed food dietary patterns in four African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Dalal, Shona; Sewram, Vikash; Diamond, Megan B; Adebamowo, Sally N; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Njelekela, Marina; Laurence, Carien; Volmink, Jimmy; Bajunirwe, Francis; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Guwatudde, David; Reid, Todd G; Willett, Walter C; Adami, Hans-Olov; Fung, Teresa T

    2018-06-01

    To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity. Cross-sectional study.Setting/SubjectsWe used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men. We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern's lowest tertile (both Pobesity. We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.

  18. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for ... to promote strength and muscle mass, ... selective oestrogen receptor modulators or .... It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another sub-.

  19. Dietary polyphenol intake in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Knaze, Viktoria; Rothwell, Joseph A

    2016-01-01

    were collected using a standardized 24-h dietary recall software administered to 36,037 adult subjects. Dietary data were linked with Phenol-Explorer, a database with data on 502 individual polyphenols in 452 foods and data on polyphenol losses due to cooking and food processing. RESULTS: Mean total....... The current cross-sectional analysis aimed at estimating dietary intakes of all currently known individual polyphenols and total intake per class and subclass, and to identify their main food sources in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. METHODS: Dietary data at baseline...... polyphenol intake was the highest in Aarhus-Denmark (1786 mg/day in men and 1626 mg/day in women) and the lowest in Greece (744 mg/day in men and 584 mg/day in women). When dividing the subjects into three regions, the highest intake of total polyphenols was observed in the UK health-conscious group...

  20. Evolutionary adaptations to dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, F; Perry, G H; Di Rienzo, A

    2010-08-21

    Through cultural innovation and changes in habitat and ecology, there have been a number of major dietary shifts in human evolution, including meat eating, cooking, and those associated with plant and animal domestication. The identification of signatures of adaptations to such dietary changes in the genome of extant primates (including humans) may shed light not only on the evolutionary history of our species, but also on the mechanisms that underlie common metabolic diseases in modern human populations. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the major dietary shifts that occurred during hominin evolution, and we discuss the methods and approaches used to identify signals of natural selection in patterns of sequence variation. We then review the results of studies aimed at detecting the genetic loci that played a major role in dietary adaptations and conclude by outlining the potential of future studies in this area.

  1. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Print this issue Should You Take Dietary Supplements? A Look at Vitamins, Minerals, Botanicals and More ... Gut in Check Wise Choices Safe Use of Supplements Tell all of your health care providers about ...

  2. Spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production by tropical cryptic butterflies (Hamadryas, Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: implications for the "industrial melanism" debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Neotropical butterflies of the genus Hamadryas, noted by the emission of sound, spend much time perching on trees and are believed to be cryptically patterned and colored with respect to tree trunks and branches they use as perching sites, but the subject had not been studied previously. This paper describes spatial distribution, territoriality and sound production in five species, under natural conditions: Hamadryas amphinome (Lucas, 1853, H. februa (Godart, 1824, H. feronia (Fruhstorfer, 1916, H. glauconome (Bates, 1864 and H. guatemalena (Bates, 1864. Tree characteristics and use by butterflies were recorded under natural conditions in open habitats (grassland thinly covered with trees in Costa Rica and Panama, avoiding the problems that affected previous natural selection studies in Biston betularia (the "industrial melanism" moth. Males perched on the trees and used them as courting territories. The butterflies perched more often on some individual trees, and did not use others. The general tree bark ("background" color tended to match wing coloration, while presence of food, position of trees along flight routes, tree size, bark texture, and lichen cover were not associated with the frequency of perching on the trees. Most individuals that perched in the study sites were males. Species differed in perching height and populations of H. februa perched at the same heights in both countries; H. feronia moves to higher perches near day's end. The relative use of branches and trunks is not related to the time of day but reflects the typical perching height of each species. The northern side of trees is less used and cardinal side distribution is independent of time of day. Perches exposed to direct sunlight are less used in hot days. All species perch with the head downwards. Perching males frequently fly towards other Hamadryas as well as towards tethered cardboard models. Trees with experimentally removed males were taken by newcomers 32 times

  3. Dietary patterns derived with multiple methods from food diaries and breast cancer risk in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Dahm, Christina C; Key, Timothy J; Cairns, Benjamin J; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Greenwood, Darren C; Keogh, Ruth H; Bhaniani, Amit; McTaggart, Alison; Lentjes, Marleen AH; Mishra, Gita; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay Tee

    2015-01-01

    Background/ Objectives In spite of several studies relating dietary patterns to breast cancer risk, evidence so far remains inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate associations of dietary patterns derived with three different methods with breast cancer risk. Subjects/ Methods The Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), principal components analyses (PCA) and reduced rank regression (RRR) were used to derive dietary patterns in a case-control study of 610 breast cancer cases and 1891 matched controls within 4 UK cohort studies. Dietary intakes were collected prospectively using 4-to 7-day food diaries and resulting food consumption data were grouped into 42 food groups. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for associations between pattern scores and breast cancer risk adjusting for relevant covariates. A separate model was fitted for post-menopausal women only. Results The MDS was not associated with breast cancer risk (OR comparing 1st tertile with 3rd 1.20 (95% CI 0.92; 1.56)), nor the first PCA-derived dietary pattern, explaining 2.7% of variation of diet and characterized by cheese, crisps and savoury snacks, legumes, nuts and seeds (OR 1.18 (95% CI 0.91; 1.53)). The first RRR-derived pattern, a ‘high-alcohol’ pattern, was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.00; 1.62), which was most pronounced in post-menopausal women (OR 1.46 (95% CI 1.08; 1.98). Conclusions A ‘high-alcohol’ dietary pattern derived with RRR was associated with an increased breast cancer risk; no evidence of associations of other dietary patterns with breast cancer risk was observed in this study. PMID:25052230

  4. Self-Reported Dietary Restrictions and Dietary Patterns in Polish Girls: A Short Research Report (GEBaHealth Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Galinski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary restraint is a commonly reported practice observed among young females. The practice remains controversial and can be interpreted as a beneficial self-regulating behavior or the opposite, an eating disorder that may have a detrimental effect on health. The aim of this short report was to investigate if dietary restrictions are associated with dietary patterns in a representative sample of Polish girls. Analyses were carried out on data from the Girls’ Eating Behavior and Health (GEBaHealth study. The sample included 1107 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 21 years old. Restrictions regarding food quantities and selected food groups were assessed using a standardized interview. Dietary patterns were identified with Principal Component Analysis (PCA, based on dietary data collected with Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the associations between self-reported restrictions and each dietary pattern. In the total sample, 30.5% of girls reported following some food restrictions. The most common restrictions regarded consumption of sugar and/or sweets (23.7%, high-fat foods (22.4%, and fats (21.3%. Girls who declared following any restrictions, restrictions in food quantity and restrictions in the consumption of sugar and/or sweets, high-fat foods, fats, cereals and/or bread and/or potatoes were more likely to adhere to the “fruit and vegetables” (considered pro-healthy dietary pattern (adjusted odds ratios (ORs: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.14–2.12; 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17–2.21; 1.81, 95% CI: 1.30–2.52; 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04–2.06; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.38–2.80 and 3.25, 95% CI: 1.97–5.37, respectively, and less likely to adhere to the “fast foods and sweets” (unhealthy and “traditional Polish” (rather unhealthy patterns, compared to girls who declared no restrictions. Declared restrictions in the consumption of foods high in sugar, fat, and starch were observed in girls in the “fruit and

  5. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyem, Reema F; Bawadi, Hiba A; Shehadah, Ihab; Agraib, Lana M; AbuMweis, Suhad S; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-06-01

    Dietary pattern and lifestyle have been reported to be important risk factors in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism of action of dietary factors in CRC disease is unclear. The aim of this study is the examination of several dietary choices and their potential association with the risk of developing CRC. Dietary data was collected from 220 subjects who were previously diagnosed with CRC, and 281 control subjects (matched by age, gender, occupation and marital status). The data was collected between January 2010 and December 2012, using interview-based questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary choices and risk of developing colorectal cancer. Factor analysis revealed three major dietary patterns. The first pattern we identified as the "Healthy Pattern", the second was identified as "High Sugar/High Tea Pattern" and the third as "Western Pattern". In the Healthy Pattern group we found a 10.54% variation in food intake, while the intake variation was 11.64% in the Western Pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Western Pattern food choice was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of developing CRC (OR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12-3.16). The results for the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns showed a decrease, but the statistic was not significant for the risk of CRC development. The Western Pattern of dietary choice was directly associated with CRC. The association between the dietary food choice in the Healthy and High-Sugar/High Tea Patterns and colorectal cancer needs further study in our Jordanian population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of pre-ruminant dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal dairy calves throughout the United States are commonly fed pasteurized whole milk as the primary dietary component during their first several weeks of life. Whole milk fails to meet the recommendations for dietary inclusion of vitamins D and E for neonatal calves put forth by the National R...

  7. An antiinflammatory dietary mix modulates inflammation and oxidative and metabolic stress in overweight men: A nutrigenomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, G.C.M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pellis, L.; Wopereis, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Kooistra, T.; Ommen, B. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-grade chronic inflammation in overweight subjects is thought to play an important role in disease development. Objective: It was hypothesized that specific dietary components are able to reduce low-grade inflammation as well as metabolic and oxidative stress. Design: Dietary products

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2011 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Marianas Archipelago from 2011 to 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2010 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Assessing and Monitoring Cryptic Reef Diversity of Colonizing Marine Invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structure (ARMS) Deployed at Coral Reef Sites across American Samoa from 2012 to 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates in the Hawaiian and Mariana...

  12. Assessing cryptic reef diversity of colonizing marine invertebrates using Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) deployed at coral reef sites in Batangas, Philippines from 2012-03-12 to 2015-05-31 (NCEI Accession 0162829)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures (ARMS) are used by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) to assess and monitor cryptic reef diversity across the...

  13. Effect of dietary fiber on properties and acceptance of meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Meat is an important source of all essential nutritional components of our daily diet as it content most of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals which are lack in plant based food, but it is devoid of dietary fiber, which is very essential component for normal physiological/biochemical process. During meat products processing, its functional values can be improved by supplementation of dietary fiber rich vegetative substances like cereal and pulse flour, vegetable and fruits pulp, etc. by this process, a significant proportion of required daily allowance of dietary fiber can be fulfilled for the frequent meat consumers. The consumption of meat products fortified with of dietary fiber can lead to the prevention of diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes, irritable bowel disease, obesity, etc. On the other hand, the dietary fiber can effectively be incorporated in the processed meat products as binders, extender, and filler, they can significantly replace the unhealthy fat components from the products; increase acceptability by improving nutritional components, pH, water-holding capacity, emulsion stability, shear press value, sensory characters, etc. of finished products. Addition of dietary fiber in the meat products can increase the cooking yield therefore the economic gain as well.

  14. Effect of dietary protein restriction on renal ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Guo, Hui; Verlander, Jill W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary protein restriction has multiple benefits in kidney disease. Because protein intake is a major determinant of endogenous acid production, it is important that net acid excretion change in parallel during protein restriction. Ammonia is the primary component of net acid excretion, and inappropriate ammonia excretion can lead to negative nitrogen balance. Accordingly, we examined ammonia excretion in response to protein restriction and then we determined the molecular mechanism of the changes observed. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice fed a 20% protein diet and then changed to 6% protein developed an 85% reduction in ammonia excretion within 2 days, which persisted during a 10-day study. The expression of multiple proteins involved in renal ammonia metabolism was altered, including the ammonia-generating enzymes phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and the ammonia-metabolizing enzyme glutamine synthetase. Rhbg, an ammonia transporter, increased in expression in the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting duct intercalated cell (OMCDis-IC). However, collecting duct-specific Rhbg deletion did not alter the response to protein restriction. Rhcg deletion did not alter ammonia excretion in response to dietary protein restriction. These results indicate 1) dietary protein restriction decreases renal ammonia excretion through coordinated regulation of multiple components of ammonia metabolism; 2) increased Rhbg expression in the OMCDis-IC may indicate a biological role in addition to ammonia transport; and 3) Rhcg expression is not necessary to decrease ammonia excretion during dietary protein restriction. PMID:25925252

  15. Ecological study of dietary and smoking links to lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W. B.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological approach is used to investigate dietary and smoking links to lymphoma. International mortality rate data for 1986 and 1994 by gender and age group are compared with national dietary supply values of various food components for up to 10 years prior to the mortality data as well as per capita cigarette consumption rates 5 and 15 years earlier. The non-fat portion of milk, 3-9 years prior to the 1986 mortality data and 4 years prior to the 1994 data, was found to have the highest association with lymphoma, with r as high as 0.89. The results imply that 70 percent of lymphoma mortality may be related to this dietary component. Cigarette smoking in 1980 was found to have a weaker association with 1994 lymphoma mortality rates, being most important for younger men and statistically insignificant for younger women. The non-fat milk result is consistent with both case-control studies and a Norwegian prospective study, and with the often-observed finding that abnormal calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria, and dysregulated calcitriol production are common in normocalcemic patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is hypothesized that excess dietary calcium from milk is a significant risk factor for lymphoma.

  16. Dietary fatty acids and membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M G

    1990-02-01

    In recent years, there has been growing public awareness of the potential health benefits of dietary fatty acids, and of the distinction between the effects of the omega6 and omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are concentrated in vegetable and fish oils, respectively. A part of the biologic effectiveness of the two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids resides in their relative roles as precursors of the eicosanoids. However, we are also beginning to appreciate that as the major components of the hydrophobic core of the membrane bilayer, they can interact with and directly influence the functioning of select integral membrane proteins. Among the most important of these are the enzymes, receptors, and ion channels that are situated in the plasma membrane of the cell, since they carry out the communication and homeostatic processes that are necessary for normal cell function. This review examines current information regarding the effects of diet-induced changes in plasma membrane fatty acid composition on several specific enzymes (adenylate cyclase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and cell-surface receptors (opiate, adrenergic, insulin). Dietary manipulation studies have demonstrated a sensitivity of each to a fatty acid environment that is variably dependent on the nature of the fatty acid(s) and/or source of the membrane. The molecular mechanisms appear to involve fatty acid-dependent effects on protein conformation, on the "fluidity" and/or thickness of the membrane, or on protein synthesis. Together, the results of these studies reinforce the concept that dietary fats have the potential to regulate physiologic function and to further our understanding of how this occurs at a membrane level.

  17. A Study on the Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Prevalence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sadeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Although several dietary factors have been reported to alleviate or ag-gravate the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, no information is available linking dietary patterns to irritable bowel syndrome. Objective: This study was undertaken to assess the association between dietary patterns and the risk of irritable bowel syndrome among Ira-nian adults. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data on 3846 Iranian general adults working in 50 different health centers were examined. Dietary intake of the participants was assessed using a 106-item self-administered Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Question-naire (DS-FFQ which was designed and validated specifically for Iranian adults. A modified Persian version of the Rome III questionnaire was used for assessment of FGIDs, including IBS, which was defined according to ROME III criteria. To identify major dietary patterns based on the 39 food groups, we used principal component analysis. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1 “fast food” dietary pattern; 2 “tradi-tional” dietary pattern; 3 “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern; 4 “western” dietary pattern. Af-ter adjustment for potential confounders, we found that those in the highest quartile of “fast food” dietary pattern tended to have higher risk of IBS than those in the lowest quartile (1.32; 0.99, 1.75, Ptrend=0.05. An inverse association was found between “lacto-vegetarian” die-tary pattern and risk of IBS; such that even after adjustment for potential confounders, those in top quartile of this dietary pattern were 24% less likely to have IBS (0.76; 0.59, 0.98; Ptrend=0.02. No overall significant associations were observed between “traditional” and “western” dietary patterns and risk of IBS, either before or after adjustment for covariates. Conclusion: We found that “lacto-vegetarian” dietary pattern was associated with reduced risk , while

  18. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Metabolic Phenotyping of Diet and Dietary Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, J; Holmes, E; Garcia-Perez, I

    Nutrition provides the building blocks for growth, repair, and maintenance of the body and is key to maintaining health. Exposure to fast foods, mass production of dietary components, and wider importation of goods have challenged the balance between diet and health in recent decades, and both scientists and clinicians struggle to characterize the relationship between this changing dietary landscape and human metabolism with its consequent impact on health. Metabolic phenotyping of foods, using high-density data-generating technologies to profile the biochemical composition of foods, meals, and human samples (pre- and postfood intake), can be used to map the complex interaction between the diet and human metabolism and also to assess food quality and safety. Here, we outline some of the techniques currently used for metabolic phenotyping and describe key applications in the food sciences, ending with a broad outlook at some of the newer technologies in the field with a view to exploring their potential to address some of the critical challenges in nutritional science. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Atherosclerosis and liver inflammation induced by increased dietary cholesterol intake: A combined transcriptomics and metabolomics analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemann, R.; Verschuren, L.; Erk, M.J. van; Nikolsky, Y.; Cnubben, N.H.P.; Verheij, E.R.; Smilde, A.K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Zadelaar, A.S.M.; Smith, G.J.; Kaznacheev, V.; Nikolskaya, T.; Melnikov, A.; Hurt-Camejo, E.; Greef, J. van der; Ommen, B. van; Kooistra, T.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Increased dietary cholesterol intake is associated with atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis development requires a lipid and an inflammatory component. It is unclear where and how the inflammatory component develops. To assess the role of the liver in the evolution of inflammation, we

  1. Dietary pattern and health-related quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hui; Song, Sihan; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Eunsook; Kim, Zisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jung Eun

    2018-05-10

    There is limited evidence for the association between dietary pattern and quality of life among breast cancer survivors. We examined the association between dietary patterns and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among Korean breast cancer survivors. Our study included a total of 232 women, aged 21 to 79 years, who had been diagnosed with stage I to III breast cancer and who underwent breast cancer surgery at least 6 months prior to our baseline evaluation. We assessed HRQoL using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire Breast Cancer Module 23 (QLQ-BR23). We conducted a factor analysis to identify the major dietary patterns and used a generalized linear model to obtain the least squares mean (LS mean) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for HRQoL according to the dietary pattern scores. We identified 2 major dietary patterns: the Healthy dietary pattern and the Western dietary pattern. We found that breast cancer survivors who had higher Healthy dietary pattern scores tended to have lower dyspnea scores but higher insomnia scores, compared to breast cancer survivors with lower Healthy dietary pattern scores. For dyspnea, the LS mean (95% CI) was 8.86 (5.05-15.52) in the bottom quartile and 2.87 (1.62-5.08) in the top quartile (p for trend = 0.005). This association was limited to survivors with stage I for dyspnea or survivors with stage II or III for insomnia. Healthy dietary patterns were associated with better scores for dyspnea but worse scores for insomnia among breast cancer survivors. Other components of EORTC QLQ did not vary by dietary patterns overall, but they warrant further investigation for subgroups of breast cancer survivors.

  2. Evaluation of dietary patterns among Norwegian postmenopausal women using plasma carotenoids as biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Marianne S; Veierød, Marit B; Sakhi, Amrit K; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske; Andersen, Lene F

    2015-02-28

    A number of studies have examined dietary patterns in various populations. However, to study to what extent such patterns capture meaningful differences in consumption of foods is of interest. In the present study, we identified important dietary patterns in Norwegian postmenopausal women (age 50-69 years, n 361), and evaluated these patterns by examining their associations with plasma carotenoids. Diet was assessed by a 253-item FFQ. These 253 food items were categorised into forty-six food groups, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. We used the partial correlation coefficient (r(adj)) and multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between the dietary patterns and the plasma carotenoids α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin. Overall, four dietary patterns were identified: the 'Western'; 'Vegetarian'; 'Continental'; 'High-protein'. The 'Western' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (-0·25 ≤ r(adj) ≤ -0·13). The 'Vegetarian' dietary pattern scores were significantly positively correlated with all the plasma carotenoids (0·15 ≤ r(adj) ≤ 0·24). The 'Continental' dietary pattern scores were significantly inversely correlated with plasma lutein and α-carotene (r(adj) = -0·13). No significant association between the 'High-protein' dietary pattern scores and the plasma carotenoids was found. In conclusion, the healthy dietary pattern, the 'Vegetarian' pattern, is associated with a more favourable profile of the plasma carotenoids than our unhealthy dietary patterns, the 'Western' and 'Continental' patterns.

  3. Cryptic chromosome 9q34 deletion generates TAF-Ialpha/CAN and TAF-Ibeta/CAN fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Roberto; La Starza, Roberta; Barba, Gianluca; Gorello, Paolo; Pierini, Valentina; Matteucci, Caterina; Roti, Giovanni; Crescenzi, Barbara; Aloisi, Teresa; Aversa, Franco; Martelli, Massimo Fabrizio; Mecucci, Cristina

    2007-02-01

    In hematologic malignancies chromosome aberrations generating fusion genes include cryptic deletions. In a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and normal karyo-type we discovered a new cryptic 9q34 deletion and here report the cytogenetic and molecular findings. The 9q34 deletion extends 2.5 megabases and juxtaposes the 5' TAF-I to the 3' CAN producing a TAF-I/CAN fusion gene. TAF-I/CAN transcribes into two fusion proteins bearing either TAF-Ialpha or TAF-Ibeta moieties. We set up molecular assays to monitor the chimeric TAF-Ialpha/CAN and TAF-Ibeta/CAN transcripts which, after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling, were no longer detected.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptic "lineage B" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Yen, Ta-Chi; Chen, Ching-Hung; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Hsiao, Chung-Der

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage B" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consisting of 16,694 bp, includes 13 protein coding genes, 25 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage B" S. lessoniana is 36.7% for A, 18.9 % for C, 34.5 % for T and 9.8 % for G and show 90% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also exhibits high T + A content (71.2%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage B" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) in Indo-West Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chung-Der; Shen, Kang-Ning; Ching, Tzu-Yun; Wang, Ya-Hsien; Ye, Jeng-Jia; Tsai, Shiou-Yi; Wu, Shan-Chun; Chen, Ching-Hung; Wang, Chia-Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the cryptic "lineage A" big-fin reef squid, Sepioteuthis lessoniana (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) has been sequenced by the next-generation sequencing method. The assembled mitogenome consists of 16,605 bp, which includes 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs genes. The overall base composition of "lineage A" S. lessoniana is 37.5% for A, 17.4% for C, 9.1% for G, and 35.9% for T and shows 87% identities to "lineage C" S. lessoniana. It is also noticed by its high T + A content (73.4%), two non-coding regions with TA tandem repeats. The complete mitogenome of the cryptic "lineage A" S. lessoniana provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogeography and evolutionary analysis for big-fin reef squid species complex.

  6. Splicing factor 1 modulates dietary restriction and TORC1 pathway longevity in C. elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heintz, Caroline; Doktor, Thomas K; Lanjuin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    via splicing factor 1 (SFA-1; the C. elegans homologue of SF1, also known as branchpoint binding protein, BBP). We show that SFA-1 is specifically required for lifespan extension by dietary restriction and by modulation of the TORC1 pathway components AMPK, RAGA-1 and RSKS-1/S6 kinase. We also...... homeostasis is a biomarker and predictor of life expectancy in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using transcriptomics and in-depth splicing analysis in young and old animals fed ad libitum or subjected to dietary restriction, we find defects in global pre-mRNA splicing with age that are reduced by dietary restriction...

  7. Impact of Dietary Cholesterol on the Pathophysiology of Infectious and Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular cholesterol metabolism, lipid raft formation, and lipoprotein interactions contribute to the regulation of immune-mediated inflammation and response to pathogens. Lipid pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of bacterial and viral infections, whereas altered lipid metabolism may contribute to immune dysfunction in autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Interestingly, dietary cholesterol may exert protective or detrimental effects on risk, progression, and treatment of different infectious and autoimmune diseases, although current findings suggest that these effects are variable across populations and different diseases. Research evaluating the effects of dietary cholesterol, often provided by eggs or as a component of Western-style diets, demonstrates that cholesterol-rich dietary patterns affect markers of immune inflammation and cellular cholesterol metabolism, while additionally modulating lipoprotein profiles and functional properties of HDL. Further, cholesterol-rich diets appear to differentially impact immunomodulatory lipid pathways across human populations of variable metabolic status, suggesting that these complex mechanisms may underlie the relationship between dietary cholesterol and immunity. Given the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 revision to no longer include limitations on dietary cholesterol, evaluation of dietary cholesterol recommendations beyond the context of cardiovascular disease risk is particularly timely. This review provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of significant and controversial studies on the role of dietary cholesterol and lipid metabolism in the pathophysiology of infectious disease and autoimmune disorders, highlighting the need for further investigation in this developing area of research.

  8. Dietary intake in midlife and associations with standard of living, education and nutrition literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Catherine L; Gearry, Richard B; Pearson, John; Parnell, Winsome; Skidmore, Paula M L

    2014-07-04

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in New Zealand, but risk factors may be decreased by consuming a heart healthy diet. This pilot study investigated whether participants met the guidelines for a heart healthy diet and whether a novel heart healthy dietary pattern could be identified using principal components analysis (PCA). The second aim of this project was to assess if higher education, standard of living and nutrition literacy are associated with a heart healthy dietary pattern. This exploratory study was undertaken using data from the first participants enrolled in the Canterbury Health Ageing and Lifecourse study: an observational study of 50 year olds in the Canterbury District Health Board region. Eighty-two people were selected from the General and Maori electoral role and interviewed prior to the 22 February 2011 Christchurch Earthquake. PCA was conducted to identify dietary patterns, based on intake of specific nutrients as indicated by the New Zealand and international heart healthy dietary guidelines. 62 participants completed questionnaires and an estimated food record. No participants met all five of the heart healthy dietary guidelines. One dietary pattern was produced by PCA: a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Regression analysis indicated that higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were inversely associated with a "higher CVD risk" pattern. Higher standard of living, education and nutrition literacy were associated with a healthier dietary eating pattern. However, as no participants met all the dietary recommendations more education and support is needed to help people meet these.

  9. A DASH dietary pattern and the risk of colorectal cancer in Canadian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-McLean, E.; Hu, J.; Greene-Finestone, L. S.; de Groh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a high incidence cancer affecting many Canadian adults each year. Diet is important in the etiology of CRC with many dietary components identified as potential risk factors. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a well-established pattern to characterize overall eating. The purpose of this study was to characterize a DASH pattern within the Canadian context and to assess its relationship to the risk of CRC in Canadian adults. Metho...

  10. A Longitudinal Investigation of Nutrition and Dietary Patterns in Children of Mothers with Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, Abigail; Naumann, Ulrike; Northstone, Kate; Schmidt, Ulrike; Treasure, Janet; Micali, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate dietary patterns and nutritional intake in children of mothers with eating disorders. STUDY DESIGN: Mothers (N = 9423) from a longitudinal general population birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, completed Food Frequency Questionnaires on their children at 3, 4, 7, and 9 years of age. Macronutrient intake was estimated, and dietary patterns were obtained using principal components analysis. Linear regression and mixed-effects models...

  11. Antigenotoxicity of Dietary Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Lim-Sylianco

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzo(apyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, methylmethanesulfonate and tetracycline induced formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes indicating that these substances are genotoxic to bone marrow cells of the experimental mice.Genotoxicity of these substances to germ cells was also observed when low fertility index and high percentage dead implants were induced in experimental mice.When each genotoxin was administered to mice fed with diets containing 18 % coconut oil for 23 days, the formation of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes was greatly reduced. Antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil was very much greater than dietary soybean oil.Germ cell genotoxicity of each genotoxin was also reduced when male mice fed the 18 % coconut oil diet were used. When male mice treated with the genotoxin was mated with virgin females, fertility index was increased in the group fed with coconut oil diet. Percentage dead implants was reduced. The antigenotoxic activity of dietary coconut oil on germ cells far exceeds that of dietary soybean oil.Dietary restriction of coconut oil diets enhanced the antigenotoxic activity of coconut oil in bone marrow cells and germs cells.Among the triacylglycerols of coconut oil, trilaurin gave the best antigenotoxic activity in bone marrow cells. Trilaurin is the major triacylglycerol in coconut oil.

  12. Association between sociodemographics factors and dietary patterns during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Trindade De Castro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between socio-demographic factors and dietary patterns in pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with baseline data from a cohort of 421 postpartum women aged 18 and 45 years resident in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated food frequency questionnaire at 15 days following delivery, having as time frame the second and third pregnancy trimesters. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis for principal components analysis. The association between socio-demographic factors and the identified dietary patterns was assessed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Two dietary patterns were identified: i healthy: fruits; green vegetables; vegetables; fish; roots, corn and potato; milk and dairy and herbal tea mate, and negatively loadings for alcohol and coffee and ii mixed: rice; bean; flour and pasta; breads; cake and cookies; soda and juice; sugar and sweets; fatty foods; meats; chicken; and eggs. The linear regression showed that the income (β=0.0002; 95%CI: 0.0002-0.0004 and schooling (β=0.0491; 95%CI: 0.0264-0.0718 were positively associated with healthy pattern, and parity (β=-0.1044; 95%CI: -0.1665- -0.0423 and skin color (β=-0.3102; 95%CI: -0.5256- -0.0947 were negatively associated. Skin color (β=0.1647; 95%CI: 0.0378- 0.2916 and marital status (β=0.1065; 95%CI: 0.0062- 0.2067 were positively associated with mixed pattern and income (β=-0.0001; 95%CI:-0.0002- -0.0001 and schooling (β=-0.0281; 95%CI: -0.0417- -0.0146 were negatively associated. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic factors such as income, schooling, skin color, marital status and parity were associated with dietary patterns in this sample of postpartum women residents in Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Simulating cryptic movements of a mangrove crab : Recovery phenomena after small scale fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piou, C.; Berger, U.; Hildenbrandt, H.; Grimm, V.; Diele, K.; D'Lima, C.

    2007-01-01

    The semi-terrestrial burrowing crab Ucides cordatus is an important ecological component and economic resource of Brazilian mangrove forests. The crab population of the Caete peninsula (the location of our study site) has been exploited for the last 40 years. Recovery of fished areas by crabs from

  14. Pheromone analyses of the Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) cryptic species complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Břízová, Radka; Mendonca, A. L.; Vaníčková, L.; Mendonca, Al. L.; Da Silva, C. E.; Tomčala, Aleš; Paranhos, B. A. J.; Dias, V. S.; Joachim-Bravo, I. S.; Hoskovec, Michal; Kalinová, Blanka; do Nascimento, R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2013), s. 1107-1115 ISSN 0015-4040 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : South American fruit fly * GCxGC/TOE-MS * principal component analysis (PCA) Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.056, year: 2013

  15. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Kristin E; Mark Welch, David B

    2012-08-01

    Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP), a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1-4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2-9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving rapidly, and novel alleles may be maintained and increase in

  16. The mate recognition protein gene mediates reproductive isolation and speciation in the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribble Kristin E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemically mediated prezygotic barriers to reproduction likely play an important role in speciation. In facultatively sexual monogonont rotifers from the Brachionus plicatilis cryptic species complex, mate recognition of females by males is mediated by the Mate Recognition Protein (MRP, a globular glycoprotein on the surface of females, encoded by the mmr-b gene family. In this study, we sequenced mmr-b copies from 27 isolates representing 11 phylotypes of the B. plicatilis species complex, examined the mode of evolution and selection of mmr-b, and determined the relationship between mmr-b genetic distance and mate recognition among isolates. Results Isolates of the B. plicatilis species complex have 1–4 copies of mmr-b, each composed of 2–9 nearly identical tandem repeats. The repeats within a gene copy are generally more similar than are gene copies among phylotypes, suggesting concerted evolution. Compared to housekeeping genes from the same isolates, mmr-b has accumulated only half as many synonymous differences but twice as many non-synonymous differences. Most of the amino acid differences between repeats appear to occur on the outer face of the protein, and these often result in changes in predicted patterns of phosphorylation. However, we found no evidence of positive selection driving these differences. Isolates with the most divergent copies were unable to mate with other isolates and rarely self-crossed. Overall the degree of mate recognition was significantly correlated with the genetic distance of mmr-b. Conclusions Discrimination of compatible mates in the B. plicatilis species complex is determined by proteins encoded by closely related copies of a single gene, mmr-b. While concerted evolution of the tandem repeats in mmr-b may function to maintain identity, it can also lead to the rapid spread of a mutation through all copies in the genome and thus to reproductive isolation. The mmr-b gene is evolving

  17. Dietary reference values for thiamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derived dietary reference values (DRVs) for thiamin (vitamin B1). The Panel considers that data from depletion–repletion studies in adults on the amount of dietary thiamin intake...... were measured. Results from other depletion–repletion studies are in agreement with this value. The Panel agrees on the coefficient of variation of 20% used by the SCF to cover uncertainties related to distribution of thiamin requirements in the general population, and endorses the population reference...

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoon; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been recognized as one of the major malignancies in Korea. Analyses of dietary patterns can provide insight into the complex interactions of foods, nutrients, and biologically active components within a diet, which vary among populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk in Koreans. In a study of 923 cases and 1846 controls, principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns based on 33 predefined food groups using a 106-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ). The associations between dietary patterns and CRC risk were assessed using binary and polytomous logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Three dietary patterns (traditional, Westernized, and prudent) were derived. The proportion of total variation explained by 3 patterns was 24.2% for men and 25.3% for women. The traditional and prudent patterns were inversely associated with CRC risk [OR and 95% CI for the highest intake tertile of pattern score vs. the lowest = 0.35 (0.27–0.46) and 0.37 (0.28–0.48), respectively], whereas the Westernized pattern showed a positive association, especially among women [OR = 2.13 (1.35–3.34) for the highest tertile vs. the lowest]. A decrease in CRC risk among those with the highest intake of the prudent pattern was observed in all anatomical subsites in both men [OR = 0.36 (0.19–0.68) for proximal colon; 0.21 (0.12–0.36) for distal colon; 0.28 (0.18–0.44) for rectum] and women [OR = 0.28 (0.11–0.71); 0.27 (0.13–0.54); 0.45 (0.25–0.83)]. Our results indicate that individuals who prefer the Westernized dietary pattern should be made aware of their increased CRC risk. The traditional dietary pattern and the prudent pattern, which are rich in fruits and dairy products, are recommended for the Korean population to prevent CRC. PMID:27336862

  19. An integrative review of the methodology and findings regarding dietary adherence in end stage kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kelly; Mullan, Judy; Mansfield, Kylie

    2017-10-23

    Dietary modification is an important component of the management of end stage kidney disease (ESKD). The diet for ESKD involves modifying energy and protein intake, and altering sodium, phosphate, potassium and fluid intake. There have been no comprehensive reviews to date on this topic. The aims of this integrative review were to (i) describe the methods used to measure dietary adherence (ii) determine the rate of dietary adherence and (iii) describe factors associated with dietary adherence in ESKD. The Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms 'adherence' and 'end stage kidney disease'. Of the 787 potentially eligible papers retrieved, 60 papers of 24,743 patients were included in this review. Of these papers, 44 reported the rate of dietary adherence and 44 papers described factors associated with adherence. Most of the evidence regarding dietary adherence is derived from studies of hemodialysis patients (72% of patients). The most common method of measuring dietary adherence in ESKD was subjective techniques (e.g. food diaries or adherence questionnaires). This was followed by indirect methods (e.g. serum potassium, phosphate or interdialytic weight gain). The weighted mean adherence rate to ESKD dietary recommendations was 31.5% and 68.5% for fluid recommendations. Adherence to protein, sodium, phosphate, and potassium recommendations were highly variable due to differences in measurement methods used, and were often derived from a limited evidence base. Socioeconomic status, age, social support and self-efficacy were associated with dietary adherence. However, factors such as taste, the impact of the diet on social eating occasions; and dietetic staffing also appear to play a role in dietary adherence. Dietary adherence rates in people with ESKD are suboptimal. Further research is required on dietary adherence in patients with ESKD from different social, educational, economic and ethnic groups. This research may identify other

  20. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  1. Worldwide trends in dietary sugars intake.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittekind, Anna; Walton, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Estimating trends in dietary intake data is integral to informing national nutrition policy and monitoring progress towards dietary guidelines. Dietary intake of sugars is a controversial public health issue and guidance in relation to recommended intakes is particularly inconsistent. Published data relating to trends in sugars intake are relatively sparse. The purpose of the present review was to collate and review data from national nutrition surveys to examine changes and trends in dietary...

  2. Dietary composition regulates Drosophila mobility and cardiac physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzell, Brian; Ginzberg, Sara; Healy, Lindsey; Wessells, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The impact of dietary composition on exercise capacity is a subject of intense study in both humans and model organisms. Interactions between diet and genetics are a crucial component of optimized dietary design. However, the genetic factors governing exercise response are still not well understood. The recent development of invertebrate models for endurance exercise is likely to facilitate study designs examining the conserved interactions between diet, exercise and genetics. As a first step, we used the Drosophila model to describe the effects of varying dietary composition on several physiological indices, including fatigue tolerance and climbing speed, cardiac performance, lipid storage and autophagy. We found that flies of two divergent genetic backgrounds optimize endurance and cardiac performance on relatively balanced low calorie diets. When flies are provided with unbalanced diets, diets higher in sugar than in yeast facilitate greater endurance at the expense of cardiac performance. Importantly, we found that dietary composition has a profound effect on various physiological indices, whereas total caloric intake per se has very little predictive value for performance. We also found that the effects of diet on endurance are completely reversible within 48 h if flies are switched to a different diet. PMID:23155082

  3. Coral reefs as drivers of cladogenesis: expanding coral reefs, cryptic extinction events, and the development of biodiversity hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, P F; Bellwood, D R

    2011-12-01

    Diversification rates within four conspicuous coral reef fish families (Labridae, Chaetodontidae, Pomacentridae and Apogonidae) were estimated using Bayesian inference. Lineage through time plots revealed a possible late Eocene/early Oligocene cryptic extinction event coinciding with the collapse of the ancestral Tethyan/Arabian hotspot. Rates of diversification analysis revealed elevated cladogenesis in all families in the Oligocene/Miocene. Throughout the Miocene, lineages with a high percentage of coral reef-associated taxa display significantly higher net diversification rates than expected. The development of a complex mosaic of reef habitats in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) during the Oligocene/Miocene appears to have been a significant driver of cladogenesis. Patterns of diversification suggest that coral reefs acted as a refuge from high extinction, as reef taxa are able to sustain diversification at high extinction rates. The IAA appears to support both cladogenesis and survival in associated lineages, laying the foundation for the recent IAA marine biodiversity hotspot. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Isolation and characterization of two cryptic plasmids in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, A; Kato, J; Hirota, R; Kuroda, A; Ikeda, T; Takiguchi, N; Ohtake, H

    1999-06-01

    Two plasmids were discovered in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. strain ENI-11, which was isolated from activated sludge. The plasmids, designated pAYS and pAYL, were relatively small, being approximately 1.9 kb long. They were cryptic plasmids, having no detectable plasmid-linked antibiotic resistance or heavy metal resistance markers. The complete nucleotide sequences of pAYS and pAYL were determined, and their physical maps were constructed. There existed two major open reading frames, ORF1 in pAYS and ORF2 in pAYL, each of which was more than 500 bp long. The predicted product of ORF2 was 28% identical to part of the replication protein of a Bacillus plasmid, pBAA1. However, no significant similarity to any known protein sequences was detected with the predicted product of ORF1. pAYS and pAYL had a highly homologous region, designated HHR, of 262 bp. The overall identity was 98% between the two nucleotide sequences. Interestingly, HHR-homologous sequences were also detected in the genomes of ENI-11 and the plasmidless strain Nitrosomonas europaea IFO14298. Deletion analysis of pAYS and pAYL indicated that HHR, together with either ORF1 or ORF2, was essential for plasmid maintenance in ENI-11. To our knowledge, pAYS and pAYL are the first plasmids found in the ammonia-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria.

  5. Developing a DNA barcode library for perciform fishes in the South China Sea: Species identification, accuracy and cryptic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gang; Chen, Wei-Tao; Lu, Huo-Sheng; Cheng, Fei; Xie, Song-Guang

    2018-01-01

    DNA barcodes were studied for 1,353 specimens representing 272 morphological species belonging to 149 genera and 55 families of Perciformes from the South China Sea (SCS). The average Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) distances within species, genera and families were 0.31%, 8.71% and 14.52%, respectively. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree, Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum-likelihood (ML) trees and Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) revealed 260, 253 and 259 single-species-representing clusters, respectively. Barcoding gap analysis (BGA) demonstrated that barcode gaps were present for 178 of 187 species analysed with multiple specimens (95.2%), with the minimum interspecific distance to the nearest neighbour larger than the maximum intraspecific distance. A group of three Thunnus species (T. albacares, T. obesus and T. tonggol), a pair of Gerres species (G. oyena and G. japonicus), a pair of Istiblennius species (I. edentulous and I. lineatus) and a pair of Uranoscopus species (U. oligolepis and U. kaianus) were observed with low interspecific distances and overlaps between intra- and interspecific genetic distances. Three species (Apogon ellioti, Naucrates ductor and Psenopsis anomala) showed deep intraspecific divergences and generated two lineages each, suggesting the possibility of cryptic species. Our results demonstrated that DNA barcodes are highly reliable for delineating species of Perciformes in the SCS. The DNA barcode library established in this study will shed light on further research on the diversity of Perciformes in the SCS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Overlooked cryptic endemism in copepods: systematics and natural history of the calanoid subgenus Occidodiaptomus Borutzky 1991 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Federico; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Arculeo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Our comprehension of the phylogeny and diversity of most inland-water crustaceans is currently hampered by their pronounced morphological bradytely, which contributed to the affirmation of the "Cosmopolitanism Paradigm" of freshwater taxa. However, growing evidence of the existence of cryptic diversity and molecular regionalism is available for calanoid copepods, thus stressing the need for careful morphological and molecular studies in order to soundly investigate the systematics, diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Diaptomid copepods were here chosen as model taxa, and the morphological and molecular diversity of the species belonging to the west-Mediterranean diaptomid subgenus Occidodiaptomus were investigated with the aim of comparing the patterns of morphological and molecular evolution in freshwater copepods. Three species currently lumped under the binomen Hemidiaptomus (Occidodiaptomus) ingens and two highly divergent clades within H. (O.) roubaui were distinguished, thus showing an apparent discordance between the molecular distances recorded and Occidodiaptomus morphological homogeneity, and highlighting a noteworthy decoupling between the morphological and molecular diversity in the subgenus. Current Occidodiaptomus diversity pattern is ascribed to a combined effect of ancient vicariance and recent dispersal events. It is stressed that the lack of sound calibration points for the molecular clock makes it difficult to soundly temporally frame the diversification events of interest in the taxon studied, and thus to asses the role of morphological bradytely and of accelerated molecular evolutionary rates in shaping the current diversity of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph; Gaither, Michelle R.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Saenz Agudelo, Pablo; Piatek, Marek J.; Bowen, Brian W.; Rocha, Luiz A.; Howard Choat, J.; McIlwain, Jennifer H.; Priest, Mark; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  8. Sequence Analysis of the Cryptic Plasmid pMG101 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris and Construction of Stable Cloning Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Masayuki; Roh, Jung Hyeob; Zahn, Kenneth; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2000-01-01

    A 15-kb cryptic plasmid was obtained from a natural isolate of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The plasmid, designated pMG101, was able to replicate in R. palustris and in closely related strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and phototrophic Bradyrhizobium species. However, it was unable to replicate in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides and in Rhizobium species. The replication region of pMG101 was localized to a 3.0-kb SalI-XhoI fragment, and this fragment was stably maintained in R. palustris for over 100 generations in the absence of selection. The complete nucleotide sequence of this fragment revealed two open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1 and ORF2. The deduced amino acid sequence of ORF1 is similar to sequences of Par proteins, which mediate plasmid stability from certain plasmids, while ORF2 was identified as a putative rep gene, coding for an initiator of plasmid replication, based on homology with the Rep proteins of several other plasmids. The function of these sequences was studied by deletion mapping and gene disruptions of ORF1 and ORF2. pMG101-based Escherichia coli-R. palustris shuttle cloning vectors pMG103 and pMG105 were constructed and were stably maintained in R. palustris growing under nonselective conditions. The ability of plasmid pMG101 to replicate in R. palustris and its close phylogenetic relatives should enable broad application of these vectors within this group of α-proteobacteria. PMID:10618203

  9. Cryptic confounding compounds: A brief consideration of the influences of anthropogenic contaminants on courtship and mating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Tomica D.; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2012-01-01

    Contaminants, like pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and metals, are persistent and ubiquitous and are known to threaten the environment. Traditionally, scientists have considered the direct physiological risks that these contaminants pose. However, scientists have just begun to integrate ethology and toxicology to investigate the effects that contaminants have on behavior. This review considers the potential for contaminant effects on mating behavior. Here we assess the growing body of research concerning disruptions in sexual differentiation, courtship, sexual receptivity, arousal, and mating. We discuss the implications of these disruptions on conservation efforts and highlight the importance of recognizing the potential for environmental stressors to affect behavioral experimentation. More specifically, we consider the negative implications for anthropogenic contaminants to affect the immediate behavior of animals, and their potential to have cascading and/or long-term effects on the behavioral ecology and evolution of populations. Overall, we aim to raise awareness of the confounding influence that contaminants can have, and promote caution when interpreting results where the potential for cryptic affects are possible. PMID:24244068

  10. How DNA barcoding can be more effective in microalgae identification: a case of cryptic diversity revelation in Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shanmei; Fei, Cong; Wang, Chun; Gao, Zhan; Bao, Yachao; He, Meilin; Wang, Changhai

    2016-11-09

    Microalgae identification is extremely difficult. The efficiency of DNA barcoding in microalgae identification involves ideal gene markers and approaches employed, which however, is still under the way. Although Scenedesmus has obtained much research in producing lipids its identification is difficult. Here we present a comprehensive coalescent, distance and character-based DNA barcoding for 118 Scenedesmus strains based on rbcL, tufA, ITS and 16S. The four genes, and their combined data rbcL + tufA + ITS + 16S, rbcL + tufA and ITS + 16S were analyzed by all of GMYC, P ID, PTP, ABGD, and character-based barcoding respectively. It was apparent that the three combined gene data showed a higher proportion of resolution success than the single gene. In comparison, the GMYC and PTP analysis produced more taxonomic lineages. The ABGD generated various resolution in discrimination among the single and combined data. The character-based barcoding was proved to be the most effective approach for species discrimination in both single and combined data which produced consistent species identification. All the integrated results recovered 11 species, five out of which were revealed as potential cryptic species. We suggest that the character-based DNA barcoding together with other approaches based on multiple genes and their combined data could be more effective in microalgae diversity revelation.

  11. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyron, R. Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H.; Guayasamin, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history. PMID:27120100

  12. Multi-gene phylogeny of the genus Lobaria: Evidence of species-pair and allopatric cryptic speciation in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, Carolina; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Accurate species delimitation has critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. The lichen genus Lobaria is widely distributed in old-growth forests. Particularly in East Asia, this genus includes many rare and poorly known taxa that are circumscribed as morpho- or chemospecies, as well as species-pairs. To critically examine the relationships between species identified via morphological and chemical criteria, phylogenetic species recognition (PSR) was applied to the genus Lobaria. Morphological and chemical patterns of 87 individuals were examined and three independent nuclear loci were sequenced. The East Asian L. meridionalis-group was additionally studied using split decomposition and haplotype network analysis. The genus Lobaria and most of its species were strongly supported statistically. Split decomposition and haplotype networks suggest complex evolutionary histories of species within the East Asian L. meridionalis-group. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the monophyly of the genus Lobaria, including L. anomala. Within Lobaria, three major clades were found. These clades associate with different photobionts and comprise 18 known species and 5 undescribed species. Several chemical compounds were found to be neither stable nor invariant characters. Some taxa of the L. meridionalis-group appear to be monophyletic but remain as allopatric cryptic species. In three clades, this study found evidence for diversification processes between isidiate and nonisidiate specimens (species-pair). These findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary hypotheses for speciation processes. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Raquel; Montero-Mendieta, Santiago; Simó-Riudalbas, Marc; Sindaco, Roberto; Santos, Xavier; Fasola, Mauro; Llorente, Gustavo; Razzetti, Edoardo; Carranza, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot) and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics), we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs), cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  14. Comparative Phylogeography Reveals Cryptic Diversity and Repeated Patterns of Cladogenesis for Amphibians and Reptiles in Northwestern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Alejandro; Pyron, R Alexander; Peñafiel, Nicolás; Romero-Barreto, Paulina; Culebras, Jaime; Bustamante, Lucas; Yánez-Muñoz, Mario H; Guayasamin, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography allow us to understand how shared historical circumstances have shaped the formation of lineages, by examining a broad spectrum of co-distributed populations of different taxa. However, these types of studies are scarce in the Neotropics, a region that is characterized by high diversity, complex geology, and poorly understood biogeography. Here, we investigate the diversification patterns of five lineages of amphibians and reptiles, co-distributed across the Choco and Andes ecoregions in northwestern Ecuador. Mitochondrial DNA and occurrence records were used to determine the degree of geographic genetic divergence within species. Our results highlight congruent patterns of parapatric speciation and common geographical barriers for distantly related taxa. These comparisons indicate similar biological and demographic characteristics for the included clades, and reveal the existence of two new species of Pristimantis previously subsumed under P. walkeri, which we describe herein. Our data supports the hypothesis that widely distributed Chocoan taxa may generally experience their greatest opportunities for isolation and parapatric speciation across thermal elevational gradients. Finally, our study provides critical information to predict which unstudied lineages may harbor cryptic diversity, and how geology and climate are likely to have shaped their evolutionary history.

  15. Species-wide phylogeography of North American mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus): cryptic glacial refugia and postglacial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latch, Emily K; Heffelfinger, James R; Fike, Jennifer A; Rhodes, Olin E

    2009-04-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations greatly influenced the present-day population genetic structure of animals and plants. For species with high dispersal and reproductive potential, phylogeographic patterns resulting from historical processes can be cryptic, overshadowed by contemporary processes. Here we report a study of the phylogeography of Odocoileus hemionus, a large, vagile ungulate common throughout western North America. We examined sequence variation of mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b) within and among 70 natural populations across the entire range of the species. Among the 1766 individual animals surveyed, we recovered 496 haplotypes. Although fine-scale phylogenetic structure was weakly resolved using phylogenetic methods, network analysis clearly revealed the presence of 12 distinct haplogroups. The spatial distribution of haplogroups showed a strong genetic discontinuity between the two morphological types of O. hemionus, mule deer and black-tailed deer, east and west of the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest. Within the mule deer lineage, we identified several haplogroups that expanded before or during the Last Glacial Maximum, suggesting that mule deer persisted in multiple refugia south of the ice sheets. Patterns of genetic diversity within the black-tailed deer lineage suggest a single refugium along the Pacific Northwest coast, and refute the hypothesis that black-tailed deer persisted in one or more northern refugia. Our data suggest that black-tailed deer recolonized areas in accordance with the pattern of glacial retreat, with initial recolonization northward along a coastal route and secondary recolonization inland.

  16. The Disordered C-Terminus of Yeast Hsf1 Contains a Cryptic Low-Complexity Amyloidogenic Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Pujols

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Response mechanisms to external stress rely on networks of proteins able to activate specific signaling pathways to ensure the maintenance of cell proteostasis. Many of the proteins mediating this kind of response contain intrinsically disordered regions, which lack a defined structure, but still are able to interact with a wide range of clients that modulate the protein function. Some of these interactions are mediated by specific short sequences embedded in the longer disordered regions. Because the physicochemical properties that promote functional and abnormal interactions are similar, it has been shown that, in globular proteins, aggregation-prone and binding regions tend to overlap. It could be that the same principle applies for disordered protein regions. In this context, we show here that a predicted low-complexity interacting region in the disordered C-terminus of the stress response master regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1 protein corresponds to a cryptic amyloid region able to self-assemble into fibrillary structures resembling those found in neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. The Disordered C-Terminus of Yeast Hsf1 Contains a Cryptic Low-Complexity Amyloidogenic Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Jordi; Santos, Jaime; Pallarès, Irantzu; Ventura, Salvador

    2018-05-06

    Response mechanisms to external stress rely on networks of proteins able to activate specific signaling pathways to ensure the maintenance of cell proteostasis. Many of the proteins mediating this kind of response contain intrinsically disordered regions, which lack a defined structure, but still are able to interact with a wide range of clients that modulate the protein function. Some of these interactions are mediated by specific short sequences embedded in the longer disordered regions. Because the physicochemical properties that promote functional and abnormal interactions are similar, it has been shown that, in globular proteins, aggregation-prone and binding regions tend to overlap. It could be that the same principle applies for disordered protein regions. In this context, we show here that a predicted low-complexity interacting region in the disordered C-terminus of the stress response master regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) protein corresponds to a cryptic amyloid region able to self-assemble into fibrillary structures resembling those found in neurodegenerative disorders.

  18. Unexpectedly High Levels of Cryptic Diversity Uncovered by a Complete DNA Barcoding of Reptiles of the Socotra Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Few DNA barcoding studies of squamate reptiles have been conducted. Due to the significance of the Socotra Archipelago (a UNESCO Natural World Heritage site and a biodiversity hotspot and the conservation interest of its reptile fauna (94% endemics, we performed the most comprehensive DNA barcoding study on an island group to date to test its applicability to specimen identification and species discovery. Reptiles constitute Socotra's most important vertebrate fauna, yet their taxonomy remains under-studied. We successfully DNA-barcoded 380 individuals of all 31 presently recognized species. The specimen identification success rate is moderate to high, and almost all species presented local barcoding gaps. The unexpected high levels of intra-specific variability found within some species suggest cryptic diversity. Species richness may be under-estimated by 13.8-54.4%. This has implications in the species' ranges and conservation status that should be considered for conservation planning. Other phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial and nuclear markers are congruent with our results. We conclude that, despite its reduced length (663 base pairs, cytochrome c oxidase 1, COI, is very useful for specimen identification and for detecting intra-specific diversity, and has a good phylogenetic signal. We recommend DNA barcoding to be applied to other biodiversity hotspots for quickly and cost-efficiently flagging species discovery, preferentially incorporated into an integrative taxonomic framework.

  19. Comparative phylogeography of reef fishes from the Gulf of Aden to the Arabian Sea reveals two cryptic lineages

    KAUST Repository

    DiBattista, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    The Arabian Sea is a heterogeneous region with high coral cover and warm stable conditions at the western end (Djibouti), in contrast to sparse coral cover, cooler temperatures, and upwelling at the eastern end (southern Oman). We tested for barriers to dispersal across this region (including the Gulf of Aden and Gulf of Oman), using mitochondrial DNA surveys of 11 reef fishes. Study species included seven taxa from six families with broad distributions across the Indo-Pacific and four species restricted to the Arabian Sea (and adjacent areas). Nine species showed no significant genetic partitions, indicating connectivity among contrasting environments spread across 2000 km. One butterflyfish (Chaetodon melannotus) and a snapper (Lutjanus kasmira) showed phylogenetic divergences of d = 0.008 and 0.048, respectively, possibly indicating cryptic species within these broadly distributed taxa. These genetic partitions at the western periphery of the Indo-Pacific reflect similar partitions recently discovered at the eastern periphery of the Indo-Pacific (the Hawaiian and the Marquesan Archipelagos), indicating that these disjunctive habitats at the ends of the range may serve as evolutionary incubators for coral reef organisms.

  20. The genome of the xerotolerant mold Wallemia sebi reveals adaptations to osmotic stress and suggests cryptic sexual reproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajabeen, Padamsee; Kumas, T. K. Arun; Riley, Robert; Binder, Manfred; Boyd, Alex; Calvo, Ann M.; Furukawa, Kentaro; Hesse, Cedar; Hohmann, Stefan; James, Tim Y.; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Miller, Kari; Shantappa, Sourabha; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Hibbett, David S.; McLaughlin, David J.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Aime, Mary C.

    2011-09-03

    Wallemia (Wallemiales, Wallemiomycetes) is a genus of xerophilic Fungi of uncertain phylogenetic position within Basidiomycota. Most commonly found as food contaminants, species of Wallemia have also been isolated from hypersaline environments. The ability to tolerate environments with reduced water activity is rare in Basidiomycota. We sequenced the genome of W. sebi in order to understand its adaptations for surviving in osmotically challenging environments, and we performed phylogenomic and ultrastructural analyses to address its systematic placement and reproductive biology. W. sebi has a compact genome (9.8 Mb), with few repeats and the largest fraction of genes with functional domains compared with other Basidiomycota. We applied several approaches to searching for osmotic stress-related proteins. In silico analyses identied 93 putative osmotic stress proteins; homology searches showed the HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) pathway to be mostly conserved. Despite the seemingly reduced genome, several gene family expansions and a high number of transporters (549) were found that also provide clues to the ability of W. sebito colonize harsh environments. Phylogenetic analyses of a 71-protein dataset support the position of Wallemia as the earliest diverging lineage of Agaricomycotina, which is conrmed by septal pore ultrastructure that shows the septal pore apparatus as a variant of the Tremella-type. Mating type gene homologs were idented although we found no evidence of meiosis during conidiogenesis, suggesting there may be aspects of the life cycle of W. sebi that remain cryptic

  1. Estimating the Distribution of Dietary Consumption Patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States the preferred method of obtaining dietary intake data is the 24-hour dietary recall, yet the measure of most interest is usual or long-term average daily intake, which is impossible to measure. Thus, usual dietary intake

  2. 22 CFR 71.12 - Dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dietary supplements. 71.12 Section 71.12... Incarcerated Abroad § 71.12 Dietary supplements. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the dietary supplement program under the following general criteria: (1) An evaluation by a...

  3. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in a Japanese population: the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Kayo; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Joshi, Amit Man; Yin, Guang; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Mibu, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2010-12-01

    Few studies have addressed the relation between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer in Japan. We investigated dietary patterns in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study. The association with dietary patterns was also examined for different sites of colorectal cancer. Data were derived from the Fukuoka Colorectal Cancer Study, including 800 cases and 775 controls interviewed from September 2000 to December 2003. The cases were admitted to one of the participating hospitals for the first surgical treatment during this period. We identified dietary patterns using principal component analysis of intakes of twenty-nine items of food groups and specific foods. Quartile categories of each dietary pattern were used, and non-dietary lifestyle factors and total energy intake were adjusted for in the analysis. We identified three dietary patterns: prudent, high-fat and light-meal patterns. The prudent dietary pattern characterised by high intakes of vegetables, fruits, seafoods and soya foods showed a nearly significant protective association with the overall risk of colorectal cancer (trend P = 0.054), and it was statistically significantly related to a decreased risk of distal colon cancer (trend P = 0.002), but not to that of either proximal colon or rectal cancer. The high-fat and light-meal dietary patterns were not materially related to the overall or site-specific risk of colorectal cancer. In summary, a prudent dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer, especially with that of distal colon cancer, in a fairly large case-control study in Japan.

  4. Dietary Patterns After the Weaning and Lactation Period Are Associated With Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Monica; Beth, Sytske A; Voortman, Trudy; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; van Zelm, Menno C; Moll, Henriette A; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2018-06-01

    There have been many studies of associations between infant feeding practices and development of celiac disease during childhood, but few studies have focused on overall diets of young children after the weaning period. We aimed to examine the association between common dietary patterns in infants and the occurrence of celiac disease autoimmunity during childhood. We performed a prospective analysis of data from the Generation R Study that comprised 1997 children born from April 2002 through January 2006 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Food consumption around 1 year of age was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Dietary data were examined using a priori (based on existing guidelines) and a posteriori (principal component analysis and reduced rank regression) dietary pattern analyses. Five dietary patterns were compared. Celiac disease autoimmunity, determined on the basis of serum concentration of transglutaminase-2 autoantibody (ie, TG2A) below or above 7 U/mL, was evaluated at 6 years. Associations between dietary pattern adherence scores and celiac disease autoimmunity were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the a posteriori-derived prudent dietary pattern (high intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, pasta, and grains and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages) at 1 year was significantly associated with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity at 6 years (odds ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.84). No significant associations were found for the 4 remaining dietary patterns. In a prospective study of dietary patterns of young children in the Netherlands, we associated a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of vegetables and grains and low consumption of refined cereals and sweet beverages, with lower odds of celiac disease autoimmunity. Early-life dietary patterns might therefore be involved in the development of celiac disease during childhood. Copyright

  5. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  6. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  7. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  8. Dietary Patterns and Human Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vujkovic (Marijana)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 of the thesis focuses on dietary patterns and fatty acid intake in couples undergoing IVF/ICSI fertility treatment. The studies described in Chapter 2, 3 and 4 are based on the FOod Lifestyle and Fertility Outcome study (FOLFO), a prospective cohort study examining the influence

  9. Dietary reference values for riboflavin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for riboflavin. The Panel considers that the inflection point in the urinary riboflavin excretion curve in relation to riboflavin intake...

  10. Dietary reference values for potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) derives dietary reference values (DRVs) for potassium. The Panel decides to set DRVs on the basis of the relationships between potassium intake and blood pressure and stroke...

  11. 9691 KNOWLEDGE OF RECOMMENDED DIETARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    and obese body weight categories. Thus, this investigation indicated an ... understand the role of dietary cholesterol in disease progression or prevention. In addition, some consumers may regard all fats ... frequency of consumption of food rich in cholesterol, and medical check-up was used as an instrument for this study.

  12. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  13. Assessment of dietary lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene intakes and sources in the Spanish survey of dietary intake (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Santiago, Rocío; Beltrán-de-Miguel, Beatriz; Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the intake and major dietary sources of lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene (non-provitamin A carotenoids) in Spain using food consumption data from the Spanish National Dietary Intake Survey (2009-2010). Three-day diaries and one 24-h recall were used to collect dietary data and a software application that includes HPLC data was used. Average intake of those carotenoids was 4290.8 μg/d (67.1% total carotenoid intake), mainly from vegetables (3414.0 μg/d), followed by fruits (393.5 μg/d), oils/fats (204.0 μg/d) and eggs/egg products (170.0 μg/d). Main sources of lutein and zeaxanthin were vegetables (62.9% total diet, 1235.2 μg/person/d). Lycopene intake was 3055.6 μg/d (71.2% of non-provitamin A carotenoids), mainly from tomato and by-products (86.3%) and watermelon. Red- and orange-colored fruits and vegetables were the major contributors of non-provitamin carotenoids (3219.0 μg/person/d). Balanced diets should favor fruits and vegetables over other dietary sources (oils, eggs, processed foods) that contain components to be consumed with moderation.

  14. Dietary nutraceuticals as novel radioprotectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2012-01-01

    There is long standing need to protect humans from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation in the event of radiation related calamities or otherwise. Various dietary ingredients have formed an integral part of daily human diets. Most of the ingredients used in the Indian diet possess medicinal properties. However, little attention has been paid to screen the radioprotective ability of dietary ingredients. It is possible that use of dietary agents could protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations more effectively than other exotic synthetic agents simply because they are from natural biological sources, and may be more biocompatible than any other synthetic counterparts. Their acceptance for therapeutic purpose will be acceptable as they are part of daily human diets and do not have any known toxicity. This has been a stimulation to investigate the radioprotective ability of certain dietary ingredients including naringin and mangiferin in vivo and in vitro using micronuclei or survival assays. Treatment of mice with various doses of naringin or mangiferin reduced the symptoms of radiation-induced sickness including listlessness, irritability, lethargy, reduction in food and water intake, diarrhea, lacrimation, facial edema weight loss, emaciation, and epilation. Mice receiving various doses of naringin reduced the radiation-induced micronuclei formation and chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. Likewise, treatment of human peripheral blood lymphocytes with various concentrations of mangiferin reduced the radiation-induced DNA damage. The putative mechanisms of radioprotection are free radical scavenging, increased GSH accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation. The use of dietary ingredients for radioprotection shall be encouraged as they are consumed daily and toxic implications are negligible. (author)

  15. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy in New Zealand—Influence of Maternal Socio-Demographic, Health and Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare R. Wall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exploration of dietary pattern associations within a multi-ethnic society context has been limited. We aimed to describe dietary patterns of 5664 pregnant women from the Growing Up in New Zealand study, and investigate associations between these patterns and maternal socio-demographic, place of birth, health and lifestyle factors. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire prior to the birth of their child. Principal components analysis was used to extract dietary patterns and multivariable analyses used to determine associations. Four dietary components were extracted. Higher scores on, ‘Junk’ and ‘Traditional/White bread’, were associated with decreasing age, lower educational levels, being of Pacific or Māori ethnicity and smoking. Higher scores on, ‘Health conscious’ and ‘Fusion/Protein’, were associated with increasing age, better self-rated health, lower pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and not smoking. Higher scores on ‘Junk’ and ‘Health conscious’ were associated with being born in New Zealand (NZ, whereas higher scores on ‘Fusion/Protein’ was associated with being born outside NZ and being of non-European ethnicity, particularly Asian. High scores on the ‘Health conscious’ dietary pattern showed the highest odds of adherence to the pregnancy dietary guidelines. In this cohort of pregnant women different dietary patterns were associated with migration, ethnicity, socio-demographic characteristics, health behaviors and adherence to dietary guidelines.

  16. Influence of functional food components on gut health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Murphy L Y; Ling, K H; El-Nezami, Hani; Wang, M F

    2018-01-30

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) lining the gastrointestinal tract establish a barrier between external environments and the internal milieu. An intact intestinal barrier maintains gut health and overall good health of the body by preventing from tissue injury, pathogen infection and disease development. When the intestinal barrier function is compromised, bacterial translocation can occur. Our gut microbiota also plays a fundamentally important role in health, for example, by maintaining intestinal barrier integrity, metabolism and modulating the immune system, etc. Any disruption of gut microbiota composition (also termed dysbiosis) can lead to various pathological conditions. In short, intestinal barrier and gut microbiota are two crucial factors affecting gut health. The gastrointestinal tract is a complex environment exposed to many dietary components and commensal bacteria. Dietary components are increasingly recognized to play various beneficial roles beyond basic nutrition, resulting in the development of the functional food concepts. Various dietary modifiers, including the consumption of live bacteria (probiotics) and ingestible food constituents such as prebiotics, as well as polyphenols or synbiotics (combinations of probiotics and prebiotics) are the most well characterized dietary bioactive compounds and have been demonstrated to beneficially impact the gut health and the overall well-being of the host. In this review we depict the roles of intestinal epithelium and gut microbiota in mucosal defence responses and the influence of certain functional food components on the modulation of gut health, with a particular focus on probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols.

  17. Dietary patterns and colorectal adenoma and cancer risk: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lesko, Samuel M; Muscat, Joshua E; Lazarus, Philip; Hartman, Terryl J

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies exploring associations between individual dietary components and colorectal adenoma or cancer risk have yielded conflicting results. The study of food-based dietary patterns in relation to chronic disease risk represents an alternative approach to the evaluation of single dietary exposures in epidemiological investigations. Results from prospective cohort and population-based case-control studies examining associations between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer or adenoma risk were evaluated and described in this review. Despite notable differences in population characteristics, study design, and methods used for characterizing dietary patterns across the different studies, two general dietary patterns were found to modestly predict colorectal adenoma and cancer risk. A healthier pattern consisting of greater intakes of fruits and vegetables, and lower intakes of red and processed meat, appeared protective against colorectal adenoma and cancer incidence. Findings also suggest that a less healthy pattern characterized by higher intakes of red and processed meat, as well as potatoes and refined carbohydrates, may increase risk. Continued research efforts are needed to evaluate the cumulative and interactive effects of numerous dietary exposures on colorectal cancer risk.

  18. Updates on chemical and biological research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rahul S; Tamta, Hemlata; Ma, Jun; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Grundel, Erich; Wamer, Wayne G; Rader, Jeanne I

    2013-05-01

    Increased use of dietary supplements is a phenomenon observed worldwide. In the USA, more than 40% of the population recently reported using complementary and alternative medicines, including botanical dietary supplements. Perceptions that such dietary supplements are natural and safe, may prevent disease, may replace prescription medicines, or may make up for a poor diet, play important roles in their increased use. Toxicity of botanical dietary supplements may result from the presence of naturally occurring toxic constituents or from contamination or adulteration with pharmaceutical agents, heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, or bacteria, misidentification of a plant species in a product, formation of electrophilic metabolites, organ-specific reactions, or botanical-drug interactions. The topics discussed in this review illustrate several issues in recent research on botanical ingredients in dietary supplements. These include (1) whether 1,3-dimethylamylamine is a natural constituent of rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), (2) how analysis of the components of dietary supplements containing bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is essential to understanding their potential biological effects, and (3) how evolving methods for in vitro studies on botanical ingredients can contribute to safety evaluations. The virtual explosion in the use of botanical ingredients in hundreds of products presents a considerable challenge to the analytical community, and the need for appropriate methods cannot be overstated. We review recent developments and use of newer and increasingly sensitive methods that can contribute to increasing the safety and quality of botanical ingredients in dietary supplements.

  19. Healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano, Lia Silveira; Sampaio, Helena Alves de Carvalho; Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; Portela, Clarissa Lima de Melo; de Melo, Maria Luisa Pereira; Carioca, Antônio Augusto Ferreira; Soares, Nadia Tavares

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising, an increase that may be associated with changes in lifestyle such as unhealthy dietary patterns. Although advanced age is a risk factor for NAFLD, no studies reporting this association in the elderly population were found. In the present study, the association between dietary patterns and NAFLD in the elderly was assessed. A study including 229 older adults was conducted. NAFLD diagnosis was defined as individuals whose ultrasound examination disclosed hepatic steatosis at any stage, in the absence of excess intake of alcoholic beverages. Dietary patterns were obtained by principal components analysis. Mean scores and standard errors of each dietary pattern were calculated for the groups with and without NAFLD, and mean scores of the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. The prevalence ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for each tertile of the dietary pattern adherence scores using Poisson multiple regression models with robust variance. A total of 103 (45 %) elderly with NAFLD and four dietary patterns were identified: traditional, regional snacks, energy dense and healthy. Mean scores for adherence to the healthy pattern in the groups with and without NAFLD differed. NAFLD was inversely associated with greater adherence to the healthy pattern and directly associated with the regional snacks, after adjustment for confounders. In conclusion, healthy dietary pattern is inversely associated with NAFLD in elderly.

  20. Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis Discovered a Dietary Pattern Inversely Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yen-Li; Pan, Wen-Harn; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Chien, Yin-Chu; Chen, Jen-Yang; Hsu, Mow-Ming; Lou, Pei-Jen; Chen, I-How; Hildesheim, Allan; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Evidence on the association between dietary component, dietary pattern and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is scarce. A major challenge is the high degree of correlation among dietary constituents. We aimed to identify dietary pattern associated with NPC and to illustrate the dose-response relationship between the identified dietary pattern scores and the risk of NPC. Taking advantage of a matched NPC case-control study, data from a total of 319 incident cases and 319 matched controls were analyzed. Dietary pattern was derived employing partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) performed on energy-adjusted food frequencies derived from a 66-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated with multiple conditional logistic regression models, linking pattern scores and NPC risk. A high score of the PLS-DA derived pattern was characterized by high intakes of fruits, milk, fresh fish, vegetables, tea, and eggs ordered by loading values. We observed that one unit increase in the scores was associated with a significantly lower risk of NPC (ORadj = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.60-0.88) after controlling for potential confounders. Similar results were observed among Epstein-Barr virus seropositive subjects. An NPC protective diet is indicated with more phytonutrient-rich plant foods (fruits, vegetables), milk, other protein-rich foods (in particular fresh fish and eggs), and tea. This information may be used to design potential dietary regimen for NPC prevention.

  1. Assessing patients' attitudes towards dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina; Jarosz, Mirosław; Siuba, Magdalena; Rambuszek, Michał

    2014-01-01

    There is currently many over the counter products on the market that exert nutritional or physiological effects on the human body. The differences between dietary supplements and non-prescription drugs are however poorly understood by the average consumer and may thus affect their expectations as to the desired effect produced on the body. To evaluate patients' knowledge and attitudes towards dietary supplements as compared to non-prescription drugs. Subjects were 335 patients of the Mazowiecki Voivodeship Hospital in Warsaw, Poland. The data were collected from a face-to-face interview using a single and multiple choice questionnaire with 10 questions on dietary supplements. Statistical analysis used the Chi-square (χ2) test. The majority of respondents were found to be familiar with the term 'dietary supplements', but had difficulties in classifying these products into appropriate categories. Over 55% do not consider dietary supplements to be foodstuffs and more than 40% considered such products to be drugs. Most respondents thought that the main purpose of taking dietary supplements is to improve nutrition, but over one third expected them to also treat disease. Over 70% declared taking notice to which category the non-prescription products they bought belongs to ie. whether non-prescription drugs (medicinal products) or dietary supplements. Many patients mistakenly believe that dietary supplements are drugs and can be used to treat disease and health disorders. dietary supplements, opinion on dietary supplements, nutrition, dietary supplement vs. medicinal product.

  2. Evolution in karst massifs: Cryptic diversity among bent-toed geckos along the Truong Son Range with descriptions of three new species and one new country record from Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Vinh Quang; Bonkowski, Michael; Nguyen, Truong Quang; Le, Minh Duc; Schneider, Nicole; Ngo, Hanh Thi; Ziegler, Thomas

    2016-05-02

    Species designated as 'cryptic' share a similar morphotype, and are often only clearly separable by molecular data. Cyrtodactylus, the most diverse gecko genus of the family Gekkonidae, is a prime example, because many morphologically similar taxa have only recently been identified as new species as a result of available genetic evidence. However, while cryptic diversity of Cyrtodactylus is already well documented on the Vietnamese side of the Truong Son range, only scarce data is available from central Laos. In this study, we address this issue by means of an integrative approach, which employs morphological, molecular, and ecological data to distinguish cryptic species of the Cyrtodacylus phongnhakebangensis species group primarily distributed along the northern Truong Son Range. Our analyses based on 12 selected morphological characters, a partial mitochondrial gene (COI), and five ecological parameters revealed three undescribed cryptic Cyrtodactylus species from Hin Nam No National Protected Area, which are described as Cyrtodactylus calamei sp. nov., Cyrtodactylus hinnamnoensis sp. nov., and Cyrtodactylus sommerladi sp. nov. A fourth discovered Cyrtodactylus population in Hin Nam No proved to be the first country record of C. cryptus for Laos. Our results highlight the importance of applying an integrative approach to resolving the taxonomy of complex and cryptic species groups, and the role of the Truong Son Range in maintaining the high level of biodiversity over time.

  3. Dietary Phytosterols Protective Against Peptic Ulceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Frank I; Capanoglu, Doga; Langley, G. John; Herniman, Julie M; Bor, Serhat; Ozutemiz, Omer; Hobsley, Michael; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Linclau, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Background In developing countries the prevalence of duodenal ulceration is related to the staple diet and not to the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori. Experiments using animal peptic ulcer models show that the lipid fraction in foods from the staple diets of low prevalence areas gives protection against ulceration, including ulceration due to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and also promotes healing of ulceration. The lipid from the pulse Dolichos biflorus (Horse gram) was highly active and used for further investigations. Further experiments showed the phospholipids, sterol esters and sterols present in Horse gram lipid were gastroprotective. Dietary phospholipids are known to be protective, but the nature of protective sterols in staple diets is not known. The present research investigates the nature of the protective phytosterols. Methods Sterol fractions were extracted from the lipid in Dolichos biflorus and tested for gastroprotection using the rat ethanol model. The fractions showing protective activity were isolated and identification of the components was investigated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Results The protective phytosterol fraction was shown to consist of stigmasterol, β-sitosterol and a third as yet unidentified sterol, isomeric with β-sitosterol. Conclusions Dietary changes, affecting the intake of protective phospholipids and phytosterols, may reduce the prevalence of duodenal ulceration in areas of high prevalence and may reduce the incidence of recurrent duodenal ulceration after healing and elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection. A combination of phospholipids and phytosterols, such as found in the lipid fraction of ulceroprotecive foods, may be of value in giving protection against the ulcerogenic effect of NSAIDs. PMID:27942332

  4. Dietary Factors Associated with Pancreatic Cancer Risk in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrehim, Marwa G; Mahfouz, Eman M; Ewis, Ashraf A; Seedhom, Amany E; Afifi, Hassan M; Shebl, Fatma M

    2018-02-26

    Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a serious and rapidly progressing malignancy. Identifying risk factors including dietary elements is important to develop preventive strategies. This study focused on possible links between diet and PC. Methods: We conducted a case-control study including all PC patients diagnosed at Minia Cancer Center and controls from general population from June 2014 to December 2015. Dietary data were collected directly through personal interviews. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary groups. The data were analyzed using crude odds ratios (ORs) and multivariable logistic regression with adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A total of 75 cases and 149 controls were included in the study. PCA identified six dietary groups, labeled as cereals and grains, vegetables, proteins, dairy products, fruits, and sugars. Bivariate analysis showed that consumption of vegetables, fruits, sugars, and total energy intake were associated with change in PC risk. In multivariable-adjusted models comparing highest versus lowest levels of intake, we observed significant lower odds of PC in association with vegetable intake (OR 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.85, P=0.012) and a higher likelihood with the total energy intake (OR 9.88; 95% CI, 2.56-38.09, Plink between high fruit consumption and reduced odds of PC. Conclusions: The study supports the association between dietary factors and the odds of PC development in Egypt. It was found that higher energy intake is associated with an increase in likelihood of PC, while increased vegetable consumption is associated with a lower odds ratio. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Relationships among Food Label Use, Motivation, and Dietary Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Soederberg Miller

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition information on packaged foods supplies information that aids consumers in meeting the recommendations put forth in the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans such as reducing intake of solid fats and added sugars. It is important to understand how food label use is related to dietary intake. However, prior work is based only on self-reported use of food labels, making it unclear if subjective assessments are biased toward motivational influences. We assessed food label use using both self-reported and objective measures, the stage of change, and dietary quality in a sample of 392 stratified by income. Self-reported food label use was assessed using a questionnaire. Objective use was assessed using a mock shopping task in which participants viewed food labels and decided which foods to purchase. Eye movements were monitored to assess attention to nutrition information on the food labels. Individuals paid attention to nutrition information when selecting foods to buy. Self-reported and objective measures of label use showed some overlap with each other (r = 0.29, p < 0.001, and both predicted dietary quality (p < 0.001 for both. The stage of change diminished the predictive power of subjective (p < 0.09, but not objective (p < 0.01, food label use. These data show both self-reported and objective measures of food label use are positively associated with dietary quality. However, self-reported measures appear to capture a greater motivational component of food label use than do more objective measures.

  6. Identification of dietary patterns of adolescents attending public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents attending public municipal schools in Northern Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to test the association between these patterns and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status of the adolescents. METHODS: this was an analytical, cross-sectional study with randomized sample of 474 adolescents of both genders, between 11 and 17 years of age, attending municipal public schools in the urban area of Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The parents provided demographic and economic data. The nutritional status (body mass index - BMI of the adolescents was determined at school, and their dietary habits were assessed though the administration of the Food Frequency Questionnaire for Adolescents (FFQA. Based on 26 categories extracted from FFQA, dietary patterns were determined using principal component analysis (PCA and associated to anthropometric and socioeconomic factors using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: the three dietary patterns identified, "junk food," "healthy," and "traditional", explained 23.26%, 6.90%, and 5.24% of data variability, respectively. Adolescents with per capita family income exceeding half a minimum wage were more likely to consume the "junk food" pattern (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.07-2.56, and overweight adolescents had lower chances of eating the "healthy" food pattern (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91. CONCLUSIONS: deviations from the "healthy" patterns were not associated to low income, but rather to bad eating habits in the studied population. Overweight adolescents did not adhere to the "healthy" dietary pattern, emphasizing the need for nutritional education among them.

  7. Dietary patterns and changes in body weight in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Matthias B; Fung, Teresa T; Manson, Joann E; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2006-08-01

    Our objective was to examine the association between adherence to dietary patterns and weight change in women. Women (51,670, 26 to 46 years old) in the Nurses' Health Study II were followed from 1991 to 1999. Dietary intake and body weight were ascertained in 1991, 1995, and 1999. A Western pattern, characterized by high intakes of red and processed meats, refined grains, sweets and desserts, and potatoes, and a prudent pattern, characterized by high intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fish, poultry, and salad dressing, were identified with principal component analysis, and associations between patterns and change in body weight were estimated. Women who increased their Western pattern score had greater weight gain (multivariate adjusted means, 4.55 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 2.86 kg for 1995 to 1999) than women who decreased their Western pattern score (2.70 and 1.37 kg for the two time periods), adjusting for baseline lifestyle and dietary confounders and changes in confounders over time (p < 0.001 for both time periods). Furthermore, among women who increased their prudent pattern score, weight gain was smaller (multivariate-adjusted means, 1.93 kg for 1991 to 1995 and 0.66 kg for 1995 to 1999) than among women who decreased their prudent pattern score (4.83 and 3.35 kg for the two time periods) (p < 0.001). The largest weight gain between 1991 and 1995 and between 1995 and 1999 was observed among women who decreased their prudent pattern score while increasing their Western pattern score (multivariate adjusted means, 6.80 and 4.99 kg), whereas it was smallest for the opposite change in patterns (0.87 and -0.64 kg) (p < 0.001). Adoption of a Western dietary pattern is associated with larger weight gain in women, whereas a prudent dietary pattern may facilitate weight maintenance.

  8. Country-Specific Dietary Patterns and Associations with Socioeconomic Status in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Bammann, Karin; Pala, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives:Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary...... patterns with an additive SES indicator.Subjects/Methods:Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES....... Results:Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing...

  9. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important to increase the awareness of indicators associated with adverse infant dietary patterns to be able to prevent or to improve dietary patterns early on. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a wide range of possible family and child...... indicators and adherence to dietary patterns for infants aged 9 months. DESIGN: The two dietary patterns 'Family Food' and 'Health-Conscious Food' were displayed by principal component analysis, and associations with possible indicators were analysed by multiple linear regressions in a pooled sample (n=374......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  10. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Meng, Xiao; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-07-08

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. Several epidemiological studies suggested the inverse correlation between the intake of vegetables and fruits and the incidence of breast cancer. Substantial experimental studies indicated that many dietary natural products could affect the development and progression of breast cancer, such as soy, pomegranate, mangosteen, citrus fruits, apple, grape, mango, cruciferous vegetables, ginger, garlic, black cumin, edible macro-fungi, and cereals. Their anti-breast cancer effects involve various mechanisms of action, such as downregulating ER-α expression and activity, inhibiting proliferation, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumor cells, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and sensitizing breast tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review summarizes the potential role of dietary natural products and their major bioactive components in prevention and treatment of breast cancer, and special attention was paid to the mechanisms of action.

  11. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  12. Software component quality evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, A. J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a software inspection process that can be used to evaluate the quality of software components. Quality criteria, process application, independent testing of the process and proposed associated tool support are covered. Early results indicate that this technique is well suited for assessing software component quality in a standardized fashion. With automated machine assistance to facilitate both the evaluation and selection of software components, such a technique should promote effective reuse of software components.

  13. Using Two Different Approaches to Assess Dietary Patterns: Hypothesis-Driven and Data-Driven Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents’ dietary patterns. Food intake from a cross-sectional survey with 295 adolescents was assessed by 24 h dietary recall (24HR. In hypothesis-driven analysis, based on the American National Cancer Institute method, the usual intake of Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised components were estimated. In the data-driven approach, the usual intake of foods/food groups was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. In the results, hypothesis-driven analysis showed low scores for Whole grains, Total vegetables, Total fruit and Whole fruits, while, in data-driven analysis, fruits and whole grains were not presented in any pattern. High intakes of sodium, fats and sugars were observed in hypothesis-driven analysis with low total scores for Sodium, Saturated fat and SoFAA (calories from solid fat, alcohol and added sugar components in agreement, while the data-driven approach showed the intake of several foods/food groups rich in these nutrients, such as butter/margarine, cookies, chocolate powder, whole milk, cheese, processed meat/cold cuts and candies. In this study, using both approaches at the same time provided consistent and complementary information with regard to assessing the overall dietary habits that will be important in order to drive public health programs, and improve their efficiency to monitor and evaluate the dietary patterns of populations.

  14. Dietary inadequacy in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, C G; Hernandez, M I; Hernandez, B M; Mancia, I Y

    1992-01-01

    Researchers conducted a dietary survey of 59 households selected at random in the marginal community of Peralta in San Salvador, El Salvador to ascertain nutritional needs of the families and identify factors which affect intrafamilial distribution and consumption of food. A nutritionist weighed all the food consumed by each family member in 1 day. 50% of the family members consumed just grain, sugar, oil, and/or beans. 93% of the people ate 90% of the required quantity of vitamin A. 88% ate inadequate amounts of riboflavin, 77% iron, and 40% protein. Moreover 58% of the households spent 61-100% of their income on food. No association occurred between caloric sufficiency and family size and between age and dietary adequacy. Therefore each family evenly distributed food among family members. Further poorer families consumed less food than the families of the higher socioeconomic group.

  15. Reactor component automatic grapple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenaway, P.R.

    1982-01-01

    A grapple for handling nuclear reactor components in a medium such as liquid sodium which, upon proper seating and alignment of the grapple with the component as sensed by a mechanical logic integral to the grapple, automatically seizes the component. The mechanical logic system also precludes seizure in the absence of proper seating and alignment. (author)

  16. Repurposing learning object components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbert, K.; Jovanovic, J.; Gasevic, D.; Duval, E.; Meersman, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an ontology-based framework for repurposing learning object components. Unlike the usual practice where learning object components are assembled manually, the proposed framework enables on-the-fly access and repurposing of learning object components. The framework supports two

  17. Dietary Carcinogens and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    detected by autoradiography on X-ray film with intensifying screens at - 70 0C. Using this TLC separation system, we have observed one abundant adduct...report in Science, published earlier this year, showed that resveratrol (a phytochemical found in many plant species) inhibited both cyclooxygenase I...the dietary phytochemical resveratrol significantly inhibits PhIP-DNA adduct formation in primary cultures of human mammary epithelial cells. From

  18. Calcium binding by dietary fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.P.T.; Branch, W.J.; Southgate, D.A.T.

    1978-01-01

    Dietary fibre from plants low in phytate bound calcium in proportion to its uronic-acid content. This binding by the non-cellulosic fraction of fibre reduces the availability of calcium for small-intestinal absorption, but the colonic microbial digestion of uronic acids liberates the calcium. Thus the ability to maintain calcium balance on high-fibre diets may depend on the adaptive capacity on the colon for calcium. (author)

  19. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Mitrović, Milana; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo; Jović, Jelena

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno's ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1-1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1-3.3%).

  20. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae, a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kosovac

    Full Text Available The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno's ΔK(3 = 803.72 with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1-1.5% among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1-3.3%.

  1. Severe hemophilia A in a female by cryptic translocation: Order and orientation of factor VIII within Xq28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; McGinniss, M.J.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Axelman, J.; Stasiowski, B.A.; Youssoufian, H.; Kearns, W.G.; Chung, A.; Pearson, P.L.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Muneer, R.S. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    The authors report studies of a female with severe hemophilia A resulting from a complex de novo translocation of chromosomes X and 17 (46,X,t(X; 17)). Somatic cell hybrids containing the normal X, the der(X), or the der(17) were analyzed for coagulation factor VIII (F8C) sequences using Southern blots and polymerase chain reaction. The normal X, always late replicating, contains a normal F8C gene, whereas the der(X) has no F8C sequences. The der(17) chromosome containing Xq24-Xq28 carries a functional G6PD locus and a deleted F8C allele that lacks exons 1--15. Also, it lacks the DXYS64-X locus, situated between the F8C locus and the Xq telomere. These results indicate that a cryptic breakpoint within Xq28 deleted the 5[prime] end of F8C, but left the more proximal G6PD locus intact on the der(17)chromosome. As the deleted segment includes the 5[prime] half of F8C as well as the subtelomeric DXYS64 locus, F8C must be oriented on the chromosome with its 5[prime] region closest to the telomere. Therefore, the order of these loci is Xcen-G6PD-3[prime]F8C-5[prime]F8C-DXYS64-Xqtel. The analysis of somatic cell hybrids has elucidated the true nature of the F8C mutation in the pro-band, revealing a more complex rearrangement (three chromosomes involved) than that expected from cytogenetic analysis, chromosome painting, and Southern blots. A 900-kb segment within Xq28 has been translocated to another autosome. Hemophilia A in this heterozygous female is due to the decapitation of the F8C gene on the der(17) and inactivation of the intact allele on the normal X. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above

  3. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  4. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  5. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, Pau; Hernández Montoya, Julio; Milá, Borja

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands in driving

  6. Insights from Integrative Systematics Reveal Cryptic Diversity in Pristimantis Frogs (Anura: Craugastoridae from the Upper Amazon Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available Pluralistic approaches to taxonomy facilitate a more complete appraisal of biodiversity, especially the diversification of cryptic species. Although species delimitation has traditionally been based primarily on morphological differences, the integration of new methods allows diverse lines of evidence to solve the problem. Robber frogs (Pristimantis are exemplary, as many of the species show high morphological variation within populations, but few traits that are diagnostic of species. We used a combination of DNA sequences from three mitochondrial genes, morphometric data, and comparisons of ecological niche models (ENMs to infer a phylogenetic hypothesis for the Pristimantis acuminatus complex. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed a close relationship between three new species-Pristimantis enigmaticus sp. nov., P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov.-originally confused with Pristimantis acuminatus. In combination with morphometric data and geographic distributions, several morphological characters such as degree of tympanum exposure, skin texture, ulnar/tarsal tubercles and sexual secondary characters (vocal slits and nuptial pads in males were found to be useful for diagnosing species in the complex. Multivariate discriminant analyses provided a successful classification rate for 83-100% of specimens. Discriminant analysis of localities in environmental niche space showed a successful classification rate of 75-98%. Identity tests of ENMs rejected hypotheses of niche equivalency, although not strongly because the high values on niche overlap. Pristimantis acuminatus and P. enigmaticus sp. nov. are distributed along the lowlands of central-southern Ecuador and northern Peru, in contrast with P. limoncochensis sp. nov. and P. omeviridis sp. nov., which are found in northern Ecuador and southern Colombia, up to 1200 m in the upper Amazon Basin. The methods used herein provide an integrated framework for inventorying the greatly

  7. Genetic structure, nestmate recognition and behaviour of two cryptic species of the invasive big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Fournier

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are recognized as a major cause of biodiversity decline and have considerable impact on the economy and human health. The African big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is considered one of the world's most harmful invasive species.To better understand its ecological and demographic features, we combined behavioural (aggression tests, chemical (quantitative and qualitative analyses of cuticular lipids and genetic (mitochondrial divergence and polymorphism of DNA microsatellite markers data obtained for eight populations in Cameroon. Molecular data revealed two cryptic species of P. megacephala, one inhabiting urban areas and the other rainforests. Urban populations belong to the same phylogenetic group than those introduced in Australia and in other parts of the world. Behavioural analyses show that the eight populations sampled make up four mutually aggressive supercolonies. The maximum distance between nests from the same supercolony was 49 km and the closest distance between two nests belonging to two different supercolonies was 46 m. The genetic data and chemical analyses confirmed the behavioural tests as all of the nests were correctly assigned to their supercolony. Genetic diversity appears significantly greater in Africa than in introduced populations in Australia; by contrast, urban and Australian populations are characterized by a higher chemical diversity than rainforest ones.Overall, our study shows that populations of P. megacephala in Cameroon adopt a unicolonial social structure, like invasive populations in Australia. However, the size of the supercolonies appears several orders of magnitude smaller in Africa. This implies competition between African supercolonies and explains why they persist over evolutionary time scales.

  8. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Lavinia

    Full Text Available Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%, with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana. In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  9. Seasonally-Dynamic Presence-Only Species Distribution Models for a Cryptic Migratory Bat Impacted by Wind Energy Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hayes

    Full Text Available Understanding seasonal distribution and movement patterns of animals that migrate long distances is an essential part of monitoring and conserving their populations. Compared to migratory birds and other more conspicuous migrants, we know very little about the movement patterns of many migratory bats. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus, a cryptic, wide-ranging, long-distance migrant, comprise a substantial proportion of the tens to hundreds of thousands of bat fatalities estimated to occur each year at wind turbines in North America. We created seasonally-dynamic species distribution models (SDMs from 2,753 museum occurrence records collected over five decades in North America to better understand the seasonal geographic distributions of hoary bats. We used 5 SDM approaches: logistic regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy and consolidated outputs to generate ensemble maps. These maps represent the first formal hypotheses for sex- and season-specific hoary bat distributions. Our results suggest that North American hoary bats winter in regions with relatively long growing seasons where temperatures are moderated by proximity to oceans, and then move to the continental interior for the summer. SDMs suggested that hoary bats are most broadly distributed in autumn-the season when they are most susceptible to mortality from wind turbines; this season contains the greatest overlap between potentially suitable habitat and wind energy facilities. Comparing wind-turbine fatality data to model outputs could test many predictions, such as 'risk from turbines is highest in habitats between hoary bat summering and wintering grounds'. Although future field studies are needed to validate the SDMs, this study generated well-justified and testable hypotheses of hoary bat migration patterns and seasonal distribution.

  10. Seasonally-Dynamic Presence-Only Species Distribution Models for a Cryptic Migratory Bat Impacted by Wind Energy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A; Cryan, Paul M; Wunder, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding seasonal distribution and movement patterns of animals that migrate long distances is an essential part of monitoring and conserving their populations. Compared to migratory birds and other more conspicuous migrants, we know very little about the movement patterns of many migratory bats. Hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus), a cryptic, wide-ranging, long-distance migrant, comprise a substantial proportion of the tens to hundreds of thousands of bat fatalities estimated to occur each year at wind turbines in North America. We created seasonally-dynamic species distribution models (SDMs) from 2,753 museum occurrence records collected over five decades in North America to better understand the seasonal geographic distributions of hoary bats. We used 5 SDM approaches: logistic regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy and consolidated outputs to generate ensemble maps. These maps represent the first formal hypotheses for sex- and season-specific hoary bat distributions. Our results suggest that North American hoary bats winter in regions with relatively long growing seasons where temperatures are moderated by proximity to oceans, and then move to the continental interior for the summer. SDMs suggested that hoary bats are most broadly distributed in autumn-the season when they are most susceptible to mortality from wind turbines; this season contains the greatest overlap between potentially suitable habitat and wind energy facilities. Comparing wind-turbine fatality data to model outputs could test many predictions, such as 'risk from turbines is highest in habitats between hoary bat summering and wintering grounds'. Although future field studies are needed to validate the SDMs, this study generated well-justified and testable hypotheses of hoary bat migration patterns and seasonal distribution.

  11. Widespread plant specialization in the polyphagous planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Cixiidae), a major vector of stolbur phytoplasma: Evidence of cryptic speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovac, Andrea; Johannesen, Jes; Krstić, Oliver; Cvrković, Tatjana; Toševski, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    The stolbur phytoplasma vector Hyalesthes obsoletus is generally considered as a polyphagous species associated with numerous wild and cultivated plants. However, recent research in southeastern Europe, the distribution centre of H. obsoletus and the area of most stolbur-inflicted crop diseases, points toward specific host-plant associations of the vector, indicating specific vector-based transmission routes. Here, we study the specificity of populations associated with four host-plants using mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers, and we evaluate the evolution of host-shifts in H. obsoletus. Host-plant use was confirmed for Convolvulus arvensis, Urtica dioica, Vitex agnus-castus and Crepis foetida. Mitochondrial genetic analysis showed sympatric occurrence of three phylogenetic lineages that were ecologically delineated by host-plant preference, but were morphologically inseparable. Nuclear data supported the existence of three genetic groups (Evanno’s ΔK(3) = 803.72) with average genetic membership probabilities > 90%. While populations associated with C. arvensis and U. dioica form a homogenous group, populations affiliated with V. agnus-castus and C. foetida constitute two independent plant-associated lineages. The geographical signal permeating the surveyed populations indicated complex diversification processes associated with host-plant selection and likely derived from post-glacial refugia in the eastern Mediterranean. This study provides evidence for cryptic species diversification within H. obsoletus sensu lato: i) consistent mitochondrial differentiation (1.1–1.5%) among host-associated populations in syntopy and in geographically distant areas, ii) nuclear genetic variance supporting mitochondrial data, and iii) average mitochondrial genetic distances among host-associated meta-populations are comparable to the most closely related, morphologically distinguishable species, i.e., Hyalesthes thracicus (2.1–3.3%). PMID:29738577

  12. Treerunners, cryptic lizards of the Plica plica group (Squamata, Sauria, Tropiduridae) of northern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John C.; Jowers, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The arboreal, Neotropical lizard Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) has been long considered a widespread species with a distribution east of the Andes. A preliminary examination of 101 specimens from about 28 locations mostly north of the Amazon suggests that Plica plica is a cryptic species complex with taxa that can be distinguished on the basis of the number of scale rows at mid-body; the arrangement, shape and ornamentation of scales on the snout; the number of lamellae on the fourth toe; the number of subocular plates; as well as other commonly used external morphological traits. The allopatric species discussed here are concordant with northern South American geography. Plica plica (Linnaeus, 1758) is associated with the Guiana Shield (Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela). A second species, P. caribeana sp. n. is associated with the Caribbean Coastal Range of Venezuela including Trinidad and Tobago. A third, distinctive species, P. rayi sp. n. is associated with the middle Orinoco at the eastern edge of the Guiana Shield. Two other species, P. kathleenae sp. n. and P. medemi sp. n., each based upon a single specimen, one from the Sierra Acarai Mountains of Guyana, and the other from southern Meta, Colombia are described. In addition to morphological analyses, we sequenced 12S and 16S rDNA gene fragments from one Plica plica from Trinidad to assess its relationship and taxonomy to other mainland Plica cf. plica. The results suggest Plica caribeana sp. n. likely diverged prior to the separation of Trinidad from northern Venezuela. Isolation in the Caribbean Coastal Range during its rapid uplift in the late Miocene, combined with a marine incursion into northern Venezuela may have contributed to their genetic divergence from other populations. PMID:24363569

  13. Cryptic Species in Proechimys goeldii (Rodentia, Echimyidae)? A Case of Molecular and Chromosomal Differentiation in Allopatric Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues da Costa, Marlyson J; Siqueira do Amaral, Paulo J; Pieczarka, Julio C; Sampaio, Maria I; Rossi, Rogério V; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana C; Rodrigues Noronha, Renata C; Nagamachi, Cleusa Y

    2016-01-01

    The spiny rats of the genus Proechimys have a wide distribution in the Amazon, covering all areas of endemism of this region. We analyzed the karyotype and cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequences in Proechimys goeldii from 6 localities representing 3 interfluves of the eastern Amazon. A clear separation of P. goeldii into 2 monophyletic clades was observed, both chromosomally and based on Cyt b sequences: cytotype A (2n = 26x2640;/27x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve and cytotype B (2n = 24x2640;/25x2642;, NF = 42) for samples from the Xingu-Tocantins interfluve and east of the Tocantins River. The karyotypes differ in a pericentric inversion and a centric fusion/fission and an average nucleotide divergence of 6.1%, suggesting cryptic species. Meiotic analysis confirmed the presence of a XX/XY1Y2 multiple sex chromosome determination system for both karyotypes. The karyotypes also vary from the literature (2n = 24, NF = 42, XX/XY). The autosome translocated to the X chromosome is different both in size and morphology to P. cf. longicaudatus, which also has a multiple sex chromosome determination system (2n = 14x2640;/15x2640;x2642;/16x2640;/17x2642;, NF = 14). The Xingu River is a barrier that separates populations of P. goeldii, thus maintaining their allopatric nature and providing an explanation for the molecular and cytogenetic patterns observed for the Xingu River but not the Tocantins River. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of diploid Leucaena (Leguminosae; Mimosoideae) reveal cryptic species diversity and patterns of divergent allopatric speciation.

    Sci