WorldWideScience

Sample records for cryomodule test stand

  1. Cryogenic System for the Cryomodule Test Stand at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Michael J. [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab

    2017-10-09

    This paper describes the cryogenic system for the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS) at the new Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) located at Fermilab. CMTS is designed for production testing of the 1.3 GHz and 3.9GHz cryomodules to be used in the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLSII), which is an upgrade to an existing accelerator at Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC). This paper will focus on the cryogenic system that extends from the helium refrigeration plant to the CMTS cave. Topics covered will include component design, installation and commissioning progress, and operational plans. The paper will conclude with a description of the heat load measurement plan.

  2. Commissioning and First Results from the Fermilab Cryomodule Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, Elvin; et al.

    2017-05-01

    A new test stand dedicated to SRF cryomodule testing, CMTS1, has been commissioned and is now in operation at Fermilab. The first device to be cooled down and powered in this facility is the prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule assembled at Fermilab for LCLS-II. We describe the demonstrated capabilities of CMTS1, report on steps taken during commissioning, provide an overview of first test results, and survey future plans.

  3. CryoModule Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CMTFis able to test complete SRF cryomodules at cryogenic operating temperatures and with RF Power. CMTF will house the PIP-II Injector Experiment allowing test of...

  4. Operational Experience from LCLS-II Cryomodule Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renzhuo [Fermilab; Hansen, Benjamin [Fermilab; White, Michael [Fermilab; Hurd, Joseph [Fermilab; Atassi, Omar Al [Fermilab; Bossert, Richard [Fermilab; Pei, Liujin [Fermilab; Klebaner, Arkadiy [Fermilab; Makara, Jerry [Fermilab; Theilacker, Jay [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  5. Operational experience from LCLS-II cryomodule testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Hansen, B.; White, M.; Hurd, J.; Atassi, O. Al; Bossert, R.; Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Makara, J.; Theilacker, J.; Kaluzny, J.; Wu, G.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the initial operational experience gained from testing Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) cryomodules at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Strategies for a controlled slow cooldown to 100 K and a fast cooldown past the niobium superconducting transition temperature of 9.2 K will be described. The test stand for the cryomodules at CMTF is sloped to match gradient in the LCLS-II tunnel at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC) laboratory, which adds an additional challenge to stable liquid level control. Control valve regulation, Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) power compensation, and other methods of stabilizing liquid level and pressure in the cryomodule 2.0 K SRF cavity circuit will be discussed. Several different pumping configurations using cold compressors and warm vacuum pumps have been used on the cryomodule 2.0 K return line and the associated results will be described.

  6. LCLS-II CRYOMODULE TRANSPORT SYSTEM TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); McGee, Michael W. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The Cryomodules (CM) for the Linear Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will be shipped to SLAC (Menlo Park, California) from JLab (Newport News, Virginia) and FNAL (Batavia, Illinois). A transportation system has been designed and built to safely transport the CMs over the road. It uses an array of helical isolator springs to attenuate shocks on the CM to below 1.5g in all directions. The system rides on trailers equipped with Air-Ride suspension, which attenuates vibration loads. The prototype LCLS-II CM (pCM) was driven 750 miles to test the transport system; shock loggers recorded the shock attenuation on the pCM and vacuum gauges were used to detect any compromises in beamline vacuum. Alignment measurements were taken before and after the trip to check whether cavity positions had shifted beyond the ± 0.2mm spec. Passband frequencies and cavity gradients were measured at 2K at the Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) at JLab to identify any degradation of CM performance after transportation. The transport system was found to have safely carried the CM and is cleared to begin shipments from JLab and FNAL to SLAC.

  7. Cooling tests of the cryomodules at superconducting RF test facility (STF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohuchi, Norihito; Nakai, Hirotaka; Kojima, Yuuji

    2009-01-01

    KEK has been constructing the Superconducting RF Test Facility (STF) with aiming at a center of the ILC-R and D in Asia from 2005. In this project, KEK targets manufacturing and operational experiences of the RF cavity and cryomodule toward the ILC, and two cryomodules have been developed. These cryomodules are 6 meter long and have 4 nine-cell cavities in each cryostat. The designs of the cryomodules are based on the TESLA Type-3 (TTF-3) at DESY, however, each cryostat has the different type of cavities, TESLA-like type and Low-Loss type. The tests of the cryomodules were performed in two steps. In the first test, measurements of the cryogenic performances of these cryomodules were the main objective. One nine-cell cavity was assembled in each cryomodule and cool-down of the two cryomodules was performed, individually. In the second test, the four TESLA-like cavities were assembled in the cryomodule as complete integration. Cool-down of the cryomodule to 2 K was successfully completed, and thermal performances of the cryomodule and cooling capacity of the cryogenics system were studied in detail. In this paper, we will report the design of the cryomodules and the thermal performances at these cold tests. (author)

  8. Design and development of cryo-module test system for 1.3 GHz LCLS-II cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunt, A.C.S.; Anupam Kumar Sinha, B.; Aravind, T.C.; Mishra, D.V.K.; Sinha, E.A.K.; Mukesh Goyal, F.; Tejas Rane, G.

    2015-01-01

    Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is a major cryogenic system designed and developed at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC under Indian Institutions and Fermi Lab Collaboration (IIFC). It is necessary test bed to measure the performance of superconducting RF cavities in Cryomodule. CMTS is required to test 1.3 GHz LCLS-II Cryomodule for Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre (SLAC), USA. Feed Cap and End Cap sub systems of Cryomodule Test System (CMTS) is designed and developed at CDM, BARC. Feed cap and End cap are 2K liquid helium distribution system for LCLS-II RF Cavity Bath and insulated by intermediate radiation shields maintained at 5K and 40K and Multilayer Insulation. The whole distribution system is enclosed in horizontal vacuum shells of approximately 1100 mm in diameter and 3000 mm in total length. This development was very challenging as many design considerations and decisions for 2K cryogenic requirements have been made and implemented. Also intricate mounting of ceramic sensors both internally and externally (surface mounted) for very low temperature measurements, low temperature epoxy bonding and multi-layer insulation wrapping were successfully completed. (author)

  9. Intermediate quality control tests in the development of a superconducting RF cryomodule for CW operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Jones, Thomas; Strachan, John; Bate, Robert; Davies, Phil; McIntosh, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Through an international cryomodule collaboration, ASTeC at Daresbury Laboratory has taken the primary responsibility in leading the development of an optimised Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, operating in CW mode for energy recovery facilities and other high duty cycle accelerators. For high beam current operation, Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers are critical components of the SRF Cryomodule, ensuring excessive heating of the accelerating structures and beam instabilities are effectively managed. This paper describes some of the cold tests conducted on the HOM absorbers and other critical components during the construction phase, to ensure that the quality and reliable cryomodule performance is maintained.

  10. Low Level RF System for Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasz Plawski; Trent Allison; Jean Delayen; J. Hovater; Thomas Powers

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Lab Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) has been upgraded to test and commission SNS and CEBAF Energy Upgrade cryomodules. Part of the upgrade was to modernize the superconducting cavity instrumentation and control. We have designed a VXI based RF control system exclusively for the production testing of superconducting cavities. The RF system can be configured to work either in Phase Locked Loop (PLL) or Self Excited Loop (SEL) mode. It can be used to drive either SNS 805 MHz or CEBAF Energy Upgrade 1497 MHz superconducting cavities and can be operated in pulsed or continuous wave (CW) mode. The base design consists of RF-analog and digital sections. The RF-analog section includes a Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO), phase detector, IandQ modulator and ''low phase shift'' limiter. The digital section controls the analog section and includes ADC, FPGA, and DAC . We will discuss the design of the RF system and how it relates to the support of cavity testing

  11. Cryomodule tests of four Tesla-like cavities in the Superconducting RF Test Facility at KEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kako

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-m cryomodule including four Tesla-like cavities was developed, and was tested in the Superconducting RF Test Facility phase-I at KEK. The performance as a total superconducting cavity system was checked in the cryomodule tests at 2 K with high rf power. One of the four cavities achieved a stable pulsed operation at 32  MV/m, which is higher than the operating accelerating gradient in the ILC. The maximum accelerating gradient (E_{acc,max⁡} obtained in the vertical cw tests was maintained or slightly improved in the cryomodule tests operating in a pulse mode. Compensation of the Lorentz force detuning at 31  MV/m was successfully demonstrated by a piezo tuner and predetuning.

  12. Engineering and Cryogenic Testing of the ISAC-II Medium Beta Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Stanford, G; Laxdal, R E; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I

    2004-01-01

    The medium beta section of the ISAC-II Heavy Ion Accelerator consists of five cryomodules each containing four quarter wave bulk niobium resonators and one superconducting solenoid. A prototype cryomodule has been designed and assembled at TRIUMF. The cryomodule vacuum space contains a mu-metal shield, an LN2 cooled, copper, thermal shield, plus the cold mass and support system. This paper will describe the design goals, engineering choices and fabrication and assembly techniques as well as report the results of the initial cold tests. In particular we will summarize the alignment procedure and the results from the wire position monitoring system.

  13. Commissioning of the CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, M.; Lee, T.; Marshall, J.; Preble, J.; Saulter, Q.; Schneider, W.; Spata, M.; Wiseman, M.

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, over half of the cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 μA beam. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q 0 ) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity. The sensitivity of the resonant frequency to changes in pressure and gradient is also measured. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. In all cases, the performance of CEBAF cryomodules has exceeded the design requirements. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. This paper describes the cryomodule commissioning hardware, software, and measurements

  14. LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design - lessons learned from testing at Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzny, J.; Hurd, J.; Orlov, Y.; He, Y.; Bossert, R.; Grimm, C.; Schappert, W.; Atassi, O. Al; Wang, R.; Arkan, T.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; White, M.; Wu, G.; Makara, J.; Ginsburg, C.; Pei, L.; Holzbauer, J.; Hansen, B.; Stanek, R.; Peterson, T.; Harms, E.

    2017-12-01

    Fermilab’s 1.3 GHz prototype cryomodule for the Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade (LCLS-II) has been tested at Fermilab’s Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF). Aspects of the cryomodule design have been studied and tested. The cooldown circuit was used to quickly cool the cavities through the transition temperature, and a heater on the circuit was used to heat incoming helium for warmup. Due to the 0.5% slope of the cryomodule, the liquid level is not constant along the length of the cryomodule. This slope as well as the pressure profile caused liquid level management to be a challenge. The microphonics levels in the cryomodule were studied and efforts were made to reduce them throughout testing. Some of the design approaches and studies performed on these aspects will be presented. Fermilab is operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy. This work was supported, in part, by the LCLS-II Project.

  15. SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidoro Campisi; Edward Daly; G. Davis; Jean Delayen; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; John Hogan; Lawrence King; Peter Kneisel; John Mammosser; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Mircia Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Tim Whitlatch; Mark Wiseman

    2003-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility, Jefferson Lab, is producing 24 Superconducting Radio FR-equency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This includes one medium beta (0.61) prototype, 11 medium beta production, and 12 high beta (0.81) production cryomodules. After testing [ ], the medium beta prototype cryomodule was shipped to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and acceptance check out has been completed. All production orders for cavities and cryomodule components are being received at this time and the medium beta cryomodule production run has started. Each of the medium beta cryomodules is scheduled to undergo complete operational performance testing at Jefferson Laboratory before shipment to ORNL. The performance results of cryomodules to date will be discussed

  16. CEBAF Cryomodule Commissioning in the South Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Drury; H. Lankford; T. Lee; J. Marshall; J. Preble; Q. Saulter; W. Schneider; Michael Spata; Mark Wiseman

    1993-01-01

    When complete, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility will house a 4 GeV recirculating linear accelerator containing 42 1/4 cryomodules arrayed in two antiparallel linacs and an injector. Currently, 38 1/4 cryomodules have been installed. Each cryomodule contains eight superconducting niobium 5-cell rf cavities that operate at 1.497 GHz[1]. A cryomodule must provide an energy gain of 20 MeV to the 200 mu-A beam[2]. The resultant dynamic heat load must be less than 45 W. The cavity parameters that are measured during the commissioning process include the external Q's (Q(sub ext)) of the cavity ports, the unloaded Q (Q(sub 0)) of the cavity as a function of accelerating gradient, and the maximum operating gradient of the cavity[3]. Finally, the mechanical tuners are cycled and characterized. A portable test stand allows local control of the rf system and provides automated data acquisition. During the period from April 1993 through September 1993, 16 of the 20 cryomodules installed in the South Linac were commissioned. All cryomodules tested in the South Linac meet or exceed the CEBAF specifications. This paper describes the results of the commissioning of the first 10 cryomodules in the South Linac

  17. Cryomdoule Test Stand Reduced-Magnetic Support Design at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These devices will be tested at Fermilab's Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) within the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS-1) cave. The problem of magnetic pollution became one of major issues during design stage of the LCLS-II cryomodule as the average quality factor of the accelerating cavities is specified to be 2.7 x 10¹⁰. One of the possible ways to mitigate the effect of stray magnetic fields and to keep it below the goal of 5 mGauss involves the application of low permeable materials. Initial permeability and magnetic measurement studies regarding the use of 316L stainless steel material indicated that cold work (machining) and heat affected zones from welding would be acceptable.

  18. Cryomodule tests of the TESLA-like superconducting cavity in KEK-STF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kako, Eiji; Sato, Masato; Shishido, Toshio; Noguchi, Shuichi; Hatori, Hirofumi; Hayano, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Yasuchika; Watanabe, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Construction of STF (Superconducting RF Test Facility) is being carried out at KEK. The STF-Baseline superconducting cavity system, which includes four TESLA-like 9-cell cavities, input couplers and frequency tuners, has been developed for the future ILC project. A 6-m cryomodule including one of four TESLA-like cavities was assembled, and the cryomodule was installed in the tunnel for the initial test, called the STF Phase-0.5. The first cool-down of the cryomodule and high power tests of the cavity had been carried out at 2 K from October to November, 2007. The maximum accelerating gradient (Eacc, max) of 19.3 MV/m was achieved in a specific pulse width of 1.5 msec and a repetition rate of 5 Hz, (23.4 MV/m in a shorter pulse width of 0.6 msec). Compensation of Lorentz force detuning at 18 MV/m was successfully demonstrated by using a piezo tuner. The second cryomodule test for four cavities, called the STF Phase-1.0, is scheduled in July, 2008. (author)

  19. CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campisi, I.E.; Ahlman, R.; Augustine, M.; Crawford, K.; Drury, M.; Jordan, K.; Kelley, P.; Lee, T.; Marshall, J.; Preble, J.; Robb, J.; Schneider, W.; Susta, J.; Van Dyke, J.; Wiseman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, (CEBAF) is undergoing construction in Newport News, Virginia. When completed in 1994, the accelerator will be the largest installation of radio frequency superconductivity. Production of cryomodules, the fundamental cryogenic building block of the machine, has started. They consist of four sets of a pair of 1497 MHz, 5-cell cavities contained in separate helium vessels and mounted in a cryostat with appropriate end caps for helium supply and return. In this paper RF, heat load, and mechanical performance of the first unit tested and status of the project is discussed

  20. Development and Testing of a Prototype Tuner for the CEBAF Upgrade Cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Davis; J. Delayen; M. Drury; E. Feldl

    2001-01-01

    An upgrade cryomodule is being developed for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. The high-gradient, low-current operation of the superconducting cavities puts stringent requirements on the accuracy of the frequency tuner: a resolution of 1 Hz over a range of 400 KHz. We have developed and tested such a tuner; it consists of a stepper-motor-driven coarse tuner, operating in parallel with a piezo-actuator-driven fine tuner. Tuner test procedures and results are summarized, including frequency resolution, range, and linearity (i.e. frequency vs. tuner position), as well as microphonic effects resulting from tuner operation

  1. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Drury; Edward Daly; Christiana Grenoble; William Hicks; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Haipeng Wang; Mark Wiseman; G. Davis; Jean Delayen

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-β (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-β and twelve high-β (0.81) production cryomodules. Nine medium-β cryomodules as well as two high-β cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q 0 ), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Q ext 's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper

  2. Overview of SNS Cryomodule Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Drury, Michael A; Davis, Kirk; Delayen, Jean R; Grenoble, Christiana; Hicks, William R; King, Larry; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Tom; Preble, Joseph P; Wang, Haipeng; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) has completed production of 24 Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting linac. This includes one medium-beta (0.61) prototype, eleven medium-beta and twelve high-beta (0.81) production cryomodules. Ten medium-beta cryomodules as well as two high beta cryomodules have undergone complete operational performance testing in the Cryomodule Test Facility at Jefferson Lab. The set of tests includes measurements of maximum gradient, unloaded Q (Q0), microphonics, and response to Lorentz forces. The Qext's of the various couplers are measured and the behavior of the higher order mode couplers is examined. The mechanical and piezo tuners are also characterized. The results of these performance tests will be discussed in this paper.

  3. LCLS-II Cryomodules Production at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkan, Tug [Fermilab; Grimm, Chuck [Fermilab; Kaluzny, Joshua [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Premo, Ken [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    LCLS-II is an upgrade project for the linear coherent light source (LCLS) at SLAC. The LCLS-II linac will consist of thirty-five 1.3 GHz and two 3.9 GHz superconducting RF continuous wave (CW) cryomodules that Fermilab and Jefferson Lab (JLab) will assemble in collaboration with SLAC. The LCLS-II 1.3 GHz cryomodule design is based on the European XFEL pulsed-mode cryomodule design with modifications needed for CW operation. Fermilab and JLab will each assemble and test a prototype 1.3 GHz cryomodule to assess the results of the CW modifications, in advance of 16 and 17 production 1.3 GHz cryomodules, respectively. Fermilab is solely responsible for the 3.9 GHz cryomodules. After the prototype cryomodule tests are complete and lessons learned incorporated, both laboratories will increase their cryomodule production rates to meet the challenging LCLS-II project requirement of approximately one cryomodule per month per laboratory. This paper presents the Fermilab Cryomodule Assembly Facility (CAF) infrastructure for LCLS-II cryomodule production, the Fermilab prototype 1.3 GHz CW cryomodule (pCM) assembly and readiness for production assembly.

  4. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A.; O'Brien, M.; Ahammed, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented

  5. Cryogenic test of the 4 K / 2 K insert for the ARIEL e-Linac cryomodule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Ma, Y.; Harmer, P.; Kishi, D.; Koveshnikov, A.; Muller, N.; Vrielink, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); O' Brien, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Ahammed, M. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)

    2014-01-29

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF requires a 50 MeV superconducting electron linac consisting of five nine cell 1.3 GHz cavities divided into three cryomodules with one, two and two cavities in each module respectively. LHe is distributed in parallel to each module at 4 K and at ∼1.2 bar. Each module has a cryogenic insert on board that receives the 4 K liquid and produces 2 K into a cavity phase separator. The module combines a 4 K phase separator, a plate and fin heat exchanger from DATE and a J-T valve expanding into the 2 K phase separator. The unit also supplies 4 K liquid to thermal intercepts in the module in siphon loops that return the vaporized liquid to the 4 K reservoir. For testing purposes the unit is outfitted with a dummy 2 K phase separator and thermal intercepts with variable heaters that mimic the final heat loads in order to test the cryogenic performance. The design of the 4 K / 2 K insert, the results of the cold tests and a summary of the test infrastructure including cryogenics services will be presented.

  6. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  7. Planter unit test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  8. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  9. Cooling for SC devices of test cryomodule for ADS Injector II at IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Wang, S. Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, S. H.; Liu, Y. Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201204 (China); Guo, X. L. [JiangSu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The superconducting half-wave resonance cavities connected in series with superconducting solenoids will be applied to the Injector II of the Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System (ADS) to be built at the Modern Physics Institute, China. A test system has been developed for the purpose of performance test of the HWR cavities as well as validating the relevant technique for cooling the cavity and the solenoids together. It mainly comprises a cryogenic valve box (TVB), a test cryomodule (TCM1) and transfer lines. The TCM1 includes one HWR cavity, two superconducting solenoids, one cold BPM and their cooling system. The design of the TCM1 cryostat was carried out by the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP), CAS. Both the cavity and the solenoids will work at 4.4 K by bath cooling. The fast cooling down for the cavity from around 100 K to 120 K is required to avoid degrading of the cavity performance. After cool down and before energization, the solenoids should be warmed up to above 10 K and re-cooled down for the purpose of degaussing. The TCM1 can not only be cooled by using the dewar-filling system, but also operated by the refrigerator system. For the purpose of reducing the heat loads to the cold mass at 4 K from room temperature, thermal radiation shields cooled by liquid nitrogen flowing in tubing were employed. This paper presents the design details of cooling circuits and thermal shields of the TCM1 as well as related calculations and analyses.

  10. Performance of 3.9 GHz SRF cavities at Fermilab's ILCTA_MDB nhorizontal test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harms, Elvin; Hocker, Andy; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    Fermilab is building a cryomodule containing four 3.9 GHz superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities for the Free electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) facility at the Deutsches Elektronen-SYnchrotron (DESY) laboratory. Before assembling the cavities into the cryomodule, each individual cavity is tested at Fermilab's Horizontal Test Stand (HTS). The HTS provides the capability to test fully-dressed SRF cavities at 1.8 K with high-power pulsed RF in order to verify that the cavities achieve performance requirements under these conditions. The performance at the HTS of the 3.9 GHz cavities built for FLASH is presented here.

  11. Fabrication and Testing of the SRF Cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Reece; Edward Daly; Stephen Manning; Robert Manus; Samuel Morgan; Joseph Ozelis; Larry Turlington

    2005-01-01

    Twelve seven-cell niobium cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade prototype cryomodule Renascence have been fabricated at JLab and tested individually. This set includes four of the ''Low Loss'' (LL) design and eight of the ''High Gradient'' (HG) design. The fabrication strategy was an efficient mix of batch job-shop component machining and in-house EBW, chemistry, and final-step machining to meet mechanical tolerances. Process highlights will be presented. The cavities have been tested at 2.07 K, the intended CEBAF operating temperature. Performance exceeded the tentative design requirement of 19.2 MV/m cw with less than 29 W dynamic heat dissipation. These results, as well as the HOM damping performance will be presented

  12. Fabrication and Testing of the SRF cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. E. Reece; E. F. Daly; S. Manning; R. Manus; S. Morgan; J. P. Ozelis; L. Turlington

    2005-01-01

    Twelve seven-cell niobium cavities for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade prototype cryomodule Renascence have been fabricated at JLab and tested individually. This set includes four of the ''Low Loss'' (LL) design and eight of the ''High Gradient'' (HG) design. The fabrication strategy was an efficient mix of batch job-shop component machining and in-house EBW, chemistry, and final-step machining to meet mechanical tolerances. Process highlights will be presented. The cavities have been tested at 2.07 K, the intended CEBAF operating temperature. Performance exceeded the tentative design requirement of 19.2 MV/m CW with less than 29 W dynamic heat dissipation. These results, as well as the HOM damping performance are presented

  13. TESLA & ILC Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, T. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Weisend, II, J. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The TESLA collaboration developed a unique variant of SRF cryomodule designs, the chief feature being use of the large, low pressure helium vapor return pipe as the structural support backbone of the cryomodule. Additional innovative features include all cryogenic piping within the cryomodule (no parallel external cryogenic transfer line), long strings of RF cavities within a single cryomodule, and cryomodules connected in series. Several projects, including FLASH and XFEL at DESY, LCLS-II at SLAC, and the ILC technical design have adopted this general design concept. Advantages include saving space by eliminating the external transfer line, relatively tight packing of RF cavities along the beamline due to fewer warm-cold transitions, and potentially lower costs. However, a primary disadvantage is the relative lack of independence for warm-up, replacement, and cool-down of individual cryomodules.

  14. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  15. Cold Test Results of the ISAC-II Medium Beta High Gradient Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Laxdal, R E; Clark, G S; Fong, K; Mitra, A K; Poirier, R L; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I; Stanford, G; Zvyagintsev, V

    2004-01-01

    Many proposals (RIA, Eurisol, ISAC-II) are emerging for a new generation of high gradient heavy ion accelerators. The ISAC-II medium beta cryomodule represents the first realized application that encorporates many new techniques to improve the performance over machines presently being used for beam delivery. The machine lattice, compatible with multi-charge acceleration, uses high field (9T) superconducting solenoids with bucking coils for active fringe field compensation. The bulk niobium quarter wave medium beta cavity produces 6 MV/m over an effective length of 18cm with a peak surface field of ~30 MV/m. TRIUMF has developed a mechanical tuner capable of both coarse (kHz) and fine (Hz) frequency adjustments of the cavity. The demonstrated tuner resolution is better than 0.1 μm (0.6 Hz). A new rf coupling loop has been developed that operates at 200 Watts forward power with less than 0.5 Watt of power being added to the helium load. Cold alignment in ISAC-II has been done with rf pick-ups using a ...

  16. Superconducting Magnet Performance in LCLS-II Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashikhin, V. [Fermilab; Cheban, S. [Fermilab; DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Harms, E. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab

    2018-04-01

    New LCLS-II Linear Superconducting Accelerator Cry-omodules are under construction at Fermilab. Installed in-side each SCRF Cryomodule is a superconducting magnet package to focus and steer an electron beam. The magnet package is an iron dominated configuration with conduc-tively cooled racetrack-type quadrupole and dipole coils. For easier installation the magnet can be split in the vertical plane. Initially the magnet was tested in a liquid helium bath, and high precision magnetic field measurements were performed. The first (prototype) Cryomodule with the magnet inside was built and successfully tested at Fermilab test facility. In this paper the magnet package is discussed, the Cryomodule magnet test results and current leads con-duction cooling performance are presented. So far magnets in nine Cryomodules were successfully tested at Fermilab.

  17. BNL 703 MHz SRF cryomodule demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrill, A.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Dalesio, L.; Dottavio, T.; Gassner, D.; Hahn, H.; Hoff, L.; Kayran, D.; Kewisch, J.; Lambiase, R.; Lederle, D.; Litvinenko, V.; Mahler, G.; McIntyre, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will present the preliminary results of the testing of the 703 MHz SRF cryomodule designed for use in the ampere class ERL under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The preliminary cavity tests, carried out at Thomas Jefferson Laboratory, demonstrated cavity performance of 20 MV/m with a Qo of 1 x 10 10 , results we expect to reproduce in the horizontal configuration. This test of the entire string assembly will allow us to evaluate all of the additional cryomodule components not previously tested in the VTA and will prepare us for our next milestone test which will be delivery of electrons from our injector through the cryomodule to the beam dump. This will also be the first demonstration of an accelerating cavity designed for use in an ampere class ERL, a key development which holds great promise for future machines

  18. Alignment of CEBAF cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.J.; Bisognano, J.J.; Fischer, J.

    1993-06-01

    CEBAF, the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, when completed, will house a 4 GeV recirculating accelerator. Each of the accelerator's two linacs contains 160 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) 1497 MHz niobium cavities in 20 cryomodules. Alignments of the cavities within the cryomodule with respect to beam axis is critical to achieving the optimum accelerator performance. This paper discusses the rationale for the current specification on cavity mechanical alignment: 2 mrad (rms) applied to the 0.5 m active length cavities. We describe the tooling that was developed to achieve the tolerance at the time of cavity pair assembly, to preserve and integrate alignment during cryomodule assembly, and to translate alignment to appropriate installation in the beam line

  19. Cryogenics for a vertical test stand facility for testing superconducting radio frequency cavities at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Kush, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical Test Stand (VTS) Facility is located in a newly constructed building of Cryo-Engineering and Cryo-Module Development Division (CCDD). This test facility is one of the important facilities to develop SCRF technologies for superconducting accelerators like Indian Spallation Neutron Source. VTS has to be used for regular testing of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Niobium cavities at nominal frequency of 1.3 GHz/ 650 MHz at 4 K / 2 K liquid helium (LHe) bath temperatures. Testing of these cavities at 2 K evaluates cavity processing methods, procedures and would also serve as a pre-qualification test for cavity to test it in horizontal cryostat, called horizontal test stand, with other cavity components such as tuner and helium vessel. Cryogenic technologies play a major role in these cavity testing facilities. Achieving and maintaining a stable temperature of 2 K in these test stands on regular and reliable basis is a challenging task and require broad range of cryogenic expertise, large scale system level understanding and many in-house technological and process developments. Furthermore this test stand will handle large amount of liquid helium. Therefore, an appropriately designed infrastructure is required to handle such large amount of helium gas generated during the operation of VTS .This paper describes the different cryogenic design aspects, initial cryogenic operation results and different cryogenic safety aspects. (author)

  20. Performance of the FEL cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, M.; Fischer, J.; Preble, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab, formerly known as CEBAF) is building a highly efficient, kilowatt-level infrared free-electron laser, the IR Demo FEL. The IR FEL uses superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities to accelerate the electron beam that provides energy for the laser. These cavities provide the high-gradient acceleration for the high average currents necessary for a compact FEL design. Currently, a quarter cryomodule injector and a full eight-cavity cryomodule have been installed in the FEL linac. These units were tested as part of the IR FEL commissioning process. The main focus of these tests was to determine the maximum stable operating gradient. The average maximum gradient reached by these ten cavities was 11 Mv/m. Other tests include measurement of cavity parameters such as the unloaded Q (Qo) vs. gradient, the input coupling, calibration of field probes and behavior of the tuner mechanisms. This paper presents the results of those tests

  1. Performance Characterization of LCLS-II Superconducting Radiofrequency Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, RuthAnn [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2017-11-10

    This paper will describe the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source)-II, Fermilab’s role in the development of LCLS-II, and my contributions as a Lee Teng intern. LCLS-II is a second generation x-ray free electron laser being constructed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab is responsible for the design, construction, and testing of several 1.3 GHz cryomodules to be used in LCLS-II. These cryomodules are currently being tested at Fermilab. Some software was written to analyze the data from the cryomodule tests. This software assesses the performance of the cryomodules by looking at data on the cavity voltage, cavity gradient, dark current, and radiation.

  2. Results of Cavity Series Fabrication at Jefferson Laboratory for the Cryomodule 'R100'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marhauser, F.; Clemens, W.A.; Drury, M.A.; Forehand, D.; Henry, J.; Manning, S.; Overton, R.B.; Williams, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    A series production of eight superconducting RF cavities for the cryomodule R100 was conducted at JLab in 2010. The cavities underwent chemical post-processing prior to vertical high power testing and routinely exceeded the envisaged performance specifications. After cryomodule assembly, cavities were successfully high power acceptance tested. In this paper, we present the achievements paving the way for the first demonstration of 100 MV (and beyond) in a single cryomodule to be operated at CEBAF.

  3. High-voltage test stand at Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the present design and future capability of the high-voltage test stand for neutral-beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The stand's immediate use will be for testing the full-scale sources (120 kV, 65 A) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. It will then be used to test parts of the sustaining source system (80 kV, 85 A) being designed for the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility. Following that will be an intensive effort to develop beams of up to 200 kV at 20 A by accelerating negative ions. The design of the test stand features a 5-MVA power supply feeding a vacuum tetrode that is used as a switch and regulator. The 500-kW arc supply and the 100-kW filament supply for the neutral-beam source are battery powered, thus eliminating one or two costly isolation transformers

  4. Lessons Learned from the Jefferson Lab - SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Hogan; Edward Daly; John Fischer; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    In light of the recent developments with the International Linear Collider (ILC), and the recommendation to utilize ''Cold'' technology for this future particle accelerator, this paper will present the lessons learned from the recently concluded Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodule production run at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab). Over the past twenty years Jefferson Lab has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more SRF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The knowledge gained from the design and fabrication of the SNS prototype, eleven - 0.61 (medium) beta and the twelve - 0.81 (high) beta cryomodules, will prove to be an effective asset to the ILC project. After delivery of the final production cryomodule in March 2005, design and fabrication data will be collected, evaluated and presented to make this information beneficial for future particle accelerator projects. Recommendations with respect to these findings will also be presented as an integral part of this paper

  5. European infrastructures for R&D and test of superconducting radio-frequency cavities and cryo-modules

    CERN Document Server

    Weingarten, W

    2011-01-01

    The volume is copyright CERN and can be distributed under CC-BY license. The need for a European facility to build and test superconducting RF accelerating structures and cryo‐modules (SRF test facility) was extensively discussed during the preparation of EuCARD [1,2]. It comprised a distributed network of equipment across Europe to be assessed and, if needed, completed by hardware. It also addressed the quest for a deeper basic understanding, a better control and optimisation of the manufacture of superconducting RF structures with the aim of a substantial improvement of the accelerating gradient, a reduction of its spread and a cost minimisation. However, consequent to EU budget restrictions, the proposal was not maintained. Instead, a more detailed analysis was requested by a sub‐task inside the EuCARD Network [3] AccNet ‐ RFTech [4]. The main objective of this “SRF sub‐task” consists of intensifying a collaborative effort between European accelerator labs. The aim focused on planning and later...

  6. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.H.; Dombsky, M.; Rawnsley, W.; Stanford, G.; Yin, Y.; Novikov, A.

    1995-09-01

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. The authors will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and a Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 microm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun

  7. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, G.H.; Dombsky, M.; Rawnsley, W.; Stanford, G.; Yin, Y.; Novikov, A.

    1995-09-01

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. We will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 μm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun. (author)

  8. Displacement of cryomodule in CADS injector II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jiandong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Fengfeng; Wan, Yuqin; Sun, Guozhen; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Juihui; He, Yuan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics

    2017-06-15

    As Cryomodule can easily reduce higher power consumption and length of an accelerator and the accelerator can be operated more continuously. The Chinese academy of sciences institute of modern physics is developing an accelerator driven subcritical system (CADS) Injector II. Cryomodules are extremely complex systems, and their design optimization is strongly dependent on the accelerator application for which they are intended.

  9. Transport of LCLS-II 1.3 Ghz cryomodule to SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, M. W.; Arkan, T.; Peterson, T.; Tang, Z.; Boo, S.; Carrasco, M.; Daly, E.; Huque, N.

    2016-06-30

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These include a prototype built and delivered by each Lab. Another two 3.9 GHz cryomodules will be built, tested and transported by Fermilab to SLAC. Each assembly will be transported over-the-road from Fermilab or Jefferson Lab using specific routes to SLAC. The transport system consists of a base frame, isolation fixture and upper protective truss. The strongback cryomodule lifting fixture is described along with other supporting equipment used for both over-the-road transport and local (on-site) transport at Fermilab. Initially, analysis of fragile components and stability studies will be performed in order to assess the risk associated with over-the-road transport of a fully assembled cryomodule.

  10. Design approach for the development of a cryomodule for compact crab cavities for Hi-Lumi LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattalwar, Shrikant; Jones, Thomas; Templeton, Niklas; Goudket, Philippe; McIntosh, Peter; Wheelhouse, Alan; Burt, Graeme; Hall, Ben; Wright, Loren; Peterson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    A prototype Superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule, comprising multiple compact crab cavities is foreseen to realise a local crab crossing scheme for the "Hi-Lumi LHC", a project launched by CERN to increase the luminosity performance of LHC. A cryomodule with two cavities will be initially installed and tested on the SPS drive accelerator at CERN to evaluate performance with high-intensity proton beams. A series of boundary conditions influence the design of the cryomodule prototype, arising from; the complexity of the cavity design, the requirement for multiple RF couplers, the close proximity to the second LHC beam pipe and the tight space constraints in the SPS and LHC tunnels. As a result, the design of the helium vessel and the cryomodule has become extremely challenging. This paper assesses some of the critical cryogenic and engineering design requirements and describes an optimised cryomodule solution for the evaluation tests on SPS.

  11. Test Stand for Linear Induction Accelerator Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, M; DeHope, B; Griffin, K; Goerz, D; Kihara, R; Vogtlin, G; Zentler, J M; Scarpetti, R

    2003-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and constructed a test stand to improve the voltage regulation in our Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator cell. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam that will create an x-ray source with a smaller spot size. Studying the interaction of the beam and pulse-power system with the accelerator cell will improve the design of high-current accelerators at Livermore and elsewhere. On the test stand, a standard FXR cell is driven by a flexible pulse-power system and the beam current is simulated with a switched center conductor. The test stand is fully instrumented with high-speed digitizers to document the effect of impedance mismatches when the cell is operated under various full-voltage conditions. A time-domain reflectometry technique was also developed to characterize the beam and cell interactions by measuring the impedance of the accelerator and pulse-power component. Computer models are being developed in parallel with the testing program to validate the measurements and evaluate different design changes. Both 3D transient electromagnetic and circuit models are being used

  12. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhane, S.K.; Sharma, N.K.; Raghavendra, S.; Joshi, S.C.; Das, S.; Kush, P.K.; Sahni, V.C.; Gupta, P.D.; Sylvester, C.; Rabehl, R.; Ozelis, J.

    2011-01-01

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN 2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  13. SSRL photocathode RF gun test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, A.

    1995-01-01

    A photocathode RF gun test stand designed for the production and study of high brightness electron beams will be constructed at SSRL. The beam will be generated from a laser driven third generation photocathode RF gun being developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL, and UCLA. The 3-5 [MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section, in order to achieve the desired low emittance beam, emittance compensation with solenoidal focusing will be employed

  14. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  15. Physics design of a 10 MeV injector test stand for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS Injector I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The injector is composed of two parts, the linac part and the beam dump line. The former is designed on the basis of 325 MHz four-vane type copper structure radio frequency quadrupole and superconducting (SC spoke cavities with β=0.12. The latter is designed to transport the beam coming out of the SC section of the linac to the beam dump, where the beam transverse profile is fairly enlarged and unformed to simplify the beam target design. The SC section consists of two cryomodules with 14 β=0.12 Spoke cavities, 14 solenoid and 14 BPMs in total. The first challenge in the physics design comes from the necessary space required for the cryomodule separation where the periodical lattice is destroyed at a relatively lower energy of ∼5  MeV. Another challenge is the beam dump line design, as it will be the first beam dump line being built by using a step field magnet for the transverse beam expansion and uniformity in the world. This paper gives an overview of the physics design study together with the design principles and machine construction considerations. The results of an optimized design, fabrication status and end to end simulations including machine errors are presented.

  16. Physics design of a 10 MeV injector test stand for an accelerator-driven subcritical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Pei, Shilun; Geng, Huiping; Meng, Cai; Zhao, Yaliang; Sun, Biao; Cheng, Peng; Yang, Zheng; Ouyang, Huafu; Li, Zhihui; Tang, Jingyu; Wang, Jianli; Sui, Yefeng; Dai, Jianping; Sha, Peng; Ge, Rui

    2015-05-01

    The 10 MeV accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS) Injector I test stand at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) is a testing facility dedicated to demonstrate one of the two injector design schemes [Injector Scheme-I, which works at 325 MHz], for the ADS project in China. The injector is composed of two parts, the linac part and the beam dump line. The former is designed on the basis of 325 MHz four-vane type copper structure radio frequency quadrupole and superconducting (SC) spoke cavities with β =0.12 . The latter is designed to transport the beam coming out of the SC section of the linac to the beam dump, where the beam transverse profile is fairly enlarged and unformed to simplify the beam target design. The SC section consists of two cryomodules with 14 β =0.12 Spoke cavities, 14 solenoid and 14 BPMs in total. The first challenge in the physics design comes from the necessary space required for the cryomodule separation where the periodical lattice is destroyed at a relatively lower energy of ˜5 MeV . Another challenge is the beam dump line design, as it will be the first beam dump line being built by using a step field magnet for the transverse beam expansion and uniformity in the world. This paper gives an overview of the physics design study together with the design principles and machine construction considerations. The results of an optimized design, fabrication status and end to end simulations including machine errors are presented.

  17. F-15B ACTIVE test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the underside of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the thrust stand being used for ground testing of a new thrust-vectoring concept. The twin-engine F-15 research aircraft is equipped with new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. They give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. Ground testing during the first two weeks of November 1995 went well, and flight tests began in March 1996. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace.

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory electron beam test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Prelec, K.; Snydstrup, L.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the electron beam test stand (EBTS) project at the Brookhaven National Laboratory is to build a versatile device to develop technologies that are relevant for a high intensity electron beam ion source (EBIS) and to study the physics of ion confinement in a trap. The EBTS will have all the main attributes of EBIS: a 1-m-long, 5 T superconducting solenoid, electron gun, drift tube structure, electron collector, vacuum system, ion injection system, appropriate control, and instrumentation. Therefore it can be considered a short prototype of an EBIS for a relativistic heavy ion collider. The drift tube structure will be mounted in a vacuum tube inside a open-quotes warmclose quotes bore of a superconducting solenoid, it will be at room temperature, and its design will employ ultrahigh vacuum technology to reach the 10 -10 Torr level. The first gun to be tested will be a 10 A electron gun with high emission density and magnetic compression of the electron beam. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Cryomodule development for the CEBAF upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Delayen; L. R. Doolittle; E. Feldl; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; V. Nguyen; H. L. Phillips; J. Preble; W. J. Scheider; D. X. Wang; M. Wiseman

    1999-01-01

    Long term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. In support of these plans, an Upgrade Cryomodule capable of providing more than three times the voltage of the original CEBAF cryomodule specification within the same length is under development. Development activities have been focused on critical areas thought to have maximum impact on the overall design. These have included the cavity structure, rf power coupling, cavity suspension, alignment, cavity tuning, and beamline interface. It has been found that all design and development areas are tightly coupled and can not be developed independently. Substantial progress has been made toward an integrated design for the Jefferson Lab Upgraded Cryomodule

  20. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  1. Thermal Design and Performance results of the first High-Beta Cryo-module for HIE-ISOLDE at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Valdarno, L; Leclercq, Y; Parma, V; Vandoni, G; Williams, L

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy and Intensity HIE-ISOLDE is a facility under construction at CERN whose target is ultimately, after the installation of six cryo-modules, to produce radioactive ion beams at 10MeV/u maximum energy in order to significantly expand the nuclear physics programme carried out by REX-ISOLDE. Since thermal control is essential to the performance of the whole cryo-module, a combination of a passive (materials, coatings, and surface finishes) and active (cryogenic loops, heaters) control has been designed to keep the cryostat operating within the allowable thermal budget. A numerical model based on Finite Element has been developed in order to generate a faithful global mapping of temperatures and heat fluxes inside the cryo-module. The numerical model, combined with the experimental results of the first test campaign, will serve as an optimization tool for the future cryo-modules in terms of improvement in the global and specific heat loads management.

  2. Upgrade of the Cryogenic CERN RF Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Pirotte, O; Brunner, O; Inglese, V; Koettig, T; Maesen, P; Vullierme, B

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented.

  3. Upgrade of the cryogenic CERN RF test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirotte, O.; Benda, V.; Brunner, O.; Inglese, V.; Maesen, P.; Vullierme, B.; Koettig, T.

    2014-01-01

    With the large number of superconducting radiofrequency (RF) cryomodules to be tested for the former LEP and the present LHC accelerator a RF test facility was erected early in the 1990’s in the largest cryogenic test facility at CERN located at Point 18. This facility consisted of four vertical test stands for single cavities and originally one and then two horizontal test benches for RF cryomodules operating at 4.5 K in saturated helium. CERN is presently working on the upgrade of its accelerator infrastructure, which requires new superconducting cavities operating below 2 K in saturated superfluid helium. Consequently, the RF test facility has been renewed in order to allow efficient cavity and cryomodule tests in superfluid helium and to improve its thermal performances. The new RF test facility is described and its performances are presented

  4. Experimental Study of an 805 MHz Cryomodule for the Rare Isotope Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, T L; Compton, C; Hartung, W; Johnson, M; Marti, F; Popielarski, J; York, R C

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac will use superconducting, 805 MHz, 6-cell elliptical cavities with geometric β values of 0.47, 0.61 and 0.81. Each elliptical cavity cryomodule will have four cavities [1]. Room temperature sections between each cryomodule will consist of quadrupole doublets, beam instrumentation, and vacuum systems. Michigan State University (MSU) has designed a compact cryostat that reduces the tunnel cross-section and improves the linac real estate gradient. The cold mass alignment is accomplished with a titanium rail system supported by adjustable nitronic links from the top vacuum plate, and is similar to that used for existing MSU magnet designs. The same concept has also been designed to accommodate the quarter-wave and half-wave resonators with superconducting solenoids used at lower velocity in RIA. Construction of a prototype β=0.47 cryomodule was completed in February 2004 and is presently under test in realistic operating conditions. Experimental ...

  5. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  6. A Cryogenic Test Stand for Large Superconducting Solenoid Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabehl, R. [Fermilab; Carcagno, R. [Fermilab; Nogiec, J. [Fermilab; Orris, D. [Fermilab; Soyars, W. [Fermilab; Sylvester, C. [Fermilab

    2013-01-01

    A new test stand for testing large superconducting solenoid magnets at the Fermilab Central Helium Liquifier (CHL) has been designed, and operated. This test stand has been used to test a coupling coil for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), and future uses include solenoids for the Fermilab mu2e experiment. This paper describes the test stand design and operation including controlled cool-down and warm-up. Overviews of the process controls system and the quench management system are also included.

  7. Down force calibration stand test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  8. HIE-ISOLDE CRYO-MODULE Assembly - Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia

    Leclercq, Yann

    2016-01-01

    Assembly of the cryo-module components in SM18 cleanroom. The superconducting solenoid (housed inside its helium vessel) is cleaned, prepared then installed on the supporting frame of the cryo-module and connected to the helium tank, prior to the assembly of the RF cavities on the structure. The completed first 2 cryo-modules installed inside the HIE-ISOLDE-LINAC ready for beam operation is also shown.

  9. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  10. Conceptual Design of the Superconducting Proton Linac Short Cryo-module

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Capatina, O; Azevedo, P; Montesinos, E; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Vande Craen, A; Williams, L R; Weingarten, W; Rousselot, S; Duthil, P; Duchesne, P; Reynet, D; Dambre, P

    2012-01-01

    The Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) is an R&D effort conducted by CERN in partnership with other international laboratories, aimed at developing key technologies for the construction of a multi-megawatt proton linac based on state-of-the-art Superconducting Radio Frequency technology, which would serve as a driver for new physics facilities such as neutrinos and radioactive ion beams. Amongst the main objectives of this effort, are the development of 704 MHz bulk niobium b=1 elliptical cavities, operating at 2 K and providing an accelerating field of 25 MV/m, and testing of a string of cavities integrated in a machine-type cryo-module. In an initial phase only four out of the eight cavities of an SPL cryo-module will be tested in a ½ length cryo-module developed for this purpose, and therefore called the Short Cryo-module. This paper presents the conceptual design of the SC, highlighting its innovative principles in terms of cavity supporting and alignment, and describes the integratio...

  11. J-2 Engine ready to go into test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Two technicians watch carefully as cables prepare to lift a J-2 engine into a test stand. The J-2 powered the second stage and the third stage of the Saturn V moon rocket. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  12. MECHANICAL CAVITY DESIGN FOR 100MV UPGRADE CRYOMODULE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Wilson; G. Ciovati; E. F. Daly; J. Henry; R. Hicks; J. Hogan; D. Machie; P. Kneisel; C. Reece; J. Sekutowicz; T. Whitlatch

    2003-01-01

    To achieve up to 6 GeV, each cryomodule in the CEBAF accelerator currently provides about 30 MV of acceleration. To raise the accelerator energy to 12 GeV, ten additional cryomodules capable of providing over 100 MV of acceleration are required. A prototype of the 100 MV cryomodule has been designed, is presently under construction, and will be completed in 2004. This prototype cryomodule comprises two new cavity designs, four cavities of the low loss design and four cavities of the high gradient design. Although the cavity shapes were designed for their RF properties, the mechanical implications must be considered. In addition to the new cavity shapes, changes have also been made to the cavity end dish assemblies, weld joints, and stiffening rings. This paper will present the results of the stress and vibration analyses used for designing the cryomodule

  13. Data acquisition system for PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed to test and condition powerful neutral beam sources for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors the beam characteristics and power output to determine if the beam is operating at its design specifications. The high speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. The analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display

  14. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  15. Conceptual design of cryomodules for RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Lee, M. K.; Kim, W. K.; Jang, H. M.; Choi, C. J.; Jo, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Jeon, D. [Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    The heavy ion accelerator that will be built in Daejeon, Korea utilizes superconducting cavities operating in 2 K. The cavities are QWR (quarter wave resonator), HWR (half wave resonator), SSR1 (sing spoke resonator1) and SSR2. The main role of the cryomodule is supplying thermal insulation for cryogenic operation of the cavities and maintaining cavities' alignment. Thermal and structural consideration such as thermal load by heat leak and heat generation, cryogenic fluid management, thermal contraction, and so on. This paper describes detailed design considerations and current results have being done including thermal load estimation, cryogenic flow piping, pressure relief system, and so on.

  16. Design of a quadrotor flight test stand for system identification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beharie, MM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, development and construction of a flight test stand for a quadrotor UAV. As opposed to alternate forms of UAV, the power plant in the case of the quadrotor serves a dual purpose of control and propulsion. Since...

  17. Stand tests of the grader unit AKD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocheskhov, S.M.; Bagley, A.V.; Shalkov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of stand tests of a static operating grader designed for unmanned extraction of deep beds with programmed control of the unit AKD-2 according to hypsometry of the seam occurrence. Malfunctions in a number of grader assemblies are revealed and eliminated. Parameters are defined which characterize the kinematics and dynamics of the grader mechanism.

  18. Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.

  19. Optimisation of the test policy of stand-by systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.; Muron, O.; Cohen, G.

    1980-09-01

    In a nuclear power plant there are several systems which are on stand-by position as, for instance, safety systems. These stand-by systems have to be ready to start as soon as any situation for which they have be designed occurs. A test policy is then necessary in order to know the state of such a system and repair the possible failures. The tests are normally performed at regular intervals of time according to a scheduled sequence. We have already shown during the 'IIIeme Congres National de Fiabilite' held in Perros-Guirec in 1976 how it is possible in this case to find the optimum test interval leading to the best mean availability of the system. It is, in fact, possible, to improve that by considering that if the test interval is fixed 'a priori' this does not allow to take into account information we have on the system state every time [fr

  20. A Cryogenic Test Stand for LHC Quadrupole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.H.; Huang, Y.; Orris, D.F.; Peterson, T.J.; Rabehl, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    A new test stand for testing LHC interaction region (IR) quadrupole magnets at the Fermilab Magnet Test Facility has been designed and operated. The test stand uses a double bath system with a lambda plate to provide the magnet with a stagnant bath of pressurized He II at 1.9 K and 0.13 MPa. A cryostated magnet 0.91 m in diameter and up to 13 m in length can be accommodated. This paper describes the system design and operation. Issues related to both 4.5 K and 1.9 K operations and magnet quenching are highlighted. An overview of the data acquisition and cryogenics controls systems is also included

  1. Project of a test stand for cyclotron ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettig, H.; Dietrich, J.; Merker, H.; Odrich, H.; Preusche, S.; Weissig, J.

    1978-10-01

    In the work the construction of a test stand for testing and optimization of ion sources of the Rossendorf cyclotron U-120 is represented. The design procedure and the construction of the electromagnet, the vacuum chamber with monant, the vacuum system, the power supply and the detecting system are demonstrated. The results of calculations of the motion of ions in the magnetic field are presented. (author)

  2. Assessment of thermal loads in the CERN SPS crab cavities cryomodule1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carra, F.; Apeland, J.; Calaga, R.; Capatina, O.; Capelli, T.; Verdú-Andrés, S.; Zanoni, C.

    2017-07-01

    As a part of the HL-LHC upgrade, a cryomodule is designed to host two crab cavities for a first test with protons in the SPS machine. The evaluation of the cryomodule heat loads is essential to dimension the cryogenic infrastructure of the system. The current design features two cryogenic circuits. The first circuit adopts superfluid helium at 2 K to maintain the cavities in the superconducting state. The second circuit, based on helium gas at a temperature between 50 K and 70 K, is connected to the thermal screen, also serving as heat intercept for all the interfaces between the cold mass and the external environment. An overview of the heat loads to both circuits, and the combined numerical and analytical estimations, is presented. The heat load of each element is detailed for the static and dynamic scenarios, with considerations on the design choices for the thermal optimization of the most critical components.

  3. Design and Prototype Progress toward a Superconducting Crab Cavity Cryomodule for the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Henry, James; Kneisel, Peter; Rimmer, Robert; Slack, Gary; Turlington, Larry; waldschmidt, Geoff; Nassiri, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    A squashed, elliptical supercondconducting (SC) cavity with waveguide dampers on the beam pipes has currently been chosen as the baseline design for the Short Pulse X-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). An alternate cavity design, with a waveguide damper located directly on the cavity cell for improved damping characteristics, has also been designed and cold-tested with promising results. In either case, eight cavities would be operated CW in a single cryomodule at 2K to produce an electron bunch chirp of 4MV at a frequency of 2.815 GHz. Detailed analysis of multipactoring (MP), Lorentz force detuning (LFD), and the thermal properties of the baseline design has led to an engineering specification of the basic parameters of the cryomodule.

  4. Stand for visual ultrasonic testing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, W.; Borek-Kruszewska, E.

    2001-01-01

    A stand for visual and ultrasonic testing of spent fuel, constructed under Strategic Governmental Programme for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, is presented in the paper. The stand, named 'STEND-1', built up at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swjerk, is appointed for underwater visual testing of spent fuel elements type MR6 and WWR by means of TV-CCD camera and image processing system and for ultrasonic scanning of external surface of these elements by means of video scan immersion transducer and straight UHT connector. 'STEND-1' is built using flexible in use, high-tensile, anodized aluminum profiles. All the profiles feature longitudinal grooves to accommodate connecting elements and for the attachment of accessories at any position. They are also characterised by straight-through core bores for use with standard fastening elements and to accommodate accessory components. Stand, equipped with automatic control and processing system based on personal computer, may be manually or automatically controlled. Control system of movements of the camera in the vertical axis and rotational movement of spent fuel element permits to fix chosen location of fuel element with accuracy better than 0.1 mm. High resolution of ultrasonic method allows to record damages of outer surface of order 0.1 mm. The results of visual testing of spent fuel are recorded on video tape and then may be stored on the hard disc of the personal computer and presented in shape of photo or picture. Only selected damage surfaces of spent fuel elements are tested by means of ultrasonic scanning. All possibilities of the stand and results of visual testing of spent fuel type WWR are presented in the paper. (author)

  5. 1+-n+ ECR ION SOURCE DEVELOPMENT TEST STAND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donald P. May

    2006-01-01

    A test stand for the investigation of 1+-n+ charge boosting using an ECR ion sources is currently being assembled at the Texas A and M Cyclotron Institute. The ultimate goal is to relate the charge-boosting of ions of stable species to possible charge-boosting of ions of radioactive species extracted from the diverse, low-charge-state ion sources developed for radioactive ion beams

  6. Saturn V First Stage Leaves the Dynamic Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    This photo shows the Saturn V first stage being lowered to the ground following a successful test to determine the effects of continual vibrations simulating the effects of an actual launch. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  7. Ethernet-based test stand for a CAN network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Drewniak, Marek

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a test stand for the CAN-based systems that are used in automotive systems. The authors propose applying an Ethernet-based test system that supports the virtualisation of a CAN network. The proposed solution has many advantages compared to classical test beds that are based on dedicated CAN-PC interfaces: it allows the physical constraints associated with the number of interfaces that can be simultaneously connected to a tested system to be avoided, which enables the test time for parallel tests to be shortened; the high speed of Ethernet transmission allows for more frequent sampling of the messages that are transmitted by a CAN network (as the authors show in the experiment results section) and the cost of the proposed solution is much lower than the traditional lab-based dedicated CAN interfaces for PCs.

  8. High-voltage terminal test of a test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2015-10-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz radio-frequency power supply, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  9. Using GIFTS on the Cray-1 for the large coil test facility test: stand design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, T.V.; Gray, W.H.

    1981-06-01

    The GIFTS finite element program has been used extensively throughout the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) test stand design analysis. Effective use has been made of GIFTS both as a preprocessor to other finite element programs and as a complete structural analysis package. The LCTF test stand design involved stress analysis ranging from simple textbook-type problems to very complicated three-dimensional structural problems. Two areas of the design analysis are discussed

  10. Thermal Design and Performance results of the first High-Beta Cryo-module for HIE-ISOLDE at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdarno, L; Delruelle, N; Leclercq, Y; Parma, V; Vandoni, G; Williams, L

    2015-01-01

    The High Energy and Intensity HIE-ISOLDE is a facility under construction at CERN whose target is ultimately, after the installation of six cryo-modules, to produce radioactive ion beams at 10MeV/u maximum energy in order to significantly expand the nuclear physics programme carried out by REX-ISOLDE. Since thermal control is essential to the performance of the whole cryo-module, a combination of a passive (materials, coatings, and surface finishes) and active (cryogenic loops, heaters) control has been designed to keep the cryostat operating within the allowable thermal budget. A numerical model based on Finite Element has been developed in order to generate a faithful global mapping of temperatures and heat fluxes inside the cryo-module. The numerical model, combined with the experimental results of the first test campaign, will serve as an optimization tool for the future cryo-modules in terms of improvement in the global and specific heat loads management. (paper)

  11. Large source test stand for H-(D-) ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory Neutral Beam Group has constructed a large source test stand for testing of the various source modules under development. The first objective of the BNL program is to develop a source module capable of delivering 10A of H - (D - ) at 25 kV operating in the steady state mode with satisfactory gas and power efficiency. The large source test stand contains gas supply and vacuum pumping systems, source cooling systems, magnet power supplies and magnet cooling systems, two arc power supplies rated at 25 kW and 50 kW, a large battery driven power supply and an extractor electrode power supply. Figure 1 is a front view of the vacuum vessel showing the control racks with the 36'' vacuum valves and refrigerated baffles mounted behind. Figure 2 shows the rear view of the vessel with a BNL Mk V magnetron source mounted in the source aperture and also shows the cooled magnet coils. Currently two types of sources are under test: a large magnetron source and a hollow cathode discharge source

  12. Measurement by a cylinder test stand and tyre rolling resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dávid

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes it is necessary to test how repair affects the properties of the car. These tests are carried out using a cylinder test stand. During the test the tyre is rolling between two cylinders of a small diameter. The question arises whether the rolling resistance of the tyre is the same as the rolling resistance when the wheel is rolling on the plane. If it is not the same what is the reliation between tyre resistances in these two cases? It is an important answer because the change of rolling resistance can affect consumption, the highest speed, engine power and other results of measurement. The paper gives the answer to these questions and describes the method of getting this information.

  13. Radiation measurements during cavities conditioning on APS RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grudzien, D.M.; Kustom, R.L.; Moe, H.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the shielding structure around the Advanced Photon Source (APS) synchrotron and storage ring RF stations, the X-ray radiation has been measured in the near field and far field regions of the RF cavities during the normal conditioning process. Two cavity types, a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity, are used on the APS and are conditioned in the RF test stand. Vacuum measurements are also taken on a prototype 352-MHz single-cell cavity and a 352-MHz five-cell cavity. The data will be compared with data on the five-cell cavities from CERN

  14. Planned Experiments on the Princeton Advanced Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Davidson, R. C.

    2010-11-01

    The Princeton Advanced Test Stand (PATS) device is an experimental facility based on the STS-100 high voltage test stand transferred from LBNL. It consists of a multicusp RF ion source, a pulsed extraction system capable of forming high-perveance 100keV ion beams, and a large six-foot-long vacuum with convenient access for beam diagnostics. This results in a flexible system for studying high perveance ion beams relevant to NDCX-I/II, including experiments on beam neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources (FEPS) being developed at PPPL. Research on PATS will concern the basic physics of beam-plasma interactions, such as the effects of volume neutralization on beam emittance, as well as optimizing technology of the FEPS. PATS combines the advantage of an ion beam source and a large-volume plasma source in a chamber with ample access for diagnostics, resulting in a robust setup for investigating and improving relevant aspects of neutralized drift. There are also plans for running the ion source with strongly electro-negative gases such as chlorine, making it possible to extract positive or negative ion beams.

  15. Combined adapter for the upgraded cryomodule of the linear collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Shirkov, G.; Sabirov, B.; Dobrushin, L.; Bryzgalin, A.; Pekar, E.; Illarionov, S.; Bedeschi, F.; Basti, A.; Fabbricatore, P.

    2015-01-01

    As part of work on the ILC Project, research was performed on the development of techniques to simplify and make reliable and cheaper the construction of the cryomodules that are core of the main linac. In the current ILC TDR design both the helium vessel surrounding the niobium RF cavities and the connected pipes which channel the exhaust helium gas are made of expensive titanium, one of the few metals that can be welded to niobium by the electron beam technique. In this paper we describe the construction and performance of transition elements, obtained by explosion welding, that can couple the niobium cavity with a stainless steel helium vessel, thus saving large amounts of titanium. A new design, including a minimal titanium intermediate layer, has been built. Preliminary tests yielded a very strong resistance of the bond to extreme temperature shocks from electron beam welding to exposure to cryogenic temperatures. The developed technology allows a trimetallic billet for manufacturing an adapter to be made such that the niobium-titanium bond is free of intermetallic compounds and the effect of the difference in the linear expansion coefficients of the ensemble components is eliminated.

  16. Assembly and installation of the large coil test facility test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, C.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) was built to test six tokamak-type superconducting coils, with three to be designed and built by US industrial teams and three provided by Japan, Switzerland, and Euratom under an international agreement. The facility is designed to test these coils in an environment which simulates that of a tokamak. The heart of this facility is the test stand, which is made up of four major assemblies: the Gravity Base Assembly, the Bucking Post Assembly, the Torque Ring Assembly, and the Pulse Coil Assembly. This paper provides a detailed review of the assembly and installation of the test stand components and the handling and installation of the first coil into the test stand

  17. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  18. A Test Stand for Ion Sources of Ultimate Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enparantza, R.; Uriarte, L.; Romano, P.; Alonso, J.; Ariz, I.; Egiraun, M.; Bermejo, F. J.; Etxebarria, V.; Lucas, J.; Del Rio, J. M.; Letchford, A.; Faircloth, D.; Stockli, M.

    2009-01-01

    The rationale behind the ITUR project is to perform a comparison between different kinds of H - ion sources using the same beam diagnostics setup. In particular, a direct comparison will be made in terms of the emittance characteristics of Penning Type sources such as those currently in use in the injector for the ISIS (UK) Pulsed Neutron Source and those of volumetric type such as that driving the injector for the ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (TN, U.S.A.). The endeavour here pursued is thus to build an Ion Source Test Stand where virtually any type of source can be tested and its features measured and, thus compared to the results of other sources under the same gauge. It would be possible then to establish a common ground for effectively comparing different ion sources. The long term objectives are thus to contribute towards building compact sources of minimum emittance, maximum performance, high reliability-availability, high percentage of desired particle production, stability and high brightness. The project consortium is lead by Tekniker-IK4 research centre and partners are companies Elytt Energy and Jema Group. The technical viability is guaranteed by the collaboration between the project consortium and several scientific institutions, such the CSIC (Spain), the University of the Basque Country (Spain), ISIS (STFC-UK), SNS (ORNL-USA) and CEA in Saclay (France).

  19. First environmental data from the EUV engineering test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Malinowski, Michael E.; Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, W. Miles; Steinhaus, Chip; Leung, Alvin H.; Haney, Steven J.

    2001-08-01

    The first environmental data from the Engineering Test Stand (ETS) has been collected. Excellent control of high-mass hydrocarbons has been observed. This control is a result of extensive outgas testing of components and materials, vacuum compatible design of the ETS, careful cleaning of parts and pre-baking of cables and sub assemblies where possible, and clean assembly procedures. As a result of the hydrocarbon control, the residual ETS vacuum environment is rich in water vapor. Analysis of witness plate data indicates that the ETS environment does not pose a contamination risk to the optics in the absence of EUV irradiation. However, with EUV exposure, the water rich environment can lead to EUV- induced water oxidation of the Si-terminated Mo/Si optics. Added ethanol can prevent optic oxidation, allowing carbon growth via EUV cracking of low-level residual hydrocarbons to occur. The EUV environmental issues are understood, mitigation approaches have been validated, and EUV optic contamination appears to be manageable.

  20. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanmode, Yashwant D.; Mulchandani, J.; Acharya, M.; Bhisikar, A.; Singh, H.G.; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  1. System integration and performance of the EUV engineering test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Replogle, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Rockett, Paul D.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Jefferson, Karen L.; Leung, Alvin H.; Wronosky, John B.; Hale, Layton C.; Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard; Blaedel, Kenneth; Sommargren, Gary E.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Batson, Phillip J.; Attwood, David T.; Jackson, Keith H.; Hector, Scott D.; Gwyn, Charles W.; Yan, Pei-Yang; Yan, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a developmental lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data for commercial-tool development. In the first phase of integration, currently in progress, the ETS is configured using a developmental projection system, while fabrication of an improved projection system proceeds in parallel. The optics in the second projection system have been fabricated to tighter specifications for improved resolution and reduced flare. The projection system is a 4-mirror, 4x-reduction, ring-field design having a numeral aperture of 0.1, which supports 70 nm resolution at a k 1 of 0.52. The illuminator produces 13.4 nm radiation from a laser-produced plasma, directs the radiation onto an arc-shaped field of view, and provides an effective fill factor at the pupil plane of 0.7. The ETS is designed for full-field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, magnetically levitated, scanning stages. This paper describes system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including static resist images of 100 nm isolated and dense features

  2. Construction, commissioning and initial operation of 2400W refrigerator and cold test stand for CDM testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbs, J.D.; Kreinbrink, K.

    1994-01-01

    Air Products and CVI collaborated to design, construct and commission a refrigerator, test stands and integrated control system for the General Dynamics Collider Dipole Magnet Cold Test Facility (CTF) in Hammond, LA. The original project schedule required the cold test facility to be operational within 17 months of the notice to proceed. Midway through the project, changes in General Dynamics magnet testing requirements necessitated doubling the plant capacity, but the on stream date for the initial capacity increment could not be relaxed. The Air Products/CVI team had to adapt the project execution strategy to mitigate the schedule impact of the expansion in a cost effective manner without impacting system functionality, quality or safety. An equally challenging aspect of the job was that the (CTF) was being designed while several major systems that would interface with the CTF were being engineered. General Dynamics, Air Products and CVI had to work very closely to manage the interface issues. The teams efforts were very successful. The Hammond refrigerator/liquifier was started up on schedule. The first two test stands are currently being commissioned and will be on stream just six weeks later than the pre-expansion schedule target and all four test stands will be operational in time to support General Dynamics magnet testing requirements

  3. THE JLAB AMPERE-CLASS CRYOMODULE CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert Rimmer; Edward Daly; William Hicks; James Henry; Joseph Preble; Mircea Stirbet; Haipeng Wang; Katherine Wilson; Genfa Wu; Gianluigi Ciovati; Thomas Elliott; Peter Kneisel; Stephen Manning; Robert Manus; Karl Smith; Lynn Vogel; Larry Turlington

    2006-01-01

    For the next generation of compact high-power FELs a new cryomodule is required that is capable of accelerating up to Ampere levels of beam current. Challenges include strong HOM damping, high HOM power and high fundamental-mode power (in operating scenarios without full energy recovery). For efficient use of space a high real-estate gradient is desirable and for economic operation good fundamental-mode efficiency is important. The technology must also be robust and should be based on well-proven and reliable technologies. For Ampere-class levels of beam current both halo interception and beam break-up (BBU) are important considerations. These factors tend to drive the designs to lower frequencies where the apertures are larger and the transverse impedances are lower. To achieve these goals we propose to use a compact waveguide-damped multi-cell cavity packaged in an SNS-style cryomodule

  4. A Wire Position Monitor System for the ISAC-II Cryomodule Components Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Rawnsley, B; Dutto, G; Fong, K; Laxdal, R E; Ries, T

    2004-01-01

    TRIUMF is developing ISAC-II, a superconducting (SC) linac. It will comprise 9 cryomodules with a total of 48 niobium cavities and 12 SC solenoids. They must remain aligned at liquid He temperatures: cavities to ±400 μm and solenoids to ±200 μm after a vertical contraction of ~4 mm. A wire position monitor (WPM) system based on a TESLA design has been developed, built, and tested with a prototype cryomodule. The system is based on the measurement of signals induced in pickups by a 215 MHz signal carried by a wire through the WPMs. The wire is stretched between the warm tank walls parallel to the beam axis providing a position reference. The sensors, one per cavity and two per solenoid, are attached to the cold elements to monitor their motion during pre-alignment, pumping and cool down. A WPM consists of four 50 Ω striplines spaced 90° apart. A GaAs multiplexer scans the WPMs and a Bergoz card converts the RF signals to DC X and Y voltages. National Ins...

  5. Stand development and reliability tests of the thermal monitoring means for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalivaev, V.I.; Nikul'shin, V.S.; Kichigin, A.B.; Dirin, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the reliability tests of thermoelectric thermometers and resistance thermometers during their operation in the nominal mode. Five stands Reliability are developed and operate for realization of tests of all manufactured thermal converters. delivered at NPP. Description of all stands are presented [ru

  6. Astronaut Ronald Sega with Wake Shield Facility on test stand at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Wake Shield Facility is displayed on a test stand at JSC. Astronaut Ronald M. Sega, mission specialist for STS-60, is seen with the facility during a break in testing in the acoustic and vibration facility at JSC.

  7. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Mazur, P.O.

    1989-02-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs

  8. Comparison of Test Stand and Helicopter Oil Cooler Bearing Condition Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Branning, Jeremy; Wade, Damiel R.; Bolander, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper was to compare the performance of HUMS condition indicators (CI) when detecting a bearing fault in a test stand or on a helicopter. This study compared data from two sources: first, CI data collected from accelerometers installed on two UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters when oil cooler bearing faults occurred, along with data from helicopters with no bearing faults; and second, CI data that was collected from ten cooler bearings, healthy and faulted, that were removed from fielded helicopters and installed in a test stand. A method using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves to compare CI performance was demonstrated. Results indicated the bearing energy CI responded differently for the helicopter and the test stand. Future research is required if test stand data is to be used validate condition indicator performance on a helicopter.

  9. Beam Extraction for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at the 300 kV Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [KOMAC, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. A beam extraction experiment for the test stand was performed, and the beam current was measured using a faraday cup in the chamber. A beam extraction results for the RF ion source will be presented. Beam extraction from the RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. Thus far NI Labview, PLC and faraday cup have been used to measure the beam current. The OPC server is useful for monitoring the PLC values. The average beam current of (a), (b) and (c) shown in figure 2 are 110.241µA, 105.8597µA and 103.5278µA respectively.

  10. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  11. PROPOSAL FOR BUILD A TEST STAND TO THE STUDY WATER RAM BASED ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz GRYGO

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article was developed of a test stand to a study physics phenomena accruing at work in a ram water based on the construction recommendations. The experience gained by a number of attempts allowed to the developed construction recommendations that allowed to adjust the test stand to perform various studies of physics phenomena occurring at the work of water ram and easy adaptions to the new requirements. The article includes: the review of the test stands on which performed the study in the history and in the present times, description of the construction recommendations of the universal test stand and the proposal of the test stand developed based on the construction recommendations. Motivation to take up this issue follows from the interest of devices that work in an unconventional way, devices used a renewable energy that can be used in household e.g. to improve their energy balance, delivery water to houses, drinking water for animals, fields irrigation, etc. Analysis of the literature of the water ram, test stands and their performance shown that it is small and typically old development in popular science form. In times of intensive search new sources of renewable energy reactivation of this type equipment may be highly probable.

  12. The HIV self-testing debate: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou; French, Martin; Hébert, Yamilee

    2018-01-18

    Emphasis on HIV testing as a gateway to prevention, treatment and care has grown tremendously over the past decade. In turn, this emphasis on testing has created a demand for new policies, programs, and technologies that can potentially increase access to and uptake of HIV testing. HIV self-testing (HST) technologies have gained important momentum following the approval of the over-the-counter self-tests in the United States, the UK, and France. While the renewed interest in HST has given rise to a number of high quality reviews of empirical studies conducted on this topic, we have yet to find an article that captures the extent of the debate on HST. A critical review of the literature on HST was conducted and organized into three categories based on the focus of the article: 1) Empirical research, 2) Arguments, and 3) Context. We focused exclusively on the second category which included ethical analyses, policy analyses, editorials, opinion pieces, commentaries, letters to the editor and so forth. 10 lines of argument on HST were identified in the literature: 1) Individual - Public Health, 2) Strengths - Limits, 3) Benefits - Harms, 4) Screening - Testing, 5) Target - Market, 6) Health Care - Industry, 7) Regulation - Restriction, 8) Resource-Rich Settings - Resource-Limited Settings, 9) Ethical - Unethical, and 10) Exceptionalism - Normalization. Each line of argument is presented and discussed in the paper. We conclude by providing examples of critical questions that should be raised in order to take the debate to another level and generate new ways of thinking about HST.

  13. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  14. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  15. Novel automatic phase lock determination for superconducting cavity tests at vertical test stand at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Kunver Adarsh Pratap; Mohania, Praveen; Rajput, Vikas; Baxy, Deodatta; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2015-01-01

    RRCAT has developed a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) which is used to test the Nb superconducting cavities under cryogenic conditions. In the VTS, RF cavity is characterized for its quality factor variation vs the accelerating gradient. The RF system is an essential part of the VTS which is required to provide stable RF power to the cavity in terms of amplitude, frequency and phase. RF system of VTS consists of several modules including the LLRF system. The LLRF system consists of the 'Frequency Control Module' which controls the input frequency to the SCRF cavity. Due to high quality factor, bandwidth of the cavity is less than 1 Hz. Even slight mechanical vibrations (microphonics) causes change in cavity resonance frequency resulting in total reflection of incident power. A PLL based frequency tracking module has been used to track the resonant frequency of RF cavity. This module changes RF source frequency according to change in Cavity resonance frequency. A novel method using a LabView based computer program has been developed which changes the phase of input RF signal using IQ modulator and monitors the transmitted power, incident and reflected power. The program plots the graph between phase and ratio of transmitted power to incident/reflected power and gives optimum locking phase for operation which has resulted in significant saving in the overall process time for the tests of the cavities in VTS. (author)

  16. The minimum sit-to-stand height test: reliability, responsiveness and relationship to leg muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine; Wallbank, Geraldine; Pamphlett, Patricia; Olivetti, Lynette

    2012-07-01

    To determine the reliability of the minimum sit-to-stand height test, its responsiveness and its relationship to leg muscle strength among rehabilitation unit inpatients and outpatients. Reliability study using two measurers and two test occasions. Secondary analysis of data from two clinical trials. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services in three public hospitals. Eighteen hospital patients and five others participated in the reliability study. Seventy-two rehabilitation unit inpatients and 80 outpatients participated in the clinical trials. The minimum sit-to-stand height test was assessed using a standard procedure. For the reliability study, a second tester repeated the minimum sit-to-stand height test on the same day. In the inpatient clinical trial the measures were repeated two weeks later. In the outpatient trial the measures were repeated five weeks later. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed in the clinical trials using a hand-held dynamometer. The reliability for the minimum sit-to-stand height test was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.96). The standard error of measurement was 34 mm. Responsiveness was moderate in the inpatient trial (effect size: 0.53) but small in the outpatient trial (effect size: 0.16). A small proportion (8-17%) of variability in minimum sit-to-stand height test was explained by knee extensor muscle strength. The minimum sit-to-stand height test has excellent reliability and moderate responsiveness in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Responsiveness in an outpatient rehabilitation setting requires further investigation. Performance is influenced by factors other than knee extensor muscle strength.

  17. ATLAS RPC performance on a dedicated cosmic ray test-stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberti, B.; Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Corradi, M.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Stante, L.; Palummo, L.; Pastori, E.; Salamon, A.; Santonico, R.; Solfaroli, E.

    2008-01-01

    596 RPC chambers have been assembled in the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer, covering a 7300 m 2 sensitive area with 355.000 read out channels. 1116 RPC Units were produced and tested before integration and installation on the experiment [A. Aloisio et al., 'The trigger chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer: production and tests', Nuclear Instruments and Methods A535 (2004) 265-271]. 192 ATLAS RPCs, the Barrel Outer Large (BOL) units were tested in INFN Roma Tor Vergata test stand

  18. Mobile test stand for evaluation of electric power plants for unmanned aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serbezov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The absence of accurate performance data is a common problem with most civilian unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV power plant producers. The reasons for this are the small size of most of the manufacturers and the high price of precise wind tunnel testing and computer simulations. To overcome this problem at Dronamics Ltd., with support from the Department of Aeronautics of TU-Sofia, a mobile test stand for evaluation of electric power plants for unmanned aircraft was developed. The stand may be used statically, or may be installed on the roof of an automobile. The measurement system of the stand is based on popular hardware that is used in radio controlled models and in general automation. The verification of the measurement system is performed by comparing static test results with data published by the manufacturer of the tested electric motor. Tests were carried out with 2 different types of propellers and the results were compared with published results for common propellers as well as with results of theoretical studies. The results are satisfactory for practical applications. The use of this type of test stands can be a cheap and effective alternative for research and development start-up companies like Dronamics.

  19. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  20. Fiber Optic Telemetry System for LLL High-Voltage Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiber Optic Telemetry System designed to operate in the hostile particle and electromagnetic radiation environment of the High Voltage Test Stand. It discusses system criteria, components, packaging, and performance. In all tests to date, the system exceeds its design goals with very comfortable margins. It is well advanced into the fabrication stages with all crucial components tested and only straightforward TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) circuitry to be completed

  1. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2014-01-01

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand

  2. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk Univ.., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand.

  3. An experimental test of the causes of forest growth decline with stand age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Dan Binkley; James H. Fownes; Christian Giardina; Randy S. Senock

    2004-01-01

    The decline in aboveground wood production after canopy closure in even-aged forest stands is a common pattern in forests, but clear evidence for the mechanism causing the decline is lacking. The problem is fundamental to forest biology, commercial forestry (the decline sets the rotation age), and to carbon storage in forests. We tested three hypotheses...

  4. Application of an In-Line Contamination Monitoring Unit to the AHT-64 Hydraulic Test Stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-04

    suction return connection port will require the operator to secuire same from a squatting position. The present stowage arrangement on the test stand... SPC FC sample~~~ Iepal" -a *Tpoa _______Rate 7 eo3,t Sq,’ TPc owe te - U Enciosure ULeeds & Northrup N’AFC- 92- 1 0 Typical Plumbing Connections for

  5. Electronics system for the 150 kV negative ion test stand at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The 150 kV test stand at BNL is being used to investigate the extraction, acceleration and transport problems associated with the development of intense negative ion beams. The power supplies associated with these functions as well as the control and monitoring electronics are described

  6. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9 aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.

  7. LAB3 Cosmic Ray Test Stand Analysis of Steel Stack Supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cease, H.

    1998-01-01

    A cosmic ray test stand is being constructed at Lab 3. The stand consists of two stacks of steel plates one resting on top of the other. The top stack is composed of 6 plates of steel making an overall stack size of 34.5-inch x 40-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack also has 6 layers of plate making an overall size of approximately 49.5-inch x 82-inch x 99-inch. The bottom stack is supported with three support legs. See drawing 3823.000ME-900428 for the individual plate orientation. The minimum support leg size and necessary welds between plates are determined.

  8. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F. S. Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol was performed. Systematic literature searches of databases (MEDLINE/SCIELO/LILACS/PEDro were performed to identify relevant studies. In all studies, the following inclusion criteria were assessed: investigation of any measurement property or the feasibility of clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with ND published in any language through December 2012. The COSMIN checklist was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the included studies. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. The measurement properties/feasibility were most commonly investigated for the five-repetition sit-to-stand test, which showed good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient:ICC=0.94-0.99 for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and dementia. The ICC values were higher for this test than for the number of repetitions in the 30-s test. The five-repetition sit-to-stand test also showed good inter/intra-rater reliabilities (ICC=0.97-0.99 for stroke and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.99 for subjects with Parkinson disease and incomplete spinal cord injury. For this test, the criterion-related validity for subjects with stroke, cerebral palsy and incomplete spinal cord injury was, in general, moderate (correlation=0.40-0.77, and the feasibility and safety were good for subjects with Alzheimer's disease. CONCLUSIONS: The five-repetition sit-to-stand test was used more often in subjects with ND, and most of the measurement

  9. Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Q.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

  10. Design of The Test Stand for Hydraulic Active Heave Compensation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubowski Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presented here described the design of a test stand for hydraulic active heave compensation system. The simulation of sea waves is realized by the use of hydraulic cylinder. A hydraulic motor is used for sea waves compensation. The hydraulic cylinder and the hydraulic motor are controlled by electrohydraulic servo valves. For the measurements Authors used displacement sensor and incremental encoder. Control algorithm is implemented on the PLC. The performed tests included hydraulic actuator and hydraulic motor step responses.

  11. 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, CW and Pulsed RF test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badapanda, M.K.; Tripathi, Akhilesh; Upadhyay, Rinki; Tyagi, Rajiv; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    A 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, RF test stand based on Thales make TH 2089 klystron amplifier is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for characterization and qualification of RF components, cavities and related subsystems. Provision to vary RF power from 50 kW to 1 MW with adequate flexibility for testing wide range of HV components, RF components and cavities is incorporated in this test stand. The paper presents a brief detail of various power supplies like high voltage cathode bias power supply, modulating anode power supply, filament power supply, electromagnet power supplies and ion pump power supplies along with their interconnections for biasing TH 2089 klystron amplifier. A digital control and interlock system is being developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test set up. This RF test stand will be a unique national facility, capable of providing both CW and pulse RF power for realizing reliable RF power sources for various projects including the development of high energy proton linac under ADSS program of the Department of Atomic Energy. (author)

  12. Non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination. I. Non-radioactive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohe, M.J.; Rankin, W.N.; Postles, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate non-radioactive materials for use as a stand-in for radioactive contamination during application of a high-pressure, hot water decontamination were identified and evaluated. A stand-in for radioactive contamination is needed to evaluate the decontaminability of replacement canyon cranes at the manufacturers location where actual radioactive contamination cannot be used. This evaluation was conducted using high-pressure, hot-water at 420 psi, 190 0 F, and 20 gal/min through a 1/8-in.-diam nozzle, the decontamination technique preferred by SRP Separations Department for this application. A non-radioactive stand-in for radioactive contamination was desired that would be removed by direct blast stream contact but would remain intact on surfaces where direct contact does not occur. This memorandum describes identification of candidate non-radioactive stand-in materials and evaluation of these materials in screening tests and tests with high-pressure, hot-water blasting. The following non-radioactive materials were tested: carpenter's line chalk; typing correction fluid; dye penetrant developer; latex paint with attapulyite added; unaltered latex paint; gold enamel; layout fluid; and black enamel. Results show that blue layout fluid and gold enamel have similar adherence that is within the range expected for actual radioactive contamination. White latex paint has less adherence than expected for actual radioactive contamination. The film was removed at a rate of 2 . Black enamel has more adherence than expected from actual radioactive contamination. In these tests ASTM No. 2B surfaces were harder to clean than either ASTM No. 1 or electropolished surfaces which had similar cleaning properties. A 90 0 blast angle was more effective than a 45 0 blast angle. In these tests there was no discernible effect of blast distance between 1 and 3 ft

  13. Construction of a test stand for the measurement of the light output uniformity of CALIFA crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susenburger, Markus; Ignatov, Alexander; Kroell, Thorsten [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is under construction. One experiment at GSI and FAIR is called Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams (R{sup 3}B). A key component of the R{sup 3}B is the CALorimeter for In Flight detection of γ-rays and light charged pArticles (CALIFA), which will surround the R{sup 3}B target chamber and will be capable of the detection of γ-rays in a wide energy range from 100 keV to 30 MeV as well as of light charged particles. CALIFA is built out of two parts, the so called CALIFA barrel and CALIFA endcap. The barrel consists of 1952 CsI(Tl) detector crystals which have to fulfill several specifications. One of these specifications is the uniformity of the light output. Depending on the location of the deposited energy, the crystal's light output varies due to optical focusing effects. This behavior can be manipulated by lapping the crystal's surface. The aim of this work is the development of a test stand which will check if the crystals match the requirements according to the light output uniformity. Because of the large number of crystals needed to be tested, the stand automates the test procedure, which guarantees comparable test measurement for all crystals. The development and construction of this stand is reported.

  14. A New 500-kV Ion Source Test Stand for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, T.C.; Ahle, L.E.; Halaxa, E.F.; Karpenko, V.P.; Oldaker, M. E.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beck, D.N.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of ion beam driven inertial fusion energy is the reliable and efficient generation of low emittance, high current ion beams. The primary ion source requirements include a rise time of order 1-msec, a pulse width of at least 20-msec, a flattop ripple of less than 0.1% and a repetition rate of at least 5-Hz. Naturally, at such a repetition rate, the duty cycle of the source must be greater than 108 pulses. Although these specifications do not appear to exceed the state-of-the-art for pulsed power, considerable effort remains to develop a suitable high current ion source. Therefore, we are constructing a 500-kV test stand specifically for studying various ion source concepts including surface, plasma and metal vapor arc. This paper will describe the test stand design specifications as well as the details of the various subsystems and components

  15. Guidance on the Stand Down, Mothball, and Reactivation of Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Gregrey T.; Dunn, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of aerospace and aeronautics products typically requires three distinct types of testing resources across research, development, test, and evaluation: experimental ground testing, computational "testing" and development, and flight testing. Over the last twenty plus years, computational methods have replaced some physical experiments and this trend is continuing. The result is decreased utilization of ground test capabilities and, along with market forces, industry consolidation, and other factors, has resulted in the stand down and oftentimes closure of many ground test facilities. Ground test capabilities are (and very likely will continue to be for many years) required to verify computational results and to provide information for regimes where computational methods remain immature. Ground test capabilities are very costly to build and to maintain, so once constructed and operational it may be desirable to retain access to those capabilities even if not currently needed. One means of doing this while reducing ongoing sustainment costs is to stand down the facility into a "mothball" status - keeping it alive to bring it back when needed. Both NASA and the US Department of Defense have policies to accomplish the mothball of a facility, but with little detail. This paper offers a generic process to follow that can be tailored based on the needs of the owner and the applicable facility.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARMY STATIONARY AXLE TEST STAND FOR LUBRICANT EFFICIENCY EVALUATION-PART II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    electric AC motor , and the two outputs of the axle are coupled using speed increasing gear boxes and absorbed by an identically sized AC motor ...work using the stationary axle efficiency test stand was completed using hardware representative of light and medium duty tactical wheeled vehicles ... vehicle results. However for the results to be applicable to real world field use , the driving cycle being replicated should be representative of real

  17. Fall risk screening in the elderly: A comparison of the minimal chair height standing ability test and 5-repetition sit-to-stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia; Gaul, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Successfully identifying older adults with a high risk of falling can be complicated, time consuming and not feasible in daily medical practice. This study compared the effectiveness of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT) and 5-repetition sit-to-stand tst (5R-STS) as fall risk-screening instruments for the elderly. 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age=83.6±7.3years) were interviewed for demographics, fall history, cognition, and mobility status. MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5cm, starting at 47cm and lowering after each successful attempt. 5R-STS performance was assessed by recording the time it took to rise and sit back down five consecutive times from a chair of 47cm high. Operating Receiving Characteristic (ROC) curves and Area under the Curve (AUC) were calculated for each test as well as for sub-groups of participants classified based on medical comorbidities (e.g. cardiac disease/stroke, lower limb arthritis). The MCHSAT and 5R-STS were equally effective fall-risk screening instruments for the overall population (AUC (95% CI)=0.72 (0.63-0.82) and 0.73(0.64-0.81) respectively). The 5R-STS was more effective than the MCHSAT for participants suffering from lower limb arthritis (AUC (95% CI)=0.81(0.70-0.92) and 0.71(0.58-0.85) respectively) while the opposite was true for participants with a history of cardiac disease or stroke (AUC (95% CI)=0.59 (0.44-0.80) and 0.65 (0.47-0.84) respectively). Due to their simplicity and quick administration time, the MCHSAT and 5R-STS are equally suitable for implementation in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Performance studies of the vibration wire monitor on the test stand with low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic. (author)

  19. THE COMPLEX OF STANDS FOR TESTING THE AIR CUSHION CHASSIS OF AIRCRAFT AND VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.

  20. Reliability and validity of a talent identification test battery for seated and standing Paralympic throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spathis, Jemima Grace; Connick, Mark James; Beckman, Emma Maree; Newcombe, Peter Anthony; Tweedy, Sean Michael

    2015-01-01

    Paralympic throwing events for athletes with physical impairments comprise seated and standing javelin, shot put, discus and seated club throwing. Identification of talented throwers would enable prediction of future success and promote participation; however, a valid and reliable talent identification battery for Paralympic throwing has not been reported. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of a talent identification battery for Paralympic throws. Participants were non-disabled so that impairment would not confound analyses, and results would provide an indication of normative performance. Twenty-eight non-disabled participants (13 M; 15 F) aged 23.6 years (±5.44) performed five kinematically distinct criterion throws (three seated, two standing) and nine talent identification tests (three anthropometric, six motor); 23 were tested a second time to evaluate test-retest reliability. Talent identification test-retest reliability was evaluated using Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots (Limits of Agreement). Spearman's correlation assessed strength of association between criterion throws and talent identification tests. Reliability was generally acceptable (mean ICC = 0.89), but two seated talent identification tests require more extensive familiarisation. Correlation strength (mean rs = 0.76) indicated that the talent identification tests can be used to validly identify individuals with competitively advantageous attributes for each of the five kinematically distinct throwing activities. Results facilitate further research in this understudied area.

  1. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  2. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi; Hayashi, Takumi; Inoue, Masahiko

    1993-03-01

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. After a lot of deuterium tests, a first tritium test of the J-FCU was performed with one gram of tritium at the TSTA on June 1991. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the total integrity and function of the J-FCU system with a DT mixture. Through this test, the J-FCU was operated well and its function with tritium was demonstrated. This report describes the detail test results of the J-FCU first tritium test and discuss its functions by stand-alone mode. Residual tritium inventory of the J-FCU system was also discussed. (author)

  3. Make-up of injector test stand (ITS-1) and preliminary results with Model-I ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, S.; Ito, T.; Kondo, U.; Ohara, Y.; Oga, T.; Shibata, T.; Shirakata, H.; Sugawara, T.; Tanaka, S.

    Constitution of the 1-st injector test stand (ITS-1) in the Thermonuclear Division, JAERI, and the performance of the Model-I ion source are described. Heating a plasma by neutral beam injection is one of the promising means in the thermonuclear fusion devices. Purpose of the test stand is to develop the ion sources used in such injection systems. The test stand was completed in February 1975, which is capable of testing the ion sources up to 12 amps at 30 kV. A hydrogen ion beam of 5.5 amps at 25 kV was obtained in the Model-I ion source

  4. How well does the 30-second Chair Stand Test predict rehabilitation needs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    of functional decline. The 30-Second Chair Stand Test (30s-CST) is recommended by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority for screening of functional decline in elderly citizens living in their own home. However, its validity with hospitalized patients is undocumented, and it is unclear whether loss...... performance, e) patient-related data. Both patients and health professionals will contribute to the face validity assessment. Results The results will be available by the end of 2014. Conclusions Face validations of 30s-CST and DEMMI are relevant as validated tests for short-term hospitalized patients...

  5. Falls classification using tri-axial accelerometers during the five-times-sit-to-stand test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Emer P; Walsh, Cathal; Foran, Timothy; Greene, Barry R; Fan, Chie Wei; Cunningham, Clodagh; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-09-01

    The five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSS) is an established assessment of lower limb strength, balance dysfunction and falls risk. Clinically, the time taken to complete the task is recorded with longer times indicating increased falls risk. Quantifying the movement using tri-axial accelerometers may provide a more objective and potentially more accurate falls risk estimate. 39 older adults, 19 with a history of falls, performed four repetitions of the FTSS in their homes. A tri-axial accelerometer was attached to the lateral thigh and used to identify each sit-stand-sit phase and sit-stand and stand-sit transitions. A second tri-axial accelerometer, attached to the sternum, captured torso acceleration. The mean and variation of the root-mean-squared amplitude, jerk and spectral edge frequency of the acceleration during each section of the assessment were examined. The test-retest reliability of each feature was examined using intra-class correlation analysis, ICC(2,k). A model was developed to classify participants according to falls status. Only features with ICC>0.7 were considered during feature selection. Sequential forward feature selection within leave-one-out cross-validation resulted in a model including four reliable accelerometer-derived features, providing 74.4% classification accuracy, 80.0% specificity and 68.7% sensitivity. An alternative model using FTSS time alone resulted in significantly reduced classification performance. Results suggest that the described methodology could provide a robust and accurate falls risk assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot Field Test: Use of a Compression Garment During a Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr

  7. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W.; Hall, G.

    2017-01-01

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going. (orig.)

  8. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirarchi, D.; Hall, G.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W.

    2017-06-01

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going.

  9. Design and implementation of a crystal collimation test stand at the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Hall, G. [Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Future upgrades of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) demand improved cleaning performance of its collimation system. Very efficient collimation is required during regular operations at high intensities, because even a small amount of energy deposited on superconducting magnets can cause an abrupt loss of superconducting conditions (quench). The possibility to use a crystal-based collimation system represents an option for improving both cleaning performance and impedance compared to the present system. Before relying on crystal collimation for the LHC, a demonstration under LHC conditions (energy, beam parameters, etc.) and a comparison against the present system is considered mandatory. Thus, a prototype crystal collimation system has been designed and installed in the LHC during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1), to perform feasibility tests during the Run 2 at energies up to 6.5 TeV. The layout is suitable for operation with proton as well as heavy ion beams. In this paper, the design constraints and the solutions proposed for this test stand for feasibility demonstration of crystal collimation at the LHC are presented. The expected cleaning performance achievable with this test stand, as assessed in simulations, is presented and compared to that of the present LHC collimation system. The first experimental observation of crystal channeling in the LHC at the record beam energy of 6.5 TeV has been obtained in 2015 using the layout presented (Scandale et al., Phys Lett B 758:129, 2016). First tests to measure the cleaning performance of this test stand have been carried out in 2016 and the detailed data analysis is still on-going. (orig.)

  10. Instrumentation and control system for the AT-2 accelerator test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.; Holtkamp, D.B.; Holt, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    A data-driven subroutine package, written for our accelerator test stand (ATS), is described. This flexible package permits the rapid writing and modifying of data acquisition, control, and analysis programs for the many diverse experiments performed on the ATS. These structurally simple and easy to maintain routines help to control administratively the integrity of the ATS through the use of the database. Our operating experience indicates that the original design goals have been met. We describe the subroutines, database, and our experiences with this system

  11. Design, building and testing of a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, F.; Duran, E.; Andujar, J.M. [Department of Electronic, Computer Science and Automatic Engineering, University of Huelva (Spain)

    2009-08-01

    This paper designs, sizes, builds and tests a stand alone fuel cell hybrid system made up of a fuel cell stack and a battery bank. This system has been sized to supply a typical telecommunication load profile, but moreover, the system can supply other profiles. For this purpose, a modular low cost electronic load bank has been designed and built. This load bank allows the power demand to be chosen by selecting different solid state relays. Moreover, a virtual instrument based on NI Labview {sup registered} has been designed to select the load power demand from the computer. (author)

  12. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-01-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image

  13. The front end test stand high performance H- ion source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, D C; Lawrie, S; Letchford, A P; Gabor, C; Wise, P; Whitehead, M; Wood, T; Westall, M; Findlay, D; Perkins, M; Savage, P J; Lee, D A; Pozimski, J K

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the front end test stand (FETS) project is to demonstrate that chopped low energy beams of high quality can be produced. FETS consists of a 60 mA Penning Surface Plasma Ion Source, a three solenoid low energy beam transport, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, a chopper, and a comprehensive suite of diagnostics. This paper details the design and initial performance of the ion source and the laser profile measurement system. Beam current, profile, and emittance measurements are shown for different operating conditions.

  14. High technology at 'General Turbo', DH 12/13 balance-over speed testing stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuta, Florian Nicolae; Vasiliu, Dinu; Mauna, Traian

    2005-01-01

    'General Turbo' activity started in 1970 including building the balancing and over speed stand. DH 12/13 is the latest up-to-date facility of this type, the best one of the five in Europe, and was commissioned in 2004. The facility was especially built to be used for Romanian Nuclear Power Plant rotor testing and also for thermal very big rotors. The paper underlines the main attributes and the components of the facility DH 12/13 based on the Schenck technology. (authors)

  15. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok; Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber

  16. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Gyeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber.

  17. Observation of a H- Beam at the CERN Linac 4 Test Stand using a Pepper-pot

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, N; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R; Tsesmelis, E

    2010-01-01

    Pepper-pot based transverse emittance measurement has the advantage of providing a fast (single shot) measurement with a relatively simple hardware. We report on the installation of a pepper-pot at the CERN Linac 4 test stand.

  18. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  19. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, W.; Bracco, C.; Noulibos, R.; Sillanoli, Y.; Trappen van, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H - beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H - charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H - into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  20. Simulated stand tests and centrifuge training to prevent orthostatic intolerance on Earth, moon, and Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Brandon W; Sharp, M Keith

    2010-03-01

    One proposed method to overcome postflight orthostatic intolerance is for astronauts to undergo inflight centrifugation. Cardiovascular responses were compared between centrifuge and gravitational conditions using a seven-compartment cardiovascular model. Vascular resistance, heart rate, and stroke volume values were adopted from literature, while compartmental volumes and compliances were derived from impedance plethysmography of subjects (n=8) riding on a centrifuge. Three different models were developed to represent the typical male subject who completed a 10-min postflight stand test ("male finisher"), "non-finishing male" and "female" (all non-finishers). A sensitivity analysis found that both cardiac output and arterial pressure were most sensitive to total blood volume. Simulated stand tests showed that female astronauts were more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance due to lower initial blood pressure and higher pressure threshold for presyncope. Rates of blood volume loss by capillary filtration were found to be equivalent in female and male non-finishers, but four times smaller in male finishers. For equivalent times to presyncope during centrifugation as those during constant gravity, lower G forces at the level of the heart were required. Centrifuge G levels to match other cardiovascular parameters varied depending on the parameter, centrifuge arm length, and the gravity level being matched.

  1. Laser based beam diagnostic for the RAL Front End Test Stand (FETS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, C.; Lee, D. A.; Pozimski, J. K.; Letchford, A.

    2007-01-01

    For the diagnostic of high power particle beams, non-destructive measurement devices provide minimum influence on the beam and avoid various problems in connection with the high power density on surfaces. An H- ion beam offers the opportunity of non destructive beam diagnostics based on the effect of photo detachment. By the interaction of light with H- ions, the additional electron can be detached and a small number of neutrals will be produced. An additional magnetic dipole field can then be used to separate the detached electrons and neutrals from the ions. Using an integral detector the spatial distribution of the beam ion density can be derived, while the use of a spatial resolving detector enables to determine the phase space distribution. To investigate the measurement principle of the latter, a test stand was set up at the IAP in Frankfurt. This system will now be adopted to the requirements of the Front End Test Stand at CCLRC/ RAL. The aim of this FETS is to demonstrate a chopped H- beam of 60mA at 3MeV and 50pps with sufficiently high beam quality. The paper will present a detailed description of the proposed set up at RAL and discuss several results of simulations and experimental data gained in Frankfurt

  2. The study of fix composite panel and steel plates on testing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Płaczek, M.; Wachna, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the practical possibilities of strength verification analysis of composite materials used in the manufacture of selected components of railway wagons are presented. Real laboratory stand for measurements in a scale controlled by PLC controller were made. The study of different types of connections of composite materials with sheet metal is presented. In one of the chapter of this paper principles construction of testing stand with pneumatic cylinder were presented. Mainly checking of displacements and stresses generated on the sheet as a result of pneumatic actuators load for composite boards was carried out. The use of the controller with operating panel allows to easy programming testing cycle. The user can define the force generated by the actuator by change of air pressure in cylinder. Additionally the location of acting cylinders and their jump can be changed by operator. The examination of the volume displacements was done by displacement sensor, and the tensile strain gauge. All parameters are written in CatmanEasy - data acquisition software. This article presents the study of stresses and displacements in the composite plates joined with sheet metal, in summary of this article, the authors compare the obtained results with the computer simulation results in the article: "Simulation of stresses in an innovative combination of composite with sheet".

  3. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the thrust stand being used for ground testing of a new thrust-vectoring concept involving two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could lead to significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace.

  4. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand at sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft on a test stand at sunrise. Not shown in this photograph are the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The aircraft was originally built as an F-15B (Serial #71-0290).

  5. Test of four stand growth simulators for the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; David A. Marquis; Richard L. Ernst; Brian T. Simpson; Brian T. Simpson

    1993-01-01

    Evaluates SILVAH, FIBER, NE-TWIGS, and OAKSIM, simulators commonly used in the northeastern United States, by comparing predicted stand development with actual stand development records for periods ranging from 15 to 50 years. Results varied with stand parameter, forest type, projection length, and geographic area. Except in the spruce-fir forest type where FIBER...

  6. Test stand for non-uniformity correction of microbolometer focal plane arrays used in thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kastek, Mariusz

    2013-10-01

    Uneven response of particular detectors (pixels) to the same incident power of infrared radiation is an inherent feature of microbolometer focal plane arrays. As a result an image degradation occurs, known as Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), which distorts the thermal representation of an observed scene and impairs the parameters of a thermal camera. In order to compensate such non-uniformity, several NUC correction methods are applied in digital data processing modules implemented in thermal cameras. Coefficients required to perform the non-uniformity correction procedure (NUC coefficients) are determined by calibrating the camera against uniform radiation sources (blackbodies). Non-uniformity correction is performed in a digital processing unit in order to remove FPN pattern in the registered thermal images. Relevant correction coefficients are calculated on the basis of recorded detector responses to several values of radiant flux emitted from reference IR radiation sources (blackbodies). The measurement of correction coefficients requires specialized setup, in which uniform, extended radiation sources with high temperature stability are one of key elements. Measurement stand for NUC correction developed in Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT, comprises two integrated extended blackbodies with the following specifications: area 200×200 mm, stabilized absolute temperature range +15 °C÷100 °C, and uniformity of temperature distribution across entire surface +/-0.014 °C. Test stand, method used for the measurement of NUC coefficients and the results obtained during the measurements conducted on a prototype thermal camera will be presented in the paper.

  7. The 1-min sit-to-stand test in cystic fibrosis - Insights into cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Hebestreit, Helge; Puhan, Milo A; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    We aimed to characterize the cardiopulmonary response during a 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test and compare peak exercise cardiorespiratory variables to a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in cystic fibrosis (CF). We further aimed to assess the validity of the STS power index (Power STS ) as a measure of exercise capacity. Fifteen adult CF patients performed spirometry, CPET and the 1-min STS test with respiratory gas analysis. Peak-exercise cardiorespiratory variables during the 1-min STS test correlated strongly (r=0.69-0.98) with those measured during the CPET. Oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, heart rate, ventilation, and tidal volume at peak exercise were 24%, 26%, 9%, 10% and 21% lower in the 1-min STS test, while respiratory frequencies were 14% higher. Power STS showed strong to very strong correlations with CPET-derived absolute peak oxygen uptake and maximal workload. The 1-min STS test elicits a substantial but lower cardiorespiratory response compared to a maximal cycle ergometry CPET. While Power STS and STS repetitions are both valid outcome measures of functional capacity, STS repetitions are clinically more practical. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison between Standing Broad Jump test and Wingate test for assessing lower limb anaerobic power in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anup; Sharma, Deep; Bhatt, Madhu; Dixit, Apoorv; Pradeep, P

    2017-04-01

    Lower limb explosive power is an important motor quality for sporting performance and indicates use of anaerobic energy systems like stored ATP and Creatine phosphate system. Weightlifting, Fencing and Wrestling use it for monitoring and identification of potential sportsmen. The Wingate test and Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) test are reliable and accurate tests for its assessment. This study conducted on elite Indian sportsmen tries to analyse feasibility of use of the SBJ test in sports and military medicine when Wingate test is impractical. 95 elite sportsmen (51 Fencers, 17 Weight lifters and 27 Wrestlers) of a sports institute were administered Wingate cycle ergometer test and SBJ under standardised conditions. The results were analysed for mass and inter-discipline correlation. Analysis using Pearson's correlation showed significant positive correlation between Peak power ( r  = 0.446, p  Weightlifters. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that about 94% pairs of peak power and SBJ were within limits of agreement for each discipline as well as among all sportsmen. The test results show definite correlation and SBJ test can be used as a field test in performance monitoring, talent identification, military recruit screening and injury prevention.

  9. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) for Test Stand and J-2X Engine: Core Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Jorge F.; Schmalzel, John L.; Aguilar, Robert; Shwabacher, Mark; Morris, Jon

    2008-01-01

    ISHM capability enables a system to detect anomalies, determine causes and effects, predict future anomalies, and provides an integrated awareness of the health of the system to users (operators, customers, management, etc.). NASA Stennis Space Center, NASA Ames Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne have implemented a core ISHM capability that encompasses the A1 Test Stand and the J-2X Engine. The implementation incorporates all aspects of ISHM; from anomaly detection (e.g. leaks) to root-cause-analysis based on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), to a user interface for an integrated visualization of the health of the system (Test Stand and Engine). The implementation provides a low functional capability level (FCL) in that it is populated with few algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, and root-cause trees from a limited FMEA effort. However, it is a demonstration of a credible ISHM capability, and it is inherently designed for continuous and systematic augmentation of the capability. The ISHM capability is grounded on an integrating software environment used to create an ISHM model of the system. The ISHM model follows an object-oriented approach: includes all elements of the system (from schematics) and provides for compartmentalized storage of information associated with each element. For instance, a sensor object contains a transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) with information that might be used by algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, diagnostics, etc. Similarly, a component, such as a tank, contains a Component Electronic Data Sheet (CEDS). Each element also includes a Health Electronic Data Sheet (HEDS) that contains health-related information such as anomalies and health state. Some practical aspects of the implementation include: (1) near real-time data flow from the test stand data acquisition system through the ISHM model, for near real-time detection of anomalies and diagnostics, (2) insertion of the J-2X

  10. Test methods and load simulation at roller test stand; Pruefmethoden und Lastsimulation auf Rollenpruefstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Juergen [BMW AG, Muenchen (Germany); Koenig, Manfred [VISPIRON AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The development of vehicles is a time expensive process and requires a worldwide mobility, since the vehicles are tested for different environmental conditions, which only occur in specified regions and within predefined seasonal periods. To become independent of weather conditions and the local and seasonal variation, it is necessary to shift particular tests to a climatic wind tunnel. Although this offers an ideal environment for precise and reproducible results, many tests need to be performed in order to acquire knowledge about the differences between real road investigations and wind tunnel experiments. It is the work of Method developers to properly transfer specified road tests to the test facility such that comparable results are obtained. These details will be discussed in the first chapter. An important aspect, within this objective, is the realistic simulation of drive resistance on the road by dynamometers. Therefore the different forces, contributing to the drive resistance on the road, are determined in order to simulate the realistic load on the vehicle drive train by the electric drive units of the dynamometers. To increase the accuracy of the load simulation, a special feature has been added to the dyno-control. This feature includes the influence of air-density on the drive resistance at a given environmental temperature, pressure and humidity. (orig.)

  11. Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade neutral beam test stand: A powerful tool for development and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Kane, R.J.; Kerr, R.G.; Poulsen, P.

    1983-01-01

    During construction of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), a test stand was assembled to develop electronics for the neutral beam system. In the first six months of test stand use the authors operated a few neutral beam injector modules and directed considerable effort toward improving the electronic system. As system development progressed, the focus turned toward improving the injector modules themselves. The test stand has proved to be the largest single contributor to the successful operation of neutral beams on TMX-U, primarily because it provides quality assurance and development capability in conjunction with the scheduled activities of the main experiment. This support falls into five major categories: (1) electronics development, (2) operator training, (3) injector module testing and characterization, (4) injector module improvements, and (5) physics improvements (through areas affected by injector operation). Normal day-to-day operation of the test stand comes under the third category, testing and characterization, and comprises the final quality assurance activity for newly assembled or repaired modules before they are installed on TMX-U. They have also used the test stand to perform a series of physics experiments, including: reducing gas flow through valve and arc chamber characterization, reducing impurities by titanium gettering, and reducing streaming gas using apertures and collisional gas dynamics

  12. The 1-min sit-to-stand test--A simple functional capacity test in cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Puhan, Milo A; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to assess the measurement properties and the minimal important difference (MID) of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in cystic fibrosis (CF). Patients with CF were tested during a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Five STS tests were performed during the program; two tests at the beginning (STS0 and STS1) and three tests at the end (STS2a-2c). Exercise capacity, pulmonary function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient-reported health status were measured at the beginning and end of the program. We calculated overall mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the STS test. The MID was calculated using anchor-based and distributional methods. Fourteen participants (8 female, mean age 30.4±6.1years) were included. STS test performance increased significantly from STS0 to STS1 indicative of a learning effect. Test-retest reliability for the subsequent STS2a-2c tests was excellent (ICC 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99). The estimated MID for the STS test was 5 repetitions. STS test performance was responsive to change (effect size of 0.97) and correlated with exercise capacity (r=0.63-0.73) and with the physical functioning HRQoL scale (r=0.72). The 1-min STS test appears to be a reliable, valid, and feasible test to measure functional capacity in patients with CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vacuum system design considerations of the Los Alamos Accelerator Test Stand (ATS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    The accelerator test stand (ATS), in operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, includes a hydrogen ion source, low- and high-energy beam-transport sections, and a 425-MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linear accelerator. A 425-MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) and a powered ''buncher'' matching section have been constructed and will be installed on the ATS. The vacuum systems required for the various sections of the ATS are designed to provide: (1) high gas-load capability, as required in the ion source, and (2) high-vacuum capability in the high-power, radio-frequency accelerator sections (where fast vacuum-system response time is of importance) through the use of distributed, differential pumping as a principal vacuum-system feature. This paper describes properties of accelerator materials, vacuum-systems engineering and analysis, vacuum equipment used, and ATS vacuum-system performance

  14. Converter-Modulator Design and Operations for the ILC L-band Test Stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reass, William A.; /Los Alamos; Burkhart, C.; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Beukers, T.; Cassel, R.; de Lira, A.; Papas, C.; Nguyen, M.; Went, R.; /SLAC; Anderson, David E.; /Oak

    2007-09-10

    To facilitate a rapid response to the International Linear Collider (ILC) L-band development program at SLAC, a spare converter-modulator was shipped from LANL. This modulator was to be a spare for the spallation neutron source (SNS) accelerator at ORNL. The ILC application requires a 33% higher peak output power (15 MW) and output current (120 Amp). This presents significant design challenges to modify the existing hardware and yet maintain switching parameters and thermal cycling within the semiconductor component ratings. To minimize IGBT commutation and free-wheeling diode currents, a different set of optimizations, as compared to the SNS design, were used to tune the resonant switching networks. Additional complexities arose as nanocrystalline cores with different performance characteristics (as compared to SNS), were used to fabricate the resonant 'boost' transformers. This paper will describe the electrical design, modeling efforts, and resulting electrical performance as implemented for the ILC L-band test stand.

  15. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  16. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design with updated test stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A

    2018-03-01

    Underground refuge alternatives require an air source to supply breathable air to the occupants. This requires pressure relief valves to prevent unsafe pressures from building up within the refuge alternative. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) mandates that pressure relief valves prevent pressure from exceeding 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure when a fan or compressor is used for the air supply. The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) tested a variety of pressure relief valves using an instrumented test fixture consisting of data acquisition equipment, a centrifugal blower, ductwork and various sensors to determine if the subject pressure relief valves meet the MSHA requirement. Relief pressures and flow characteristics, including opening pressure and flow rate, were measured for five different pressure relief valves under a variety of conditions. The subject pressure relief valves included two off-the-shelf modified check valves, two check valves used in MSHA-approved built-in-place refuge alternatives, and a commercially available valve that was designed for a steel refuge alternative and is currently being used in some built-in-place refuge alternatives. The test results showed relief pressures ranging from 0.20 to 1.53 kPa (0.03 to 0.22 psi) and flow rates up to 19.3 m 3 /min (683 scfm). As tested, some of the pressure relief valves did not meet the 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi) relief specification.

  17. Initial results for a 170 GHz high power ITER waveguide component test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Timothy; Barker, Alan; Dukes, Carl; Killough, Stephen; Kaufman, Michael; White, John; Bell, Gary; Hanson, Greg; Rasmussen, Dave

    2014-10-01

    A high power microwave test stand is being setup at ORNL to enable prototype testing of 170 GHz cw waveguide components being developed for the ITER ECH system. The ITER ECH system will utilize 63.5 mm diameter evacuated corrugated waveguide and will have 24 >150 m long runs. A 170 GHz 1 MW class gyrotron is being developed by Communications and Power Industries and is nearing completion. A HVDC power supply, water-cooling and control system has been partially tested in preparation for arrival of the gyrotron. The power supply and water-cooling system are being designed to operate for >3600 second pulses to simulate the operating conditions planned for the ITER ECH system. The gyrotron Gaussian beam output has a single mirror for focusing into a 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide in the vertical plane. The output beam and mirror are enclosed in an evacuated duct with absorber for stray radiation. Beam alignment with the waveguide is a critical task so a combination of mirror tilt adjustments and a bellows for offsets will be provided. Analysis of thermal patterns on thin witness plates will provide gyrotron mode purity and waveguide coupling efficiency data. Pre-prototype waveguide components and two dummy loads are available for initial operational testing of the gyrotron. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  18. Optimization of a readout board for mass assembly and light yield measurements with a cosmic ray test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Phi [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Collaboration: CALICE-D-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We have built a readout board prototype, equipped with SiPMs, scintillators and readout electronics for an highly granular calorimeter. The design was optimized for mass assembly due to about 8 million channels in the final detector. The prototype showed good performance in several test beams and in a cosmic ray test stand, which was built to characterize the MIP response of these kinds of boards. We show an overview of the cosmic ray test stand and measurement results for the readout board and plans for an improved 2nd generation prototype.

  19. Design and development of RF system for vertical test stand for characterization of superconducting RF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohania, Praveen; Rajput, Vikas; Baxy, Deodatta; Agrawal, Ankur; Mahawar, Ashish; Adarsh, Kunver; Singh, Pratap; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    RRCAT is developing a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) to test and qualify 1.3 GHz/650 MHz, SCRF Cavities in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) under Indian Institutions' Fermilab Collaboration. The technical details for VTS is being provided by FNAL, USA. The RF System of VTS needs to provide stable RF power to SCRF cavity with control of amplitude, relative phase and frequency. The incident, reflected, transmitted power and field decay time constant of the cavity are measured to evaluate cavity performance parameters (E, Qo). RF Power is supplied via 500 W Solid State amplifier, 1270-1310 MHz being developed by PHPMS, RRCAT. VTS system is controlled by PXI Platform and National Instruments LabVIEW software. Low Level RF (LLRF) system is used to track the cavity frequency using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The system is comprised of several integrated functional modules which would be assembled, optimized, and tested separately. Required components and instruments have been identified and procurement for the same is underway. Inhouse development for the Solid State RF amplifier and instrument interfacing is in progress. This paper describes the progress on the development of the RF system for VTS. (author)

  20. Mechanical Design, Simulation, and Testing of Self-Aligning Gaussian Telescope and Stand for ITER LFS Reflectometer Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Rachel; Gomez, Michael; Zolfaghari, Ali; Morris, Lewis

    2016-10-01

    A self-aligning Gaussian telescope has been designed to compensate for the effect of movement in the ITER vacuum vessel on the transmission line. The purpose of the setup is to couple microwaves into and out of the vessel across the vacuum windows while allowing for both slow movements of the vessel, due to thermal growth, and rapid movements, due to vibrations and disruptions. Additionally, a test stand has been designed specifically to hold this telescope in order to imitate these movements. Consequently, this will allow for the assessment of the efficacy in applying the self-aligning Gaussian telescope approach. The motions of the test stand, as well as the stress on the telescope mechanism, have been virtually simulated using ANSYS workbench. A prototype of this test stand and self-aligning telescope will be built using a combination of custom machined parts and ordered parts. The completed mechanism will be tested at the lab in four different ways: slow single- and multi-direction movements, rapid multi-direction movement, functional laser alignment and self-aligning tests, and natural frequency tests. Once the prototype successfully passes all requirements, it will be tested with microwaves in the LFSR transmission line test stand at General Atomics. This work is supported by US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Testing two novel stump-lifting heads in a final felling Norway spruce stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi; Mutikainen, A. (TTS Research, Rajamaeki (Finland)), Email: arto.mutikainen@tts.fi

    2009-07-01

    The use of stump and root wood chips has increased very rapidly in the 21st century in Finland: in the year 2000, the total consumption of stump wood chips for energy generation was 10 GWh, while in 2008 it was around 1.2 TWh. Metsaeteho Oy and TTS Research tested two new stump-lifting devices for lifting stumps in a final felling Norway spruce (picea abies) stand. In the time study with the Vaekevae Stump Processor lifting head, the productivity of stump lifting was 7,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps with a diameter of 30 cm from clayey soil, and 8.3 m3 /E{sub 0}-hour when lifting spruce stumps from sandy soil. When lifting stumps with a diameter of 40 cm, the stump-lifting productivity was 9.0 m3 /E{sub 0}-h (clay) and 10,5 m3 / E{sub 0}-h (sand). The results of this relatively restricted test indicated that the Vaekevae Stump Processor is s reliable and effective stump-lifting head that enables the harvesting of high-quality stump raw material for energy generation. The stump lifting productivity of the other lifting head (Jaervinen) was lower than that of the Vaekevae Strump Processor. Some development suggestions for the Jaervinen lifting head were presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. Stands for testing the strength of welded pipe materials under the action of a corrosive medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kolodyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the features of the destruction of materials of pipelines for the transportation of oil, gas, products of processing of oil, water and other substances in the laboratory of the department of development of minerals named by prof. Bakka N.T. the complex of installations is invented, for which Ukrainian patents were obtained as utility models No. 30794, No. 52493, for the study of the working capacity of the elements of the listed pipeline systems in conditions that are as close as possible to the operational under the influence of the corrosive medium. Rotary vacuum devices were used as the basic elements of the proposed installations for testing the materials of the welded tubes for durability at single tensile and under flat stress conditions. The article presents the design of research stands for testing the durability of pipe materials and welds of pipelines using samples of materials and natural pipes (shortened under the influence of static, low cyclic and dynamic loads, and analyzes the influence of aggressive media.

  3. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Research of explosives in an environment of high pressure and temperature using a new test stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drzewiecki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the test stand for determining the blast abilities of explosives in high pressure and temperature conditions as well as the initial results of the research are presented. Explosives are used in rock burst and methane prevention to destroy precisely defined fragments of the rock mass where energy and methane are accumulated. Using this preventive method for fracturing the structure of the rocks which accumulate the energy or coal of the methane seam very often does not bring the anticipated results. It is because of the short range of destructive action of the post-blast gases around the blast hole. Evaluation of the blast dynamics of explosives in a test chamber, i.e. in the pressure and temperature conditions comparable to those found “in situ”, will enable evaluation of their real usefulness in commonly used mining hazard preventive methods. At the same time, it will enable the development of new designs of the explosive charges used for precisely determined mining hazards. In order to test the explosives for their use in difficult environmental conditions and to determine the characteristics of their explosion, a test chamber has been built. It is equipped with a system of sensors and a high-frequency recording system of pressure and temperature during a controlled explosion of an explosive charge. The results of the research will enable the development of new technologies for rock burst and methane prevention which will significantly increase workplace health and safety level. This paper presented results constitute the initial phase of research started in the middle of 2014.

  5. Tandem mirror experiment-upgrade neutral beam test stand: a powerful tool for development and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.; Kane, R.J.; Kerr, R.G.; Poulsen, P.

    1983-01-01

    During construction of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), we assembled a test stand to develop electronics for the neutral beam system. In the first six months of test stand use we operated a few neutral beam injector modules and directed considerable effort toward improving the electronic system. As system development progressed, our focus turned toward improving the injector modules themselves. The test stand has proved to be the largest single contributor to the successful operation of neutral beams on TMX-U, primarily because it provides quality assurance andd development capability in conjunction with the scheduled activities of the main experiment. This support falls into five major categories: (1) electronics development, (2) operator training, (3) injector module testing and characterization, (4) injector module improvements, and (5) physics improvements (through areas affected by injector operation). Normal day-to-day operation of the test stand comes under the third category, testing and characterization, and comprises our final quality assurance activity for newly assembled or repaired modules before they are installed on TMX-U

  6. Which is preferable for orthostatic hypotension diagnosis in older adults: active standing test or head-up tilt table test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Soysal, Pinar; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-01-01

    Correct evaluation of orthostatic hypotension (OH) is crucial in geriatric practice, since OH is associated with mortality and morbidity. The study aimed to determine the most appropriate method for measuring blood pressure in transition from supine to upright position in order to diagnose OH in older adults. Active standing test (AST) and head-up tilt table (HUT) test as well as comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including mini-mental state examination or the cognitive state test, mini-nutritional assessment, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and Tinetti performance-oriented mobility assessment indexes, were performed in 290 geriatric patients. The prevalence of OH during HUT and AST was 19% and 37%, respectively. In patients with OH during HUT, the frequency of dementia and recurrent falls were higher ( P 0.05). Comparison of the groups according to CGA measurements revealed significant differences in terms of cognition, nutritional status, activities of daily life, and balance function in patients with OH only during HUT ( P 0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of AST were 49.0%, 65.5%, 25.0%, and 84.6% respectively, according to HUT. The results suggest that orthostatic blood pressure changes determined by HUT might be of higher clinical significance than that by AST in older adults. It might be important that the evaluation of OH by HUT should be included in daily geriatric practice.

  7. Effect of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction on unipedal standing balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Lee, Szu-Ping; Reischl, Stephen F; Noceti-DeWit, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Foot pain and diminished functional capacity are characteristics of tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction (TPTD). This study tested the hypotheses that women with TPTD would have impaired performance of a unipedal standing balance test (USBT) and that balance performance would be related to the number of single limb heel raises (SLHR). Thirty-nine middle-aged women, 19 with early stage TPTD (stage I and II), were instructed to perform 2 tasks; a USBT and repeated SLHR. Balance success was defined as a 10-second stance. For those who were successful, center of pressure (COP) data in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions were recorded as a measure of postural sway. SLHR performance was divided into 3 bins (≤2; 3-9 and > 10 repetitions). The between-balance success on performing the SLHR test was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test (2 × 3). Independent t tests were used to compare between-group differences in postural sway. Relationship of postural sway to the number of heel raises was assessed using Spearman's rho. The success rate of the USBT was significantly lower in women with TPTD than the controls (47% vs 85%, P = .041). In addition, women with TPTD who completed the USBT exhibited increased AP COP displacement (14.0 ± 7.4 vs 8.4 ± 1.3 mm, P = .008), and a strong trend of increased ML COP displacement (8.3 ± 4.5 vs 6.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = .050). The success rate of USBT was correlated with the number of SLHR (P = .01). The AP and ML COP displacement were correlated with SLHR (r = -.538 and .495), respectively. Women with TPTD have difficulty in performing the USBT. Performance of the USBT and SLHR are highly correlated and predictive of each other. A unipedal balance test may be used as a proxy TPTD assessment tool to the heel raising test when pain prevents performance. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. HISTRAP [Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics] vacuum test stand for pressures of 10-12 Torr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.W.; Atkins, W.H.; Dowling, D.T.; McConnell, J.W.; Milner, W.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed synchrotron/cooler/storage ring accelerator optimized for advanced atomic physics research. The ring has a circumference of 46.8 m, a bore diameter of about 15 cm, and requires a vacuum of 10 -12 Torr in order to decelerate highly-charged very-heavy ions down to low energies. To be able to test components and procedures to achieve this pressure, a test stand approximately modeling one-sixteenth of the ring vacuum chamber has been built. The 3.5-m-long test stand has been fabricated from 10-cm-diameter components, with 316LN stainless steel flanges. Prior to assembly, these components were vacuum fired at 950/degree/C at a pressure of 10 -4 Torr. The test stand is bakeable in situ at 300/degree/C. Pumping is achieved with two 750-L/s titanium sublimator pumps and one 60-L/s ion pump. Pressure is measured with two extractor ion gauges and a 10 -14 PP RGA. The roughing for the test stand consists of cryosorption pumps followed by a cryopump. A pressure of 4 x 10 -12 Torr has been achieved. 7 refs., 5 figs

  9. THE 30-S CHAIR STAND TEST AND HABITUAL MOBILITY PREDICT REHABILITATION NEEDS AFTER ACUTE ADMISSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Backer Mogensen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    that no approval is needed. Purpose The study aimed to evaluate if the 30 Second Chair Stand test (30s-CST) combined with other variables was able to predict rehabilitation needs among acutely admitted elderly patient. Low physical ability were defined as a 30s-CST–score ≤ 8 one month after admission......Relevance: Responding to Changing Population Needs. The elderly population is growing and represents an increasing proportion of elderly admitted to a short stay unit in an emergency department (ED). One month after admission a fifth of the elderly patients have low physical ability and therefore...... were included if oriented in time and place, able to sit on a chair and have a 30s-CST–score ≤ 8. Baseline data were collected within the first 48 hours of admission and the 30s-CST again one month after admission. All risk factors are identified in the literature. The 30s-CST is used at community...

  10. Beam-Plasma Interaction Experiments on the Princeton Advanced Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.

    2011-10-01

    The Princeton Advanced Test Stand (PATS) is a compact experimental facility for studying the fundamental physics of intense beam-plasma interactions relevant to the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - II (NDCX-II). The PATS facility consists of a 100 keV ion beam source mounted on a six-foot-long vacuum chamber with numerous ports for diagnostic access. A 100 keV Ar+ beam is launched into a volumetric plasma, which is produced by a ferroelectric plasma source (FEPS). Beam diagnostics upstream and downstream of the FEPS allow for detailed studies of the effects that the plasma has on the beam. This setup is designed for studying the dependence of charge and current neutralization and beam emittance growth on the beam and plasma parameters. This work reports initial measurements of beam quality produced by the extraction electrodes that were recently installed on the PATS device. The transverse beam phase space is measured with double-slit emittance scanners, and the experimental results are compared to WARP simulations of the extraction system. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Characterizing the Performance of the Princeton Advanced Test Stand Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Davidson, R. C.

    2012-10-01

    The Princeton Advanced Test Stand (PATS) is a compact experimental facility for studying the physics of intense beam-plasma interactions relevant to the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - II (NDCX-II). The PATS facility consists of a multicusp RF ion source mounted on a 2 m-long vacuum chamber with numerous ports for diagnostic access. Ar+ beams are extracted from the source plasma with three-electrode (accel-decel) extraction optics. The RF power and extraction voltage (30 - 100 kV) are pulsed to produce 100 μsec duration beams at 0.5 Hz with excellent shot-to-shot repeatability. Diagnostics include Faraday cups, a double-slit emittance scanner, and scintillator imaging. This work reports measurements of beam parameters for a range of beam energies (30 - 50 keV) and currents to characterize the behavior of the ion source and extraction optics. Emittance scanner data is used to calculate the beam trace-space distribution and corresponding transverse emittance. If the plasma density is changing during a beam pulse, time-resolved emittance scanner data has been taken to study the corresponding evolution of the beam trace-space distribution.

  12. Modular high-throughput test stand for versatile screening of thin-film materials libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienhaus, Sigurd; Hamann, Sven; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Versatile high-throughput characterization tools are required for the development of new materials using combinatorial techniques. Here, we describe a modular, high-throughput test stand for the screening of thin-film materials libraries, which can carry out automated electrical, magnetic and magnetoresistance measurements in the temperature range of −40 to 300 °C. As a proof of concept, we measured the temperature-dependent resistance of Fe–Pd–Mn ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy materials libraries, revealing reversible martensitic transformations and the associated transformation temperatures. Magneto-optical screening measurements of a materials library identify ferromagnetic samples, whereas resistivity maps support the discovery of new phases. A distance sensor in the same setup allows stress measurements in materials libraries deposited on cantilever arrays. A combination of these methods offers a fast and reliable high-throughput characterization technology for searching for new materials. Using this approach, a composition region has been identified in the Fe–Pd–Mn system that combines ferromagnetism and martensitic transformation.

  13. Commissioning of the Linac4 RFQ at the 3 MeV test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, C; Bellodi, G; Broere, J; Brunner, O; Lombardi, A M; Balula, J M; Yanez, P M; Noirjean, J; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Vretenar, M; Desmons, M; France, A; Piquet, O

    2013-01-01

    Linac4, the future 160 MeV Hˉ injector to the CERN Proton Synchrotron Booster, is presently under construction at CERN as a first step of the planned upgrade of the LHC injectors. The low energy section of LINAC4, consisting of an ion source, a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a chopper line is being commissioned in a dedicated test stand before installation in its final position in the tunnel. The RFQ is designed to accelerate a 45 keV, 70 mA, Hˉ beam to 3 MeV, with an efficiency of 95% while preserving the transverse emittance. The RFQ, a four-vane structure 3 m in length, has been designed in collaboration with CEA/IRFU and is has been fabricated at the CERN workshop. The precise fabrication has allowed achieving a field flatness of 1%. The completion of the accelerating structure in September 2012 was followed by a complete series of bead-pull measurements and by high-power conditioning to the nominal power of 0.39 MW corresponding to a voltage of 78 kV across the 3 meters. Measurements wi...

  14. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10 10 cm −2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region

  15. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  16. Optimization of the stand for test of hybrid rocket engines of solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotorev Nikolay

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the laboratory experimental stand of the hybrid rocket engine of solid fuel to study ballistic parameters of the engine at burning of high-energy materials in flow of hot gas is presented. Mixture of air with nitrogen with a specified content of active oxygen is used as a gaseous oxidizer. The experimental stand has modular design and consists of system of gas supply, system of heating of gas, system for monitoring gas parameters, to which a load cell with a model engine was connected. The modular design of the stand allows to change its configuration under specific objective. This experimental stand allows to conduct a wide range of the pilot studies at interaction of a hot stream of gas with samples high-energy materials.

  17. Beam-Based Diagnostics of RF-Breakdown in the Two-Beam Test-Stand in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    The general outline of a beam-based diagnostic method of RF-breakdown, using BPMs, at the two-beam test-stand in CTF3 is discussed. The basic components of the set-up and their functions in the diagnostic are described. Estimations of the expected error in the measured parameters are performed.

  18. Commissioning and Operational Experience With an Intermediate Upgrade Cryomodule for the CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas Powers; Davis, G.; Michael Drury; Christiana Grenoble; Hovater, J.; Lawrence King; Tomasz Plawski; Joseph Preble

    2005-01-01

    Three cryomodules have been designed and built as intermediate prototypes for the CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade. This paper will discuss the commissioning and operational experience with the second of these cryomodules, which was installed and commissioned in the Jefferson Lab 10 kW Free Electron Laser Facility. Within the cryomodule are eight 7-cell, 1497 MHz cavities. It was designed to accelerate 1 mA of beam in excess of 70 MV and to have the same footprint as a standard CEBAF cryomodule. The cryomodule was installed in parallel with the FEL beam line in the spring of 2004 and characterized simultaneous with beam delivery. It was installed in the beam line in the early summer of 2004 and has since been operated as part of an energy recovered linac with 5 mA of beam current and 75 MV accelerating gradient for extended periods of time. Additionally, it was operated at 1 mA of beam current and 80 MV of accelerating gradient for several hours without a trip. In the latter operating mode the beam current was limited by the injector setup

  19. SUPERCONDUCTING RADIO-FREQUENCY MODULES TEST FACILITY OPERATING EXPERIENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyars, W.; Bossert, R.; Darve, C.; Degraff, B.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-01-01

    Fermilab is heavily engaged and making strong technical contributions to the superconducting radio-frequency research and development program (SRF R and D). Four major SRF test areas are being constructed to enable vertical and horizontal cavity testing, as well as cryomodule testing. The existing Fermilab cryogenic infrastructure has been modified to service the SRF R and D needs. The project's first stage has been successfully completed, which allows for distribution of cryogens for a single-cavity cryomodule using the existing Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF) that houses three Tevatron satellite refrigerators. The cooling capacity available for cryomodule testing at Meson Detector Building (MDB) results from the liquefaction capacity of the CTF cryogenic system. The cryogenic system for a single 9-cell cryomodule is currently operational. The paper describes the status, challenges and operational experience of the initial phase of the project

  20. Status and Plans for a Superconducting RF Accelerator Test Facility at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.; Baffes, C.M.; Carlson, K.; Chase, B.; Church, M.D.; Harms, E.R.; Klebaner, A.L.; Leibfritz, J.R.; Martinez, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Nobrega, L.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) is being constructed at Fermilab. The existing New Muon Lab (NML) building is being converted for this facility. The accelerator will consist of an electron gun, injector, beam acceleration section consisting of 3 TTF-type or ILC-type cryomodules, multiple downstream beam lines for testing diagnostics and conducting various beam tests, and a high power beam dump. When completed, it is envisioned that this facility will initially be capable of generating a 750 MeV electron beam with ILC beam intensity. An expansion of this facility was recently completed that will provide the capability to upgrade the accelerator to a total beam energy of 1.5 GeV. Two new buildings were also constructed adjacent to the ASTA facility to house a new cryogenic plant and multiple superconducting RF (SRF) cryomodule test stands. In addition to testing accelerator components, this facility will be used to test RF power systems, instrumentation, and control systems for future SRF accelerators such as the ILC and Project-X. This paper describes the current status and overall plans for this facility.

  1. Analysis of the Qualification-Tests Performance of the Superconducting Cavities for the SNS Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Delayen, J R; Ozelis, O

    2004-01-01

    Thomas Jefferson National Accelerating Facility (Jefferson Lab) is producing superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cryomodules for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cold linac. This consists of 11 medium-beta (β=0.61) cyomodules of 3 cavities each, and 12 high-beta (β=0.81) cryomodules of 4 cavities each. Before assembly into cavity strings the cavities undergo individual qualification tests in a vertical cryostat (VTA). In this paper we analyze the performance of the cavities during these qualification tests, and attempt to correlate this performance with cleaning, assembly, and testing procedures. We also compare VTA performance with performance in completed cryomodules.

  2. Leak rate measurements on bimetallic transition samples for ILC cryomodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budagov, Yu.; Chernikov, A.; Sabirov, B.

    2008-01-01

    The results of leak test of bimetallic (titanium-stainless steel) transition elements produced by explosion welding are presented. Vacuum and high-pressure tests of the sample for leakage were carried out at room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature. Similar tests were also carried out under thermal cycling conditions

  3. Are the General Medical Council's Tests of Competence fair to long standing doctors? A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Leila; Sturrock, Alison; Dacre, Jane

    2015-04-21

    The General Medical Council's Fitness to Practise investigations may involve a test of competence for doctors with performance concerns. Concern has been raised about the suitability of the test format for doctors who qualified before the introduction of Single Best Answer and Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessments, both of which form the test of competence. This study explored whether the examination formats used in the tests of competence are fair to long standing doctors who have undergone fitness to practise investigation. A retrospective cohort design was used to determine an association between year of primary medical qualification and doctors' test of competence performance. Performance of 95 general practitioners under investigation was compared with a group of 376 volunteer doctors. We analysed performance on knowledge test, OSCE overall, and three individual OSCE stations using Spearman's correlation and regression models. Doctors under investigation performed worse on all test outcomes compared to the comparison group. Qualification year correlated positively with performance on all outcomes except for physical examination (e.g. knowledge test r = 0.48, p fitness to practise investigation performed less well on the test of competence than their more recently qualified peers under investigation. The performance of the comparator group tended to stay consistent irrespective of year qualified. Our results suggest that the test format does not disadvantage early qualified doctors. We discuss findings in relation to the GMC's fitness to practise procedures and suggest alternative explanations for the poorer performance of long standing doctors under investigation.

  4. Use of a unipedal standing test to assess the ambulation reacquisition time during the early postoperative stage after hip fracture in elderly Japanese: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Koichi; Sugitani, Shigeki; Yoshioka, Hiroki; Noguchi, Takashi; Aoto, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the ambulation reacquisition time after hip fracture in elderly people using the unipedal standing test during the early postoperative stage. Patients with an intertrochanteric fracture treated with internal fixation (n = 35) and patients with a femoral neck fracture treated with hemiarthroplasty (n = 22) were included. A unipedal standing test using the nonoperated leg was performed on days 3 and 7 after the operation. Among the patients with an intertrochanteric fracture, those with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on postoperative day (POD) 3 attained gait with parallel guide bars (BG) and walker-assisted gait (WG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative result on the unipedal standing test. Patients with a positive result on the unipedal standing test on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and cane-assisted gait (CG) significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Among patients with a femoral neck fracture, those with a positive unipedal standing test result on POD 3 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. Those with a positive test result on POD 7 attained BG, WG, and CG significantly earlier than did patients with a negative test. The unipedal standing test given during the early postoperative stage is a good test for predicting the ambulation reacquisition time. Moreover, it gives information that can help determine the need for subacute rehabilitation and about discharge planning and health service provision.

  5. Performing a Large-Scale Modal Test on the B2 Stand Crane at NASA's Stennis Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunas, Eric C.; Parks, Russel A.; Sontag, Brendan D.

    2018-01-01

    A modal test of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Core Stage is scheduled to occur at the Stennis Space Center B2 test stand. A derrick crane with a 150-ft long boom, located at the top of the stand, will be used to suspend the Core Stage in order to achieve defined boundary conditions. During this suspended modal test, it is expected that dynamic coupling will occur between the crane and the Core Stage. Therefore, a separate modal test was performed on the B2 crane itself, in order to evaluate the varying dynamic characteristics and correlate math models of the crane. Performing a modal test on such a massive structure was challenging and required creative test setup and procedures, including implementing both AC and DC accelerometers, and performing both classical hammer and operational modal analysis. This paper describes the logistics required to perform this large-scale test, as well as details of the test setup, the modal test methods used, and an overview and application of the results.

  6. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain: What are the Clinical Implications of Pain During Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Martin P; Branci, Sonia; Hölmich, Per; Thorborg, Kristian

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. Cross-sectional study. Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion, adduction, abduction, isometric hip flexion-modified Thomas test, and eccentric hip adduction). Muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, and the players rated the pain during testing on a numerical rating scale (0-10). In 4 tests (isometric hip adduction, abduction, flexion, and eccentric adduction), no significant correlations were found between pain during testing and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.28 to 0.06, P = 0.09-0.39). Isometric hip flexion (modified Thomas test position) showed a moderate negative correlation between pain and hip muscle strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain.

  7. A study on special test stand of automatic and manual descent control in presence of simulated g-load effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, Yury; Artjuchin, Yury; Astakhov, Alexander; Vas'kov, Alexander; Malyshev, Veniamin; Mitroshin, Edward; Glinsky, Valery; Moiseenko, Vasily; Makovlev, Vyacheslav

    The development of aircraft-type reusable space vehicles (RSV) involves the problem of complete compatibility of automatic, director and manual control. Task decision is complicated, in particular, due to considerable quantitative and qualitative changes of vehicle dynamic characteristics, little stability margins (and even of unstability) of the RSV, and stringent requirements to control accuracy at some flight phases. Besides, during control a pilot is affected by g-loads which hamper motor activity and deteriorate its accuracy, alter the functional status of the visual analyser, and influence higher nervous activity. A study of g-load effects on the control efficiency, especially in manual and director modes, is of primary importance. The main tools for study of a rational selection of manual and director vehicle control systems and as an aid in formulating recommendations for optimum crew-automatic control system interactions are special complex and functional flight simulator test stands. The proposed simulator stand includes a powerful digital computer complex combined with the control system of the centrifuge. The interior of a pilot's vehicle cabin is imitated. A situation image system, pyscho-physical monitoring system, physician, centrifuge operator, and instructor stations are linked with the test stand.

  8. The 1-Minute Sit-to-Stand Test in Adults With Cystic Fibrosis: Correlations With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test, 6-Minute Walk Test, and Quadriceps Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruet, Mathieu; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Mely, Laurent; Vallier, Jean-Marc

    2016-12-01

    Exercise testing is part of the regular assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to evaluate (1) the convergent validity of the 1-min sit-to-stand (STS) test in CF by investigating its relationships with peak oxygen uptake (peak V̇ O 2 ), quadriceps strength, and quality of life and (2) to compare these associations with those of the 6-min walk test (6MWT). Twenty-five adults with CF (FEV 1 = 59 ± 24%) performed the STS test, the 6MWT, quadriceps strength assessment, and cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Physical activity level, quality of life, and self-esteem were assessed by questionnaires. STS repetitions, 6-min walk distance, quadriceps strength, and peak V̇ O 2 were, respectively, 71 ± 12, 90 ± 10, 93 ± 29, and 62 ± 16% of predicted. The STS test had moderate associations with peak V̇ O 2 (r = 0.56, P = .004), quadriceps strength (r = 0.52, P = .008), and some questionnaire items (eg, perceived physical strength, r = 0.67, P test was strongly associated with oxygen desaturation during CPET (r = 0.80, P test as compared with CPET (P test cannot be used as a replacement for CPET to accurately assess peak exercise capacity in CF. The STS test may have utility in detecting patients with CF who may exhibit a high level of oxygen desaturation during heavy exercise. Further studies should identify the factors contributing to STS performance to confirm the potential interest of STS repetitions × body weight outcome as a useful submaximal exercise parameter in CF. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  9. A test of high-dose verbenone for stand-level protection of lodgepole and whitebark pine from mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. J. Bentz; S. Kegley; K. Gibson; R. Their

    2005-01-01

    The effcacy of verbenone as a stand-level protectant against mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attacks was tested in lodgepole and whitebark pine stands at five geographically separated sites, including three consecutive years at one site. Forty and 20 high-dose pouches, with a verbenone emission rate up to 50 mg/d per pouch, were spaced in a grid...

  10. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in patie......Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST...... in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  11. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSST) in older adults. Ten healthy young female adults (20-23 years) and 31 older adults (21 females; 73-94 years) participated in two assessment sessions separated by 3-8 days. Vertical peak power was assessed during three (young adults) and five (older adults) normal and fast STS trials with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. Older adults also performed the FTSST and TUGT. The average sensor-based STS peak power of the normal STS trials and the average sensor-based STS peak power of the fast STS trials showed excellent test-retest reliability in young adults (intra-class correlation (ICC)≥0.90; zero in 95% confidence interval of mean difference between test and retest (95%CI of D); standard error of measurement (SEM)≤6.7% of mean peak power) and older adults (ICC≥0.91; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM≤9.9%). Test-retest reliability of sensor-based STS peak power and TUGT (ICC=0.98; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM=8.5%) was comparable in older adults, test-retest reliability of the FTSST was lower (ICC=0.73; zero outside 95%CI of D; SEM=14.4%). Sensor-based STS peak power demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and may therefore be useful for clinical assessment of functional status and fall risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Creating an EPICS Based Test Stand Development System for a BPM Digitizer of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is required to deliver a high quality electron beam for producing coherent X-rays. As a result, high resolution beam position monitoring is required. The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) digitizer acquires analog signals from the beam line and digitizes them to obtain beam position data. Although Matlab is currently being used to test the BPM digitizer?s functions and capability, the Controls Department at SLAC prefers to use Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS). This paper discusses the transition of providing similar as well as enhanced functionalities, than those offered by Matlab, to test the digitizer. Altogether, the improved test stand development system can perform mathematical and statistical calculations with the waveform signals acquired from the digitizer and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signals. Finally, logging of meaningful data into files has been added.

  13. An RF input coupler system for the CEBAF energy upgrade cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.R. Delayen; L.R. Doolittle; T. Hiatt; J. Hogan; J. Mammosser; L. Phillips; J. Preble; W.J. Schneider; G. Wu

    1999-01-01

    Long term plans for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab call for achieving 12 GeV in the middle of the next decade and 24 GeV after 2010. Thus an upgraded cryomodule to more than double the present voltage is under development. A new waveguide coupler system has been designed and prototypes are currently being developed. This coupler, unlike the original, has a nominal Q ext of 2.1 x 10 7 , reduced sensitivity of Q ext to mechanical deformation, reduced field asymmetry within the beam envelope, freedom from window arcing with a single window at 300 K, and is capable of transmitting 6kW CW both traveling wave and in full reflection

  14. Is the timed loaded standing test a valid measure of back muscle endurance in people with vertebral osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, M; Newman, R; Hughes, T; Vadher, K; Barker, K L

    2018-04-01

    Timed loaded standing (TLS) is a suggested measure of back muscle endurance for people with vertebral osteoporosis. Surface electromyography revealed back muscles work harder and fatigue during TLS. The test end-point and total time were associated with back fatigue. The findings help demonstrate the concurrent validity of the TLS test. The TLS test is suggested as a measure of back muscle endurance for patients with vertebral osteoporosis. However, to date, no study has demonstrated that TLS does measure back extensor or erector spinae (ES) muscle endurance. We used surface electromyography (sEMG) to investigate the performance of the thoracic ES muscles during TLS. Thirty-six people with vertebral osteoporosis with a mean age of 71.6 (range 45-86) years participated. sEMG recordings were made of the ES at T3 and T12 bilaterally during quiet standing (QS) and TLS. The relative (%) change in sEMG amplitude between conditions was compared. Fatigue was evaluated by analysing the change in median frequency (MF) of the sEMG signal during TLS, and the correlation between maximal TLS time and rate of MF decline was examined. Activity in the ES increased significantly during TLS at all electrode locations. During TLS, the MF declined at a mean rate of -24.2% per minute (95% C.I. -26.5 to -21.9%). The MF slope and test time were strongly correlated (r 2  = 0.71), and at test end, the final MF dropped to an average 89% (95% C.I. 85 to 93%) of initial MF. Twenty-eight participants (78%) reported fatigue was the main reason for stopping, and for eight (22%), it was pain. This study demonstrates that TLS challenges the ES muscles in the thoracic region and results in ES fatigue. Endurance time and the point at which the TLS test ends are strongly related to ES fatigue.

  15. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern.

  16. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern

  17. Absolute and Relative Reliability of the Timed 'Up & Go' Test and '30second Chair-Stand' Test in Hospitalised Patients with Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyders Johansen, Katrine; Derby Stistrup, Rikke; Skibdal Schjøtt, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The timed 'Up & Go' test and '30second Chair-Stand' test are simple clinical outcome measures widely used to assess functional performance. The reliability of both tests in hospitalised stroke patients is unknown. The purpose was to investigate the relative and absolute reliability...... of both tests in patients admitted to an acute stroke unit. METHODS: Sixty-two patients (men, n = 41) attended two test sessions separated by a one hours rest. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) were calculated to assess relative reliability. Absolute reliability was expressed as Standard Error...... of Measurement (with 95% certainty-SEM95) and Smallest Real Difference (SRD) and as percentage of their respective means if heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland Altman plots (SEM95% and SRD%). RESULTS: ICC values for interrater reliability were 0.97 and 0.99 for the timed 'Up & Go' test and 0.88 and 0...

  18. INTRODUCING NOVEL GENERATION OF HIGH ACCURACY CAMERA OPTICAL-TESTING AND CALIBRATION TEST-STANDS FEASIBLE FOR SERIES PRODUCTION OF CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nekouei Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in the field of computer-vision have opened the doors of many opportunities for taking advantage of these techniques and technologies in many fields and applications. Having a high demand for these systems in today and future vehicles implies a high production volume of video cameras. The above criterions imply that it is critical to design test systems which deliver fast and accurate calibration and optical-testing capabilities. In this paper we introduce new generation of test-stands delivering high calibration quality in single-shot calibration of fisheye surround-view cameras. This incorporates important geometric features from bundle-block calibration, delivers very high (sub-pixel calibration accuracy, makes possible a very fast calibration procedure (few seconds, and realizes autonomous calibration via machines. We have used the geometrical shape of a Spherical Helix (Type: 3D Spherical Spiral with special geometrical characteristics, having a uniform radius which corresponds to the uniform motion. This geometrical feature was mechanically realized using three dimensional truncated icosahedrons which practically allow the implementation of a spherical helix on multiple surfaces. Furthermore the test-stand enables us to perform many other important optical tests such as stray-light testing, enabling us to evaluate the certain qualities of the camera optical module.

  19. Last Stand-alone Beam Test of the Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) Finished.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oberlack, H

    One quarter of all 134 HEC modules are tested with electron, pion and muon beams: two "partial HEC wheels", three HEC1 modules and three HEC2 modules, are used in a standard setup using the HEC cryostat in the H6 beam line. The picture shows a view of the set-up in the cryostat during the installation. MC results show that in this setup the energy leakage is well under control - well below 5 %. In addition, the other three quarters of modules are tested in technical cold tests. Using calibration signals, a detailed test of the cabling, cold electronics, crosstalk and noise performance is being done. The beam tests started with four prototype modules per run in '97, when technological optimization was still the key issue. From '98 onwards, modules of the "module 0" type have been tested, typically in two run periods per year. Finally in '99 the series production has started, with first beam test of series modules in 2000. Since then 57 series modules have been cold tested, 24 of them actually in beam tests. T...

  20. Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities in Test Stands, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instabilities associated with fluid handling and operation in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural...

  1. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Delogu, R.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Molon, F.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; Tollin, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) (Italy); INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Università 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma (IFP-CNR) – Via Cozzi 53, 20125, Milano (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 3×5 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters.

  2. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  3. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles on test stand view from rear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This November 13, 1995, photograph of the F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, shows the aircraft's two new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction. These nozzles give the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. This will reduce drag and increase fuel economy or range as compared with conventional aerodynamic controls, which increase the retarding forces (drag) acting upon the aircraft. Ground testing of a new thrust-vectoring concept employing the nozzles took place during the first two weeks of November 1995 and went well, and flight tests began in March 1996. These tests could result in significant performance increases for military and commercial aircraft. The research program is the product of a collaborative effort by NASA, the Air Force's Wright Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace.

  4. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GHz ERL main linac. Component test at 30 kW IOT test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Umemori, Kensei; Sakanaka, Shogo; Takahashi, Takeshi; Furuya, Takaaki; Shinoe, Kenji; Ishii, Atsushi; Nakamura, Norio; Sawamura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    We started to develop an input coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity. Required input power is about 20 kW for the cavity acceleration field of 20 MV/m and the beam current of 100 mA in energy recovery operation. The input coupler is designed based on the STF-BL input coupler and some modifications are applied to the design for the CW 20 kW power operation. We fabricated input coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a 30 kW IOT power source and a test stand constructed for the highpower test. In this report, we mainly describe the results of the high-power test of ceramic window and bellows. (author)

  5. Intra-observer and interobserver reliability ofOne Leg Stand Test as a measure of posturalbalance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Iversen, Elena; Andersen, Niels Trolle

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver measurements of postural balance using the One Leg Stand Test in patients with low back pain. Patients and methods...... to stand for the maximum time, and no further analysis was done. Eyes closed: intra-observer reliability was tested in 21 patients; absolute reliability showed a standard error of the measurement (SEM) of 2.48 s and a minimal detectable change (MDC) of 6.88. The relative reliability was acceptable...... with an intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.86. Interobserver reliability was tested in 27 patients; absolute reliability showed a SEM of 1.42 s and a MDC of 3.95. The relative reliability was acceptable with an ICC of 0.91. Conclusions: The One Leg Stand Test can be used to test postural balance...

  6. Progress of the Hard-wired Instrumentation and Control Works for the Neutral Beam Test Stand at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok

    2005-12-01

    Progress of the hard-wired instrumentation and control works for the neutral beam test stand(NB-TS) has been existed for the past one year period. Details of the installed arc detector circuit are explained. LN 2 level and temperature control during the cryosorption pumping operation are explained with an emphasis on its control circuit. With an expectation of more accurate and sensitive measurement of temperatures than the thermocouple utilization during the calorimeter operation, PT-100 resistance temperature detector(RTD) utilization is initiated and the results are described. During the ion beam experiment, physical measurements are made with some delayed time than the beam extraction, and thus a delayed trigger pulse generator was fabricated and installed to the system. Underlying principles of the electronic circuits for the interlock implementation and optical signal transmission are introduced. These are basically the application of operational amplifier circuits. A cautious aspect of the SMPS(switch mode power supply) utilization is also give

  7. Beam property measurement of a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator for industrial purposes. A RF ion source was operated at 200 MHz with its matching circuit. The beam profile and emittance were measured behind an accelerating column to confirm the beam property from the RF ion source. The beam profile was measured at the end of the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using a beam profile monitor (BPM) and wire scanner. An Allison-type emittance scanner was installed behind the beam profile monitor (BPM) to measure the beam density in phase space. The measurement results for the beam profile and emittance are presented in this paper.

  8. Comparative parameters of solar cells for power generation: test stand implementation using DSP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez López, Ramón Antonio; García Angarita, Maritza Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The technologies used in solar modules are distinguished mainly by th eenergy conversion efficiency. Consequently, the module selection is critic to the long term performance of photovoltaic generating facility. Therefore, the selection must be supported by experimental results obtained under a specific operation condition. The article implements an experimentally test for obtain the characteristic parameters of a solar module, we analyze the energy conversion efficiency and other correlated parameters that directly affect the performance of a photovoltaic generator. The results show that the use of a rapid prototyping system using open hardware, such as TMS320F28335 development kit makes it easy to build a test photovoltaic generation systems. Latter justified by the low cost of such devices and ease of programming. (author)

  9. Test stand for magnetron H negative ion source at IPP-Nagoya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamura, H; Kuroda, T; Miyahara, A

    1981-02-01

    Test facilities for the development of magnetron H(-) ion source consists of the vacuum system, power supplies, diagnostic equipment, and their controlling electronics. Schematics are presented and relevant items described including sequence control, optical links, the charged pulse forming network, the extractor power supply, magnet power supply, temperature control of the cesium feeder, and the pulsed valve driver. Noise problems and diagnostics are also considered.

  10. Development of an Optimal Controller and Validation Test Stand for Fuel Efficient Engine Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Jack G., III

    There are numerous motivations for improvements in automotive fuel efficiency. As concerns over the environment grow at a rate unmatched by hybrid and electric automotive technologies, the need for reductions in fuel consumed by current road vehicles has never been more present. Studies have shown that a major cause of poor fuel consumption in automobiles is improper driving behavior, which cannot be mitigated by purely technological means. The emergence of autonomous driving technologies has provided an opportunity to alleviate this inefficiency by removing the necessity of a driver. Before autonomous technology can be relied upon to reduce gasoline consumption on a large scale, robust programming strategies must be designed and tested. The goal of this thesis work was to design and deploy an autonomous control algorithm to navigate a four cylinder, gasoline combustion engine through a series of changing load profiles in a manner that prioritizes fuel efficiency. The experimental setup is analogous to a passenger vehicle driving over hilly terrain at highway speeds. The proposed approach accomplishes this using a model-predictive, real-time optimization algorithm that was calibrated to the engine. Performance of the optimal control algorithm was tested on the engine against contemporary cruise control. Results indicate that the "efficient'' strategy achieved one to two percent reductions in total fuel consumed for all load profiles tested. The consumption data gathered also suggests that further improvements could be realized on a different subject engine and using extended models and a slightly modified optimal control approach.

  11. Design and commissioning of Fermilab's vertical test stand for ILC SRF cavities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozelis, Joseph P.; Carcagno, Ruben; Ginsburg, Camille M.; Huang, Yuenian; Norris, Barry; Peterson, Thomas; Poloubotko, Valeri; Rabehl, roger; Rakhno, Igor; Reid, Clark; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    As part of its ILC program, Fermilab is developing a facility for vertical testing of SRF cavities. It operates at a nominal temperature of 2K, using a cryoplant that can supply LHe in excess of 20g/sec and provide bath pumping capacity of 125W at 2K. The below-grade cryostat consists of a vacuum vessel and LHe vessel, equipped with magnetic shielding to reduce the ambient magnetic field to <10mG. Internal fixed and external movable radiation shielding ensures that exposure to personnel is minimized. The facility features an integrated personnel safety system consisting of RF switches, interlocks, and area radiation monitors.

  12. Design and commissioning of Fermilab's vertical test stand for ILC SRF cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozelis, Joseph P.; Carcagno, Ruben; Ginsburg, Camille M.; Huang, Yuenian; Norris, Barry; Peterson, Thomas; Poloubotko, Valeri; Rabehl, roger; Rakhno, Igor; Reid, Clark; Sergatskov, Dmitri A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of its ILC program, Fermilab is developing a facility for vertical testing of SRF cavities. It operates at a nominal temperature of 2K, using a cryoplant that can supply LHe in excess of 20g/sec and provide bath pumping capacity of 125W at 2K. The below-grade cryostat consists of a vacuum vessel and LHe vessel, equipped with magnetic shielding to reduce the ambient magnetic field to <10mG. Internal fixed and external movable radiation shielding ensures that exposure to personnel is minimized. The facility features an integrated personnel safety system consisting of RF switches, interlocks, and area radiation monitors

  13. Incinerator carryover tests with dysprosium as a stand-in for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    A full-scale (5 kg/h) incinerator is being tested with nonradioactive feed materials which simulate SRP-generator combustible transuranic wastes. The incinerator is two-stage and is designed to provide relatively quiescent conditions in the primary chamber where the ash is formed. This feature should minimize entrainment of Pu-bearing particles into the off-gas system. A series of runs have been completed in which incinerator feed was spiked with dysprosium to simulate Pu. Carryover of Dy into the off-gas system was found to be low (about 1/4%). 4 figures, 3 tables

  14. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  15. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Roldán-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand (STS tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG, biceps femoris (BF, vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM, the abdominal rectus (AR, erector spinae (ES, rectus femoris (RF, soleus (SO and the tibialis anterior (TA. Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  16. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  17. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  18. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T.N., E-mail: pavlidou@physics.uoc.gr, E-mail: tomaras@physics.uoc.gr [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c{sup 2}){sup 1/3}, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  19. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidou, V.; Tomaras, T. N.

    2014-09-01

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c2)1/3, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology.

  20. Single-crate stand-alone CAMAC control system for a negative ion source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, R.C.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    A single-crate CAMAC system was configured to control a negative ion source development facility at ORNL and control software was written for the crate microcomputer. The software uses inputs from a touch panel and a shaft encoder to control the various operating parameters of the test facility and uses the touch panel to display the operating status. Communication to and from the equipment at ion source potential is accomplished over optical fibers from an ORNL-built CAMAC module. A receiver at ion source potential stores the transmitted data and some of these stored values are then used to control discrete parameters of the ion source (i.e., power supply on or off). Other stored values are sent to a multiplexed digital-to-analog converter to provide analog control signals. A transmitter at ion source potential transmits discrete status information and several channels of analog data from an analog-to-digital converter back to the ground-potential receiver where it is stored to be read and displayed by the software

  1. Stand-Alone Containment Analysis of the Phébus FPT Tests with the ASTEC and the MELCOR Codes: The FPT-0 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonfiotti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The integral Phébus tests were probably one of the most important experimental campaigns performed to investigate the progression of severe accidents in light water reactors. In these tests, the degradation of a PWR fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the results of such tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to describe the evolution of a severe accident. After the termination of the experimental Phébus campaign, these two codes were furthermore expanded. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to reanalyze the first Phébus test (FPT-0 employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR versions to ensure that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and the paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products behavior. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four executed Phébus tests employing a solid PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3.

  2. Study of Arc-Related RF Faults in the CEBAF Cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas Curry; Ganapati Myneni; Ganapati Rao Myneni; John Musson; Thomas Powers; Timothy Whitlatch; Isidoro Campisi; Haipeng Wang

    2004-07-01

    A series of measurements has been conducted on two superconducting radio-frequency (RF) cavity pairs, installed in cryomodules and routinely operated in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, in order to study the RF-vacuum interaction during an RF fault. These arc-related fault rates increase with increasing machine energy, contribute to system downtime, and directly affect the accelerator's availability. For this study, the fundamental power coupler waveguides have been instrumented with vacuum gauges, additional arc detectors, additional infrared sensors, and temperature sensors in order to measure the system response during both steady-state operations and RF fault conditions. Residual gas analyzers have been installed on the waveguide vacuum manifolds to monitor the gas species present during cooldown, RF processing, and operation. Measurements of the signals are presented, a comparison with analysis is shown and results are discussed. The goal of this study is to characterize the RF-vacuum interaction during normal operations. With a better understanding of the installed system response, methods for reducing the fault rate may be devised, ultimately leading to improvements in availability.

  3. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hahn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  4. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E.C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R and D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R and D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  5. Higher-order-mode absorbers for energy recovery linac cryomodules at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, H.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Calaga, R.; Hammons, L.; Johnson, E. C.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V. N.; Xu, Wencan

    2010-12-01

    Several future accelerator projects at Brookhaven for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are based on energy recovery linacs (ERLs) with high-charge high-current electron beams. Their stable operation mandates effective higher-order-mode (HOM) damping. The development of HOM dampers for these projects is pursued actively at this laboratory. Strong HOM damping was experimentally demonstrated both at room and at superconducting (SC) temperatures in a prototype research and development (R&D) five-cell niobium superconducting rf (SRF) cavity with ferrite dampers. Two room-temperature mock-up five-cell copper cavities were used to study various damper configurations with emphasis on capacitive antenna dampers. An innovative type of ferrite damper over a ceramic break for an R&D SRF electron gun also was developed. For future SRF linacs longer cryomodules comprised of multiple superconducting cavities with reasonably short intercavity transitions are planned. In such a configuration, the dampers, located closer to the cavities, will be at cryogenic temperatures; this will impose additional constraints and complications. This paper presents the results of simulations and measurements of several damper configurations.

  6. Mechanical Design of a New Injector Cryomodule 2-Cell Cavity at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Guangfeng G. [JLAB; Henry, James E. [JLAB; Mammosser, John D. [JLAB; Rimmer, Robert A. [JLAB; Wang, Haipeng [JLAB; Wiseman, Mark A. [JLAB; Yang, Shuo [JLAB

    2013-12-01

    As a part of Jefferson Lab’s 12 GeV upgrade, a new injector superconducting RF cryomodule is required. This unit consists of a 2-cell and 7-cell cavity, with the latter being refurbished from an existing cavity. The new 2-cell cavity requires electromagnetic design and optimization followed by mechanical design analyses. The electromagnetic design is reported elsewhere. This paper aims to present the procedures and conclusions of the analyses on cavity tuning sensitivity, pressure sensitivity, upset condition pressure induced stresses, and structural vibration frequencies. The purposes of such analyses include: 1) provide reference data for cavity tuner design; 2) examine the structural integrity of the cavity; and 3) evaluate the 2-cell cavity’s resistance to microphonics. Design issues such as the location of stiffening rings, effect of tuner stiffness on cavity stress, choice of cavity wall thickness, etc. are investigated by conducting extensive finite element analyses. Progress in fabrication of the 2-cell cavity is also reported.

  7. Ripple filter for the 10,000A superconducting magnet test stand at the magnet test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drennan, E.

    1991-11-01

    The new 10,000A dumpswitch (1) and dumpresistor (2) system at MTF required a 720Hz filter to eliminate power supply ripple from the load. The new filter, shown in Figure 1, had two requirements: (1) Less then 1/2 Ap-p ripple current with a load current of 10,000A; (2) No or minimal overshoot when the current reaches flattop after it is ramped to 10,000A. MFT magnets are ramped to their final current values at different ramp rates depending on the inductance and type of the magnet under test. The filter design was done with the help of PSPICE simulations. Most of the simulations that will be shown in this write-up were done using a 50mH magnet and a ramprate of 200A/s. In order to study this filter with SPICE, two different simulations had to be done. Due to the relatively high frequency of the ripple when compared with the ramping times, if the ripple current was studied together with the overshoot, the simulations would have taken a very long time to run. Therefore the voltage ripple and the current overshoot were studied separately.

  8. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  9. Progress of the Hard-wired Instrumentation and Control Works for the Neutral Beam Test Stand at KAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Sok

    2005-12-15

    Progress of the hard-wired instrumentation and control works for the neutral beam test stand(NB-TS) has been existed for the past one year period. Details of the installed arc detector circuit are explained. LN{sub 2} level and temperature control during the cryosorption pumping operation are explained with an emphasis on its control circuit. With an expectation of more accurate and sensitive measurement of temperatures than the thermocouple utilization during the calorimeter operation, PT-100 resistance temperature detector(RTD) utilization is initiated and the results are described. During the ion beam experiment, physical measurements are made with some delayed time than the beam extraction, and thus a delayed trigger pulse generator was fabricated and installed to the system. Underlying principles of the electronic circuits for the interlock implementation and optical signal transmission are introduced. These are basically the application of operational amplifier circuits. A cautious aspect of the SMPS(switch mode power supply) utilization is also give.

  10. A Pb-TLD spectrometer to measure high energy photons in z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Fenni; Yang, Jianlun; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Ye, Fan; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Chuanfei, E-mail: sifenni@163.com

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed to measure spectra of high energy photons in wire-array z pinches on PTS. • Energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code. • The energy of high energy x-ray on PTS is obtained to be mainly within the region of 100 keV to 1.3 MeV. - Abstract: A Pb-TLD spectrometer has been developed based on attenuation techniques to measure high energy photons in wire-array z-pinch experiments on the primary test stand (PTS). It is composed of a stack of 18 lead filters interspersed with 19 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). A shield is constructed for the spectrometer and scattered radiation is reduced to less than 5% by the shield. Response functions of the spectrometer are calculated by MCNP5 for 0–2 MeV photons. Based on response functions and 19 dose data measured in experiments, energy spectra of high energy photons on PTS has been firstly obtained by unfolding programs developed with MATLAB code using iterative least square fit. Results show that energy peak locates within 200 keV and 300 keV, and the fluence decreases to background level at energy higher than 1.3 MeV.

  11. A stand alone computer system to aid the development of mirror fusion test facility RF heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase

  12. Modeling and Experimental Test of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Cell Emulating System in the Stand-alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Minh Phap

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, generation of electricity from solar arrays has been increased to meet the world's growing energy demand. However, the utilization rate of the power conditioner in the grid-tied solar power system is low because the operation of solar panels is dependent on sunlight. Thus, we studied the method that the small scale wind power generating system in size from a few hundred watts to two or three kilowatts can be connected to the grid-tied power conditioner of the solar power system for residential applications with low power ratings (single phase, size is limited to 10kW by emulating characteristic of the solar panel. In this paper, we introduce the application of the grid-tied PV cell emulating system in the stand-alone mode to improve the utilization rate of the power conditioner. The simulation and experimental test results verify that the PV cell emulating system can operate the power conditioner of the gridtied solar power system.

  13. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  14. X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the Compact Linear Collider test facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Adli

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the CLIC test facility at CERN. The rf power is extracted from an electron drive beam by a specially designed power extraction structure. In order to test the structures at high-power levels, part of the generated power is recirculated to an input port, thus allowing for increased deceleration and power levels within the structure. The degree of recirculation is controlled by a splitter and phase shifter. We present a model that describes the system and validate it with measurements over a wide range of parameters. Moreover, by correlating rf power measurements with the energy lost by the electron beam, as measured in a spectrometer placed after the power extraction structure, we are able to identify system parameters, including the form factor of the electron beam. The quality of the agreement between model and reality gives us confidence to extrapolate the results found in the present test facility towards the parameter regime of CLIC.

  15. X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the Compact Linear Collider test facility

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dubrovskiy, A; Syratchev, I; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V

    2011-01-01

    We discuss X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the CLIC test facility at CERN. The rf power is extracted from an electron drive beam by a specially designed power extraction structure. In order to test the structures at high-power levels, part of the generated power is recirculated to an input port, thus allowing for increased deceleration and power levels within the structure. The degree of recirculation is controlled by a splitter and phase shifter. We present a model that describes the system and validate it with measurements over a wide range of parameters. Moreover, by correlating rf power measurements with the energy lost by the electron beam, as measured in a spectrometer placed after the power extraction structure, we are able to identify system parameters, including the form factor of the electron beam. The quality of the agreement between model and reality gives us confidence to extrapolate the results found in the present test facility towards the parameter reg...

  16. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, Neil A. [University of Kansas Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Mailstop 1046, Kansas City, KS (United States); The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian [The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Anderson, Donald D. [The University of Iowa, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-02-15

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m{sup 2}; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  17. Test-retest reliability of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements made using a low-dose standing CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, Neil A.; Bergin, John; Kern, Andrew; Findlay, Christian; Anderson, Donald D.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the test-retest reliability of knee joint space width (JSW) measurements made using standing CT (SCT) imaging. This prospective two-visit study included 50 knees from 30 subjects (66% female; mean ± SD age 58.2 ± 11.3 years; BMI 29.1 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ; 38% KL grade 0-1). Tibiofemoral geometry was obtained from bilateral, approximately 20 fixed-flexed SCT images acquired at visits 2 weeks apart. For each compartment, the total joint area was defined as the area with a JSW <10 mm. The summary measurements of interest were the percentage of the total joint area with a JSW less than 0.5-mm thresholds between 2.0 and 5.0 mm in each tibiofemoral compartment. Test-retest reliability of the summary JSW measurements was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,1) for the percentage area engaged at each threshold of JSW and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated to assess reproducibility. The ICCs were excellent for each threshold assessed, ranging from 0.95 to 0.97 for the lateral and 0.90 to 0.97 for the medial compartment. RMSE ranged from 1.1 to 7.2% for the lateral and from 3.1 to 9.1% for the medial compartment, with better reproducibility at smaller JSW thresholds. The knee joint positioning protocol used demonstrated high day-to-day reliability for SCT 3D tibiofemoral JSW summary measurements repeated 2 weeks apart. Low-dose SCT provides a great deal of information about the joint while maintaining high reliability, making it a suitable alternative to plain radiographs for evaluating JSW in people with knee OA. (orig.)

  18. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  19. Sensitivity and specificity of the minimal chair height standing ability test: a simple and affordable fall-risk screening instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Nadia C; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Gaul, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Fall-risk screening instruments have been underutilized in clinical settings because of their lengthy administration time, need of cumbersome equipment, and lack of validation. The primary objective of this study was to assess the validity (sensitivity and specificity) of the Minimal Chair Height Standing Ability Test (MCHSAT). The secondary objective was to develop guidelines to provide physical therapists with best-practice recommendations that can easily be implemented in clinical practice. A retrospective cohort study design was used in which falling history, major medical conditions, cognitive status (Mini-Mental State Examination), and level of independence (Independent Activities of Daily Living) were obtained for 167 community-dwelling older adults (mean age = 83.6 ± 7.3 years), residents of British Columbia, Canada. Participants MCHSAT performance was assessed using a chair whose seat height was modifiable by increments of 5 cm, starting at 47 cm and lowering after each successful attempt. Sensitivity and specificity of the MCHSAT at each chair height were calculated and plotted as a receiver operating characteristic curve. A model to identify participants with history of falls was developed using a forward logistic regression (Wald). Mean MCHSAT performance (cm) was significantly better for participants without history of falls (30.3 cm, 95% CI: 28.1-32.5 cm) than for those with history of falls (37.7 cm, 95% CI: 35.5-40.0 cm) and was the single risk factor associated with fall status (β= 1.087, P history of falls was 34 cm (AUC = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.63-0.82). At this threshold, sensitivity and specificity values were 75% and 62%, respectively. Using 34 cm as the optimal performance, the MCHSAT correctly identified 75% of participants with history of falls and 62% of participants without history of falls. This provides evidence that the MCHSAT is a valid screening tool for use with an older Canadian population. As a simple and inexpensive testing instrument

  20. HIE-Isolde: Commissioning and first results of the Mathilde system monitoring the positions of cavities and solenoids inside cryomodules

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, Guillaume; Klumb, Francis; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The new superconducting HIE-ISOLDE Linac replaced most of pre-existing REX ISOLDE facility at CERN. This upgrade involves the design, construction, installation and commissioning of 4 high-β cryomodules. Each high-β cryomodule houses five superconducting cavities and one superconducting solenoid. Beam-physics simulations show that the optimum linac working conditions are obtained when the main axes of the active components, located inside the cryostats, are aligned and permanently monitored on the REX Nominal Beam Line (NBL) within a precision of 0.3 mm for the cavities and 0.15 mm for the solenoids at one sigma level along directions perpendicular to the beam axis. The Monitoring and Alignment Tracking for HIE-ISOLDE (MATHILDE) system has been developed to fulfil the alignment and monitoring needs for components exposed to non-standard environmental conditions such as high vacuum or cryogenic temperatures. MATHILDE is based on opto-electronic sensors (HBCAM) observing, through high quality viewports, spher...

  1. Effect of foot placements during sit to stand transition on timed up and go test in stroke subjects: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; Karnad, Shreekanth D; Nayak, Akshatha; Suresh, B V; Mithra, Prasanna; Unnikrishnan, B

    2017-01-01

    Timed up and go (TUG) test is been used as a screening tool for the assessment of risk of falling in individuals following stroke. Though TUG test is a quick test, it has fair sensitivity compared to other tests. This study was carried out to obtain and compare test scores for different types of foot placements during sit to stand transition in stroke subjects. A Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling included 28 post stroke subjects who were able to walk 6 meter with or without assistance. Timed Up and Go test was carried out with four different types of foot placements and scores were recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis One way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. There were comparable differences between asymmetric 1 test strategy which involved affected extremity to be placed behind the unaffected and other test strategies (Z = -4.457,-3.848,-4.458; p = 0.000). The initial foot placements during sit to stand transition influenced the time taken to complete the test which was significantly higher in asymmetric 1 strategy, Incorporation of the initial foot placement mainly asymmetric 1 strategy into conventional TUG test would help in identifying accurately the subject's functional mobility and postural stability.

  2. Stand-alone containment analysis of Phébus FPT tests with ASTEC and MELCOR codes: the FPT-2 test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonfiotti, Bruno; Paci, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA) in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the findings on these and previous tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to analyze the evolution of a SA in real NPPs. After the termination of the Phébus FP campaign, these two codes have been furthermore improved to implement the more recent findings coming from different experimental campaigns. Therefore, continuous verification and validation is still necessary to check that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The aim of the present work is to re-analyze the Phébus FPT-2 test employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR code versions. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and three different spatial nodalizations of the containment vessel (CV) have been developed. The paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products (FP) behavior. When possible, a comparison among the results obtained during this work and by different authors in previous work is also performed. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four Phébus FP tests using a PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3, excluding the FPT-4 one, related to the study of the release of low-volatility FP and transuranic elements from a debris bed and a pool of melted fuel.

  3. Stand-alone containment analysis of Phébus FPT tests with ASTEC and MELCOR codes: the FPT-2 test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gonfiotti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP. Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the findings on these and previous tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to analyze the evolution of a SA in real NPPs. After the termination of the Phébus FP campaign, these two codes have been furthermore improved to implement the more recent findings coming from different experimental campaigns. Therefore, continuous verification and validation is still necessary to check that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The aim of the present work is to re-analyze the Phébus FPT-2 test employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR code versions. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and three different spatial nodalizations of the containment vessel (CV have been developed. The paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products (FP behavior. When possible, a comparison among the results obtained during this work and by different authors in previous work is also performed. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four Phébus FP tests using a PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3, excluding the FPT-4 one, related to the study of the release of low-volatility FP and transuranic elements from a debris bed and a pool of melted fuel. Keywords: Safety

  4. Theoretical analysis and experimental investigation on performance of the thermal shield of accelerator cryomodules by thermo-siphon cooling of liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, T. S.; Kar, S.; Kumar, M.; Choudhury, A.; Chacko, J.; Antony, J.; Babu, S.; Sahu, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Five beam line cryomodules with total 27 superconducting Radio Frequency (RF) cavities are installed and commissioned at IUAC to enhance the energy of heavy ion from 15 UD Pelletron. To reduce the heat load at 4.2 K, liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooled intermediate thermal shield is used for all these cryomodules. For three linac cryomodules, concept of forced flow LN2 cooling is used and for superbuncher and rebuncher, thermo-siphon cooling is incorporated. It is noticed that the shield temperature of superbuncher varies from 90 K to 110 K with respect to liquid nitrogen level. The temperature difference can't be explained by using the basic concept of thermo-siphon with the heat load on up flow line. A simple thermo-siphon experimental set up is developed to simulate the thermal shield temperature profile. Mass flow rate of liquid nitrogen is measured with different heat load on up flow line for different liquid levels. It is noticed that small amount of heat load on down flow line have a significant effect on mass flow rate. The present paper will be investigating the data generated from the thermosiphon experimental set up and a theoretical analysis will be presented here to validate the measured temperature profile of the cryomodule shield.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-08-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e

  6. The one repetition maximum test and the sit-to-stand test in the assessment of a specific pulmonary rehabilitation program on peripheral muscle strength in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Andrea; Aiello, Marina; Cherubino, Francesca; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Azzola, Andrea; Chetta, Alfredo; Spanevello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with COPD may present reduced peripheral muscle strength, leading to impaired mobility. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) should include strength training, in particular to lower limbs. Furthermore, simple tools for the assessment of peripheral muscle performance are required. To assess the peripheral muscle performance of COPD patients by the sit-to-stand test (STST), as compared to the one-repetition maximum (1-RM), considered as the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations, and to evaluate the responsiveness of STST to a PR program. Sixty moderate-to-severe COPD inpatients were randomly included into either the specific strength training group or into the usual PR program group. Patients were assessed on a 30-second STST and 1-minute STST, 1-RM, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT), before and after PR. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between 1-RM and STST. The two groups were not different at baseline. In all patients, 1-RM was significantly related to the 30-second STST (r=0.48, Ptest. In the specific strength training group significant improvements were observed in the 30-second STST (P<0.001), 1-minute STST (P=0.005), 1-RM (P<0.001), and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). In the usual PR program group, significant improvement was observed in the 30-second STST (P=0.042) and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). Our study shows that in stable moderate-to-severe inpatients with COPD, STST is a valid and reliable tool to assess peripheral muscle performance of lower limbs, and is sensitive to a specific PR program.

  7. Performance review of an indigenously developed high power test stand built for the Indian S-band 5 MW pulsed klystron development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Purushottam; Baxy, D.; Mulchandani, J.; Hannurkar, P.R.; Joshi, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    CAT took up development of 5 MW S-Band klystrons indigenously in collaboration with CEERI Pilani. The development of klystron prototype is completed. These klystrons are very crucial devices, for energizing the 10-20 MeV electron accelerators, which are developed in the country for various industrial, medical and scientific applications. A test station has been developed indigenously at CAT for these klystrons. It consists of a 12 MW peak power 130 kV klystron pulse modulator, a 1 : 10 pulse transformer, 130 kV high voltage deck having high voltage pulse divider, pulse current transformer as well indigenously built klystron socket, filament supplies, klystron support structure and pulse transformer oil tank. After development/rigorous testing the test stand was shifted to CEERI and was installed and commissioned there by CAT. Gun collector test module and prototypes of the 5 MW klystron were tested, aged and conditioned at high power using this test stand. The details of the system / test results are discussed

  8. Analysis of the Cause of High External Q Modes in the JLab High Gradient Prototype Cryomodule Renascence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Akcelik, V.; Xiao, L.; Lee, L.; Ng, C.; Ko, K.; /SLAC; Wang, H.; Marhauser, F.; Sekutowicz, J.; Reece, C.; Rimmer, R.; /Jefferson Lab

    2008-06-27

    The Renascence cryomodule [1] installed in CEBAF in 2007 consists of 8 cavities as shown in Figure 1. The first three cavities (No.1-No.3) in the upstream end are of the Low Loss (LL) shape design, and the remaining 5 cavities (No.4-No.8) on the beam downstream end are the High Gradient (HG) shape design. The fundamental power couplers (FPCs) are the rectangular waveguides, and the little cylindrical structures are the HOM couplers. The locations of the FPC in the last four cavities are mirrored about the beam z axis. Cavities No.4 and No.5 form a back-to-back cavity pair. Among the HG cavities installed in the Renascence cryomodule, the only identifiable difference from their fabrication documentation is that cavity No.5 received an extra EBW pass on one equator weld, specifically cell 5. The non-uniform mechanical tuning required to compensate the fundamental mode tune and flatness for the extra shrinkage of this cell is believed to contribute the most significant differences from the other HG cavities. Beam based instability studies on this cryomodule in CEBAF have shown a significant beam breakup (BBU) threshold current reduction, well below design value. Frequency spectrum peaked by the off-sided beam power indicated the cause is due to abnormal high Q modes in the cavity No.5. Measured beam off-axis position at the cavity No.5 does not correspond to the shunt impedances calculated for an ideal cavity. Low power RF measurements have identified that the problematic modes are in the second dipole band (TM110 like). Three of the modes have external Qs two orders magnitude higher than the others, while the rest of modes in the first two dipole bands are normal in terms of the design values. The cause of this abnormality and the future impact on the BBU was not able to be resolved due to the limitations of information that can be obtained from the measurements. It is important to understand the cause of this abnormality so that effective QA/QC measures can be

  9. RESULTS OF ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING OF LCLS-II CAVITY TUNER MOTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huque, Naeem [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Daly, Edward F. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pischalnikov, Yuriy [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2018-04-01

    An Accelerated Life Test (ALT) of the Phytron stepper motor used in the LCLS-II cavity tuner has been conducted at JLab. Since the motor will reside inside the cryomodule, any failure would lead to a very costly and arduous repair. As such, the motor was tested for the equivalent of 30 lifetimes before being approved for use in the production cryomodules. The 9-cell LCLS-II cavity is simulated by disc springs with an equivalent spring constant. Plots of the motor position vs. tuner position ' measured via an installed linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) ' are used to measure motor motion. The titanium spindle was inspected for loss of lubrication. The motor passed the ALT, and is set to be installed in the LCLS-II cryomodules.

  10. Using the Functional Reach Test for Probing the Static Stability of Bipedal Standing in Humanoid Robots Based on the Passive Motion Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Zenzeri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the static stability of a computational architecture, based on the Passive Motion Paradigm, for coordinating the redundant degrees of freedom of a humanoid robot during whole-body reaching movements in bipedal standing. The analysis is based on a simulation study that implements the Functional Reach Test, originally developed for assessing the danger of falling in elderly people. The study is carried out in the YARP environment that allows realistic simulations with the iCub humanoid robot.

  11. Validity and variability of the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test in patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Bibby, Bo Martin; Guldhammer, Anders

    2012-01-01

    familiarization test session and two testing sessions. In Group A, session 1 also included assessment of lower extremity muscle strength. Session 2 and 3 involved completion of two 5STS-tests and assessment of balance. In Group B, session 2 and 3 involved completion of two rounds of two 5STS-tests separated...

  12. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing ''skyline'' radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria; Albert, Adelin; Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Pena, Jose G.; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Gillet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing ''skyline'' radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing ''skyline'' radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing ''skyline'' radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements. (orig.)

  13. Hyperosmolarity response of ocular standing potential as a clinical test for retinal pigment epithelium activity. Chorioretinal dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, D; Kawasaki, K; Madachi-Yamamoto, S

    1984-05-30

    The hyperosmolarity response of the standing potential was recorded in retinitis pigmentosa (20 eyes), central (pericentral) retinitis pigmentosa (4 eyes), pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (2 eyes), fundus albipunctatus (8 eyes), and Stargardt's disease (or fundus flavimaculatus) (14 eyes). The light peak/dark trough ratio (the L/D ratio) and the Diamox response were also determined. The hyperosmolarity response was greatly suppressed (less than M-4SD; M and SD indicate respectively the mean and the standard deviation in normal control subjects) in all examined eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (20 eyes) including retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (8 eyes), central (pericentral) retinitis pigmentosa (4 eyes), and pigmented paravenous retinochoroidal atrophy (2 eyes). The L/D ratio was larger than 1.26 (M-2.5 SD) in the half of the eyes with the above-described diseases. The hyperosmolarity response was abnormal (less than M-2 SD) in 4 of 8 eyes with fundus albipunctatus. The L/D ratio was normal in all 8 eyes. The hyperosmolarity response was abnormal (less than M-2 SD) in all 14 eyes with Stargardt's disease or fundus flavimaculatus. The L/D ratio was abnormal in 5 of these 14 eyes. The hyperosmolarity response was more frequently abnormal than the L/D ratio in the chorioretinal dystrophies mentioned above, and hence is useful particularly for early diagnosis of these disorders.

  14. Compatible growth models and stand density diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, N.J.; Brand, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a stand average growth model based on the self-thinning rule developed and used to generate stand density diagrams. Procedures involved in testing are described and results are included

  15. Predictive Cutoff Values of the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test and the Timed "Up & Go" Test for Disability Incidence in Older People Dwelling in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Nakakubo, Sho; Hotta, Ryo; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-04-01

    Lower extremity functioning is important for maintaining activity in elderly people. Optimal cutoff points for standard measurements of lower extremity functioning would help identify elderly people who are not disabled but have a high risk of developing disability. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine the optimal cutoff points of the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test and the Timed "Up & Go" Test for predicting the development of disability and (2) to examine the impact of poor performance on both tests on the prediction of the risk of disability in elderly people dwelling in the community. This was a prospective cohort study. A population of 4,335 elderly people dwelling in the community (mean age = 71.7 years; 51.6% women) participated in baseline assessments. Participants were monitored for 2 years for the development of disability. During the 2-year follow-up period, 161 participants (3.7%) developed disability. The optimal cutoff points of the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test and the Timed "Up & Go" Test for predicting the development of disability were greater than or equal to 10 seconds and greater than or equal to 9 seconds, respectively. Participants with poor performance on the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test (hazard ratio = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.11-3.20), the Timed "Up & Go" Test (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.42-3.53), or both tests (hazard ratio = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.78-4.33) at the baseline assessment had a significantly higher risk of developing disability than participants who had better lower extremity functioning. All participants had good initial functioning and participated in assessments on their own. Causes of disability were not assessed. Assessments of lower extremity functioning with the Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test and the Timed "Up & Go" Test, especially poor performance on both tests, were good predictors of future disability in elderly people dwelling in the community. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association

  16. Imaging-based liver function tests. Past, present and future; Bildgestuetzte Leberfunktionstests. Stand der Technik und zukuenftige Entwicklungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, D.; Hamm, B.; Denecke, T. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Luedemann, L. [Essen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2015-10-15

    Preoperative assessment of liver function and prediction of postoperative functional reserve are important in patients scheduled for liver resection. While determination of absolute liver function currently mostly relies on laboratory tests and clinical scores, postoperative remnant liver function is estimated volumetrically using imaging data obtained with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate estimation of hepatic function is also relevant for intensive care patients, oncologic patients, and patients with diffuse liver disease. The indocyanine green (ICG) test is still the only established test for estimating true global liver function. However, more recent tools such as the LiMAx test also allow global assessment of hepatic function. These tests are limited when liver function is inhomogeneously distributed, which is the case in such conditions as unilateral cholestasis or after portal vein embolization. Imaging-based liver function tests were first developed in nuclear medicine and, compared with laboratory tests, have the advantage of displaying the spatial distribution of liver function. Nuclear medicine scans are obtained using tracers such as 99mTc galactosyl and 99mTc mebrofenin. Liver function is typically assessed using planar scintigraphy. However, three-dimensional volumetry is possible with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT). Another technique for image-based liver function estimation is Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI. While metabolization of Gd-EOB in the body is similar to that of ICG and mebrofenin, its distribution in the liver can be displayed by MRI with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Moreover, MRI-based determination of liver function can be integrated into routine preoperative imaging. This makes MRI an ideal candidate for preoperative determination of liver function, though the best pulse sequence and the parameter to be derived from the image information remain to be identified. Another

  17. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsari, S., E-mail: s.alsari@imperial.ac.uk; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-03-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given.

  18. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsari, S.; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-01-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given

  19. Evaluation of the ICET Test Stand to Assess the Performance of a Range of Ceramic Media Filter Elements in Support of ASME AG-1 Subsection FO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmel, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-26

    High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters are defined as extended-medium, dry-type filters with: (1) a minimum particle removal efficiency of no less than 99.97 percent for 0.3 micrometer particles, (2) a maximum, clean resistance of 1.0 inch water column (in. WC) when operated at 1,000 cubic feet per minute (CFM), and (3) a rigid casing that extends the full depth of the medium. Specifically, ceramic media HEPA filters provide better performance at elevated temperatures, are moisture resistant and nonflammable, can perform their function if wetted and exposed to greater pressures, and can be cleaned and reused. This paper describes the modification and design of a large scale test stand which properly evaluates the filtration characteristics of a range of ceramic media filters challenged with a nuclear aerosol agent in order to develop Section FO of ASME AG-1.

  20. Development of the front end test stand and vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses negative hydrogen ion sources at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrie, S. R., E-mail: scott.lawrie@stfc.ac.uk [STFC ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Harwell (United Kingdom); John Adams Institute of Accelerator Science, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Perkins, M.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T. [STFC ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gabor, C. [ASTeC Intense Beams Group, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Harwell (United Kingdom); Back, J. [High Energy Physics Department, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    The ISIS pulsed spallation neutron and muon facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK uses a Penning surface plasma negative hydrogen ion source. Upgrade options for the ISIS accelerator system demand a higher current, lower emittance beam with longer pulse lengths from the injector. The Front End Test Stand is being constructed at RAL to meet the upgrade requirements using a modified ISIS ion source. A new 10% duty cycle 25 kV pulsed extraction power supply has been commissioned and the first meter of 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole has been delivered. Simultaneously, a Vessel for Extraction and Source Plasma Analyses is under construction in a new laboratory at RAL. The detailed measurements of the plasma and extracted beam characteristics will allow a radical overhaul of the transport optics, potentially yielding a simpler source configuration with greater output and lifetime.

  1. Validity and Responsiveness to Change of the 30-Second Chair-Stand Test in Older Adults Admitted to an Emergency Department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Mogensen, Christian B; Nørgaard, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Few physical performance measurement tools are validated for acutely admitted older adults, and for this reason we aimed to examine the validity and responsiveness to change of the 30-second Chair-Stand Test (30s-CST) used to assess physical performance in older adults...... in bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and shopping. Concurrent validity of the 30s-CST compared with the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) on physical performance of acutely admitted older adults was examined with 156 patients. The analysis of concurrent validity included the entire DEMMI and 2 subsets...... of DEMMI: "DEMMI walking" and "DEMMI dynamic balance." The responsiveness to change in the 30s-CST compared with DEMMI was examined with 117 patients. All patients were classified as having either low physical performance (30s-CST ≤8) or high physical performance (30s-CST >8); these groups were used...

  2. The Design and Construction Process of a Test Stand for Casting the Power Steering’S Housing with the Use of the Pdcpd Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2018-01-01

    The use of new technologies and materials in various industries is a natural process that is directly related to the very high rate of development of these technologies. Certain industries decide to much faster introduce new technologies and materials. One of such branches is the automotive industry, whose representatives are very energetically looking for both financial savings and savings resulting from the vehicles mass reduction. An economically justified approach to construction materials is leading the search for new solutions and materials. The use of a modern material such as the two-component PDCPD composite shows hitherto unknown possibilities of producing subassemblies of many different constructions. The possibility of using a modern composite material with parameters comparable to that of metals and significantly lighter, can be an excellent alternative in the selection of materials for many parts of motor vehicles. The potentiality of precise casting of tolerated surfaces will allow to reduce the operations related to machining process, which is an indispensable part of the production process of elements that are cast of metal. This article describes the process of designing and building a test stand for precise positioning of power steering gear components at the stage of casting their housing. The article presents the principle of operation of the test stand and the process of preparation for the casting and the cast itself will be rudely described. Due to the implementation of research as part of a research project with an industrial partner, the article will only describe some operations. This is related to the confidentiality of the project.

  3. Development status of a test stand for semiconductor photocathodes with 60 keV spin-polarized beamline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurichijanil, Neeraj; Enders, Joachim; Espig, Martin; Fritzsche, Yuliya; Heichelt, Dominic; Kaiser, Andreas; Roesch, Heidi; Wagner, Markus [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    A test facility for Photo-Cathode Activation, Test and Cleaning using atomic-Hydrogen (Photo-CATCH) is being constructed at TU Darmstadt's Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP) which houses the Superconducting Darmstadt Linear Accelerator (S-DALINAC). In order to improve the performance of the SDALINAC's photoelectron source based on GaAs, systematic studies in terms of quantum efficiency (QE), cathode rejuvenation, lifetimes and polarization (P) have to be conducted on different photocathode types. These factors strongly depend on handling of the cathode, the vacuum condition in the chambers, cathode surface cleaning as well as preservation of stoichiometry, negative electron affinity (NEA) activation of the cathode and the type and structure of the semiconductor material. With Photo-CATCH, experiments such as atomic-hydrogen cleaning, multi-alkali and oxidant NEA activation of the cathode and tests of QE, P and lifetimes can be performed in an improved vacuum. Additionally, experiments with polarized-electron beams of up to 60 keV are foreseen.

  4. Take a Stand!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danquah, I. H.; Kloster, S.; Holtermann, A.

    2017-01-01

    workers in total) were cluster randomized for intervention or control. The intervention included the appointment of local ambassadors, management support, environmental changes, a lecture and a workshop. Sitting time was measured using an ActiGraph GT3X+ fixed on the thigh. Data were processed using Acti4......Background: Prolonged sitting time has been associated with adverse health outcomes. Interventions at work may contribute to reduced sitting. The objective was to test if a multicomponent work-based intervention can reduce sitting time and the number of prolonged sitting periods (> 30 min......), increase the number of sit-to-stand transitions and decrease waist circumference and body fat percentage among office workers. Primary outcomes were: change in sitting time, prolonged sitting periods and sit-to-stand transitions at followup 1 month later. Methods: At four workplaces, 19 offices (317...

  5. Standing wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavadtsev, A.A.; Zverev, B.V.; Sobepin, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Accelerating ELA structures are considered and chosen for applied purposes of special designation. Accelerating structures with the standing wave are considered most effective for small size ELA. Designs and results of experimental investigation of two new accelerating structures are described. These are structures of the ''ring'' type with a decreased number of excitinq oscillation types and strucuture with transverse rods with a twice smaller transverse size as compared with the biperiodical structure with internal connection resonators. The accelerating biperiodical structures of the conventional type by the fact that the whole structure is not a linear chain of connected resonators, but a ring one. Model tests have shown that the homogeneous structure with transverse rods (STR) at the frequency of 2.8 GHz in the regime of the standing wave has an effective shunt resistance equalling 23 MOhm/m. It is shown that the small transverse size of biperiodic STR makes its application in logging linear electron accelerators

  6. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  7. Control Performance of General Electric Fuel and Torque Regulator Operating on T31-3 Turbine-Propeller Engine in Sea-Level Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Frank L.; Lazar, James

    1951-01-01

    A .General Electric fuel and torque regulator was tested in conjunction with a T31-3 turbine-propeller engine in the sea-level static test stand at the NACA Lewis laboratory. The engine and control were operated over the entire speed range: 11,000 rpm, nominal flight idle, to 13,000 rpm, full power. Steady-state and transient data were recorded and are presented with a description of the four control loops being used in the system. Results of this investigation indicated that single-lever control operation was satisfactory under conditions of test. Transient data presented showed that turbine-outlet temperature did overshoot maximum operating value on acceleration but that the time duration of overshoot did not exceed approximately 1 second. This temperature limiting resulted from a control on fuel flow as a function of engine speed. Speed and torque first reached their desired values 0.4 second from the time of change in power-setting lever position. Maximum speed overshoot was 3 percent.

  8. Point-of-care-testing of standing posture with Wii balance board and Microsoft Kinect during transcranial direct current stimulation: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Chugh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Alakananda; Dutta, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a promising tool for facilitating motor function. NIBS therapy in conjunction with training using postural feedback may facilitate physical rehabilitation following posture disorders (e.g., Pusher Syndrome). The objectives of this study were, 1) to develop a low-cost point-of-care-testing (POCT) system for standing posture, 2) to investigate the effects of anodal tDCS on functional reach tasks using the POCT system. Ten community-dwelling elderly (age >50 years) subjects evaluated the POCT system for standing posture during functional reach tasks where their balance score on Berg Balance Scale was compared with that from Center-of-Mass (CoM) - Center-of-Pressure (CoP) posturography. Then, in a single-blind, sham-controlled study, five healthy right-leg dominant subjects (age: 26.4 ± 5.3 yrs) were evaluated using the POCT system under two conditions - with anodal tDCS of primary motor representations of right tibialis anterior muscle and with sham tDCS. The maximum CoP-CoM lean-angle was found to be well correlated with the BBS score in the elderly subjects The anodal tDCS strongly (p = 0.0000) affected the maximum CoP excursions but not the return reaction time in healthy. It was concluded that the CoM-CoP lean-line could be used for posture feedback and monitoring during tDCS therapy in conjunction with balance training exercises.

  9. Microphonics Testing of the CEBAF Upgrade 7-Cell Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.K. Davis; J.R. Delayen; M. Drury; T. Hiatt; C. Hovater; T. Powers; J. Preble

    2001-01-01

    An upgrade cryomodule is being developed for CEBAF at Jefferson Lab. In support of this effort, vibration testing was performed on a single SRF cavity at cryogenic temperature in a Horizontal Test Bed. The tests included response to excitation from background vibration, swept sinusoids, high-power RF pulses, and mechanical impulses. Test procedures, apparatus, and results are presented, along with a description of planned follow-up tests

  10. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  11. Fabrication and installment of the hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection test stand of the K-STAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Oh, Byung Hun

    2004-12-01

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection test stand (NBI-TS) for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been underway since the start of the project to answer the diverse requests arising from the various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. Another one to be mentioned is the interlock circuitry. One of the interlock circuits are related to the coolant flow failure. The other is the interlock circuit related to the vacuum failure. All of the above mentioned circuitry now constitutes integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system; details of those hard-wired I and C work are described in this report

  12. Magnetic Materials Characterization and Modeling for the Enhanced Design of Magnetic Shielding of Cryomodules in Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sah, Sanjay [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-05-31

    Particle accelerators produce beams of high-energy particles, which are used for both fundamental and applied scientific research and are critical to the development of accelerator driven sub-critical reactor systems. An effective magnetic shield is very important to achieve higher quality factor (Qo) of the cryomodule of a particle accelerator. The allowed value of field inside the cavity due to all external fields (particularly the Earth’s magnetic field) is ~15 mG or less. The goal of this PhD dissertation is to comprehensively study the magnetic properties of commonly used magnetic shielding materials at both cryogenic and room temperatures. This knowledge can be used for the enhanced design of magnetic shields of cryomodes (CM) in particle accelerators. To this end, we first studied the temperature dependent magnetization behavior (M-H curves) of Amumetal and A4K under different annealing and deformation conditions. This characterized the effect of stress or deformation induced during the manufacturing processes and subsequent restoration of high permeability with appropriate heat treatment. Next, an energy based stochastic model for temperature dependent anhysteretic magnetization behavior of ferromagnetic materials was proposed and benchmarked against experimental data. We show that this model is able to simulate and explain the magnetic behavior of as rolled, deformed and annealed amumetal and A4K over a large range of temperatures. The experimental results for permeability are then used in a finite element model (FEM) in COMSOL to evaluate the shielding effectiveness of multiple shield designs at room temperature as well as cryogenic temperature. This work could serve as a guideline for future design, development and fabrication of magnetic shields of CMs.

  13. Standing footprint diagnostic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y. F.; Fan, Y. B.; Li, Z. Y.; Newman, T.; Lv, C. S.; Fan, Y. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Center of pressure is commonly used to evaluate standing balance. Even though it is incomplete, no better evaluation method has been presented. We designed our experiment with three standing postures: standing with feet together, standing with feet shoulder width apart, and standing with feet slightly wider than shoulder width. Our platform-based pressure system collected the instantaneous plantar pressure (standing footprint). A physical quantity of instantaneous standing footprint principal axis was defined, and it was used to construct an index to evaluate standing balance. Comparison between results from our newly established index and those from the center of pressure index to evaluate the stability of different standing postures revealed that the standing footprint principal axis index could better respond to the standing posture change than the existing one. Analysis indicated that the insensitive response to the relative position between feet and to the standing posture change from the center of pressure could be better detected by the standing footprint principal axis index. This predicts a wide application of standing footprint principal axis index when evaluating standing balance.

  14. How Many Changes in Sit to stand-5 Repetition Test is Real in Community Dwelling Older Adult and Healthy Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Relative and absolute reliability are the important aspects of the test that many clinical decisions are based on them. in many cases, the only basis for the decision is relative reliability while the absolute reliability is also very important. This study aimed to measure and calculate the relative and absolute reliability of Sit To sand-5 repetition. Methods and Materials: 11 community-dwelling older adults 65 years and older (69.64±3.58 and 20 healthy young in the age range 20 to 35 years (28.80±4.15 using Sit to Stand-5repetition were evaluated twice with an interval of 2 to 5 days. Results: The "Minimal Detectable Changes" in seniors was 29.5 seconds and Youth 3.02 seconds and "Coefficient of Variation" were 27% and 19% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed in assessing progress during treatment sessions or judgment about progression or regression, elderly people must more change than young to consider change as a real change not accidentally .

  15. Experimental test of a supercritical helium heat exchanger dedicated to EUROTRANS 150 kW CW power coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, M.; Fouaidy, M.; Hammoudi, N.

    2010-05-01

    The coaxial power coupler needed for beta = 0.65 superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the proton beam. The estimated RF losses on the power coupler outer conductor in standing wave mode operation are 46 W. To remove these heat loads, a full scale copper coil heat exchanger brazed around the outer conductor was designed and tested using supercritical helium at T = 6 K as a coolant. Our main objective was to minimise the heat loads to cold extremity of SRF cavity maintained at 2 K or 4.2 K. A dedicated test facility named SUPERCRYLOOP was developed and successfully operated in order to measure the performance of the cold heat exchanger. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryomodule. After a short introduction, a brief discussion about the problem of power coupler cooling systems in different machines is made. After that, we describe the experimental set-up and test apparatus. Then, a heat exchanger thermal model will be developed with FEM code COSMOS/M to estimate the different heat transfer coefficients by comparison between numerical simulation results and experimental data in order to validate the design. Finally, thermo-hydraulic behavior of supercritical helium has been investigated as function of different parameters (inlet pressure, flow rate, heat loads).

  16. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  17. The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

  18. Determining the ion temperature and energy distribution in a lithium-plasma interaction test stand with a retarding field energy analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, M.; Stemmley, S.; Jung, S.; Mettler, J.; Sang, X.; Martin, D.; Kalathiparambil, K.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The ThermoElectric-driven Liquid-metal plasma-facing Structures (TELS) experiment at the University of Illinois is a gas-puff driven, theta-pinch plasma source that is used as a test stand for off-normal plasma events incident on materials in the edge and divertor regions of a tokamak. The ion temperatures and resulting energy distributions are crucial for understanding how well a TELS pulse can simulate an extreme event in a larger, magnetic confinement device. A retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) has been constructed for use with such a transient plasma due to its inexpensive and robust nature. The innovation surrounding the use of a control analyzer in conjunction with an actively sampling analyzer is presented and the conditions of RFEA operation are discussed, with results presented demonstrating successful performance under extreme conditions. Such extreme conditions are defined by heat fluxes on the order of 0.8 GW m-2 and on time scales of nearly 200 μs. Measurements from the RFEA indicate two primary features for a typical TELS discharge, following closely with the pre-ionizing coaxial gun discharge characteristics. For the case using the pre-ionization pulse (PiP) and the theta pinch, the measured ion signal showed an ion temperature of 23.3 ± 6.6 eV for the first peak and 17.6 ± 1.9 eV for the second peak. For the case using only the PiP, the measured signal showed an ion temperature of 7.9 ± 1.1 eV for the first peak and 6.6 ± 0.8 eV for the second peak. These differences illustrate the effectiveness of the theta pinch for imparting energy on the ions. This information also highlights the importance of TELS as being one of the few linear pulsed plasma sources whereby moderately energetic ions will strike targets without the need for sample biasing.

  19. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. (author)

  20. Compressor Load Stand: Commissioning and Control Strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Causey, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project was to commission this load stand, which includes setting up the hardware, setting up a control system, a data acquisition system, and an automatic test sequence system...

  1. Where We Now Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Keith G.

    1969-01-01

    Noting the acceleration of scientific evaluation, the author focuses his attention on where we now stand in the evaluation of two methods of instruction: programed learning materials and television. (Editor)

  2. Seismic design method of free standing rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Okuno, Daisaku; Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Matsuoka, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    For high earthquake resistance and ease of installation, free standing racks which are not anchored to the pool floor or walls has been adopted in many countries. Under the earthquake, the response of the free standing rack is highly nonlinear and involves a complex combination of motions (sliding, rocking, twisting, and turning) and impacts between the fuel assemblies and the fuel cell walls, rack-to-rack, and the pit floor and rack pedestals. We carried out seismic experiments on the full-scale rack model in water and dry conditions to obtain the fundamental data about free standing rack (sliding, rocking and turning motions). We have developed the nonlinear dynamic analysis method to predict seismic response for the free standing rack utilizing the full-scale test result and verified the analysis evaluation method of the rack by comparison of test result. (author)

  3. Cryogenic system for the Energy Recovery Linac and vertical test facility at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than, R.; Soria, V.; Lederle, D.; Orfin, P.; Porqueddu, R.; Talty, P.; Zhang, Y.; Tallerico, T.; Masi, L.

    2011-01-01

    A small cryogenic system and warm helium vacuum pumping system provides cooling to either the Energy Recovery Linac's (ERL) cryomodules that consist of a 5-cell cavity and an SRF gun or a large Vertical Test Dewar (VTD) at any given time. The cryogenic system consists of a model 1660S PSI piston plant, a 3800 liter storage dewar, subcooler, a wet expander, a 50 g/s main helium compressor, and a 170 m 3 storage tank. A system description and operating plan of the cryogenic plant and cryomodules is given. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar has a plant that can produce the equivalent of 300W at 4.5K with the addition of a wet expander 350 W at 4.5K. Along with this system, a sub-atmospheric, warm compression system provides pumping to produce 2K at the ERL cryomodules or the Vertical Test Dewar. The cryogenic system for ERL and the Vertical Test Dewar makes use of existing equipment for putting a system together. It can supply either the ERL side or the Vertical Test Dewar side, but not both at the same time. Double valve isolation on the liquid helium supply line allows one side to be warmed to room temperature and worked on while the other side is being held at operating temperature. The cryogenic system maintain the end loads from 4.4K to 2K or colder depending on capacity. Liquid helium storage dewar capacity allows ERL or the VTD to operate above the plant's capacity when required and ERL cryomodules ballast reservoirs and VTD reservoir allows the end loads to operate on full vacuum pump capacity when required.

  4. Economics of stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  5. Principles of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Marquis; Rodney Jacobs

    1989-01-01

    Forest stands are managed to achieve some combination of desired products or values. These products or values may include income and tangible benefits from timber production or fees for hunting rights and other recreational activities. The values may be intangible, such as the enjoyment of seeing wildlife or flowering plants, or the simple satisfaction of knowing that...

  6. Members of the team responsable for the strength test stand on the plug for the main CMS shaft on which 2500 tonnes of steel blocks have been placed

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The plug over the CMS shaft, which will be required to bear the weight of the various detector sub-assemblies when they are lowered into the experiment hall, has just passed a strength test. The plug, a huge 2.2-metre-thick rectangular block of reinforced concrete measuring 15 x 20 metres and weighing 2000 tonnes, underwent its first strength test on 15 May.

  7. Stand-alone XLIF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, E. J.; Simony, A.; Hummel, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    and clinical/radiological results in 22 patients treated with XLIF procedure for DS or degenerative disc disease (DDD). Material and methods: 22 consecutive patients with DS underwent surgery with the XLIF stand-alone procedure, with follow-up of 24 months. Clinical outcome scores were collected. Complications......Introduction: Adult thoracolumbar degeneration is an increasing challenge in the aging population. With age the progressive degeneration of the discs leads to an asymmetric collapse and a thoracolumbar coronal plane deformity, a degenerative scoliosis (DS). Aim: To evaluate the complication rate......-year follow-up, with a 31.8% revision rate. Due to the high revision rate we recommend supplementary posterior instrumentation, to achieve a higher fusion rate. When considering XLIF-stand-alone procedure for DS or DDD without supplemental posterior instrumentation, only single-level disease should...

  8. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Matthew; Janz, Kathleen F; Baquero, Barbara; Carr, Lucas J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats) classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students.

  9. Transitioning couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT from stand-alone weekend services into routine antenatal and VCT services in government clinics in Zambia's two largest cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiana Inambao

    Full Text Available Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described.Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO subsidies were offered for overtime pay.Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities.A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.

  10. OPTIMOT, a software package for computer-assisted modelling and optimized control of internal combustion engines on the test stand; OPTIMOT - Ein Softwarepaket zur rechnergestuetzten Modellbildung und optimierten Steuerung von Verbrennungsmotoren am Motorenpruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, M.; Isermann, R. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungstechnik

    2002-07-01

    The OptiMot toolbox is a simple interface to the complex optimization algorithms of the model-based engine optimization process developed under MATLAB. Defaults enable also inexpert users to achieve good results. The optimization algorithms are based on static and dynamic neuronal emission models. The training data required for the neuronal nets were recorded on an engine test stand with in a very short time (about 1 h) using new dynamic measuring strategies. [German] Zusammenfassend konnte in diesem Beitrag die OptiMot-Toolbox als einfache Schnittstelle zu den komplexen Optimierungsalgorithmen der unter MATLAB entwickelten modellbasierten Motoroptimierung vorgestellt werden. Default-Einstellungen ermoeglichen hierbei auch ungeuebten Benutzern, schnell Ergebnisse zu erarbeiten. Die verwendeten Optimierungsalgorithmen selbst basieren auf statischen und dynamischen neuronalen Emissionsmodellen. Die benoetigten Trainingsdaten fuer die neuronalen Netze wurden mit Hilfe von neuen dynamischen Messstrategien in kurzer Zeit (ca. 1 h) am Motorenpruefstand erfasst. (orig.)

  11. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing ''skyline'' radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria [CHU de Liege, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Albert, Adelin [CHU de Liege, Biostatistics Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Pena, Jose G. [Qmetrics Technologies, Rochester, NY (United States); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [Campus Bio-Medico University, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Rome (Italy); Gillet, Philippe [CHU de Liege, Orthopaedic surgery Department, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing ''skyline'' radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing ''skyline'' radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 {+-} 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing ''skyline'' radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements. (orig.)

  12. "They should know where they stand": attitudes to HIV Voluntary Counselling and testing amongst a group of out-of-school youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Francis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a larger study that examined the ways in which out-of-school youth responded to a context of HIV/AIDS and how they themselves can be active participants in HIV/AIDS prevention. In addition, four out-of-school youths, trained as fieldworkers, interviewed 32 other out-of-school youths in the Shongweni area of KwaZulu-Natal about their attitudes towards VCT. The out-of-school youth displayed a very positive attitude towards VCT and 91% stated their intentions of getting tested. However this attitude was contradicted by the facts that only nine (28% had been for testing and that participants evidenced high levels of fear and stigma surrounding VCT. Of the participants, 43% stated a preference for a VCT site or hospital far from home, or, if they could afford it, a private doctor, to minimise the likelihood of being seen by someone they knew. This factor made it more difficult and costlier for outof-school youth to access VCT. For some, the fear of HIV infection is caught up with their existing social exclusion. In contrast, one reason for wanting to test amongst girls was the health of future children. While out-of-school youth understood the role of VCT in maintaining a healthy lifestyle, the obstacles to acting on those intentions included the context of poverty, gender inequalities, stigma and the fear of gossip. Campaigns have succeeded in raising awareness, but translating awareness into action remains a central problem.

  13. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  14. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  15. A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance: A Preliminary Study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Kumar, Robins; Malhotra, Suruchi; Chugh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Alakananda; Dutta, Anirban

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that major depression is the fourth most significant cause of disability worldwide for people aged 65 and older, where depressed older adults reported decreased independence, poor health, poor quality of life, functional decline, disability, and increased chronic medical problems. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to develop a low-cost point-of-care testing system for psychomotor symptoms of depression and (2) to evaluate the system in community dwelling elderly in India. The preliminary results from the cross-sectional study showed a significant negative linear correlation between balance and depression. Here, monitoring quantitative electroencephalography along with the center of pressure for cued response time during functional reach tasks may provide insights into the psychomotor symptoms of depression where average slope of the Theta-Alpha power ratio versus average slope of baseline-normalized response time may be a candidate biomarker, which remains to be evaluated in our future clinical studies. Once validated, the biomarker can be used for monitoring the outcome of a comprehensive therapy program in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the frequency of falls can be monitored with a mobile phone-based application where the propensity of falls during the periods of psychomotor symptoms of depression can be investigated further.

  16. Is the 1-minute sit-to-stand test a good tool for the evaluation of the impact of pulmonary rehabilitation? Determination of the minimal important difference in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidya T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Trija Vaidya,1,2 Claire de Bisschop,2 Marc Beaumont,3,4 Hakima Ouksel,5 Véronique Jean,6 François Dessables,7 Arnaud Chambellan,1,8 On behalf of IRSR RéhaEffort cohort group 1Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, l’institut du thorax, CHU de Nantes, 2Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire MOVE EA 6314, F-86000 Poitiers, 3Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, Morlaix Hospital Centre, 4European University of Occidental Brittany, EA3878, Brest, 5Service de Pneumologie, CHU d’Angers, Angers, 6Service de Réhabilitation Respiratoire, Soins de Suite et Rééducation, CHU de Nantes, 7Service de Réhabilitation Respiratoire, la Tourmaline, UGECAM, 8Université de Nantes, Laboratory EA 4334 “Mouvement, Interactions, Performance,” Nantes, France Background: The 1-minute sit-to-stand (STS test could be valuable to assess the level of exercise tolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. There is a need to provide the minimal important difference (MID of this test in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR.Methods: COPD patients undergoing the 1-minute STS test before PR were included. The test was performed at baseline and the end of PR, as well as the 6-minute walk test, and the quadriceps maximum voluntary contraction (QMVC. Home and community-based programs were conducted as recommended. Responsiveness to PR was determined by the difference in the 1-minute STS test between baseline and the end of PR. The MID was evaluated using distribution and anchor-based methods.Results: Forty-eight COPD patients were included. At baseline, the significant predictors of the number of 1-minute STS repetitions were the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD (r=0.574; P<10-3, age (r=-0.453; P=0.001, being on long-term oxygen treatment (r=-0.454; P=0.017, and the QMVC (r=0.424; P=0.031. The multivariate analysis explained 75.8% of the variance of 1-minute STS repetitions. The improvement of the 1-minute STS repetitions at the end of PR was 3.8±4.2 (P<10-3. It was mainly

  17. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  18. The stand prototype of minimum power NRE reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belogurov, A.I.; Grigorenko, L.N.; Mamontov, Yu.I.; Rachuk, V.S.; Stukalov, A.I.; Konyukhov, G.V.

    1995-01-01

    For ensuring of full-scale development of nuclear rocket engine (NRE) reactor was created stand prototype (reactor IRGIT?) The main differences of its are as follows: 1) Fasteners of technologies channels contents fuel assemblies in bottom are worked out the split. It is provides possibility a distance channels change without disassembly of reactor stand prototype from stand; 2) Cooling of the vessels, the moderator, the reflector and the barrel actuate is carried out by hydrogen; 3) The lower bottom modified for organization the hydrogen efflux in the form a reactor jet; 4) Radiation defence is introduced as part of stand prototype for ensuring of serviceability of stand accessories and tests routine service; 5) Each technology channels is provided of critical nozzle; 6) Control, regulation and defence of reactor has being carried out on stand system

  19. ISSP Position Stand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan

    2013-01-01

    The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...... in the ␣eld. The shift to culturally competent sport and exercise psychology implies: (a) recognizing hidden ethnocentric philosophical assumptions permeating much of the current theory, research, and practice; (b) transitioning to professional ethics in which difference is seen as not inherent and ␣xed...... but as relational and ␣uid; and (c) focusing on meaning (instead of cause) in cross-cultural and cultural research projects, and cultural praxis work. In the paper, we ␣rst provide an overview of the concepts of cultural competence and ethics of difference. Second, we present a step-by-step approach for developing...

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  1. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  2. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  3. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  4. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  5. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  6. Design, Fabrication, Installation and Commissioning of the Helium Refrigeration system Supporting Superconducting Radio Frequency Testing at Facility for Rare Isotope Beams at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, F.; Fila, A.; Nguyen, C.; Tatsumoto, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) will be a scientific user facility for the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC). The FRIB linear accelerator (LINAC) will be comprised of cryomodules each with multiple Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities operating at 2 K. A helium refrigeration system was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned in the SRF high bay building to test and certify these cavities and cryomodules before installation in the FRIB LINAC tunnel. The helium refrigeration system includes a helium refrigerator which has nominal capacity of 900 W at 4 K, 5000 L liquid helium storage Dewar, helium gas storage, two room temperature vacuum pumps capable of 2.5 g/s each for 2 K testing, purifier, purifier recovery compressor, and the distribution system for liquid nitrogen and helium. The helium refrigeration system is now operational supporting three below grade cavity testing Dewars and one cryomodule testing bunker meeting the required throughput of 1 cavity per day.

  7. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  8. "UCx fission targets oxidation test stand"

    CERN Document Server

    Lacroix, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    "Set up a rig dedicated to the oxidation of UCx and define a procedure for repeatable, reliable and safe method for converting UC2 fission targets into an acceptable uranium carbide oxide waste for subsequent disposal by the Swiss Authorities."

  9. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  10. Experiment for transient effects of sudden catastrophic loss of vacuum on a scaled superconducting radio frequency cryomodule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalesandro, A.; Theilacker, J.; Van Sciver, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Safe operation of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities require design consideration of a sudden catastrophic loss of vacuum (SCLV) adjacent with liquid helium (LHe) vessels and subsequent dangers. An experiment is discussed to test the longitudinal effects of SCLV along the beam line of a string of scaled SRF cavities. Each scaled cavity includes one segment of beam tube within a LHe vessel containing 2 K saturated LHe, and a riser pipe connecting the LHe vessel to a common gas header. At the beam tube inlet is a fast acting solenoid valve to simulate SCLV and a high/low range orifice plate flow-meter to measure air influx to the cavity. The gas header exit also has an orifice plate flow-meter to measure helium venting the system at the relief pressure of 0.4 MPa. Each cavity is instrumented with Validyne pressure transducers and Cernox thermometers. The purpose of this experiment is to quantify the time required to spoil the beam vacuum and the effects of transient heat and mass transfer on the helium system. Heat transfer data is expected to reveal a longitudinal effect due to the geometry of the experiment. Details of the experimental design criteria and objectives are presented.

  11. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    be achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...... species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...... soil classes. The results showed that mature stands with a stratified canopy had the highest plant species diversity across the soil classes, particularly if they comprised mixed coniferous and broadleaved species with a semi-open canopy. In contrast, young (...

  12. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  13. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  14. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  15. Standing Concertation Committee

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  16. Stand-up physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  17. Standing concertation commmittee

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  18. Economic considerations of managing stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1989-01-01

    Managing central hardwood stands involves making choices. Each year landowners face at least three alternatives for managing a stand: (1) allow it to grow undisturbed, (2) undertake a partial or complete commercial harvest, or (3) culture the timber crop through a precommercial investment. Each activity affects long-term monetary returns. The "best" choice in...

  19. Dynamics of Connecticut hemlock stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; David M. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The stand dynamics and production of two one-acre plots of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L) in Connecticut have been followed for more than six decades. Data were recorded for all individual trees. One plot (Saltonstall) was established in 1924 after the removal of a hardwood overstory. This stand had a nearly pure, almost fully closed understory...

  20. Buffer Chemical Polishing and RF Testing of the 56 MHz SRF Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrill,A.

    2009-01-01

    The 56 MHz cavity presents a unique challenge in preparing it for RF testing prior to construction of the cryomodule. This challenge arises due to the physical dimensions and subsequent weight of the cavity, and is further complicated by the coaxial geometry, and the need to properly chemically etch and high pressure rinse the entire inner surface prior to RF testing. To the best of my knowledge, this is the largest all niobium SRF cavity to be chemically etched and subsequently tested in a vertical dewar at 4K, and these processes will be the topic of this technical note.

  1. First cold test of TESLA superconducting RF cavity in horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzminski, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of the TESLA project, the horizontal cryostat (CHECHIA) was built to test a superconducting RF cavity equipped with its helium vessel, magnetic shielding, cold tuner, main coupler and higher order modes couplers under realistic conditions before final assembly of eight cavities into TESLA Test Facility cryo-module. The results of the first cold tests in CHECHIA, performed at DESY with a 9-cell cavity (C19) to be used in the TTF injector are presented. Additional measurements of mechanical stability under RF operation (frequency variation with He pressure, Lorentz detuning) and cryogenic and electric measurements of power dissipation are presented. (author)

  2. The Stand-alone Heliostat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Navajas, G. I.; Egea Gea, A.

    2000-01-01

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-nr, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modem working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modem. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced.by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs

  3. Practical research of free standing rack. Seismic experiment study on full scale free standing rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Morita, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Okuno, Daisaku; Matsuoka, Toshihiro; Chigusa, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The spent fuel taken out of a plant reactor is temporarily stored in a spent fuel rack. This fuel will often have to be stored in the rack for long periods before it can be moved to a reprocessing facility. Therefore, the spent fuel rack must have a high tolerance against big seismic loads. The free standing spent fuel rack has been developed as the optimal equipment meeting these requirements. It can be placed on the spent fuel pool floor without fixation to any support structure. Response of the free standing rack is reduced by the effect of the water and friction force on the spent fuel pool floor. For nuclear plant safety, it is necessary to understand the free standing rack behavior under earthquake in pools to verify the design of free standing racks and peripheral components. Several tests on a shaking table have been conducted on full-scale one free standing rack in air and in water, and sliding and rocking have been measured. The rack response is very complex and the study necessitates to take into account the sliding, the rocking, the effect of the water and of the arrangement of the fuel assemblies inside. (author)

  4. Age-Related Differences in Quality of Standing Balance Using a Composite Score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasma, J.H.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; van der Bij, M.D.W.; Arendzen, J.H.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Age-related differences in standing balance are not detected by testing the ability to maintain balance. Quality of standing balance might be more sensitive to detect age-related differences. Objective: To study age-related differences in quality of standing balance, center of pressure

  5. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  6. Vertical and horizontal test results of 3.9-GHz accelerating cavities at FNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, T.; Edwards, H.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Hocker, James Andrew; Mitchell, D.; Rowe, A.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    The 3rd harmonic 3.9GHz accelerating cavity was proposed to improve the beam performance of the VUV FEL, FLASH. In the frame of a collaborative agreement, Fermilab will provide DESY with a cryomodule containing a string of four cavities. Seven 9-cell Nb cavities were tested and six of them did reach accelerating gradient up to 24 MV/m almost twice more than design value of 14 MV/m. Two of these cavities are with new HOM couplers with improved design. In this paper we present all results of the vertical and horizontal tests.

  7. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derwent, P. F. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J. P. [Fermilab; Edelen, J. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Saini, A. [Fermilab; Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Steimel, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  8. Isotope separation by standing waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altshuler, S.

    1984-01-01

    The separation of isotopes is accomplished by scattering a beam of particles from a standing electromagnetic wave. The particles may consist of either atoms or molecules, the beam having in either case a desired isotope and at least one other. The particle beam is directed so as to impinge on the standing electromagnetic wave, which may be a light wave. The particles, that is, the atomic or molecular quantum-mechanical waves, see basically a diffraction grating corresponding to the troughs and peaks of the electromagnetic wave. The frequency of the standing electromagnetic wave substantially corresponds to an internal energy level-transition of the desired isotope. Accordingly, the desired isotope is spatially separated by being scattered or diffracted. (author)

  9. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  10. Association of unipedal standing time and bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Toba, N; Takeda, M; Suzuki, M; Abe, Y; Aoyagi, K; Nakamura, T

    2009-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with age. In community-dwelling Japanese women, unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD while in women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is associated with BMD. The aim of this study was to clarify whether unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD in community-dwelling women. The subjects were 90 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 54.7 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured by computed X-ray densitometry. We measured unipedal standing time as well as timed up and go test to assess physical performance of the lower extremities. Unipedal standing time decreased with increased age. Timed up and go test significantly correlated with age. Low BMD was significantly associated with old age, short unipedal standing time, and long timed up and go test. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that age, unipedal standing time, and timed up and go test were significant factors associated with BMD. In 21 participants aged 70 years and over, body weight and unipedal standing time, but not age, were significantly associated with BMD. BMD and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with older age. Unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD in community-dwelling Japanese women. In women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD.

  11. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  12. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten

  13. Stand up and move forward

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Johan; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Insufficient physical activity or being inactive is one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable diseases worldwide. Globally between 6-10% of premature mortality, caused by non-communicable diseases, could be avoided if people adhered to general physical activity guidelines. Besides that, studies link sitting for prolonged periods of time with many serious health concerns. The solution seems simple: Stand up and move forward. However, human behavior is difficult to change – due to th...

  14. TESLA Test Facility. Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, B.

    1996-01-01

    The TESLA Test Facility (TTF), under construction at DESY by an international collaboration, is an R and D test bed for the superconducting option for future linear e+/e-colliders. It consists of an infrastructure to process and test the cavities and of a 500 MeV linac. The infrastructure has been installed and is fully operational. It includes a complex of clean rooms, an ultra-clean water plant, a chemical etching installation and an ultra-high vacuum furnace. The linac will consist of four cryo-modules, each containing eight 1 meter long nine-cell cavities operated at 1.3 GHz. The base accelerating field is 15 MV/m. A first injector will deliver a low charge per bunch beam, with the full average current (8 mA in pulses of 800 μs). A more powerful injector based on RF gun technology will ultimately deliver a beam with high charge and low emittance to allow measurements necessary to qualify the TESLA option and to demonstrate the possibility of operating a free electron laser based on the Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission principle. Overview and status of the facility will be given. Plans for the future use of the linac are presented. (R.P.)

  15. Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Mogens Teken

    Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011.......Transpalpebral eye enucleation in the standing horse. The Nordic Equine Veterinary Conference, Proceedings, Copenhagen. Denmark. Nov. 2011....

  16. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  17. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206...

  18. Standing Stability in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Being prevalent in the more than 40 years old persons, the knee osteoarthritis is one of the main factors in the function system failure mainly affecting their life. There is a type of instability in the persons with knee osteoarthritis, which is an increase in the domain and frequency of body pressure center. The aim of the present study was to compare the standing stability parameters in persons with knee osteoarthritis and healthy persons. Instrument & Methods: In this case-control, 15 patients with knee osteoarthritis referred to the physiotherapy clinic of the rehabilitation center and Al-Zahra hospital were studied in the muscle-skeletal research center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2015. The subjects were selected via stratified sampling method. As control group, 15 healthy persons were also studied in Isfahan. Total path length and the domain and frequency of pressure center in different directions were measured to assess the stability. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using descriptive statistics and paired T test. Findings: There were increases in the mean movement domain and the frequency of pressure center in the anterior-posterior and the internal-external directions, as well as in the total path proceeded by the pressure center in the internal-external direction, in the persons with knee osteoarthritis than the healthy persons (p0.05. Conclusion: Standing stability and balance in persons with knee osteoarthritis decreases compared to healthy persons.

  19. Validation of the VitaBit Sit–Stand Tracker: Detecting Sitting, Standing, and Activity Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M. Berninger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (SB has detrimental consequences and cannot be compensated for through moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA. In order to understand and mitigate SB, tools for measuring and monitoring SB are essential. While current direct-to-customer wearables focus on PA, the VitaBit validated in this study was developed to focus on SB. It was tested in a laboratory and in a free-living condition, comparing it to direct observation and to a current best-practice device, the ActiGraph, on a minute-by-minute basis. In the laboratory, the VitaBit yielded specificity and negative predictive rates (NPR of above 91.2% for sitting and standing, while sensitivity and precision ranged from 74.6% to 85.7%. For walking, all performance values exceeded 97.3%. In the free-living condition, the device revealed performance of over 72.6% for sitting with the ActiGraph as criterion. While sensitivity and precision for standing and walking ranged from 48.2% to 68.7%, specificity and NPR exceeded 83.9%. According to the laboratory findings, high performance for sitting, standing, and walking makes the VitaBit eligible for SB monitoring. As the results are not transferrable to daily life activities, a direct observation study in a free-living setting is recommended.

  20. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  1. Standing Up for Learning: A Pilot Investigation on the Neurocognitive Benefits of Stand-Biased School Desks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana K. Mehta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standing desks have proven to be effective and viable solutions to combat sedentary behavior among children during the school day in studies around the world. However, little is known regarding the potential of such interventions on cognitive outcomes in children over time. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the neurocognitive benefits, i.e., improvements in executive functioning and working memory, of stand-biased desks and explore any associated changes in frontal brain function. 34 freshman high school students were recruited for neurocognitive testing at two time points during the school year: (1 in the fall semester and (2 in the spring semester (after 27.57 (1.63 weeks of continued exposure. Executive function and working memory was evaluated using a computerized neurocognitive test battery, and brain activation patterns of the prefrontal cortex were obtained using functional near infrared spectroscopy. Continued utilization of the stand-biased desks was associated with significant improvements in executive function and working memory capabilities. Changes in corresponding brain activation patterns were also observed. These findings provide the first preliminary evidence on the neurocognitive benefits of standing desks, which to date have focused largely on energy expenditure. Findings obtained here can drive future research with larger samples and multiple schools, with comparison groups that may in turn implicate the importance of stand-biased desks, as simple environmental changes in classrooms, on enhancing children’s cognitive functioning that drive their cognitive development and impact educational outcomes.

  2. The energy cost for balance control during upright standing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houdijk, J.H.P.; Fickert, R.; van Velzen, J.; van Bennekom, C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether balance control during a static upright standing task with and without balance perturbations elicits a significant and meaningful metabolic energy demand and to test whether this energy demand correlates with conventional posturography measures for

  3. The standing of the curriculum for consumer studies as school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... systems that consistently perform well in international benchmarking tests. The findings of the research point to the standing of the current Consumer Studies curriculum and its perceived impact in the South African context. Recommendations are made regarding the strengthening of the curriculum and its implementation.

  4. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study.

  5. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  6. The HIE-ISOLDE alignment and monitoring system software and test mock up

    CERN Document Server

    Kautzmann, G; Kadi, Y; Leclercq, Y; Waniorek, S; Williams, L

    2012-01-01

    For the HIE Isolde project a superconducting linac will be built at CERN in the Isolde facility area. The linac will be based on the creation and installation of 2 high- β and 4 low- β cryomodules containing respectively 5 high-β superconducting cavities and 1 superconducting solenoid for the two first ones, 6 low-β superconducting cavities and 2 superconducting solenoids for the four other ones. An alignment and monitoring system of the RF cavities and solenoids placed inside the cryomodules is needed to reach the optimum linac working conditions. The alignment system is based on opto-electronics, optics and precise mechanical instrumentation. The geometrical frame configuration, the data acquisition and the 3D adjustment will be managed using a dedicated software application. In parallel to the software development, an alignment system test mock-up has been built for software validation and dimensional tests. This paper will present the software concept and the development status, and then will describe...

  7. Study of a stand alone power system based on a photovoltaic field, an electrolyser and a fuel cell: test bench and modelling; Etude d'un systeme autonome de production d'energie couplant un champ photovoltaique, un electrolyseur et une pile a combustible: realisation d'un banc d'essai et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, S.

    2003-12-01

    Our energetic future has to be based on non-polluting energies with long-term resources. Renewable energies are the best candidates but as their production is intermittent, storage way is necessary as well efficient as environmentally friendly. Coupled an electrolyser and a fuel cell allows to store electricity in gas form and furthermore to produce heat energy. The goal of this work is to evaluate performances of a stand-alone power system, producing electricity and heat, coupling a photovoltaic field and a hydrogen storage system, made of an electrolyser, a gas storage unit and a fuel cell. Hydrogen is the unique way to store electricity. To complete this task, two tools have been developed: a 3,6 kW test bench and a simulation tool. To select the test bench, a bibliographic study enables to collect the necessary information to size and to choice the system and its components. The low availability of components adapted to our application, forces us to create new devices (electrolyser, fuel cell, power management unit). The test bench is automatic and safe. Experimental analysis evaluates the efficiency of the hydrogen storage system, determining the different losses occurring in each component. Modifications are proposed to increase the performances of the storage system. The simulation tool enables to plan the operating of the test bench for a fixed load and place. This model can simulate any system based on experimental data of each component. Simulation results enable to characterise the functioning of the test bench in a stand-alone operation, to determine its performances and to evaluate the influence of the different losses. (author)

  8. Kinematic Analysis of the Standing Long Jump in Children 6- to 12-Years-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Santos, Jorge R.; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Castro-Piñero, Jose

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematic variables that determine the performance of the standing long jump in children 6- to 12-years-old. There were 121 healthy children (58 girls) recorded while they performed the standing long jump test. All kinematic variables showed a significant correlation with calculated jump distance and…

  9. Thinning results from a mixed upland hardwood stand after 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J., Jr. Myers; Kenneth R. Roeder; W. Henry McNab

    2008-01-01

    A long-term study of precommercial thinning was installed in a 6-year-old oak-dominated stand regenerated by clearcutting in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina. Three levels of residual stand density were tested: control (no thinning), and 200, and 400 residual trees per acre (TPA). Objectives of the study were to determine the response of an upland...

  10. Design and test of a superconducting magnet in a linear accelerator for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Quanling; Xu, Fengyu; Wang, Ting; Yang, Xiangchen; Chen, Anbin; Wei, Xiaotao; Gao, Yao; Hou, Zhenhua; Wang, Bing; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Haoshu

    2014-01-01

    A batch superconducting solenoid magnet for the ADS proton linear accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested in a vertical dewar in Sept. 2013. A total of ten superconducting magnets will be installed into two separate cryomodules. Each cryomodule contains six superconducting spoke RF cavities for beam acceleration and five solenoid magnets for beam focusing. The multifunction superconducting magnet contains a solenoid for beam focusing and two correctors for orbit correction. The design current for the solenoid magnet is 182 A. A quench performance test shows that the operating current of the solenoid magnet can reach above 300 A after natural quenching on three occasions during current ramping (260 A, 268 A, 308 A). The integrated field strength and leakage field at the nearby superconducting spoke cavities all meet the design requirements. The vertical test checked the reliability of the test dewar and the quench detection system. This paper presents the physical and mechanical design of the batch magnets, the quench detection technique, field measurements, and a discussion of the residual field resulting from persistent current effects

  11. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  12. Procedures for Determining the Performance of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBlasio, R.; Durand, S.; Hansen, R.; Hutchinson, P.; Kroposki, B.; McNutt, P.; Rosenthal, A.; Thomas, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the procedures for determining the performance of stand-alone PV systems. The procedures in this document provide a common approach for evaluating whether a given PV system is suitable to perform the function for which it was designed and manufactured to accomplish, and whether it will provide adequate power to run the load. These procedures cover small stand-alone PV systems. They cover complete outdoor system testing. Test results are valid only for the system that is tested

  13. Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,04,06,07: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003. Photos 02,03: From left to right: Mr Gary Nairn MP, Chair of the Standing Committee on Science and Innovation, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory with Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Physicist in the ATLAS experiment, April 2003. Photos 02,09: Mrs Kerrye Nairn, Australia,visiting the silicon test laboratory, April 2003

  14. Performance Tests of a Short Faraday Cup Designed for HIE-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cantero, E; Bravin, E; Fraser, M; Lanaia, D; Sosa, A; Voulot, D

    2013-01-01

    The On-Line Isotope Mass Separator (ISOLDE) facility at CERN is being upgraded in order to deliver higher energy and intensity radioactive beams. The final setup will consist in replacing the energy variable part of the normal conducting REX post-accelerator with superconducting cavities. In order to preserve the beam emittance, the drift space between the cryomodules housing these cavities has been kept to a minimum. As a consequence, the longitudinal space available for beam diagnostics is severely limited in the inter-cryomodule regions. A Faraday cup (FC) will be installed to measure beam currents, and due to the tight spatial constraints, its length is much smaller than usual. This poses a great challenge when trying to avoid the escape of ion-induced secondary electrons, which would falsify the current measurement. Two prototypes of such a short FC have therefore been tested at REX-ISOLDE using several beam intensities and energies, with the aim of determining its accuracy. In this paper the experimenta...

  15. Reineke’s stand density index: a quantitative and non-unitless measure of stand density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis L. VanderSchaaf

    2013-01-01

    When used as a measure of relative density, Reineke’s stand density index (SDI) can be made unitless by relating the current SDI to a standard density but when used as a quantitative measure of stand density SDI is not unitless. Reineke’s SDI relates the current stand density to an equivalent number of trees per unit area in a stand with a quadratic mean diameter (Dq)...

  16. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  17. Benchmarking the Collocation Stand-Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven; Knittel, Jeremy; Shoan, Wendy; Kim, Youngkwang; Conway, Claire; Conway, Darrel J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the processes and results of Verification and Validation (VV) efforts for the Collocation Stand Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT). We describe the test program and environments, the tools used for independent test data, and comparison results. The VV effort employs classical problems with known analytic solutions, solutions from other available software tools, and comparisons to benchmarking data available in the public literature. Presenting all test results are beyond the scope of a single paper. Here we present high-level test results for a broad range of problems, and detailed comparisons for selected problems.

  18. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  19. SPEED ROLLER STAND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM CHECKING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zybtsev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that the accuracy of brakes checking by inertial stands depends upon the applied methods of measurement of braking parameters (stand slowing down, braking distance, brakes triggering time, current speed as well as the methods of metrological checking of measuring system canals.

  20. Evaluating growth performance of young stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. L. Roe; R. E. Benson

    1966-01-01

    A simple procedure for evaluating the diameter growth of young stands in relation to potential growth is described. A comparison technique is developed which contrasts relative diameter of crop trees to the relative diameter growth of the last decade to show the condition and trend of growth in the stand. The method is objective, easy to use, and has several...

  1. Development of off-gas filters for reprocessing plants. Development and construction of an off-gas filter system for large reprocessing plants. Off-gas section of the resolver test stand of the IHCh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furrer, J.; Kaempffer, R.; Wilhelm, J.G.; Pfauter, C.; Jannakos, K.; Apenberg, W.; Lange, W.; Mendel, W.; Potgeter, G.; Zabel, G.

    1976-01-01

    The test of the highly impregnated iodine sorption material AC 6,120 was continued in the laboratory under simulated conditions of a 1,500 t/a uranium reprocessing plant. The influence of NO in nitrogen as the carrier gas on the removal efficiency of the sorption material has been especially examined. Several experiments on the removal efficiency of iodine sorption by the material AC 6,120 were carried out in the original off-gas of the French processing plant SAP Marcoule while the filter system was installed on the one side directly behind the dissolver and on the other side behind the iodine desorption columm. The first iodine filter developed at LAF II was installed in the off-gas line of the dissolver in the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant. The filter system for the dissolver off-gas handling test rig of the IHCh was specified and ordered with an engineering firm. The conception of the prototype off-gas filter system was selected and a lock and transport system allowing to replace filters was designed and subjected for testing. Five alternative solutions were set up in order to find the appropriate filter concept. The method of selection based on the evaluation of performance criteria. According to the selected solution a filter drum was designed and constructed. The lock of the filter system has been designed and realized. Preliminary tests have been made. (orig.) [de

  2. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    ... of government contracts. The purpose of this paper is not to prove with mathematical certainty that the standing result would be identical whether a court applied the Federal Circuit's "interested party" standard or the APA two-prong test...

  3. Quantifying the Lateral Bracing Provided by Standing Steam Roof Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Taylor J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges of engineering is finding the proper balance between economical and safe. Currently engineers at Nucor Corporation have ignored the additional lateral bracing provided by standing seam roofing systems to joists because of the lack of methods available to quantify the amount of bracing provided. Based on the results of testing performed herein, this bracing is significant, potentially resulting in excessively conservative designs and unnecessary costs. This proje...

  4. Juvenile offenders: competence to stand trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulier, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    This article details the legal background and assists the reader in the preparation and practical conduct of evaluations regarding juvenile adjudicative competency. The material is presented to be useful as a guide to direct questions of competency and covers aspects of evaluation that include: legal standard for competency to stand trial, developmental immaturity, current practice in juvenile competency to stand trial, forensic evaluation of juvenile competency to stand trial, organizing the evaluation, collateral sources of information, psychiatric evaluation of juvenile adjudicative competency, assessment of mental disorder and intellectual disability, assessment of developmental status, assessment of functional abilities for adjudicative competence, and reaching the forensic opinion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent advances in standing equine orthopedic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas; Hunt, Robert J

    2014-04-01

    In all surgeries with the patient standing under chemical and physical restraint, patient compliance is of the utmost importance. All fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal condyles and sagittal fracture of the first phalanx are not amenable to internal fixation with the horse standing, and young unhandled horses may not have a suitable disposition for standing surgical treatment of septic pedal osteitis, or implantation and removal of transphyseal screws. Previous operator experience in performing the procedure or technique under general anesthesia is beneficial. Appreciation of appropriate topographic anatomic landmarks is important, and intraoperative radiographic control is useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DESIGN OF A SUPERBIKE PADDOCK STAND USING CAD AND CAE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Mohd Noh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two people are required to operate current superbike paddock stands in order to elevate the superbike. Lifting the superbike alone using the current design of paddock stand may be impractical and inconvenient for users. To overcome this limitation, a new design of a superbike paddock stand was conceived that could be operated by a single user. CAD and CAE tools using CATIA V5R18 software were utilised in designing this new stand. A 3D CAD model was developed and analysed through finite element analysis (FEA and a prototype fabricated for verification testing of the design. The use of CAD and CAE tools saved much time in the design work and gave the researchers and designers freedom in producing their own design. However, the most important aspect of this design study was to design a superbike paddock stand that is more practical and convenient for operation by a single user.

  7. Visual evoked responses during standing and walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Gramann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has been shaped both by our body structure and by its complex interactionswith its environment. Our cognition is thus inextricably linked to our own and others’ motorbehavior. To model brain activity associated with natural cognition, we propose recording theconcurrent brain dynamics and body movements of human subjects performing normal actions.Here we tested the feasibility of such a mobile brain/body (MoBI imaging approach byrecording high-density electroencephalographic (EEG activity and body movements of subjectsstanding or walking on a treadmill while performing a visual oddball response task. Independentcomponent analysis (ICA of the EEG data revealed visual event-related potentials (ERPs thatduring standing, slow walking, and fast walking did not differ across movement conditions,demonstrating the viability of recording brain activity accompanying cognitive processes duringwhole body movement. Non-invasive and relatively low-cost MoBI studies of normal, motivatedactions might improve understanding of interactions between brain and body dynamics leadingto more complete biological models of cognition.

  8. Impact of Fibromyalgia in the Sit-to-Stand-to-Sit Performance Compared With Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, Jose C; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-06-01

    Fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction in the ability to perform activities of daily living. Sit-to-stand-to-sit performance is one of the most common activities of daily living and often is evaluated by counting the number of repetitions of the 30-second chair-stand test. No study, however, has examined the performance over the 30 seconds of this test of female patients with fibromyalgia on a phase-by-phase basis. To evaluate the impact of fibromyalgia on performance of the 30-second chair-stand test and to analyze how the kinematic performance changed over the 30-second test period. A cross-sectional study. Local association of fibromyalgia. Fifteen females with fibromyalgia and nine healthy female controls. Participants performed the 30-second chair-stand test while wearing a motion capture device. Duration of each sit-to-stand-to-sit phase within the 30-second time limit was compared between groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. The association between duration of phases and scores from the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was tested using bivariate correlations. The duration of impulse and sit-to-stand phases were gradually increased over the 30 seconds of the chair-stand test for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls (P = .04 and P = .02, respectively). The mean duration of these 2 phases was associated with symptom duration and the function domain of the revised version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P fibromyalgia and healthy controls. Since sit-to-stand from a chair is a common daily activity, women with fibromyalgia may require specific exercises to improve performance of this task. Not applicable. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring Diagnostic Stand for Experimental Researches in Technology Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews applied techniques, methods, and structure of the control and measuring means to conduct experimental and scientific researches of cutting processes. Existing research methods in cutting the metals are divided by features, such as essence of methods, the number of records of physical indicators, the number of studied factors, duration of tests. The groups of methods are briefly characterized.The chair "Tool Engineering and Technologies" of BMSTU developed and made a diagnostic stand of control and measurements for conducting research activities in the field of materials processing technology by cutting to define rational technological decisions, when machining, and carry out an analysis of efficiency and economic feasibility of made decisions. The diagnostic stand contains modern the electronic equipment. Record of measuring parameters is made in real time with a possibility for visual representation of read results and mathematical and statistical processing of measurement results. The stand can be used in research laboratories of machine-building enterprises, laboratories of higher education institutions, and other scientific divisions.The paper presents a justification that the stand is reasonable to use for the following: completion and choice of rational cutting modes, workability assessment of new constructional materials, technical and operational characteristics of the processed surfaces, and operational properties of the cutting tools of various producers, choice of optimum geometrical parameters of the cutting tools and brands of the lubricant cooling technological means, as well as the energy consumption for the chosen machining process. The stand allows us to make an assessment of wear resistance and tribology-technical characteristics of tool materials, as well as an accuracy, rigidity, vibration stability of machines, both new and being in operation.

  10. Development of seismic design method for free standing rack and applicability to Japanese nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Yu; Taniguchi, Katsuhiko; Kishimoto, Junichi; Iwasaki, Akihisa; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Kuga, Tohru; Kameyama, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Free standing racks which are not anchored to the pool floor nor walls have never been adopted in Japan. Under an earthquake, behaviors of free standing racks are nonlinear and involve a complex combination of motions (sliding, rocking, and twisting) and impacts between a fuel assembly and the fuel cell walls and between a pit floor and rack pedestals. To predict a seismic response of free standing racks, the seismic analysis requires careful considerations of these complex phenomena (sliding, rocking, and twisting), fluid coupling effects and frictional effects. We carried out seismic experiments on the full-scale rack model in both water and dry conditions and obtained the fundamental data about behavior of free standing racks (sliding, and rocking motions). We have developed the nonlinear dynamic analysis method to predict seismic response of free standing racks utilizing the full-scale test result and verified the analysis evaluation method of free standing rack by comparison between analysis results and experimental data. Furthermore, we applied the seismic design method to the free standing rack in the Japanese nuclear plant (Mihama nuclear power station Unit 3), and verified that the free standing rack was applicable to Japanese nuclear plant. (author)

  11. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Inpatient Claims PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Inpatient Public Use Files (PUF) named CMS 2008 BSA Inpatient Claims PUF with information from 2008 Medicare...

  12. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  13. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  14. Lisa's Lemonade Stand: Exploring Algebraic Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Esther M. H.; Lakatos, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity, "Lisa's Lemonade Stand," that actively engages students in algebraic thinking as they analyze change by investigating relationships between variables and gain experience describing and representing these relationships graphically. (YDS)

  15. Three-dimensional instability of standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2003-12-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing surface waves under the influence of gravity. The analysis employs the transition matrix (TM) approach and uses a new high-order spectral element (HOSE) method for computation of the nonlinear wave dynamics. HOSE is an extension of the original high-order spectral method (HOS) wherein nonlinear wave wave and wave body interactions are retained up to high order in wave steepness. Instead of global basis functions in HOS, however, HOSE employs spectral elements to allow for complex free-surface geometries and surface-piercing bodies. Exponential convergence of HOS with respect to the total number of spectral modes (for a fixed number of elements) and interaction order is retained in HOSE. In this study, we use TM-HOSE to obtain the stability of general three-dimensional perturbations (on a two-dimensional surface) on two classes of standing waves: plane standing waves in a rectangular tank; and radial/azimuthal standing waves in a circular basin. For plane standing waves, we confirm the known result of two-dimensional side-bandlike instability. In addition, we find a novel three-dimensional instability for base flow of any amplitude. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique (standing) wave oriented at an arbitrary angle whose frequency is close to the (nonlinear) frequency of the original standing wave. This finding is confirmed by direct long-time simulations using HOSE which show that the nonlinear evolution leads to classical Fermi Pasta Ulam recurrence. For the circular basin, we find that, beyond a threshold wave steepness, a standing wave (of nonlinear frequency Omega) is unstable to three-dimensional perturbations. The unstable perturbation contains two dominant (standing-wave) components, the sum of whose frequencies is close to 2Omega. From the cases we consider, the critical wave steepness is found to generally decrease/increase with increasing radial

  16. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera is currently being considered for protected status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. The creation of breeding habitat in the Appalachian Mountains is considered a conservation priority for this songbird, which is dependent on extensively forested landscapes with adequate availability of young forest. We modeled abundance of Golden-winged Warbler males in regenerating harvested forest stands that were 0-17 years postharvest at both mid-Appalachian and northeast Pennsylvania regional scales using stand and within-stand characteristics of 222 regenerating stands, 2010-2011. Variables that were most influential at the mid-Appalachian scale were different than those in the northeast region. Across the mid-Appalachian ecoregion, the proportion of young forest cover, i.e., shrub/scrub cover, within 1 km of regenerating stands best explained abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Golden-winged Warbler response was best explained by a concave quadratic relationship in which abundance was highest with 5-15% land in young forest cover. We also found evidence that the amount of herbaceous cover, i.e., the amount of grasses and forbs, within a regenerating stand positively influenced abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. In northeastern Pennsylvania, where young forest cover is found in high proportions, the distance to the nearest regenerating stand best explained variation in abundance of Golden-winged Warblers. Abundance of Golden-winged Warblers was 1500 m away. When modeling within-stand features in the northeast region, many of the models were closely ranked, indicating that multiple variables likely explained Golden-winged Warbler response to within-stand conditions. Based on our findings, we have proposed several management guidelines for land managers interested in creating breeding habitat for Golden-winged Warblers using commercial timber operations. For example, we recommend when managing for

  17. Gravity where do we stand ?

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...

  18. Management alternatives of energy wood thinning stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, Jani; Siren, Matti; Aeijaelae, Olli

    2007-01-01

    Energy wood thinning has become a feasible treatment alternative of young stands in Finland. Energy wood thinnings have been carried out mainly in stands where precommercial thinning has been neglected and the harvesting conditions for industrial wood thinning are difficult. Despite of its positive effects on harvesting costs and on renewable energy potential, whole-tree harvesting has been constantly criticized for causing growth loss. In this paper, the profitability of energy wood thinning was studied in 20 Scots pine-dominated stands where energy wood thinning was carried out. The growth of the stands after thinning was predicted with the help of Motti-stand simulator. Entire rotation time of the stands was simulated with different management alternatives. The intensity of first thinning and recovery level of logging residues varied between alternatives. In order to attain acceptable harvesting conditions, industrial wood thinning had to be delayed. The effect of energy wood thinning on subsequent stem wood growth was almost the same as in conventional thinning. Whole-tree harvesting for energy proved to be profitable alternative if the stumpage price is around 3EUR m -3 , the interest rate is 3% or 5% and the removal of pulpwood is less than 20 m 3 ha -1 . If the harvestable pulpwood yield is over 20 m 3 ha -1 , integrated harvesting of industrial and energy wood or delayed industrial wood harvesting becomes more profitable. (author)

  19. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  20. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  1. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves early in summer, thereby increasing drought stress in dry years and possibly reducing ecosystem stability in mixed forests.

  2. Time to take a stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, S

    1996-03-15

    The president of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics has issued a statement denouncing gender violence manifested by selective abortion of female fetuses, female genital mutilation, and domestic violence. The practice of sex selection has led to an artificial reduction in the number of females in the world on the order of 60-100 million. Son preference is fueled by customs such as the son carrying on the family name, providing old-age security for his parents, and bringing a dowry into the family upon marriage. In parts of India, women are killed (most commonly in kitchen fires) if their dowries are not paid or if subsequent demands for more money are not met. Survey results indicate that 78% of obstetricians would perform prenatal sex tests and that parents who opted for such testing included upper middle class professionals. The law banning sex selection in India is unlikely to be implemented until late 1996. Upon implementation, unwanted baby girls will be at risk of infanticide or death through neglect.

  3. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, H.E.; Wuppertal Univ.; Ihme, W.; Mekel, O.C.L.; Wuppertal Univ.

    1993-01-01

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  5. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.; Freedman, S.J.; Fujikawa, B.; Gough, R.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Vetter, P.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-01-01

    For the on-line production of a 14 O + ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14 O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3 He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12 C( 3 He,n) 14 O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O 2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar + , 1% for CO, 0.7% for O + , 0.33 for C + have been measured

  6. Retrapping studies on RITS [Radiographic Integrated Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, Steve Ray; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Portillo, Salvador; Welch, Dale Robert; Rose, David Vincent; Bailey, Vernon Leslie; Johnson, David Lee; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Rovang, Dean Curtis; Molina, Isidro; Schamiloglu, Edl; Maenchen, John Eric

    2003-01-01

    SNL is developing intense sources for flash x-ray radiography. The goals of the experiments presented here were to assess power flow issues and to help benchmark the LSP particle-in-cell code used to design the experiment. Comparisons between LSP simulations and experimental data are presented

  7. Structural mechanics of seed deterioration: Standing the test of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds die unexpectedly during storage and current understanding of seed quality and storage conditions does not allow reliable means to predict or prevent this critical problem. Chemical degradation of seed components likely occurs through oxidative damage, but the rate of these reactions is domina...

  8. Solidarity in Swedish welfare--standing the test of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmark, A

    2000-01-01

    Swedish welfare has for decades served as a role model for universalistic welfare. When the economic recession hit Swedish economy in the beginning of the 1990s, a period of more than 50 years of continuous expansion and reforms in the welfare sector came to an end. Summing up the past decade, we can see that the economic downturn enforced rationing measures in most parts of the welfare state, although most of this took place in the beginning of the decade. Today, most of the retrenchment has stopped and in some areas we can see tendencies of restoration--but more so in financial benefits than in the caring sectors. In the article this process is discussed as a process of reallocation where general principles of solidarity become manifest. Various levels of decision making are discussed within the context of socio-political action. Current transitions in Swedish health care are described with respect to coverage rates, content, marketization and distribution. Basic principles of distribution are highlighted in order to analyse the meaning of social solidarity in a concrete allocative setting. The significance of popular opinion--it's shifts and determinants--is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of how the (once salient) features of universalism in welfare and health care provision have been affected by the developments in the past decade in Sweden.

  9. Standing the Test of Time: Reference for a Preliminary Ruling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    It is often too easy to forget just how important the preliminary reference procedure is for the functionality of European Union law. For the Court of Justice, there are both formal and informal means of judicial dialogue. This article focuses on the formal means of dialogue through the preliminary...

  10. Does Courvoisier's sign stand the test of time?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, K

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the validity of Courvoisier\\'s sign, in the age of cross-sectional imaging and image analysis software by objectively measuring gallbladder volumes at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with and without biliary obstruction and to assess whether gallbladder volume is more significantly increased in patients with gallstone-related rather than non-gallstone-related biliary obstruction.

  11. Preliminary results of test stand experiment of LHRF launcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, T.; Sakamoto, K.; Uehara, K.; Imai, T.; Honda, M.; Nagashima, T.

    1982-01-01

    A four-waveguide launcher has been used in experimental LHRF heating on the JFT-2 tokamak and its properties investigated. The technical problems of arcing and breakdown occur in the injection of high power density. By locating the enlarged ceramic window far from a plasma, the transmission power of 1 kW/cm 2 was obtained successfully. After improvement of launcher and sufficient aging to suppress breakdown, it was possible to transmit the power density of 1.8 kW/cm 2 corresponding to 300 kW. The properties of launcher as predicted from the theory were obtained. (author)

  12. Does Courvoisier's sign stand the test of time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, K.; McLaughlin, P.; O'Connor, B.R.; Breen, M.; O'Súilleabháin, C.; MacEneaney, P.; Maher, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the validity of Courvoisier's sign, in the age of cross-sectional imaging and image analysis software by objectively measuring gallbladder volumes at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with and without biliary obstruction and to assess whether gallbladder volume is more significantly increased in patients with gallstone-related rather than non-gallstone-related biliary obstruction. Materials and methods: All MCRP investigations that were performed at a tertiary hepatobiliary centre over a 2-year period were analysed. The information recorded included the presence or absence of gallbladder stones as well as the presence and type of common bile duct (CBD) disease. Gallbladder volume was calculated from MRCP studies using image analysis software. Results: Three hundred and ninety-four of 645 examined MRCPs (61.1%) were eligible for analysis. A statistically significant difference in mean gallbladder volume existed between the summated obstructive and non-obstructive groups (p < 0.001). In addition, a significant difference existed in mean gallbladder volume between those with CBD stones and non-gallstone CBD obstruction (p = 0.03). Conclusion: A significant difference was observed in gallbladder volumes in the group with biliary obstruction from choledocholithiasis compared with the group with biliary obstruction from other causes. Thus, objective measurement of gallbladder volume from modern cross-sectional imaging studies appears to validate Courvoisier's sign as a valuable clinical sign, which could be applied to modern imaging studies in distinguishing different causes of biliary obstruction in the jaundiced patient.

  13. The Influence of Residual Stand Densities on Regeneration in Sugar Maple Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1968-01-01

    Studies of regeneration 2, 5, and 10 years after cutting mature and overmature sugar maple stands to several residual densities show that (1) sugar maple is still the predominant species under all stand densities (2) nearly all regeneration reaching larger size classes became established before cutting (3) heavier cuttings (30, 50, and 70 square feet) are more rapidly...

  14. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  15. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  16. Status of the Warm Front End of PIP-II Injector Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab; Alvarez, Matthew [Fermilab; Andrews, Richard [Fermilab; Baffes, Curtis [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Chen, Alex [Fermilab; Derwent, Paul [Fermilab; Edelen, Jonathan [Fermilab; Frolov, Daniil [Fermilab; Hanna, Bruce [Fermilab; Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Saewert, Gregory [Fermilab; Saini, Arun [Fermilab; Scarpine, Victor [Fermilab; Sista, V. Lalitha [Fermilab; Steimel, Jim [Fermilab; Sun, Ding [Fermilab; Warner, Arden [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H⁻ SRF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 keV H⁻ ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the warm front end.

  17. Stand development of trembling aspen in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Rentch; James T. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    In wetlands of Canaan Valley, West Virginia, trembling aspen occurs as a disjunct population well south of its primary natural range. Based on sample data from 15 stands, we found that aspen occurs as nearly monospecific stands or clones. Eight stands had median ages between 30 and 40 yrs, and we suggest that stand initiation was related to changes in land use after...

  18. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Alexander X., E-mail: axgray@temple.edu

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects.

  19. Future directions in standing-wave photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Alexander X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Probing magnetic properties at the buried interface with SW-MCD. • Probing electronic structure at the buried interface with resonant SW-XPS and SW-HAXPES. • Probing momentum-resolved electronic structure at a buried interface with SWARPES. • Adding depth resolution to photoemission microscopy with standing-wave excitation. • Standing-wave localization, total reflection and waveguide effects. - Abstract: Over the past decade, standing-wave photoemission (SW-XPS) has evolved into a powerful and versatile non-destructive technique for probing element-specific electronic, magnetic, and structural properties of buried layers and interfaces with sub-nanometer depth resolution. In this article, I will discuss several promising future directions in this emergent field stemming from experimental and theoretical studies wherein SW-XPS is combined with other X-ray techniques, such as magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES), angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), and photoemission microscopy (PEEM), adding extra dimensions to the measurement and thus widening the scope of scientific and technological questions accessible via the use of standing waves. I will further discuss examples of recently developed methods for X-ray standing-wave data analysis, which yield layer-resolved matrix-element-weighted densities of states at interfaces as well as Ångstrom-level changes in periodicity of synthetic superlattices. Finally, I will explore the possibility of localizing the standing waves near the surface and within a buried layer by the use of aperiodic superlattices, total reflection, and X-ray waveguide effects

  20. Free-Standing, Flexible, Superomniphobic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Hamed; Wang, Wei; Movafaghi, Sanli; Kota, Arun K

    2016-08-31

    Fabrication of most superomniphobic surfaces requires complex process conditions or specialized and expensive equipment or skilled personnel. In order to circumvent these issues and make them end-user-friendly, we developed the free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films. These films can be stored and delivered to the end-users, who can readily attach them to virtually any surface (even irregular shapes) and impart superomniphobicity. The hierarchical structure, the re-entrant texture, and the low solid surface energy render our films superomniphobic for a wide variety of liquids. We demonstrate that our free-standing, flexible, superomniphobic films have applications in enhanced chemical resistance and enhanced weight bearing.

  1. [Occupational standing vibration rate and vibrational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnaukh, N G; Vyshchipan, V F; Haumenko, B S

    2003-12-01

    Occupational standing vibration rate is proposed in evaluating a degree of impairment of an organism activity. It will allow more widely to introduce specification of quality and quantity in assessment of the development of vibrational disease. According out-patient and inpatient obtained data we have established criterial values of functional changes in accordance with accumulated occupational standing vibration rate. The nomogram was worked out for defining a risk of the development of vibrational disease in mine workers. This nomogram more objectively can help in diagnostics of the disease.

  2. Stand alone photovoltaic systems: guarantee of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This study aims to provide a guarantee of results for system performance for users of stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) systems, which have no back-up generator. The appropriate main performance criterion for PV systems is that a specified load is supplied with power either continuously or intermittently whenever the load requires power. A methodology to evaluate the power availability of stand-alone PV systems has been developed as part of the project, which encompasses power losses due to weather variations. The guarantee of results produced allows users to compare system designs from different manufacturers. (UK)

  3. Using a standing-tree acoustic tool to identify forest stands for the production of mechanically-graded lumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Normand; Auty, David; Carter, Peter; Achim, Alexis

    2013-03-12

    This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR) lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada) selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF). Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41). Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber.

  4. Development and field test of psychophysical tests for DWI arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Administration and scoring procedures were standardized for a sobriety test battery consisting of the walk-and-turn test, the one leg stand test, and horizontal gaze nystagmus. The effectiveness of the standardized battery was then evaluated in the l...

  5. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  6. Long standing intra oral acid burn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, V.V.; Ebenezer, S.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2015-01-01

    Oral burn due to ingestion of corrosive substances can bring about debilitating consequences. It often brings mortality, and the survivors can have severe impairment of functions, especially in relation to the stomatognathic and gastrointestinal systems. This article presents a long-standing case

  7. Estimating white trunk rot in aspen stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan C. Jones; Michael E. Ostry

    1998-01-01

    Advanced decay caused by Phellinus tremulae was estimated in 295 trembling aspen on 30 plots in 2 Minnesota counties using existing inventory guides, and then measured by felling and sectioning the trees. In standing trees, decay volume was underestimated by 38% compared to measured decay volume in felled trees. The most reliable external indicator...

  8. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  9. Direct sampling for stand density index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2008-01-01

    A direct method of estimating stand density index in the field, without complex calculations, would be useful in a variety of silvicultural situations. We present just such a method. The approach uses an ordinary prism or other angle gauge, but it involves deliberately "pushing the point" or, in some cases, "pulling the point." This adjusts the...

  10. Ranking Thinning Potential of Lodgepole Pine Stands

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents models for predicting edge-response of dominant and codominant trees to clearing. Procedures are given for converting predictions to a thinning response index, for ranking stands for thinning priority. Data requirements, sampling suggestions, examples of application, and suggestions for management use are included to facilitate use as a field guide.

  11. IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tattersall, Colin; Manderveld, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    Tattersall, C. & Manderveld, J. (2004) IMS Learning Design: De stand van zaken In: Gorissen, P., Manderveld, J., Benneker, F. & Cordewener, B. Leertechnologie in de Lage Landen (pp. 31-33). Utrecht, Stichting Surf. Ook beschikbaar in dspace: http://hdl.handle.net/1820/270

  12. Construction alternatives for free-standing facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G

    1990-01-01

    Many hospitals are exploring free-standing facilities as an option for providing more efficient imaging services. Mr. Brown discusses the pros and cons of an emerging building technology, manufactured construction, in which building and site preparation are done simultaneously. He presents the criteria managers should use to make a knowledgeable decision.

  13. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  14. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  15. Standing stability evaluation using a triaxial accelerometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Mayagoitia, R.E.; Lötters, Joost Conrad; Lotters, Joost Conrad; Veltink, Petrus H.

    1996-01-01

    A triaxial accelerometer is placed at the back of the subject at the height of the center of mass. Force plate data are collected simultaneously. Subjects stand in a comfortable position with eyes open, eyes closed and doing cognitive tasks; and with feet together with eyes open and closed. The

  16. Standing on the shoulders of giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanovsky, Andrej A

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, the author explains that the journal Temperature stands on the shoulders of giants-prominent scientists of the past and current members of the Temperature community. Temperature also uses the best tools, such as Google Scholar profiles. The editorial includes a new puzzle: why does warm water freeze faster than cold water?

  17. The ambiguity of standing in standing devices: a qualitative interview study concerning children and parents experiences of the use of standing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Birgitta; Näslund, Annika; Ekenberg, Lilly; Zingmark, Karin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe children's and parents' experiences of the significance of standing in a standing device. Individual interviews were performed with six children/teenagers (aged 7-19 years) and 14 parents. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The analysis resulted in the major theme, the duality of uprightness and the related themes: (1) the instrumental dimension of standing; (2) the social dimension of standing; and (3) the ambivalent dimension of standing. Each of the themes comprised several subthemes. There is an inherent duality related to the use of a standing device. Standing in a standing device was seen as a treatment of body structures and functions, as well as a possible source of pain. Standing was considered to influence freedom in activities and participation both positively and negatively. The parents experienced that standing influenced other peoples' views of their child, while the children experienced standing as a way to extend the body and as something that gave them benefits in some activities. Physiotherapists working with children should take into account both the social and physical dimensions of using a standing device and consider both the child's and the parents' views.

  18. Status of Cryogenic System for Spallation Neutron Source's Superconducting Radiofrequency Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ting; Casagrande, Fabio; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Strong, William Herb

    2011-01-01

    Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) is building an independent cryogenic system for its Superconducting Radiofrequency Test Facility (SRFTF). The scope of the system is to support the SNS cryomodule test and cavity test at 2-K (using vacuum pump) and 4.5K for the maintenance purpose and Power Upgrade Project of SNS, and to provide the part of the cooling power needed to backup the current CHL to keep Linac at 4.5-K during CHL maintenance period in the future. The system is constructed in multiple phases. The first phase is to construct an independent 4K helium refrigeration system with helium Dewar and distribution box as load interface. It is schedule to be commissioned in 2013. Here we report the concept design of the system and the status of the first phase of this project.

  19. Sit to stand activity during stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Andy; Dawson, Jesse; Robertson, Chris; Rowe, Philip; Quinn, Terence J

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The sit to stand (STS) movement is key to independence and commonly affected by stroke. Repetitive practice is likely to improve STS ability during rehabilitation, however current practice levels are unknown. The objective of this study was simply to count the number of STS movements performed during the rehabilitation period of stroke patients using a physical activity monitor (PAM) and test whether being observed altered outcome. Methods Participants were medically stable patients referred for rehabilitation following stroke. Participants were randomly allocated to either wear or not wear the PAM for 14 days. STS ability and general mobility were recorded before and after. Results Sixty-one patients was recruited; aged 68.4 ± 13.15 years, weight 77.12 ± 22.73 Kg, Height 1.67 ± 0.1 m, within 9 ± 9 days of their stroke and an NIHSS score of 6.4 ± 3.3. The monitored group (n = 38) performed 25.00 ± 17.24 daily STS movements. Those requiring assistance achieved 14.29 ± 16.10 per day while those independent in the movement achieved 34.10 ± 12.44. There was an overall improvement in mobility (p = 0.002) but not STS performance (p = 0.053) neither outcome was affected by group allocation (p = 0.158). Cognition and mobility at baseline explained around 50% of daily STS variability. Discussion Low levels of STS activity were recorded during the rehabilitation period of stroke patient. The mean daily STS activity was lower than reports for frail older people receiving rehabilitation, and substantially below levels recorded by community living older adults. STS repetitions may represent general physical activity and these low levels support previous reports of sedentary behavior during rehabilitation.

  20. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028financial analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  1. Transformation of solar radiation in Norway spruce stands into produced biomass - the effect of stand density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marková, I.; Marek, M.V.; Pokorný, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper is focused on the assessment of the effects of stand density and leaf area development on radiation use efficiency in the mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand. The young even-aged (17-years-old in 1998) plantation of Norway spruce was divided into two experimental plots differing in their stand density in 1995. During the late spring of 2001 next cultivating high-type of thinning of 15% intensity in a reduction of stocking density was performed. The PAR regime of investigated stands was continually measured since 1992. Total aboveground biomass (TBa) and TBa increment were obtained on the basis of stand inventory. The dynamic of LAI development showed a tendency to be saturated, i.e. the LAI value close to 11 seems to be maximal for the local conditions of the investigated mountain cultivated Norway spruce stand in the Beskids Mts. Remarkable stimuli (up to 17%) of LAI formation were started in 2002, i.e. as an immediate response to thinning. Thus, the positive effect of thinning on LAI increase was confirmed. The data set of absorbed PAR and produced TBa in the period 1998-2003 was processed by the linear regression of Monteith's model, which provided the values of the coefficient of solar energy conversion efficiency into biomass formation. The differences in biomass formation values between the dense and sparse plot after thinning amounted to 18%

  2. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Trevor [University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee 37388 (United States); Polzin, Kurt A. [NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  3. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  4. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  5. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measurements...... were synchronized with video recording of the liquefaction process from the side. The ranges of the various quantities in the experiments were wave height H= 5.9-12.0 cm, wave period T= 1.09s, and water depth h=30 cm. The experiments show that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although...... qualitatively similar, show features different from that caused by progressive waves. The pore water pressure builds up (or accumulated) in the areas around the node and subsequently spreads out toward the antinodes. The experimental results imply that this transport is caused by a diffusion mechanism...

  6. Modeling natural regeneration biomass of Pinus stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cubas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reliable biomass data are very important in the evaluation of ecosystems, and help in understanding the contribution of forests in climate change. Variables that describe the size of the tree, like diameter and height are directly associated with biomass, which allows the use of regression models to estimate this element. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate by regression models, the biomass of different compartments of natural regeneration of trees of a Pinus taeda L. stand. The data were obtained through direct destructive method, using 100 randomly selected trees in the understory of a stand of Pinus taeda. We analyzed three arithmetical models, three logarithmic and two models developed by Stepwise process. Logarithmic equations developed by Stepwise procedure showed the best estimates of total and stems biomass. However, for needles and twigs compartments the best adjust was observed with Husch model and for root biomass Berkhout model proved to be the most suitable.

  7. The standing advisory group on safeguards implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennekens, J.H.F.

    1982-09-01

    In 1975 the Director General of the IAEA called together ten persons from member states with nuclear programs at varying stages of development to form the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation. The group was later expanded to twelve. The Director General asked the group to evaluate the technical objectives of Agency safeguards, assess the effectiveness and efficiency of specific safeguards operating methods in meeting these technical objectives, advise on techniques to be employed in safeguards operations, and recommend areas where further work is needed. This paper reviews the work of the Standing Advisory Group on Safeguards Implementation since its formation in 1975, summarizes the subjects that have been examined and the advice rendered, and outlines the problem areas requiring further study

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Balance Prediction Models for Sit-to-Stand Movement in the Sagittal Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar David Pena Cabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of balance control ability would become important in the rehabilitation training. In this paper, in order to make clear usefulness and limitation of a traditional simple inverted pendulum model in balance prediction in sit-to-stand movements, the traditional simple model was compared to an inertia (rotational radius variable inverted pendulum model including multiple-joint influence in the balance predictions. The predictions were tested upon experimentation with six healthy subjects. The evaluation showed that the multiple-joint influence model is more accurate in predicting balance under demanding sit-to-stand conditions. On the other hand, the evaluation also showed that the traditionally used simple inverted pendulum model is still reliable in predicting balance during sit-to-stand movement under non-demanding (normal condition. Especially, the simple model was shown to be effective for sit-to-stand movements with low center of mass velocity at the seat-off. Moreover, almost all trajectories under the normal condition seemed to follow the same control strategy, in which the subjects used extra energy than the minimum one necessary for standing up. This suggests that the safety considerations come first than the energy efficiency considerations during a sit to stand, since the most energy efficient trajectory is close to the backward fall boundary.

  9. Nonlinear theory of localized standing waves

    OpenAIRE

    Denardo, Bruce; Larraza, Andrés; Putterman, Seth; Roberts, Paul

    1992-01-01

    An investigation of the nonlinear dispersive equations of continuum mechanics reveals localized standing-wave solutions that are domain walls between regions of different wave number. These states can appear even when the dispersion law is a single-valued function of the wave number. In addition, we calculate solutions for kinks in cutoff and noncutoff modes, as well as cutoff breather solitons. Division of Engineering and Geophysics of the Office of Basic Energy Science of U.S. DOE for su...

  10. Strategies for equilibrium maintenance during single leg standing on a wobble board

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Priscila de Brito; Oliveira, Anderson Souza; Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and compare movement strategies used to maintain balance while single leg standing on either a firm surface (FS) or on a wobble board (WB). In 17 healthy men, retroreflective markers were positioned on the xiphoid process and nondominant lateral malleolus...... requires movement beyond the ankle strategy as described for the FS task. WB standing likely demands different biomechanical and neuromuscular control strategies, which has immediate implications for the significance of WB tests in contrast to FS balance tests. Differences in control strategies will also...

  11. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Effect of information feedback on training standing up following stroke: a pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosalyn; Ada, Louise; Dean, Catherine M; Preston, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    The ability to stand up is reduced following stroke. Traditional biofeedback is effective in improving the performance of lower limb activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of and potential for information feedback from a simple inexpensive device to improve the ability to stand up from a chair in people following stroke. A single-group study with pre-post measures design was used. Twenty people with hemiplegic stroke in inpatient rehabilitation received 10 sessions over 2 weeks of information feedback about foot placement during training of standing up. Progression involved increasing repetitions, increasing difficulty and fading feedback. Feasibility was determined by adherence, time taken, acceptability and safety. Clinical outcomes were the time taken to stand up, quality and foot position measured using the 5-Times-Sit-To-Stand-Test and carryover into daily activities measured by covert observation. The study was feasible with 97% of sessions completed, taking 19 (SD 6) to 25 (SD 10) minutes. Participants understood (4.6/5), found useful (4.6/5), challenging (4.4/5) and would recommend (4.7/5) the training. The time to stand up 5 times decreased by 24 (95% CI -48 to -1) s, and the quality of standing improved by 1.0/10.0 (95% CI 0.2 to 1.8). Carryover of the correct foot placement occurred to real life, with the beginning foot position correct 2.1/3.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.6) and end foot position correct 1.8/3.0 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.4) occasions. The training is feasible and has the potential to improve the ability to stand up.

  13. First Stage Acceptance Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-01

    This photograph shows the intense smoke and fire created by the five F-1 engines from a test firing of the Saturn V first stage (S-1C) in the S-1C test stand at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  14. Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stand structure and regeneration of harvested Araucaria araucana–Nothofagus stands in central Chile. Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo, Fernando Olave, Francisco Moreno, Sergio de Miguel, Margarita Clemente ...

  15. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  16. Tropical forest biomass estimation from truncated stand tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. J. R. Gillespie; S. Brown; A. E. Lugo

    1992-01-01

    Total aboveground forest biomass may be estimated through a variety of techniques based on commercial inventory stand and stock tables. Stand and stock tables from tropical countries commonly omit trees bellow a certain commercial limit.

  17. 21 CFR 880.2700 - Stand-on patient scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stand-on patient scale. 880.2700 Section 880.2700... Devices § 880.2700 Stand-on patient scale. (a) Identification. A stand-on patient scale is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to weigh a patient who is able to stand on the scale platform...

  18. Feasibility of progressive sit-to-stand training among older hospitalized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Petersen, Janne; Bean, Jonathan F

    2015-01-01

    hospitalization and once following discharge in their own homes. A structured interview including assessment of possible modifiers (cognitive status by the Short Orientation Memory test and mobility by the De Morton Mobility Index) was administered both on admission to the hospital and in the home setting...... was independent of cognitive status. Conclusions. We found a simple progression model for loaded sit-to-stands (STAND) feasible in acutely admitted older medical patients (≥65 yrs), based on our pre-specified criteria for feasibility....... and dose for older patients. Therefore, our aim was to test the feasibility of a progression model for loaded sit-to-stand training among older hospitalized patients. Methods. This is a prospective cohort study conducted as a feasibility study prior to a full-scale trial. We included twenty-four older...

  19. Dynamic QT Interval Changes from Supine to Standing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Audrey; Fournier, Anne; Dahdah, Nagib; Abrams, Dominic; Khairy, Paul; Abadir, Sylvia

    2018-01-01

    QT-interval variations in response to exercise-induced increases in heart rate have been reported in children and adults in the diagnosis of long QT syndrome (LQTS). A quick standing challenge has been proposed as an alternative provocative test in adults, with no pediatric data yet available. A standing test was performed in 100 healthy children (mean age, 9.7 ± 3.1 years) after 10 minutes in a supine position with continuous electrocardiographic recording. QT intervals were measured at baseline, at maximal heart rate, at maximal QT, and at each minute of a 5-minute recovery while standing. Measurements were taken in leads II/V 5 and were corrected for heart rate (QTc). On standing, the heart rate increased by 29 ± 10 beats per minute (bpm). The QT interval was similar at baseline and on standing (394 ± 34 ms vs 394 ± 34 ms; P = 1.0). However, QTc increased from 426 ± 21 to 509 ± 41 ms (P < 0.001). The 95th percentile for QTc at baseline and maximal heart rate was 457 ms and 563 ms, respectively. At 1 minute of recovery, the QT interval was shorter (375 ± 31 ms) compared with baseline (394 ± 34 ms; P < 0.001) and standing (394 ± 34 ms; P < 0.001). QTc reached baseline values after 1 minute of recovery and remained stable thereafter (423 ± 23 ms at 1 minute; 426 ± 22 ms at 5 minutes; P = 1.0). This first characterization of QTc changes on standing in children shows substantial alterations, which are greater than those seen in adults. Two-thirds of the children would have been misclassified as having LQTS by adult criteria, indicating the need to create child-specific standards. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship of stand age to streamwater nitrate in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; C. Wayne Martin

    1975-01-01

    Streamwater nitrate content of six watersheds during spring and summer was apparently related to stand age or age since disturbance. Nitrate concentration averaged 10.3 ppm right after cutting, dropped to a trace in medium-aged stands, and then rose again to a maximum of 4.8 ppm as stands became overmature.

  1. Production economics of harvesting young hardwood stands in central Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoxiang Li; Jingxin Wang; Gary W. Miller; Joe McNeel

    2004-01-01

    Three harvesting systems of chainsaw/cable skidder, fell-buncher/grapple skidder, and harvester/forwarder were simulated in harvesting three hardwood stands of 30 to 50 years old in central Appalachia. Stands were generated by using a stand generator and harvesting prescriptions included clearcut, shelterwood cut, selective cut, diameter limit cut, and crop tree...

  2. A 3D stand generator for central Appalachian hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Yaoxiang Li; Gary W. Miller

    2002-01-01

    A 3-dimensional (3D) stand generator was developed for central Appalachian hardwood forests. It was designed for a harvesting simulator to examine the interactions of stand, harvest, and machine. The Component Object Model (COM) was used to design and implement the program. Input to the generator includes species composition, stand density, and spatial pattern. Output...

  3. Effect of two Notebook stands on work posture and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könemann, R.; Kuijt-Evers, L.F.M.; Lingen, P. van; Sauvage, S.; Hallbeck, S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of using a notebook stand on the physical load when working with a notebook in a home environment. Sixteen subjects evaluated working with a notebook by performing three different tasks using two notebook stands and without using a notebook stand.

  4. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  5. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  6. Engineering, design and prototype tests of a 3.9 GHz transverse-mode superconducting cavity for a radiofrequency-separated kaon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark S. Champion et al.

    2001-01-01

    A research and development program is underway to construct superconducting cavities to be used for radiofrequency separation of a Kaon beam at Fermilab. The design calls for installation of twelve 13-cell cavities operating in the 3.9 GHz transverse mode with a deflection gradient of 5 MV/m. They present the mechanical, cryogenic and vacuum design of the cavity, cryomodule, rf power coupler, cold tuner and supporting hardware. The electromagnetic design of the cavity is presented in a companion paper by Wanzenberg and McAshan. The warm tuning system (for field flatness) and the vertical test system is presented along with test results of bench measurements and cold tests on single-cell and five-cell prototypes

  7. Commissioning and operation of the horizontal test apparatus at SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang-Ho [ORNL; Neustadt, Thomas S. [ORNL; Howell, Matthew P. [ORNL; Hannah, Brian S. [ORNL; Doleans, Marc [ORNL; Saunders, Jeffrey W. [ORNL

    2015-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) has built, commissioned and operated a Horizontal Test Apparatus (HTA) vessel in the Radiofrequency Test Facility (RFTF) test cave. It can be operated at 4.5 K using the independent Cryogenic Test Facility (CTF). The HTA is designed to be a single cavity version of an SNS cryomodule with the ability to demount and replace the cavity. It provides the functionality for testing a single dressed SNS medium or high beta Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) cavity. The HTA is currently being used in support of R&D for in-situ plasma processing of the cavity's inner niobium surface. The design and commissioning of the HTA at 4.5 K will be presented as well as results from operating the HTA including cool-down, warm-up and steady state operations. Results from plasma processing a warm SCRF cavity in-between cold HTA tests will also be reported.

  8. Methods for registration laser scanner point clouds in forest stands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienert, A.; Pech, K.; Maas, H.-G.

    2011-01-01

    Laser scanning is a fast and efficient 3-D measurement technique to capture surface points describing the geometry of a complex object in an accurate and reliable way. Besides airborne laser scanning, terrestrial laser scanning finds growing interest for forestry applications. These two different recording platforms show large differences in resolution, recording area and scan viewing direction. Using both datasets for a combined point cloud analysis may yield advantages because of their largely complementary information. In this paper, methods will be presented to automatically register airborne and terrestrial laser scanner point clouds of a forest stand. In a first step, tree detection is performed in both datasets in an automatic manner. In a second step, corresponding tree positions are determined using RANSAC. Finally, the geometric transformation is performed, divided in a coarse and fine registration. After a coarse registration, the fine registration is done in an iterative manner (ICP) using the point clouds itself. The methods are tested and validated with a dataset of a forest stand. The presented registration results provide accuracies which fulfill the forestry requirements [de

  9. Stand-alone photovoltaic applications. Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loois, G.; Van Hemert, B.

    1999-02-01

    The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R and D agreements established within the IEA. The objective of Task III is to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and experiences in the field of PV Systems in Stand-alone and Island Applications (SAPV). The book focuses on the practical experiences gained, and does not aim to provide a complete manual on SAPV. When Task III started its activities in 1993, a collection of 50 'State of the art' projects was published in the book 'Examples of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems'. This publication marked the base line for the work of the task. Now, in 1998, the showcases from each country demonstrate the lessons learned in five years of cooperation. The book consists of two parts. The first part contains eight chapters dealing with a specific aspect of stand-alone PV. The second part introduces 14 national showcase projects in a systematic presentation. Each chapter and showcase can be read independently from the rest of the book. Chapter 2, contributed by The Netherlands, analyses the market for stand-alone PV systems. It gives an overview of the 'traditional' application of stand-alone PV, which is the electrification of remote buildings and which has been addressed in depth in other publications. The focus is on the market niches of service applications that are also interesting for more densely populated areas, e.g. in industrialised countries. The United Kingdom illustrates the economic aspects in Chapter 3. Cost comparisons are made, but more important is the illustration of the non-financial considerations that make PV the preferred choice as a power source for many applications. Switzerland explores in Chapter 4 (financing aspects) different financing mechanisms, and financial policies used to overcome the initial cost barrier. Most of these approaches have been applied in developing countries rather than in the western world. Using various examples from all over the

  10. Modelling modulus of elasticity of Pinus pinaster Ait. in northwestern Spain with standing tree acoustic measurements, tree, stand and site variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Merlo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Modelling the structural quality of Pinus pinaster Ait. wood on the basis of measurements made on standing trees is essential because of the importance of the species in the Galician forestry and timber industries and the good mechanical properties of its wood. In this study, we investigated how timber stiffness is affected by tree and stand properties, climatic and edaphic characteristics and competition. Area of study: The study was performed in Galicia, north-western Spain.Material and methods: Ten pure and even-aged P. pinaster stands were selected and tree and stand variables and the stress wave velocity of 410 standing trees were measured. A sub-sample of 73 trees, representing the variability in acoustic velocity, were felled and sawed into structural timber pieces (224 which were subjected to a bending test to determine the modulus of elasticity (MOE. Main results: Linear models including wood properties explained more than 97%, 73% and 60% of the observed MOE variability at site, tree and board level, respectively, with acoustic velocity and wood density as the main regressors. Other linear models, which did not include wood density, explained more than 88%, 69% and 55% of the observed MOE variability at site, tree and board level, respectively, with acoustic velocity as the main regressor. Moreover, a classification tree for estimating the visual grade according to standard UNE 56544:2011 was developed. Research highlights: The results have demonstrated the usefulness of acoustic velocity for predicting MOE in standing trees. The use of the fitted equations together with existing dynamic growth models will enable preliminary assessment of timber stiffness in relation to different silvicultural alternatives used with this species.Keywords: stress wave velocity, modulus of elasticity, site index, competition index, stepwise regression, CART.

  11. Effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on the biomechanics of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand toilet transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Mehta-Desai, Ricky; Oh, Kyunggeune; Sanford, Jon; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2018-03-09

    Kinetic characteristics of transfers to and from a toilet performed using bilateral grab bars are not fully quantified to inform grab bar design and configuration. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on peaks of ankle, knee and hip joint moments during grab bar assisted stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers; and (2) determine effects of three different heights and widths of swing-away grab bars on the same kinetic characteristics. Healthy subjects (N = 11, age 25-58 years) performed stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers with and without grab bars. In transfers with grab bars, 9 grab bar configurations were tested by varying their height from the floor (0.787 m, 0.813 m, 0.838 m; 31″-33″) and width, the distance of each grab bar from the toilet's centerline (0.330 m, 0.356 m, 0.381 m; 13″-15″). Motion capture, force plate and inverse dynamics analysis were used to determine lower limb joint moments. The use of bilateral grab bars generally reduced the peak magnitude of extension moments at lower limb joints during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers (p away grab bars is useful for informing grab bar design and configuration recommendations for assisted living and skilled nursing facilities. Our findings suggest that the swing-away grab bars located at certain ranges are a reasonable alternative to the grab bars mandated by the current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Future research investigating the effects of grab bars on transfer performance should consider additional factors, such as a wider range of abilities and transfer methods of the users.

  12. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yonghao; McCrory, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Hunt, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Impaired standing balance has a detrimental effect on a person's functional ability and increases their risk of falling. There is currently no validated system which can precisely quantify center of pressure (COP), an important component of standing balance, while being inexpensive, portable and widely available. The Wii Balance Board (WBB) fits these criteria, and we examined its validity in comparison with the 'gold standard'-a laboratory-grade force platform (FP). Thirty subjects without lower limb pathology performed a combination of single and double leg standing balance tests with eyes open or closed on two separate occasions. Data from the WBB were acquired using a laptop computer. The test-retest reliability for COP path length for each of the testing devices, including a comparison of the WBB and FP data, was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (BAP) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Both devices exhibited good to excellent COP path length test-retest reliability within-device (ICC=0.66-0.94) and between-device (ICC=0.77-0.89) on all testing protocols. Examination of the BAP revealed no relationship between the difference and the mean in any test, however the MDC values for the WBB did exceed those of the FP in three of the four tests. These findings suggest that the WBB is a valid tool for assessing standing balance. Given that the WBB is portable, widely available and a fraction of the cost of a FP, it could provide the average clinician with a standing balance assessment tool suitable for the clinical setting. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Stand development and yields of Appalachian hardwood stands managed with single-tree selection for at least 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I Lamson; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1991-01-01

    Appalachian hardwood stands in West Virginia were managed for 30 or more years using single-tree selection regeneration practices. Stand yield data suggest that current stand growth will provide economical harvest cuts for several future cutting cycles. This case study indicates that the single-tree selection practice has potential for landowners who want to maintain...

  14. Stand quality management in a late-rotation, red oak-sweetgum stand in east Mississippi: preliminary results following thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; Daniel A. Skojac

    2012-01-01

    Stand quality management is a new management strategy in which thinning prescriptions are based solely on tree quality rather than a quantitative level of residual stand density. As long as residual density falls within fairly broad limits, prescriptions are based on tree quality alone. We applied four thinning prescriptions based on stand quality management, along...

  15. [Effects of crop tree release on stand growth and stand structure of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-qiang; Wang, Yi-xiang; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Ting-ting; Zhu, Xu-dan

    2015-02-01

    Crop trees were selected in a 26-year-old even-aged Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in Lin' an, and compared in plots that were released and unreleased to examine growth and structure responses for 3 years after thinning. Crop tree release significantly increased the mean increments of diameter and volume of individual tree by 1.30 and 1.25 times relative to trees in control stands, respectively. The increments of diameter and volume of crop trees were significantly higher than those of general trees in thinning plots, crop trees and general trees in control plots, which suggested that the responses from different tree types to crop tree release treatment were different. Crop tree release increased the average distances of crop trees to the nearest neighboring trees, reducing competition among crop trees by about 68.2%. 3-year stand volume increment for thinning stands had no significant difference with that of control stands although the number of trees was only 81.5% of the control. Crop trees in thinned plots with diameters over than 14 cm reached 18.0% over 3 years, compared with 12.0% for trees without thinning, suggesting that crop tree release benefited the larger individual trees. The pattern of tree locations in thinning plots tended to be random, complying with the rule that tree distribution pattern changes with growth. Crop tree release in C. lanceolata plantation not only promoted the stand growth, but also optimized the stand structure, benefiting crop trees sustained rapid growth and larger diameter trees production.

  16. Construction of an automated table standing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, R E; Barbero, M D; Di Giulio, E A; Folco, J F; Jiménez, G F

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  17. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  18. Glass temperatures in free-standing canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, B.J.; Hensel, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The waste-forms produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) are subject to the requirements of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The WAPS sets the maximum post cooldown temperature of the waste-form glass at 400 degrees C. This criterion must be satisfied for the ambient conditions and heat generation rates expected for the waste-forms. As part of the work described in task plan, WSRC-RP-93-1177, Rev. 0, a computer model was used to calculate the maximum glass temperatures in free standing wasteforms for a variety of ambient temperatures and heat generation rates

  19. Construction of an automated table standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, R. E.; Barbero, M. D.; Di Giulio, E. A.; Folco, J. F.; Jiménez, G. F.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  20. Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.

  1. Numerical Investigation of Three-dimensional Instability of Standing Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Liu, Yuming; Yue, Dick K. P.

    2002-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional instability of finite-amplitude standing waves under the influence of gravity using the transition matrix method. For accurate calculation of the transition matrices, we apply an efficient high-order spectral element method for nonlinear wave dynamics in complex domain. We consider two types of standing waves: (a) plane standing waves; and (b) standing waves in a circular tank. For the former, in addition to the confirmation of the side-band-like instability, we find a new three-dimensional instability for arbitrary base standing waves. The dominant component of the unstable disturbance is an oblique standing wave, with an arbitrary angle relative to the base flow, whose frequency is approximately equal to that of the base standing wave. Based on direct simulations, we confirm such a three-dimensional instability and show the occurrence of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence phenomenon during nonlinear evolution. For the latter, we find that beyond a threshold wave steepness, the standing wave with frequency Ω becomes unstable to a small three-dimensional disturbance, which contains two dominant standing-wave components with frequencies ω1 and ω_2, provided that 2Ω ω1 + ω_2. The threshold wave steepness is found to decrease/increase as the radial/azimuthal wavenumber of the base standing wave increases. We show that the instability of standing waves in rectangular and circular tanks is caused by third-order quartet resonances between base flow and disturbance.

  2. Regional Instability in the Abundance of Open Stands in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rija Rapanoela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2 covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.. The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated

  3. Propeller Test Facilities Â

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Three electrically driven whirl test stands are used to determine propeller (or other rotating device) performance at various rotational speeds. These...

  4. Acute effects of rearfoot manipulation on dynamic standing balance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassinger, Craig A; Rockett, Ariel; Pitman, Lucas; Murphy, Matthew Matt; Peters, Charles

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic standing balance is essential to perform functional activities and is included in the treatment of many lower extremity injuries. Physiotherapists utilize many methods to restore standing balance including stability exercises, functional retraining, and manual therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a rearfoot distraction manipulation on dynamic standing balance. Twenty healthy participants (age: 24.4 ± 2.8 years; height: 162.9 ± 37.7 cm; mass: 68.0 ± 4.8 kg; right leg dominant = 20) completed this study. Following familiarization, dynamic standing balance was assessed during: (1) an experimental condition immediately following a rearfoot distraction manipulation, and (2) a control condition. Dominant leg balance was quantified using the Y-balance test which measures lower extremity reach distances. Reach distances were normalized to leg length and measured in the anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral directions. Overall balance was calculated through the summing of all normalized directions. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon rank tests were used to compare balance scores for parametric and non-parametric data as appropriate. Significance was set at 0.05 a priori. Effect size (ES) was calculated to determine the clinical impact of the manipulation. Increased reach distances (indicating improved balance) were noted following manipulation for overall balance (p = 0.03, ES = 0.26) and in the posteromedial direction (p = 0.01, ES = 0.42). Reach distances did not differ for the anterior (p = 0.11, ES = 0.16) or posterolateral (p = 0.11, ES = 0.25) components. Dynamic standing balance improved after a rearfoot distraction manipulation in healthy participants. It is hypothesized that manual therapy applied to the foot and ankle may be beneficial to augment other therapeutic modalities when working with patients to improve dynamic standing balance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of Standing-Tree Volume Estimates Based on McClure Mirror Caliper Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel D. Cost

    1971-01-01

    The accuracy of standing-tree volume estimates, calculated from diameter measurements taken by a mirror caliper and with sectional aluminum poles for height control, was compared with volume estimates calculated from felled-tree measurements. Twenty-five trees which varied in species, size, and form were used in the test. The results showed that two estimates of total...

  6. Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I, Acoustic wave behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Peter Carter

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic wave velocities in standing trees or live softwood species were measured by the time-of-flight (TOF) method. Tree velocities were compared with acoustic velocities measured in corresponding butt logs through a resonance acoustic method. The experimental data showed a skewed relationship between tree and log acoustic measurements. For most trees tested,...

  7. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  8. 11kW stand alone wind turbine based on proven wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindner, H.; Wodstrup, J.; Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    and enable control of frequency and voltage independently on both the grid side and the generator side. The prototype has been installed at Risø. The paper will present results from test runs of the system both operating stand-alone supplying a single load and in parallel operation with a diesel genset....

  9. Effect of temperature on Acoustic Evaluation of standing trees and logs: Part 2: Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan Gao; Xiping Wang; Lihai Wang; R. Bruce Allison

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of seasonal temperature changes on acoustic velocity measured on standing trees and green logs and to develop models for compensating temperature differences because acoustic measurements are performed in different climates and seasons. Field testing was conducted on 20 red pine (Pinus resinosa...

  10. Neural network modelling of rainfall interception in four different forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Yurtseven

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal whether it is possible to predict rainfall, through fall and stem flow in forest ecosystems with less effort, using several measurements of rainfall interception (hereafter ‘interception’ and an artificial neural network based linear regression model (ANN model. To this end, the Kerpe Research Forest in the province of Kocaeli, which houses stands of mixed deciduous-broadleaf forest (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagusorientalis Lipsky, Quercus spp., black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don, was selected study site. Four different forest stands were observed for a period of two years, during which rainfall, throughfall and stemflow measurements were conducted. These measurements were separately calculated for each individual stand, based on interception values and the use of stemflow data in strict accordance with the rainfall data, and the measured throughfall interceptionvalues were compared with values estimated by the ANN model.In this comparison, 70% of the total data was used for testing, and 30% was used for estimation and performance evaluation. No significant differences were found between values predicted with the help of the model and the measured values. In other words, interception values predicted by the ANN models were parallel with the measured values. In this study, the most success was achieved with the models of the Monterey pine stand (r2 = 0.9968; Mean Squared Error MSE = 0.16 and the mixed deciduous forest stand (r2 = 0.9964; MSE = 0.08, followed by models of the maritime pine stand (r2 = 0.9405; MSE = 1.27 and the black pine stand (r2 = 0.843, MSE = 17.36.

  11. Neural network modelling of rainfall interception in four different forest stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Yurtseven

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal whether it is possible to predict rainfall, throughfall and stemflow in forest ecosystems with less effort, using several measurements of rainfall interception (hereafter ‘interception’ and an artificial neural network based linear regression model (ANN model. To this end, the Kerpe Research Forest in the province of Kocaeli, which houses stands of mixed deciduous-broadleaf forest (Castanea sativa Mill., Fagus orientalis Lipsky, Quercus spp., black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton and Monterey pine (Pinus radiata D. Don, was selected study site. Four different forest stands were observed for a period of two years, during which rainfall, throughfall and stemflow measurements were conducted. These measurements were separately calculated for each individual stand, based on interception values and the use of stemflow data in strict accordance with the rainfall data, and the measured throughfall interception values were compared with values estimated by the ANN model. In this comparison, 70% of the total data was used for testing, and 30% was used for estimation and performance evaluation. No significant differences were found between values predicted with the help of the model and the measured values. In other words, interception values predicted by the ANN models were parallel with the measured values. In this study, the most success was achieved with the models of the Monterey pine stand (r2 = 0.9968; Mean Squared Error MSE = 0.16 and the mixed deciduous forest stand (r2 = 0.9964; MSE = 0.08, followed by models of the maritime pine stand (r2 = 0.9405; MSE = 1.27 and the black pine stand (r2 = 0.843, MSE = 17.36.

  12. Modelling Variable Fire Severity in Boreal Forests: Effects of Fire Intensity and Stand Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquelajauregui, Yosune; Cumming, Steven G; Gauthier, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    It is becoming clear that fires in boreal forests are not uniformly stand-replacing. On the contrary, marked variation in fire severity, measured as tree mortality, has been found both within and among individual fires. It is important to understand the conditions under which this variation can arise. We integrated forest sample plot data, tree allometries and historical forest fire records within a diameter class-structured model of 1.0 ha patches of mono-specific black spruce and jack pine stands in northern Québec, Canada. The model accounts for crown fire initiation and vertical spread into the canopy. It uses empirical relations between fire intensity, scorch height, the percent of crown scorched and tree mortality to simulate fire severity, specifically the percent reduction in patch basal area due to fire-caused mortality. A random forest and a regression tree analysis of a large random sample of simulated fires were used to test for an effect of fireline intensity, stand structure, species composition and pyrogeographic regions on resultant severity. Severity increased with intensity and was lower for jack pine stands. The proportion of simulated fires that burned at high severity (e.g. >75% reduction in patch basal area) was 0.80 for black spruce and 0.11 for jack pine. We identified thresholds in intensity below which there was a marked sensitivity of simulated fire severity to stand structure, and to interactions between intensity and structure. We found no evidence for a residual effect of pyrogeographic region on simulated severity, after the effects of stand structure and species composition were accounted for. The model presented here was able to produce variation in fire severity under a range of fire intensity conditions. This suggests that variation in stand structure is one of the factors causing the observed variation in boreal fire severity.

  13. Science stand-up at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie McClellan

    2013-01-01

    Supported by host Helen Keen from BBC4’s "It is Rocket Science", six amateur performers from CERN (Sam Gregson, Alex Brown, Benjamin Frisch, Claire Lee, Hugo Day and Clara Nellist) were joined on stage by geek-pop sensation Jonny Berliner and comedians Pierre Novellie and Lieven Scheire for a night of science stand-up comedy.   Host Helen Keen starts off the comedy event. (Image: Piotr Traczyk). Like the genesis of most great things, the LHComedy event began as an idea. Sam Gregson, a PhD student at CERN, had been a regular at the Cambridge Bright Club. This public engagement event promotes scientists’ research through stand-up comedy. Sam thought, “If people came to watch Bright Club at Cambridge and enjoyed the research, why can’t we do it at the biggest scientific experiment in the world?” Sam’s idea gained momentum after being introduced to FameLab participants at CERN. Similar to Bright Club, FameLab is a com...

  14. The effect of medial arch support over the plantar pressure and triceps surae muscle strength after prolonged standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hindun Saadah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The activity with prolonged standing position is one of the causes of abnormalities in the lower leg and foot. The aim of this study is to discover the effect of medial arch support over the distribution of plantar pressure when standing and walking.Methods: This was an experimental study with pre- and post-design the strength of triceps surae muscle after prolonged standing, was also evaluated in an experimental study with pre- and post-design. Variables of plantar pressure measurement are the contact area and pressure peak were measured by using the Mat-scan tool. The measurement of the triceps surae muscle strength was done with a hand-held dynamometer, before and after using the medial arch support. Measurement was performed before and after working with prolonged standing position which took place about seven hours using the medial arch support inserted in the shoes. Data was analyzed using paired T-test.Results: There was a significant difference of peak pressure between standing (p = 0.041 and walking (p = 0.001. Whereas the contact area showed a significant decrease in the width of the contact area when standing (104.12 ± 12.42 vs 99.08 ± 10.21 p = 0.023. Whereas, the triceps surae muscle strength pre- and post-standing prolonged did not indicate a significant difference.Conclusion: There was decrease in peak pressure when standing and walking and decrease in contact area when standing on plantar after used of the medial arch support after prolonged standing.

  15. Spin-stand imaging of overwritten data and its comparison with magnetic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayergoyz, I. D.; Tse, C.; Krafft, C.; Gomez, R. D.

    2001-01-01

    A new technique of magnetic imaging on a spin-stand [Mayergoyz , J. Appl. Phys. 87, 6824 (2000)] is further developed and extensively tested. The results of successful imaging of digital patterns overwritten with misregistration ranging from 0.3 to 0.07 μm are reported. The results are compared with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) images and the conclusion is reached that the spin-stand imaging technique can provide (at least) the same level of resolution and accuracy as the MFM imaging technique. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Sapwood area ofPinus contorta stands as a function of mean size and density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, James N; Dean, Thomas J

    1986-09-01

    An indirect test of the relationship between leaf area and the combination of mean size and density is made in stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.). Total sapwood cross-sectional area of these stands is a function of the product of density and mean diameter raised to an exponent of about 1.6. Results from other studies, representing four species, suggest that this relationship between sapwood area and the combination of mean size and density may be general. The implications of the relationship are discussed in the context of evapotranspiration, competition and self-thinning.

  17. Rehabilitation of Understocked Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands - I. Recently Cutover Natural Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker; Michael G. Shelton

    1998-01-01

    A 1988 USDA Forest Service report indicated that 22% (40 million ac) of the commercial timberland in the South was understocked (less than 60% stocking) with desirable tree species for timber production (USDA Forest Service 1988). The understocked stands are usually the result of past har-vesting practices, natural catastrophes, or regeneration fail-ures. Understocked...

  18. Transmission components of solar radiation in pine stands in relation to climatic and stand variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Muller

    1971-01-01

    In a new approach, transmission was studied by relating to stand biomass the ratio of incoming solar radiation beneath tree crowns to that within the atmosphere. Several assumptions were used to estimate analytically the various ways in which solar radiation penetrates through crowns of three pine species in northern California. Sunflecks accounted for much of the...

  19. Stand characteristics of 65-year-old planted and naturally regenerated stands near Sequim, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson

    1995-01-01

    Tree numbers, height, and volume were determined in six 63- to 66-year-old plantations of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in northwest Washington. These stands resulted from the first extensive plantings of this species in the Pacific Northwest. Data from 0.25-acre plots in these...

  20. Competency to stand trial: rationalism, "contextualism" and other modest theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Brakel, S

    2003-01-01

    Determinations of competency to stand trial in criminal cases are complicated and rendered unpredictable by two sub-surface issues that are rarely articulated: (i) the place of the defendant's rationality in the substantive standard(s) for competency and (ii) the level or degree of incompetency required to stop the criminal process. The rare references to these issues, mostly indirect, that are made in the cases, commentary, and competency testing instruments devised (including those civil as well as criminal) are examined. The conclusion that emerges is that the level of capacity and rationality required of the defendant depends much on context-the type of case, its relative complexity, and the values and stakes implicated in the outcome. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.