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Sample records for crustal solid-state plasma

  1. Achievement of solid-state plasma fusion ('Cold-Fusion')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arata, Yoshiaki; Zhang, Yue-Chang

    1995-01-01

    Using a 'QMS' (Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer), the authors detected a significantly large amount (10 20 -10 21 [cm -3 ]) of helium ( 2 4 He), which was concluded to have been produced by a deuterium nuclear reaction within a host solid. These results were found to be fully repeatable and supported the authors' proposition that solid state plasma fusion ('Cold Fusion') can be generated in energetic deuterium Strongly Coupled Plasma ('SC-plasma'). This fusion reaction is thought to be sustained by localized 'Latticequake' in a solid-state media with the deuterium density equivalent to that of the host solid. While exploring this basic proposition, the characteristic differences when compared with ultra high temperature-state plasma fusion ('Hot Fusion') are clarified. In general, the most essential reaction product in both types of the deuterium plasma fusion is considered to be helium, irrespective of the 'well-known and/or unknown reactions', which is stored within the solid-state medium in abundance as a 'Residual Product', but which generally can not enter into nor be released from host-solid at a room temperature. Even measuring instruments with relatively poor sensitivity should be able to easily detect such residual helium. An absence of residual helium means that no nuclear fusion reaction has occurred, whereas its presence provides crucial evidence that nuclear fusion has, in fact, occurred in the solid. (author)

  2. Trends of studies in some aspects of solid state plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Of late, there is a discernible trend to study solid state plasmas. Such a study, by itself, constitutes a broad class of problems but those with dominantly utilitarian aspects have not hitherto been studied in abundance. The utility stems from the nature of media, namely, piezoelectric media or strictly speaking, piezoelectric semiconducting media, in which amplification of waves or otherwise has to be reckoned for wothwhile pursuits in regard to energy conversions. There are both theoretical and experimental dimensions to such studies. The present study restricts itself only to theoretical work. A chronological sequence of extent studies enables one to get at the right perspective. Basic equations along with formulations are set forth. Thermopiezosemiconducting media are also considered on the above lines. Salients and snags of erstwhile studies are pointed out. Possible directions of developments of such studies together with techniques to which they may become amenable are also indicated. (author)

  3. The Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries via Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS has been successfully used to produce all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLibs. Both regular and functionally graded electrodes are implemented into novel three-layer and five-layer battery designs together with solid-state composite electrolyte. The electrical capacities and the conductivities of the SPS-processed ASSLibs are evaluated using the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Experimental results have shown that, compared to the three-layer battery, the five-layer battery is able to improve energy and power densities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is employed to examine the microstructures of the batteries especially at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces. It reveals that the functionally graded structure can eliminate the delamination effect at the electrode–electrolyte interface and, therefore, retains better performance.

  4. Reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Da-Jin; Park, Jang-Soon; Kim, Cheol Ho; Hur, Jae; Kim, Choong-Ki; Cho, Young-Kyun; Ko, Jun-Bong; Park, Bonghyuk; Kim, Dongho; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2017-12-08

    This paper describes the fabrication and characterization of a reconfigurable Yagi-Uda antenna based on a silicon reflector with a solid-state plasma. The silicon reflector, composed of serially connected p-i-n diodes, forms a highly dense solid-state plasma by injecting electrons and holes into the intrinsic region. When this plasma silicon reflector is turned on, the front-realized gain of the antenna increases by more than 2 dBi beyond 5.3 GHz. To achieve the large gain increment, the structure of the antenna is carefully designed with the aid of semiconductor device simulation and antenna simulation. By using an aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate with high thermal conductivity, self-heating effects from the high forward current in the p-i-n diode are efficiently suppressed. By comparing the antenna simulation data and the measurement data, we estimated the conductivity of the plasma silicon reflector in the on-state to be between 10 4 and 10 5  S/m. With these figures, silicon material with its technology is an attractive tunable material for a reconfigurable antenna, which has attracted substantial interest from many areas, such as internet of things (IoT) applications, wireless network security, cognitive radio, and mobile and satellite communications as well as from multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems.

  5. Characterization of Nanophosphors for Solid State Lighting Devices Grown by Microwave Plasma Assisted Deposition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Jedidiah; Merlak, Marek; Witanachchi, Sarath

    2013-03-01

    Increasingly, greenhouse farming and urban agriculture are being looked at as a more efficient and more cost effective way to grow produce. Currently the lights used in greenhouses rely on light sources that emit a broad spectrum of light. However, only light at wavelengths around 460 nm (blue) and 670 nm (red) are absorbed by most plants for photosynthesis. Solid state lighting devices can be engineered to produce light to match the needs of the plant while reducing the energy cost. An investigation into the photoluminescence properties of the nanophosphor La2O3 doped with Bi was done in an effort to produce a phosphor emitting in blue wavelengths. The La2O3:Bi coatings were grown using a microwave plasma growth process. Microwave power and chamber pressure were varied to find the optimum synthesis conditions. Power was varied from 100Watts to 900Watts and chamber pressure was varied from 30Torr to 60Torr. The process utilized O2 and CO2 plasma. The nanophosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and photoluminescent spectroscopy. Photoluminescence was shown to be higher from samples synthesized in a CO2 plasma.

  6. Solid state alloying by plasma nitriding and diffusion annealing treatment for austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, C.E.; Vatavuk, J.; Oliveira, S.D. de; Tschiptschin, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitrogen has been added to stainless steels to improve mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. High nitrogen steel production is limited by high gas pressure requirements and low nitrogen solubility in the melt. One way to overcome this limitation is the addition of nitrogen in solid state because of its higher solubility in austenite. However, gas and salt bath nitriding have been done at temperatures around 550 C, where nitrogen solubility in the steel is still very low. High temperature nitriding has been, thus proposed to increase nitrogen contents in the steel but the presence of oxide layers on top of the steel is a barrier to nitrogen intake. In this paper a modified plasma nitriding process is proposed. The first step of this process is a hydrogen plasma sputtering for oxide removal, exposing active steel surface improving nitrogen pickup. This is followed by a nitriding step where high nitrogen contents are introduced in the outermost layer of the steel. Diffusion annealing is then performed in order to allow nitrogen diffusion into the core. AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel was plasma nitrided and diffusion annealed at 1423K, for 6 hours, with 0.2 MPa nitrogen pressure. The nitrided steel presented ∝60 μm outermost compact layer of (Fe,Cr) 3 N and (Fe,Cr) 4 N with 11 wt.% N measured by surface depth profiling chemical analysis - GDS system. During the annealing treatment the nitride layer was dissolved and nitrogen diffused to the core of the sample leaving more even nitrogen distribution into the steel. Using this technique one-millimetre thick sample were obtained having high nitrogen content and uniform distribution through the thickness. (orig.)

  7. Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.

    1988-10-01

    We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs

  8. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Vanmeensel, Kim; Vleugels, Jef; Dewulf, Wim; Deng, Yelin; Duflou, Joost R

    2014-08-06

    Recently, "meltless" recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS) is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I) to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II) to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al) alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  9. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  10. Application of atmospheric-pressure plasma jet processed carbon nanotubes to liquid and quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuok, Fei-Hong; Kan, Ken-Yuan; Yu, Ing-Song; Chen, Chieh-Wen; Hsu, Cheng-Che; Cheng, I.-Chun; Chen, Jian-Zhang

    2017-12-01

    We use a dc-pulse nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) to calcine carbon nanotubes (CNTs) pastes that are screen-printed on carbon cloth. 30-s APPJ treatment can efficiently oxidize and vaporize the organic binders, thereby forming porous structures. As indicated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), the oxygen content decreases after APPJ treatment owing to the oxidation and vaporization of ethyl cellulose, terpineol, and ethanol. Nitrogen doping was introduced to the materials by the nitrogen APPJ. APPJ-calcination improves the wettability of the CNTs printed on carbon cloth, as evidenced by water contact angle measurement. Raman spectroscopy indicates that reactive species of nitrogen APPJ react violently with CNTs in only 30-s APPJ processing time and introduce defects and/or surface functional groups on CNTs. Carbon cloths with calcined CNT layers are used as electrodes for liquid and quasi-solid-state electrolyte supercapacitors. Under a cyclic voltammetry test with a 2 mV/s potential scan rate, the specific capacitance is 73.84 F/g (areal capacitance = 5.89 mF/cm2) with a 2 M KCl electrolyte and 66.47 F/g (areal capacitance = 6.10 mF/cm2) with a H2SO4/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte.

  11. Solid-State 13C NMR Spectroscopy Applied to the Study of Carbon Blacks and Carbon Deposits Obtained by Plasma Pyrolysis of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair C. C. Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy was used in this work to analyze the physical and chemical properties of plasma blacks and carbon deposits produced by thermal cracking of natural gas using different types of plasma reactors. In a typical configuration with a double-chamber reactor, N2 or Ar was injected as plasma working gas in the first chamber and natural gas was injected in the second chamber, inside the arc column. The solid residue was collected at different points throughout the plasma apparatus and analyzed by 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, using either cross polarization (CP or direct polarization (DP, combined with magic angle spinning (MAS. The 13C CP/MAS NMR spectra of a number of plasma blacks produced in the N2 plasma reactor showed two resonance bands, broadly identified as associated with aromatic and aliphatic groups, with indication of the presence of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups in the aliphatic region of the spectrum. In contrast to DP experiments, only a small fraction of 13C nuclei in the plasma blacks are effectively cross-polarized from nearby 1H nuclei and are thus observed in spectra recorded with CP. 13C NMR spectra are thus useful to distinguish between different types of carbon species in plasma blacks and allow a selective study of groups spatially close to hydrogen in the material.

  12. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  13. Solid state radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, P.R.

    1976-01-01

    Important recent developments provide accurate, sensitive, and reliable radiation measurements by using solid state radiation dosimetry methods. A review of the basic phenomena, devices, practical limitations, and categories of solid state methods is presented. The primary focus is upon the general physics underlying radiation measurements with solid state devices

  14. 30 kV/10 mA solid state anode modulator for gyrotron plasma heating: design issues and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasel, D.; Lucia, C.; Ganuza, D.; Doyharzabal, I.

    2001-01-01

    Three 30 kV/10 mA solid state pulsed modulators have been delivered to the CRPP in Lausanne, by the company JEMA. Each modulator supplies the anode grid of a triode type gyrotron, used for heating purpose at the third harmonic in the TCV Tokamak. The main parameters of the final design are: the use of solid state technology, a floating output referred to the -80 kV of the gyrotron cathode potential, an output voltage range of -5 to 30 kV, 1 kHz square and sinusoidal modulation, fast switching off to -5 kV (10 μs) and pulsed operation (duty cycle of 1%). After studying and testing a solution based on regulated Mosfet transistors in series, a more stable alternative has been adopted. The final topology consists of a rectifier fed from an insulated 230 V input, a chopper, two inverter steps (for +30 and -5 kV) supplying two diode rectifiers bridges through HV transformers with two switches which commute the load to the positive or negative voltage, connected in series. This article presents the most significant aspects of the design, with special emphasis on the control principle. The final results will be presented in the context of normal operation, supplying a triode gyrotron

  15. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  16. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics, International Edition covers the fundamentals and the advanced concepts of solid state physics. The book is comprised of 18 chapters that tackle a specific aspect of solid state physics. Chapters 1 to 3 discuss the symmetry aspects of crystalline solids, while Chapter 4 covers the application of X-rays in solid state science. Chapter 5 deals with the anisotropic character of crystals. Chapters 6 to 8 talk about the five common types of bonding in solids, while Chapters 9 and 10 cover the free electron theory and band theory. Chapters 11 and 12 discuss the effects of moveme

  17. Theoretical solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Research activities at ORNL in theoretical solid state physics are described. Topics covered include: surface studies; particle-solid interactions; electronic and magnetic properties; and lattice dynamics

  18. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Li, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Shiou; Su, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Tien-Hsiang; Hsu, Sheng-Chuan; Wu, Jin-Yu; Jan, Der-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC) layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT) of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  19. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  20. Solid State Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces

  1. Solid State Division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  2. 20 kA PFN capacitor bank with solid-state switching. [pulse forming network for plasma studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posta, S. J.; Michels, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    A compact high-current pulse-forming network capacitor bank using paralleled silicon controlled rectifiers as switches is described. The maximum charging voltage of the bank is 1kV and maximum load current is 20 kA. The necessary switch equalization criteria and performance with dummy load and an arc plasma generator are described.

  3. The solid state maser

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W; Walling, J C; Ter Haar, D

    1970-01-01

    The Solid State Maser presents readings related to solid state maser amplifier from the first tentative theoretical proposals that appeared in the early 1950s to the successful realization of practical devices and their application to satellite communications and radio astronomy almost exactly 10 years later. The book discusses a historical account of the early developments (including that of the ammonia maser) of solid state maser; the properties of paramagnetic ions in crystals; the development of practical low noise amplifiers; and the characteristics of maser devices designed for communica

  4. Theoretical solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 1 focuses on the study of solid state physics. The volume first takes a look at the basic concepts and structures of solid state physics, including potential energies of solids, concept and classification of solids, and crystal structure. The book then explains single-electron approximation wherein the methods for calculating energy bands; electron in the field of crystal atoms; laws of motion of the electrons in solids; and electron statistics are discussed. The text describes general forms of solutions and relationships, including collective electron i

  5. Understanding solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Holgate, Sharon Ann

    2009-01-01

    Where Sharon Ann Holgate has succeeded in this book is in packing it with examples of the application of solid state physics to technology. … All the basic elements of solid state physics are covered … . The range of materials is good, including as it does polymers and glasses as well as crystalline solids. In general, the style makes for easy reading. … Overall this book succeeds in showing the relevance of solid state physics to the modern world … .-Contemporary Physics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2011I was indeed amused and inspired by the wonderful images throughout the book, carefully selected by th

  6. Solid State Grid Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    This program was for the design, construction and test of two Solid State Grid Modulators to provide enhanced performance and improved reliability in existing S-band radar transmitters at the Rome Research Site...

  7. Solid-state circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, G J

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Circuits provides an introduction to the theory and practice underlying solid-state circuits, laying particular emphasis on field effect transistors and integrated circuits. Topics range from construction and characteristics of semiconductor devices to rectification and power supplies, low-frequency amplifiers, sine- and square-wave oscillators, and high-frequency effects and circuits. Black-box equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, physical equivalent circuits of bipolar transistors, and equivalent circuits of field effect transistors are also covered. This volume is divided

  8. Solid-State Nanopore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhishan Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solid-state nanopore has captured the attention of many researchers due to its characteristic of nanoscale. Now, different fabrication methods have been reported, which can be summarized into two broad categories: “top-down” etching technology and “bottom-up” shrinkage technology. Ion track etching method, mask etching method chemical solution etching method, and high-energy particle etching and shrinkage method are exhibited in this report. Besides, we also discussed applications of solid-state nanopore fabrication technology in DNA sequencing, protein detection, and energy conversion.

  9. Solid state theory

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Walter A

    2011-01-01

    ""A well-written text . . . should find a wide readership, especially among graduate students."" - Dr. J. I. Pankove, RCA.The field of solid state theory, including crystallography, semi-conductor physics, and various applications in chemistry and electrical engineering, is highly relevant to many areas of modern science and industry. Professor Harrison's well-known text offers an excellent one-year graduate course in this active and important area of research. While presenting a broad overview of the fundamental concepts and methods of solid state physics, including the basic quantum theory o

  10. Solid State Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-15

    15, 324 (1993). 3. L . Wallman , J. Drott, J. Nilsson, and T. Laurell, 8th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and...unlimited. BTIG QUA1ETY IHSESCTBH) l This report is based on studies performed at Lincoln Laboratory, a center for research operated by Massachusetts...analyzer. 34 7-1 Fully depleted transistor results for 50-nm silicon-on-insulator thickness and W/ L = 7/0.25 fjm: (a) n-channel characteristic curves, (b

  11. Scan-Mode Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Jet Processed Reduced Graphene Oxides for Quasi-Solid-State Gel-Electrolyte Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyah R. Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A scanning atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ is essential for high-throughput large-area and roll-to-roll processes. In this study, we evaluate scan-mode APPJ for processing reduced graphene oxides (rGOs that are used as the electrodes of quasi-solid-state gel-electrolyte supercapacitors. rGO nanoflakes are mixed with ethyl cellulose (EC and terpineol to form pastes for screen-printing. After screen-printing the pastes on carbon cloth, a DC-pulse nitrogen APPJ is used to process the pastes in the scan mode. The maximal temperature attained is ~550 °C with a thermal influence duration of ~10 s per scan. The pastes are scanned by APPJ for 0, 1, 3 and 5 times. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicates the reduction of C-O binding content as the number of scan increases, suggesting the oxidation/decomposition of EC. The areal capacitance increases and then decreases as the number of scan increases; the best achieved areal capacitance is 15.93 mF/cm2 with one APPJ scan, in comparison to 4.38 mF/cm2 without APPJ processing. The capacitance retention rate of the supercapacitor with the best performance is ~93% after a 1000-cycle cyclic voltammetry (CV test. The optimal number of APPJ scans should enable the proper removal of inactive EC and improved wettability while minimizing the damage caused to rGOs by nitrogen APPJ processing.

  12. Plasmas in the atmosphere, tectonics and earthquake: a possible link for the crustal diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, V.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect in the crustal surmise is the potential link between luminous phenomena and the earthquake . The study want to added data to this new geophysics concepts. The method is based on the comparison approach and consist in the data connection on a field in the area of Po Plain (Italy) with professional equipment: cameras, video cameras, spectroscopes, ELF / VLF receivers, Geiger counters and EM fields detectors. The Luminous phenomena sighting is compared 24/7 online with INGV and USGS database. The results show the formation of 2 types of plasma near the soil: Spheroidal shape, yellow-orange, constant brightness, sudden appearances, elevation from the ground between 10 ° -20 °, no noise, no wake emitted, estimated size about 2m, and duration of few seconds. Spheroidal shape, intense red fuzzy coloration, constant brightness, sudden appearances and fast movements in a linear fashion or slow movements, elevation from the ground between 2° to 7 °, no noise, no waves emitted, estimated dimensions over 2m, with a duration from a few seconds to a few minutes. We suppose that the formation of gas, also radioactive such as radon, and the electric charges necessary to trigger plasma, are related to the crustal stress. The rocks are exposed to important tectonics efforts and the outcome is the air ionizations near the soil that produce plasma if there are gas. The appearance of plasma forerun the earthquake that will happen some days later. The Anomalous Luminous phenomena may be related to tectonic activity, and the area of investigation can become a "lab" for research in Physics and Geology for the crustal diagnosis of pre-seismic phase.

  13. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Grosso, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Physics is a textbook for students of physics, material science, chemistry, and engineering. It is the state-of-the-art presentation of the theoretical foundations and application of the quantum structure of matter and materials. This second edition provides timely coverage of the most important scientific breakthroughs of the last decade (especially in low-dimensional systems and quantum transport). It helps build readers' understanding of the newest advances in condensed matter physics with rigorous yet clear mathematics. Examples are an integral part of the text, carefully de

  14. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  15. Solid state mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Solid State Mechanics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France) is presented. The research program domains are the following: investigations concerning the stability and bifurcation of the reversible or irreversible mechanical systems, the problems related to the theoretical and experimental determination of the materials rheological properties, the fatigue crack formation and propagation in multiple-axial stress conditions, the expert systems, and the software applied in the reinforced earth structures dimensioning. Moreover, the published papers, the books, the congress communications, the thesis, and the patents are listed [fr

  16. Solid state optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  17. Solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of Solid State Physics is to introduce college seniors and first-year graduate students in physics, electrical engineering, materials science, chemistry, and related areas to this diverse and fascinating field. I have attempted to present this complex subject matter in a coherent, integrated manner, emphasizing fundamental scientific ideas to give the student a strong understanding and ""feel"" for the physics and the orders of magnitude involved. The subject is varied, covering many important, sophisticated, and practical areas, which, at first, may appear unrelated but which ar

  18. Solid state magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Crangle, John

    1991-01-01

    Solid state magnetism is important and attempts to understand magnetic properties have led to an increasingly deep insight into the fundamental make up of solids. Both experimental and theoretical research into magnetism continue to be very active, yet there is still much ground to cover before there can be a full understanding. There is a strong interplay between the developments of materials science and of magnetism. Hundreds of new materials have been dis­ covered, often with previously unobserved and puzzling magnetic prop­ erties. A large and growing technology exists that is based on the magnetic properties of materials. Very many devices used in everyday life involve magnetism and new applications are being invented all the time. Under­ standing the fundamental background to the applications is vital to using and developing them. The aim of this book is to provide a simple, up-to-date introduction to the study of solid state magnetism, both intrinsic and technical. It is designed to meet the needs a...

  19. Luminescence and the solid state

    CERN Document Server

    Ropp, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the transistor in 1948, the study of the solid state has been burgeoning. Recently, cold fusion and the ceramic superconductor have given cause for excitement. There are two approaches possible to this area of science, namely, that of solid state physics and solid state chemistry, although both overlap extensively. The former is more concerned with electronic states in solids (including electromagnetics) whereas the latter is more concerned with interactions of atoms in solids. The area of solid state physics is well documented, however, there are very few texts which de

  20. Solid State Air Purification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The solid state air purification project will explore feasibility of a new air purification system based on a liquid membrane, capable of purifying carbon dioxide...

  1. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1996-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering, written from an industrial perspective, discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has extensively been updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, mode locking, ultrashort-pulse generation etc. Walter Koechner received a doctorate in Electrical Engineering from the University of Technology in Vienna, Austria, in 1965. He has published numerous papers in the fields of solid-state physics, optics, and lasers. Dr. Koechner is founder and president of Fibertek, Inc., a research firm specializing in the design, development, and production of advanced solid-state lasers, optical radars, and remote-sensing systems.

  2. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1988-01-01

    Solid-State Laser Engineering is written from an industrial perspective and discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction and practical problems of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations, with a phenomenological treatment using modelsbeing preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. This new edition has been updated and revised to include important developments, concepts and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first edition.

  3. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Solid-State Laser Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Written from an industrial perspective, Solid-State Laser Engineering discusses in detail the characteristics, design, construction, and performance of solid-state lasers. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations; phenomenological aspects using models are preferred to abstract mathematical derivations. Since its first edition almost 30 years ago this book has become the standard in the field of solid-state lasers for scientists,engineers and graduate students. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated to account for recent developments in the areas of diode-laser pumping, laser materials and nonlinear crystals. Completely new sections have been added dealing with frequency control, the theory of mode-locking, femto second lasers, high efficiency harmonic generation, passive and acousto-optic Q-switching, semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM) and peridically poled nonlinear crystals.

  5. Solid-state lithium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  6. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  7. Solid state physics for metallurgists

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Metal Physics and Physical Metallurgy, Volume 6: Solid State Physics for Metallurgists provides an introduction to the basic understanding of the properties that make materials useful to mankind. This book discusses the electronic structure of matter, which is the domain of solid state physics.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the electronic structure of free atoms and the electronic structure of solids. This text then examines the basis of the Bloch theorem, which is the exact periodicity of the potential. Other chapters consider the fundamental assumption in

  8. Introduction to solid state electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, FFY

    1989-01-01

    This textbook is specifically tailored for undergraduate engineering courses offered in the junior year, providing a thorough understanding of solid state electronics without relying on the prerequisites of quantum mechanics. In contrast to most solid state electronics texts currently available, with their generalized treatments of the same topics, this is the first text to focus exclusively and in meaningful detail on introductory material. The original text has already been in use for 10 years. In this new edition, additional problems have been added at the end of most chapters. These proble

  9. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    It gives us immense pleasure to present this Special Issue of the Proceedings of the Indian. Academy of Sciences (Chemical Sciences) to mark the Silver Jubilee of the Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute ...

  10. Solid State and Materials Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and Structural Chemistry Unit (SSCU), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. This Unit was created by Professor C N R Rao, FRS, at the Institute in 1976, to give a major thrust to the then emerging discipline of solid state and structural chemistry. Over the years, the Unit has grown from strength to strength under the dynamic.

  11. High efficient ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks by PW-ps laser pulses for producing fusion flames in DT and HB11 of solid state density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaizis, S.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks in the range of 1020 cm/s2 has been confirmed experimentally after this was long predicted as a non-thermal direct conversion of optical energy into plasma motion due to dominating nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces [1]. The use of laser pulses of more than PW power and ps or shorter duration can ignite a nuclear fusion flame in solid density deuterium tritium because the necessary energy flux of >108J/cm2 according to the theory of Chu [2] is available [3]. For the studies of the necessary velocities of the generated fusion flames above 1000 km/s the detailed processes can be analyzed by using the advanced genuine two-fluid hydrodynamic model [4] where it was surprising that the ignition of the fusion flame by the picosecond interaction needs a comparably long development in the nanosecond range before the thermal processes result in shock fronts similar to the Rakine-Hugoniot theory. For the evaluation of power generation the problem of lateral energy losses was studied by using very high pulsed magnetic fields. The recently produced 10 Kilotesla magnetic fields [5] are very promising for solutions.

  12. Solid-state laser engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Koechner, Walter

    1992-01-01

    This book is written from an industrial perspective and provides a detailed discussion of solid-state lasers, their characteristics, design and construction. Emphasis is placed on engineering and practical considerations. The book is aimed mainly at the practicing scientist or engineer who is interested in the design or use of solid-state lasers, but the comprehensive treatment of the subject will make the work useful also to students of laser physics who seek to supplement their theoretical knowledge with engineering information. In order to present the subject as clearly as possible, phenomenological descriptions using models have been used rather than abstract mathematical descriptions. This results in a simplified presentation. The descriptions are enhanced by the inclusion of numerical and technical data, tables and graphs. This new edition has been updated and revised to take account of important new developments, concepts, and technologies that have emerged since the publication of the first and second...

  13. Solid-state membrane module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John Howard [Salt Lake City, UT; Taylor, Dale M [Murray, UT

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  14. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  15. Solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, J.A.; Carvalho, M.L.C.P. de

    1992-12-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) are dielectric materials, crystalline or vitreous, which registers tracks of charged nuclear particles, like alpha particles or fission fragments. Chemical etching of the detectors origin tracks that are visible at the optical microscope: track etching rate is higher along the latent track, where damage due to the charged particle increase the chemical potential, and etching rate giving rise to holes, the etched tracks. Fundamental principles are presented as well as some ideas of main applications. (author)

  16. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  17. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  18. New materials for solid state electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferloni, P.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia; Magistris, A.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia

    1994-01-01

    Solid state electrochemistry is an interdisciplinary area, undergoing nowadays a fast development. It is related on the one hand to chemistry, and on the other hand to crystallography, solid state physics and materials science. In this paper structural and electrical properties of some families of new materials interesting for solid state electrochemistry are reviewed. Attention is focused essentially on ceramic and crystalline materials, glasses and polymers, displaying high ionic conductivity and potentially suitable for various applications in solid state electrochemical devices. (orig.)

  19. The Oxford solid state basics

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Steven H

    2013-01-01

    The study of solids is one of the richest, most exciting, and most successful branches of physics. While the subject of solid state physics is often viewed as dry and tedious this new book presents the topic instead as an exciting exposition of fundamental principles and great intellectual breakthroughs. Beginning with a discussion of how the study of heat capacity of solids ushered in the quantum revolution, the author presents the key ideas of the field while emphasizing the deepunderlying concepts. The book begins with a discussion of the Einstein/Debye model of specific heat, and the Drude

  20. Solid State Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Solid-State Theory - An Introduction is a textbook for graduate students of physics and material sciences. It stands in the tradition of older textbooks on this subject but takes up new developments in theoretical concepts and materials which are connected with such path breaking discoveries as the Quantum-Hall Effects, the high-Tc superconductors, and the low-dimensional systems realized in solids. Thus besides providing the fundamental concepts to describe the physics of electrons and ions of which the solid consists, including their interactions and the interaction with light, the book casts a bridge to the experimental facts and opens the view into current research fields.

  1. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.

    1993-01-01

    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  2. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  3. Solid state chemistry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    West, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and its Applications, 2nd Edition: Student Edition is an extensive update and sequel to the bestselling textbook Basic Solid State Chemistry, the classic text for undergraduate teaching in solid state chemistry worldwide. Solid state chemistry lies at the heart of many significant scientific advances from recent decades, including the discovery of high-temperature superconductors, new forms of carbon and countless other developments in the synthesis, characterisation and applications of inorganic materials. Looking forward, solid state chemistry will be crucial for the

  4. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated

  5. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  6. Inside Solid State Drives (SSDs)

    CERN Document Server

    Micheloni, Rino; Eshghi, Kam

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Drives (SSDs) are gaining momentum in enterprise and client applications, replacing Hard Disk Drives (HDDs) by offering higher performance and lower power. In the enterprise, developers of data center server and storage systems have seen CPU performance growing exponentially for the past two decades, while HDD performance has improved linearly for the same period. Additionally, multi-core CPU designs and virtualization have increased randomness of storage I/Os. These trends have shifted performance bottlenecks to enterprise storage systems. Business critical applications such as online transaction processing, financial data processing and database mining are increasingly limited by storage performance. In client applications, small mobile platforms are leaving little room for batteries while demanding long life out of them. Therefore, reducing both idle and active power consumption has become critical. Additionally, client storage systems are in need of significant performance improvement as well ...

  7. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  8. Solid state radiation detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A solid state radiation flux detector system utilizes a detector element, consisting of a bar of semiconductor having electrical conductance of magnitude dependent upon the magnitude of photon and charged particle flux impinging thereon, and negative feedback circuitry for adjusting the current flow through a light emitting diode to facilitate the addition of optical flux, having a magnitude decreasing in proportion to any increase in the magnitude of radiation (e.g. x-ray) flux incident upon the detector element, whereby the conductance of the detector element is maintained essentially constant. The light emitting diode also illuminates a photodiode to generate a detector output having a stable, highly linear response with time and incident radiation flux changes

  9. Einstein and solid-state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aut, I.

    1982-01-01

    A connection between the development of solid-state physics and the works and activity of Albert Einstein is traced. A tremendous Einstein contribution to solid state physics is marked. A strict establishment of particle-wave dualism; a conclusion about the applicability of the Plank radiation law not only to black body radiation; finding out particles indistinguishability - all three discoveries have a principle significance for solid state physics too

  10. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  11. High Energy Solid State Laser Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A suite of laboratories with advanced spectroscopic and laser equipment, this facility develops materials and techniques for advanced solid state high energy lasers....

  12. Macroscopic modelling of solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogschagen, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation is different from the more well known process of liquid fermentation because no free flowing water is present. The technique is primarily used in Asia. Well-known products are the foods tempe, soy sauce and saké. In industrial solid-state fermentation, the substrate usually

  13. Nylon 6 polymerization in the solid state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaymans, R.J.; Amirtharaj, John; Kamp, Henk

    1982-01-01

    The postcondensation of nylon 6 in the solid state was studied. The reactions were carried out on fine powder in a fluidized bed reactor in a stream of dry nitrogen in the temperature range 110-205°C and during 1-24 h. The solid-state polymerization (SSP) did not follow melt kinetics, but was found

  14. Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, B; Granata, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.

  15. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  16. Silicon solid state devices and radiation detection

    CERN Document Server

    Leroy, Claude

    2012-01-01

    This book addresses the fundamental principles of interaction between radiation and matter, the principles of working and the operation of particle detectors based on silicon solid state devices. It covers a broad scope with respect to the fields of application of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices from low to high energy physics experiments including in outer space and in the medical environment. This book covers stateof- the-art detection techniques in the use of radiation detectors based on silicon solid state devices and their readout electronics, including the latest developments on pixelated silicon radiation detector and their application.

  17. Solid-state devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Rhys

    1971-01-01

    Solid-State Devices and Applications is an introduction to the solid-state theory and its devices and applications. The book also presents a summary of all major solid-state devices available, their theory, manufacture, and main applications. The text is divided into three sections. The first part deals with the semiconductor theory and discusses the fundamentals of semiconductors; the kinds of diodes and techniques in their manufacture; the types and modes of operation of bipolar transistors; and the basic principles of unipolar transistors and their difference with bipolar transistors. The s

  18. High Power Solid State Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-07

    Chen, D. Cline, M. A. Gundersen, C. Joshi, T. Katsouleas, J. Norem , S. Rajagopalan, J. Rosenzweig, J. J. Su, R. Williams, 1991 Particle Accelerator...plasma lenses for linear colliders," J. Norem , W. Gai, R. Konecny, S. Mitingwa, J. Rosenzweig, J. Simpson, P. Schoessow, D. Cline, T. Katsouleas, C. Joshi... Norem , S. Rajagopalan, J. Rosenzweig, J. J. Su, R. Williams, 1991 Particle Accelerator Conference, San Francisco, CA, May 6-9, 1991. "Optically gated

  19. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiquinonate ligand, form as long thin needles that are observed to bend reversibly upon irradiation with NIR light. Crystallographic characterization reveals a stacked solid state lattice with planar molecules aligned with metal atoms atop one another.

  20. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  1. Developments in Solid-State NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reso/020/11/1040-1052. Keywords. NMR; solid state; anisotropy; magic angle spinning dipolar coupling; quadrupolar coupling; chemical shift. Author Affiliations. K V Ramanathan1. NMR Research Center, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru ...

  2. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Zarkadoula, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6138 (United States); Todorov, I. T. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 1EP (United Kingdom); Geisler, T. [Steinmann-Institut für Geologie, Mineralogie und Paläontologie, University of Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Brazhkin, V. V. [Institute for High Pressure Physics, RAS, 142190 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  3. Advanced Solid State Lighting for Human Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lighting intensity and color have a significant impact on human circadian rhythms.  Advanced solid state lighting was developed for the Advanced Exploration System...

  4. Microfluidic multiplexing of solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tarun; Rasera, Benjamin C.; Guerrero, Ricardo Jose S.; Lim, Jong-Min; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-12-01

    Although solid-state nanopores enable electronic analysis of many clinically and biologically relevant molecular structures, there are few existing device architectures that enable high-throughput measurement of solid-state nanopores. Herein, we report a method for microfluidic integration of multiple solid-state nanopores at a high density of one nanopore per (35 µm2). By configuring microfluidic devices with microfluidic valves, the nanopores can be rinsed from a single fluid input while retaining compatibility for multichannel electrical measurements. The microfluidic valves serve the dual purpose of fluidic switching and electric switching, enabling serial multiplexing of the eight nanopores with a single pair of electrodes. Furthermore, the device architecture exhibits low noise and is compatible with electroporation-based in situ nanopore fabrication, providing a scalable platform for automated electronic measurement of a large number of integrated solid-state nanopores.

  5. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) is a simple, reliable, low-cost, non-propulsive system for deliberate deorbit and control of downrange point-of-impact that...

  6. Solid State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James D

    2007-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid State Physics, even though Condensed Matter Physics is more commonly used. Condensed Matter Physics includes liquids and non-crystalline solids such as glass, which we shall not discuss in detail. Modern Solid State Physics came of age in ...

  7. Solid-state dynamics of uranyl polyoxometalates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, Todd M.; Liao, Zuolei; Zakharov, Lev N.; Nyman, May

    2014-01-01

    Understanding fundamental uranyl polyoxometalate (POM) chemistry in solution and the solid state is the first step to defining its future role in the development of new actinide materials and separation processes that are vital to every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Many solid-state geometries of uranyl POMs have been described, but we are only beginning to understand their chemical behavior, which thus far includes the role of templates in their self-assembly, and the dynamics of encapsulated species in solution. This study provides unprecedented detail into the exchange dynamics of the encapsulated species in the solid state through Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy. Although it was previously recognized that capsule-like molybdate and uranyl POMs exchange encapsulated species when dissolved in water, analogous exchange in the solid state has not been documented, or even considered. Here, we observe the extremely high rate of transport of Li + and aqua species across the uranyl shell in the solid state, a process that is affected by both temperature and pore blocking by larger species. These results highlight the untapped potential of emergent f-block element materials and vesicle-like POMs. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Nanostructured Solid State Devices introduces readers to theories and concepts such as semi-classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of electron transport, methods for calculations of band structures in solids with applications in calculation of optical constants, and other advanced concepts.  The information presented here will equip readers with the necessary tools to carry out cutting edge research in modern solid state nanodevices. This book also: Covers sophisticated models of charge transport including the drift-diffusion model, Boltzmann transport model and various quantum transport models Discusses the essential elements of quantum mechanics necessary for an understanding of nanostructured solid state devices Presents band structure calculation methods based on time-independent perturbation theory Discusses theory of optical transitions and optical devices employing quantum-confined structures such as quantum wells,wires and dots Elucidates quantum mechanics of electrons in a magneti...

  9. Solid state physics principles and modern applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2018-01-01

    This book provides the basis for a two-semester graduate course on solid-state physics. The first half presents all the knowledge necessary for a one-semester survey of solid-state physics, but in greater depth than most introductory solid state physics courses. The second half includes most of the important research over the past half-century, covering both the fundamental principles and most recent advances. This new edition includes the latest developments in the treatment of strongly interacting two-dimensional electrons and discusses the generalization from small to larger systems. The book provides explanations in a class-tested tutorial style, and each chapter includes problems reviewing key concepts and calculations. The updated exercises and solutions enable students to become familiar with contemporary research activities, such as the electronic properties of massless fermions in graphene and topological insulators.

  10. Driver circuit for solid state light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred; Denvir, Kerry; Allen, Steven

    2016-02-16

    A driver circuit for a light source including one or more solid state light sources, a luminaire including the same, and a method of so driving the solid state light sources are provided. The driver circuit includes a rectifier circuit that receives an alternating current (AC) input voltage and provides a rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a switching converter circuit coupled to the light source. The switching converter circuit provides a direct current (DC) output to the light source in response to the rectified AC voltage. The driver circuit also includes a mixing circuit, coupled to the light source, to switch current through at least one solid state light source of the light source in response to each of a plurality of consecutive half-waves of the rectified AC voltage.

  11. Physical Acoustics in the Solid State

    CERN Document Server

    Lüthi, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Suitable for researchers and graduate students in physics and material science, "Physical Acoustics in the Solid State" reviews the modern aspects in the field, including many experimental results, especially those involving ultrasonics. Practically all fields of solid-state physics are covered: metals, semiconductors, magnetism, superconductivity, different kinds of phase transitions, low-dimensional systems, and the quantum Hall effect. After a review of the relevant experimental techniques and an introduction to the theory of elasticity, emphasizing the symmetry aspects, applications in the various fields of condensed matter physics are presented. Also treated are Brillouin-scattering results and results from thermodynamic investigations, such as thermal expansion and specific heat.

  12. An introduction to solid state diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Borg, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The energetics and mechanisms of diffusion control the kinetics of such diverse phenomena as the fabrication of semiconductors and superconductors, the tempering of steel, geological metamorphism, the precipitation hardening of nonferrous alloys and corrosion of metals and alloys. This work explains the fundamentals of diffusion in the solid state at a level suitable for upper-level undergraduate and beginning graduate students in materials science, metallurgy, mineralogy, and solid state physics and chemistry. A knowledge of physical chemistry such as is generally provided by a one-year under

  13. Nanographite Films for Solid State Electronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Lebedev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure and properties of nanographite films useful for applications in solid state devices are described. The possibility to use low conducting state of nanographite film for detecting radiation in the segmented solid state detectors is considered. Other interesting phenomena include the field effect conductivity switching which can be used in contactless current limiters and circuit breakers, the rf-to-dc conversion which can be utilized in microwave and photo detectors, and light emitting subsequent to the conductivity switching with possible application as light sources. The possible underlying gears of the mentioned effects are discussed.

  14. Handbook of Applied Solid State Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Vij, D. R

    2006-01-01

    Solid-State spectroscopy is a burgeoning field with applications in many branches of science, including physics, chemistry, biosciences, surface science, and materials science. Handbook of Applied Solid-State Spectroscopy brings together in one volume information about various spectroscopic techniques that is currently scattered in the literature of these disciplines. This concise yet comprehensive volume covers theory and applications of a broad range of spectroscopies, including NMR, NQR, EPR/ESR, ENDOR, scanning tunneling, acoustic resonance, FTIR, auger electron emission, x-ray photoelectron emission, luminescence, and optical polarization, and more. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals and current methods and procedures, together with the latest applications and developments in the field.

  15. Ultrasonic methods in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Truell, John; Elbaum, Charles

    1969-01-01

    Ultrasonic Methods in Solid State Physics is devoted to studies of energy loss and velocity of ultrasonic waves which have a bearing on present-day problems in solid-state physics. The discussion is particularly concerned with the type of investigation that can be carried out in the megacycle range of frequencies from a few megacycles to kilomegacycles; it deals almost entirely with short-duration pulse methods rather than with standing-wave methods. The book opens with a chapter on a classical treatment of wave propagation in solids. This is followed by separate chapters on methods and techni

  16. Mechanochemically assisted room temperature solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    also known to induce nucleation leading to new products. (Stojanovic et al 2005). However, solid state reactions occurring under mechanochemical influence taking place at room temperature are rare (Xian et al 1991). In this communication, we report the formation of divalent molyb- dates through mechanochemically ...

  17. Thermal management of solid state lighting module

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.

    2014-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL), powered by Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs), is an energy-efficient technology for lighting systems. In contrast to incandescent lights which obtain high efficiency at high temperatures, the highest efficiency of LEDs is reached at low temperatures. The thermal management in

  18. Solid state aspects of oxidation catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellings, P.J.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The main subject of this review is the consideration of catalytic oxidation reactions, which are greatly influenced by solid state effects in the catalyst material. Emphasis is laid upon the correlation between the presence of mobile ionic defects, together with the associated ionic conductivity,

  19. Electrochemical investigations related to solid state magnesium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Investigations leading to the understanding and development of solid state magnesium batteries are considered important, as Mg is free from hazards and is also highly stable and abundant. A gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of about 100 mm thickness is investigated for electrochemical reversibility of the Mg/Mg2+ couple and ...

  20. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  1. by a solid-state metathesis approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. A solid-state metathesis approach initiated by microwave energy has been successfully applied for the synthesis of orthovanadates, M3V2O8 (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba). The structural, vibrational, thermal, optical and chemical properties of synthesized powders are determined by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning ...

  2. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Ionic conduction; solid state; atomistic computer simulations; NASICON structure. 1. Introduction. There exist many solids with .... The other skeleton structures examined in- cludes that of the high-pressure-stabilized cubic Im3 ..... volves solution of the coupled differential equations. (11) and (12). This gives the time evolution ...

  3. Solid State Electrochemical DeNOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The literature on direct electrochemical reduction of NOx in a solid state cell has been reviewed. It is shown that that the reduction of nitric oxide either occurs on the electrode or on the electrolyte if F-centers are formed. It is also shown that some oxide based electrodes has a high apparent...

  4. Bending crystals. Solid state photomechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    properties of quinone complexes in the solid state. 2. Photomechanical property of Rh(CO)2(3,6-DBSQ). Many of the important features of quinone complexes are derived from a similarity in energy between metal-valence and quinone π* orbitals. This property is responsible for intense, low-energy charge transfer transitions ...

  5. Nanoscale solid-state cooling: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziabari, Amirkoushyar; Zebarjadi, Mona; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Shakouri, Ali

    2016-09-01

    The recent developments in nanoscale solid-state cooling are reviewed. This includes both theoretical and experimental studies of different physical concepts, as well as nanostructured material design and device configurations. We primarily focus on thermoelectric, thermionic and thermo-magnetic coolers. Particular emphasis is given to the concepts based on metal-semiconductor superlattices, graded materials, non-equilibrium thermoelectric devices, Thomson coolers, and photon assisted Peltier coolers as promising methods for efficient solid-state cooling. Thermomagnetic effects such as magneto-Peltier and Nernst-Ettingshausen cooling are briefly described and recent advances and future trends in these areas are reviewed. The ongoing progress in solid-state cooling concepts such as spin-calorimetrics, electrocalorics, non-equilibrium/nonlinear Peltier devices, superconducting junctions and two-dimensional materials are also elucidated and practical achievements are reviewed. We explain the thermoreflectance thermal imaging microscopy and the transient Harman method as two unique techniques developed for characterization of thermoelectric microrefrigerators. The future prospects for solid-state cooling are briefly summarized.

  6. Ionic conduction in the solid state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid state ionic conductors are important from an industrial viewpoint. A variety of such conductors have been found. In order to understand the reasons for high ionic conductivity in these solids, there have been a number of experimental, theoretical and computational studies in the literature. We provide here a survey of ...

  7. Entanglement in Solid-State Nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodoky, F.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate theoretically the generation and behaviour of multipartite entanglement for solid-state nanosystems, in particular electron spin quantum bits (so-called 'qubits') in quantum dots. A quantum dot is a tiny potential well where a single electron can be trapped.

  8. Solid state fermentation for foods and beverages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    The book systematically describes the production of solid-state fermented food and beverage in terms of the history and development of SSF technology and SSF foods, bio-reactor design, fermentation process, various substrate origins and sustainable development. It emphasizes Oriental traditional

  9. Solid-state fermentation - A mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.; Sonsbeek, H.M.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing interests in biotechnology for the application of fungi on the one hand, and for cheap agricultural products on the other, can be combined in so-called solid-state fermentation (SSF). SSF resembles a close to natural habitat for filamentous microorganisms and can be applied to

  10. Fungal mats in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since over 2000 years man has cultivated fungi on grains, beans or other (by)products from agriculture or agro-industries, in order to produce tastier and healthier foods. Nowadays, cultivation on solid substrates (solid-state fermentation, SSF) is also used to produce industrial enzymes, drugs and

  11. Solid-state NMR of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirau, P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most important methods for the solid-state characterisation of polymers. The popularity of NMR is due to the fact that many molecular level features can be measured from the NMR spectra, including the polymer chain conformation, the morphology and the dynamics. The spectral features and relaxation times are affected by local interactions, so they provide information about the structure of polymers on a length scale (2-200 A) that is difficult to measure by other methods. In favourable cases, the NMR experiments provide a molecular-level explanation for the transitions observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and other methods, and the NMR properties can often be related to the bulk properties. Solid-state NMR has long been of interest in polymer science, and the first solid-state NMR studies of polymers were reported approximately a year after the discovery of nuclear resonance in bulk matter. It was reported in this initial study that the proton line width for natural rubber at room temperature is more like that of a mobile liquid than of a solid, but that the resonance broadens near the glass transition temperature (T g ). This was recognised as being related to a change in chain dynamics above and below the T g . NMR methods developed rapidly after these initial observations, first for polymers in solution and, more recently, for polymers in the solid-state. Solid-state NMR studies of polymers were developed more slowly than their solution-state counterparts because solid-state NMR requires more specialised equipment. Solid-state NMR is now such an important tool that most modern spectrometers are capable of performing these studies. The interest in the NMR of solid polymers is due in part to the fact that most polymers are used in the solid state, and in many cases the NMR properties can be directly related to the macroscopic properties. Polymers have restricted mobility in

  12. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  13. Porous Organic Nanolayers for Coating of Solid-state Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Waseem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly hydrophobic surfaces can have very low surface energy and such low surface energy biological interfaces can be obtained using fluorinated coatings on surfaces. Deposition of biocompatible organic films on solid-state surfaces is attained with techniques like plasma polymerization, biomineralization and chemical vapor deposition. All these require special equipment or harsh chemicals. This paper presents a simple vapor-phase approach to directly coat solid-state surfaces with biocompatible films without any harsh chemical or plasma treatment. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers were used for reaction and deposition of nanolayer films. The monomers were characterized and showed a very consistent coating of 3D micropore structures. Results The coating showed nano-textured surface morphology which can aid cell growth and provide rich molecular functionalization. The surface properties of the obtained film were regulated by varying monomer concentrations, reaction time and the vacuum pressure in a simple reaction chamber. Films were characterized by contact angle analysis for surface energy and with profilometer to measure the thickness. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR analysis revealed the chemical composition of the coated films. Variations in the FTIR results with respect to different concentrations of monomers showed the chemical composition of the resulting films. Conclusion The presented approach of vapor-phase coating of solid-state structures is important and applicable in many areas of bio-nano interface development. The exposure of coatings to the solutions of different pH showed the stability of the coatings in chemical surroundings. The organic nanocoating of films can be used in bio-implants and many medical devices.

  14. Phosphate Phosphors for Solid-State Lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Kartik N; Swart, H C; Park, Kyeongsoon

    2012-01-01

    The idea for this book arose out of the realization that, although excellent surveys and a phosphor handbook are available, there is no single source covering the area of phosphate based phosphors especially for lamp industry. Moreover, as this field gets only limited attention in most general books on luminescence, there is a clear need for a book in which attention is specifically directed toward this rapidly growing field of solid state lighting and its many applications. This book is aimed at providing a sound introduction to the synthesis and optical characterization of phosphate phosphor for undergraduate and graduate students as well as teachers and researchers. The book provides guidance through the multidisciplinary field of solid state lighting specially phosphate phosphors for beginners, scientists and engineers from universities, research organizations, and especially industry. In order to make it useful for a wide audience, both fundamentals and applications are discussed, together.

  15. Solid State Physics Principles and Modern Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, John J

    2009-01-01

    Intended for a two semester advanced undergraduate or graduate course in Solid State Physics, this treatment offers modern coverage of the theory and related experiments, including the group theoretical approach to band structures, Moessbauer recoil free fraction, semi-classical electron theory, magnetoconductivity, electron self-energy and Landau theory of Fermi liquid, and both quantum and fractional quantum Hall effects. Integrated throughout are developments from the newest semiconductor devices, e.g. space charge layers, quantum wells and superlattices. The first half includes all material usually covered in the introductory course, but in greater depth than most introductory textbooks. The second half includes most of the important developments in solid-state researches of the past half century, addressing e.g. optical and electronic properties such as collective bulk and surface modes and spectral function of a quasiparticle, which is a basic concept for understanding LEED intensities, X ray fine struc...

  16. Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Flatté, Michael E; The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems"

    2007-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Study Institute "Manipulating Quantum Coherence in Solid State Systems", in Cluj-Napoca, Romania, August 29-September 9, 2005, presented a fundamental introduction to solid-state approaches to achieving quantum computation. This proceedings volume describes the properties of quantum coherence in semiconductor spin-based systems and the behavior of quantum coherence in superconducting systems. Semiconductor spin-based approaches to quantum computation have made tremendous advances in the past several years. Coherent populations of spins can be oriented, manipulated and detected experimentally. Rapid progress has been made towards performing the same tasks on individual spins (nuclear, ionic, or electronic) with all-electrical means. Superconducting approaches to quantum computation have demonstrated single qubits based on charge eigenstates as well as flux eigenstates. These topics have been presented in a pedagogical fashion by leading researchers in the fields of semiconductor-spin-based qu...

  17. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams.

  18. SOLID STATE BATTERIES WITH CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Bénière , F.; Boils , D.; Cánepa , H.; Franco , J.; Le Corre , A.; Louboutin , J.

    1983-01-01

    The conducting polymers like (CH)x are very interesting materials for electrodes in electrochemical cells. We have combined such electrodes with solid electrolytes to build "all solid-state" batteries. The first prototypes using a silver anode and a silver conducting electrolyte have been working satisfactorily since two years. The performances have been tested with many batteries to study the electrical properties as well as the thermodynamical parameters. A number of cycles of charge-discha...

  19. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  20. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  1. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-25

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  2. Solid-State Thyratron Replacement. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Ian [Diversified Technologies, Inc., Bedford, MA

    2017-12-12

    Under this SBIR, DTI developed a solid-state switch as an alternative to legacy thyratron equipment. Our Phase II objective was to make a solid-state thyratron replacement that would provide equivalent or better performance, much higher reliability (at least a 20 year lifetime, compared to a thyratron’s two-year lifetime) and would sell for ~3x the cost of a thyratron, or less than $40k. We were successful in building a solid-state switch which could reliably function as a thyratron replacement. The unit was designed to directly replace the thyratrons currently being used at SLAC’s Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), and was built in a tank that was small enough to fit into the existing thyratron cabinet, providing a true form-fit-function replacement path. We tested the switch at the full operating specifications: 48 kV, 6.3 kA, and 1 µs risetime. We also demonstrated a peak-to-peak pulse jitter of 1.5 ns, which is five times shorter than is typical for thyratrons. This lower jitter would improve the performance of the LCLS beam. The predicted reliability is more than 80 years, which is 40 times greater than a thyratron.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Solid State Physics: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    There's a wealth of excellent textbooks on solid state physics. The author of the present book is well aware of this fact and does not attempt to write just another one. Rather, he has provided a very compact introduction to solid state physics for third-year students. As we are faced with the continuous appearance interdisciplinary fields and associated study curricula in natural and engineering sciences (biophysics, mechatronics, etc), a compact text in solid state physics would be appreciated by students of these disciplines as well. The book features 11 chapters where each is provided with supplementary discussion questions and problems. The first chapters deal with a review of chemical bonding mechanisms, crystal structures and mechanical properties of solids, which are brief but by no means superficial. The following, somewhat more detailed chapter on thermal properties of lattices includes a nice introduction to phonons. The foundations of solid state electronics are treated in the next three chapters. Here the author first discusses the classical treatment of electronic behaviour in metals (Drude model) and continues with a quantum-theoretical approach starting with the free-electron model and leading to the band structures in conductive solids. The next chapter is devoted to semiconductors and ends with a brief but, with respect to the topical scope, adequate discussion of semiconductor devices. The classical topics of magnetic and dielectric behaviour are treated in the sequel. The book closes with a chapter on superconductivity and a brief chapter covering the modern topics of quantum confinement and aspects of nanoscale physics. In my opinion, the author has succeeded in creating a very concise yet not superficial textbook. The account presented often probes subjects deep enough to lay the basis for a thorough understanding, preparing the reader for more specialized textbooks. For instance, I think that this book may serve as an excellent first

  4. Fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecker, K.H.; Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved fast-neutron solid-state dosimeter that does not require separation of materials before it can be read out, that utilizes materials that do not melt or otherwise degrade at about 300 0 C readout temperature, that provides a more efficient dosimeter, and that can be reused. The dosimeters are fabricated by intimately mixing a TL material, such as CaSO 4 :Dy, with a powdered polyphenyl, such as p-sexiphenyl, and hot-pressing the mixture to form pellets, followed by out-gassing in a vacuum furnace at 150 0 C prior to first use dosimeters

  5. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has

  6. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  7. Programmable solid state atom sources for nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Del Corro, Pablo G.; Pardo, Flavio; Bolle, Cristian A.; Lally, Richard W.; Bishop, David J.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques.In this paper we discuss the development of a MEMS-based solid state atom source that can provide controllable atom deposition ranging over eight orders of magnitude, from ten atoms per square micron up to hundreds of atomic layers, on a target ~1 mm away. Using a micron-scale silicon plate as a thermal evaporation source we demonstrate the deposition of indium, silver, gold, copper, iron, aluminum, lead and tin. Because of their small sizes and rapid thermal response times, pulse width modulation techniques are a powerful way to control the atomic flux. Pulsing the source with precise voltages and timing provides control in terms of when and how many atoms get deposited. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one has a multi-material, programmable solid state evaporation source. These micro atom sources are a complementary technology that can enhance the capability of a variety of nano-fabrication techniques. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: A document containing further information about device characterization

  8. Fast solid state high voltage pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens; Frank, Klaus; Hartmann, Werner

    1987-05-01

    A fast solid state pulse generator is described which is used to trigger high voltage, high current switches. It consists of a 7-stage marx generator bank switched by avalanche transistors and delivers a negative pulse with a rise time of less than 2 ns and an amplitude of 2.4 kV into a load of 200 ω. The delay between the trigger pulse of TTL level and the output pulse is 16 ns. The jitter is well below 100 ps.

  9. Modular solid-state detector cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.M.; Ehlert, R.C.; Loomis, N.W.; Shelley, P.S.

    1983-01-01

    A modular solid-state detector cell is disclosed which intimately associates a scintillator body with a pair of photoresponsive semiconductors so as to present on a single collimator plate all of the elements necessary for transforming incident X-radiation into a measurable electrical signal. The detector is provided with a precision slotted mounting arrangement for receiving the unit cells, and the cells when positioned within the detector assembly have the photoresponsive semiconductors enclosed within the light tight cell. The unit is adaptable to off-line testing of the separate cells for screening before assembly

  10. Theoretical solid state physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical Solid State Physics, Volume 2 deals with the electron-lattice interaction and the effect of lattice imperfections. Conductivity, semiconductors, and luminescence are discussed, with emphasis on the basic physical problems and the various phenomena derived from them. The theoretical basis of interaction between electrons and lattices is considered, along with basic concepts of conduction theory, scattering of electrons by imperfections, and radiationless transitions. This volume is comprised of 19 chapters and begins with an overview of the coupling of electrons and the crystal latt

  11. High temperature solid state storage cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Jesse R.; Kallianidis, Milton; Kelsey, G. Stephen

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  12. Passivation-free solid state battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Peramunage, Dharmasena

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  13. Solid state NMR study of cumbaru flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose S.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Tavares, Maria I.B.

    2001-01-01

    The polysaccharide obtained by seed of Dipteryx alata Vog, has been characterised by 13 C solid state, using the basic routine techniques, like MAS and CPMAS and by the proton spin-lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame parameter (T 1 H ρ). Knowing that the chemical structure and molecular dynamic are extremely necessary route to obtain information on the polysaccharides, this work contributes to the classification of the seed containing in the cumbaru fruit to get response on its application. To obtain the initial responses for our purposes some solid state NMR techniques were chosen. The CPMAS 13 C NMR spectrum of the polysaccharide was investigated to know if it has some crystallinity. The MAS 13 C NMR spectrum showed the presence of domains with distinct molecular mobility, because these domains will differ basically in the distribution size and chain packing. The variable contact time experiment was used to analyse the distribution form of 13 C decays, which give us more information about sample heterogeneity. The T 1 H ρHr values were obtained from the variable contact time and by delayed contact time experiment, because these parameter indicate the order of polysaccharides. From the values of this parameter, we found that this polysaccharide is completely non-ordered. (author)

  14. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  15. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  16. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed

  17. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, E. Fred (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,Troy, NY); Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  18. Supramolecular interactions in the solid state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Resnati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, supramolecular chemistry has been at the forefront of chemical research, with the aim of understanding chemistry beyond the covalent bond. Since the long-range periodicity in crystals is a product of the directionally specific short-range intermolecular interactions that are responsible for molecular assembly, analysis of crystalline solids provides a primary means to investigate intermolecular interactions and recognition phenomena. This article discusses some areas of contemporary research involving supramolecular interactions in the solid state. The topics covered are: (1 an overview and historical review of halogen bonding; (2 exploring non-ambient conditions to investigate intermolecular interactions in crystals; (3 the role of intermolecular interactions in morphotropy, being the link between isostructurality and polymorphism; (4 strategic realisation of kinetic coordination polymers by exploiting multi-interactive linker molecules. The discussion touches upon many of the prerequisites for controlled preparation and characterization of crystalline materials.

  19. A solid state lightning propagation speed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground lightning has been developed. The lightning propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered lightning is different than that for natural lightning if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.

  20. Solid-State Spectroscopy An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzmany, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods have opened up a new horizon in our knowledge of solid-state materials. Numerous techniques using electromagnetic radiation or charged and neutral particles have been invented and worked out to a high level in order to provide more detailed information on the solids. The text presented here is an updated description of such methods as they were originally presented in the first edition. It covers linear response of solids to electromagnetic radiation in a frequency range extending from megahertz or gigahertz as used in spin resonance spectroscopy, to infrared spectroscopy and various forms of spectroscopy in the visible and near visible spectral range. It extends to spectroscopy in the UV and x-ray spectral range and eventually several spectroscopic methods are addressed in the frequency range of g radiation. Likewise linear response to irradiation with particles such as electrons, positrons, muons, neutrons, and atoms is discussed. Instrumental and technical background is provided as we...

  1. Solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S.

    The ring laser gyroscope is a rotation sensor used in most kinds of inertial navigation units. It usually consists in a ring cavity filled with a mixture of helium and neon, together with high-voltage pumping electrodes. The use of a gaseous gain medium, while resulting naturally in a stable bidirectional regime enabling rotation sensing, is however the main industrially limiting factor for the ring laser gyroscopes in terms of cost, reliability and lifetime. We study in this book the possibility of substituting for the gaseous gain medium a solid-state medium (diode-pumped Nd-YAG). For this, a theoretical and experimental overview of the lasing regimes of the solid-state ring laser is reported. We show that the bidirectional emission can be obtained thanks to a feedback loop acting on the states of polarization and inducing differential losses proportional to the difference of intensity between the counterpropagating modes. This leads to the achievement of a solid-state ring laser gyroscope, whose frequency response is modified by mode coupling effects. Several configurations, either mechanically or optically based, are then successively studied, with a view to improving the quality of this frequency response. In particular, vibration of the gain crystal along the longitudinal axis appears to be a very promising technique for reaching high inertial performances with a solid-state ring laser gyroscope. Gyrolaser à état solide. Le gyrolaser est un capteur de rotation utilisé dans la plupart des centrales de navigation inertielle. Dans sa forme usuelle, il est constitué d'une cavité laser en anneau remplie d'un mélange d'hélium et de néon pompé par des électrodes à haute tension. L'utilisation d'un milieu amplificateur gazeux, si elle permet de garantir naturellement le fonctionnement bidirectionnel stable nécessaire à la mesure des rotations, constitue en revanche la principale limitation industrielle des gyrolasers actuels en termes de coût, fiabilit

  2. Synchrotron radiation in solid state chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghigna, Paolo; Pin, Sonia; Spinolo, Giorgio; Newton, Mark A.; Chiara Tarantino, Serena; Zema, Michele

    2011-01-01

    An approach towards the reactivity in the solid state is proposed, primarily based on recognizing the crucial role played by the interfacial free energy and by the topotactical relationship between the two reactants, which in turn control formation of the new phase and its spatial and orientational relationships with respect to the parent phases. Using one of the reactants in the form of film, the ratio between bulk and interfacial free energy can be changed, and the effect of interfacial free energy is maximized. The role of Synchrotron Radiation in such an approach is exemplified by using a new developed technique for μ-XANES mapping with nanometric resolution for studying the reactivity of thin films of NiO onto differently oriented Al 2 O 3 single crystals. The result obtained allowed us to speculate about the rate determining step of the NiO+Al 2 O 3 →NiAl 2 O 4 interfacial reaction.

  3. Solid-state electronic devices an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Christo

    2014-01-01

    A modern and concise treatment of the solid state electronic devices that are fundamental to electronic systems and information technology is provided in this book. The main devices that comprise semiconductor integrated circuits are covered in a clear manner accessible to the wide range of scientific and engineering disciplines that are impacted by this technology. Catering to a wider audience is becoming increasingly important as the field of electronic materials and devices becomes more interdisciplinary, with applications in biology, chemistry and electro-mechanical devices (to name a few) becoming more prevalent. Updated and state-of-the-art advancements are included along with emerging trends in electronic devices and their applications. In addition, an appendix containing the relevant physical background will be included to assist readers from different disciplines and provide a review for those more familiar with the area. Readers of this book can expect to derive a solid foundation for understanding ...

  4. Solid state properties from bulk to nano

    CERN Document Server

    Dresselhaus, Mildred; Cronin, Stephen; Gomes Souza Filho, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This book fills a gap between many of the basic solid state physics and materials science books that are currently available. It is written for a mixed audience of electrical engineering and applied physics students who have some knowledge of elementary undergraduate quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics. This book, based on a successful course taught at MIT, is divided pedagogically into three parts: (I) Electronic Structure, (II) Transport Properties, and (III) Optical Properties. Each topic is explained in the context of bulk materials and then extended to low-dimensional materials where applicable. Problem sets review the content of each chapter to help students to understand the material described in each of the chapters more deeply and to prepare them to master the next chapters.

  5. International Summer School on Solid State Microbatteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the courses taught at the school are listed: Optical Characterization of Semiconductor Materials and Structures; High Resolution Electron Microscopy of Defects in Silicon; Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Heavy Doping Effects and Their Influence on Silicon Bipolar Transistors; Silicon Molecular Beam Epitaxy (Status, Devices, Trends); Rechargeable Solid State Cells; Thin Film Technology and Characterization (Their Use In Microionic Devices); Modeling, Fabrication, and Development of Miniature Sensors; Simulation of Silicon Processing-I; 4M Technology; Theory of Defects in Crystalline Silicon; Amorphous Room Temperature Polymer Solid Electrolytes; Advanced Silicon on Insulator Materials (Processing, Characterization and Devices); Diamond Lattice, Structure and Possible Applications for Porfluorinated Ionomers in Solution; Theory and Applications of Amorphous Solid for Electrochemical Cells; The Physical Formation Processes of Thin Films; Their Characterization by XPS, AES and SIMS and Their Applications in Micro batteries; Chemistry, Physics and Applications of Polymeric Solid Electrolytes to Micro batteries; Space Radiation Effects in MOS Devices; and Fundamentals of Low Temperature Silicon Epitaxy.

  6. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L.; Swinehart, P.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, we are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive to the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. The performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented.

  7. Solid state neutron dosimeter for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.; Stoppel, P.; Cirignano, L. (Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States)); Swinehart, P. (Lake Shore Cryotronics, Inc., Westerville, OH (United States))

    1992-08-01

    One of the most important contributions to the radiation exposure of astronauts engaged in space flight is the significant flux of high energy neutrons arising from both primary and secondary sources of ionizing radiation. Under NASA sponsorship, the authors are developing a solid state neutron sensor capable of being incorporated into a very compact, flight instrument to provide high quality real time measurement of this important radiation flux. The dosimeter uses a special, high neutron sensitivity, PIN diode that is insensitive t the other forms of ionizing radiation. The dosimeter will have the ability to measure and record neutron dose over a range of 50 microgray to tens of milligrays (5 millirads to several rads) over a flight of up to 30 days. the performance characteristics of the PIN diode with a detailed description of the overall dosimeter is presented. in this paper.

  8. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  9. Solid-state lighting technology perspective.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jeffrey Yeenien; Coltrin, Michael Elliott

    2006-08-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) uses inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to convert electricity into light for illumination. SSL has the potential for enormous energy savings and accompanying environmental benefits if its promise of 50% (or greater) energy efficiencies can be achieved. This report provides a broad summary of the technologies that underlie SSL. The applications for SSL and potential impact on U.S. and world-wide energy consumption, and impact on the human visual experience are discussed. The properties of visible light and different technical metrics to characterize its properties are summarized. The many factors contributing to the capital and operating costs for SSL and traditional lighting sources (incandescent, fluorescent, and high-intensity discharge lamps) are discussed, with extrapolations for future SSL goals. The technologies underlying LEDs and OLEDs are also described, including current and possible alternative future technologies and some of the present limitations.

  10. Solid-state NMR studies of supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John M; Forse, Alexander C; Grey, Clare P

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or 'supercapacitors' are attracting increasing attention as high-power energy storage devices for a wide range of technological applications. These devices store charge through electrostatic interactions between liquid electrolyte ions and the surfaces of porous carbon electrodes. However, many aspects of the fundamental mechanism of supercapacitance are still not well understood, and there is a lack of experimental techniques which are capable of studying working devices. Recently, solid-state NMR has emerged as a powerful tool for studying the local environments and behaviour of electrolyte ions in supercapacitor electrodes. In this Trends article, we review these recent developments and applications. We first discuss the basic principles underlying the mechanism of supercapacitance, as well as the key NMR observables that are relevant to the study of supercapacitor electrodes. We then review some practical aspects of the study of working devices using ex situ and in situ methodologies and explain the key advances that these techniques have allowed on the study of supercapacitor charging mechanisms. NMR experiments have revealed that the pores of the carbon electrodes contain a significant number of electrolyte ions in the absence of any charging potential. This has important implications for the molecular mechanisms of supercapacitance, as charge can be stored by different ion adsorption/desorption processes. Crucially, we show how in situ NMR experiments can be used to quantitatively study and characterise the charging mechanism, with the experiments providing the most detailed picture of charge storage to date, offering the opportunity to design enhanced devices. Finally, an outlook for future directions for solid-state NMR in supercapacitor research is offered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling solid-state boron carbide low energy neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.; Harken, A.; Day, E.; Robertson, B.W.; Adenwalla, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two independent techniques for modeling boron-based solid-state neutron detectors are presented-one using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit and the other one an analytical approach using a simplified physical model. Results of these techniques are compared for three different types of solid-state boron carbide detector. These results provide the basis for distinguishing between conversion layer and other solid-state detectors

  12. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  13. Thermal Design and Flight Validation for Solid-state Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state transmitter with large power and high heat flux is a key equipment of an HJ-1-C satellite; therefore, it has a great influence on satellite thermal design. Thermal design ensures that the solid-state transmitter works well within the allowable temperature limits of the equipment. The solid-state transmitter thermal design and solved key problems are provided in accordance with the HJ-1-C characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of satellites on orbit was performed. Based on the telemetry data, the thermal control design is shown to satisfy the temperature requirements of the solid-state transmitter.

  14. NLC Hybrid Solid State Induction Modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, R L; Pappas, G C; Delamare, J E

    2004-01-01

    The Next Linear Collider accelerator proposal at SLAC requires a high efficiency, highly reliable, and low cost pulsed power modulator to drive the X-band klystrons. The original NLC envisions a solid state induction modulator design to drive up to 8 klystrons to 500 kV for 3 μs at 120 PPS with one modulator delivering greater than 1,000 MW pulse, at 500 kW average. A change in RF compression techniques resulted in only two klystrons needed pulsing per modulator at a reduced pulse width of 1.6 μsec or approximately 250 MW of the pulsed power and 80 kW of average powers. A prototype Design for Manufacturability (DFM) 8-pack modulator was under construction at the time of the change, so a redirection of modulator design was in order. To utilities the equipment which had already be fabricated, a hybrid modulator was designed and constructed using the DFM induction modulator parts and a conventional pulse transformer. The construction and performance of this hybrid two klystron Induction modul...

  15. Towards composite solid state laser materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auzel, F.

    1998-01-01

    The largest recent advance in the field of solid state materials is the exponential development of the erbium doped fibre amplifiers, the so-called EDFAs, which are already implemented in many telecommunication systems. One is already interested in the evolution of such amplifiers towards more compact devices which could be obtained through erbium doped wave guide amplifiers. The conditions for wave guide amplifiers are first discussed showing that it will be difficult to limit the active length to less than a few tenths of a centimetre in usual glasses without having to increase the active ion concentration up to the point where self-quenching reduces prohibitively the quantum efficiency of the amplifying transition. This leads us to consider new glassy materials where the inhomogeneous linewidth of the active ions shall be reduced in order to correlatively increase the gain cross-sections. An historical review of such an approach will be presented. Then we show that composite materials of the vitroceramic type where the active rare earth ion stays only in the microcrystalline phase, provide materials with reduced inhomogeneous broadening and with crystal type optical spectra though obtained by glass technics. Evaluations of the gain cross-sections indicate increases of at least 100%. Such composite materials may so pave the way for wave guide amplifiers. (orig.)

  16. Solid-state NMR of inorganic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesinowski, James P

    2012-01-01

    Studies of inorganic semiconductors by solid-state NMR vary widely in terms of the nature of the samples investigated, the techniques employed to observe the NMR signal, and the types of information obtained. Compared with the NMR of diamagnetic non-semiconducting substances, important differences often result from the presence of electron or hole carriers that are the hallmark of semiconductors, and whose theoretical interpretation can be involved. This review aims to provide a broad perspective on the topic for the non-expert by providing: (1) a basic introduction to semiconductor physical concepts relevant to NMR, including common crystal structures and the various methods of making samples; (2) discussions of the NMR spin Hamiltonian, details of some of the NMR techniques and strategies used to make measurements and theoretically predict NMR parameters, and examples of how each of the terms in the Hamiltonian has provided useful information in bulk semiconductors; (3) a discussion of the additional considerations needed to interpret the NMR of nanoscale semiconductors, with selected examples. The area of semiconductor NMR is being revitalized by this interest in nanoscale semiconductors, the great improvements in NMR detection sensitivity and resolution that have occurred, and the current interest in optical pumping and spintronics-related studies. Promising directions for future research will be noted throughout.

  17. Solid state crystallisation of oligosaccharide ester derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, E A

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the solid state properties of oligosaccharide ester derivatives (OEDs) with potential applications in drug delivery has been carried out. The amorphous form of two OEDs, trehalose octa-acetate (TOAC) and 6:6'-di-(beta-tetraacetyl glucuronyl)-hexaacetyl trehalose (TR153), was investigated as a matrix for the sustained release of active ingredients. The matrices showed a tendency to crystallise and so polymorph screens were performed to provide crystalline samples for structural analysis. The crystal structures of TOAC methanolate and TR153 acetonitrile solvate have been determined by single-crystal laboratory X-ray diffraction. TOAC methanolate crystallises in the orthorhombic space group P2 sub 1 2 sub 1 2 sub 1 with a = 15.429(18) A, b = 17.934(19) A and c = 13.518(4) A at 123 K. The structure is isomorphous with the previously reported structure of TOAC monohydrate form II. TR153 acetonitrile solvate crystallises in the monoclinic spacegroup C2 with a = 30:160(6) A, b = 11.878(3) A, c 20...

  18. Composite Polymer-Garnet Solid State Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Andres; Oduncu, Muhammed R.; Scofield, Gregory D.; Marinero, Ernesto E.; Forbey, Scott

    Solid-state electrolytes provide a potential solution to the safety and reliability issues of Li-ion batteries. We have synthesized cubic-phase Li7-xLa3Zr2-xBixO12 compounds utilizing inexpensive, scalable Sol-gel synthesis and obtained ionic conductivities 1.2 x 10-4 S/cm at RT in not-fully densified pellets. In this work we report on the fabrication of composite polymer-garnet ceramic particle electrolytes to produce flexible membranes that can be integrated with standard battery electrodes without the need for a separator. As a first step we incorporated the ceramic particles into polyethylene oxide polymers (PEO) to form flexible membranes. Early results are encouraging yielding ionic conductivity values 1.0 x 10-5 S/cm at RT. To increment the conductivity in the membranes, we are optimizing amongst other: the ceramic particle size distribution and weight load, the polymer molecular weight and chemical composition and the solvated Li-salt composition and content. Unhindered ion transport across interfaces between the composites and the battery electrode materials is paramount for battery performance. To this end, we are investigating the effect of interface morphology, its atomic composition and exploring novel electrode structures that facilitate ionic transport.

  19. DFT calculations of quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties: Some examples in solid-state inorganic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Jerome; Messaoudi, Sabri; Alonzo, Veronique; Furet, Eric; Halet, Jean-François; Le Fur, Eric; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Pickard, Chris J; Gautier, Regis; Le Polles, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    This article presents results of first-principles calculations of quadrupolar parameters measured by solid-state nuclear magnetic measurement (NMR) spectroscopy. Different computational methods based on density functional theory were used to calculate the quadrupolar parameters. Through a series of illustrations from different areas of solid state inorganic chemistry, it is shown how quadrupolar solid-state NMR properties can be tackled by a theoretical approach and can yield structural information. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  1. SOLID-STATE CERAMIC LIGHTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne D. Brown

    2003-06-01

    Meadow River Enterprises, Inc. (MRE) and the New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University (NYSCC) received a DOE cooperative agreement award in September 1999 to develop an energy-efficient Solid-State Ceramic Lamp (SSCL). The program spanned a nominal two(2) year period ending in February of 2002. The federal contribution to the program totaled $1.6 million supporting approximately 78% of the program costs. The SSCL is a rugged electroluminescent lamp designed for outdoor applications. MRE has filed a provisional patent for this ''second generation'' technology and currently produces and markets blue-green phosphor SSCL devices. White phosphor SSCL devices are also available in prototype quantities. In addition to reducing energy consumption, the ceramic EL lamp offers several economic and societal advantages including lower lifecycle costs and reduced ''light pollution''. Significant further performance improvements are possible but will require a dramatic change in device physical construction related to the use of micro-powder materials and processes. The subject ''second-generation'' program spans a 27 month period and combines the materials and processing expertise of NYSCC, the manufacturing expertise of Meadow River Enterprises, and the phosphor development expertise of OSRAM Sylvania to develop an improved SSCL system. The development plan also includes important contributions by Marshall University (a part of the West Virginia University system). All primary development objectives have been achieved with the exception of improved phosphor powders. The performance characteristics of the first generation SSCL devices were carefully analyzed in year 1 and a second generation lamp was defined and optimized in year 2. The provisional patent was ''perfected'' through a comprehensive patent application filed in November 2002. Lamp efficiency was improved more than 2:1.

  2. Electron correlations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freericks, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    Exactly solvable models of electron correlations in solid state physics are presented. These models include the spinless Falicov- Kimball model, the t-t'-J model, and the Hubbard model. The spinless Falicov-Kimball model is analyzed in one-dimension. Perturbation theory and numerical techniques are employed to determine the phase diagram at zero temperature. A fractal structure is found where the ground-state changes (discontinuously) at each rational electron filling. The t-t'-J model (strongly interacting limit of a Hubbard model) is studied on eight-site small clusters in the simple-cubic, body-centered-cubic, face-centered-cubic, and square lattices. Symmetry is used to simplify the problem and determine the exact many-body wavefunctions. Ground states are found that exhibit magnetic order or heavy-fermionic character. Attempts to extrapolate to the thermodynamic limit are also made. The Hubbard model is examined on an eight-site square-lattice cluster in the presence of and in the absence of a ''magnetic field'' that couples only to orbital motion. A new magnetic phase is discovered for the ordinary Hubbard model at half-filling. In the ''magnetic field'' case, it is found that the strongly frustrated Heisenberg model may be studied from adiabatic continuation of a tight-binding model (from weak to strong coupling) at one point. The full symmetries of the Hamiltonian are utilized to make the exact diagonalization feasibile. Finally, the presence of ''hidden'' extra symmetry for finite size clusters with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed for a variety of clusters. Moderately sized systems allow nonrigid transformations that map a lattice onto itself preserving its neighbor structure; similar operations are not present in smaller or larger systems. The additional symmetry requires particular representations of the space group to stick together explaining many puzzling degeneracies found in exact diagonalization studies

  3. Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Nanocrystalline spinel ferrites by solid state reaction route. T K KUNDU* and S MISHRA. Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235, India. Abstract. Nanostructured NiFe2O4, MnFe2O4 and (NiZn)Fe2O4 were synthesized by aliovalent ion doping using conventional solid-state reaction route. With the ...

  4. Long chain branching on linear polypropylene by solid state reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsig, E.; Gotsis, A. D.; Picchioni, F.

    A method was developed for the long chain branching (LCB) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) via modification in the solid state. PP long chains have been linked as branches to the original linear iPP chains using solid state reactions in the presence of a free radical initiator and a multifunctional

  5. Optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Aaron R.; Schmidt, Holger

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 90 refs.) covers the state of the art in optofluidic devices with integrated solid-state nanopores for use in detection and sensing. Following an introduction into principles of optofluidics and solid-state nanopore technology, we discuss features of solid-state nanopore based assays using optofluidics. This includes the incorporation of solid-state nanopores into optofluidic platforms based on liquid-core anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs), methods for their fabrication, aspects of single particle detection and particle manipulation. We then describe the new functionalities provided by solid-state nanopores integrated into optofluidic chips, in particular acting as smart gates for correlated electro-optical detection and discrimination of nanoparticles. This enables the identification of viruses and λ-DNA, particle trajectory simulations, enhancing sensitivity by tuning the shape of nanopores. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook. PMID:27046940

  6. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  7. Soft x-ray imaging by a commercial solid-state television camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, I.; Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Yano, M.

    1987-01-01

    A commerical, solid-state television camera has been used to record images of soft x radiation (0.8--12 keV). The performance of the camera is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated compared with an x-ray photographic film (Kodak direct exposure film). In the application, the camera has been used to provide image patterns of x rays from laser-produced plasmas. It is demonstrated that the camera has several advantages over x-ray photographic film

  8. Crustal permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2016-01-01

    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  9. High Extraction Phosphors for Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Chris [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Menkara, Hisham [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States); Wagner, Brent [Phosphortech Corporation, Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    We have developed high-index, high efficiency bulk luminescent materials and novel nano-sized phosphors for improved solid-state white LED lamps. These advances can potentially contribute to reducing the loss in luminous efficiencies due to scattering, re-absorption, and thermal quenching. The bulk and nanostructured luminescent materials investigated are index matched to GaN and have broad and size-tunable absorption bands, size and impurity tuned emission bands, size-driven elimination of scattering effects, and a separation between absorption and emission bands. These innovations were accomplished through the use of novel synthesis techniques suitable for high volume production for LED lamp applications. The program produced a full-color set of high quantum yield phosphors with high chemical stability. In the bulk phosphor study, the ZnSeS:Cu,Ag phosphor was optimized to achieve >91% efficiency using erbium (Er) and other activators as sensitizers. Detailed analysis of temperature quenching effects on a large number of ZnSeS:Cu,Ag,X and strontium- and calcium-thiogallate phosphors lead to a breakthrough in the understanding of the anti-quenching behavior and a physical bandgap model was developed of this phenomena. In a follow up to this study, optimized phosphor blends for high efficiency and color performance were developed and demonstrated a 2-component phosphor system with good white chromaticity, color temperature, and high color rendering. By extending the protocols of quantum dot synthesis, large nanocrystals, greater than 20 nm in diameter were synthesized and exhibited bulk-like behavior and blue light absorption. The optimization of ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors achieved ~85% QE The limitations of core-shell nanocrystal systems were addressed by investigating alternative deltadoped structures. To address the manufacturability of these systems, a one-pot manufacturing protocol was developed for ZnSe:Mn nanophosphors. To enhance the stability of these material

  10. Exciton dynamics in solid-state green fluorescent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Siegert, Marie; Betzold, Simon; Ohmer, Jürgen; Fischer, Utz; Höfling, Sven

    2017-01-01

    We study the decay characteristics of Frenkel excitons in solid-state enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) dried from solution. We further monitor the changes of the radiative exciton decay over time by crossing the phase transition from the solved to the solid state. Complex interactions between protonated and deprotonated states in solid-state eGFP can be identified from temperature-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence experiments that further allow the determination of activation energies for each identified process.

  11. Solid state nuclear track detection principles, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Durrani, S A; ter Haar, D

    1987-01-01

    Solid State Nuclear Track Detection: Principles, Methods and Applications is the second book written by the authors after Nuclear Tracks in Solids: Principles and Applications. The book is meant as an introduction to the subject solid state of nuclear track detection. The text covers the interactions of charged particles with matter; the nature of the charged-particle track; the methodology and geometry of track etching; thermal fading of latent damage trails on tracks; the use of dielectric track recorders in particle identification; radiation dossimetry; and solid state nuclear track detecti

  12. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  13. Solid-State Powered X-band Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Mohamed A.K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Nann, Emilio A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Dolgashev, Valery A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tantawi, Sami [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeff [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-03-06

    In this report we disseminate the hot test results of an X-band 100-W solid state amplifier chain for linear accelerator (linac) applications. Solid state power amplifiers have become increasingly attractive solutions for achieving high power in radar and maritime applications. Here the performance of solid state amplifiers when driving an RF cavity is investigated. Commercially available, matched and fully-packaged GaN on SiC HEMTs are utilized, comprising a wideband driver stage and two power stages. The amplifier chain has a high poweradded- efficiency and is able to supply up to ~1.2 MV/m field gradient at 9.2 GHz in a simple test cavity, with a peak power exceeding 100 W. These findings set forth the enabling technology for solid-state powered linacs.

  14. Solid state conformational classification of eight-membered rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez, J.; García, L.; Kessler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A statistical classification of the solid state conformation in the title complexes using data retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) has been made. Phosphate and phosphinate complexes show a chair conformation preferably. In phosphonate complexes, the most frequent conformations...

  15. Solid State Oxygen Concentrator and Compressor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sustainable Innovations has developed a novel solid state technology for gas separation and will be applying it for the first time to meet a critical life support...

  16. Solid-state NMR basic principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Apperley, David C; Hodgkinson, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) has proved to be a uniquely powerful and versatile tool for analyzing and characterizing chemicals and materials of all kinds. This book focuses on the latest developments and applications for "solid-state" NMR, which has found new uses from archaeology to crystallography to biomaterials and pharmaceutical science research. The book will provide materials engineers, analytical chemists, and physicists, in and out of lab, a survey of the techniques and the essential tools of solid-state NMR, together with a practical guide on applications. In this concise introduction to the growing field of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy The reader will find: * Basic NMR concepts for solids, including guidance on the spin-1/2 nuclei concept * Coverage of the quantum mechanics aspects of solid state NMR and an introduction to the concept of quadrupolar nuclei * An understanding relaxation, exchange and quantitation in NMR * An analysis and interpretation of NMR data, with e...

  17. A Low Power, Solid State, Method of Oxygen Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation of the work prior to the start of this project is the planar monolith - allowing for solid state oxygen production at pressures up to 300 psig....

  18. Nanorod Array Solid State Neutron Detectors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I SBIR project, Synkera proposes to develop and commercialize solid-state neutron detectors of a unique architecture that will enable sensor modules...

  19. Advanced Solid State Lighting for AES Deep Space Hab

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The advanced Solid State Lighting (SSL) assemblies augmented 2nd generation modules under development for the Advanced Exploration Systems Deep Space Habitat in...

  20. Solid Lithium Ion Conductors (SLIC) for Lithium Solid State Batteries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To identify the most lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes for lithium solid state batteries from the emerging types of solid electrolytes, based on a...

  1. Lithium-ion transport in inorganic solid state electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jian; Li Hong; Zhao Yu-Sheng; Shi Si-Qi

    2016-01-01

    An overview of ion transport in lithium-ion inorganic solid state electrolytes is presented, aimed at exploring and designing better electrolyte materials. Ionic conductivity is one of the most important indices of the performance of inorganic solid state electrolytes. The general definition of solid state electrolytes is presented in terms of their role in a working cell (to convey ions while isolate electrons), and the history of solid electrolyte development is briefly summarized. Ways of using the available theoretical models and experimental methods to characterize lithium-ion transport in solid state electrolytes are systematically introduced. Then the various factors that affect ionic conductivity are itemized, including mainly structural disorder, composite materials and interface effects between a solid electrolyte and an electrode. Finally, strategies for future material systems, for synthesis and characterization methods, and for theory and calculation are proposed, aiming to help accelerate the design and development of new solid electrolytes. (topical review)

  2. W-band Solid State Transceiver for Cloud Radar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed effort seeks to develop a solid state power amplifier (SSPA)-based W-band cloud radar transceiver and demonstrate it on the GSFC airborne Cloud Radar...

  3. Solid-state Bonding of Superplastic Aluminum Alloy 7475 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, T. D. S.; Vastava, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental works were carried out to study the feasibility of solid state bonding of superplastic aluminum 7475 sheet. Amount of deformation, bonding time, surface cleaning method and intermediate layer were the process parameters investigated. Other parameters, held constant by the superplastic forming condition which is required to obtain a concurrent solid state bonding, are bonding temperature, bonding pressure and atmosphere. Bond integrity was evaluated through metallographic examination, X-ray line scan analysis, SEM fractographic analysis and lap shear tests. The early results of the development program indicated that sound solid state bonding was accomplished for this high strength 7475 alloy with significant amounts of deformation. A thin intermediate layer of the soft 5052 aluminum alloy aided in achieving a solid state bonding by reducing the required amount of plastic deformation at the interface. Bond strength was substantially increased by a post bond heat treatment.

  4. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials

  5. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  6. Friction regimes in the lubricants solid-state regime

    OpenAIRE

    Schipper, Dirk J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D.; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and roughness on this transition. The friction measurements showed that in the lubricants solid-state region three lubrication modes can be distinguished: A) full-film lubrication; separation is maintained b...

  7. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  8. Synergies Connecting the Photovoltaics and Solid-State Lighting Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, S.

    2003-05-01

    Recent increases in the efficiencies of phosphide, nitride, and organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) inspire a vision of a revolution in lighting. If high efficiencies, long lifetimes, and low cost can be achieved, solid-state lighting could save our country many quads of electricity in the coming years. The solid-state lighting (SSL) and photovoltaic (PV) industries share many of the same challenges. This paper explores the similarities between the two industries and how they might benefit by sharing information.

  9. Solid-State Physics Introduction to the Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Patterson, James

    2010-01-01

    Learning Solid State Physics involves a certain degree of maturity, since it involves tying together diverse concepts from many areas of physics. The objective is to understand, in a basic way, how solid materials behave. To do this one needs both a good physical and mathematical background. One definition of Solid State Physics is it is the study of the physical (e.g. the electrical, dielectric, magnetic, elastic, and thermal) properties of solids in terms of basic physical laws. In one sense, Solid State Physics is more like chemistry than some other branches of physics because it focuses on common properties of large classes of materials. It is typical that Solid State Physics emphasizes how physics properties link to electronic structure. We have retained the term Solid Modern solid state physics came of age in the late thirties and forties and is now is part of condensed matter physics which includes liquids, soft materials, and non-crystalline solids. This solid state/condensed matter physics book begin...

  10. Solid-State Cloud Radar System (CRS) Upgrade and Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Matt; Heymsfield, Gerald; Li, Lihua; Racette, Paul; Coon, Michael; Venkatesh, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    The recent decade has brought rapid development in solid-state power amplifier (SSPA) technology. This has enabled the use of solid-state precipitation radar in place of high-power and high-voltage systems such as those that use Klystron or Magnetron transmitters. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center has recently completed a comprehensive redesign of the 94 gigahertz Cloud Radar System (CRS) to incorporate a solid-state transmitter. It is the first cloud radar to achieve sensitivity comparable to that of a high-voltage transmitter using solid-state. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Cloud Radar System (CRS) is a 94 gigahertz Doppler radar that flies on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. The upgraded CRS system utilizes a state-of-the-art solid-state 94 gigahertz power amplifier with a peak transmit power of 30 watts. The modernized CRS system is detailed here with data results from its deployment during the 2014 Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX).

  11. The 3rd International Conference on Solid State Chemistry. Preface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 rd International Conference on Solid State Chemistry took place on 6-12 July 1996 in Bratislava, Slovakia, under the auspices of the Presidium of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. In the conference participated 158 scientists from many countries of the world. The conference covered all aspects of modern solid state chemistry and the presentation of papers was divided into eight sections consisting of invited lectures and oral as well as poster presentations. The individual sections were devoted to the high-temperature ceramic superconductors, the layered compounds, clathrates and intercalates, the oxide and non-oxide glasses, the structure and properties of solids, the electron structure and chemical bonding in solids, the surface chemistry of solids, the solid state superionic, and to the local structure and bonding cementitious binding materials. (authors)

  12. Advances in Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jeff; Schneider, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Many of the metals used in the oil and gas industry are difficult to fusion weld including Titanium and its alloys. Solid state joining processes are being pursued as an alternative process to produce robust structures more amenable to high pressure applications. Various solid state joining processes include friction stir welding (FSW) and a patented modification termed thermal stir welding (TSW). The configuration of TSWing utilizes an induction coil to preheat the material minimizing the burden on the weld tool extending its life. This provides the ability to precisely select and control the temperature to avoid detrimental changes to the microstructure. The work presented in this presentation investigates the feasibility of joining various titanium alloys using the solid state welding processes of FSW and TSW. Process descriptions and attributes of each weld process will be presented. Weld process set ]up and welding techniques will be discussed leading to the challenges experienced. Mechanical property data will also be presented.

  13. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  14. Solid-state lighting-a benevolent technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, E Fred; Kim, Jong Kyu; Luo Hong; Xi, J-Q

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state light sources are in the process of profoundly changing the way humans generate light for general lighting applications. Solid-state light sources possess two highly desirable features, which set them apart from most other light sources: (i) they have the potential to create light with essentially unit power efficiency and (ii) the properties of light, such as spectral composition and temporal modulation, can be controlled to a degree that is not possible with conventional light sources such as incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The implications are enormous and, as a consequence, many positive developments are to be expected including a reduction in global energy consumption, reduction of global-warming-gas and pollutant emissions and a multitude of new functionalities benefiting numerous applications. This review will assess the impact of solid-state lighting technology on energy consumption, the environment and on emerging application fields that make use of the controllability afforded by solid-state sources. The review will also discuss technical areas that fuel continued progress in solid-state lighting. Specifically, we will review the use of novel phosphor distributions in white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and show the strong influence of phosphor distribution on efficiency. We will also review the use of reflectors in LEDs with emphasis on 'perfect' reflectors, i.e. reflectors with highly reflective omni-directional characteristics. Finally, we will discuss a new class of thin-film materials with an unprecedented low refractive index. Such low-n materials may strongly contribute to the continuous progress in solid-state lighting

  15. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE FLASH TRANSLATION LAYER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention include a method for storing a data page d on a solid-state storage device, wherein the solid-state storage device is configured to maintain a mapping table in a Log-Structure Merge (LSM) tree having a C0 component which is a random access memory (RAM) device...... and a C1 component which is a flash-based memory device. Methods comprise: writing the data page d at a physical storage page having physical storage page address P in the storage device in response to receiving a write request to store the data page d at a logical storage page having a logical storage...

  16. Solid State Welding Development at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Robert J.; Walker, Bryant

    2012-01-01

    What is TSW and USW? TSW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and non-rotating containment plates Independent heating, stirring and forging controls Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW. USW is a solid state weld process consisting of an induction coil heating source, a stir rod, and a non-rotating containment plate; Ultrasonic energy integrated into non-rotating containment plate and stir rod; Independent heating, stirring and forging controls; Decouples the heating, stirring and forging process elements of FSW.

  17. Solid state detectors for neutron radiation monitoring in fusion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize the main solid state based detectors proposed for neutron diagnostic in fusion applications and their applicability under the required harsh conditions in terms of intense radiation, high temperature and available space restrictions. Activation systems, semiconductor based detectors, luminescent materials and Cerenkov fibre optics sensors (C-FOS) are the main devices that are described. - Highlights: • A state-of-the-art summary of solid state based detectors are described. • Conditions and restrictions for their applicability are described. • A list of the 38 more relevant references has been included

  18. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...... by differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and solid-state C-13-NMR. Interactions between trimethoprim and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and its ethyl,propyl and butyl esters were not observed. The nature of the trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate...

  19. Majorana modes in solid state systems and its dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wu, Biao

    2018-04-01

    We review the properties of Majorana fermions in particle physics and point out that Majorana modes in solid state systems are significantly different. The key reason is the concept of anti-particle in solid state systems is different from its counterpart in particle physics. We define Majorana modes as the eigenstates of Majorana operators and find that they can exist both at edges and in the bulk. According to our definition, only one single Majorana mode can exist in a system no matter at edges or in the bulk. Kitaev's spinless p-wave superconductor is used to illustrate our results and the dynamical behavior of the Majorana modes.

  20. Solid-State Modulators for RF and Fast Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Edward; Brooksby, Craig A; Cassel, Richard; De Lamare, Jeffrey E; Gower, Edward J; Hawkins, Steven; Hickman, Bradley C; Nguyen, Minh N; Pappas, Chris

    2005-01-01

    As the capabilities of solid-state devices increase, these devices are being incorporated into modulator designs for high voltage accelerator applications. Solid-state modulators based on inductive adder circuit topology have demonstrated great versatility with regard to pulse width and pulse repetition rate while maintaining fast pulse rise and fall times. Additionally, these modulators are capable of being scaled to higher output voltage and power levels. An explanation of the basic circuit operation will be presented as well as test data of several different hardware systems.

  1. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  2. 13C solid state NMR investigation of natural resins components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Bathista, Andre L.B.S.; Silva, Emerson O.; Priante Filho, Nicolau; Nogueira, Jose S.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to establish and analytical methodology as a routine using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to investigate the mainly chemical components presented in natural resins in bulk. And also to evaluate the molecular behaviour of these resins. The routine solid state techniques allow us to assign the main compounds presented in the resins. Therefore, applying specialised techniques, like variable contact time, delayed contact time, dephasing time and proton spin lattice relaxation time in the rotating frame (T 1 H ρ), more information about chemical structure and molecular dynamic is available

  3. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  4. What would Edison do with solid state lighting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ian T.; Melton, Andrew; Xu, Tianming; Jamil, Muhammad; Fenwick, Will

    2010-08-01

    Thomas Edison is widely regarded as the greatest inventor in history and the most prominent individual behind the invention of the electric light. His impressive characteristics as an individual that led to his amazing success as an innovator continue to be an inspiration for researchers today. This paper considers how Edison might proceed in developing solid state lighting into a technology capable of displacing incumbent light sources, including his own incandescent lamps, then reviews some of the "Edison-like" contributions made to solid state lighting by the Next Generation Lighting research program at Georgia Tech.

  5. PLGA and PHBV Microsphere Formulations and Solid-State Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Chiming; Plackett, David; Needham, David

    2009-01-01

    To develop and characterize the solid-state properties of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) microspheres for the localized and controlled release of fusidic acid (FA). The effects of FA loading and polymer composition on the mean...... diameter, encapsulation efficiency and FA released from the microspheres were determined. The solid-state and phase separation properties of the microspheres were characterized using DSC, XRPD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, laser confocal and real time recording of single microspheres formation. Above a loading...

  6. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials)

  7. Solid-State Division progress report for period ending March 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Progress and activities are reported on: theoretical solid-state physics (surfaces; electronic, vibrational, and magnetic properties; particle-solid interactions; laser annealing), surface and near-surface properties of solids (surface, plasma-material interactions, ion implantation and ion-beam mixing, pulsed-laser and thermal processing), defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, impurities and defects, semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion), transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, mass and charge transport in materials), neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, magnetic properties, structure and instrumentation), and preparation and characterization of research materials (growth and preparative methods, nuclear waste forms, special materials). (DLC)

  8. Solid State Synthesis and Characterization of Carbo-Nitride Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khabashesku, Valery

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of stoichiometric sp(sup 2)-bonded amorphous carbon nitride a-C3N4 in gram quantities was successfully achieved by performing a solid-state reaction of cyanuric halides C3N3X3 (X=Cl, F...

  9. Solid State NMR Characterization and Adsorption Properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agents and clinoptilolite at 140 °C inDMFunder nitrogen atmosphere. The light in weight and fluffy composites obtained were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and Solid State NMR. Results depicted possible chemical interactions between the two materials (lignocellulose and clinoptilolite). Used as adsorbents, the ...

  10. Solid-state Photochemical [2+ 2] Cycloaddition Reaction of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 2. Solid-state Photochemical [2+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Hydrogen-Bonded Zn(II) Metal Complex Containing Several Parallel C=C Bonds. ABDUL MALIK P PEEDIKAKKAL. Regular Article Volume 129 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 239-247 ...

  11. SOLID-STATE CONTROLLED FIRE HAZARD DETECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shared data and instmction paths. •. Mostly computer embedded systems use micro controllers. In view of the superior features of microcontroller the fire fighting system is further updated by using microcontroller chip in place of microprocessor chip. Use of solid-state relllY unit: nle electromechanical relay is one of the most.

  12. Radon exhalation studies in building materials using solid-state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Building materials constitute the second most important source of radon in dwellings. The common building materials used in the construction of dwellings are studied for radon exhalation rate. The 'Can' technique using LR-115 type-II solid-state nuclear track detector has been used for these measurements. The radon ...

  13. Friction regimes in the lubricants solid-state regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Dirk J.; Maathuis, O.; Dowson, D.; Taylor, C.M.; Childs, T.H.C.; Dalmaz, G.

    1995-01-01

    Friction measurements were performed in the lubricant's solid-state regime to study the transition from full-film lubrication, in which the separation is maintained by a solidified lubricant, to mixed lubrication. Special attention is paid to the influence of temperature (inlet viscosity) and

  14. Biodegradation of agro-industrial orange waste under solid state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... agro-industrial orange peel and pulp wastes under solid state fermentation and natural environmental condition as a source of enzymes production [α & β amylase, cellulase, pectinase(s), lipase(s), esterase(s) and peroxidase(s)] the physiological enzymes of lysis and total protein. Different microorganisms such as fungi, ...

  15. Study of Optical, Solid State and Structural Properties of Nickel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin films of Nickel sulphide (NiS) were successfully grown by using the solution growth technique which is cost effective and efficient. Nickel chloride (NiCl2), Sodium sulphate (Na2S2O3) and Ammonia NH3 were used. The optical and solid state properties were obtained from the characterisation done at University of ...

  16. Solid state reactions of monovalent sulphates with UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandakar, R.R.; Krishnan, K.; Singh Mudher, K.D.; Jayadevan, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    Solid state reactions of sulphates of Na + , K + , Rb + , Cs + and Tl + with UO 2 in presence of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 lead to the formation of double sulphates at 400degC. The double sulphates decompose at higher temperatures to give metal uranates. Thermogravimetric, x-ray diffraction and chemical analysis have been used to characterise the compounds. (author). 5 refs

  17. Production of Citric Acid from Solid State Fermentation of Sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger is the leading microorganism of choice for citric acid production. Sugarcane waste was used as substrate under solid state fermentation to comparatively evaluate the citric acid production capacity of Aspergillus niger isolates and the indigenous microflora in the sugarcane waste. Known optimal cultural ...

  18. Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and parabens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.; Kristensen, H. G.; Cornett, Claus

    1994-01-01

    Solid-state interactions between trimethoprim and the esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (parahydroxybenzoates or parabens) used for anti-microbial preservation are investigated. The formation of a crystalline 1/1 molecular compound between trimethoprim and methyl parahydroxybenzoate is demonstrated...

  19. Advanced Solid-state Lasers - to Ignition and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, C.; Bibeau, C.; Orth, C; Meier, W.R.; Payne, S.; Sutton, S.

    1998-01-01

    This brochure concentrates on the diode-pumped solid-state laser. Surrounding it on the cover are some of the primary technological developments that make it a candidate for the means by which inertial confinement fusion will create inertial fusion energy as an inexhaustible source of electric power

  20. Optical, electrical and solid state properties of nano crystalline zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 3.20–3.70eV with a direct band gap transition. These properties make ZnS thin films find useful applications as cover plates for solar energy panels and materials in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. In addition, the films were found to exhibit switching potentials. Keywords: Electrical, Optical, Solid state properties, ...

  1. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  2. An introduction to system reliability for solid-state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Evertz, F.E.; Zaal, J.J.M.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Yuan, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Solid-State Lighting (SSL) applications are slowly but gradually pervading into our daily life. An SSL system is composed of an light-emitting diode (LED) engine with a microelectronic driver(s) in a housing that also supplies the optic design. Knowledge of system-level reliability is crucial for

  3. Promises and challenges in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Fred

    2010-03-01

    Lighting technologies based on semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer unprecedented promises that include three major benefits: (i) Gigantic energy savings enabled by efficient conversion of electrical energy to optical energy; (ii) Substantial positive contributions to sustainability through reduced emissions of global-warming gases, acid-rain gases, and toxic substances such as mercury; and (iii) The creation of new paradigms in lighting driven by the unique controllability of solid-state lighting sources. Due to the powerful nature of these benefits, the transition from conventional lighting sources to solid-state lighting is virtually assured. This presentation will illustrate the new world of lighting and illustrate the pervasive changes to be expected in lighting, displays, communications, and biotechnology. The presentation will also address the formidable challenges that must be addressed to continue the further advancement of solid-state lighting technology. These challenges offer opportunities for research and innovation. Specific challenges include light management, carrier transport, and optical design. We will present some innovative approaches in order to solve known technical challenges faced by solid-state lighting. These approaches include the demonstration and use of new optical thin-film materials with a continuously tunable refractive index. These approaches also include the use of polarization-matched structures that reduce the polarization fields in GaInN LEDs and the hotly debated efficiency droop, that is, the decreasing LED efficiency at high currents.

  4. Solid-state Distributed Temperature Control for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon B.; Reagan, Shawn E.; Day, Greg

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed solid-state temperature controller will offer greater flexibility in the thermal control of aerospace vehicle structures. A status of the hardware development along with its implementation on the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module will be provided. Numerous advantages of the device will also be discussed with regards to current and future flight vehicle implementations.

  5. Optical techniques for solid-state materials characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Prasankumar, Rohit P

    2016-01-01

    This book has comprehensively covered the essential optical approaches needed for solid-state materials characterization. Written by experts in the field, this will be a great reference for students, engineers, and scientists.-Professor Yoke Khin Yap, Michigan Technical University.

  6. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively.

  7. Reflections on the 34th Midwest Solid State Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The 34th Midwest Solid State Conference was held October 24 and 25, 1986 in St. Louis, Missouri. The topics covered included quantum wells, superlattices, tunneling current, periodicities in liquid crystals, nonlinear patterns in dendritic crystal growth, and current fluctuations in disordered metals

  8. Solder joint reliability in solid-state lighting applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.; Kregting, R.; Erinc, M.; Driel, W.D. van

    2013-01-01

    Lighting is an advancing phenomenon both on the technology and on the market level due to the rapid development of the solid-state lighting technology. The interest in solder joint reliability has increased by the introduction of the so-called high brightness leadless type of packages. Solder joint

  9. Organic Materials Degradation in Solid State Lighting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yazdan Mehr, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis the degradation and failure mechanisms of organic materials in the optical part of LED-based products are studied. The main causes of discoloration of substrate/lens in remote phosphor of LED-based products are also comprehensively investigated. Solid State Lighting (SSL) technology

  10. Automatic diagnosis and control of distributed solid state lighting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, J.; Van Driel, W.; Zhnag, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a new design concept of automatically diagnosing and compensating LED degradations in distributed solid state lighting (SSL) systems. A failed LED may significantly reduce the overall illumination level, and destroy the uniform illumination distribution achieved by a nominal

  11. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 1. Kinetics of solid state phase transformations: Measurement and modelling of some basic issues. S Raju E ... are enumerated. A simple and general modelling methodology for understanding the kinetics of non-isothermal transformations is outlined.

  12. Bethe's Contributions to Solid State Theory· A Tribute

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 11. Bethe's Contributions to Solid State Theory: A Tribute. H R Krishnamurthy. General Article Volume 10 Issue 11 November 2005 pp 55-69. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  14. A new solid-state passive switch for neodymium lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziul'Kov, V. A.; Kazachenko, A. E.; Kotov, S. G.; Kovalev, D. V.; Stavrov, A. A.

    1992-07-01

    A new passive modulator based on CuInS2(1-x)Se2x-doped glass is proposed for Q-switching in neodymium lasers. It is noted that these solid-state passive switches can operate in a wide spectral range and do not require the use of semiconductor compounds of high optical quality.

  15. Solid state fermentation of maize ( Zea mays ) cob by Pleurotus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein content was markedly elevated and the reduction in cellulose content was negligible. Thus, solid state fermentation by Pleurotus ostreatus strain EM-1 may be an efficient means of transforming maize cob into nutritive animal feed. Keywords: Oyster mushroom, delignification, animal feed, biodegradation, cellulose, ...

  16. Ultrafast laser spectroscopy in complex solid state materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianqi [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This thesis summarizes my work on applying the ultrafast laser spectroscopy to the complex solid state materials. It shows that the ultrafast laser pulse can coherently control the material properties in the femtosecond time scale. And the ultrafast laser spectroscopy can be employed as a dynamical method for revealing the fundamental physical problems in the complex material systems.

  17. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum-doped zinc oxide with different alumina contents. YU-HSIEN CHOU. ∗. , J L H CHAU, W L WANG, C S CHEN, S H WANG and C C YANG. Nanopowder and Thin Film Technology Centre, ITRI–South, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Tainan 70955,.

  18. Development of diode-pumped medical solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Kim, Min Suk

    2000-09-01

    Two thirds of human body consists of water and the absorption of laser by water is an important factor in medical laser treatment. Er medical lasers have been used in the dermatology, ophthalmology and dental treatments due to its highest absorption by water. However, 2.9 um Er laser can not be transmitted through an optical fiber. On the other hand, Tm laser can be transmitted through an fiber and also has very high absorption by water. Therefore, Tm lasers are used in ophthalmology and heart treatment wherein the fiber delivery is very important for the treatment. Until now, mainly lamp-pumped solid-state lasers have been used in medical treatments, but the lamp-pumped solid-state lasers are being replaced with the diode-pumped solid-state lasers because the diode-pumped solid-state lasers are more compact and much easier to maintain. Following this trend, end-pumped Er and side-pumped Tm lasers have been developed and the output power of 1 W was obtained for Er and Tm respectively

  19. International survey on solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Wernli, C.

    1992-04-01

    The results of the 1990 international survey on solid state nuclear track detection are presented. The survey was performed in collaboration with the International Nuclear Track Society (INTS). These results include the data on principal investigator(s), collaborator(s), institution, field of application(s), material(s), and method(s) of track observation from 28 countries. (author)

  20. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... degrade starch in random fashion producing various maltooligosaccharide mixtures (Mamo et al., 1999;. Sarikaya and Gurgun, 2000; Kiran and Chandra, 2008). Conclusion. The results in this study indicated that isolate W74 was a potential strain for α-amylase production under solid state fermentation ...

  1. Amylase production under solid state fermentation by a bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was concerned with the screening of a suitable isolate and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of thermostable amylase under solid state fermentation (SSF). Twenty seven isolates were screened for amylase production out of which one isolate designated as W74 showed maximal amylase ...

  2. Solid-state nanopores for probing DNA and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesa, C.

    2015-01-01

    Solid-state nanopores are small nanometer-scale holes in thin membranes. When used to separate two chambers containing salt solution, any biomolecule passing from one chamber to the other is forced to pass through the pore constriction. An electric field applied across the membrane is used to create

  3. High power solid state retrofit lamp thermal characterization and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakovenko, J.; Formánek, J.; Vladimír, J.; Husák, M.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL) retrofit LED Lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount Importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D

  4. Charge pump DC-DC converter comprising solid state batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reefman, D.; Roozeboom, F.; Notten, P.H.L.; Klootwijk, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    An electronic device is provided which comprises a DC-DC converter. The DC-DC converter comprises at least one solid-state rechargeable battery (B1, B2) for storing energy for the DC-DC conversion and an output capacitor (C2).

  5. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2016-01-01

    This undergraduate textbook provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor level in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The textbook is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. This second edition is extended considerably by detailed mathematical treatments in many chapters, as well as extensive coverage of magnetic impurities.

  6. SOLID-STATE STORAGE DEVICE WITH PROGRAMMABLE PHYSICAL STORAGE ACCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention includes a method of operating a solid-state storage device, comprising a storage device controller in the storage device receiving a set of one or more rules, each rule comprising (i) one or more request conditions to be evaluated for a storage device action...... request received from a host computer, and (ii) one or more request actions to be performed on a physical address space of a non-volatile storage unit in the solid-state storage device in case the one or more request conditions are fulfilled; the method further comprises: the storage device receiving...... a storage device action request, and the storage device evaluating a first rule of the one or more rules by determining if the received request fulfills request conditions comprised in the first rule, and in the affirmative the storage device performing request actions comprised in the first rule...

  7. SDS-assisted protein transport through solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Pérez, Laura; John, Shalini; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Joo, Chirlmin; Dekker, Cees

    2017-08-17

    Using nanopores for single-molecule sequencing of proteins - similar to nanopore-based sequencing of DNA - faces multiple challenges, including unfolding of the complex tertiary structure of the proteins and enforcing their unidirectional translocation through nanopores. Here, we combine molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-molecule experiments to investigate the utility of SDS (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate) to unfold proteins for solid-state nanopore translocation, while simultaneously endowing them with a stronger electrical charge. Our simulations and experiments prove that SDS-treated proteins show a considerable loss of the protein structure during the nanopore translocation. Moreover, SDS-treated proteins translocate through the nanopore in the direction prescribed by the electrophoretic force due to the negative charge impaired by SDS. In summary, our results suggest that SDS causes protein unfolding while facilitating protein translocation in the direction of the electrophoretic force; both characteristics being advantageous for future protein sequencing applications using solid-state nanopores.

  8. 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting: Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kini, Arvind [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering; Kelley, Dick [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington, DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-02-01

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Fundamental Research Underlying Solid-State Lighting Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings and will focus on BES/DMS&E-funded research that underpins solid-state lighting technology. The meeting will feature research that cuts across several DMS&E core research program areas. The major programmatic emphasis is on developing a fundamental scientific base, in terms of new concepts and new materials that could be used or mimicked in designing novel materials, processes or devices.

  9. Solid state dosimeters used in medical physics "A review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorín-Nieto, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Many solid-state detectors have been successfully used to perform the quality control and in vivo dosimetry in medical physics, both in diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, as they have high sensitivity in a small volume; most of them do not require electrical connection and have dosimetric characteristics of interest such as: good accuracy and reproducibility, as well as a response independent of the energy of radiation, some of them. For this reason, the selection of an appropriate detector for use in medical physics must take into account the energy mass absorption coefficient relative to water for photon sources and the mass stopping power relative to water for beta emitters and electron beams in the energy range of interest in medical physics, as well as the effective atomic number of materials that constitute them. This paper presents a review of the dosimetric characteristics of the solid state dosimeters most suitable for use in medical physics.

  10. Gate errors in solid-state quantum-computer architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xuedong; Das Sarma, S.

    2002-01-01

    We theoretically consider possible errors in solid-state quantum computation due to the interplay of the complex solid-state environment and gate imperfections. In particular, we study two examples of gate operations in the opposite ends of the gate speed spectrum, an adiabatic gate operation in electron-spin-based quantum dot quantum computation and a sudden gate operation in Cooper-pair-box superconducting quantum computation. We evaluate quantitatively the nonadiabatic operation of a two-qubit gate in a two-electron double quantum dot. We also analyze the nonsudden pulse gate in a Cooper-pair-box-based quantum-computer model. In both cases our numerical results show strong influences of the higher excited states of the system on the gate operation, clearly demonstrating the importance of a detailed understanding of the relevant Hilbert-space structure on the quantum-computer operations

  11. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail: geoffrey.a.slipher.civ@mail.mil; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)

    2016-03-07

    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  12. Solid-State Nanopore-Based DNA Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing technology is becoming more and more attractive for its brand new future in gene detection field. The challenges that need to be addressed are diverse: the effective methods to detect base-specific signatures, the control of the nanopore’s size and surface properties, and the modulation of translocation velocity and behavior of the DNA molecules. Among these challenges, the realization of the high-quality nanopores with the help of modern micro/nanofabrication technologies is a crucial one. In this paper, typical technologies applied in the field of solid-state nanopore-based DNA sequencing have been reviewed.

  13. Future Solid State Lighting using LEDs and Diode Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    significant savings. Solid state lighting (SSL) based on LEDs is today the most efficient light source for generation of high quality white light. Diode lasers, however, have the potential of being more efficient than LEDs for the generation of white light. A major advantage using diode lasers for solid state......Lighting accounts for 20% of all electrical energy usage. Household lighting and commercial lighting such as public and street lighting are responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, currently many research initiatives focus on the development of new light sources which shows...... lighting is that the high efficiency can be obtained at high light lumen levels in a single element emitter and thus less light sources are required to achieve a desired light level. Furthermore, the high directionality of the generated light from laser diodes increases the energy savings in many...

  14. Proceedings of the solid state physics symposium. Vol. 34C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Solid State Physics Symposium held at Varanasi during December 21 to 24, 1991. The topics discussed in the symposium were : (a) Phonon physics, (b) Electron states and electronic properties, (c) Magnetism and magnetic properties, (d) Semiconductor physics, (e) Physics of defects and disordered materials, (f) Transport properties, (g) Superconductivity and superfluidity, (h) Liquid crystals and plastic crystals, (i) Phase transitions and critical phenomena, (j) Surface and interface physics, (k) Non-linear dynamics, instabilities and chaos, (l) Resonance studies and relaxation phenomena, (m) Solid state devices, techniques and instrumentation. Three seminars on topics : (i) High T c superconductors, (ii) Soft matter, and (iii) Physics and technology of interfaces were also held during the symposium. (M.K.V.N.)

  15. Modeling of efficient solid-state cooler on layered multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Ivan; Starkov, Alexander

    2014-08-01

    We have developed theoretical foundations for the design and optimization of a solid-state cooler working through caloric and multicaloric effects. This approach is based on the careful consideration of the thermodynamics of a layered multiferroic system. The main section of the paper is devoted to the derivation and solution of the heat conduction equation for multiferroic materials. On the basis of the obtained results, we have performed the evaluation of the temperature distribution in the refrigerator under periodic external fields. A few practical examples are considered to illustrate the model. It is demonstrated that a 40-mm structure made of 20 ferroic layers is able to create a temperature difference of 25K. The presented work tries to address the whole hierarchy of physical phenomena to capture all of the essential aspects of solid-state cooling.

  16. Peakr: simulating solid-state NMR spectra of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Robert; Odronitz, Florian; Hammesfahr, Bjorn; Hellkamp, Marcel; Kollmar, Martin

    2013-01-01

    When analyzing solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of proteins, assignment of resonances to nuclei and derivation of restraints for 3D structure calculations are challenging and time-consuming processes. Simulated spectra that have been calculated based on, for example, chemical shift predictions and structural models can be of considerable help. Existing solutions are typically limited in the type of experiment they can consider and difficult to adapt to different settings. Here, we present Peakr, a software to simulate solid-state NMR spectra of proteins. It can generate simulated spectra based on numerous common types of internuclear correlations relevant for assignment and structure elucidation, can compare simulated and experimental spectra and produces lists and visualizations useful for analyzing measured spectra. Compared with other solutions, it is fast, versatile and user friendly. (authors)

  17. Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.

    2001-01-01

    We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)

  18. Constant sensitivity circuit for solid state nuclear radiation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Erkkila, B.

    1985-01-01

    The utilization of solid state counters in tactical radiological instruments for measuring intensities and doses of fallout gamma rays offers advantages over Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters such as a much wider dynamic range and low operating voltages. Their very small size is suitable for use in miniaturized equipment. However, these devices have a serious problem if used in a mixed, fast neutron/gamma environment such as is encountered e.g. in a battlefield where tactical nuclear weapons are used and neutrons, prompt, initial gammas and fallout gammas are killing factors of comparable importance. Exposure to fast neutrons reduces seriously their sensitivity. This makes the solid state counters at this time unacceptable for use in Army tactical surveillance equipment and in other applications where according to requirements the performance must not be impaired by exposure to fast neutrons. It seems to be possible to reduce to some extent this neutron generated damage by improving the crystal counters

  19. Solid-State Ultracapacitor for Improved Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a solid-state ultracapacitor using a novel nanocomposite, dielectric material. The material's design is based on the internal barrier layer capacitance (IBLC) concept, and it uses novel dielectric and metallic conductive ink formulations. Novel processing methods developed by NASA provide for unique dielectric properties at the grain level. Nanoscale raw material powders are tailored using a variety of techniques and then formulated into a special ink. This dielectric ink is used with novel metallic conductive ink to print a capacitor layer structure into any design necessary to meet a range of technical requirements. The innovation is intended to replace current range safety batteries that NASA uses to power the systems that destroy off-course space vehicles. A solid-state design provides the needed robustness and safety for this demanding application.

  20. Introduction to solid state physics and crystalline nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Iadonisi, Giuseppe; Chiofalo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This textbook provides conceptual, procedural, and factual knowledge on solid state and nanostructure physics. It is designed to acquaint readers with key concepts and their connections, to stimulate intuition and curiosity, and to enable the acquisition of competences in general strategies and specific procedures for problem solving and their use in specific applications. To these ends, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted, integrating physics, chemistry, and engineering and reflecting how these disciplines are converging towards common tools and languages in the field. Each chapter discusses essential ideas before the introduction of formalisms and the stepwise addition of complications. Questions on everyday manifestations of the concepts are included, with reasoned linking of ideas from different chapters and sections and further detail in the appendices. The final section of each chapter describes experimental methods and strategies that can be used to probe the phenomena under discussion. Solid state...

  1. Solid State Modulators for the International Linear Collider (ILC)

    CERN Document Server

    Kempkes, Michael; Casey, Jeffrey; Gaudreau, Marcel; Roth, Ian

    2005-01-01

    Diversified Technologies, Inc. is developing two solid state modulator designs for the ILC under SBIR funding from the DOE. The first design consists of a 150 kV hard switch. The key development in this design is the energy storage system, which must provide 25 kJ per pulse, at very tight voltage regulation over the 1.5 millisecond pulse. DTI's design uses a quasi-resonant bouncer (with a small auxiliary power supply and switch) to maintain the voltage flattop, eliminating the need for massive capacitor banks. The second design uses a solid state Marx bank, with ~10 kV stages, to drive the ILC klystron. In this design, staggered turn-on of the Marx stages provides voltage regulation without the need for large capacitor banks. This paper will discuss design tradeoffs, power supply and control considerations, and energy storage requirements and alternatives for both designs.

  2. Solid-state NMR studies of nucleic acid components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dračínský, Martin; Hodgkinson, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 16 (2015), s. 12300-12310 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR spectroscopy * nucleic acids * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlepdf/2015/ra/c4ra14404j

  3. Solid-state oxidation of aniline hydrochloride with various oxidants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šeděnková, Ivana; Konyushenko, Elena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Prokeš, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 161, 13/14 (2011), s. 1353-1360 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500902; GA AV ČR IAA400500905; GA ČR GA203/08/0686 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * solid - state polymerization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.829, year: 2011

  4. Solid-state radiation detectors technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book discusses the current solid state material used in advance detectors manufacturing and their pros and cons and how one can tailor them using different techniques, to get the maximum performance. The book is application oriented to radiation detectors for medical, X and gamma rays application, and good reference with in-depth discussion of detector's physics as it relates to medical application tailored for engineers and scientists.

  5. Photodynamics and physics behind tunable solid-state lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, R. R.; Petricevic, V.; Demos, S. G.

    1991-02-01

    Research was focused in two areas. The use of excite-and-probe anti-Stokes Raman scattering apparatus, the nonequilibrium phonons which participate in the overall complex nonradiative decay in tunable solid state laser crystals, were directly identified. Rise and decay behavior of different Raman-active phonon modes were measured. A new laser ion, Chromium 4(+) in chromium-doped forsterite was discovered, and its spectroscopic and laser characteristics were investigated.

  6. Multidimensional Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Plant Cell Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tuo; Phyo, Pyae; Hong, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Plant biomass has become an important source of bio-renewable energy in modern society. The molecular structure of plant cell walls is difficult to characterize by most atomic-resolution techniques due to the insoluble and disordered nature of the cell wall. Solid-state NMR (SSNMR) spectroscopy is uniquely suited for studying native hydrated plant cell walls at the molecular level with chemical resolution. Significant progress has been made in the last five years to elucidate the molecular st...

  7. Annual report 1983/1984. Division of Solid State Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    This report gives a survey of the present research projects at the division of solid state physics, Inst. of Technology, Uppsala University. The projects fall within the fields of magnetism, i.e. spin glasses, ordered magnetic structures and itinerant electron magnetism, as well as optics, i.e. properties of crystalline and amorphous materials for selective transmission and absorption in connection with energy-related research. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of solid-state sintered aluminum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) ceramics with 0−2.5 wt.% alumina (Al2O3) content were prepared using a solid-state reaction technique. It was found that AZO grains became finer in size and more irregular in shape than undoped ZnO as the Al2O3 content increased. Addition of Al2O3 dopant caused the formation of ...

  9. Solid-state NMR studies of polysaccharide systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spěváček, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 265, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-76 ISSN 1022-1360. [European Symposium on Polymer Spectroscopy /17./. Seggauberg Leibnitz, 09.9.2007-12.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/05/0273 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biodegradable polymers * chitin /glucan complex * polysaccharides * solid-state NMR Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  10. A Two Photoelectrode Solid-State Photoelectrochemical Cell,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-14

    unique approach for the PEC conversion and storage of selected redox species incorporated within the proximity of the semiconductor /solid electrolyte... semiconductor and solid electrolyte materials are present at the junction. As a consequence, PEC cells fabricated to contain such interfaces...consequence of the high resistivity of the SPE material used. PEn had earlier been used in the solid-state PEC cell n-Si/PEO,KI, 2 / SnO 2 glass, whicre the n

  11. Abstracts of the 7. workshop solid state chemistry and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    79 contributions have been presented as titles with abstracts. They deal with preparation, investigation, and properties of ceramic powders, sintered materials, metal oxides, oxide minerals, nitrides, solid electrolytes, glass ceramics, composite materials, and ceramic superconductors of the type Y-Ba-Cu-O. Phase studies of mixed oxide systems and different chemical processes of the solid state are included. 11 of them are in INIS scope and are processed individually

  12. Interfacial nanoarchitectonics for solid-state lithium batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Kazunori

    2013-06-18

    Strong demand for solid-state lithium batteries has prompted intensive research for achieving fast ionic conduction in solids. Although the highest conductivity found among sulfides is higher than that of liquid electrolytes, it improves the battery performance only in combination with electrodes via a low-resistance interface. This Article reviews some interfacial structures that lower the interfacial resistance to enable high-power interfaces by controlling the carrier density.

  13. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    2017-10-10

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  14. Conductors, semiconductors, superconductors an introduction to solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Huebener, Rudolf P

    2015-01-01

    In the second half of the last century solid state physics and materials science experienced a great advance and established itself as an important and independent new field. This book provides an introduction to the fundamentals of solid state physics, including a description of the key people in the field and the historic context. The book concentrates on the electric and magnetic properties of materials. It is written for students up to the bachelor in the fields of physics, materials science, and electric engineering. Because of its vivid explanations and its didactic approach, it can also serve as a motivating pre-stage and supporting companion in the study of the established and more detailed textbooks of solid state physics. The book is suitable for a quick repetition prior to examinations. For his scientific accomplishments, in 1992 the author received the Max-Planck Research Price and in 2001 the Cryogenics Price. He studied physics and mathematics at the University of Marburg, as well at the Technic...

  15. Investigating albendazole desmotropes by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattah, Ana K; Zhang, Rongchun; Mroue, Kamal H; Pfund, Laura Y; Longhi, Marcela R; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Garnero, Claudia

    2015-03-02

    Characterization of the molecular structure and physicochemical solid-state properties of the solid forms of pharmaceutical compounds is a key requirement for successful commercialization as potential active ingredients in drug products. These properties can ultimately have a critical effect on the solubility and bioavailability of the final drug product. Here, the desmotropy of Albendazole forms I and II was investigated at the atomic level. Ultrafast magic angle spinning (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, together with powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were performed on polycrystalline samples of the two solids in order to fully characterize and distinguish the two forms. High-resolution one-dimensional (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N together with two-dimensional (1)H/(1)H single quantum-single quantum, (1)H/(1)H single quantum-double quantum, and (1)H/(13)C chemical shift correlation solid-state NMR experiments under MAS conditions were extensively used to decipher the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions present in both solid forms. These experiments enabled the unequivocal identification of the tautomers of each desmotrope. Our results also revealed that both solid forms may be described as dimeric structures, with different intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the tautomers in each dimer.

  16. Modular compact solid-state modulators for particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    The building of the radio frequency (RF) particle accelerator needs high-voltage pulsed modulator as a power supply for klystron or magnetron to feed the RF accelerating system. The development of a number of solid-state modulators for use in linear accelerators has allowed to develop a series of modular IGBT based compact solid-state modulators with different parameters. This series covers a wide range of needs in accelerator technology to feed a wide range of loads from the low power magnetrons to powerful klystrons. Each modulator of the series is built on base of a number of unified solid-state modules connected to the pulse transformer, and covers a wide range of modulators: voltage up to 250 kV, a peak current up to 250 A, average power up to 100 kW and the pulse duration up to 20 μsec. The parameters of the block with an overall dimensions 880×540×250 mm are: voltage 12 kV, peak current 1600 A, pulse duration 20 μsec, average power 10 kW with air-cooling and 40 kW with liquidcooling. These parameters do not represent a physical limit, and modulators to parameters outside these ranges can be created on request.

  17. Solid-state characterization of the HIV protease inhibitor

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y A

    2002-01-01

    The LB71350, (3S, 4R)-Epoxy-(5S)-[[N-(1-methylethoxy) carbonyl]-3-(methylsulfonyl)-L-valinyl]amin= o]-N-[2-methyl-(1R)-[(phenyl)carbonyl]propyl-6-phenylhexanamide, is a novel HIV protease inhibitor. Its equilibrium solubility at room temperature was less than 40 mu g/mL. It was speculated that the low aqueous solubility might be due to the high crystalline lattice energy resulting from intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The present study was carried out to learn the solid-state characteristics of LB71350 using analytical methods such as NMR, FT-IR and XRD. sup 1 sup 3 C Solid-state NMR, solution NMR, and FT-IR spectra of the various solid forms of LB71350 were used to identify the conformation and structure of the solid forms. The chemical shifts of sup 1 sup 3 C solid-state NMR spectra suggest that the crystalline form might have 3 intermolecular hydrogen bondings between monomers.

  18. All conducting polymer electrodes for asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Kurra, Narendra

    2015-02-16

    In this study, we report the fabrication of solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on conducting polymer electrodes on a plastic substrate. Nanostructured conducting polymers of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, and polyaniline (PANI) are deposited electrochemically over Au-coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) plastic substrates. Due to the electron donating nature of the oxygen groups in the PEDOT, reduction potentials are higher, allowing it to be used as a negative electrode material. In addition, the high stability of PEDOT in its oxidised state makes it capable to exhibit electrochemical activity in a wide potential window. This can qualify PEDOT to be used as a negative electrode in fabricating asymmetric solid state supercapacitors with PANI as a positive electrode while employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/H2SO4 gel electrolyte. The ASCs exhibit a maximum power density of 2.8 W cm−3 at an energy density of 9 mW h cm−3, which is superior to the carbonaceous and metal oxide based ASC solid state devices. Furthermore, the tandem configuration of asymmetric supercapacitors is shown to be capable of powering a red light emitting diode for about 1 minute after charging for 10 seconds.

  19. Solid-State Form Characterization of Riparin I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisana Afonso de Moura

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Riparin I is an alkamide with potential anxiolytic activity in preclinical studies. The characterization and understanding of solid-state properties play an importance role in drug development. For this work, the solid state of five riparin I batches (RIP-1, RIP-2, RIP-3, RIP-4, and RIP-5, obtained by the same synthesis process, were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, DSC-photovisual, Thermogravimetry (TG, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Pyrolysis (Pyr-GC/MS, X-ray Powder Diffraction (PXRD, and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR techniques. Batches of riparin I with different crystal habits resulting in crystallization impurities were observed, which can be attributed to the presence of triethylamine. The main differences were observed by DSC, PXRD, and ssNMR analysis. DSC curves of RIP-2 and RIP-3 presented endothermic peaks at different temperatures of fusion, which can be attributed to the mixture of different crystalline forms. PXRD and ssNMR results confirmed crystallinity differences. The results offer evidence of the importance of controlling the reproducibility of the synthesis in order to obtain the adequate morphology for therapeutic efficacy and avoiding future problems in quality control of riparin I products.

  20. Characterization of protein unfolding with solid-state nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiali; Fologea, Daniel; Rollings, Ryan; Ledden, Brad

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we review the process of protein unfolding characterized by a solid-state nanopore based device. The occupied or excluded volume of a protein molecule in a nanopore depends on the protein's conformation or shape. A folded protein has a larger excluded volume in a nanopore thus it blocks more ionic current flow than its unfolded form and produces a greater current blockage amplitude. The time duration a protein stays in a pore also depends on the protein's folding state. We use Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as a model protein to discuss this current blockage amplitude and the time duration associated with the protein unfolding process. BSA molecules were measured in folded, partially unfolded, and completely unfolded conformations in solid-state nanopores. We discuss experimental results, data analysis, and theoretical considerations of BSA protein unfolding measured with silicon nitride nanopores. We show this nanopore method is capable of characterizing a protein's unfolding process at single molecule level. Problems and future studies in characterization of protein unfolding using a solid-state nanopore device will also be discussed.

  1. 3D-Printing Electrolytes for Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOwen, Dennis W; Xu, Shaomao; Gong, Yunhui; Wen, Yang; Godbey, Griffin L; Gritton, Jack E; Hamann, Tanner R; Dai, Jiaqi; Hitz, Gregory T; Hu, Liangbing; Wachsman, Eric D

    2018-03-25

    Solid-state batteries have many enticing advantages in terms of safety and stability, but the solid electrolytes upon which these batteries are based typically lead to high cell resistance. Both components of the resistance (interfacial, due to poor contact with electrolytes, and bulk, due to a thick electrolyte) are a result of the rudimentary manufacturing capabilities that exist for solid-state electrolytes. In general, solid electrolytes are studied as flat pellets with planar interfaces, which minimizes interfacial contact area. Here, multiple ink formulations are developed that enable 3D printing of unique solid electrolyte microstructures with varying properties. These inks are used to 3D-print a variety of patterns, which are then sintered to reveal thin, nonplanar, intricate architectures composed only of Li 7 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 solid electrolyte. Using these 3D-printing ink formulations to further study and optimize electrolyte structure could lead to solid-state batteries with dramatically lower full cell resistance and higher energy and power density. In addition, the reported ink compositions could be used as a model recipe for other solid electrolyte or ceramic inks, perhaps enabling 3D printing in related fields. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Proceedings of 5. scientific conference on solid state physics. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 5. Kazakhstan scientific conference on solid state physics was held on 28-30 October, 1999 in Karaganda. Scientists and researchers from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, Estonia present 86 reports on different problems of solid state physics

  3. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W. [eds.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy.

  4. Solid State Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Hinton, L.W.

    1994-08-01

    This report covers research progress in the Solid State Division from April 1, 1992, to September 30, 1993. During this period, the division conducted a broad, interdisciplinary materials research program with emphasis on theoretical solid state physics, neutron scattering, synthesis and characterization of materials, ion beam and laser processing, and the structure of solids and surfaces. This research effort was enhanced by new capabilities in atomic-scale materials characterization, new emphasis on the synthesis and processing of materials, and increased partnering with industry and universities. The theoretical effort included a broad range of analytical studies, as well as a new emphasis on numerical simulation stimulated by advances in high-performance computing and by strong interest in related division experimental programs. Superconductivity research continued to advance on a broad front from fundamental mechanisms of high-temperature superconductivity to the development of new materials and processing techniques. The Neutron Scattering Program was characterized by a strong scientific user program and growing diversity represented by new initiatives in complex fluids and residual stress. The national emphasis on materials synthesis and processing was mirrored in division research programs in thin-film processing, surface modification, and crystal growth. Research on advanced processing techniques such as laser ablation, ion implantation, and plasma processing was complemented by strong programs in the characterization of materials and surfaces including ultrahigh resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic-resolution chemical analysis, synchrotron x-ray research, and scanning tunneling microscopy

  5. Low Temperature Solid-State Synthesis and Characterization of LaBO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmi Seyhun KIPÇAK

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rare earth (lanthanide series borates, possess high vacuum ultraviolet (VUV transparency, large electronic band gaps, chemical and environmental stability and exceptionally large optical damage thresholds and used in the development of plasma display panels (PDPs. In this study the synthesis of lanthanum borates via solid-state method is studied. For this purpose, lanthanum oxide (La2O3 and boric acid (H3BO3 are used for as lanthanum and boron sources, respectively. Different elemental molar ratios of La to B (between 3:1 to 1:6 as La2O3:H3BO3 were reacted by solid-state method at the reaction temperatures between 500°C - 700°C with the constant reaction time of 4 h. Following the synthesis, characterizations of the synthesized products are conducted by X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM. From the results of the experiments, three types of lanthanum borates of; La3BO6, LaBO3 and La(BO23 were observed at different reaction parameters. Among these three types of lanthanum borates LaBO3 phase were obtained as a major phase.

  6. Rufinamide: Crystal structure elucidation and solid state characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salunke, Nita; Thipparaboina, Rajesh; Chavan, Rahul B; Lodagekar, Anurag; Mittapalli, Sudhir; Nangia, Ashwini; Shastri, Nalini R

    2018-02-05

    Rufinamide (R) is a triazole derivative approved for the management of partial seizures and seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, in November 2007. Crystal structure, solid state characterization, drug-excipient compatibility and solubility play a pivotal role in formulation development. This work deals with the crystal structure elucidation of R by single crystal X-ray diffraction and solid state characterization by thermal, spectroscopic and crystallographic techniques. Drug- excipient compatibility was assessed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). New RP-HPLC method for quantification of R was developed with improved retention time. Solubility and dissolution of drug in different media was determined. Additionally, the flow behavior of the drug was evaluated by measuring Carr's index and Hausner's ratio, while the compressibility behavior was studied using Well's protocol. R crystallized from dimethylformamide (R-DMF) was utilized for single crystal analysis. The drug crystallized in triclinic crystal system with P-1 space group. Asymmetric unit cell consists of two molecules of R held by intermolecular hydrogen bond (connected by NH⋯O, which forms the catemeric chain). Analytical outcomes from DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) revealed that the drug was present in pure crystalline form and was devoid of any polymorphic or pseudopolymorphic impurities. Influence of pH on the solubility and dissolution of R-DMF was found to be insignificant. The drug exhibited poor aqueous solubility, which was improved nearly 4.6 fold with the addition of 2% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The drug exhibits poor flow and elastic compression nature. Excipients such as poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 8000, SLS, lactose monohydrate, starch and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) E15 were incompatible with R-DMF as identified by thermal analysis. It is envisaged that these information regarding solid state properties of R

  7. Towards a solid-state ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Badaoui, Noad; Morbieu, Bertrand; Martin, Philippe; Rouchon, Pierre; Pocholle, Jean-Paul; Gutty, François; Feugnet, Gilles; Schwartz, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report our recent progress towards a solid-state ring laser gyroscope (RLG), where mode competition is circumvented by active control of differential losses, and nonlinear effects are mitigated by longitudinal vibration of the gain medium. The resulting dynamics is significantly different from that of a classical helium-neon RLG, owing in particular to parametric resonances that occur when the Sagnac frequency is an integer multiple of the crystal vibration frequency. We describe the main experimental and theoretical results obtained so far, and the prospects of practical applications in the near future. xml:lang="fr"

  8. New polymers for solid state nuclear track detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Adlete A.A. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403 206 (India); Kolekar, R.V. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kalsi, P.C. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Ramaswami, A. [Radiochemistry Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Joshi, V.B. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tilve, S.G. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403 206 (India); Nadkarni, V.S. [Department of Chemistry, Goa University, Goa 403 206 (India)]. E-mail: nitin@unigoa.ac.in

    2006-01-15

    Two novel polymers have been prepared from a monomer N-allyloxycarbonyl diethanolamine-bis(allyl carbonate) i.e., NADAC by cast polymerization and were successfully used as solid state nuclear track detectors for {alpha} particles and fission fragments. The homopolymer PNADAC was prepared by IPP catalyzed polymerization of NADAC. A copolymer of NADAC with allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC) called poly-[(NADAC)-co-(ADC)] was also prepared similarly. A preliminary study on the etching conditions and track detection characteristics of the newly developed materials was carried out. It was found that the copolymer is more sensitive to {alpha} particles as compared to commercially available PM-250(TM) track detector.

  9. Exploring Magnetic Elastocaloric Materials for Solid-State Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Zhao, Dewei; Li, Yang

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, there has been an increased surge in the research on elastocaloric materials for solid-state refrigerators. The strong coupling between structure and magnetism inspires the discovery of new multi-field driven elastocaloric alloys. This work is devoted to magnetic shape memory alloys suitable for mechanical cooling applications. Some novel characteristics in magnetostructural transition materials other than conventional shape memory alloys are overviewed. From the physical and engineering points of view, we have put forward general strategies to maximize elastocaloric temperature change to increase performance reversibility and to improve mechanical properties. The barocaloric effect as a sister-cooling alternative is also discussed.

  10. Characterising of solid state electrochemical cells under operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtappels, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Compared to significant progress in PEMFC especially regarding the utilization of complex fuels such as methanol significant progress has been made by applying spectroscopic / differential IR and spectrometric techniques to working fuel cells, the processes in solid state high temperature....... This relates to interrelation between NOx/ O2 on cathodes but also to sulfur and carbon exposure at the anode. Past and recent activities on SOFC anodes and cathodes will be presented as well as perspectives and gaps discussed for these systems. Especially interaction between sulfur interactions with solids...

  11. The 1989 progress report: Solid-state Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, P.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Solid-state Mechanics of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The investigations are focused on the study of strain and failure of solids and structures. The results reported concern the fields of: stability and bifurcation of elastic or inelastic systems, damage and fatigue (resistance improvement, failure risks on pipe systems, crack propagation), the development of a computer code for soil strengthening by using linear inclusions, mechanical behavior of several rocks for the safety of underground works, expert systems. The published papers, the conferences and the Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  12. New polymers for solid state nuclear track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Adlete A.A.; Kolekar, R.V.; Kalsi, P.C.; Ramaswami, A.; Joshi, V.B.; Tilve, S.G.; Nadkarni, V.S.

    2006-01-01

    Two novel polymers have been prepared from a monomer N-allyloxycarbonyl diethanolamine-bis(allyl carbonate) i.e., NADAC by cast polymerization and were successfully used as solid state nuclear track detectors for α particles and fission fragments. The homopolymer PNADAC was prepared by IPP catalyzed polymerization of NADAC. A copolymer of NADAC with allyl diglycol carbonate (ADC) called poly-[(NADAC)-co-(ADC)] was also prepared similarly. A preliminary study on the etching conditions and track detection characteristics of the newly developed materials was carried out. It was found that the copolymer is more sensitive to α particles as compared to commercially available PM-250(TM) track detector

  13. Solid state lasers: a major direction in quantum electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, I.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the report is to analyze development of solid-state lasers (SSL) as one of the most important avenues of the quantum electronics. The obtained intensity of a laser radiation at the focus equal to 5x10 1 0 W/cm 2 (the field intensity equal to about 5x10 1 0 V/cm 2 ) is noted to enable to observe nonlinear quantum- electrodynamic effects. Besides, one managed to increase the SSL efficiency conventionally equal to maximum 3% up to 48-50%. Paper describes new types of SSLs, namely, the crystalline fiber lasers with the lateral gradient of the index of refraction [ru

  14. Solid-State Recorders Enhance Scientific Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Goddard Space Flight Center, SEAKR Engineering Inc., of Centennial, Colorado, crafted a solid-state recorder (SSR) to replace the tape recorder onboard a Spartan satellite carrying NASA's Inflatable Antenna Experiment. Work for that mission and others has helped SEAKR become the world leader in SSR technology for spacecraft. The company has delivered more than 100 systems, more than 85 of which have launched onboard NASA, military, and commercial spacecraft including imaging satellites that provide much of the high-resolution imagery for online mapping services like Google Earth.

  15. Pulse Design in Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palani, Ravi Shankar

    The work presented in this dissertation is centred on the theory of experimental methods in solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, which deals with interaction of electromagnetic radiation with nuclei in a magnetic field and possessing a fundamental quantum mechanical property...... been discussed in the past in literature. Generalised expressions for the effective Hamiltonian using AHT are derived in the frequency domain in this dissertation, to allow for appreciation of the equivalence with Floquet theory mediated effective Hamiltonian. The derivation relies on the ability...

  16. Raman spectra of selected transuranium trihalides in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Begun, G.M.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Raman spectral data have been obtained from a number of transuranium trihalides in the solid state. The Raman spectra of these actinide compounds are reported and compared to the published Raman spectra of isostructural compounds. Tentative symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active lattice vibrations based on nuclear site symmetry analysis of their respective crystal structures and comparisons to the symmetry assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. The Raman spectral data obtained in this study represent a partial data base for the use of Raman spectroscopy for identifying the crystal structures exhibited by these and isostructural compounds

  17. Solid-State Lighting 2017 Suggested Research Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-09-29

    A 2017 update to the Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan that is divided into two documents. The first document describes a list of suggested SSL priority research topics and the second document provides context and background, including information drawn from technical, market, and economic studies. Widely referenced by industry and government both here and abroad, these documents reflect SSL stakeholder inputs on key R&D topics that will improve efficacy, reduce cost, remove barriers to adoption, and add value for LED and OLED lighting solutions over the next three to five years, and discuss those applications that drive and prioritize the specific R&D.

  18. Radon detection in soils by solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The solid state nuclear track detector technique was developed to be used in radon detection, by alpha particles tracks, and has been applied in uranium prospecting on the ground. The sensitive films to alpha particles used were the cellulose nitrate films LR 115 and CA 8015. Several simulation experiments and field measurements were carried out to varify the possibilities of the method. Maps of some anomalies in Caetite City (Bahia, Brazil) were made with the densities of tracks obtained. The results were compared with scintillation counter measurements. (Author) [pt

  19. Quantum theory of the solid state part B

    CERN Document Server

    Callaway, Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Quantum Theory of the Solid State, Part B describes the concepts and methods of the central problems of the quantum theory of solids. This book discusses the developed machinery applied to impurities, disordered systems, effects of external fields, transport phenomena, and superconductivity. The representation theory, low field diamagnetic susceptibility, electron-phonon interaction, and Landau theory of fermi liquids are also deliberated. This text concludes with an introduction to many-body theory and some applications. This publication is a suitable textbook for students who have completed

  20. Observations of spectroscopic binaries with a solid-state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, F. Jr.; Lacy, C.H.; Tomkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The recent installation of a solid-state 1024-element silicon photodiode array detector (Reticon) at the coude focus of the 2.7 m McDonald Observatory reflector has greatly extended its limits of observation for binary and multiple systems which have weak and/or broad-lined components. This detector can produce extremely high signal-to-noise ratio observations and has high quantum efficiency over the wavelength region 3000-11000 A. The observational programs of three users of this device are described. (Auth.)

  1. Reaction diffusion and solid state chemical kinetics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dybkov, V I

    2010-01-01

    This monograph deals with a physico-chemical approach to the problem of the solid-state growth of chemical compound layers and reaction-diffusion in binary heterogeneous systems formed by two solids; as well as a solid with a liquid or a gas. It is explained why the number of compound layers growing at the interface between the original phases is usually much lower than the number of chemical compounds in the phase diagram of a given binary system. For example, of the eight intermetallic compounds which exist in the aluminium-zirconium binary system, only ZrAl3 was found to grow as a separate

  2. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  3. Gamma camera system with composite solid state detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Miller, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    A composite solid-state detector is described for utilization within gamma cameras. The detector's formed of an array of detector crystals, the opposed surfaces of each of which are formed incorporating an impedance-derived configuration for determining one coordinate of the location of discrete impinging photons upon the detector. A combined read-out for all detectors within the composite array is achieved through a row and column interconnection of the impedance configurations. Utilizing the read-outs for respective sides of the discrete crystals, a resultant time-constant characteristic for the composite detector crystal array remains essentially that of individual crystal detectors

  4. Bloodstain age analysis: toward solid state fluorescent lifetime measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kevin; Zhegalova, Natalia; Achilefu, Samuel; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2013-03-01

    One of the most pressing unsolved challenges in forensic science is the determination of time since deposition (TSD) of bloodstains at crime scenes. Despite a number of high profile cases over the past couple hundred years involving controversy over TSD methods, no reliable quantitative method has been established. We present here an approach that has yet to be explored by forensic scientist: measuring the fluorescence lifetime of solid-state blood. Such a method would allow for on-site measurements of bloodstains utilizing the appropriate device, and would allow for rapid results returned in real-time to investigators.

  5. Solid state and aqueous behavior of uranyl peroxide cage clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Kristi Lynn

    Uranyl peroxide cage clusters include a large family of more than 50 published clusters of a variety of sizes, which can incorporate various ligands including pyrophosphate and oxalate. Previous studies have reported that uranyl clusters can be used as a method to separate uranium from a solid matrix, with potential applications in reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Because of the potential applications of these novel structures in an advanced nuclear fuel cycle and their likely presence in areas of contamination, it is important to understand their behavior in both solid state and aqueous systems, including complex environments where other ions are present. In this thesis, I examine the aqueous behavior of U24Pp 12, as well as aqueous cluster systems with added mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The resulting solutions were analyzed using dynamic light scattering and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the species in solution. Precipitates of these systems were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy. The results of these analyses demonstrate the importance of cation size, charge, and concentration of added cations on the aqueous behavior of uranium macroions. Specifically, aggregates of various sizes and shapes form rapidly upon addition of cations, and in some cases these aggregates appear to precipitate into an X-ray amorphous material that still contains U24Pp12 clusters. In addition, I probe aggregation of U24Pp12 and U60, another uranyl peroxide cage cluster, in mixed solvent water-alcohol systems. The aggregation of uranyl clusters in water-alcohol systems is a result of hydrogen bonding with polar organic molecules and the reduction of the dielectric constant of the system. Studies of aggregation of uranyl clusters also allow for comparison between the newer uranyl polyoxometalate family and century-old transition metal polyoxometalates. To complement the solution studies of uranyl

  6. Fungal Invertase Expression in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitlahuac Aranda

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study invertase activity expression in Aspergillus niger Aa-20 was evaluated under different concentrations of two substrates using solid-state fermentation (SSF on polyurethane foam. Glucose was used as repressor and sucrose was the inducer. Invertase production increased when glucose was present in the medium (up to 100 g/L; however, higher concentration than this reduced the enzyme production. Induction-repression ratio obtained using any glucose concentration was at least 2.5 times higher than that under basal conditions (without inducer.

  7. Solid state tautomerism in 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedeltcheva, Daniela; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Mirolo, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The solid state tautomerism of 2-((phenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-1-ol was studied using X-ray measurements and absorption spectroscopy. In the solid state, the keto tautomer predominates. The observed shift in the equilibrium from the enol (dilute solution) to the keto (solid state) forms...

  8. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-09-01

    In this annual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first year with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  9. HIGH-EFFICIENCY NITRIDE-BASED SOLID-STATE LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Paul T. Fini; Prof. Shuji Nakamura

    2002-04-30

    In this semiannual report we summarize the progress obtained in the first six months with the support of DoE contract No.DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. The two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), are pursuing the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging standpoints. The UCSB team has made significant progress in the development of GaN vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with AlGaN active regions emitting in the ultraviolet (UV). The Rensselaer team has developed target specifications for some of the key parameters for the proposed solid-state lighting system, including a luminous flux requirement matrix for various lighting applications, optimal spectral power distributions, and the performance characteristics of currently available commercial LEDs for eventual comparisons to the devices developed in the scope of this project.

  10. Solid state synthesis and structural characterization of zinc titanates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayed, Sarra, E-mail: ayedsarra1@gmail.com [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Abdelkefi, Helmi; Khemakhem, Hamadi [Laboratory of Ferroelectric Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia); Matoussi, Adel [Laboratory of Composite Ceramic and Polymer Materials, Scientific Faculty of Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-08-25

    Zinc titanate composite materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process using high-purity metal oxide powders (purity ∼99.99%). The titanium incorporation into ZnO matrix was investigated by X-ray diffraction which revealed the coexistence of spinel Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} and hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} with the ZnO wurtzite structures. No reflection peaks of rutile TiO{sub 2} phase were detected. The IR spectroscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy were used to characterize the structural and chemical properties of the ZnO/TiO{sub 2} composites. The IR bands and vibrational modes of all crystalline phases were detected. The effect of TiO{sub 2} doping rates (x = 3, 5 and 7 wt%) on bands shifting, Raman intensity and structural quality was discussed. - Highlights: • Zinc titanates materials were synthesized via solid state sintering process. • XRD measurements reveal the formation of Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4}, hexagonal ZnTiO{sub 3} and ZnO phases. • IR analysis provokes the presence of Ti−O stretching vibration bands. • Raman study provokes the appearance of new zinc titanates vibrational peaks. • The TiO{sub 2} effect into ZnO is sensed by the shift and intensity changes of peaks.

  11. Solid state frequency conversion technology for remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsko, S.P.; Webb, M.S.; Cook, W.M.; Neuman, W.A.

    1994-07-01

    Long range remote sensing from airborne or other highly mobile platforms will require high average power tunable radiation from very compact and efficient laser systems. The solid state laser pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) has emerged as a leading candidate for such high average power, widely tunable sources. In contrast to laboratory systems, efficiency and simplicity can be the decisive issues which determine the practicality of a particular airborne remote sensing application. The recent advent of diode laser pumped solid state lasers has produced high average power OPO pump sources which are themselves both compact and efficient. However, parametric oscillator technology which can efficiently convert the average powers provided by these pump sources remains to be demonstrated. In addition to the average power requirement, many airborne long range sensing tasks will require a high degree of frequency multiplexing to disentangle data from multiple chemical species. A key advantage in system simplicity can be obtained, for example, if a single OPO can produce easily controlled multispectral output. In this paper the authors address several topics pertaining to the conversion efficiency, power handling, and multispectral capabilities of OPOs which they are currently investigating. In Section 2, single pulse conversion efficiency issues are addressed, while average power effects are treated in Section 3. Section 4 is concerned with multispectral performance of a single OPO. The last section contains a short summary and some concluding remarks

  12. Broadband rotational resonance in solid state NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jerry C C; Tycko, Robert

    2004-05-08

    A new technique for restoring nuclear magnetic dipole-dipole couplings under magic-angle spinning (MAS) in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is described and demonstrated. In this technique, called broadband rotational resonance (BroBaRR), the coupling between a pair of nuclear spins with NMR frequency difference close (but not necessarily equal) to the MAS frequency is restored by the application of a train of weak radio-frequency pulses at a carrier frequency close to the average of the two NMR frequencies. Phase or amplitude modulation of the pulse train at half the MAS frequency splits the carrier into sidebands close to the two NMR frequencies. The pulse train then removes offsets from the exact rotational resonance condition, leading to dipolar recoupling over a bandwidth controlled by the amplitude of the pulse train. (13)C NMR experiments on uniformly (15)N,(13)C-labeled L-valineHClH(2)O powder validate the theoretical analysis. BroBaRR will be useful in studies of molecular structures by solid state NMR, for example in the detection of long-range couplings between carbons in uniformly labeled organic and biological materials.

  13. Genomic Pathogen Typing Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison H Squires

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, rapid and accurate characterization of pathogens is essential for effective treatment of patients; however, subtle genetic changes in pathogens which elude traditional phenotypic typing may confer dangerous pathogenic properties such as toxicity, antibiotic resistance, or virulence. Existing options for molecular typing techniques characterize the critical genomic changes that distinguish harmful and benign strains, yet the well-established approaches, in particular those that rely on electrophoretic separation of nucleic acid fragments on a gel, have room for only incremental future improvements in speed, cost, and complexity. Solid-state nanopores are an emerging class of single-molecule sensors that can electrophoretically characterize charged biopolymers, and which offer significant advantages in terms of sample and reagent requirements, readout speed, parallelization, and automation. We present here the first application of nanopores for single-molecule molecular typing using length based "fingerprints" of critical sites in bacterial genomes. This technique is highly adaptable for detection of different types of genetic variation; as we illustrate using prototypical examples including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Streptococcus aureus, the solid-state nanopore diagnostic platform may be used to detect large insertions or deletions, small insertions or deletions, and even single-nucleotide variations in bacterial DNA. We further show that Bayesian classification of test samples can provide highly confident pathogen typing results based on only a few tens of independent single-molecule events, making this method extremely sensitive and statistically robust.

  14. Perovskite enhanced solid state ZnO solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, L.; Briscoe, J.; Dunn, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will report on the design, fabrication and testing of a solid-state perovskite enhanced ZnO solar cell. The p-type perovskite material used is bismuth ferrite (BFO) which has an absorption range within the blue range of the visible light spectrum. The solid state solar cell, was sensitized with N719 dye and used a CuSCN hole conductor. A disadvantage of ZnO is its poor chemical stability in acidic and corrosive environments. As chemical solution techniques were used in depositing BFO, a buffer method using an aminosilane ((3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane or H2N(CH2)3Si(OCH3)3)) coating was used to provide a protective coating on the ZnO nanorods before the BFO film was spin coated onto the ZnO nanorods. The photovoltaic performance of the solar cells were tested using a Keithley 2400 source meter under 100mW/cm2, AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, where improvements in Jsc and efficiency were observed. The BFO was able to harness more electrons and also acted as a buffer from electron recombination.

  15. Heat Treatment to Shrink Solid-State Nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billo, Joseph; Asghar, Waseem; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2011-03-01

    Solid-state nanopores have a promising application in the area of selective sensing of DNA. Therefore, it is imperative to have a simple and repeatable method for nano-fabrication of pores. This paper focuses on solid-state nanopore fabrication in a silicon-dioxide membrane with heat treatment. A 375 μ m thick pre-oxidized silicon wafer with approximately 1 μ m oxide is used. Photolithography followed by BHF etching, with well-cured photo-resist covering the back-side to preserve its oxide layer, was performed on the wafer in order to open square windows in the front-side oxide layer. Using the front-side oxide layer as a mask and the back-side oxide layer as an etch-stop, the silicon substrate underwent anisotropic etching to create Si O2 membranes. The wafer was then cut into small squares approximately 1 cm on a side with each containing one membrane. A focused ion beam was used to open an initial pore in each membrane. Finally, a method for causing Si O2 membranes to diffuse was used to shrink the pores to the desired diameter. This work was supported by the Metroplex Research Consortium for Electronic Devices and Materials, Dallas, TX.

  16. Development of Ceramic Solid-State Laser Host Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Trivedi, Sudhir; Kutcher, Susan; Wang, Chen-Chia; Kim, Joo-Soo; Hommerich, Uwe; Shukla, Vijay; Sadangi, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline ceramic laser materials are gaining importance in the development of novel diode-pumped solid-state lasers. Compared to single-crystals, ceramic laser materials offer advantages in terms of ease of fabrication, shape, size, and control of dopant concentrations. Recently, we have developed Neodymium doped Yttria (Nd:Y2O3) as a solid-state ceramic laser material. A scalable production method was utilized to make spherical non agglomerated and monodisperse metastable ceramic powders of compositions that were used to fabricate polycrystalline ceramic material components. This processing technique allowed for higher doping concentrations without the segregation problems that are normally encountered in single crystalline growth. We have successfully fabricated undoped and Neodymium doped Yttria material up to 2" in diameter, Ytterbium doped Yttria, and erbium doped Yttria. We are also in the process of developing other sesquioxides such as scandium Oxide (Sc2O3) and Lutesium Oxide (Lu2O3) doped with Ytterbium, erbium and thulium dopants. In this paper, we present our initial results on the material, optical, and spectroscopic properties of the doped and undoped sesquioxide materials. Polycrystalline ceramic lasers have enormous potential applications including remote sensing, chem.-bio detection, and space exploration research. It is also potentially much less expensive to produce ceramic laser materials compared to their single crystalline counterparts because of the shorter fabrication time and the potential for mass production in large sizes.

  17. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  18. Solid state light source for wavelength multiplex 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junejei

    2012-10-01

    A solid state light source provided for wavelength multiplex 3D Display is proposed. The system of solid state light source includes blue laser arrays of two wavelengths, a 2-ring phosphor wheel, a multi-band filter and a TIR prism. Green and red phosphors excited by blue lasers provide the original green and red lights of wide bandwidth. By passing through or reflected by a multi-band filter, two groups of green and red lights of narrow bandwidth for left or right eyes are selected. Blue lasers of two wavelengths also provide two blue lights for left and right eyes. Instead of using a second rotated narrow band filters that synchronized with the first phosphor wheel, a wheel having two rings coated with mirrors and phosphors is used to replace the synchronization existing in the conventional two wheels method. After passing the 2-ring wheel, the light source switches between two light paths that lead to be reflected or transmitting through the multiband filter. The multi-band filter can be disposed in a telecentric optical path to secure a high efficiency for the filter. A compact spectral multiplex light source is realized and can be directly attached to any existing optical engine.

  19. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Michael A. [Southwest Research Institute; Page, Richard A. [Southwest Research Institute

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  20. Investigating Pulsed Discharge Polarity Employing Solid-State Pulsed Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    , the influence of electric field distribution is analyzed using Finite Element simulations for the employed geometries and mediums. The experimental and simulation results have verified the important role of the applied voltage polarity, employed geometry and medium of the system on plasma generation.......Power electronics technique has become a key technology in solid-state pulsed power supplies. Since pulsed power applications have been matured and found its way into many industrial applications, moving toward energy efficiency is gaining much more interest. Therefore, finding an optimum operation...... condition plays an important role in maintaining the desired performance. Investigating the system parameters contributed to the generated pulses is an effective way in improving the system performance further ahead. One of these parameters is discharge polarity which has received less attention...

  1. A megawatt solid-state modulator for high repetition rate pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Pribyl, P; Gekelman, W

    2016-02-01

    A novel solid-state modulator capable of generating rapid consecutive power pulses is constructed to facilitate experiments on plasma interaction with high power microwave pulses. The modulator is designed to output a 100 kHz tone burst, which consists of up to 10 pulses, each with 1 μs duration and 1 MW peak power. The pulses are formed by discharging a total of 480 μF capacitors through 24 synchronized MOSFETs and 6 step-up transformers. The highly modular design, as a replacement of an old single-pulse version used in earlier experiments which employs a pulse forming network, brings great flexibility and wide potential to its application. A systematic cost-effectiveness analysis is also presented.

  2. Solid state fermentation of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A by using a novel solid state fermentation reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ano, Takashi; Jin, Guang Yuan; Mizumoto, Shinji; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Okuno, Kasumasa; Shoda, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    A new solid state fermentation reactor (SSFR) for solid substrate was used for the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using Bacillus subtilis RB14-CS. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is the technique of cultivation of microorganisms on solid and moist substrates in the absence of free water. SSF has shown much promise in the development of several bioprocesses and products because of their several advantages like absence of free water that allows simplified downstream processing and low cost. SSFR allows agitation of the SSF culture with improved temperature control and air supply. Interestingly, when okara, the widely available waste product from the tofu industries, was used as the solid substrate for the SSFR, no iturin A production was observed. However, without agitation, production of iturin A was observed in the SSFR but the production level remained low. The low production of iturin A was found to be due to the heat generation and excess temperature rise inside the reactor system during the fermentation process. Maintaining the temperature within a range of 25-30°C, production of iturin A was significantly improved in the SSFR. This was comparable to the laboratory scale production, and signifies the potential application of the SSFR for SSF.

  3. Promises, Challenges, and Recent Progress of Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghui; Sun, Huabin; Fu, Lin; Ye, Fangliang; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Wei; Huang, Yunhui

    2018-02-22

    All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have the potential to revolutionize battery systems for electric vehicles due to their benefits in safety, energy density, packaging, and operable temperature range. As the key component in ASSLBs, inorganic lithium-ion-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted great interest, and advances in SSEs are vital to deliver the promise of ASSLBs. Herein, a survey of emerging SSEs is presented, and ion-transport mechanisms are briefly discussed. Techniques for increasing the ionic conductivity of SSEs, including substitution and mechanical strain treatment, are highlighted. Recent advances in various classes of SSEs enabled by different preparation methods are described. Then, the issues of chemical stabilities, electrochemical compatibility, and the interfaces between electrodes and SSEs are focused on. A variety of research addressing these issues is outlined accordingly. Given their importance for next-generation battery systems and transportation style, a perspective on the current challenges and opportunities is provided, and suggestions for future research directions for SSEs and ASSLBs are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Colour-rendition properties of solid-state lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskas, A; Vaicekauskas, R; Shur, M S

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of colour-quality metrics to solid-state light sources is validated and the results of the assessment of colour-rendition characteristics of various lamps are presented. The standard colour-rendering index metric or a refined colour-quality scale metric fails to distinguish between two principle colour-rendition properties of illumination: the ability to render object colours with high fidelity and the ability to increase chromatic contrast, especially when the spectra of light sources contain a few narrow-band electroluminescence components. Supplementing these metrics by the known figures of merit that measure the gamut area of a small number of test colour samples does not completely resolve this issue. In contrast, the statistical approach, which is based on sorting a very large number of test colour samples in respect of just-perceivable colour distortions of several kinds, offers a comprehensive assessment of colour-rendition properties of solid-state light sources. In particular, two statistical indices, colour-fidelity index (CFI) and colour-saturation index (CSI), which are the relative numbers of object colours rendered with high fidelity and increased saturation, respectively, are sufficient to reveal and assess three distinct types of solid-state light sources. These are (i) high-fidelity lamps, which cover the entire spectrum with the spectral components present in the wavelength ranges of both 530-610 nm and beyond 610 nm (e.g. trichromatic warm white phosphor-converted (pc) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), red-amber-green-blue LED clusters, complementary clusters of white and coloured LEDs); (ii) colour-saturating lamps, which lack power in the 530-610 nm wavelength range (e.g. red-green-blue or red-cyan-blue LED clusters) and (iii) colour-dulling lamps, which lack power for wavelengths longer than 610 nm (dichromatic daylight pc LEDs and amber-green-blue LED clusters). Owing to a single statistical format, CSI and CFI can be used for

  5. Fatty acids polymorphism and solid-state miscibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbabode, Gabin [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France)], E-mail: ggbabode@ulb.ac.be; Negrier, Philippe; Mondieig, Denise [Centre de Physique Moleculaire Optique et Hertzienne, Universite Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Moreno, Evelyn; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Angel [Departament de Cristallografia, Mineralogia i Diposits Minerals, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-02-05

    The pentadecanoic acid-hexadecanoic acid (C{sub 15}H{sub 29}OOH-C{sub 16}H{sub 31}OOH) binary system is dealt with in this article. The polymorphism of 20 mixed materials has been investigated combining calorimetric measurements, isothermal and versus temperature X-ray powder diffraction and also FTIR spectroscopy. In particular, the cell parameters of the stable forms, temperatures and heats of phase changes for the two constituents and a proposal of phase diagram are given in this article. Three solid forms are created by mixing in addition with the four solid forms of the pure components. All these solid forms are stabilized on narrow domains of composition, implying a reduced solid-state miscibility of the pentadecanoic and hexadecanoic acids.

  6. Molecular structure of humin and melanoidin via solid state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Judith; Rand, Danielle; Matsuki, Yoh; Daviso, Eugenio; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody; Mamajanov, Irena

    2011-05-19

    Sugar-derived humins and melanoidins figure significantly in food chemistry, agricultural chemistry, biochemistry, and prebiotic chemistry. Despite wide interest and significant experimental attention, the amorphous and insoluble nature of the polymers has made them resistant to conventional structural characterization. Here we make use of solid-state NMR methods, including selective (13)C substitution, (1)H-dephasing, and double quantum filtration. The spectra, and their interpretation, are simplified by relying exclusively on hydronium for catalysis. The results for polymers derived from ribose, deoxyribose, and fructose indicate diverse pathways to furans, suggest a simple route to pyrroles in the presence of amines, and reveal a heterogeneous network-type polymer in which sugar molecules cross-link the heterocycles. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A pair of solid state electro-optic filters (SSEF) in a binocular holder were designed and fabricated for evaluation of field sequential stereo TV applications. The electronic circuitry for use with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated, requiring only an external video input. A polarizing screen suitable for attachment to various size TV monitors for use in conjunction with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated. An improved engineering model 2 filter was fabricated using the bonded holder technique developed previously and integrated to a GCTA color TV camera. An engineering model color filter was fabricated and assembled using PLZT control elements. In addition, a ruggedized holder assembly was designed, fabricated and tested. This assembly provides electrical contacts, high voltage protection, and support for the fragile PLZT disk, and also permits mounting and optical alignment of the associated polarizers.

  8. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  9. Solid state modulator for klystron power supply XFEL TDS INJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadtsev, A. A.; Zavadtsev, D. A.; Zybin, D. A.; Churanov, D. V.; Shemarykin, P. V.

    2016-09-01

    The transverse deflecting system XFEL TDS INJ for European X-ray Free Electron Laser includes power supply for the CPI VKS-8262HS klystron. It has been designed for pulse high-voltage, cathode heating, solenoid and klystron ion pump. The klystron power supply includes solid state modulator, pulse transformer, controlled power supply for cathode heating and commercial power supplies for solenoid and ion pump. Main parameters of the modulator are 110 kV of peak voltage, 72 A peak current, and pulse length up to 6 μs. The klystron power supply has been developed, designed, manufactured, tuned, tested and installed in the XFEL building. All designed parameters are satisfied.

  10. Fast neutron detection using solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    CR-39 and Makrofol-E solid state nuclear track detectors were studied aiming their application to fast neutron detection. Optimum etching conditions of those two kinds of materials were determined the followings - the Makrofol-E detector is electrochemically etched in a PEW solution (15% KOH, 40% ethilic alcohol and 45% water) for 2 h., with an applied electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r/m/s/) and frequency of 2 kHz, at room temperature; - the CR-39 detector is chemically pre-etched during 1 h in a 20% (w/v) NaOH solution at 70 sup(0)C, followed by 13 h electrochemical etch using the same solution at room temperature and an electric field strength of 30 kV/cm (r.m.s.) and frequency of 2 kHz.(E.G.)

  11. Solid state microcavity dye lasers fabricated by nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Nielsen, Theodor; Kristensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    We present a solid state polymer microcavity dye laser, fabricated by thermal nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in a dye-doped thermoplast. The thermoplast poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) is used due to its high transparency in the visible range and its robustness to laser radiation. The laser dye...... is Rhodamine 6G ClO4. This dye is shown to withstand temperatures up to 240 °C without bleaching, which makes it compatible with the thermal nanoimprint lithography process. The 1.55 µm thick dye-doped PMMA devices are fabricated on a SiO2 substrate, yielding planar waveguiding in the dye-doped PMMA with two...... propagating TE–TM modes. The laser cavity has the lateral shape of a trapezoid, supporting lasing modes by reflection on the vertical cavity walls. The solid polymer dye lasers emit laterally through one of the vertical cavity walls, when pumped optically through the top surface by means of a frequency...

  12. Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance of inorganic materials

    CERN Document Server

    MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2002-01-01

    Techniques of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are constantly being extended to a more diverse range of materials, pressing into service an ever-expanding range of nuclides including some previously considered too intractable to provide usable results. At the same time, new developments in both hardware and software are being introduced and refined. This book covers the most important of these new developments. With sections addressed to non-specialist researchers (providing accessible answers to the most common questions about the theory and practice of NMR asked by novices) as well as a more specialised and up-to-date treatment of the most important areas of inorganic materials research to which NMR has application, this book should be useful to NMR users whatever their level of expertise and whatever inorganic materials they wish to study.

  13. Solid state laser driver for an ICF reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented of the main power amplifier of a multi-beamline, multi-megawatt solid state ICF reactor driver. Simultaneous achievement of useful beam quality and high average power is achieved by a proper choice of amplifier geometry. An amplifier beamline consists of a sequence of face-pumped rectangular slab gain elements, oriented at the Brewster angle relative to the beamline axis, and cooled on their large faces by helium gas that is flowing subsonically. The infrared amplifier output radiation is shifted to an appropriately short wavelength ( 10% (including all flow cooling input power) when the amplifiers are pumped by efficient high-power AlGaAs semiconductor laser diode arrays. 11 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  14. High efficiency solid-state sensitized heterojunction photovoltaic device

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2010-06-01

    The high molar extinction coefficient heteroleptic ruthenium dye, NaRu(4,4′-bis(5-(hexylthio)thiophen-2-yl)-2,2′-bipyridine) (4-carboxylic acid-4′-carboxylate-2,2′-bipyridine) (NCS) 2, exhibits certified 5% electric power conversion efficiency at AM 1.5 solar irradiation (100 mW cm-2) in a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell using 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis-(N,N-di-pmethoxyphenylamine)-9, 9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-MeOTAD) as the organic hole-transporting material. This demonstration elucidates a class of photovoltaic devices with potential for low-cost power generation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube

  16. Solid state reactions of potassium uranates with ammonium sulphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Mudher, K.D.; Keskar, Meera; Krishnan, K.; Venugopal, V.

    1995-01-01

    Solid state reactions of potassium uranates with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were studied with a view to understand the nature of the reaction products formed at different temperatures. The hexavalent uranates K 2 U 2 O 7 and K 2 U 4 O 13 formed double sulphates of U(VI) at 380 degC, whereas pentavalent KUO 3 and mixed valent K 2 U 4 O 12 reacted at the above temperature to form mixtures of potassium uranium double sulphates containing both U(IV) and U(VI). Thermal, x-ray and chemical methods were used to identify and characterise the products. (author). 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  18. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Agrawal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase. The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF. The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds. Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

  19. Optimization of a solid state polarizing bender for cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, V.R.; Washington, A.L.; Stonaha, P.; Ashkar, R.; Kaiser, H. [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington IN (United States); Krist, T. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Pynn, Roger [Center for the Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington IN (United States); Neutron Science Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge TN (United States)

    2014-12-21

    We have designed a solid state bender to polarize cold neutrons for the Spin Echo Scattering Angle Measurement (SESAME) instrument at the Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) at Indiana University. The design attempts to achieve high neutron polarization across a wide range of neutron wavelengths and divergence angles by optimizing the supermirror coating materials. The transmission and polarizing efficiency of the bender were modeled using the VITESS software, then measured at both continuous-wave and pulsed neutron sources. While the measured peak neutron transmission and polarization agree reasonably well with simulations, neither quantity has been successfully modeled for long wavelength neutrons. These results imply an insufficient understanding of the magnetic microstructure of the supermirror coatings used.

  20. The Complex Solid-State Landscape of Sodium Diatrizoate Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Mohd Nadzri Mohd; Back, Kevin; Edkins, Katharina

    2017-12-06

    Pharmaceutical sodium salts are prone to incorporate water into their crystal structures. The model compound diatrizoic acid monosodium salt, an X-ray contrast agent, has been investigated in depth towards its interaction with water in the solid state. Five hydrates with water content ranging from 0.3 to 8 molar equivalents of water show a high degree of interconvertibility, stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric behaviour, and potential of amorphisation during release of water. A DMSO/water mixed solvate further highlights the high attraction of this salt to incorporate water. All incorporated solvent coordinates to the sodium cation and can further interact and stabilise the respective crystal forms by hydrogen bonding. DTS thus highlights the importance of an in-depth investigation of sodium salts used pharmaceutically to guarantee dose uniformity and stability of final formulation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurwell, W.E.

    1994-10-01

    Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer (μM) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 μm W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 μm W powder blends; 10μm W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W

  2. Gamma sterilization of cefotaxime sodium in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattan, M.; Aladawi, M. A.; Hammoudeh, A.; Albaroudi, H.

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the solid state of Cefotaxime sodium salt (C 1 8H 1 6N 8 Na 2 O 7 S 3 ) as a member of the third generation of cephalosporin. Solid Cefotaxime as a pharmaceutical dosage was exposed to doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50 kGy in 60 Co package irradiator. Physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium have been investigated by using UV (Ultra Violet) and IR (Infra Red) spectroscopic, pH, solubility and DSC (Deferential Scanning Calorimetric) methods. The biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium was investigated using Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as a strain of bacteria. The obtained results indicated that gamma irradiation have no effect on physical and chemical characteristics of Cefotaxime sodium, No significant differences were found between irradiated and non-irradiated samples in the biological activity of Cefotaxime sodium on E. Coli. (Author)

  3. DNA translocations through solid-state plasmonic nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli, Francesca; Verschueren, Daniel; Klein, Misha; Dekker, Cees; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2014-12-10

    Nanopores enable label-free detection and analysis of single biomolecules. Here, we investigate DNA translocations through a novel type of plasmonic nanopore based on a gold bowtie nanoantenna with a solid-state nanopore at the plasmonic hot spot. Plasmonic excitation of the nanopore is found to influence both the sensor signal (nanopore ionic conductance blockade during DNA translocation) and the process that captures DNA into the nanopore, without affecting the duration time of the translocations. Most striking is a strong plasmon-induced enhancement of the rate of DNA translocation events in lithium chloride (LiCl, already 10-fold enhancement at a few mW of laser power). This provides a means to utilize the excellent spatiotemporal resolution of DNA interrogations with nanopores in LiCl buffers, which is known to suffer from low event rates. We propose a mechanism based on plasmon-induced local heating and thermophoresis as explanation of our observations.

  4. Energy Efficient Solid-State Cooling for Hot SPOT Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Fedorov, Andrei; Joshi, Yogendra; Shakouri, Ali

    In this chapter, modeling and analysis of a hybrid scheme of a thermoelectric microcooler and a microchannel single-phase heat sink is discussed for a hotspot cooling. Following the introduction, the hybrid scheme concept is described. The Section 3 describes thermoelectric materials and fabrication of the solid-state microcoolers to give the necessary information for the thermal modeling, analysis, and the optimization of thermoelectric element in Section 4. Microchannel geometry and the pump power are discussed in Section 5 with an analytic model, and then the heat sink design itself is designed to optimum for lowest power used for the required cooling performance. Integrated cooling power for an integrated circuit (IC) with a hotspot as a function of heat flux is demonstrated. Section 6 summarizes the energy efficient cooling performance by the discussed hybrid scheme. To make technological challenges clear, concept of a new packaging approach for this integration is illustrated in Section 7 followed by the conclusions.

  5. Learning through ferroelectric domain dynamics in solid-state synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyn, Sören; Grollier, Julie; Lecerf, Gwendal; Xu, Bin; Locatelli, Nicolas; Fusil, Stéphane; Girod, Stéphanie; Carrétéro, Cécile; Garcia, Karin; Xavier, Stéphane; Tomas, Jean; Bellaiche, Laurent; Bibes, Manuel; Barthélémy, Agnès; Saïghi, Sylvain; Garcia, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    In the brain, learning is achieved through the ability of synapses to reconfigure the strength by which they connect neurons (synaptic plasticity). In promising solid-state synapses called memristors, conductance can be finely tuned by voltage pulses and set to evolve according to a biological learning rule called spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). Future neuromorphic architectures will comprise billions of such nanosynapses, which require a clear understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for plasticity. Here we report on synapses based on ferroelectric tunnel junctions and show that STDP can be harnessed from inhomogeneous polarization switching. Through combined scanning probe imaging, electrical transport and atomic-scale molecular dynamics, we demonstrate that conductance variations can be modelled by the nucleation-dominated reversal of domains. Based on this physical model, our simulations show that arrays of ferroelectric nanosynapses can autonomously learn to recognize patterns in a predictable way, opening the path towards unsupervised learning in spiking neural networks.

  6. 2018 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2018-01-31

    The 2018 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio provides an overview of all SSL projects that have been funded by DOE since 2000. Projects that were active during 2017 are found in the main body of this report, and all historic projects can be found in the appendix. Within these sections, project profiles are sorted by technology type (i.e., LED or OLED) and then by performer name. A profile is provided on each project. Each profile includes a brief technical description, as well as information about project partners, funding, and the research period. This report is updated annually, although the research described in the Portfolio changes periodically as new projects are initiated and existing ones are concluded.

  7. Zirconia-based solid state chemical gas sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuiykov, S

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of chemical gas sensors, based on solid state technology, that are sensitive to environmental gases, such as O sub 2 , SO sub x , NO sub x , CO sub 2 and hydrocarbons. The paper is focussed on performance of electrochemical gas sensors that are based on zirconia as a solid electrolyte. The paper considers sensor structures and selection of electrode materials. Impact of interfaces on sensor performance is discussed. This paper also provides a brief overview of electrochemical properties of zirconia and their effect on sensor performance. Impact of auxiliary materials on sensors performance characteristics, such as sensitivity, selectivity, response time and recovery time, is also discussed. Dual gas sensors that can be applied for simultaneous monitoring of the concentration of both oxygen and other gas phase components, are briefly considered

  8. High Power Solid State Retrofit Lamp Thermal Characterization and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakovenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal and thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of solid state lightening (SSL retrofit LED lamp are presented in this paper. Paramount importance is to design SSL lamps for reliability, in which thermal and thermo-mechanical aspects are key points. The main goal is to get a precise 3D thermal lamp model for further thermal optimization. Simulations are performed with ANSYS and CoventorWare software tools to compere different simulation approaches. Simulated thermal distribution has been validated with thermal measurement on a commercial 8W LED lamp. Materials parametric study has been carried out to discover problematic parts for heat transfer from power LEDs to ambient and future solutions are proposed. The objectives are to predict the thermal management by simulation of LED lamp, get more understanding in the effect of lamp shape and used materials in order to design more effective LED lamps and predict light quality, life time and reliability.

  9. Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems

  10. Solid-state electro-cumulation effect numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Grishin, V G

    2001-01-01

    It is an attempt to simulate as really as possible a crystal's interatomic interaction under conditions of "Solid-state electro-cumulation (super-polarization) effect". Some theoretical and experimental reasons to believe that within solid substances an interparticles interaction could concentrate from the surface to a centre were given formerly. Now, numerical results show the conditions that could make the cumulation more effective. Another keywords: ion, current, solid, symmetry, cumulation, polarization, depolarization, ionic conductor,superionic conductor, ice, crystal, strain, V-center, V-centre, doped crystal, interstitial impurity, intrinsic color center, high pressure technology, Bridgman, anvil, experiment, crowdion, dielectric, proton, layer, defect, lattice, dynamics, electromigration, mobility, muon catalysis, concentration, doping, dopant, conductivity, pycnonuclear reaction, permittivity, dielectric constant, point defects, interstitials, polarizability, imperfection, defect centers, glass, epi...

  11. Unravelling radiative energy transfer in solid-state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melikov, Rustamzhon; Press, Daniel Aaron; Ganesh Kumar, Baskaran; Sadeghi, Sadra; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2018-01-01

    Today, a wide variety of organic and inorganic luminescent materials (e.g., phosphors, quantum dots, etc.) are being used for lighting and new materials (e.g., graphene, perovskite, etc.) are currently under investigation. However, the understanding of radiative energy transfer is limited, even though it is critical to understand and improve the performance levels of solid-state lighting devices. In this study, we derived a matrix approach that includes absorption, reabsorption, inter-absorption and their iterative and combinatorial interactions for one and multiple types of fluorophores, which is simplified to an analytical matrix. This mathematical approach gives results that agree well with the measured spectral and efficiency characteristics of color-conversion light-emitting diodes. Moreover, it also provides a deep physical insight by uncovering the entire radiative interactions and their contribution to the output optical spectrum. The model is universal and applicable for all kinds of fluorophores.

  12. An overview of Engineering Aspects of Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate cultivation (SSC or solid state fermentation (SSF is envisioned as a prominent bio conversion technique to transform natural raw materials into a wide variety of chemical as well as bio-chemical products. This process involves the fermentation of solid substrate medium with microorganism in the absence of free flowing water. Recent developments and concerted focus on SSF enabled it to evolve as a potential bio- technology as an alternative to thetraditional chemical synthesis. SSF is being successfully exploited for food production, fuels, enzymes, antibiotics, animal feeds and also for dye degradation. This paper discusses the various micro and macro level engineering problems associated with SSF and some possible solutions for its full commercial realization.

  13. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  14. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Z; Manchiraju, K [Southwire Co.

    2012-02-22

    This project is to develop and demonstrate the concept feasibility of a highly energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis process, friction stir extrusion (FSE) technology. Specifically, the project seeks to explore and demonstrate the feasibility to recycle metals, produce nano-particle dispersion strengthened bulk materials and/or nano-composite materials from powders, chips or other recyclable feedstock metals or scraps through mechanical alloying and thermo-mechanical processing in a single-step. In this study, we focused on metal recycling, producing nano-engineered wires and evaluating their potential use in future generation long-distance electric power delivery infrastructure. More comprehensive R&D on the technology fundamentals and system scale-up toward early-stage applications in two targeted “showcase” fields of use: nano engineered bulk materials and Al recycling will be considered and planned as part of Project Continuation Plan.

  15. Solid-state fermentation--are there any biotechnological advantages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölker, Udo; Lenz, Jürgen

    2005-06-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) has developed in eastern countries over many centuries, and has enjoyed broad application in these regions to date. By contrast, in western countries the technique had to compete with classical submerged fermentation and, because of the increasing pressure of rationalisation and standardisation, it has been widely superseded by classical submerged fermentation since the 1940s. This is mainly because of problems in engineering that appear when scaling up this technique. However, there are several advantages of SSF, for example high productivities, extended stability of products and low production costs, which say much about such an intensive biotechnological application. With increasing progress and application of rational methods in engineering, SSF will achieve higher levels in standardisation and reproducibility in the future. This can make SSF the preferred technique for special fields of application such as the production of enzymes and food.

  16. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory's water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW's 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL's first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers

  17. Application of Solid State Static Var Compensation and Stability Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Badruzzaman

    Since the development of large scale electric power system interconnection, power engineering has gone through enormous changes and many new power system dynamic problems have emerged. Among them, the low frequency power oscillations between intersystem have been a major concern and is the issue in this research. In this research an effective and efficient method of controlling reactive power is presented. This research shows that spontaneous introduction of small power oscillations in the interconnected network system can be effectively suppressed by an unique method of solid state reactive power compensation. The capability of power electronics is discussed in reasonable detail to justify the feasibility of solid state reactive power generation. Mathematical formulation is carried out to control the reactive power which in turn controls the dynamics of the interconnected power system by improving the damping of interties in the system. The presently installed power system stabilizers are compared with this approach for a single machine infinite bus system. In this research, the formulation is shown to be effective for centralized multi-mode, multimachine systems. The study of the system for small power oscillations is based upon the analysis of eigenvalues of the electromechanical modes of the system. Transient stability problem is also emphasized in this research. It is shown that the system undergoing a large disturbance or severe fault can be stabilized by utilizing a discrete voltage rise in the system. This is achieved by operating the SSSVC with its maximum capacity leading mode, immediately after the inception of a fault or disturbance in the system. It is demonstrated that using this control scheme, the critical clearing time of the system can be increased significantly, which enables the operator to incorporate various corrective actions to minimize the system power imbalance.

  18. Direct Solid-State Conversion of Recyclable Metals and Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiran Manchiraju

    2012-03-27

    Friction Stir Extrusion (FSE) is a novel energy-efficient solid-state material synthesis and recycling technology capable of producing large quantity of bulk nano-engineered materials with tailored, mechanical, and physical properties. The novelty of FSE is that it utilizes the frictional heating and extensive plastic deformation inherent to the process to stir, consolidate, mechanically alloy, and convert the powders, chips, and other recyclable feedstock materials directly into useable product forms of highly engineered materials in a single step (see Figure 1). Fundamentally, FSE shares the same deformation and metallurgical bonding principles as in the revolutionary friction stir welding process. Being a solid-state process, FSE eliminates the energy intensive melting and solidification steps, which are necessary in the conventional metal synthesis processes. Therefore, FSE is highly energy-efficient, practically zero emissions, and economically competitive. It represents a potentially transformational and pervasive sustainable manufacturing technology for metal recycling and synthesis. The goal of this project was to develop the technological basis and demonstrate the commercial viability of FSE technology to produce the next generation highly functional electric cables for electricity delivery infrastructure (a multi-billion dollar market). Specific focus of this project was to (1) establish the process and material parameters to synthesize novel alloys such as nano-engineered materials with enhanced mechanical, physical, and/or functional properties through the unique mechanical alloying capability of FSE, (2) verifying the expected major energy, environmental, and economic benefits of FSE technology for both the early stage 'showcase' electric cable market and the anticipated pervasive future multi-market applications across several industry sectors and material systems for metal recycling and sustainable manufacturing.

  19. Parallel β-Sheet Structure of Alanine Tetrapeptide in the Solid State As Studied by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Akihiro; Tasei, Yugo; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The structural analysis of alanine oligopeptides is important for understanding the crystalline region in silks from spiders and wild silkworms and also the mechanism of cellular toxicity of human diseases arising from expansion in polyalanine sequences. The atomic-level structures of alanine tripeptide and tetrapeptide with antiparallel β-sheet structures (AP-Ala3 and AP-Ala4, respectively) together with alanine tripeptide with parallel β-sheet structures (P-Ala3) have been determined, but alanine tetrapeptide with a parallel β-sheet structure (P-Ala4) has not been reported yet. In this article, first, we established the preparation protocol of P-Ala4 from more stable AP-Ala4. Second, complete assignments of the (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H solid-state NMR spectra were performed with (13)C- and (15)N-labeled Ala4 samples using several solid-state NMR techniques. Then, the structural constraints were obtained, for example, the amide proton peaks of P-Ala4 in the (1)H double-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectrum were heavily overlapped and observed at about 7.4 ppm, which was a much higher field than that of 8.7-9.1 ppm observed for AP-Ala4, indicating that the intermolecular hydrogen-bond lengths across strands (N-H···O═C) were considerably longer for P-Ala4, that is, 2.21-2.34 Å, than those reported for AP-Ala4, that is, 1.8-1.9 Å. The structural model was proposed for P-Ala4 by NMR results and MD calculations.

  20. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  1. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-01-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun

  2. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance investigations of advanced energy materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George D.

    In order to better understand the physical electrochemical changes that take place in lithium ion batteries and asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been useful to probe and identify changes on the atomic and molecular level. NMR is used to characterize the local environment and investigate the dynamical properties of materials used in electrochemical storage devices (ESD). NMR investigations was used to better understand the chemical composition of the solid electrolyte interphase which form on the negative and positive electrodes of lithium batteries as well as identify the breakdown products that occur in the operation of the asymmetric hybrid supercapacitors. The use of nano-structured particles in the development of new materials causes changes in the electrical, structural and other material properties. NMR was used to investigate the affects of fluorinated and non fluorinated single wall nanotubes (SWNT). In this thesis three experiments were performed using solid state NMR samples to better characterize them. The electrochemical reactions of a lithium ion battery determine its operational profile. Numerous means have been employed to enhance battery cycle life and operating temperature range. One primary means is the choice and makeup of the electrolyte. This study focuses on the characteristics of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) that is formed on the electrodes surface during the charge discharge cycle. The electrolyte in this study was altered with several additives in order to determine the influence of the additives on SEI formation as well as the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions in the electrodes. 7Li NMR studies where used to characterize the SEI and its composition. Solid state NMR studies of the carbon enriched acetonitrile electrolyte in a nonaqueous asymmetric hybrid supercapacitor were performed. Magic angle spinning (MAS) coupled with cross polarization NMR

  3. Solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous calcium ketoprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Faraj; Mao, Chen; Masadeh, Ahmad S; Byrn, Stephen R

    2010-09-01

    This article is concerned with exploring the application of pair distribution in pharmaceutical analysis. The solid-state characterization of amorphous and mesomorphous (liquid crystalline) calcium ketoprofen is used as an example and the structures of the amorphous and mesomorphous phases of calcium ketoprofen are compared to that of the crystalline phase. An approach to calculating the optimal experimental parameters in pair distribution function (PDF) analysis as well as a suggested method to help assign the many different peaks in a PDF diagram of an organic material are discussed. The studied salts were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy (PLM), solid-state NMR (SSNMR), variable-temperature SSNMR, and PDF. Raman and SSNMR were useful techniques in identifying and differentiating the crystalline phase from the other two phases but failed, alone, to differentiate between the amorphous and mesomorphous phases. The absence of significant changes in chemical shifts in SSNMR and peak shifts in Raman spectra suggested that the differences in the molecular environment of the major chemical groups in the amorphous and mesomorphous phases were minimal. However, the broadening of the Raman and SSNMR peaks in the noncrystalline phases indicated an increase in the disorder in these systems. PDF analysis of the disordered phases revealed that upon dehydration or quench cooling where the system transformed from crystalline to become disordered, the calcium-calcium and calcium-oxygen (oxygen of the carboxylic acid) distances remained intact meanwhile the rest of the molecule became disordered. The preliminary results from variable-temperature SSNMR showed two different T(1) relaxation time profiles for the amorphous and mesomorphous phases. This was consistent with the hypothesis that part of the molecule remained ordered while the rest of the molecule became disordered and the amorphous

  4. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf ceramic) composites were prepared. The piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites of the two compositions were measured. The d33 and d31 of the composites were similar to the polycrystalline ceramic of the same composition.

  5. A Brief Review of Current Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Potential Solid State Battery Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Solid state battery technology has recently garnered considerable interest from companies including Toyota, BMW, Dyson, and others. The primary driver behind the commercialization of solid state batteries (SSBs) is to enable the use of lithium metal as the anode, as opposed to the currently used carbon anode, which would result in ~20% energy density improvement. However, no reported solid state battery to date meets all of the performance metrics of state of the art liquid electrolyte lithiu...

  6. Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.; Coyle, William; Ayers, Melissa; Kemp, John; Warfield, Benjamin; Maida, James; Bowen, Charles; Bernecker, Craig; Lockley, Steven W.; Hanifin, John P.

    2013-11-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%-100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 μW/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0-1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and

  7. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials. (JRD)

  8. Solid State Division annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, M.K.; Young, F.W. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    Research activities are reported in programs on theoretical solid state physics, physical properties of solids, radiation effects in metals, neutron scattering, research materials, and isotope research materials

  9. Effects of Extract from Solid-State Fermented Cordyceps sinensis on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Kan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is the most common chronic disease in the world, and a wide range of drugs, including Chinese herbs, have been evaluated for the treatment of associated metabolic disorders. This study investigated the potential hypoglycemic and renoprotective effects of an extract from the solid-state fermented mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We employed the KK/HIJ diabetic mouse model, in which the mice were provided with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks to induce hyperglycemia, followed by the administration of CS or rosiglitazone for 4 consecutive weeks. Several parameters were evaluated, including changes in body weight, plasma lipid profiles, oral glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and plasma insulin concentrations. Our results show that the CS extract significantly elevated HDL/LDL ratios at 4 weeks and decreased body weight gain at 8 weeks. Interestingly, CS treatment did not lead to obvious improvements in hyperglycemia or resistance to insulin, while in vitro MTT assays indicated that CS protects pancreatic beta cells against the toxic effects of STZ. CS also enhanced renal NKA activity and reduced the accumulation of mesangial matrix and collagen deposition. In conclusion, CS extract can potentially preserve β-cell function and offer renoprotection, which may afford a promising therapy for DM.

  10. Thermal degradation of polyoxymethylene produced by solid-state polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, A.W.N.; Groves, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal degradation of polyoxymethylene produced by the solid-state polymerization of trioxane crystals was studied. Changes in small-angle and wide-angle x-ray patterns, weight loss, and density were measured in specimens heated in air at 175, 185, and 195 0 C. The polyoxymethylene contained materials in two different crystallographic orientations which behaved differently. Material in the so-called ''twin'' orientation melted preferentially at 185 and 195 0 C, and at 185 0 C resolidified on cooling in parallel to the main orientation, in a lamellar structure. At 195 0 C, randomly oriented material was produced on resolidification. At 175 0 C, there was no evidence of melting or the formation of a lamellar structure, but the twin material was preferentially degraded so that only material in the main orientation remained after a time of 1500 min. The more rapid loss by degradation of the twin material was attributed to its having a lower molecular weight than the material in the main orientation

  11. High-Power, Solid-State, Deep Ultraviolet Laser Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen Xuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, deep ultraviolet (DUV lasers at the wavelength of fourth harmonics of 1 μm (266 nm/258 nm and at the wavelength of 193 nm are widely utilized in science and industry. We review the generation of these DUV lasers by nonlinear frequency conversion processes using solid-state/fiber lasers as the fundamental frequency. A DUV laser at 258 nm by fourth harmonics generation (FHG could achieve an average power of 10 W with a beam quality of M2 < 1.5. Moreover, 1 W of average power at 193 nm was obtained by sum-frequency generation (SFG. A new concept of 193-nm DUV laser generation by use of the diamond Raman laser is also introduced. A proof-of-principle experiment of the diamond Raman laser is reported with the conversion efficiency of 23% from the pump to the second Stokes wavelength, which implies the potential to generate a higher power 193 nm DUV laser in the future.

  12. Complete solid state lighting (SSL) line at CEA LETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, I. C.; Ferret, P.; Dussaigne, A.; Bougerol, C.; Salomon, D.; Chen, X. J.; Charles, M.; Tchoulfian, P.; Gasse, A.; Lagrange, A.; Consonni, M.; Bono, H.; Levy, F.; Desieres, Y.; Aitmani, A.; Makram-Matta, S.; Bialic, E.; Gorrochategui, P.; Mendizabal, L.

    2014-09-01

    With a long experience in optoelectronics, CEA-LETI has focused on Light Emitting Diode (LED) lighting since 2006. Today, all the technical challenges in the implementation of GaN LED based solid state lighting (SSL) are addressed at CEA-LETI who is now an RandD player throughout the entire value chain of LED lighting. The SSL Line at CEA-LETI first deals with the simulation of the active structures and LED devices. Then the growth is addressed in particular 2D growth on 200 mm silicon substrates. Then, technological steps are developed for the fabrication of LED dies with innovative architectures. For instance, Versatile LED Array Devices are currently being developed with a dedicated μLED technology. The objective in this case is to achieve monolithical LED arrays reported and interconnected through a silicon submount. In addition to the required bonding and 3D integration technologies, new solutions for LED chip packaging, thermal management of LED lamps and luminaires are also addressed. LETI is also active in Smart Lighting concepts which offer the possibility of new application fields for SSL technologies. An example is the recent development at CEA LETI of Visible Light Communication Technology also called LiFi. With this technology, we demonstrated a transmission rate up to 10 Mb/s and real time HD-Video transmission.

  13. Characterisation and Radiation Modification of Carrageenan in the Solid State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulrez, S.; Al-Assaf, S.; Phillips, G.O.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the modification of kappa-carrageenan in the solid state using gamma radiation (in the dose range of 1-25kGy) in the presence of unsaturated alkyne gas. The results showed maximum production of hydrogel at 5kGy with nearly 80% of starting material being converted to hydrogel form in the absence of a gellin agent. Higher irradiation doses at 25kGy resulted in reducing the hydrogel proportion to ~40% due to degradation. The molecular weight and distribution was determined by GPC-MALLS and the results showed a decrease in the mass recovery and molecular weight of the soluble fraction at 60C. The molecular weight results were in agreement with hydrogel data determined from the filtration method. There was an optimum increase in the viscosity, elasticity and mechanical strength at 5kGy which was followed by a decrease in the gel strength at higher doses (25kGy). Our study demonstrates the potential production of novel hydrogel based carrageenan obtained by irradiation in the absence of metal ions with possible new applications. A mechanism for the radiation induced cross-linking to produce superhelical aggregates in the absence of a gelling agent is proposed. (author)

  14. Solid-state fractional capacitor using MWCNT-epoxy nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dina A.; Banerjee, Susanta; Bohannan, Gary W.; Biswas, Karabi

    2017-04-01

    Here, we propose the fabrication of a solid state fractional capacitor for which constant phase (CP) angles were attained in different frequency zones: 110 Hz-1.1 kHz, 10 kHz-118 kHz, and 230 kHz-20 MHz. The configuration makes use of epoxy resin as the matrix in which multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are dispersed. Adhesive nature of the epoxy resin is utilized for binding the electrodes, which avoids the extra step for packaging. The fractional capacitive behavior is contributed by the distribution of time constants for the electron to travel from one electrode to the other. The distributive nature of the time constant is ensured by inserting a middle plate which is coated with a porous film of polymethyl-methacrylate in between the two electrodes. The phase angle trend for the configuration is studied in detail, and it is observed that as the % of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) loading increases, the CP angle increases from - 85 ° to - 45 ° in the frequency zones above 100 Hz. The developed device is compact and it can be easily integrated with the electronic circuits.

  15. Design of a miniaturized solid state laser for automated assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Dolkemeyer, Jan; Morasch, Valentin; Loosen, Peter

    2010-05-01

    A miniaturized solid state laser for marking applications has been developed featuring novel assembly strategies to reduce size, cost and assembly effort. Design and setup have been laid out with future automation of the assembly in mind. Using a high precision robot the optical components composing the laser system are directly placed on a planar substrate providing accurate positioning and alignment within a few microns. No adjustable mounts for mirrors and lenses are necessary, greatly simplifying the setup. Consisting of either a ND:YAG or a Nd:YVO4 crystal pumped with a fiber coupled diode laser, a q-switch for pulse generation and a beam expander the entire assembly is confined in a 100ml space and delivers 4 W of continuous output power at 1.064 μm with an efficiency greater than 40%. Pulse lengths of 10-20 ns and repetition rates of up to 150 kHz have been obtained with an acousto-optic modulator. In addition, a custom designed electro-optic modulator with integrated high voltage switch has been realized. A supply unit for the entire system, including scanner and water cooling, is integrated in a 19" industrial chassis and can be operated via a graphical user interface on a standard personal computer.

  16. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  17. Development of a solid state laser of Nd:YLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doamaralneto, R.

    The CW laser action was obtained at room temperature of a Nd:YLF crystal in an astigmatically compensated cavity, pumped by an argon laser. This laser was completely projected, constructed and characterized in our laboratories. It initiates a broader project on laser development that will have several applications like nuclear fusion, industry, medicine, telemetry, etc. Throught the study of the optical properties of the Nd:YLF crystal, laser operation was predicted using a small volume gain medium on the mentioned cavity, pumped by an Ar 514,5 nm laser line. To obtain the laser action at polarizations sigma (1,053 (MU)m) and (PI) (1.047 (MU)m) an active medium was prepared which was a crystalline plate with a convenient crystallographic orientation. The laser characterization is in reasonable agreement with the initial predictions. For a 3.5% output mirror transmission, the oscillation threshold is about 0.15 W incident on the crystal, depending upon the sample used. For 1 W of incident pump light, the output power is estimated to be 12 mw, which corresponds to almost 1.5% slope efficiency. The versatile arrangement is applicable to almost all optically pumped solid state laser materials.

  18. Criticality monitoring with digital systems and solid state neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willhoite, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    A commercially available system for criticality monitoring combines the well established technology of digital radiation monitoring with state-of-the art detector systems capable of detecting criticality excursions of varying length and intensity with a high degree of confidence. The field microcomputer servicing the detector clusters contains hardware and software to acquire detector information in both the digital count rate and bit sensing modes supported by the criticality detectors. In both cases special criticality logic in the field microcomputer is used to determine the validity of the criticality event. The solid-state neutron detector consists of a 6 LiF wafer coupled to a diffused-junction charged particle detector. Alpha particles resulting from (n,α) interactions within the lithium wafer produce a pulsed signal corresponding to neutron intensity. Special detector circuitry causes the setting of a criticality bit recognizable by the microcomputer should neutron field intensities either exceed a hardware selectable frequency or saturate the detector resulting in a high current condition. These two modes of criticality sensing, in combination with the standard method of comparing an operator selectable alarm setpoint with the detector count rate, results in a criticality system capable of effective operation under the most demanding criticality monitoring conditions

  19. On the Electron Gas Heat Capacity in Undergraduate Solid State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Javier

    2013-03-01

    In undergraduate solid state physics the electronic energy, Uel, is calculated through the Fermi distribution function while the energy is weighted with the density of states. The electronic heat capacity is the derivative of the electronic energy with respect to temperature. Through this process, it is possible to obtain a low temperature approximation for the heat capacity, Cel that's proportional to the temperature. It is of interest to do a numerical calculation of Uel from which the numerical Cel is extracted. However, the result obtained, while agreeing with the low temperature approximation, has a slope that's substantially different. The disagreement appears large as the temperature is increased from zero K. Here we show that the reason has to do with the constancy of the Fermi level. By including the self consistent behavior of the chemical potential, the deviation from zero Kelvin is much improved and the result seems to make better sense. The lesson learned is significant enough to be of great pedagogical importance as regards the heat capacity calculation and the behavior of the chemical potential with temperature.

  20. Influence of tracks densities in solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes O, S.; Hadler N.; Lunes, P.; Saenz T, C.

    1996-01-01

    When Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) is employed to measure nuclear tracks produced mainly by fission fragments and alpha particles, it is considered that the tracks observation work is performed under an efficiency, ε 0 , which is independent of the track density (number of tracks/area unit). There are not published results or experimental data supporting such an assumption. In this work the dependence of ε 0 with track density is studied basing on experimental data. To perform this, pieces of CR-39 cut from a sole 'mother sheet' were coupled to thin uranium films for different exposition times and the resulting ratios between track density and exposition time were compared. Our results indicate that ε 0 is constant for track densities between 10 3 and 10 5 cm -2 . At our etching conditions track overlapping makes impossible the counting for densities around 1.7 x 10 5 cm -2 . For track densities less than 10 3 cm -2 , ε 0 , was not observed to be constant. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  1. Large aperture components for solid state laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality, resistance to damage, and overall performance of the several major components--amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters--in each amplifier train. Component development centers about achieving (1) highest functional material figure of merit, (2) best optical quality, and (3) maximum resistance to optical damage. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva comprises twenty amplifiers, each of 20 cm output clear aperture. Terawatt beams from these amplifiers are focused through two opposed, nested clusters of f/6 lenses onto such targets. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 35 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  2. Low temperature processing solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C. Y.; Koh, W. L.; Leung, M. Y.; Chiam, S. Y.; Wu, J. S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-03-01

    A study on low temperature processed solid state dye sensitized solar cell (LT-SDSC) is reported. The LT-SDSC uses a photoelectrode with a mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) film fabricated from a binder-free nanoparticle-TiO2 paste at room temperature, and a blocking layer of an amorphous TiO2 thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 150 °C. A power conversion efficiency of 1.30% is obtained from the LT-SDSC with 0.9 μm mp-TiO2 layer and 20 nm ALD-TiO2 blocking layer, in cooperating with organic indoline dyes and a hole conductor, 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD). The lower electron conductivity of the low-temperature-processed mp-TiO2 film and the amorphous blocking layer is equilibrated by using smaller thicknesses of the films. Ways to further boost the LT-SDSC performance are proposed. These LT-SDSC are potentially compatible with low cost plastic substrates and show promising manufacturing potential for low cost flexible SDSCs.

  3. Solid State NMR Studies of the Aluminum Hydride Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Son-Jong; Bowman, R. C., Jr.; Graetz, Jason; Reilly, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Several solid state NMR techniques including magic-angle-spinning (MAS) and multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS experiments have been used to characterize various AlH3 samples. MAS-NMR spectra for the 1H and 27Al nuclei have been obtained on a variety of AlH3 samples that include the (beta)- and (gamma)- phases as well as the most stable (alpha)-phase. While the dominant components in these NMR spectra correspond to the aluminum hydride phases, other species were found that include Al metal, molecular hydrogen (H2), as well as peaks that can be assigned to Al-O species in different configurations. The occurrence and concentration of these extraneous components are dependent upon the initial AlH3 phase composition and preparation procedures. Both the (beta)-AlH3 and (gamma)-AlH3 phases were found to generate substantial amounts of Al metal when the materials were stored at room temperature while the (alpha)-phase materials do not exhibit these changes.

  4. Solid state interconversion between anhydrous norfloxacin and its hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Wanchai; Byrn, Stephen R; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on characterizing and evaluating the solid state interconversion of norfloxacin (NF) hydrates. Four stoichiometric NF hydrates, dihydrate, hemipentahydrate, trihydrate, pentahydrate and a disordered NF state, were generated by various methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and Karl Fisher titrimetry. XRPD patterns of all NF hydrates exhibited crystalline structures. NF hydrate conversion was studied with respect to mild elevated temperature and various degrees of moisture levels. NF hydrates transformed to anhydrous NF Form A after gentle heating at 60 degrees C for 48 h except dihydrate and trihydrate where mixture in XRPD patterns between anhydrous NF Form A and former structures existed. Desiccation of NF hydrates at 0% RH for 7 days resulted in only partial removal of water molecules from the hydrated structures. The hydrated transitional phase and the disordered NF state were obtained from the incomplete dehydration of NF hydrates after thermal treatment and pentahydrate NF after desiccation, respectively. Anhydrous NF Form A and NF hydrates transformed to pentahydrate NF when exposed to high moisture environment except dihydrate. In conclusion, surrounding moisture levels, temperatures and the duration of exposure strongly influenced the interconversion pathways and stoichiometry of anhydrous NF and its hydrates. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Solid state consolidation nanocrystalline copper-tungsten using cold spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Aaron Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sarobol, Pylin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Argibay, Nicolas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clark, Blythe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diantonio, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    It is well known that nanostructured metals can exhibit significantly improved properties compared to metals with conventional grain size. Unfortunately, nanocrystalline metals typically are not thermodynamically stable and exhibit rapid grain growth at moderate temperatures. This severely limits their processing and use, making them impractical for most engineering applications. Recent work has shown that a number of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metal alloys exist. These alloys have been prepared as powders using severe plastic deformation (e.g. ball milling) processes. Consolidation of these powders without compromise of their nanocrystalline microstructure is a critical step to enabling their use as engineering materials. We demonstrate solid-state consolidation of ball milled copper-tantalum nanocrystalline metal powder using cold spray. Unfortunately, the nanocrystalline copper-tantalum powder that was consolidated did not contain the thermodynamically stable copper-tantalum nanostructure. Nevertheless, this does this demonstrates a pathway to preparation of bulk thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Furthermore, it demonstrates a pathway to additive manufacturing (3D printing) of nanocrystalline copper-tantalum. Additive manufacturing of thermodynamically stable nanocrystalline metals is attractive because it enables maximum flexibility and efficiency in the use of these unique materials.

  6. Solid-state photoelectrochemical H2 generation with gaseous reactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwu, Kingsley O.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.; Norby, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Photocurrent and H 2 production were demonstrated in an all solid-state photoelectrochemical cell employing gaseous methanol and water vapour at the photoanode. Open circuit photovoltage of around −0.4 V and short circuit photocurrent of up to 250 μA/cm 2 were obtained. At positive bias, photocurrent generation was limited by the irradiance, i.e., the amount of photogenerated charge carriers at the anode. Time constants and impedance spectra showed an electrochemical capacitance of the cell of about 15 μF/cm 2 in the dark, which increased with increasing irradiance. With only water vapour at the anode, the short circuit photocurrent was about 6% of the value with gaseous methanol and water vapour. The photoanode and electrocatalyst on carbon paper support were affixed to the proton conducting membrane using Nafion ® as adhesive, an approach that yielded photocurrents up to 15 times better than that of a cell assembled by hot-pressing, in spite of the overall cell resistance of the latter being up to five times less than that of the former. This is attributed, at least partially, to reactants being more readily available at the photoanode of the better performing cell

  7. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels

  8. Membrane solid-state NMR in Canada: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Michèle

    2017-11-01

    This manuscript presents an overview of more than 40years of membrane solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) research in Canada. This technique is a method of choice for the study of the structure and dynamics of lipid bilayers; bilayer interactions with a variety of molecules such as membrane peptides, membrane proteins and drugs; and to investigate membrane peptide and protein structure, dynamics, and topology. Canada has a long tradition in this field of research, starting with pioneering work on natural and model membranes in the 1970s in a context of emergence of biophysics in the country. The 1980s and 1990s saw an emphasis on studying lipid structures and dynamics, and peptide-lipid and protein-lipid interactions. The study of bicelles began in the 1990s, and in the 2000s there was a rise in the study of membrane protein structures. Novel perspectives include using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) for membrane studies and using NMR in live cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  10. Solid-state-drives (SSDs) modeling simulation tools & strategies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces simulation tools and strategies for complex systems of solid-state-drives (SSDs) which consist of a flash multi-core microcontroller plus NAND flash memories. It provides a broad overview of the most popular simulation tools, with special focus on open source solutions. VSSIM, NANDFlashSim and DiskSim are benchmarked against performances of real SSDs under different traffic workloads. PROs and CONs of each simulator are analyzed, and it is clearly indicated which kind of answers each of them can give and at a what price. It is explained, that speed and precision do not go hand in hand, and it is important to understand when to simulate what, and with which tool. Being able to simulate SSD’s performances is mandatory to meet time-to-market, together with product cost and quality. Over the last few years the authors developed an advanced simulator named “SSDExplorer” which has been used to evaluate multiple phenomena with great accuracy, from QoS (Quality Of Service) to Read Retry, fr...

  11. Formability of aluminium sheets manufactured by solid state recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, A. S.; Nayak, K. C.; Date, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Conventional recycling practices for non-ferrous metallic scrap involves melting followed by purification. This practice is suitable for recycling when the large volume of scrap is available. Though such recycling reduces consumption of diminishing metallic resources, high energy requirement and material loss during melting and purification limit its applicability. In the present work, manufacturing of solid state recycled aluminium sheet by hot rolling is explored and its formability characterized. Aluminium chips were divided into smaller particles (1~2mm) by crushing. After stress relief annealing, chips were cold compacted into square slabs (75*75mm section) of different thicknesses. Another similar set of slabs was made by hot compaction. The compacted slabs were hot rolled over a number of passes at 400°C. Each slab was reduced to approximately 90% thickness to get the sheet thickness in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. Microstructure revealed good interface bonding between the chip particles. Mechanical properties of the sheet from room temperature up to 200°C and at different strain rates were characterized by a number of tensile tests. Circular blanks from sheet were drawn into cylindrical cups and strain distribution was observed along different directions of rolling using circle grid analysis.

  12. Optimizing Design of the Solid State Skimmer using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclemore, A. J.; Tyner, J. S.; Yoder, D. C.; Buchanan, J. R.; Pilon, B.

    2011-12-01

    More environmentally friendly practices for handling sediment laden stormwater during land disturbing activities are desired. A new patent pending technology, the Solid State Skimmer (SSS), was developed at the University of Tennessee to retain sediment by skimming stormwater from the surface of a sediment pond without the need for moving parts. A previous study showed that the SSS is effective at reducing outflow turbidity. The present research attempts to optimization the SSS sediment trapping efficiency while ensuring the device maintains local stormwater regulations. MATLAB was selected as the means to solve for the optimized design because of its ability to handle complex computations and has an extensive mathematically based library. The core function of the design program is to minimize the hydraulic gradient across the SSS automatically by simultaneously adjusting the geometric parameters of the flow structure while matching inflow and outflow. Minimizing the hydraulic gradient is the core process and is optimized by MATLAB via built-in optimizing programs. Additional algorithms invoke optional constraints and objectives that allow the SSS design to meet local regulations such as: peak discharge, fixed or adjustable basin size, retention time, and general sediment type. These additional options can be utilized simultaneously or individually. If selected, the additional option is applied to the program as an objective or constraint and employed by the optimization algorithms for further design refinements. The optimizing program produces a more effective SSS that discharges cleaner stromwater, thus further decreasing the environmental impact of the land disturbing activities.

  13. Potential of high-average-power solid state lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, J.L.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.R.

    1984-09-25

    We discuss the possibility of extending solid state laser technology to high average power and of improving the efficiency of such lasers sufficiently to make them reasonable candidates for a number of demanding applications. A variety of new design concepts, materials, and techniques have emerged over the past decade that, collectively, suggest that the traditional technical limitations on power (a few hundred watts or less) and efficiency (less than 1%) can be removed. The core idea is configuring the laser medium in relatively thin, large-area plates, rather than using the traditional low-aspect-ratio rods or blocks. This presents a large surface area for cooling, and assures that deposited heat is relatively close to a cooled surface. It also minimizes the laser volume distorted by edge effects. The feasibility of such configurations is supported by recent developments in materials, fabrication processes, and optical pumps. Two types of lasers can, in principle, utilize this sheet-like gain configuration in such a way that phase and gain profiles are uniformly sampled and, to first order, yield high-quality (undistorted) beams. The zig-zag laser does this with a single plate, and should be capable of power levels up to several kilowatts. The disk laser is designed around a large number of plates, and should be capable of scaling to arbitrarily high power levels.

  14. Data analysis methods for solid-state nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesa, Calin; Dekker, Cees

    2015-02-01

    We describe a number of techniques for the analysis of solid-state nanopore ionic current traces and introduce a new package of Matlab analysis scripts with GUI front ends. We discuss methods for the detection of the local baseline and propose a new detection algorithm that bypasses some of the classical weaknesses of moving-average detection. Our new approach removes detected events and re-creates an ideal event-free baseline subsequently used to recalculate the local baseline. Iterative operation of this algorithm causes both the moving average of the baseline current and its standard deviation to converge to their correct values. We explain different approaches to selecting events and building event populations, and we show the value of keeping track of the changes in parameters, such as the event rate and the pore resistance, throughout the course of the experiment. Finally, we introduce a new technique for separating unfolded events and detecting current spikes present within translocation events. This open source software package is available online at: http://ceesdekkerlab.tudelft.nl/downloads/

  15. Development of a solid state laser of Nd:YLF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral Neto, R. do.

    1984-01-01

    The CW laser action was obtained at room temperature of a Nd:YLF crystal in an astigmatically compensated cavity, pumped by an argon laser. This laser was completely projected, constructed and characterized in our laboratories, thus having a high degree of nationalization. It initiates a broader project on lasers development that will have several applications like nuclear fusion, industry, medicine, telemetry, etc.... Throught the study of the optical properties of the Nd:YLF crystal, laser operation was predicted using a small volume gain medium on the mentioned cavity, pumped by an Ar 514,5 nm laser line. To obtain the laser action at polarizations σ (1,053 μm) and π (1,047 μm) an active medium was prepared which was a cristalline plate with a convenient crystalographic orientation. The laser characterization is in reasonable agreement with the initial predictions. For a 3.5% output mirror transmission, the oscillation threshold is about 0.15 W incident on the crystal, depending upon the sample used. For 1 W of incident pump light, the output power is estimated to be 12 mW, which corresponds to almost 1.5% slope efficiency. The versatile arrangement is applicable to almost all optically pumped solid state laser materials. (Author) [pt

  16. 2010 Ceramics, Solid State Studies in Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Halloran

    2010-08-20

    The 2010 Gordon Conference on Solid State Studies in Ceramics will present forefront research on ceramic materials in energy conversion, storage, and environmental sustainability. Oxide materials in advanced Li-ion batteries will be featured, including first principles computational methods, new experimental methods, novel synthesis, and the design of batteries that exploit nanoscale cathode materials. Several speakers address advances in oxides for solar applications, including photo-catalysts for solar hydrogen production and dye sensitized solar cells, along with thin film photovoltaics. Fast ionic conducting ceramics in electrochemical energy conversion and storage will be addressed for fuel cells and electrochemical storage. New concepts for electrochemical capacitor materials will be addressed, as will thermoelectric, geopolymers, and ceramics in nuclear energy. The Conference will bring together investigators at the forefront of their field as well as junior scientists in a collegial atmosphere, with programmed discussion sessions and informal gatherings in the afternoons and evenings. Poster presentations provide opportunities for junior scientists and graduate students to present their work and exchange ideas with leaders in the field. This Conference provides an avenue for scientists from different disciplines to explore new ideas and promotes cross-disciplinary collaborations in the various research areas represented.

  17. Solid-state lighting: an energy-economics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, J Y; Creighton, J R; Coltrin, M E; Simmons, J A; Saunders, H D

    2010-01-01

    Artificial light has long been a significant factor contributing to the quality and productivity of human life. As a consequence, we are willing to use huge amounts of energy to produce it. Solid-state lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology that promises performance features and efficiencies well beyond those of traditional artificial lighting, accompanied by potentially massive shifts in (a) the consumption of light, (b) the human productivity and energy use associated with that consumption and (c) the semiconductor chip area inventory and turnover required to support that consumption. In this paper, we provide estimates of the baseline magnitudes of these shifts using simple extrapolations of past behaviour into the future. For past behaviour, we use recent studies of historical and contemporary consumption patterns analysed within a simple energy-economics framework (a Cobb-Douglas production function and profit maximization). For extrapolations into the future, we use recent reviews of believed-achievable long-term performance targets for SSL. We also discuss ways in which the actual magnitudes could differ from the baseline magnitudes of these shifts. These include: changes in human societal demand for light; possible demand for features beyond lumens; and guidelines and regulations aimed at economizing on consumption of light and associated energy.

  18. Uses of pulsed electron beam to solid-states studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Noriaki; Nakayama, Takeyoshi; Tanimura, Katsumi; Chong, Taisu; Saidoh, Masahiro

    1982-01-01

    A survey is given on the use of the pulsed electron beams to studies of solid states. Even though main emphasis is placed on the studies carried out at the Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, using the Pulsed Electron Facilities installed in 1970, the works carried out at other institutes are also included. Only the studies of crystalline solids with simple structures, such as alkali halides and aromatic hydrocarbons are covered. In the first place several instrumentations which have extended utilities of pulsed-electron beams are presented. Then we discuss the studies of the dynamic of excitons, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of the usage of the electron pulses. Then usages of the pulsed-electron beam for the studies of the excited states of the quasi-stable defects are described. Application of the electron pulse for studies of the excitation spectroscopy of the photochemistry is described. The dynamic studies of defects introduced by electron-pulse bombardment is discussed finally. A summary is given, which includes also the possible future experiments. (author)

  19. Silver flip chip interconnect technology and solid state bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Chu-Hsuan

    In this dissertation, fluxless transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding and solid state bonding between thermal expansion mismatch materials have been developed using Ag-In binary systems, pure Au, Ag, and Cu-Ag composite. In contrast to the conventional soldering process, fluxless bonding technique eliminates any corrosion and contamination problems caused by flux. Without flux, it is possible to fabricate high quality joints in large bonding areas where the flux is difficult to clean entirely. High quality joints are crucial to bonding thermal expansion mismatch materials since shear stress develops in the bonded pair. Stress concentration at voids in joints could increases breakage probability. In addition, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation between solder and underbump metallurgy (UBM) is essential for interconnect joint formation in conventional soldering process. However, the interface between IMC and solder is shown to be the weak interface that tends to break first during thermal cycling and drop tests. In our solid state bonding technique, there is no IMC involved in the bonding between Au to Au, Ag and Cu, and Ag and Au. All the reliability issues related to IMC or IMC growth is not our concern. To sum up, ductile bonding media, such as Ag or Au, and proper metallic layered structure are utilized in this research to produce high quality joints. The research starts with developing a low temperature fluxless bonding process using electroplated Ag/In/Ag multilayer structures between Si chip and 304 stainless steel (304SS) substrate. Because the outer thin Ag layer effectively protects inner In layer from oxidation, In layer dissolves Ag layer and joints to Ag layer on the to-be-bonded Si chip when temperature reaches the reflow temperature of 166ºC. Joints consist of mainly Ag-rich Ag-In solid solution and Ag2In. Using this fluxless bonding technique, two 304SS substrates can be bonded together as well. From the high magnification SEM images taken at cross

  20. Microstructural optimization of solid-state sintered silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Gonzalez, Lionel R.

    Silicon carbide armor, manufactured through solid-state sintering, liquid-phase sintering, and hot-pressing, is being used by the United States Armed Forces for personal and vehicle protection. There is a lack of consensus, however, on which process results in the best-performing ballistic armor. Previous studies have shown that hot-pressed ceramics processed with secondary oxide and/or rare earth oxides, which exhibit high fracture toughness, perform well in handling and under ballistic impact. This high toughness is due to the intergranular nature of the fracture, creating a tortuous path for cracks and facilitating crack deflection and bridging. However, it has also been shown that higher-hardness sintered SiC materials might perform similarly or better to hot-pressed armor, in spite of the large fracture toughness deficit, if the microstructure (density, grain size, purity) of these materials are improved. In this work, the development of theoretically-dense, clean grain boundary, high hardness solid-state sintered silicon carbide (SiC) armor was pursued. Boron carbide and graphite (added as phenolic resin to ensure the carbon is finely dispersed throughout the microstructure) were used as the sintering aids. SiC batches between 0.25--4.00 wt.% carbon were mixed and spray dried. Cylindrical pellets were pressed at 13.7 MPa, cold-isostatically pressed (CIP) at 344 MPa, sintered under varying sintering soaking temperatures and heating rates, and varying post hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) parameters. Carbon additive amounts between 2.0--2.5 wt.% (based on the resin source), a 0.36 wt.% B4C addition, and a 2050°C sintering soak yielded parts with high sintering densities (˜95.5--96.5%) and a fine, equiaxed microstructure (d50 = 2.525 mum). A slow ramp rate (10°C/min) prevented any occurrence of abnormal grain growth. Post-HIPing at 1900°C removed the remaining closed porosity to yield a theoretically-dense part (3.175 g/cm3, according to rule of mixtures). These

  1. Solid State Ionics Advanced Materials for Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdari, B. V. R.; Careem, M. A.; Dissanayake, M. A. K. L.; Rajapakse, R. M. G.; Seneviratne, V. A.

    2006-06-01

    Keynote lecture. Challenges and opportunities of solid state ionic devices / W. Weppner -- pt. I. Ionically conducting inorganic solids. Invited papers. Multinuclear NMR studies of mass transport of phosphoric acid in water / J. R. P. Jayakody ... [et al.]. Crystalline glassy and polymeric electrolytes: similarities and differences in ionic transport mechanisms / J.-L. Souquet. 30 years of NMR/NQR experiments in solid electrolytes / D. Brinkmann. Analysis of conductivity and NMR measurements in Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] fast Li[symbol] ionic conductor: evidence for correlated Li[symbol] motion / O. Bohnké ... [et al.]. Transport pathways for ions in disordered solids from bond valence mismatch landscapes / S. Adams. Proton conductivity in condensed phases of water: implications on linear and ball lightning / K. Tennakone -- Contributed papers. Proton transport in nanocrystalline bioceramic materials: an investigative study of synthetic bone with that of natural bone / H. Jena, B. Rambabu. Synthesis and properties of the nanostructured fast ionic conductor Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol] / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Hydrogen production: ceramic materials for high temperature water electrolysis / A. Hammou. Influence of the sintering temperature on pH sensor ability of Li[symbol]La[symbol]TiO[symbol]. Relationship between potentiometric and impedance spectroscopy measurements / Q. N. Pham ... [et al.]. Microstructure chracterization and ionic conductivity of nano-sized CeO[symbol]-Sm[symbol]O[symbol] system (x=0.05 - 0.2) prepared by combustion route / K. Singh, S. A. Acharya, S. S. Bhoga. Red soil in Northern Sri Lanka is a natural magnetic ceramic / K. Ahilan ... [et al.]. Neutron scattering of LiNiO[symbol] / K. Basar ... [et al.]. Preparation and properties of LiFePO[symbol] nanorods / L. Q. Mai ... [et al.]. Structural and electrochemical properties of monoclinic and othorhombic MoO[symbol] phases / O. M. Hussain ... [et al.]. Preparation of Zircon (Zr

  2. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  3. The ultrasonic characterisation of solid-state bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Amit Kumar

    The ultrasonic characterisation of solid-state bonds, in particular diffusion bonds has been considered in this thesis. The study has concentrated on titanium sheet material diffusion bonded with similar materials on either side of the bond-line. A review of diffusion bonding, ultrasonic diffusion-bond non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and acoustic microscopy is presented. A broadband Pulsed Digital Reflection Acoustic Microscope (PDRAM) with a centre frequency of 50 MHz has been designed and built as part of this study. The system is capable of imaging small flaws about 100 |im in diameter on the diffusion bond-line between two titanium plates typically 2 to 3mm thick. Calibration of the system has been conducted through the use of the optical concept of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and evaluation of its various imaging modes have been presented. Images and data in the form of reflection (CR) and transmission (CT) coefficients from the diffusion bond-line are obtained using two different techniques: C-scan and Leaky Rayleigh wave scans. The variation of Cr and with impedance contrast ratio (Z1/Z2) has been discussed by considering plane incidence on a perfect interface. Cr and values have been obtained using the C-scan technique. Metallographic sections that provide the bond-line normal to the free surface are used for a qualitative optical classification of bond quality. Quantitative CR and CT values and images are obtained by scanning these samples using leaky Rayleigh waves. The results are compared with a Finite Difference (FD) model developed within the Ultrasonics Group at UCL. This considers Rayleigh wave interaction on welded quarter spaces. Both FD model and experimental CR and CT values are found to be in good agreement at values of Z1/Z2 close to or equal to 1 (valid for specimens in this study). Reasons for any differences observed are discussed.

  4. Getter Incorporation into Cast Stone and Solid State Characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, Robert M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lawter, Amanda R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephenson, John R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neeway, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pearce, Carolyn I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Saslow, Sarah A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cordova, Elsa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-28

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is collecting relevant available data on waste forms for use as a supplemental immobilization technology, to provide the additional capacity needed to treat low-activity waste (LAW) in Hanford Site tanks and complete the tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost-effective manner. One candidate supplemental waste form, fabricated using a low-temperature process, is a cementitious grout called Cast Stone. Cast Stone has been under investigation for this application at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since initial screening tests in FY13. This report is the culmination of work to lower the diffusivities of Tc and I from Cast Stone using getters. Getters are compounds added to a system designed to selectively sequester a species of interest to provide increased stability to the species. The work contained within this report is related to waste form development and testing, and does not directly support the 2017 integrated disposal facility (IDF) performance assessment. However, this work contains valuable information which may be used in performance assessment maintenance past FY17, and in future waste form development. This report on performance characterization of Tc and I getters in Cast Stone fabricated with simulated LAW covers several areas of interest and major findings to WRPS: investigating performance of potassium metal sulfide (KMS-2-SS) and tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) as Tc getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; investigating performance of silver exchanged zeolite (Ag-Z) and argentite (Arg) as I getters when incorporated into Cast Stone; utilizing sequential addition of Tc and I getters to overcome any deleterious interactions between the getters in solution; determining, for the first time, Tc distribution within the cured Cast Stone and its evolution during leaching; and performing solid state characterization of getters and Cast Stone samples to support leach test findings and develop a

  5. New infrared solid state laser materials for CALIOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLoach, L.D.; Page, R.H.; Wilke, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    Tunable infrared laser light may serve as a useful means by which to detect the presence of the targeted effluents. Since optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) have proven to be a versatile method of generating coherent light from the ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, this technology is a promising choice by which to service the CALIOPE applications. In addition, since some uncertainty remains regarding the precise wavelengths and molecules that will be targeted, the deployment of OPOs retains the greatest amount of wavelength flexibility. Another approach that the authors are considering is that of generating tunable infrared radiation directly with a diode-pumped solid state laser (DPSSL). One important advantage of a DPSSL is that it offers flexible pulse format modes that can be tailored to meet the needs of a particular application and target molecule. On the other hand, direct generation by a tunable DPSSL will generally be able to cover a more limited wavelength range than is possible with OPO technology. In support of the CALIOPE objectives the authors are exploring the potential for laser action among a class of materials comprised of transition metal-doped zinc chalcogenide crystals (i.e., ZnS, ZnSe and ZnTe). The Cr 2+ , Co 2+ and Ni 2+ dopants were selected as the most favorable candidates, on the basis of their documented spectral properties in the scientific literature. Thus far, the authors have characterized the absorption and emission properties of these ions in the ZnS and ZnSe crystals. The absorption spectra are used to determine the preferred wavelength at which the crystal should be pumped, while the emission spectra reveal the extent of the tuning range potentially offered by the material. In addition, measurements of the emission lifetime as a function of temperature turn out to be quite useful, since this data is suggestive of the room temperature emission yield

  6. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-07-01

    The reaction of UO3 and H3PO3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH2(CH3)2)[UO2(HPO2OH)(HPO3)]. This compound crystallizes in space group P21/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO2OH)4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO3)(HPO2OH)2(H2O)·2(H2O). α- and β-An(HPO2OH)4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P21/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO3)(HPO2OH)2(H2O)2·(H2O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized.

  7. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-01-01

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths (λ=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range (λ=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution

  8. Improving the Efficiency of Solid State Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joanna McKittrick

    2003-03-31

    This proposal addresses the national need to develop a high efficiency light source for general illumination applications. The goal is to perform research that would lead to the fabrication of a unique solid state, white-emitting light source. This source is based on an InGaN/GaN UV-emitting chip that activates a luminescent material (phosphor) to produce white light. White-light LEDs are commercially available which use UV from a GaN chip to excite a phosphor suspended in epoxy around the chip. Currently, these devices are relatively inefficient. This research will target one technical barrier that presently limits the efficiency of GaN based devices. Improvements in efficiencies will be achieved by improving the internal conversion efficiency of the LED die, by improving the coupling between the die and phosphor(s) to reduce losses at the surfaces, and by selecting phosphors to maximize the emissions from the LEDs in conversion to white light. The UCSD research team proposes for this project to develop new phosphors that have high quantum efficiencies that can be activated by the UV-blue (360-410 nm) light emitted by the GaN device. The main goal for the UCSD team was to develop new phosphor materials with a very specific property: phosphors that could be excited at long UV-wavelengths ({lambda}=350-410 nm). The photoluminescence of these new phosphors must be activated with photons emitted from GaN based dies. The GaN diodes can be designed to emit UV-light in the same range ({lambda}=350-410 nm). A second objective, which is also very important, is to search for alternate methods to fabricate these phosphors with special emphasis in saving energy and time and reduce pollution.

  9. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  10. Solid State NMR Characterization of Complex Metal Hydrides systems for Hydrogen Storage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son-Jong Hwang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid state NMR is widely applied in studies of solid state chemistries for hydrogen storage reactions. Use of 11B MAS NMR in studies of metal borohydrides (BH4 is mainly focused, revisiting the issue of dodecaborane formation and observation of 11B{1H} Nuclear Overhauser Effect.

  11. Five different colours solid-state fluorescence of azastilbenes: a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited strong fluorescence with quantum yield values 0.61 and 0.84, respectively, higher than those of 1–3. ... spectra of 1−5 in liquid state are similar to those of solid state, indicating that no significant dipolar interactions were observed. ..... solid state of 5. Only H atom involved in hydrogen bonding.

  12. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies

  13. Synthesis of an organic–inorganic hybrid material by solid state ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Organic–inorganic hybrid materials; solid state intercalation; montmorillonite clay; 2-mercaptopyridine. 1. ... ber of industrial sectors including waste treatment (Koh ... Khaorapapong et al 2001, 2002; Landau et al 2002) have been reported as a way of utilizing host structures. Solid- state intercalation can be split into two ...

  14. Solid-state autocatalysis and oscillatory reactions in silicate glass systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Sørensen, Henrik Rokkjær; Kristensen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of autocatalysis and oscillatory behaviour in the solid-state where no decomposition process is involved. Our material system is solid-state silica glass impregnated with hydrogen. It is at the heart of photosensitivity in glass-based optical waveguides and devic...

  15. Study of poly butadiene molecular mobility by NMR in the solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Maria Rita G.; San Gil, Rosane A.S.; Tavares, Maria Ines B.

    1995-01-01

    This work has aimed to study commercial poly butadiene using 13 C NMR spectroscopy in the solid state through relaxation time investigation, in order to characterize its molecular mobility in the solid state and structure. NMR spectra are presented and analysed and chemical shifts are also observed and discussed

  16. Solid State Division: Progress report for period ending September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1988-03-01

    This paper contains a collection of articles on research done at the Solid State Division of ORNL. General topics covered are: theoretical solid state physics; neutron scattering; physical properties of superconductors and ceramics; synthesis and characterization of solids; ion beam and laser processing; and surface and defect studies. (LSP)

  17. Topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states with their parent Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Honghao; Zhang Guangming; Xiang Tao; Liu Zhengxin; Ng Taikai

    2009-01-01

    We present a general method to construct one-dimensional translationally invariant valence-bond solid states with a built-in Lie group G and derive their matrix product representations. The general strategies to find their parent Hamiltonians are provided so that the valence-bond solid states are their unique ground states. For quantum integer-spin-S chains, we discuss two topologically distinct classes of valence-bond solid states: one consists of two virtual SU(2) spin-J variables in each site and another is formed by using two SO(2S+1) spinors. Among them, a spin-1 fermionic valence-bond solid state, its parent Hamiltonian, and its properties are discussed in detail. Moreover, two types of valence-bond solid states with SO(5) symmetries are further generalized and their respective properties are analyzed as well.

  18. The solid-state terahertz spectrum of MDMA (Ecstasy) - A unique test for molecular modeling assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, Damian G.; Hakey, Patrick M.; Korter, Timothy M.

    2008-10-01

    The terahertz (THz, far-infrared) spectrum of 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine hydrochloride (Ecstasy) is simulated using solid-state density functional theory. While a previously reported isolated-molecule calculation is noteworthy for the precision of its solid-state THz reproduction, the solid-state calculation predicts that the isolated-molecule modes account for only half of the spectral features in the THz region, with the remaining structure arising from lattice vibrations that cannot be predicted without solid-state molecular modeling. The molecular origins of the internal mode contributions to the solid-state THz spectrum, as well as the proper consideration of the protonation state of the molecule, are also considered.

  19. Molecular structures of various alkyldichlorosilanes in the solid state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Jörg; Gericke, Robert

    2017-07-11

    A series of organodichlorosilanes RR'SiCl 2 (R,R' = (CH 2 ) 3 ; (CH 2 ) 4 ; (CH 2 ) 5 ; Me,Me; Me,H; Me,Cl) was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. At ambient temperature liquid chlorosilanes (melting points in the range of 180-220 K) were transferred into glass capillaries and crystallized in situ on a diffractometer. In the solid state structure these chlorosilanes are monomeric, even in the case of the sterically less demanding 1,1-dichlorosilacyclobutane (CH 2 ) 3 SiCl 2 . Interestingly, regardless the steric demand of the alkyl substituents, the dialkyldichlorosilanes exhibit essentially the same Cl-Si-Cl angle (for (CH 2 ) 3 SiCl 2 , (CH 2 ) 4 SiCl 2 , (CH 2 ) 5 SiCl 2 , Me 2 SiCl 2 : 106.08(3)°, 106.07(4)°/105.86(4)°, 106.91(2)° and 105.59(6)°, respectively). Replacement of one alkyl group by hydrogen has only a marginal influence on the Cl-Si-Cl angle (MeHSiCl 2 106.31(3)°), whereas in MeSiCl 3 slightly wider Cl-Si-Cl angles are found (ranging between 107.04(11)° and 107.86(11)°), in accordance with VSEPR. Computational analyses, i.e., potential energy surface scans of the Cl-Si-Cl angle variation, of (CH 2 ) 3 SiCl 2 , Me 2 SiCl 2 , MeHSiCl 2 and H 2 SiCl 2 reveal essentially identical energy profiles for the Cl-Si-Cl deformation in these four dichlorosilanes with basically superimposed curves for (CH 2 ) 3 SiCl 2 and Me 2 SiCl 2 , whereas with increasing H-substitution the energetic minimum is shifted to a slightly wider Cl-Si-Cl angle. In the crystal packing only MeHSiCl 2 exhibits weak intermolecular SiCl van der Waals contacts, whereas the Si-Cl moieties of the other five chlorosilanes engage in intermolecular ClH and (for (CH 2 ) 3 SiCl 2 , (CH 2 ) 4 SiCl 2 and MeSiCl 3 ) ClCl contacts.

  20. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, George N.; Burns, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2 1 /n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O)·2(H 2 O). α- and β-An(HPO 2 OH) 4 crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2 1 /n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An 4+ cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO 3 and H 3 PO 3 at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH 2 (CH 3 ) 2 )[UO 2 (HPO 2 OH)(HPO 3 )] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO 2 OH) 4 (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO 3 )(HPO 2 OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·(H 2 O) with a layered structure. - Highlights: • U(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) phosphites were synthesized by solution

  1. Toward high brightness, multi-kilowatt solid state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, L.E.; Manes, K.R.

    1990-11-01

    High average power (HAP) solid state laser output with improved beam quality has introduced new capabilities in materials processing. At the 500 W level and with a beam quality of a ''few'' times the diffraction limit, the General Electric NY slab is able to drill 5 cm of stainless steel in a few seconds. We expect that 2--3 kW of near infrared laser output in a low order spatial mode would enable metal working now unknown to industry. The HAP output of slab lasers is limited by the size of the available laser crystals and the pump power. Core free, six cm diameter NY boules have been grown on an experimental basis. High optical quality NG can be obtained up to 10 cm in diameter. We present the results of our modeling based on these crystals pumped by advanced arc-lamps or laser diode arrays. We project HAP laser outputs of 1.6 kW from an existing Vortek pumped NG oscillator and about 2 kW from diode pumped NY device. Several kW of laser output can be expected from two such slabs in a MOPA configuration before optical damage limits are reached. The three dimensional stress-optic code which we used to optimize our designs, was normalized to available experimental data obtained with the above NG slab at the 500 W level and a 40 W diode pumped NY test bed. Our calculations indicate the essential parameters for attainment of high beam quality. Cooling uniformity across the pumped faces of the slab is critical and the location of the transition between pumped and un-pumped regions towards the slab tips is very important. A flat pumping profile was found to be desirable and predicted one wave of distortion which should be correctable over about 75% of the aperture however, an even better wavefront was predicted over 90% of the aperture when the regions near the edges of the slab were slightly over-pumped relative to the central regions and the regions near to the ends were tapered to compensate for transition effects

  2. Diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, I.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis presents an investigation of diode-pumped two micron solid-state lasers, concentrating on a comparison of the cw room temperature operation of Tm:YAP, Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF. Dopant concentrations in YAP were 4.2% thulium and 0.28% holmium; in YLF they were 6% thulium and 0.4% holmium. Thermal modelling was carried out in order to provide an insight into the thermal lensing and population distributions in these materials. Laser operation was achieved utilising an end-pumping geometry with a simple two mirror standing wave resonator. The pump source for these experiments was a 3 W laser diode. Maximum output power was achieved with Tm:YAP, generating 730 mW of laser output, representing 42% conversion efficiency in terms of absorbed pump power. Upper bounds on the conversion efficiency of Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF laser crystal of 14% and 30% were obtained, with corresponding output powers of 270 and 660 mW. In all three cases, the output beam was TEM 00 in nature. Visible upconversion fluorescence bands in the green and red were identified in Tm,Ho:YAP and Tm,Ho:YLF, with additional blue emission from the latter, all assigned to transitions on holmium. The principal upconversion mechanisms in these materials all involved the holmium first excited state. Upconversion in Tm:YAP was negligible. The spectral output of Tm:YAP consisted of a comb of lines in the range 1.965 to 2.020 μm. For both the double-doped crystals, the laser output was multilongitudinal mode on a single transition, wavelength 2.120 μm in YAP, 2.065 μm in YLF. In the time domain the output of Tm:YAP was dominated by large amplitude spiking, unlike both of the double-doped laser crystals. The long lifetime of the thulium upper laser level (4.4 ms) provided very weak damping of the spiking. Excitation sharing between thulium and holmium, with a measured characteristic lifetime in YAP of 11.9 μs and YLF of 14.8 μs, provided strong damping of any spiking behaviour. (author)

  3. Accelerators for critical experiments involving single-particle upset in solid-state microcircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Charged-particle interactions in microelectronic circuit chips (integrated circuits) present a particularly insidious problem for solid-state electronic systems due to the generation of soft errors or single-particle event upset (SEU) by either cosmic rays or other radiation sources. Particle accelerators are used to provide both light and heavy ions in order to assess the propensity of integrated circuit chips for SEU. Critical aspects of this assessment involve the ability to analytically model SEU for the prediction of error rates in known radiation environments. In order to accurately model SEU, the measurement and prediction of energy deposition in the form of an electron-hole plasma generated along an ion track is of paramount importance. This requires the use of accelerators which allow for ease in both energy control (change of energy) and change of ion species. This and other aspects of ion-beam control and diagnostics (e.g., uniformity and flux) are of critical concern for the experimental verification of theoretical SEU models.

  4. Solid-state dependent dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Andres; Laidmäe, Ivo; Palo, Mirja; Meos, Andres; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Veski, Peep; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Kogermann, Karin

    2013-01-23

    The aim of this study was to gain understanding about the effects of different solid-state forms of a poorly water-soluble piroxicam on drug dissolution and oral bioavailability in rats. Three different solid-state forms of piroxicam were studied: anhydrate I (AH), monohydrate (MH), and amorphous form in solid dispersion (SD). In addition, the effect of a new polymeric excipient Soluplus® (polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer) on oral bioavailability of piroxicam was investigated. Significant differences in the dissolution and oral bioavailability were found between the solid-state forms of piroxicam. Amorphous piroxicam in SD showed the fastest dissolution in vitro and a solid-state transformation to MH in the dissolution medium. Despite the presence of solid-state transformation, SD exhibited the highest rate and extent of oral absorption in rats. Oral bioavailability of other two solid-state forms decreased in the order AH and MH. The use of Soluplus® was found to enhance the dissolution and oral bioavailability of piroxicam in rats. The present study shows the importance of solid-state form selection for oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Solid-state actinide acid phosphites from phosphorous acid melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, George N. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Burns, Peter C., E-mail: pburns@nd.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 156 Fitzpatrick Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with dimethylformamide (DMF) produces crystals of the compound (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})]. This compound crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}/n and consists of layers of uranyl pentagonal bipyramids that share equatorial vertices with phosphite units, separated by dimethylammonium. In contrast, the reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup. Subsequent dilution in solvents and use of standard solution-state methods results in the crystallization of two polymorphs of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th) and of the mixed acid phosphite–phosphite U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)·2(H{sub 2}O). α- and β-An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} crystallize in space groups C2/c and P2{sub 1}/n, respectively, and comprise a three-dimensional network of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphite units, whereas U(HPO{sub 3})(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O) crystallizes in a layered structure in space group Pbca that is composed of An{sup 4+} cations in square antiprismatic coordination corner-sharing with protonated phosphites and water ligands. We discuss our findings in using solid inorganic reagents to produce a solution-workable precursor from which solid-state compounds can be crystallized. - Graphical abstract: Reaction of UO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 3} at 100 °C and subsequent reaction with DMF produces crystals of (NH{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}){sub 2})[UO{sub 2}(HPO{sub 2}OH)(HPO{sub 3})] with a layered structure. Reaction of phosphorous acid and actinide oxides at 210 °C produces a viscous syrup and further solution-state reactions result in the crystallization of the actinide acid phosphites An(HPO{sub 2}OH){sub 4} (An=U, Th), with a three-dimensional network structure, and the mixed acid phosphite

  6. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  7. Solid-state dosimeters: A new approach for mammography measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brateman, Libby F., E-mail: bratel@radiology.ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida College of Medicine Box 100374, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0374 (United States); Heintz, Philip H. [Department of Radiology, University of New Mexico, MSC10 5530, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To compare responses of modern commercially available solid-state dosimeters (SStDs) used in mammography medical physics surveys for two major vendors of current digital mammography units. To compare differences in dose estimates among SStD responses with ionization chamber (IC) measurements for several target/filter (TF) combinations and report their characteristics. To review scientific bases for measurements of quantities required for mammography for traditional measurement procedures and SStDs. Methods: SStDs designed for use with modern digital mammography units were acquired for evaluation from four manufacturers. Each instrument was evaluated under similar conditions with the available mammography beams provided by two modern full-field digital mammography units in clinical use: a GE Healthcare Senographe Essential (Essential) and a Hologic Selenia Dimensions 5000 (Dimensions), with TFs of Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh; and Rh/Rh and W/Rh, W/Ag, and W/Al, respectively. Measurements were compared among the instruments for the TFs over their respective clinical ranges of peak tube potentials for kVp and half-value layer (HVL) measurements. Comparisons for air kerma (AK) and their associated relative calculated average glandular doses (AGDs), i.e., using fixed mAs, were evaluated over the limited range of 28–30 kVp. Measurements were compared with reference IC measurements for AK, reference HVLs and calculated AGD, for two compression paddle heights for AK, to evaluate scatter effects from compression paddles. SStDs may require different positioning from current mammography measurement protocols. Results: Measurements of kVp were accurate in general for the SStDs (within −1.2 and +1.1 kVp) for all instruments over a wide range of set kVp’s and TFs and most accurate for Mo/Mo and W/Rh. Discrepancies between measurements and reference values were greater for HVL and AK. Measured HVL values differed from reference values by −6.5% to +3.5% depending on the SStD and

  8. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light

  9. Comparison of the half-value layer: ionization chambers vs solid-state meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.C.S.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Navarro, M.V.T.; Macedo, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the half value layer (HVL) is determined by using ionization chambers and aluminum filters. However, some solid-state dosimeters allow simultaneous measurements of X-ray's parameters, among which the HVL. The main objective of this study was to compare the HVL's values indicated by four different solid-state dosimeters, whose values were measured by ionization chambers. The maximum difference found between the two methods was 11.42%, one the solid-state dosimeters, showing that the use these instruments to determine CSR in industrial X-ray should be subject to a more thorough evaluation. (author)

  10. Solid-State NMR Study of New Copolymers as Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Daigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the analysis of comb-like polymers by solid-state NMR. The polymers were previously evaluated as solid-polymer-electrolytes (SPE for lithium-polymer-metal batteries that have suitable ionic conductivity at 60 °C. We propose to develop a correlation between 13C solid-state NMR measurements and phase segregation. 13C solid-state NMR is a perfect tool for differentiating polymer phases with fast or slow motions. 7Li was used to monitor the motion of lithium ions in the polymer, and activation energies were calculated.

  11. Solid state oxygen anion and electron mediating membrane and catalytic membrane reactors containing them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammels, Anthony F.

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to gas-impermeable, solid state materials fabricated into membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors. This invention particularly relates to solid state oxygen anion- and electron-mediating membranes for use in catalytic membrane reactors for promoting partial or full oxidation of different chemical species, for decomposition of oxygen-containing species, and for separation of oxygen from other gases. Solid state materials for use in the membranes of this invention include mixed metal oxide compounds having the brownmillerite crystal structure.

  12. On-site demonstration procedure for solid-state fluorescent ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderber, R.; Morse, O.

    1980-09-01

    The report was presented to plant engineers and managers who were involved in an on-site demonstration of EETech solid-state ballasts for two 40-watt T12 fluorescent lamps. The report includes a brief review of the operating principles of solid-state fluorescent ballasts and the status of development achieved during the LBL program. The remainder of the test describes the techniques of managing and instrumenting a test area for assessing the performance of solid-state fluorescent ballasts at an occupied site.

  13. Solid state recycling of aluminium alloys via a porthole die hot extrusion process: Scaling up to production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Kellens, Karel; Deng, Yelin; Dewulf, Wim; Kampen, Carlos; Duflou, Joost R.

    2017-10-01

    Whereas industrial symbiosis has led to increased energy and resource efficiency in process industries, this concept has not yet been applied in discrete product manufacturing. Metal scrap is first conventionally recycled, for which substantial energy and resource efficiency losses have been reported. Recent research has however proven the feasibility of `meltless' recycling of light metal scrap, yielding a first glimpse of potential industrial symbiosis. Various solid state recycling techniques (such as recycling via hot extrusion or Spark Plasma Sintering) have been proposed for scrap consolidation directly into bulk products or semis by physical disruption and dispersion of the oxide surface film by imposing significant plastic and shear strain. Solid State Recycling (SSR) methods can omit substantial material losses as they bypass the metallurgical recycling step. In this context the case of direct production of bulk aluminium profiles via hot extrusion at industrial scale is demonstrated within this paper. The extrusion tests were performed directly into the production line, highlighting the scaling up potentials and the industrial relevance of this research. A significant amount of machining chips were collected, chemically cleaned and cold compacted into chip based billets with ˜80% relative density. Afterwards the scrap consolidation was achieved by imposing significant plastic and shear deformation into the material during hot extrusion through a modified 2-porthole extrusion die-set. The production process sequence along with microstructural investigations and mechanical properties comparison of the cast based profile used as reference versus the chip based profile are presented.

  14. High Energy Density Solid State Li-ion Battery with Enhanced Safety, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an all solid state Li-ion battery which is capable of delivering high energy density, combined with high safety over a wide operating...

  15. Self-Starting Solid-State Laser with Dynamic Self-Adaptive Cavity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antipov, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    ...: The present project is directed at the development of physical principles of creation of solid-state lasers of a new class with cavity completed by dynamic holographic gratings induced in nonlinear...

  16. GALILEO ORBITER ASTEROID AND EARTH 2 SOLID STATE IMAGING 2 R

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been generated by NASA's Galileo Project in order to distribute the images acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera to the scientists and...

  17. All-optical quantum computing with a hybrid solid-state processing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Pei; Zhang Fengyang; Li Chong; Song Heshan

    2011-01-01

    We develop an architecture of a hybrid quantum solid-state processing unit for universal quantum computing. The architecture allows distant and nonidentical solid-state qubits in distinct physical systems to interact and work collaboratively. All the quantum computing procedures are controlled by optical methods using classical fields and cavity QED. Our methods have a prominent advantage of the insensitivity to dissipation process benefiting from the virtual excitation of subsystems. Moreover, the quantum nondemolition measurements and state transfer for the solid-state qubits are proposed. The architecture opens promising perspectives for implementing scalable quantum computation in a broader sense that different solid-state systems can merge and be integrated into one quantum processor afterward.

  18. Arrowroot as a novel substrate for ethanol production by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tian-xiang; Tang, Qing-li; Zhu, Zuo-hua [School of Chemical Engineering, Guizhou University, Guizhou, Guiyang 550003 (China); Wang, Feng [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Ethanol production from Canna edulis Ker was successfully carried out by solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of C. edulis were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. The effect of inert carrier (corncob and rice bran) on ethanol fermentation and the kinetics of solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation was investigated. It was found that C. edulis was an alternative substrate for ethanol production, 10.1% (v/v) of ethanol concentration can attained when 40 g corncob and 10 g rice bran per 100 g C. edulis powder were added for ethanol fermentation. No shortage of fermentable sugars was observed during solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. There was no wastewater produced in the process of ethanol production from C. edulis with solid state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation and the ethanol yield of more than 0.28 tonne per one tonne feedstock was achieved. This is first report for ethanol production from C. edulis powder. (author)

  19. Innovative Solid State Lighting Replacements for Industrial and Test Facility Locations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a solid-state LED replacement lamp for rocket engine test stand lighting and more general hazardous-location lighting. The LED...

  20. Miniature Solid-State Sulfur Oxide Sensor for Emissions Measurement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering Incorporated (MEI) and Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) propose to develop a MEMS based, minature solid state sulfur oxide sensor for use in...

  1. Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2006-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been

  2. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M. (eds.)

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  3. Solid-state Ceramic Laser Material for Remote Sensing of Ozone Using Nd:Yttria Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Tunable solid state lasers have played an important role in providing the technology necessary for active remote sensing of the atmosphere. Recently, polycrystalline...

  4. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials

  5. A Toolbox of Solid-State NMR Experiments for the Characterization of Soft Organic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt

    2016-02-02

    Determining how organic molecules self-assemble into a solid material is a challenging and demanding task if a single crystal of the material cannot be produced. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy offers access to such molecular details via an appropriate selection of techniques. This report gives a selected overview of 1D and 2D solid-state NMR techniques for elucidating the structure of soft organic solids. We focus on how the solid-state NMR techniques are designed from the perspective of the different nuclear interactions, using average Hamiltonian theory and product operators. We also introduce recent methods for quantification and reduction of experimental artifacts. Finally, we highlight how the solid-state NMR techniques can be applied to soft organic materials by reviewing recent applications to semicrystalline polymers, π-conjugated polymers, natural silk, and graphene-related materials.

  6. GALILEO ORBITAL OPERATIONS SOLID STATE IMAGING RAW EDR V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set has been generated by NASA's Galileo Project in order to distribute the images acquired by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera to the scientists and...

  7. Wide Bandgap Semiconductor Based Solid State Smart Circuit Protection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced solid state power component technology is necessary for future hybrid aircraft systems with increased power demands. There is a need for adequate circuit...

  8. A semiclassical approach for two-color four-mode solid-state superfluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambruschini, C.L.P.

    1991-05-01

    A model for multilevel superfluorescence is presented. By using a parametric solution of this model we explain basic features in the two-color solid-state superfluorescence experiments of Florian, Schwan and Schmid. (author). 23 refs

  9. Cyprus Crustal Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, James M.

    The Cyprus Crustal Study Project is a joint venture of the International Crustal Research Drilling Group (ICRDG) and the Government of Cyprus through its Geological Survey Department. The aim of the project is to carry out a detailed reexamination of the Troodos, Cyprus, ophiolite, using high speed diamond drilling combined with extensive surface geological and geophysical studies. The ICRDG group, comprising about 100 geoscientists from eight countries, includes many participants familiar with ophiolites and with in situ ocean crust through work from Glomar Challenger, thus allowing the ophiolite to be viewed from a new perspective.Studies are being concentrated on a section through the north flank of the ophiolite between the villages of Agrokipia and Palekhori. Research drilling and associated mapping in this segment are aimed at providing a continuous sample through the upper 4 km of the ophiolite and at sampling the stockworks beneath the sulfide deposits located within the extrusive section. The Troodos massive sulfide deposits are considered to be close analogs of the deposited being formed by active hydrothermal circulation on the crest of the East Pacific Rise.

  10. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-24

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities.

  11. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  12. Solid state transformer with low-voltage ride-through and current unbalance management capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Alepuz Menéndez, Salvador; González, Francisco; Martín-Arnedo, Jacinto; Martínez Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The solid state transformer is an emerging technology which aims at replacing the conventional lowfrequency power transformer by means of a high-frequency transformer driven by a proper AC/AC power electronics conversion system, at both transformer sides. In comparison with the conventional power transformer, the solid state transformer provides extended and enhanced operating capabilities that can be achieved with an appropriate controller design for the power electronics converters. I...

  13. Can solid-state laser technology serve usefully beyond fusion ignition facilities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S.A.; Powell, H.T.; Krupke, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    We have explored the major technical and conceptual issues relating to the suitability of a diode-pumped solid state laser as a driver for an inertial fusion energy power plant. While solid state lasers have long served as the workhorse of inertial confinement fusion physics studies, the deployment of a driver possessing adequate efficiency, reliability, and repetition rate for inertial fusion energy requires the implementation of several technical innovations discussed in this article

  14. Production of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger in submerged and solid state systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M C; Strasser de Saad, A M

    1998-01-01

    Production of pectinesterase and polygalacturonase by Aspergillus niger was studied in submerged and solid-state fermentation systems. With pectin as a sole carbon source, pectinesterase and polygalacturonase production were four and six times higher respectively in a solid state system than in a submerged fermentation system and required a shorter time for enzyme production. The addition of glucose increased pectinesterase and polygalacturonase production in the solid state system but in submerged fermentation the production was markedly inhibited. A comparison of enzyme productivities showed that those determined for pectinesterase and polygalacturonase with pectin as a carbon source were three and five times higher by using the solid state rather than the submerged fermentation system. The productivities of the two enzymes were affected by glucose in both fermentation systems. The membranes of cells from the solid state fermentation showed increased levels of C18:1, C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids. Differences in the regulation of enzyme synthesis by Aspergillus niger depended on the fermentation system, favoring the solid state over the submerged fermentation for pectinase production.

  15. Toward 3D Solid-State Batteries via Atomic Layer Deposition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D solid-state batteries are receiving great attentions as on-board power supply systems for small-dimension devices, due to their high power and energy densities. However, the fabrication of 3D solid-state batteries has been a formidable challenge due to the limitation of conventional thin-film techniques. Recently, atomic layer deposition (ALD has emerged as a powerful approach toward 3D solid-state batteries, because of its exclusive advantage of coating uniform, pinhole-free, and conformal functional thin films on high-aspect-ratio substrates. Herein, we review the most recent progress in the utilization of ALD for fabricating 3D solid-state batteries. Specifically, two aspects will be highlighted: the development of glassy solid-state electrolytes (especially lithium phosphorus oxynitride, and the fabrication of 3D solid-state batteries in half-cell and full-cell configurations via ALD approach. Based on this, the perspectives for further research will be discussed.

  16. Monte Carlo simulations of solid-state photoswitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, P.W.; Denavit, J.

    1995-09-01

    Large increases in conductivity induced in GaAs and other semiconductors by photoionization allow fast switching by laser light with applications to pulse-power technology and microwave generation. Experiments have shown that under high-field conditions (10 to 50 kV/cm), conductivity may occur either in the linear mode where it is proportional to the absorbed light, in the {open_quotes}lock-on{close_quotes} mode, where it persists after termination of the laser pulse or in the avalanche mode where multiple carriers are generated. We have assembled a self-consistent Monte Carlo code to study these phenomena and in particular to model hot electron effects, which are expected to be important at high field strengths. This project has also brought our expertise acquired in advanced particle simulation of plasmas to bear on the modeling of semiconductor devices, which has broad industrial applications.

  17. Characterization of Silicon Nanocrystal Surfaces by Multidimensional Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Michael P. [Department; US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States; Fought, Ellie L. [Department; Windus, Theresa L. [Department; Wheeler, Lance M. [Chemistry; Anderson, Nicholas C. [Chemistry; Neale, Nathan R. [Chemistry; Rossini, Aaron J. [Department; US DOE Ames Laboratory, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States

    2017-11-17

    The chemical and photophysical properties of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) are strongly dependent on the chemical composition and structure of their surfaces. Here we use fast magic angle spinning (MAS) and proton detection to enable the rapid acquisition of dipolar and scalar 2D 1H-29Si heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectra and reveal a molecular picture of hydride-terminated and alkyl-functionalized surfaces of Si NCs produced in a nonthermal plasma. 2D 1H-29Si HETCOR and dipolar 2D 1H-1H multiple-quantum correlation spectra illustrate that resonances from surface mono-, di-, and trihydride groups cannot be resolved, contrary to previous literature assignments. Instead the 2D NMR spectra illustrate that there is large distribution of 1H and 29Si chemical shifts for the surface hydride species in both the as-synthesized and functionalized Si NCs. However, proton-detected 1H-29Si refocused INEPT experiments can be used to unambiguously differentiate NMR signals from the different surface hydrides. Varying the 29Si evolution time in refocused INEPT experiments and fitting the oscillation of the NMR signals allows for the relative populations of the different surface hydrides to be estimated. This analysis confirms that monohydride species are the predominant surface species on the as-synthesized Si NCs. A reduction in the populations of the di- and trihydrides is observed upon functionalization with alkyl groups, consistent with our previous hypothesis that the trihydride, or silyl (*SiH3), group is primarily responsible for initiating surface functionalization reactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to obtain quantum chemical structural models of the Si NC surface and reproduce the observed 1H and 29Si chemical shifts. The approaches outlined here will be useful to obtain a more detailed picture of surface structures for Si NCs and other hydride-passivated nanomaterials.

  18. Integrated Interface Strategy toward Room Temperature Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jiangwei; Wang, Yantao; Chen, Bingbing; Ma, Jun; Dong, Shanmu; Chai, Jingchao; Qu, Hongtao; Cui, Longfei; Wu, Xiuxiu; Cui, Guanglei

    2018-04-25

    Solid-state lithium batteries have drawn wide attention to address the safety issues of power batteries. However, the development of solid-state lithium batteries is substantially limited by the poor electrochemical performances originating from the rigid interface between solid electrodes and solid-state electrolytes. In this work, a composite of poly(vinyl carbonate) and Li 10 SnP 2 S 12 solid-state electrolyte is fabricated successfully via in situ polymerization to improve the rigid interface issues. The composite electrolyte presents a considerable room temperature conductivity of 0.2 mS cm -1 , an electrochemical window exceeding 4.5 V, and a Li + transport number of 0.6. It is demonstrated that solid-state lithium metal battery of LiFe 0.2 Mn 0.8 PO 4 (LFMP)/composite electrolyte/Li can deliver a high capacity of 130 mA h g -1 with considerable capacity retention of 88% and Coulombic efficiency of exceeding 99% after 140 cycles at the rate of 0.5 C at room temperature. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the good compatibility of the composite electrolyte with Li metal and the integrated compatible interface between solid electrodes and the composite electrolyte engineered by in situ polymerization, which leads to a significant interfacial impedance decrease from 1292 to 213 Ω cm 2 in solid-state Li-Li symmetrical cells. This work provides vital reference for improving the interface compatibility for room temperature solid-state lithium batteries.

  19. Solid-state modeling of the terahertz spectrum of the high explosive HMX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, Damian G; Prokhorova, Darya A; Korter, Timothy M

    2006-02-09

    The experimental solid-state terahertz (THz) spectrum (3-120 cm(-1)) of the beta-crystal form of the high explosive octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) has been analyzed using solid-state density functional theory calculations. Various density functionals (both generalized gradient approximation and local density approximation) are compared in terms of their abilities to reproduce the experimentally observed solid-state structure and low-frequency vibrational motions. Good-to-excellent agreement between solid-state theory and experiment can be achieved in the THz region where isolated-molecule calculations fail to reproduce the observed spectral features, demonstrating a clear limitation of using isolated-molecule calculations for the assignment of THz frequency motions in molecular solids. The deficiency of isolated-molecule calculations is traced to modification of the molecular structure in the solid state through crystal packing effects and the formation of weak C-H...O hydrogen bonds.

  20. On the Floquet–Magnus expansion: Applications in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananga, Eugene Stephane, E-mail: emananga@gradcenter.cuny.edu [Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Sciences, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Physics, Department of Radiology, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Charpentier, Thibault, E-mail: thibault.charpentier@cea.fr [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique, IRAMIS, Service interdisciplinaire sur les systèmes moléculaires et matériaux, CEA/CNRS UMR 3299, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-01-22

    Theoretical approaches are useful and powerful tools for more accurate and efficient spin dynamics simulation to understand experiments and devising new RF pulse sequence in nuclear magnetic resonance. Solid-state NMR is definitely a timely topic or area of research, and not many papers on the respective theories are available in the literature of nuclear magnetic resonance or physics reports. This report presents the power and the salient features of the promising theoretical approach called Floquet–Magnus expansion that is helpful to describe the time evolution of the spin system at all times in nuclear magnetic resonance. The report presents a broad view of algorithms of spin dynamics, based on promising and useful theory of Floquet–Magnus expansion. This theory provides procedures to control and describe the spin dynamics in solid-state NMR. Major applications of the Floquet–Magnus expansion are illustrated by simple solid-state NMR and physical applications such as in nuclear, atomic, molecular physics, and quantum mechanics, NMR, quantum field theory and high energy physics, electromagnetism, optics, general relativity, search of periodic orbits, and geometric control of mechanical systems. The aim of this report is to bring to the attention of the spin dynamics community, the bridge that exists between solid-state NMR and other related fields of physics and applied mathematics. This review article also discusses future potential theoretical directions in solid-state NMR.

  1. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO 4 were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO 4 , the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance

  2. Molecularly Engineered Azobenzene Derivatives for High Energy Density Solid-State Solar Thermal Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eugene N; Zhitomirsky, David; Han, Grace G D; Liu, Yun; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2017-03-15

    Solar thermal fuels (STFs) harvest and store solar energy in a closed cycle system through conformational change of molecules and can release the energy in the form of heat on demand. With the aim of developing tunable and optimized STFs for solid-state applications, we designed three azobenzene derivatives functionalized with bulky aromatic groups (phenyl, biphenyl, and tert-butyl phenyl groups). In contrast to pristine azobenzene, which crystallizes and makes nonuniform films, the bulky azobenzene derivatives formed uniform amorphous films that can be charged and discharged with light and heat for many cycles. Thermal stability of the films, a critical metric for thermally triggerable STFs, was greatly increased by the bulky functionalization (up to 180 °C), and we were able to achieve record high energy density of 135 J/g for solid-state STFs, over a 30% improvement compared to previous solid-state reports. Furthermore, the chargeability in the solid state was improved, up to 80% charged from 40% charged in previous solid-state reports. Our results point toward molecular engineering as an effective method to increase energy storage in STFs, improve chargeability, and improve the thermal stability of the thin film.

  3. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail: minimono42@gmail.com

    2013-10-01

    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  4. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  5. Understanding the solid-state forms of fenofibrate - A spectroscopic and computational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Andrea; Gordon, Keith C.; McGoverin, Cushla M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the structure of different solid-state forms of fenofibrate, a drug that lacks strong intermolecular interactions such as hydrogen bonding. In addition to a structural analysis of crystalline and amorphous fenofibrate using infrared and Raman spectroscopy...... combined with density functional theory calculations [B3LYP 6-31G(d)], solid-state changes that occur upon recrystallization of amorphous fenofibrate were monitored and described using in situ Raman spectroscopy. A comparison of the calculated vibrational spectra of a fenofibrate monomer and two dimer...... structures with the experimental vibrational spectra of crystalline and amorphous fenofibrate revealed conformational differences in the orientation of the two benzyl rings in the fenofibrate molecule and structural differences between the different solid-state forms in aliphatic parts of the drug molecule...

  6. Uranium isotope separation in the solid state. Progress report, December 1, 1976--June 1, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, E.R.

    1977-06-01

    Since we were actively able to work on this project, we have been engaged in three separate lines of research. Each of these has been related to laser-induced isotope separation of uranium in the solid state. The three areas are: (a) improved reaction chemistry for both host materials Zr(BH 4 ) 4 and Hf(BH 4 ) 4 and U(BH 4 ) 4 itself; (b) improved spectroscopic techniques in order to obtain sharper spectra; and (c) solid state photochemical investigations to study U(BH 4 ) 4 photodecomposition mechanism and yield as a function of wave length. These are all integral parts of the solid state isotope separation procedure and are discussed in terms of the overall process proposed

  7. Spin Ensembles Coupled to Superconducting Resonators: A Scalable Architecture for Solid-State Quantum Computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chang-Yong; Li Shao-Hua; Hou Qi-Zhe

    2014-01-01

    A design is proposed for scalable solid-state quantum computing, which is based on collectively enhanced magnetic coupling between nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles and superconducting transmission line resonators interconnected by current-biased Josephson junction superconducting phase qubit. In this hybrid system, we realize distant multi-qubit controlled phase gate operations and generate distant multi-qubit entangled W-like states, being indispensable resource to quantum computation. Our proposed architecture consists of solid-state spin ensembles and circuit QED, and could achieve quantum computing in a solid-state environment with high-fidelity and scalable way. The experimental feasibility is discussed, and the implementation efficiency is demonstrated numerically. (general)

  8. Modelling of different enzyme productions by solid-state fermentation on several agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Blandino, Ana; Webb, Colin; Caro, Ildefonso

    2016-11-01

    A simple kinetic model, with only three fitting parameters, for several enzyme productions in Petri dishes by solid-state fermentation is proposed in this paper, which may be a valuable tool for simulation of this type of processes. Basically, the model is able to predict temporal fungal enzyme production by solid-state fermentation on complex substrates, maximum enzyme activity expected and time at which these maxima are reached. In this work, several fermentations in solid state were performed in Petri dishes, using four filamentous fungi grown on different agro-industrial residues, measuring xylanase, exo-polygalacturonase, cellulose and laccase activities over time. Regression coefficients after fitting experimental data to the proposed model turned out to be quite high in all cases. In fact, these results are very interesting considering, on the one hand, the simplicity of the model and, on the other hand, that enzyme activities correspond to different enzymes, produced by different fungi on different substrates.

  9. Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter: Scalable Low-Cost Deorbit System for Small Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the Solid State Inflation Balloon Active Deorbiter project is to develop and demonstrate a scalable, simple, reliable, and low-cost active deorbiting system capable of controlling the downrange point of impact for the full-range of small satellites from 1 kg to 180 kg. The key enabling technology being developed is the Solid State Gas Generator (SSGG) chip, generating pure nitrogen gas from sodium azide (NaN3) micro-crystals. Coupled with a metalized nonelastic drag balloon, the complete Solid State Inflation Balloon (SSIB) system is capable of repeated inflation/deflation cycles. The SSGG minimizes size, weight, electrical power, and cost when compared to the current state of the art.

  10. Controlling Long-Lived Triplet Generation from Intramolecular Singlet Fission in the Solid State

    KAUST Repository

    Pace, Natalie A.

    2017-11-30

    The conjugated polymer poly(benzothiophene dioxide) (PBTDO1) has recently been shown to exhibit efficient intramolecular singlet fission in solution. In this paper, we investigate the role of intermolecular interactions in triplet separation dynamics after singlet fission. We use transient absorption spectroscopy to determine the singlet fission rate and triplet yield in two polymers differing only by side chain motif in both solution and the solid state. Whereas solid-state films show singlet fission rates identical to those measured in solution, the average lifetime of the triplet population increases dramatically, and is strongly dependent on side-chain identity. These results show that it may be necessary to carefully engineer the solid-state microstructure of these “singlet fission polymers” in order to produce the long-lived triplets needed to realize efficient photovoltaic devices.

  11. Solid-state NMR studies of Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Koen C H; Blaakmeer, E S Merijn; Kentgens, Arno P M

    2015-01-01

    Ziegler-Natta catalysts are the workhorses of polyolefin production. However, although they have been used and intensively studied for half a century, there is still no comprehensive picture of their mechanistic operation. New techniques are needed to gain more insight in these catalysts. Solid-state NMR has reached a high level of sophistication over the last few decades and holds great promise for providing a deeper insight in Ziegler-Natta catalysis. This review outlines the possibilities for solid-state NMR to characterize the different components and interactions in Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts. An overview is given of some of the expected mechanisms and the resulting polymer microstructure and other characteristics. In the second part of this review we present studies that have used solid-state NMR to investigate the composition of Ziegler-Natta and metallocene catalysts or the interactions between their components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonthermal effects in photostimulated solid state reaction of Mn doped SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daraselia, D.; Japaridze, D.; Jibuti, Z.; Shengelaya, A.; Müller, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of a photostimulated solid state reaction was investigated in Mn doped SrTiO3 samples. Light irradiation was performed by either halogen or UV lamps in order to study the effect of the spectral composition, and the results were compared with samples prepared at the same temperatures in a conventional furnace. The obtained samples were studied by X-ray diffraction for structural characterization and by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance, which provides microscopic information about the local environment as well as the valence state of Mn ions. It was found that light irradiation significantly enhances the solid state reaction rate compared to synthesis in the conventional furnace. Moreover, it was observed that UV lamp irradiation is much more effective compared to halogen lamps. This indicates that the absorption of light with energy larger than the materials band gap plays an important role and points towards the nonthermal mechanism of the photostimulated solid state reaction.

  13. Solid-State Photoinduced Luminescence Switch for Advanced Anticounterfeiting and Super-Resolution Imaging Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Qingkai; Li, Chong; Liu, Xiaogang; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Zhaochao; Lee, Richmond; Zhu, Mingqiang; Xu, Bin; Tian, Wenjing

    2017-11-15

    Solid-state organic photoswitches with reversible luminescence modulation property are highly attractive because of their wide prospects in advanced photonic applications, such as optical data storage, anticounterfeiting and bioimaging. Yet, developing such materials has long been a significant challenge. In this work, we construct an efficient solid-state photoswitch based on a spiropyran-functionalized distyrylanthracene derivative (DSA-2SP) that exhibits exceptional reversible absorption/luminescence modulation ability. Efficient photoswitching between DSA-2SP and its photoisomer DSA-2MC are facilitated by large free volumes induced by nonplanar molecular structures of DSA moieties, as well as the intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the DSA and MC moieties. Consequently, the excellent solid-state photochromic property of DSA-2SP is highly applicable as both anticounterfeiting inks and super-resolution imaging agents.

  14. Solid-state NMR studies of form I of atorvastatin calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei David; Gao, Xudong; Strohmeier, Mark; Wang, Wei; Bai, Shi; Dybowski, Cecil

    2012-03-22

    Solid-state (13)C, (19)F, and (15)N magic angle spinning NMR studies of Form I of atorvastatin calcium are reported, including chemical shift tensors of all resolvable carbon sites and fluorine sites. The complete (13)C and (19)F chemical shift assignments are given based on an extensive analysis of (13)C-(1)H HETCOR and (13)C-(19)F HETCOR results. The solid-state NMR data indicate that the asymmetric unit of this material contains two atorvastatin molecules. A possible structure of Form I of atorvastatin calcium (ATC-I), derived from solid-state NMR data and density functional theory calculations of various structures, is proposed for this important active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).

  15. High-power, solid-state rf source for accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, D.R.; Mols, G.E.; Reid, D.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    During the past few years the Defense and Electronics Center of Westinghouse Electric Corporation has developed a solid-state, 250-kW peak, rf amplifier for use with the SPS-40 radar system. This system has a pulse length of 60 μs and operates across the frequency band from 400 to 450 MHz. Because of the potential use of such a system as an rf source for accelerator applications, a collaborative experiment was initiated between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Westinghouse to simulate the resonant load conditions of an accelerator cavity. This paper describes the positive results of that experiment as well as the solid-state amplifier architecture. It also explores the future of high-power, solid-state amplifiers as rf sources for accelerator structures

  16. A Good Name and Great Riches: Rebranding Solid State Physics for the National Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joseph

    2012-03-01

    In 1943 Oliver Buckley, lamenting the inadequacy of term ``physics'' to evoke what physicists did, quoted the proverb, ``A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.'' Some forty years later, solid state physicists confronted similar discontent with their name, precipitating the rise of the appellation ``condensed matter physics.'' Ostensibly a rebranding of a well-established field, the change signaled deeper conceptual and institutional realignment. Whereas ``solid state'' emerged in the 1940s in the service of institutional aims, ``condensed matter'' more accurately captured a distinct set of theoretical and experimental approaches. Reimagining the field around core conceptual approaches set condensed matter apart from the inchoate field of materials science, which subsumed a growing proportion of solid state funding and personnel through the 1980s. Federally funded research installations were the source of ``great riches'' for scientific research. The DOE National Laboratory System and the DARPA network of Interdisciplinary Laboratories, given their responsiveness to shifts in national funding priorities, provide a sensitive historical instrument through which to trace the transition from solid state to condensed matter. The reorganization of solid state in response to the evolution of national priorities and funding practices precipitated a sharpening of the field's intellectual mission. At the same time, it reflected the difficulties solid state faced articulating its intellectual--as opposed to technological--merit. The proverb continues, `` and loving favor rather than silver and gold.'' The adoption of a name that emphasized intellectual cohesion and associated social esteem exposed the growing tension between technology-oriented national funding goals for materials research and condensed matter physics' ascendant intellectual identity.

  17. Obstacles and opportunities in the commercialization of the solid-state-electronic fluorescent-lighting ballast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.R.; Marcus, A.A.; Campbell, R.S.; Sommers, P.; Skumatz, L.; Berk, B.; Petty, P.; Eschbach, C.

    1981-10-01

    The Solid State Ballast (SSB) Program, aimed at improving the efficiency of fluorescent lights, is described. The first generation of solid state electronic ballasts has been developed and the technology has been transferred to the private sector. This report examines the opportunities for rapid dissemination of this technology into the marketplace. It includes a description of product characteristics and their influence on the commercialization of the SSB, a description of the technology delivery system presently used by the ballast industry, an analysis of the market for SSB, and identification of some high-leverage opportunities to accelerate the commercialization process. (MCW)

  18. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Luis E.

    1994-01-01

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  19. Proceedings of the ninth national conference on solid state chemistry and allied areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.B.; Shukla, S.K.; Abbas, N.S.; Bharadvaja, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Solid State Chemistry and Materials Science is the backbone of many industrial developments. Research on advanced materials makes a strong connection between different fields in basic science, engineering and medical sciences. This conference aims to cover wide range of interdisciplinary topics dealing with various aspects of solid state chemistry and advanced materials such as Nanomaterials, Catalysts, Active Packaging, High Energy Materials, Cementations, Materials , Nuclear Materials, Carbon Materials, Chalcogenides, Superconductor, Conducting Polymers, Photovoltaic, Sensors, Luminescence, Super conductors, Liquid Crystals, Modeling and Molecular Simulation,Biomaterials, Biosensors, Drug Delivery, Tissue Engineering, Bioplastics, Carbon Nanomaterials, Organ, Transplant, Dentisty, Bioimplant, Materials for Engineering and Environment, Nanocomposite, Biodegradable Polymers, etc

  20. Solid-state high-throughput screening for color tuning of electrochromic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamer, Fahad Alhashmi; Otley, Michael T; Ding, Yujie; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2013-11-20

    Diffusion of two monomers and their oxidative copolymerization inside a solid-state gel electrolyte is utilized as a method to match the monomer feed ratio to a color resulting from a conjugated copolymer having a single absorption in the visible region. Here, a combination of two monomers is used to generate a solid-state electrochromic device of any color, except black and green, in the colored state with all other colors going to transmissive sky blue in the bleached state. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Realization of reliable solid-state quantum memory for photonic polarization qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zong-Quan; Lin, Wei-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2012-05-11

    Faithfully storing an unknown quantum light state is essential to advanced quantum communication and distributed quantum computation applications. The required quantum memory must have high fidelity to improve the performance of a quantum network. Here we report the reversible transfer of photonic polarization states into collective atomic excitation in a compact solid-state device. The quantum memory is based on an atomic frequency comb (AFC) in rare-earth ion-doped crystals. We obtain up to 0.999 process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process of single-photon-level coherent pulse. This reliable quantum memory is a crucial step toward quantum networks based on solid-state devices.

  2. A compact 500 MHz 4 kW Solid-State Power Amplifier for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, M.; Pedrozzi, M.; Ferreira, L.F.R.; Garvey, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the development of a compact narrow-band Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA). We foresee a promising application of solid-state amplifiers specifically in accelerators for new generation synchrotron light sources. Such a new technology has reached a competitive price/performance ratio and expected lifetime in comparison with klystron and IOT amplifiers. The increasing number of synchrotron light sources using 500 MHz as base frequency justifies the effort in the development of the proposed amplifier. Two different techniques are also proposed to improve the control and performance of these new distributed amplification systems which we call, respectively, complete distributed system and forced compression.

  3. 100  J-level nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saumyabrata; Mason, Paul D; Ertel, Klaus; Jonathan Phillips, P; De Vido, Mariastefania; Chekhlov, Oleg; Divoky, Martin; Pilar, Jan; Smith, Jodie; Butcher, Thomas; Lintern, Andrew; Tomlinson, Steph; Shaikh, Waseem; Hooker, Chris; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, Cristina; Mocek, Tomas; Edwards, Chris; Collier, John L

    2016-05-01

    We report on the successful demonstration of a 100 J-level, diode pumped solid state laser based on cryogenic gas cooled, multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG amplifier technology. When operated at 175 K, the system delivered a pulse energy of 107 J at a 1 Hz repetition rate and 10 ns pulse duration, pumped by 506 J of diode energy at 940 nm, corresponding to an optical-to-optical efficiency of 21%. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest energy obtained from a nanosecond pulsed diode pumped solid state laser. This demonstration confirms the energy scalability of the diode pumped optical laser for experiments laser architecture.

  4. Determination of the percentage of quitine desacetilation reaction by solid state carbon-13 NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferracin, Ricardo J.; Cass, Quezia B.; Bassi, Ana L.

    1997-01-01

    Quitine is a bi-polymer largely found in invertebrates. As most compounds of this class are insoluble in common organic solvents, the des-acetylation percentile was obtained by carbon-13 solid state nuclear magnetic resonance. The methodology is presented. Results are presented

  5. Influence of water on stability of geopolymers investigated by NMR solid state spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobera, Libor; Brus, Jiří; Urbanová, Martina; Slavík, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 33, - (2008), s. 86 ISSN 1896-2203. [Mid-European Clay Conference MECC 08 /4./. 22.09.2008-27.09.2008, Zakopane] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400500602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : stability * NMR * solid state spectroscopy * geopolymer Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Drug-Excipient Interactions in the Solid State: The Role of Different Stress Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressl, Corinna; Brunsteiner, Michael; Davis, Adrian; Landis, Margaret; Pencheva, Klimentina; Scrivens, Garry; Sluggett, Gregory W; Wood, Geoffrey P F; Gruber-Woelfler, Heidrun; Khinast, Johannes G; Paudel, Amrit

    2017-12-04

    Understanding properties and mechanisms that govern drug degradation in the solid state is of high importance to ensure drug stability and safety of solid dosage forms. In this study, we attempt to understand drug-excipient interactions in the solid state using both theoretical and experimental approaches. The model active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) under study are carvedilol (CAR) and codeine phosphate (COP), which are known to undergo esterification with citric acid (CA) in the solid state. Starting from the crystal structures of two different polymorphs of each compound, we calculated the exposure and accessibility of reactive hydroxyl groups for a number of relevant crystal surfaces, as well as descriptors that could be associated with surface stabilities using molecular simulations. Accelerated degradation experiments at elevated temperature and controlled humidity were conducted to assess the propensity of different solid forms of the model APIs to undergo chemical reactions with anhydrous CA or CA monohydrate. In addition, for CAR, we studied the solid state degradation at varying humidity levels and also under mechano-activation. Regarding the relative degradation propensities, we found that variations in the exposure and accessibility of molecules on the crystal surface play a minor role compared to the impact of molecular mobility due to different levels of moisture. We further studied drug-excipient interactions under mechano-activation (comilling of API and CA) and found that the reaction proceeded even faster than in physical powder mixtures kept at accelerated storage conditions.

  7. Solid state chemistry of new polysulphides in A/Sn/S (A = Na, K, Rb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Solid state chemistry of new polysulphides in A/Sn/S (A = Na, K,. Rb) systems. M SUSEELA DEVI and K VIDYASAGAR. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras,. Chennai 600 036, India. Ternary polychalcogenides containing chalocogen–chalcogen bonds are metastable compounds that have been ...

  8. All solid state high voltage power supply for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual design of a high frequency solid state, high power, high voltage, power system that reacts fast enough to be compatible with the requirements of a neutral beam source is presented. The system offers the potential of significant advantages over conventional power line frequency systems; such as high reliability, long life, relatively little maintenance requirements, compact size and modular design

  9. Effect of substrate-seed mixing and leachate recirculation on solid state digestion of biowaste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Lab-scale experiments were performed and a mechanistic model was developed to simulate the solid state digestion of biowaste in a batch reactor. Both experiments and model showed that the substrate-seed mixing degree and leachate recirculation rate have a strong effect on the reactor performance.

  10. Modification of wheat straw lignin by solid state fermentation with white-rot fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinis, M.J.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Nunes, F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Barros, A.R.N.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of crude enzyme extracts, obtained from solid state cultivation of four white-rot fungi (Trametes versicolor, Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma applanatum and Phlebia rufa), was exploited to modify wheat straw cell wall. At different fermentation times, manganese-dependent peroxidase

  11. Hydrogen-bonding interactions in T-2 toxin studied using solution and solid-state NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Praveen; Shank, Roxanne A; Montina, Tony; Goettel, James T; Foroud, Nora A; Hazendonk, Paul; Eudes, François

    2011-10-01

    The structure of T-2 toxin in the solid-state is limited to X-ray crystallographic studies, which lack sufficient resolution to provide direct evidence for hydrogen-bonding interactions. Furthermore, its solution-structure, despite extensive Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies, has provided little insight into its hydrogen-bonding behavior, thus far. Hydrogen-bonding interactions are often an important part of biological activity. In order to study these interactions, the structure of T-2 toxin was compared in both the solution- and solid-state using NMR Spectroscopy. It was determined that the solution- and solid-state structure differ dramatically, as indicated by differences in their carbon chemical shifts, these observations are further supported by solution proton spectral parameters and exchange behavior. The slow chemical exchange process and cross-relaxation dynamics with water observed between the hydroxyl hydrogen on C-3 and water supports the existence of a preferential hydrogen bonding interaction on the opposite side of the molecule from the epoxide ring, which is known to be essential for trichothecene toxicity. This result implies that these hydrogen-bonding interactions could play an important role in the biological function of T-2 toxin and posits towards a possible interaction for the trichothecene class of toxins and the ribosome. These findings clearly illustrate the importance of utilizing solid-state NMR for the study of biological compounds, and suggest that a more detailed study of this whole class of toxins, namely trichothecenes, should be pursued using this methodology.

  12. High Spatial Resolution Imaging of Endogenous Hydrogen Peroxide in Living Cells by Solid-State Fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Eric; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2016-09-02

    Herein, we describe selective imaging of hydrogen peroxide using a precipitating dye conjugated to a boronic acid-based immolative linker. We achieved visualization of endogenous hydrogen peroxide in phagosomes by solid-state two-photon fluorescence imaging in living cells with exceptionally high spatial resolution. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High-yield cellulase production in solid-state fermentation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... Cen, 1999; Romero et al., 1999; Camassola and Dillon,. 2009). Water hyacinth was known as one of the fastest growing plants and a kind of unwanted species in China ..... Single cell oil production in solid-state fermentation by Microsphaeropsis sp. from steam-exploded wheat straw mixed with wheat bran.

  14. Determination of structure of oriented samples using two-dimensional solid state NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hong; Harbison, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    One dimensional and two-dimensional MAS techniques can give detailed information about the structure and dynamics of oriented systems. We describe the application of such techniques to the liquid-crystalline polymer poly(p-phenyleneterphtalimide) (PPTA), and thence deduce the solid-state structure of the material. (author). 9 refs.; 6 figs

  15. Structural investigation of e-beam cured epoxy resins through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio; Dispenza, Clelia; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the network structure of e-beam cured DGEBF based epoxy resins is investigated. Two epoxy systems, having different reactivity and cured in different process conditions, were analyzed through solid state NMR spectroscopy. The analysis shows that the more reactive system has higher cross-linking density and higher uniformity of network distribution. Similar information were obtained, in a previous work, on the same systems through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. It is worth noting that unlike DMTA tests, which interfere with the molecular structure of the analyzed material, due to the heating during the analysis itself, more reliable information, without any artefact, are obtained by solid state NMR, carried out at constant room temperature. - Highlights: ► The structure of two e-beam cured epoxy systems is investigated through solid state NMR. ► The aim is to have direct information about the structure without inducing modifications. ► The different molecular structures are able to emphasize the response of solid state NMR. ► T 1 H, T 1ρ H and T CH measurements indicate different cross-linking degrees. ► The NMR results are in agreement with DMTA analysis performed in a previous paper.

  16. Physical limitations to the spatial resolution of solid-state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Boronat, M; Frey, A; Garcia, I; Schwenker, B; Vos, M; Wilk, F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of -ray emission and fluctuations in the signal deposition on the detection of charged particles in silicon-based detectors. We show that these two effects ultimately limit the resolution that can be achieved by interpolation of the signal in finely segmented position-sensitive solid-state devices.

  17. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  18. Kilowatt average power 100 J-level diode pumped solid state laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mason, P.; Divoký, Martin; Ertel, K.; Pilař, Jan; Butcher, T.; Hanuš, Martin; Banerjee, S.; Phillips, J.; Smith, J.; De Vido, M.; Lucianetti, Antonio; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Edwards, C.; Mocek, Tomáš; Collier, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2017), s. 438-439 ISSN 2334-2536 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1602; GA MŠk LM2015086 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diode-pumped * solid state * laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 7.727, year: 2016

  19. Impact of solid-state properties on lubrication efficacy of magnesium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K Phanidhara; Chawla, Garima; Kaushal, Aditya M; Bansal, Arvind K

    2005-01-01

    The advent of high-speed tableting and slug capsule-filling machines has ushered in an increasingly important role for the lubricants to enact during manufacturing of dosage forms. Although lubricants help in processing, they can also adversely affect the flow properties and dissolution profile of the drug. It is thus critical to maintain a balance between these two behaviors, by understanding the underlying mechanisms and using their optimum concentration in the formulation. The source and manufacturing process inculcate different solid-state properties to magnesium stearate, the most commonly used lubricant, leading to variations in its lubrication efficacy. However, there has been no complete study relating the lubrication efficacy of magnesium stearate to various levels of solid state. Hence, this study was aimed at comprehensively scrutinizing the role of molecular, particle, and bulk level properties of solid state on the lubrication efficacy of magnesium stearate. A method based on net work done during compression using texture analyzer, was developed and validated to analyze its performance. Particle and bulk-level properties were studied using microscopy, particle size analysis, and particle surface area determination, and molecular level was characterized using thermal, spectroscopic, and crystallographic methods. Interplay of solid-state characteristics such as particle size, degree of agglomeration, and crystal habit were found to markedly influence the lubrication potential of magnesium stearate.

  20. Solid-State synthesis of POPD@AgNPs nanocomposites for electrochemical sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paulraj, P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Poly(o-phenylenediamine) (POPD) stabilized silver nanoparticles (POPD@AgNPs) nanocomposites was synthesized by solid state oxidative polymerization method using o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (oPD-HCl) as monomer and silver...