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Sample records for crustacea cladocera alimentado

  1. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam

    Artem Y. Sinev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocera of Cat Tien National Park, South Vietnam, and the surrounding agricultural area, were surveyed during the spring of 2009 (onset of the wet season and autumn 2010 (end of the wet season. The studied water bodies included two large lakes (Bau Sau and Bau Chim, small lakes and ponds, temporary pools, rivers and streams, as well as rice fields and ponds in an agricultural area beyond the boundaries of the National Park. Fifty three species of Cladocera were found, 18 of them new for Vietnam. Distribution and taxonomical status of the species are discussed. Of the recorded species, 58.5% (31 were found only in the National Park, 34% (18 both in the National Park and the agricultural area, and only 7.5% (4 exclusively in the agricultural area. Of the 20 species new for Vietnam, only one was found both in the National Park and the agricultural area, all others were found in the National Park only. Such a difference can be directly attributed to the loss of natural habitats (forest ponds and streams in agricultural areas and to the pollution by pesticides. Our study shows the importance of surveys in pristine and protected areas, for the full evaluation of regional microcrustacean richness.

  2. A cladistic analysis of the genera of Macrothricidae Norman & Brady (Crustacea, Cladocera, Radopoda Análise cladística dos gêneros de Macrothticidae Norman & Brady (Crustacea, Cladocera, Radopoda

    Lourdes M. A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A cladistic analysis of the genera of the Macrothricidae (Crustacea, Cladocera, Radopoda was performed based on 36 morphological characters, and including 15 terminal taxa (three as outgroups. The single tree obtained from this analysis supported the monophyly of Macrothricidae and Macrothricinae. The group called as "non-Macrothricinae" was indicated as paraphyletic. Neothricidae was also not supported.Foi conduzida uma análise cladística dos gêneros sul-americanos de Macrothricidae (Crustacea, Cladocera, Radopoda com base em 36 caracteres morfológicos e incluindo 15 taxa terminais (três como grupos externos. Uma única árvore foi obtida pela análise, a qual suporta o monofiletismo de Macrothricidae e de Macrothricinae. O grupo chamado de "não-Macrothricinae" é indicado como parafilético. Neothricidae também não encontrou suporte.

  3. Phylogeography of Daphnia magna Straus (Crustacea: Cladocera) in Northern Eurasia: Evidence for a deep longitudinal split between mitochondrial lineages.

    Bekker, Eugeniya I; Karabanov, Dmitry P; Galimov, Yan R; Haag, Christoph R; Neretina, Tatiana V; Kotov, Alexey A

    2018-01-01

    Species with a large geographic distributions present a challenge for phylogeographic studies due to logistic difficulties of obtaining adequate sampling. For instance, in most species with a Holarctic distribution, the majority of studies has concentrated on the European or North American part of the distribution, with the Eastern Palearctic region being notably understudied. Here, we study the phylogeography of the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna Straus, 1820 (Crustacea: Cladocera), based on partial mitochondrial COI sequences and using specimens from populations spread longitudinally from westernmost Europe to easternmost Asia, with many samples from previously strongly understudied regions in Siberia and Eastern Asia. The results confirm the previously suspected deep split between Eastern and Western mitochondrial haplotype super-clades. We find a narrow contact zone between these two super-clades in the eastern part of Western Siberia, with proven co-occurrence in a single lake in the Novosibirsk region. However, at present there is no evidence suggesting that the two mitochondrial super-clades represent cryptic species. Rather, they may be explained by secondary contact after expansion from different refugia. Interestingly, Central Siberia has previously been found to be an important contact zone also in other cladoceran species, and may thus be a crucial area for understanding the Eurasian phylogeography of freshwater invertebrates. Together, our study provides an unprecedented complete, while still not global, picture of the phylogeography of this important model species.

  4. Estimativa do tamanho das fêmeas com ovos de Moina minuta Hansen, 1899 (Cladocera, Crustacea no lago Amapá, Rio Branco, Estado do Acre, Brasil Estimating the size of ovigerous females of Moina minuta (Cladocera - Crustacea in Amapá Lake, Rio Branco, state of Acre, Brazil

    Elsa Rodrigues Hardy

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Moina minuta, uma espécie tropical de Cladocera, foi selecionada para o estudo do tamanho médio de maturidade e produção de ovos da fêmea, por ser abundante e freqüente nas amostras, durante a fase de águas baixas do ano de 1997 e fase de águas altas em 1998, no lago Amapá, na Amazônia Ocidental. A primipara apresentou tamanhos de 330 µm e 340 µm, respectivamente, na fase de águas baixas e fase de águas altas. Os indivíduos de M. minuta alcançaram tamanho máximo nas águas altas (595 µm. O tamanho médio das fêmeas ovígeras, na fase de águas baixas, foi de 501 µm, produzindo em média 4,41 ovos/fêmea, enquanto que na fase de águas altas foi de 533 µm, com uma média de 4,84 ovos/fêmea. Os resultados, demonstrados através da análise do teste t e teste F de Fischer, mostraram que não houve diferenças estatísticas nos tamanhos dos indivíduos (t= -10,69, F=1,20 e P>0,1227, como também nos tamanhos das fêmeas ovígeras (t= -4,45, F=1,02 e P>0,8906, considerando os dois períodos sazonais estudados.Moina minuta, a tropical species of Cladocera, was selected for the study of medium size at maturity and female egg production, due to its abundance and frequency in samples during low-water season in 1997 and high-water season in 1998, in Amapá Lake, Western Amazônia. The primiparous female had a size of 330 µm and 340 µm in low and high water, respectively. Moina individuals reached maximum size during high water (595µm. The medium size of the ovigerous females, in low water was 501 µm, producing an average of 4.41 eggs/female, while in high water, it was 533µm, with an average egg production of 4.84 eggs/female. The results, analyzed by the t test and Fischer’s F test, showed that there were no statistical differences in size among individuals (t= -10.69, F=1.20 and P>0.1227, nor among ovigerous females (t= -4.45, F=1.02 and P>0.8906, considering the two seasons.

  5. Crustacea; Talitridae

    Distribution of the amphipod, Talorchestia capensis (Crustacea; Talitridae) has been studied in a dune-beach system. The majority of amphipods occurred in dune slacks with fewer on the beach. No zonation of size classes existed, both juveniles and adults occurring throughout the slack. Amphipods were concentrated in ...

  6. Neckteeth formation in two species of the Daphnia curvirostris complex (Crustacea: Cladocera

    Petr Jan JURAČKA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cladocerans of the genus Daphnia show different morphological adaptations against invertebrate predation. Among those, the formation of neckteeth has attracted substantial attention. Morphotypes exhibiting neckteeth better resist predation from larvae of phantom midges Chaoborus (Diptera. These morphological structures are known from several species of the Daphnia longispina and D. pulex complexes; recently they have also been reported in the D. curvirostris complex, within which they are well documented from the Far East species D. sinevi and from Central European D. hrbaceki. Much scarcer are indications of the formation of these structures in the widespread species D. curvirostris. Careful inspection of samples from pools with Chaoborus larvae nevertheless revealed that a small necktooth in the first few instars of D. curvirostris is not uncommon, but probably has been mostly overlooked in the past. Occasionally, even adult D. curvirostris males may carry this feature. We provide documentation, particularly by scanning electron micrographs, of neckteeth in field-collected D. curvirostris, and in juvenile individuals of its sister species D. hrbaceki. In addition, we tested the response of three clones each of D. curvirostris and D. hrbaceki to Chaoborus kairomones in laboratory experiments. Two clones of the former species and all three of the latter responded to this predator cue with neckteeth formation. First-instar juveniles of D. hrbaceki also occasionally carried neckteeth in control treatments without Chaoborus kairomones, but second and third instars did not. We also observed strong interclonal variation in neonate length in the presence of kairomones in this species. We provide a summary table listing all Daphnia species presently known to exhibit neckteeth, and propose that the ability to form these structures may be more widespread among common Daphnia species than previously assumed.

  7. Species and hybrids in the genus Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    Liu, Ping; Xu, Lei; Xu, Shao-Lin; Martínez, Alejandro; Chen, Hua; Cheng, Dan; Dumont, Henri J; Han, Bo-Ping; Fontaneto, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Cladocerans are well-studied planktonic crustaceans, especially those of the genus Daphnia in which interesting evolutionary questions have been addressed on speciation processes. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate that other genera of cladocerans show similar levels of cryptic diversity, intraspecific gene flow, and thus become useful model systems for comparison. In order to do so, we chose the genus Diaphanosoma, widespread in tropical and temperate areas. We started with a survey of species diversity in the genus Diaphanosoma in Asia using a morphological approach, then obtained sequences from a mitochondrial and a nuclear marker from multiple individuals of different species, performed tests on DNA taxonomy and molecular phylogenies, and assessed the role of hybridization in explaining the cases of mitonuclear discordance. The results are that cryptic diversity occurs in Diaphanosoma, and mitonuclear discordance was found in about 6% of the sequenced animals. Past hybridization is supported as the most likely explanation for the discordance: no evidence was found of first generation hybrids with heterozygous sequences. Our analysis on patterns of genetic diversity in Diaphanosoma supports similarities and differences with what is known in Daphnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal dynamics and life histories of pelagic cladocerans (Crustacea; Cladocera in an acid boreal lake

    Jens Petter NILSSEN

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the surveyed anthropogenic acidified Lake Gjerstadvann with pH ≈ 5.2 situated in southern Norway, spatial and temporal distribution of three characteristic planktonic cladocerans inhabiting acidified boreal biotopes, Bosmina longispina, Holopedium gibberum, and Diaphanosoma brachyurum, were studied over a period of one year. The major pelagic predator was Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis. The local perch probably balanced the cladoceran community and facilitated co-existence of all three species of cladocerans by removing significant portions of B. longispina, which could also be the case in similar types of boreal lakes. Invertebrate predators such as the dipteran larvae Chaoborus flavicans and carnivorous copepods did not seem to influence the cladoceran community. B. longispina was perennial, whereas both H. gibberum and D. brachyurum were recorded only during the ice-free period. The life cycle of these free-living pelagic species ranged from 2-3 in D. brachyurum, 3 in H. gibberum to approximately 6 annual generations in B. longispina. Wintering took place as resting eggs in D. brachyurum and H. gibberum, while B. longispina produced resting eggs in addition to an active planktonic stay. The warm water tolerant D. brachyurum was mainly distributed above the thermocline, whereas H. gibberum also inhabited deeper strata, and B. longispina most vertical strata of the lake. Maximum seasonal clutch volume of B. longispina coincided in time with peak in food abundance and may be a useful parameter to identify planktonic food availability in such lakes. Knowledge of the autecology and life history of species is fundamental for understanding ecosystem stress, such as anthropogenic acidification and recovery through liming or by natural causes. Seasonal depth isoplots combined with life history studies of commonly co-occurring cladoceran species from natural acid and anthropogenic acidified lakes on the Northern Hemisphere seem to be uncommon, and similar type of data is needed to fully understand the processes of acidification and recovery.

  9. Genetic variation in the cellular response of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to its bacterial parasite.

    Auld, Stuart K J R; Scholefield, Jennifer A; Little, Tom J

    2010-11-07

    Linking measures of immune function with infection, and ultimately, host and parasite fitness is a major goal in the field of ecological immunology. In this study, we tested for the presence and timing of a cellular immune response in the crustacean Daphnia magna following exposure to its sterilizing endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa. We found that D. magna possesses two cell types circulating in the haemolymph: a spherical one, which we call a granulocyte and an irregular-shaped amoeboid cell first described by Metchnikoff over 125 years ago. Daphnia magna mounts a strong cellular response (of the amoeboid cells) just a few hours after parasite exposure. We further tested for, and found, considerable genetic variation for the magnitude of this cellular response. These data fostered a heuristic model of resistance in this naturally coevolving host-parasite interaction. Specifically, the strongest cellular responses were found in the most susceptible hosts, indicating resistance is not always borne from a response that destroys invading parasites, but rather stems from mechanisms that prevent their initial entry. Thus, D. magna may have a two-stage defence--a genetically determined barrier to parasite establishment and a cellular response once establishment has begun.

  10. Is acetylcholinesterase a biomarker of susceptibility in Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) after deltamethrin exposure?

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Felten, Vincent; Férard, Jean François

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we explored the possibility of using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as a biomarker after deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) exposure with three strains of the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four calculated time-weighted deltamethrin concentrations (20.1, 40.3, 80.6 and 161.3 ng L(-1)) were compared against control acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of deltamethrin exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the three considered strains. However, diverse responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 80.6 ng L(-1) for strain 1 and 20.1 ng L(-1) for strains 2 and 3) revealing differences in sensitivity among the three tested strains of D. magna. Our results suggest that after deltamethrin exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility (i.e., variation of strain specific response). Moreover, our results show that strain 1 is the less sensitive in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE, whereas it became the most sensitive when considering the EC50-48 h estimated in the standard ecotoxicity test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potentials and limitations of adaptive plasticity in filtering screen morphology of Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera)

    Macháček, Jiří; Seďa, Jaromír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), s. 1269-1280 ISSN 0142-7873 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1325; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-24309S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Daphnia * filtering screen morphology * transgenerational plasticity * ontogenetic plasticity * taxonspecific trait Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.983, year: 2016

  12. Effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on acetylcholinesterase activity of two strains of Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera).

    Toumi, Hela; Bejaoui, Mustapha; Touaylia, Samir; Burga Perez, Karen F; Ferard, Jean François

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of carbaryl (carbamate insecticide) on the acetylcholinesterase activity in two strains (same clone A) of the crustacean cladoceran Daphnia magna. Four carbaryl concentrations (0.4, 0.9, 1.8 and 3.7 µg L(-1)) were compared against control AChE activity. Our results showed that after 48 h of carbaryl exposure, all treatments induced a significant decrease of AChE activities whatever the two considered strains. However, different responses were registered in terms of lowest observed effect concentrations (LOEC: 0.4 µg L(-1) for strain 1 and 0.9 µg L(-1) for strains 2) revealing differences in sensitivity among the two tested strains of D. magna. These results suggest that after carbaryl exposure, the AChE activity responses can be also used as a biomarker of susceptibility. Moreover, our results show that strain1 is less sensitive than strain 2 in terms of IC50-48 h of AChE activity. Comparing the EC50-48 h of standard ecotoxicity test and IC50-48 h of AChE inhibition, there is the same order of sensitivity with both strains.

  13. Male meiosis in Crustacea: synapsis, recombination, epigenetics and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    Gómez, Rocío; Van Damme, Kay; Gosálvez, Jaime; Morán, Eugenio Sánchez; Colbourne, John K

    2016-09-01

    We present the first detailed cytological study of male meiosis in Daphnia (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera)-an aquatic microcrustacean with a cyclical parthenogenetic life cycle. Using immunostaining of the testes in Daphnia magna for baseline knowledge, we characterized the different stages of meiotic division and spermiogenesis in relation to the distribution of proteins involved in synapsis, early recombination events and sister chromatid cohesion. We also studied post-translational histone modifications in male spermatocytes, in relation to the dynamic chromatin progression of meiosis. Finally, we applied a DNA fragmentation test to measure sperm quality of D. magna, with respect to levels of inbreeding. As a proxy for fertility, this technique may be used to assess the reproductive health of a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems. Daphnia proves to be a model species for comparative studies of meiosis that is poised to improve our understanding of the cytological basis of sexual and asexual reproduction.

  14. Cladocera in the estuarine and coastal waters of south-west coast of India

    Madhupratap, M.

    high saline premonsoon period and tolerance to low salinity. Since the resting eggs of cladocera can be successfully hatched in the laboratory and reproduce at a very high rate, they form ideal organisms for mass culture...

  15. Cladocera from bottom deposits as an indicator of changes in climate and ecological conditions

    Frolova, L. A.

    2018-01-01

    Diatoms, pollen, and remains of higher vegetation are used as indicator groups in paleoecological studies. Using certain groups of zoological indicators such as planktonic and benthic organisms (Ostracoda, Cladocera, Chironomidae) has recently become popular in paleolimnology and paleoecology. This study aims to estimate the possibilities, benefits, problems and prospects of Cladocera use in the composition of zoothanatocoenosis of lakes’ sediments as one of the biological indicators in paleoenvironmental studies and paleoreconstructions of abiotic conditions of the past.

  16. Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynaklarının (Çivril-Denizli Crustacea Faunası.

    Cem Aygen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Işıklı Gölü Crustacea faunasının taksonomik açıdan incelenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu amaçla Şubat 1998-Ocak 1999 ayları arasında, gölde ve göle akan kaynak bölgesinde belirlenen 6 istasyondan aylık periyotlarla biyolojik örnekler ve su örnekleri alınmıştır. Araştırma sonunda Işıklı Gölü ve Kaynağı’nda bulunan Crustacea faunasının başlıca Cladocera (16 tür, Copepoda (12 tür, Ostracoda (1 tür, Amphipoda (2 tür, Isopoda (1 tür, Mysidacea (1 tür ve Decapoda (1 tür gruplarından oluştuğu saptanmıştır. Tespit edilen türlerden Cladocera grubundan Diaphanosoma brachyurum, Diaphanosoma mongolianum, Ceriodaphnia pulchella, Simocephalus vetulus, Macrothrix laticornis, Alona rectangula, Alona guttata, Graptoleberis testudinaria, Leydigia leydigi, Biapertura affinis, Chydorus sphaericus, Pleuroxus aduncus ve Disparalona rostrata; Copepoda grubundan Macrocyclops albidus, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops speratus, Eucyclops macruroides, Metacyclops gracilis, Mesocyclops leuckarti, Cyclops vicinus, Cyclops abyssorum, Cyclops strenuus, Megacyclops viridis, Acanthocyclops robustus, Canthocamptus staphylinus; Ostracoda grubundan Psychrodromus olivaceus; Amphipoda grubundan Gammarus balcanicus, Gammarus obnixus; Isopoda grubundan Asellus aquaticus türleri Işıklı Gölü’nden ilk kez bildirilmektedir

  17. Change in phenotypic plasticity of a morphological defence in Daphnia galeata (Crustacea: Cladocera in a selection experiment

    Koichi FUJII

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Some water fleas Daphnia change their head morphology to reduce predation risk in response to chemical substances (kairomones released from larvae of the invertebrate predator Chaoborus (Insecta: Diptera. We tested for evidence of the costs associated with elongation of the head spine in Daphnia galeata and the consequences of these costs on the inducibility of head spine elongation in predictable and unpredictable environments. We exposed D. galeata in outdoor experimental ponds to conditions under which predation pressure by Chaoborus larvae and the concentration of kairomones from this predator were controlled for about 70 days. In the laboratory, we then used Daphnia clones collected from the outdoor ponds to investigate the inducibility of head spine formation in response to Chaoborus kairomones. The inducibility of head spine formation increased in D. galeata from the ponds that had contained both predators and kairomones, whereas in water fleas from the ponds containing only kairomones the plasticity (inducibility of head spine formation decreased compared with that in the control ponds. These results suggest that the production of a defensive head spine, its phenotypic plasticity, or both entail some costs. Contrary to our predictions, exposure to Chaoborus kairomones in the laboratory resulted in head lengths that were not significantly different among any of the clones from the three outdoor treatments. We found no evidence for costs associated with head spine elongation in terms of fecundity, time to maturity, or intrinsic rate of natural population increase. Average within-clone partial correlations calculated for head length and intrinsic rate of natural population increase, corrected for body length, were not significantly negative, indicating no cost of defence. This was probably because food conditions in the laboratory were so good that the costs of defence could not be detected. Furthermore, community-level changes, such as changes in food conditions caused by manipulation of the predation regime in the outdoor ponds, might have worked as selection pressures and confounded the results.

  18. Combined acute ecotoxicity of malathion and deltamethrin to Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera): comparison of different data analysis approaches.

    Toumi, Héla; Boumaiza, Moncef; Millet, Maurice; Radetski, Claudemir Marcos; Camara, Baba Issa; Felten, Vincent; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Férard, Jean-François

    2018-04-19

    We studied the combined acute effect (i.e., after 48 h) of deltamethrin (a pyrethroid insecticide) and malathion (an organophosphate insecticide) on Daphnia magna. Two approaches were used to examine the potential interaction effects of eight mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion: (i) calculation of mixture toxicity index (MTI) and safety factor index (SFI) and (ii) response surface methodology coupled with isobole-based statistical model (using generalized linear model). According to the calculation of MTI and SFI, one tested mixture was found additive while the two other tested mixtures were found no additive (MTI) or antagonistic (SFI), but these differences between index responses are only due to differences in terminology related to these two indexes. Through the surface response approach and isobologram analysis, we concluded that there was a significant antagonistic effect of the binary mixtures of deltamethrin and malathion that occurs on D. magna immobilization, after 48 h of exposure. Index approaches and surface response approach with isobologram analysis are complementary. Calculation of mixture toxicity index and safety factor index allows identifying punctually the type of interaction for several tested mixtures, while the surface response approach with isobologram analysis integrates all the data providing a global outcome about the type of interactive effect. Only the surface response approach and isobologram analysis allowed the statistical assessment of the ecotoxicological interaction. Nevertheless, we recommend the use of both approaches (i) to identify the combined effects of contaminants and (ii) to improve risk assessment and environmental management.

  19. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera): influence of salinity on feeding, survival, growth and neonate production

    Achuthankutty, C; Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Goswami, S.C; Madhupratap, M.

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  20. [Effect of temperature and salinity on intrinsic increasing rate of Moina mongolica Daddy (Cladocera: Moinidae) population].

    Wang, Y; He, Z

    2001-02-01

    The intrinsic increasing rate of Moina mongolica Daddy, a euryhaline cladocera species isolated from inland brackish lakes of northwestern China, was studied at 20 degrees C-33 degrees C and 5-40 ppt, respectively. The results showed that its intrinsic increasing rate (rm) increased with increasing temperature from 20 degrees C-30 degrees C, and sharply dropped with further increasing temperature up to 33 degrees C. The rm of M. mongolica was relatively high at low salinity, the highest at 10 ppt, but no significant difference at 20-40 ppt. Therefore, 25 degrees C-30 degrees C and 10 ppt could be optimal for the development of M. mongolica population, and its increasing potential would not be affected significantly by rearing this cladocera species in seawater for a long period.

  1. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  2. (CaIman) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Branchiura)

    1994-01-25

    Jan 25, 1994 ... (Crustacea, Decapoda, Branchiura), from industrial, mine and sewage-polluted .... and sex dependency in the bioaccumulation of copper were also examined. ...... factors. which include changes in salinity. water hardness. R eprodu ... lOry mechanism breaks down, resulting in an increase in copper levels ...

  3. Development of Kubłowo Palaeolake in Central Poland During Eemian Based on Subfossil Cladocera Analysis – Preliminary Results

    Niska Monika

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of analysis of Cladocera occurrence in lacustrine sediments from the Kubłowo site have been presented. Lacustrine and peat deposits found there have been previously an analyzed for pollen content (depth of 11.1-3.8 m and represent a longest continuous Eemian-Vistulian succession in central Po land (Roman and Balwierz, 2010. Cladocera analysis was carried out on 25 samples from the depth of 9.20-10.5 m of an Eemian age section. The section consists of fine organic sand, silt with organic matter and gyttja. Identified were 19 species of subfossil Cladocera and five zones of fauna development were distinguished. In the early and mid-Eemian low frequency zooplankton in the palaeolake has been found. Best conditions for zooplankton development occurred in the late Eemian (R PAZ E6, E7. At the end of the Eemian a significant change of climate in a deterioration of environmental conditions and decreased presence of zoo plank ton has been noted. Cladocera results and the pollen data enable a reconstruction of the climatic and environmental changes in the Kubłowo palaeolake.

  4. Initial Time Of Two High Altitude Crater Lakes (Nevado De Toluca, Central Mexico Recorded In Subfossil Cladocera

    Szeroczyńska Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the recognition and reconstruction of the origin of two high altitude lakes and the ecological conditions of their early existence based on subfossil Cladocera and chemical analyses. The study focused on the oldest lacustrine sediments from Lake Sol and Lake Luna, located in the crater of Volcano Nevado de Toluca (Central Mexico. The Nevado de Toluca crater developed approximately 12 ka yr BP. According to the literature, the volcano was last active approximately 3.3 ka yr BP, and the lakes developed after that eruption. The remains of nine Cladocera species were found in the bottom sediments of both lakes. The most dominant taxa were two endemic littoral species: Alona manueli and Iliocryptus nevadensis. The total frequency of Cladocera specimens in both of the sediment cores was very low. No Cladocera remains were recorded in the sediment layer at depths between 123–103 m from Lake Luna. The results of the lithological and geochemical analyses showed that this sediment layer was composed of allochthonous material, probably originating from slid down from the volcanic cone. This was suggested by the content of silica (up to 13%, iron (up to 12%, and titanium (up to 4%. The Cladocera remains recorded in the bottom sediments suggested that both reservoirs developed as freshwater lakes at the beginning of the sedimentation. The calibrated radiocarbon dates obtained for the bottom samples were 4040 to 3990 yr BP for Lake Luna (129 cm and 4485 to 4485 yr BP for Lake Sol (89 cm. The obtained ages were older than the dates of the last eruption, which occurred approximately 3300 yr BP. This result was likely related to the type of radiocarbon dated materials (charcoals.

  5. Horizontal distribution of Cladocera in a subtropical lake marginal to a river

    Rafael Campanelli Mortari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various abiotic and biotic factors may determine the spatial distribution patterns of Cladocera in a lake. The aim of this study was to examine the horizontal distribution of Cladocera in a lake connected to a river during low and high water phases and the abiotic factors that determine variation in their populations. Microcrustaceans were collected in integrated samples at 40 sites distributed on a lake. The mean abundance of Cladocera was around five times higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase. Only populations of Bosmina hagmanni Stingelin, 1904 and Bosminopsis deitersi Richard, 1895 predominated in the low water phase, while in the high water phase, B. hagmanni, Ceriodaphnia cornuta f. rigaudi (Sars, 1896 Diaphanosoma spinulosum Herbst, 1975 and Moina micrura Kurz, 1875 predominated at some sampling stations. The majority of cladoceran species showed an aggregated distribution in the low water phase, except B. longirostris and D. fluviatile and, B. longirostris, the only ones which presented a uniform distribution pattern in the high water phase. Most of the aggregates of cladoceran species predominated in both the dry and rainy periods on the east side of the lake due to intense easterly wind. Some cladoceran populations formed isolate aggregates in other parts of the lake and near the lake-river connection site. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that the variables phosphorus, nitrogen and suspended matter (eutrophic conditions determined distinct patterns of horizontal distribution in some cladoceran populations at some stations in the low water phase, while in others, the patterns of horizontal distribution were determined by environmental conditions as alkalinity, pH, oxygen, depth and water transparency. In the high water phase, CCA revealed that phosphorus and water transparency were positive determining factors in the distribution of some cladoceran species, while alkalinity, depth and suspended matter

  6. Decapod crustacea of the Atlantic Coast of Canada

    Squires, Hubert J

    1990-01-01

    .... Distribution records for each species are provided. The Introduction has a brief history of collections of decapod Crustacea in the area, and the Appendix includes a list of mythological references to some taxonomic names used...

  7. A new species of Chonopeltis (Crustacea: Branchiura) from the ...

    Abstract. A new species of Chonopeltis (Crustacea: Branchiura) is described from material collected from the gill chamber of the snake catfish Ciarias theodorae from the Mogalakwena River, a tributary of the Limpopo River in northern Transvaal.

  8. Parthenogenetic reproduction of Diaphanosoma celebensis (Crustacea: Cladocera). Effect of algae and algal density on survival, growth, life span and neonate production

    Shrivastava, Y.; Mahambre, G.G.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Fernandes, Brenda; Goswami, S.C.; Madhupratap, M.

    ) and Tetraselmis gracilis (Kylin), was determined. Growth was faster in the initial stage with all three diets but slowed down in later life. Increased food concentrations resulted in higher neonate production but reduced the life span of females. However, long...

  9. Influence of environmental factors on the response of a natural population of Daphnia magna (Crustacea: Cladocera) to spinosad and Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    Duchet, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Caquet, Th. [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France); Franquet, E. [Universite Paul Cezanne, Institut Mediterraneen d' Ecologie et de Paleoecologie, Faculte des Sciences et Techniques Saint Jerome, C31, Marseille F-13397 (France); Lagneau, C. [Entente Interdepartementale de Demoustication du Littoral Mediterraneen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, Montpellier F-34184 (France); Lagadic, L., E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.f [INRA, UMR985 Ecologie et Sante des Ecosystemes, Equipe Ecotoxicologie et Qualite des Milieux Aquatiques, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, Rennes F-35042 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The present study was undertaken to assess the impact of a candidate mosquito larvicide, spinosad (8, 17 and 33 mug L{sup -1}) on a field population of Daphnia magna under natural variations of water temperature and salinity, using Bti (0.16 and 0.50 muL L{sup -1}) as the reference larvicide. Microcosms (125 L) were placed in a shallow temporary marsh where D. magna was naturally present. The peak of salinity observed during the 21-day observation period may have been partly responsible for the decrease of daphnid population density in all the microcosms. It is also probably responsible for the absence of recovery in the microcosms treated with spinosad which caused a sharp decrease of D. magna abundance within the first two days following treatment whereas Bti had no effect. These results suggest that it may be difficult for a field population of daphnids to cope simultaneously with natural (water salinity and temperature) and anthropogenic (larvicides) stressors. - Significant interaction between salinity and spinosad exposure impairs the recovery of a natural population of Daphnia magna.

  10. Daphnia exilis Herrick, 1895 (Crustacea: Cladocera): Una especie zooplanctónica potencialmente utilizable como organismo de prueba en bioensayos de toxicidad aguda en ambientes tropicales y subtropicales

    MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO, Fernando; RODRÍGUEZ-ESTRADA, Jesús; MARTÍNEZ-JERÓNIMO, Laura

    2008-01-01

    La evaluación biológica de los efectos tóxicos que producen los contaminantes químicos sobre los organismos acuáticos es fundamental para establecer medidas de control que restrinjan o limiten la contaminación en los ecosistemas acuáticos receptores de descargas. Para realizar esta valoración con frecuencia se emplean como organismos de prueba a diferentes especies planctónicas, siendo Daphnia magna el cladócero más utilizado en todo el mundo en pruebas de toxicidad, pese a que su utilidad en...

  11. Effect of the lipid regulator Gemfibrozil in the Cladocera Daphnia magna at different temperatures.

    Salesa, Beatriz; Ferrando, María D; Villarroel, María J; Sancho, Encarna

    2017-02-23

    In the present study, an ecotoxicological approach to the evaluation of Gemfibrozil (GEM) as an emerging organic pollutant was done. In order to assess its toxicity, tests were conducted using the cladocera Daphnia magna. Experiments were carried out at 22°C and 28°C. EC 50 , feeding behavior, and chronic toxicity tests (21 days) were evaluated in D. magna exposed to GEM as well as cholesterol levels at 21-day chronic exposure. D. magna GEM EC 50 values (24 h) in our experimental conditions were 148.75 and 116.24 mg L -1 at 22°C and 28°C, respectively. Test concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 7.5 mg L -1 were selected for subacute and chronic experiments. Subacute short-term test (feeding study) was assessed after exposure to the toxicant. Filtration and ingestion rates of D. magna exposed animals did not show any significant difference (P > 0.05) with respect to control daphniids neither at 22°C nor at 28°C. Therefore, GEM test concentrations used in the present study did not reduce feeding behavior in D. magna. Temperature increased from 22°C to 28°C, which resulted in a decrease of the daphniids reproductive parameters such as brood size and number of young per female. Other parameters as longevity were not affected. The GEM concentrations used in the chronic test with D. magna did not affect daphniids longevity but some reproductive parameters as number of young per female or brood size were affected. Finally, a significant decreased in cholesterol levels was found in those animals exposed to the highest toxicant concentrations. More studies must be done to determine the possible implications of GEM in aquatic fauna and to derive its possible effects on the environment.

  12. Landpissebedden van de Ooijpolder: deel 2. Ecologie (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    2001-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods of the Ooijpolder: part 2. ecology (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) From 1991 up to 1998 the isopod fauna of 1464 squares of 100x100 m was sampled in the Ooijpolder. This area is situated along the river Waal, east of Nijmegen (the Netherlands), close to the German border. In part

  13. Cavernicolous And Terrestrial Decapod Crustacea From Northern Sarawak, Borneo

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1979-01-01

    During the 1977-1978 Royal Geographical Society Mulu (Sarawak) Expedition a number of Decapod Crustacea was obtained. Some were collected by Mr. Philip Chapman in the course of studies of the invertebrates of the limestone caves in the Gunong Mulu National Park, 4th Division of Sarawak, and the Niah

  14. Landpissebedden van de Ooijpolder: deel 1. verspreiding (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea)

    Wijnhoven, H.

    2000-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods of the Ooijpolder: part 1. distribution (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) The distributions and habitats of woodlice were investigated in ‘the Ooijpolder’, also named ‘the Ooij’. The area of approximately 41 square kilometers is located along the river Waal, east of Nijmegen,

  15. Trends in Ostracoda and Cladocera distribution and water chemistry in subarctic Canada: Churchill (Manitoba lakes and ponds revisited

    Finn A. Viehberg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ponds and lakes distributed across northern treeline in the Hudson Bay Lowlands near Churchill (Manitoba were revisited to analyse and document the local ecoclimatic and limnological changes that occurred over the period 1997-2012. Our analyses revealed that single events may cause significant changes in salinity, pH and silicate content because of the limited buffer capacity of the inter-connected waters. Planktic freshwater microcrustaceans (Cladocera presented less diverse assemblages and appeared to favour waters that are situated in the boreal forest, while the diversity of benthic species assemblages (Cladocera and Ostracoda was highest in waters located closer to the coastline and in open tundra vegetation. We identified three species that are distinctive for the boreal ecozone (i.e., Candona acuta, Can. acutula and Can. decora and two species (i.e., Tonnacypris glacialis and Can. rawsoni that are elements of (sub-arctic landscapes and potentially endangered as the northern treeline expands due to rapid warming. These species are thought to be useful indicators for future ecosystem quality assessments and/or ecosystem service management programs. Our findings were compared to other studies completed in the boreal Yukon Territory and revealed that species diversity is closely linked to landscape history.

  16. The changes in the composition of Cladocera community in bottom sediments of Lake Maloye Shibrozero (Zaonezhsky Peninsula) as a consequence of shifts of environmental and climatic conditions

    Ibragimova, A. G.; Frolova, L. A.; Subetto, D. A.; Belkina, N. A.; Potakhin, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to explore the evolution of lakes of the boreal zone during the late- and postglacial time on the south-eastern periphery of the Fennoscandian crystalline shield since the last deglaciation. In order to reconstruct the past for virgin territories of the Zaonezhsky Peninsula current investigation on bottom sediments of Lake Maloye Shibrozero was conducted. Analyzes were performed using the new paleoindicator - subfossil remains of Cladocera (Cladocera, Branchiopoda). The 28 samples of bottom sediments were analyzed. It has been determined that discovered Cladocera remains belong to representatives of 6 families and 38 taxa. Species inhabiting Palaearctic zone are predominant in lake deposits; most of the identified subfossil remains are related to the pelagic species inhabiting the open part of the lake. According to the Lubarsky scale the dominant of Cladocera community is Bosmina (Eubosmina) cf. longispina. Secondary taxa are Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina coregoni, Alonella nana, Alona guadrangularis, A. affinis, Chydorus gibbus. At a depth of 650-653 cm, a partial replacement of Bosmina (Eubosmina) cf. longispina by Bosmina coregoni takes place with a simultaneous increase in the significance of Chydorus sphaericus, which is used to be an indicator of eutrophication and increasing trophic status of the reservoir. Changes in Cladocera community could be attributed to decreasing the level of periglacial lake, as a result of which the Lake Maloye Shibrozero became a small isolated lake with the trend to trophic status increasing. Cold-water species were replaced by thermophilic ones with a further return to a cold-water fauna. In the upper layers of the column an increase of the number of phytophilous species is noted.

  17. Plant feeding promotes diversification in the Crustacea.

    Poore, Alistair G B; Ahyong, Shane T; Lowry, James K; Sotka, Erik E

    2017-08-15

    About half of the world's animal species are arthropods associated with plants, and the ability to consume plant material has been proposed to be an important trait associated with the spectacular diversification of terrestrial insects. We review the phylogenetic distribution of plant feeding in the Crustacea, the other major group of arthropods that commonly consume plants, to estimate how often plant feeding has arisen and to test whether this dietary transition is associated with higher species numbers in extant clades. We present evidence that at least 31 lineages of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial crustaceans (including 64 families and 185 genera) have independently overcome the challenges of consuming plant material. These plant-feeding clades are, on average, 21-fold more speciose than their sister taxa, indicating that a shift in diet is associated with increased net rates of diversification. In contrast to herbivorous insects, most crustaceans have very broad diets, and the increased richness of taxa that include plants in their diet likely results from access to a novel resource base rather than host-associated divergence.

  18. Intersexuality in Crustacea: an environmental issue?

    Ford, Alex T

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to give a historical overview of current understanding about intersexuality in crustaceans, assesses gaps in our knowledge and asks whether it should be an environmental concern. The oldest known cases of intersexuality come from 70 million year old fossil crabs whilst the oldest published case of intersex crustacean stems from a 1730 Royal Society report of a gynandromorph lobster. Many crustacean species are sequential hermaphroditic or simultaneous hermaphrodites. Consequently, there has been confusion as to whether accounts of intersex in the literature are correct. Intersexuality is fairly common throughout the Crustacea and it has been suggested that intersex may arise through different mechanisms. For example, sexual gynandromorphism may arise through disruption in early embryonic development whereas intersexuality may also arise through perturbations of androgenic gland hormone and sexual differentiation in later development. The causes of intersex are multifaceted and can occur through a number of mechanisms including parasitism, environmental sex determination, genetic abnormalities and increasingly pollution is being implicated. Despite many studies on the effects of endocrine disrupters on crustaceans, very few have focussed on wild populations or male related endpoints; rather many laboratory studies have been attempting to assess biomarkers of feminisation. This is surprising as many of the seminal papers on endocrine disruption focussed on effects found in the wild and male specimens. This paper argues that we might have been addressing the right questions (i.e. pollution induced intersex), but in the wrong way (feminisation); and therefore gives recommendations for future directions for research. Biomarker development has been hampered by paucity of genomic and endocrine knowledge of many crustacean model species; however this is rapidly changing with the advent of cheaper affordable genomic techniques and high throughput sequencing

  19. Conducta alimentaria de Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 y Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera frente a un gradiente de concentración de alimento Feeding behaviour of Daphnia ambigua Scourfield 1947, Moina micrura Kurz 1874 and Ceriodaphnia dubia Richard 1895 (Cladocera under a food concentration gradient

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que Cladocera es el grupo de microfiltradores más abundante del zooplancton límnico y cuyas poblaciones se encuentran usualmente limitadas por alimento, la respuesta de los individuos frente a un gradiente de concentración de recursos tendría significativas implicancias sobre los patrones poblacionales y comunitarios. Se comparó la conducta alimentaria de Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia y Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera frente a las microalgas Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae mediante los siguientes parámetros: Tasa de Ingesta Máxima (Imax, Concentración Limitante Incipiente (CLI y Eficiencia de Consumo (b, los cuales fueron obtenidos a través de un modelo de respuesta funcional. Los resultados mostraron que D. ambigua presentó las mayores Imax y CLI sobre ambos recursos, sin embargo, esta especie presentó la menor b. Mientras que D. ambigua no presentó diferencias en b sobre Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp., M. micrura presentó una mayor b sobre Chlorella sp. y C. dubia sobre Oocystis sp. Estos resultados revelan significativas diferencias interespecíficas en la respuesta alimentaria de Cladocera, grupo que presentó un complejo comportamiento frente a variaciones en la disponibilidad de recursos alimentariosBecause Cladocera is the most abundant group of filter-feeders in the freshwater zooplankton and their populations are usually found under limited resources conditions, the individual response under a resources concentration gradient has important consequences on the population and community patterns. Feeding behavior of Moina micrura, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Daphnia ambigua (Cladocera on the microalgae Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorophyceae was compared by using the following parameters: Maximum Ingestion Rate (Imax, Incipient Limiting Concentration (ILC and Consumption Efficiency (b, which were obtained through a model of functional response. Results indicated that D. ambigua showed the highest Imax and

  20. Perfil lipídico tecidual de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas

    Almeida,Martha Elisa Ferreira de; Queiroz,José Humberto de; Queiroz,Maria Eliana Lopes Ribeiro de; Costa,Neuza Maria Brunoro; Matta,Sérgio Luis Pinto

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO:Determinar se fontes lipídicas com diferentes razões de ácidos graxos insaturados e saturados (PUFA+MUFA)/SFA na dieta altera o perfil lipídico tecidual, a concentração de lipídios (mg/g) dos tecidos hepáticos e mesentérico e a digestibilidade lipídica. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada cromatografia gasosa para determinar o perfil de ácidos graxos nos tecidos hepático e adiposo de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas. O coeficiente de digestibilidade foi determinado a partir da re...

  1. Hydrobiological studies in the catchment of Vaal dam, South Africa part 3. Notes on the Cladocera and Copepoda of stones-in-current, marginal vegetation and stony backwater biotopes

    Chutter, FM

    1971-01-01

    Full Text Available A general description of the study area be found in part 1(Chutter, 1970), where the fauna other than Cladocera and Copera of store-in-current, marginal vegetation and story backwater has been described. It was found that the streams and rivers...

  2. Changes in ventilation and locomotion of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) in response to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals

    Lange, de H.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants below lethal concentrations may affect the performance of organisms, resulting in measurable differences in behavior. We measured the response of the benthic invertebrate Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to sublethal concentrations of three pharmaceuticals, fluoxetine,

  3. Crescimento populacional e análise isotópica de Diaphanosoma spinolosum e Ceriodaphnia cornuta (Crustacea: Cladocera, alimentadas com diferentes frações de seston natural - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7260 Population growth and stable isotope analyses of Diaphanosoma spinolosum and Ceriodaphnia cornuta (Crustacea: Cladocera fed with different seston size fractions - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7260

    Bruce Forsberg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Para definir o efeito do seston como fonte de alimento para Ceriodaphnia cornuta e Diaphanosoma spinolosum durante a enchente no lago Catalão (Amazônia Central foram desenvolvidos experimentos “in situ”, utilizando a variação natural de δ13C e δ15N como traçadores de alimento. As duas espécies tiveram acesso a três diferentes frações de seston (D. spinolosum e C. cornuta apresentaram enriquecimento nos valores de delta;13C e δ15N, sendo maior na fração In order to define the effect of seston size fraction as a food source for Ceriodaphnia cornuta and Diaphanosoma spinolosumin, situ experiments using natural abundance of delta;13C and δ15N were carried out during the rising water period in Catalão Lake. Both species were fed with three different fractions of seston from the lake (13C and δ15N. Both species grew in all of the food fractions, with the best the performance coming in the D. spinolosum and C. cornuta showed enrichment in delta;13C and δ15N, which was highest in the < 10 µm fraction for both species. These results show that the seston size fractions tested produce different population growth rates and isotopic signatures in cladocerans.

  4. Pteropoda, Cladocera, and Chaetognatha associations as hydrological indicators in the southern Brazilian Shelf Asociaciones de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha como indicadores hidrológicos de la plataforma del extremo sur de Brasil

    Charrid Resgalla Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations of pteropod, cladoceran, and chaetognath species were analyzed for the southern coast of Brazil in order to present a biological diagnosis of the oceanographic conditions in winter and summer. The density data from the different species were analyzed using nodal and ordination cluster techniques, linking the species associations with salinity and temperature and, consequently, with the water masses occurring in each period. Sagitta tennis and Pleopsis polyphemoides were found to characterize the coastal water and, when associated with Evadne nordmanni and Pleopsis schmackeri, differentiated between the thermal characteristics of winter and summer, respectively. The Sub-Antarctic Shelf Water was characterized by the association of Sagitta tasmanica and Limacina retroversa in winter. The Tropical Water of the Brazil current presented several different associations, with Penilia avirostris, Sagitta enflata, and Creseis virgula dominating the shelf Tropical Water and Sagitta serratodentata, Limacina trochiformis, and Evadne spinifera characterizing the oceanic Tropical Water. The Sub-tropical Water, typical of upwelling processes, was characterized by the association of the chaetognaths Sagitta decipiens and Krohnitta subtilis, both in winter and summer. The species associations defined in this study agree with others carried out in neighboring areas and in previous sampling periods, characterizing the región as the southern transition zone.Se analizó las asociaciones de especies de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha en la costa sur de Brasil, para presentar un diagnóstico biológico de las condiciones oceanógraficas de invierno y verano. Los datos de densidad de las diferentes especies fueron analizados por técnicas de agrupamiento nodal y de ordenación, relacionando las asociaciones con la salinidad, temperatura y, consecuentemente, con las masas de agua presentes en cada período. Se observó que Sagitta tennis, Pleopsis

  5. Distribution of Mysidium integrum (Tattersall) (Crustacea-mysidacea) in Venezuelan coral habitats

    Zoppi de Roa, Evelyn; Pedro Alonso, G.

    1997-01-01

    ZOPPI DE ROA, EVELYN & PEDRO ALONSO G.: Distribution of Mysidium integrum (Tattersall) (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in Venezuelan coral habitats. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam 1997: 55-62. This paper reports the occurrence, distribution and some ecological aspects of mysids in six

  6. .i.Moraria brevipes./i. (Crustacea: Copepoda) in South Bohemian forest soils

    Háněl, Ladislav; Christian, E.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 68, - (2004), s. 169-171 ISSN 1211-376X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/99/1416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : forest floor * spruce * Crustacea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the Parasitic Barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala)

    Glenner, Henrik; Hebsgaard, Martin Bay

    2006-01-01

    The barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia) consist of three well-defined orders: the conventional filter-feeding barnacles (Thoracica), the burrowing barnacles (Acrothoracica), and the parasitic barnacles (Rhizocephala). Thoracica and Acrothoracica feed by catching food particles from the surrounding ...... crustaceans (Anomura), which includes hermit crabs and squat lobsters....

  8. New records of Decapod Crustacea from the Mediterranean coast of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1964-01-01

    Since the publication by Holthuis & Gottlieb (1958) of a list of the Decapod Crustacea known at that time to inhabit the Mediterranean waters of Israel, several additional species, 18 in number, have been found in the area, while just prior to the issue of the paper by Holthuis & Gottlieb a

  9. Evolución durante el ingreso de recién nacidos de muy bajo peso alimentados al inicio exclusivamente con leche humana

    Ginovart Galiana, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La alimentación con leche humana (LH) se ha asociado con múltiples ventajas en el recién nacido de muy bajo peso (RNMBP). No obstante, diversos estudios efectuados antes de extenderse la práctica de la fortificación demostraron pobre crecimiento en recién nacidos (RN) alimentados con LH comparado con los alimentados con fórmula. El papel que juega el crecimiento posnatal en los resultados del RNMBP es crucial y puede ser un factor independiente para su mala evolución. El objetiv...

  10. Suplementação nitrogenada ruminal e/ou abomasal em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical

    Rufino, Luana Marta de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com compostos nitrogenados no rúmen e/ou no abomaso sobre o consumo, a digestiblidade, a dinâmica ruminal dos compostos fibrosos e os parâmetros do metabolismo dos compostos nitrogenados em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011, sendo utilizados 4 novilhos Nelore, não castrados, com peso corporal médio (PC) de 227±11 kg, fistulados no rúmen e ...

  11. Morfometria testicular de cabritos alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata

    L.P. Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o desenvolvimento testicular de caprinos pré-púberes alimentados com óleo de licuri (Syagrus coronata na dieta. Foram utilizados 19 cabritos ¾ Boer, recém-desmamados, com média de idade de três meses. Os animais, submetidos a um período de 75 dias de confinamento, receberam alimentação composta por: farelo de milho, farelo de soja, feno picado de tifton 85 e de óleo de licuri com base na matéria seca. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: sem lipídio adicional (n= 5; com 1,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 5; com 3,0% de óleo de licuri (n= 5; e com 4,5% de óleo de licuri (n= 4. As avaliações de peso corporal e de biometria testicular foram realizadas quinzenalmente. Após o período de confinamento, os animais foram abatidos para determinação do peso dos testículos, peso dos epidídimos e índice gonadossomático. A adição de óleo de licuri em até 4,5% na dieta de caprinos pré-púberes não alterou o desenvolvimento testicular com base nas características da biometria e morfometria testicular, indicando que a inclusão de até 4,5% de óleo de licuri na dieta pode ser utilizada.

  12. Consumo e desempenho produtivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas que continham coprodutos do desfibramento do sisal

    R.D. Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho produtivo e o consumo de nutrientes e frações fibrosas em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo coprodutos do desfibramento do sisal, Agave sisalana. Foram utilizados 24 ovinos, machos, alojados em baias individuais. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro dietas isoproteicas, em que: i dieta padrão, contendo 38% de volumoso (silagem de milheto e 62% de concentrado (milho, farelo de soja e ureia; ii inclusão de 20% da silagem de mucilagem do sisal em substituição à silagem de milheto; iii inclusão de 20% da silagem de mucilagem associada ao pó da batedeira como aditivo em substituição à silagem de milheto; iv inclusão de 20% do feno da mucilagem em substituição à silagem de milheto. O peso corporal final, os ganhos médio diário e total e a conversão alimentar dos ovinos não foram influenciados pelas dietas avaliadas (P>0,05. Os consumos dos nutrientes, em g/dia e em %PC e g/kg0,75, não sofreram influência das dietas. Os resultados indicam que as dietas à base de coprodutos do sisal podem ser utilizadas como alternativa volumosa, além de possibilitar o aumento da rentabilidade da atividade na região semiárida brasileira.

  13. Subfossil Cladocera and pollen as indicators of natural and anthropogenic trophic changes of Lake Jelonek (Tuchola Forest, N Poland during the Holocene

    Edyta Zawisza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lake Jelonek is a small lake located in central northern Poland, in the Tuchola Forest. The sediments of the lake represent a natural archive that offers insights into the natural history of the region from the Late Glacial to present. In winter 2002, a 1330 cm long sediment core was recovered from the deepest part of lake. Using a multiproxy approach (cladocerans, pollen and basic geochemistry, we reconstructed trophic status changes through the last ~15,000 years. Special attention was devoted to the evaluation of nutrient contributions to the lake from natural and anthropogenic sources. The Cladocera analyses yielded a total of 29 species belonging to five families (Bosminidae, Daphniidae, Leptodoridae, Chydoridae, Sididae, with planktonic species representing more than 60% of Cladocera relative abundance throughout the core. The pollen results suggested four periods of increased human activity, so-called settlement phases. The first traces of human activity in the basin of Lake Jelonek appeared in the Atlantic period and were related with Mesolithic and Neolithic settlements. The second (Bronze Age and the third (Iron Age settlement phases are well marked by the paleolimnological proxies studied. This time period clearly manifested on the lake waters as an increasing trophy level probably caused by human-associated discharges of nutrients to the lake. After the third settlement phase cladoceran data indicated a significant decrease in the lake trophic level and the pollen data showed a recovery of forest cover. The fourth period of human economic activity during the early Middle Age was characterized by deforestation associated with land reclamation for grazing and cultivation of cereals, and the subsequent nutrient enrichment of lake waters. According to our results, the biological development of Lake Jelonek was determined by climate changes from Late Glacial up to the Atlantic period. Contrastingly, the most important driver for the lake

  14. Removal of off-flavours in some Australian crustacea by ionising radiation

    Freeman, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Development of an export industry based on the deep sea royal red prawn, haliporoides sibogae and the shallow water shovel nosed lobster or balmain bug, lbacus peronii has been hampered by the sweet garlic off-flavour often encountered in both these species. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source

  15. Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (Crustacea Decapoda Brachyura) de ecossistemas costeiros

    Marochi, Murilo Zanetti

    2012-01-01

    Resumo: Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (CRUSTACEA DECAPODA BRACHYURA) de ecossistemas costeiros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar se diferentes espécies de Brachyura possuem padrões ecomorfológicos em comum ligados ao habitat em que estão inseridas. Foram analisados 528 exemplares pertencentes a 24 espécies e provenientes dos seguintes ecossistemas costeiros: manguezal, costão rochoso, praia arenosa, bentopelagial e mar aberto. De todos os exemplares foram mensurada...

  16. Four new species of the genus Rhopalophthalmus (Mysidacea: Crustacea) from the northwest coast of India

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Biju, A.

    Four new species of the genus Rhopalophthalmus (Mysidacea: Crustacea) from the north west coast of India PANAMPUNNAYIL S.U. AND BIJU. A* National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Kochi-18, India *Email: biju_nio@yahoo.com Abstract... setae on distal border (Figures 7, 8). Inner lobe of maxillule with five plumose setae and three stout barbed spines, outer lobe with nine strong spines on distal border (Figure 9). Maxilla with large basal lobe and deeply cleft distal lobe; exopod...

  17. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.; Maas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The species-poor meiofaunal Cephalocarida have played an important role in discussions of the phylogeny and evolution of Crustacea since their discovery in 1955. One reason may be that the morphology of cephalocarids includes some aspects of putatively ancient appearance, such as the simple roof-...... has again proved to be especially appropriate because of the small size of these animals, and because it permits direct comparisons with other similarly small crustaceans and the ‘Orsten’ crustaceans and their larvae....

  18. Survey of Biofouling an Australian Navy Ships: Crustacea; Isopoda and Amphipoda; Caprellidea

    2008-01-01

    amphipod behaviour and predatory strikes by fish . Journal of experimental marine Biology and Ecology 126:173-180, 1989. W. T. Calman. Crustacea. In...Limnoriidea and Sphaeromatidae be used to better reflect their phylogeny . In considering the suitability of maintaining the suborder Flabellifera, it...Caprellidae). Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 10:225-237, 1979. E. A. Caine. Comparitive functional morphology of feeding in three species of

  19. Detection of irradiation treatment in crustacea by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

    Stewart, E.M. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Dept. of Food Science; Stevenson, M.H. [Queen`s Univ., Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom). Dept. of Food Science]|[Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom); Gray, R. [Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland, Belfast (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    When the Food (Control of Irradiation) Regulations 1990 came into force in the United Kingdom in January 1991 they included provision for the irradiation of Crustacea to an overall average dose of 3 kGy. The treatment of Crustacea with ionising radiation would reduce numbers of potential pathogens and spoilage organisms thus giving a microbiologically safer product with a longer shelf-life at chill temperatures. At present the process is being used in countries such as France and The Netherlands for the decontamination/shelf-life extension of shrimp. Therefore, as for other food products such as poultry, liquid whole egg and fruit, which are also treated with ionising radiation, it is desirable that a suitable test should be available to help in the control of the irradiation process. One such detection method which has been applied to irradiated Crustacea is that of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy due to the fact that the rigid exoskeleton has a relatively high dry matter so free radicals produced by ionising irradiation can be trapped and are, therefore, sufficiently stable to be detected. (author).

  20. Detection of irradiation treatment in crustacea by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy

    Stewart, E.M.; Gray, R.

    1996-01-01

    When the Food (Control of Irradiation) Regulations 1990 came into force in the United Kingdom in January 1991 they included provision for the irradiation of Crustacea to an overall average dose of 3 kGy. The treatment of Crustacea with ionising radiation would reduce numbers of potential pathogens and spoilage organisms thus giving a microbiologically safer product with a longer shelf-life at chill temperatures. At present the process is being used in countries such as France and The Netherlands for the decontamination/shelf-life extension of shrimp. Therefore, as for other food products such as poultry, liquid whole egg and fruit, which are also treated with ionising radiation, it is desirable that a suitable test should be available to help in the control of the irradiation process. One such detection method which has been applied to irradiated Crustacea is that of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy due to the fact that the rigid exoskeleton has a relatively high dry matter so free radicals produced by ionising irradiation can be trapped and are, therefore, sufficiently stable to be detected. (author)

  1. Macroepizoísmo em Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae Macroepizoites on Libinia ferreirae (Crustacea, Brachyura, Majidae

    Vanessa C. Winter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de distribuição dos macroepizóicos foi realizado numa população do caranguejo-aranha Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 proveniente do litoral dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. O material biológico foi obtido junto aos pescadores, e faz parte do rejeito de pesca. Os caranguejos foram mensurados e os macroepizóicos identificados e contados. Os seguintes macroepizóicos sésseis foram registrados: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia e duas espécies tubícolas de Gammaridea (Crustacea. Além destes organismos ocorreram dois tubos desabitados e quatro animais vágeis. A anêmona C. tricolor foi a espécie mais abundante e freqüente, sendo, provavelmente, utilizada como mecanismo de camuflagem pelo caranguejo. O macroepizoísmo em L. ferreirae está relacionado com a idade ou tamanho do caranguejo, tendo maior incidência naqueles mais velhos ou de maior porte. Entretanto, a densidade dos macroepizóicos por caranguejo se mantém em torno de três. Não há relação entre o macroepizoísmo e o sexo do hospedeiro; somente fêmeas ovígeras utilizam desse recurso mais freqüentemente do que as não-ovígeras. Devido à maior área de fixação, os macroepizóicos colonizam principalmente a carapaça do caranguejo, enquanto nos pereiópodos há predominância de Bryozoa.A study of the distribution of the macroepizoites was carried out on a population of the spider crab Libinia ferreirae Brito Capello, 1871 from the Southern Brazilian coast. Crabs were obtained from shrimps and fishes by-catch. They were measured, and their macroepizoites were identified and counted. The following sessile macroepizoites were registered: Calliactis tricolor (Lesueur, 1817 (Cnidaria; Actiniaria (Cnidaria; Arca sp. (Mollusca; Ostreidae (Mollusca; Acanthodesia tenuis (Desor, 1848 (Bryozoa; Cirripedia and two species

  2. Desempenho de bezerros alimentados usando de sucedâneo até 56 dias de idade

    Silvia Resende de Albuquerque França

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trinta bezerros machos da raça Holandesa foram alojados em piquetes a partir do quinto dia de vida, distribuídos em dois grupos. Todos os animais foram alimentados com concentrado comercial peletizado, tendo o primeiro grupo recebido leite integral (grupo-controle e o outro, sucedâneo formulado com proteínas de soja, de soro de leite e de leite desnatado em pó (grupo tratamento, num único horário de fornecimento, até 56 dias de vida. Os animais tinham acesso ad libitum à água e ao sal mineral. Suas medidas de peso vivo e altura de ísquio foram tomadas semanalmente. O desenvolvimento em estatura não diferiu entre os tratamentos, e o ganho em peso foi inferior para os animais alimentados com sucedâneo. O menor ganho em peso foi influenciado pelo menor consumo de concentrado e de matéria seca da dieta.

  3. Estudo comparativo do ciclo evolutivo de Rhodnius neglectus alimentados em pombos ou camundongos

    Liléia Diotaiuti

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Baseados no encontro de 77,2% de reação de precipitina positiva para soro antiave de R. neglectus capturados em palmeiras da periferia de Belo Horizonte, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo de uma colonia recém-estabelecida no laboratório alimentada com sangue de pombo ou camundongo, na expectativa de demonstrarmos maior adaptação deste triatomíneo ao sangue da ave. Para comparação, estudamos o ciclo evolutivo destes insetos numa colônia há muito mantida em insetário. Nossos resultados mostram um desenvolvimento mais rápido da colônia recém- estabelecida, assim como do lote de triatomíneos alimentado em camundongo. Esses achados sugerem menor potencial biológico para triatomíneos criados por longo tempo em insetário em comparação a novas colônias. Sendo as aves os principais habitantes das palmeiras, a aparente preferência alimentar por sangue de aves demonstrada pela reação de precipitina parece ser circunstancial e não seletiva na busca do sangue com o qual o triatomíneo obteria melhor desenvolvimento.Feeding pattems of R. neglectus collected in palm trees around Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil were investigated. Precipitin tests showed 77.2% of avian blood. In view of these results, a new colony of R. neglectus established in the laboratory was fed regularly on pigeons or mice, in order to verify a possible better adaptation of this insect to the avian blood. As a control group a colony of R neglectus which has been maintained for several years in the laboratory was also observed. The results show a better development of the “new" colony in comparison with the old one, and of those bugs nourished with mice blood. Such findings suggest a poorer biological potential for triatomines maintained for long time in artificial conditions, in comparison with those living in the natural environment. As birds are the main vertebrate inhabitants of palm trees (the natural ecotope of R neglectus, the apparent feeding preference of

  4. Biodiversidad marina de Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorden Anomura

    Rita Vargas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de los cangrejos anomuros es uno de los mejor conocidos de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica, pero muy poco conocidos de la costa Caribe. En esta recopilación, basada en la literatura y en las colecciones del Museo de Zoología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, informamos de la presencia de 114 especies del Infraorden Anomura en Costa Rica, 20 especies del Caribe, 96 especies del Pacífico, y dos especies presentes en ambas costa. Veintinueve especies son informes nuevos para Costa Rica, 15 del Caribe (75% del total de especies informadas para esa costa y 14 del Pacífica (15% del total de esa costa. La distribución de diez especies es ampliada hasta Costa Rica, siete en el Caribe y tres en el Pacífico. Seis especies son informadas por primera vez para la Isla del Coco, donde además hay cuatro especies endémicas.Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica: Crustacea: Infraorder Anomura. The anomuran crabs are among the best known crustacean groups from the Pacific coast. However, this group is poorly known from the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. In this compilation based on the literature and the collection at the Zoology Museum, Biology School, University of Costa Rica, we report the presence of 114 species of the Infraorder Anomura for Costa Rica, 20 species from the Caribbean, 96 species from the Pacific (two are present on both coasts. Twenty-nine species are new reports for Costa Rica, 15 from the Caribbean coast (74% of the total of species from that coast and 14 from the Pacific (15% of the total from the Pacific. The range of ten species is extended to Costa Rica, siete from the Caribbean and three from the Pacific. Six species are reported for the first time from Cocos Island, where there are also four endemic species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 461-488. Epub 2006 Jun 01.

  5. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of microcrustaceans assembly (Cladocera and Copepoda in different compartments of a reservoir in the brazilian semiarid region

    Josiane Souza Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of microcrustacean assemblages of a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methods Physical and chemical water variables and samples of microcrustaceans were collected at eight sites of the reservoir between July 2013 and November 2014, in a total of seven campaigns. For this study, the reservoir was categorized in two compartments: lateral and central. Results Limnological variables showed significant temporal variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 19.51, p = 0.001. Higher turbidity values and suspended solids were observed in the rainiest months, while during the dry months, we measured higher values of transparency, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-a. It was not found significant spatial variation of limnological variables (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 0.96; p = 0.394. During the study period, ten species were recorded: four Cladocera (Ceriodaphnia cornuta, Daphnia gessneri, Diaphanosoma birgei and Diaphanosoma spinulosum three Copepoda Calanoida (Argyrodiaptomus azevedoi, Notodiaptomus cearensis and Notodiaptomus iheringi and three Copepoda Cyclopoida (Macrocyclops albidus, Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens. The microcrustacean assemblages showed significant temporal variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 4.34; p = 0.001 as well as significant spatial variation (PERMANOVA, Pseudo-F = 9.46; p = 0.001. The highest values of abundance and richness were observed in the lateral compartment, this result is mainly related to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in this region, because the analysis of partial RDA indicated that limnological variables explained only 11% of this variation (Pseudo-F = 2.08, p = 0.001. Conclusions The results suggest that the seasonality of the semiarid is an important factor in the temporal dynamics of the limnological variables, while the aquatic macrophytes play an important role in the spatial distribution of the

  6. Spatio-temporal distribution of Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Cladocera: Sididae in freshwater reservoir ecosystems: importance of maximum water depth and macrophyte beds for avoidance of fish predation

    Jong-Yun Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In empirical studies, Cladocera is commonly utilized as a primary food source for predators such as fish, thus, predator avoidance are important strategies to sustain their population in freshwater ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water depth is an important factor in determining the spatial distribution of Diaphanosoma brachyurum Liévin, 1848 in response to fish predation. Quarterly monitoring was implemented at three water layers (i.e., water surface and middle and bottom layers in 21 reservoirs located in the southeastern part of South Korea. D. brachyurum individuals were frequently observed at the study sites and exhibited different spatial patterns of distribution in accordance with the maximum depth of the reservoirs. In the reservoirs with a maximum depth of more than 6 m, high densities of D. brachyurum were observed in the bottom layers; however, in the shallower reservoirs (maximum depth <6 m, D. brachyurum were concentrated in the surface layer. Moreover, during additional surveys, we observed a trend in which D. brachyurum densities increased as the maximum depth or macrophyte biomass increased. Gut contents analysis revealed that predatory fishes in each reservoir frequently consumed D. brachyurum; however, the consumption rate abruptly decreased in reservoirs where the maximum depth was more than 11 m or in the shallow reservoirs supporting a macrophyte bed. Interestingly, the reservoirs more than 11-m depth supported high densities of D. brachyurum in the bottom layer and in the surface macrophyte bed. Based on these results, reservoirs with a maximum depth of more than 11 m or those with a macrophyte bed may provide a refuge for D. brachyurum to avoid fish predation. Compared with other cladoceran species, D. brachyurum readily exploits various types of refugia (in this study, the deep layer or surface macrophyte bed, which may help explain why this species is abundant in various types of reservoirs.

  7. Proteinograma sérico de bezerros recém-nascidos alimentados com colostro de vacas com mastite

    Guilherme Gonçalves Fabretti Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar o proteinograma sérico de bezerros alimentados com colostro oriundo de vacas sadias (n = 10, com mastite assintomática (n = 10 e mastite clínica (n =10 . As vacas foram alocadas em seus respectivos grupos de acordo com o exame macroscópico da secreção colostral, contagem de células somáticas, CMT e isolamento microbiano. As amostras de sangue dos conceptos foram colhidas logo após o nascimento, 24 e 48 horas após a ingestão do colostro dos quartos infectados e dos sadios. Foi avaliada a concentração de proteína total pelo método do biureto e as concentrações de imunoglobulina A (IgA, imunoglobulina G (IgG, transferrina, albumina e haptoglobina por meio da eletrofoerese em gel de poliacrilamida contendo dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os grupos nas concentrações de albumina, proteína total e IgA. Os bezerros alimentados com colostro de vacas com mastite assintomática e clínica apresentaram teores de haptoglobina superiores aos animais sadios. As concentrações de IgG e transferrina foram significativamente inferiores nos bezerros tratados com colostro de vacas com mastite clínica. Concluiu-se que a ingestão de colostro de quartos sadios e infectados de vacas que pariram com mastite (GII e GIII não resulta em falha de transferência da imunidade passiva.

  8. Removal of garlic-like off-odours from crustacea by gamma irradiation

    Freeman, D.J.; Izzard, M.E.; Whitfield, F.B.

    1985-01-01

    The strong garlic-like off-odours associated with the male shovel-nosed lobster (Ibacus peronii) and the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae) have been attributed principally to the presence of the sulphur-containing compound bis-(methylthio)-methane. In the male shovel-nosed lobster the concentration of this compound increases very rapidly following death, and a small number of contaminated crustacea may cause an entire consignment to be condemned. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma-irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source. Eight lobsters were subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 10 kGy an hour; one half of each was given a dose of 25 kGy and the other half a dose of 5 kGy. Results showed that a high dose completely removes the existing off-odour, and also prevents its further formation. With the lower dose the off-odour is not completely removed. A trial using fresh royal red prawns at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy showed irradiation removed all traces of the off-odour, but in those irradiated at the higher dose a slight burnt flavour was noticeable

  9. Removal of garlic-like off-odours from crustacea by gamma irradiation

    Freeman, D J; Izzard, M E [Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment, Lucas Heights; Whitfield, F B [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde (Australia). Div. of Food Research

    1985-04-01

    The strong garlic-like off-odours associated with the male shovel-nosed lobster (Ibacus peronii) and the royal red prawn (Hymenopenaeus sibogae) have been attributed principally to the presence of the sulphur-containing compound bis-(methylthio)-methane. In the male shovel-nosed lobster the concentration of this compound increases very rapidly following death, and a small number of contaminated crustacea may cause an entire consignment to be condemned. A method for removing this noxious odour was developed which involved gamma-irradiation of the affected crustacea using a cobalt-60 source. Eight lobsters were subjected to gamma-irradiation at a dose rate of 10 kGy an hour; one half of each was given a dose of 25 kGy and the other half a dose of 5 kGy. Results showed that a high dose completely removes the existing off-odour, and also prevents its further formation. With the lower dose the off-odour is not completely removed. A trial using fresh royal red prawns at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 kGy showed irradiation removed all traces of the off-odour, but in those irradiated at the higher dose a slight burnt flavour was noticeable.

  10. The zooplankton of Santa Catarina continental shelf in southern Brazil with emphasis on Copepoda and Cladocera and their relationship with physical coastal processes El zooplancton de la plataforma continental de Santa Catarina, sur de Brasil con énfasis en Copepoda y Cladocera y sus relaciones con procesos físicos costeros

    Renata Domingos-Nunes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been carried out to exclusively investigate the zooplankton community of Santa Catarina State continental shelf, despite the economic and ecological importance of the area. This coastal region of southern Brazil presents highly relevant oceanographic processes, such as the strong influence of continental inputs, resurgence in the Cabo de Santa Marta Grande and River Plata plume water to the south. Two sampling cruises were carried out, in December 2005 and May 2006, in order to study temporal hydrological variations, and their influence on the biota of the region. Zooplankton samples for analysis were obtained by oblique hauls with Bongo nets at 33 sampling stations arranged in profiles perpendicular to the coast on each cruise. The predominant groups found in the samples were Copepoda, Cladocera, Salpidae and Chaetognatha, which presented higher densities at the stations closer to the coast. In the case of the December 2005 cruise, the salinity and temperature gradients perpendicular to the coast, promoted by the continental inputs to the north of the area and by the upwelling to the south, determined the limits of distribution of Acartia lilljeborgi and Penilia avirostris. However, the temperature and salinity gradients longitudinal to the coast determined on the May 2006 cruise did not explain the species distribution, indicating that biotic forcing mechanisms may have been active in the ecology of the system during this period.A pesar de la importancia económica y ecológica del área todavía no habían sido realizados estudios exclusivamente destinados a la investigación de la comunidad zooplanctónica de la plataforma continental del Estado de Santa Catarina. Esta región costera del sur de Brasil presenta procesos oceanográficos de alta relevancia, tales como fuerte influencia de aportes continentales, resurgencia en el Cabo de Santa Marta Grande y la pluma de agua del río Plata en el sur. Se efectuaron dos

  11. Radares meteorológicos alimentados por vías alternativas; Weather Radars with Power Supply from Alternatives Ways

    Milagros Diez Rodríguez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La red de radares meteorológicos de Cuba está compuesta por siete radares antiguos (cuatro rusos y tresjaponeses, los cuales son mantenidos y operados por el Instituto de Meteorología de Cuba. En 1997 elInstituto de Meteorología decidió modernizar todos sus radares, tarea que tomó diez años para su ejecución.Los sistemas de accionamiento eléctrico de las antenas también fueron sometidos a la modernización,pero junto a los requerimientos impuestos por el nuevo sistema de adquisición, los sistemas deaccionamiento dibieron cumplir con las exigencias energéticas para ser alimentados de baterías. Esteartículo describe las soluciones técnicas implementadas en el nuevo sistema de accionamiento eléctricode las antenas.  Weather radar network in Cuba is composed by seven old-fashioned radars (four Russian and three Japaneseand they are maintained and operated by Cuban Meteorological Institute. In 1997 Cuban MeteorologicalInstitute decided to modernize all those radars, and this task was accomplished along ten years.Antenna motor drives were also a matter of modernization, but along with restrictions imposed by dataacquisition, drives needed to complain energy restrictions in order to be used with a battery supply. Thispaper describes technical solutions implemented in newly designed antenna motor drives.

  12. A dataset on the species composition of amphipods (Crustacea) in a Mexican marine national park: Alacranes Reef, Yucatan

    Paz,Carlos; Simões,Nuno; Pech,Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Alacranes Reef was declared as a National Marine Park in 1994. Since then, many efforts have been made to inventory its biodiversity. However, groups such as amphipods have been underestimated or not considered when benthic invertebrates were inventoried. Here we present a dataset that contributes to the knowledge of benthic amphipods ( Crustacea , Peracarida ) from the inner lagoon habitats from the Alacranes Reef National Park, the largest coral reef ecosystem in the Gul...

  13. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia.

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters.

  14. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  15. Histologia do fígado de tilápia do Nilo ( Oreochromis niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo silagem biológica de pescado

    Claucia A. Honorato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as possíveis alterações histopatológicas hepática de tilápias do Nilo alimentadas com dietas contendo silagem biológica de pescado com diferentes concentrações protéicas. Foram utilizados 180 juvenis alimentados com dietas contendo três níveis de proteína (20, 24 and 28% PB, e duas proporções de silagem biológica (¼ e ½ durante 75 dias. Os fragementos de fígado foram fixados em Bouin e inclusos em Histosec®. Posteriorente foram cortados em microtomo com espessura de 2 a 5μm. O método utilizado para coloração foi hematoxilina/eosina e PAS. Os cortes histológicos foram analisados em microscopio de luz. O desarranjo na morfologia do fígado dos peixes alimentados com silagem biológica foi influenciado pelos altos níveis protéicos, e pelo aumento ½ de proporções de proteínas de origem animal das dietas. Foi observado que a variação dos hepatócitos está diretamente ligada com o tipo da dieta fornecida para os peixes. Nos peixes alimentados com as dietas contendo 28% PB, o fígado apresentou desarranjo da estrutura cordonal dos hepatócitos, pontos de necrose e deslocamento do núcleo para periferia. Níveis elevados de silagem biológica de pescado provoca alterações deletérias no fígado. O nível de proteína adequado para manter o desenvolvimento associado à saúde do peixe é de 24%PB.

  16. Desenvolvimento de núcleos de Apis mellifera alimentados com suplemento aminoácido vitamínico, Promotor L®

    Castagnino Guido Laércio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o desenvolvimento na área de cria de 14 núcleos com quatro favos a partir da divisão de nove colméias de abelhas Apis mellifera africanizada, distribuídos em dois tratamentos: TPL - núcleos alimentados com açúcar invertido + 3,5ml do suplemento de aminoácido vitamínico (Promotor L®, composto por seis núcleos e o TAI - núcleos alimentados com açúcar invertido, composto por oito núcleos. Os núcleos foram alimentados semanalmente em alimentadores individuais tipo bandeja, e as avaliações realizadas em quatro períodos, totalizando 74 dias Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferença significativa, sendo que, numericamente, o TPL apresentou área de cria inferior ao TAI (233,63 vs. 273,02cmsuperscript two, respectivamente. Quanto aos períodos o quarto período foi superior (P<0,05 ao primeiro e ao segundo, sendo que o terceiro período não apresentou diferença significativa (P<0,05 em relação aos demais. A utilização do TAI foi economicamente mais favorável em relação ao TPL em R$0,21 em relação ao custo para produção de 1kg de alimento.

  17. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap

    Dian Bhagawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Local wisdom is a cultural heritage that needs to be preserved. The Cilacap’s coastal communities have traditional taxonomy knowledge that hasn’t been informed, especially about mole crab. This study aimed to explore the ethnotaxonomy knowledge of sand crabs (Crustacea: Hippoidea in Widarapayung coastal communities. The purposive snowball sampling was used for the method, followed by observation and semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents. Data were analyzed descriptively based on observations and interviews. The results showed that the coastal communities in Widarapayung tourist areas could be divided into five groups, namely catchers, collectors, processors, traders, and consumers. The catcher was able to recognize and describe three types of sand crabs based on the shape of the body and their catchment areas. Captured crabs had the local name of ‘yutuk jambe’ (Emerita emeritus Linnaeus 1767, the appellation was based on carapace shape that resembled the shape of areca fruit; ‘Yutuk bathok’ (Hippa adactyla Fabricius 1787, had the carapace shape resembling a coconut shell, and ‘yutuk Kethek’ (Albunea symmysta Linnaeus 1758, had ornaments on the carapace surface similar with a monkey face, there were dense setae on the edge of the carapace, spiny long antennas and aggressively pinch when captured. The knowledge and skills of sand crabs classification and local name entitlement acquired by the people were in accordance with the Berlin’s model. How to CiteBhagawati, D., Anggoro, S., Zainuri, M. & Sya’rani, L. (2016. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Mole Crab (Crustacea:Hippoidea on Coastal Community of Cilacap. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(2, 222-230.

  18. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil)

    Ril,Franciele Taís; Loch,Camila Ronsoni; Valduga,Alice Teresa; Macedo,Sandra Manoela Dias; Cichoski,Alexandre José

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis) e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42) foram divididos em três grupos (n=14), e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado ...

  19. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial

    Poblete Pérez Cecilia Eva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH deavena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desiertoen el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez díasdespués de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseñocompletamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH deavena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadasy sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, gananciade peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kgMS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, pesode la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P ≤ 0.05 el consumo de alimento,tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio, peso vivo final y rendimiento de la canal, haciendo posible su uso comorecurso forrajero alternativo en la alimentación de conejos en etapa de engorde en condiciones de desierto.

  20. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com inclusão de torta de macaúba na dieta

    Rafael Alves de Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho produtivo e econômico de ovinos confinados da raça Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas com diferentes taxas de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Os animais (24 foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, nos tratamentos com 0, 100, 200 e 300 g kg-1 de torta de macaúba na matéria seca da dieta, em seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. A adição de torta de macaúba a taxas crescentes à dieta aumentou linearmente o consumo de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e a conversão alimentar. Não houve diferença no consumo de matéria seca, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso vivo total com a adição da torta. O tratamento com inclusão de 100 g kg-1 apresentou a melhor relação custo:benefício na avaliação das receitas bruta e líquida obtidas com a venda dos animais vivos e abatidos. A adição da torta de macaúba em até 300 g kg-1 da dieta não altera o desempenho produtivo dos animais, entretanto, a inclusão de 100 g kg-1 proporciona melhor retorno econômico.

  1. Emisión de metano en ovinos alimentados con Pennisetum purpureum y árboles que contienen taninos condensados

    Angel Piñeiro-Vázquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de los taninos condensados (TC contenidos en el follaje de arbóreas tropicales, sobre el consumo de materia seca y orgánica (CMS, CMO, la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS y emisiones de metano (CH4 en ovinos alimentados con una ración basal de pasto Pennisetum purpureum. Cuatro ovinos de pelo con un peso vivo promedio de 21.6±2.0 kg se sometieron a cuatro tratamientos en un diseño cuadro latino 4 x 4. Los tratamientos fueron P. purpureum (PP, P. purpureum + Havardia albicans (PPHA, P. purpureum + Bursera simaruba (PPBS, y P. purpureum + Acacia pennatula (PPAP; el follaje de las arbóreas se incluyó en 300 g/kg de MS de la ración. El consumo, la digestibilidad y la producción total de metano entérico se midieron por periodos de 23 h. La producción de metano se midió en cajas de respiración de circuito abierto. El consumo y digestibilidad de la MS y materia orgánica (MO entre los tratamientos PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP no se afectaron por la inclusión de los follajes de arbóreas en la ración (P>0.05. Cuando la producción de CH4 se expresó en L/kg del CMS, CMO o consumo de fibra detergente neutro los resultados fueron similares entre tratamientos (PP, PPHA, PPBS y PPAP (P>0.05. Se concluye que los TC contenidos en el follaje de Havardia albicans, Acacia pennatula y Bursera simaruba no afectaron las emisiones de CH4 al nivel de incorporación de 30 % de la MS; tampoco se observaron efectos en el CMS, CMO, DMS y concentración molar de ácidos grasos volátiles.

  2. Uranium concentration by Crustacea: a structural, ultrastructural and microanalytical study by secondary ion emission and electron probe X ray microanalysis

    Chassard-Bouchaud, Colette

    1982-01-01

    Experimental intoxications were performed on the Crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus using hydrosoluble uranium nitrate. Investigations demonstrate that Crustacea are able to concentrate both uranium main radioactive isotopes 238 U and 235 U within the cuticle, gill epithelium, midgut gland (=hepatopancreas) and macrophagic hemocytes. The storage occurs within nucleus and lysosomal system where uranium is precipitated in the form of an unsoluble phosphate. The proposed hypothesis for the metal extrusion is the following: residual bodies containing the uranium precipitates are extruded into the extracellular space where they are absorbed by phagocytosis, by the macrophagic hemocytes [fr

  3. Lípidos sanguíneos en cerdos alimentados con pijiguao (Bactris gasipaes Kunth y lisina sintética

    Janeth Colina R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la harina de pijiguao y lisina sintética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos en crecimiento y engorde. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizaron 72 cerdos castrados en crecimientode 30 ± 0.5 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x3: dos niveles de lisina sintética (0 y 2.70 g/kgy tres niveles de harina de pijiguao (0, 160 y 320 g/kg. En la segunda etapa se utilizaron 16 cerdos en engorde de 67.25 ± 1.17 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x2: dos niveles de lisinasintética (0 y 2.70 g/kg y dos niveles de pijiguao (0 y 175 g/kg. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y ácidos grasos. Resultados. Los cerdos en crecimiento que consumieron pijiguao presentaron menores (p<0.001concentraciones de colesterol que el grupo control (2.27 y 2.23 mmol/l vs 2.56 mmol/l y triacilgliceroles (0.34 y 0.28 mmol/l vs 0.42 mmol/l. El ácido oleico incrementó (p<0.01con el mayor nivel de pijiguao (20.78% a 28.84%, y la lisina aumentó (p<0.05 el ácidolinoleico (27.83% a 31.29%. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina mostraron menor (p<0.001 ácido palmítico que el grupo con pijiguao sin lisina (0.23 y 0.19% vs 0.45 y 0.62%, respectivamente. En la etapa de engorde los triacilgliceroles disminuyeron (p<0.05 en los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina (0.46 a 0.36 mmol/l. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao mostraron menor ácido linoleico y mayor ácido oleico (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Las dietas con pijiguao y lisina sintética no causaron efectos negativos sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos.

  4. Propriedades da carne e perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos (Tayassu tajacu) alimentados com torta de babaçu (Orbignya phalerata)

    Albuquerque,N.I.; Contreras,C.C.; Alencar,S.; Meirelles,C.F.; Aguiar,A.P.; Moreira,J.A.; Packer,I.U.

    2009-01-01

    Analisaram-se as propriedades da carne e o perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes porcentagens de torta de babaçu, usada como fonte energética alternativa substituindo parte do milho na alimentação, em sistemas de produção em cativeiro. Avaliou-se o pernil de 12 animais quanto às suas propriedades - perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento, pH e capacidade de retenção de água-, depois extraiu-se o óleo da carne e determinou-se o perfil...

  5. Crecimiento de niños amamantados y alimentados con biberón hasta los 2 años de vida: estudio CLACYD, 1993-1995

    Agrelo Fernando

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios realizados en distintos países muestran diferencias importantes en el crecimiento de niños amamantados y alimentados con biberón; también se ha observado que los niños amamantados crecen más despacio a partir de los 2 ó 3 meses de edad, en comparación con el patrón de referencia NCHS/OMS (National Center for Health Statistics/Organización Mundial de la Salud. Estos resultados ponen en tela de juicio la equivalencia entre el crecimiento máximo y el óptimo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar el crecimiento en peso y longitud desde el nacimiento hasta los 24 meses, de un grupo de niños amamantado y otro alimentado con biberón, y describir el crecimiento del grupo de amamantados en relación con las normas NCHS/OMS y con el "conjunto mixto de datos de la OMS sobre niños amamantados" conocido como el 12-month breast-fed pooled data set. Con ese fin se analizaron datos procedentes del estudio Córdoba: lactancia, alimentación, crecimiento y desarrollo (CLACYD, en el cual se investigó a una cohorte representativa, estratificada por nivel social, de niños nacidos en 1993 en la ciudad de Córdoba, Argentina. Se analizaron los datos antropométricos de 74 niños amamantados durante el primer año de vida y 108 niños alimentados con biberón, que se registraron según técnicas estandarizadas al nacer y a los 6, 12 y 24 meses de edad. Los dos grupos eran homogéneos con respecto a la edad y la escolaridad de los padres, el estrato social, el orden de nacimiento, la talla materna, y el peso y la longitud al nacer. Las condiciones de vida (vivienda y saneamiento eran más favorables en el grupo con alimentación artificial (P = 0,04. Los niños amamantados registraron menor peso y longitud a los 6, 12 y 24 meses que los alimentados con biberón y mostraron, con respecto a las pautas NCHS/OMS, una desaceleración del crecimiento a partir del segundo semestre, lo cual indica que las normas NCHS/OMS no son del todo

  6. An integral term adaptive neural control of fed-batch fermentation biotechnological process; Control neuronal adaptable con termino integral para un proceso biotecnologico de fermentacion por lote alimentado

    Baruch, Ieroham; Hernandez, Luis Alberto; Barrera Cortes, Josefina [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    A nonlinear mathematical model of aerobic biotechnological process of a fed-batch fermentation system is derived using ordinary differential equations. A neurocontrol is applied using Recurrent Trainable Neural Network (RTNN) plus integral term; the first network performs an approximation of the plant's output; the second network generates the control signal so that the biomass concentration could be regulated by the nutrient influent flow rate into the bioreactor. [Spanish] Un modelo matematico no lineal de un proceso biotecnologico aerobio de un sistema de fermentacion por lote alimentado es presentado mediante ecuaciones diferenciales ordinarias. Es propuesto un control utilizando dos redes neuronales recurrentes entrenables (RNRE) con la adicion de un termino integral; la primera red representa un aproximador de la salida de la planta y la segunda genera la senal de control tal que la concentracion de la biomasa pueda ser regulada mediante la alimentacion de un flujo con nutrientes al biorreactor.

  7. Species diversity and phylogeographical affinities of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada.

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Elías-Gutiérrez, Manuel; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    The region of Churchill, Manitoba, contains a wide variety of habitats representative of both the boreal forest and arctic tundra and has been used as a model site for biodiversity studies for nearly seven decades within Canada. Much previous work has been done in Churchill to study the Daphnia pulex species complex in particular, but no study has completed a wide-scale survey on the crustacean species that inhabit Churchill's aquatic ecosystems using molecular markers. We have employed DNA barcoding to study the diversity of the Branchiopoda (Crustacea) in a wide variety of freshwater habitats and to determine the likely origins of the Churchill fauna following the last glaciation. The standard animal barcode marker (COI) was sequenced for 327 specimens, and a 3% divergence threshold was used to delineate potential species. We found 42 provisional and valid branchiopod species from this survey alone, including several cryptic lineages, in comparison with the 25 previously recorded from previous ecological works. Using published sequence data, we explored the phylogeographic affinities of Churchill's branchiopods, finding that the Churchill fauna apparently originated from all directions from multiple glacial refugia (including southern, Beringian, and high arctic regions). Overall, these microcrustaceans are very diverse in Churchill and contain multiple species complexes. The present study introduces among the first sequences for some understudied genera, for which further work is required to delineate species boundaries and develop a more complete understanding of branchiopod diversity over a larger spatial scale.

  8. The Hyalella (Crustacea: Amphipoda) species cloud of the ancient Lake Titicaca originated from multiple colonizations.

    Adamowicz, Sarah J; Marinone, María Cristina; Menu-Marque, Silvina; Martin, Jeffrey W; Allen, Daniel C; Pyle, Michelle N; De Los Ríos, Patricio; Sobel, Crystal N; Ibañez, Carla; Pinto, Julio; Witt, Jonathan D S

    2018-08-01

    Ancient lakes are renowned for their exceptional diversity of endemic species. As model systems for the study of sympatric speciation, it is necessary to understand whether a given hypothesized species flock is of monophyletic or polyphyletic origin. Here, we present the first molecular characterization of the Hyalella (Crustacea: Amphipoda) species complex of Lake Titicaca, using COI and 28S DNA sequences, including samples from the connected Small and Large Lakes that comprise Lake Titicaca as well as from a broader survey of southern South American sites. At least five evolutionarily distant lineages are present within Lake Titicaca, which were estimated to have diverged from one another 12-20 MYA. These major lineages are dispersed throughout the broader South American Hyalella phylogeny, with each lineage representing at least one independent colonization of the lake. Moreover, complex genetic relationships are revealed between Lake Titicaca individuals and those from surrounding water bodies, which may be explained by repeated dispersal into and out of the lake, combined with parallel intralacustrine diversification within two separate clades. Although further work in deeper waters will be required to determine the number of species present and modes of diversification, our results strongly indicate that this amphipod species cloud is polyphyletic with a complex geographic history. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies on transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from seaweed to fish through crustacea, 2

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of 106 Ru in a model of the graizing food chain of marine organisms: the radioactive sea water → seaweed (Chondrus crispus) → crustacea (prawn, Palaemon serratus) → fish (plaice, Pleuronectes platessa). The seaweeds were cultured in the radioactive sea waters A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Thereafter, accumulations of 106 Ru in prawns and plaice by the ingestions of their diets (the seaweeds contaminated with 106 Ru in each water and the meats of prawns accumulated 106 Ru from each diet, respectively), were investigated and compared with those from the radioactive sea waters reported previously. It was shown that 106 Ru would be accumulated by the prawns from the sea water A about 3 times higher than from the contaminated diet in this water, however from the contaminated diets in the waters B and C about 2 times, respectively, higher than from each water. While, accumulations of 106 Ru by the plaice from each diet were negligible in comparison with those from each water. No higher concentrations of 106 Ru were observed in these organisms from lower to higher in the trophic level. (author)

  10. Paleocene decapod Crustacea from northeastern Mexico: Additions to biostratigraphy and diversity

    Martínez-Díaz, José Luis; Aguillón-Martínez, Martha Carolina; Luque, Javier; Vega, Francisco J.

    2017-03-01

    New decapod specimens from mid-Paleocene shallow marine deposits of NE Mexico represents an important addition to the diversity, paleobiogeography and evolution of the Crustacea record. In this work, we describe additions to the decapod assemblage from the Paleocene (Selandian) Rancho Nuevo Formation (Difunta Group, Parras Basin, Coahuila). Due to the evident size differences with other decapod assemblages, we compare the new assemblage with those from the Lower Paleocene (Danian) Mexia Clay Member of the Wills Point Formation, Texas, and the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) El Bosque Formation in Chiapas. Species reported from the mid-Paleocene (Selandian) assemblage of the Porters Creek Formation (Alabama), are correlatable to the decapod species from NE Mexico in age, size and systematic composition. The erymid lobster Enoploclytia gardnerae (Rathbun, 1935) is represented by several carapaces and chelae remains. One isolated palm of Callianassidae is included. Numerous carapaces of Linuparus wilcoxensis Rathbun, 1935 are described, representing the most abundant lobster. A new record for the raninid Notopoides sp., and presence of Quasilaeviranina sp. cf. arzignagnensis and Quasilaeviranina ovalis are here reported. New raninids, Claudioranina latacantha sp. nov. and Claudioranina sp. (Cyrtorhininae) are also part of this assemblage. Paraverrucoides alabamensis (Rathbun, 1935), and Tehuacana americana (Rathbun, 1935) are represented by several carapaces exhibiting intraspecific morphological variation. Different sizes among the Early and Middle Paleocene and Early Eocene decapod populations suggests a possible effect of variation in seawater temperatures and/or a Lilliput effect after the K/Pg event.

  11. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of formulated feeds for Artemesia longinaris (Crustacea, Penaeidae

    Analía Verónica Fernández Gimenez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the in vivo crude protein apparent digestibility in the prawn Artemesia longinaris, using feeds with 0.25% of chromic oxide and animal (fish meal, meat and bone meal and squid protein concentrate and plant (soybean meal ingredients. Three replicate groups of prawn were fed and the feces were collected. The rate of protein hydrolysis was measured in vitro using midgut gland enzyme extract from the prawns fed the respective feeds and was compared with those found with enzyme extract of wild prawn. The in vivo apparent digestibility coefficients showed significant differences among the feeds (PO objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a digestibilidade aparente in vivo da proteína bruta de ingredientes de origem animal (farinhas de peixe, osso e carne e concentrado de proteína de lula e ingredientes vegetais (farinha de soja em camarões Artemesia longinaris utilizando rações contendo 0,25% de óxido de cromo. Três grupos de camarões, utilizados como replicatas, foram alimentados e as fezes coletadas. A velocidade de hidrólise da proteína de cada ração foi medida in vitro utilizando extrato enzimático da glândula do intestino médio dos camarões alimentados com a ração correspondente e foi comparado com aqueles obtidos com o extrato enzimático de camarões selvagens. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente in vivo mostraram diferenças significativas entre as rações testadas (P<0,05. A farinha de peixe apresentou a maior digestibilidade (92%, enquanto valores intermediários de digestibilidade (83% foram encontrados para a farinha de carne e ossos. A ração contendo farinha de soja e concentrado de proteína de lula resultou em menor digestibilidade (63%. Não houve diferença significativa entre os valores de digestibilidade in vitro para as rações testadas. Estes resultados indicam a limitação inerente dos ensaios enzimáticos in vitro, os quais poderiam ser complementados com

  12. Atividade nictimeral e tempo de digestão de Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura Diel activity and digestion time of Aegla longirostri (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura

    Carolina C. Sokolowicz

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar o ritmo de atividade e tempo de digestão em Aegla longirostri Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994. Os animais foram coletados em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Em laboratório, os animais foram transferidos para aquários individuais (5L. Para testar a atividade locomotora e alimentar dos aeglídeos um grupo de animais permaneceu sob luminosidade constante durante 12 horas, enquanto outro grupo permanecia no escuro, essa condição sendo invertida a cada 12 horas. As observações foram realizadas a cada 6 horas. Para determinar o tempo de digestão os animais foram alimentados e a cada 30 minutos um indivíduo era sacrificado. Aegla longirostri mostrou menor atividade em períodos de luminosidade, o que aconteceu nos dois grupos de animais. Essa espécie leva aproximadamente 5 horas para concluir a digestão extracelular. Os resultados sugerem que A. longirostri possui hábitos noturnos e provavelmente se alimenta sempre que há recursos disponíveis.The aim of this work was to characterize the diel activity rhythm and time of digestion in Aegla longirostri Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994. The individuals were collected in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In laboratory, the animals were kept in individuals glass aquariums (5L. To test locomotor and feeding activity of the aeglids, a group remained under constant luminosity for 12 hours, while another group was mantained in the dark, this condition being reversed at each 12 hours. The observations were taken at every 6 hours. For the determination of digestion's time the animals were fed, and one individual was sacrificed at each 30 minutes. Aegla longirostri showed lower activity in periods of light time. This condition was recorded for both groups of animals. This species takes approximately 5 hours to conclude its extracellular digestion. The results suggest that A. longirostri has nocturnal habits and probably feeds whenever resources are available.

  13. Crustacea: Branchiura

    1993-03-25

    Mar 25, 1993 ... terminology describing the various parts of the digestive tract 01 branchiurans is discussed. .... suboesophageaJ ganglion; 55 S-shaped duct; TG thoracic ganglia; YS coils of .... All sections are transverse except C and J which.

  14. The ventral nerve cord in Cephalocarida (Crustacea): new insights into the ground pattern of Tetraconata.

    Stegner, Martin E J; Brenneis, Georg; Richter, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Cephalocarida are Crustacea with many anatomical features that have been interpreted as plesiomorphic with respect to crustaceans or Tetraconata. While the ventral nerve cord (VNC) has been investigated in many other arthropods to address phylogenetic and evolutionary questions, the few studies that exist on the cephalocarid VNC date back 20 years, and data pertaining to neuroactive substances in particular are too sparse for comparison. We reinvestigated the VNC of adult Hutchinsoniella macracantha in detail, combining immunolabeling (tubulin, serotonin, RFamide, histamine) and nuclear stains with confocal laser microscopy, complemented by 3D-reconstructions based on serial semithin sections. The subesophageal ganglion in Cephalocarida comprises three segmental neuromeres (Md, Mx1, Mx2), while a separate ganglion occurs in all thoracic segments and abdominal segments 1-8. Abdominal segments 9 and 10 and the telson are free of ganglia. The maxillar neuromere and the thoracic ganglia correspond closely in their limb innervation pattern, their pattern of mostly four segmental commissures and in displaying up to six individually identified serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per body side, which exceeds the number found in most other tetraconates. Only two commissures and two serotonin-like immunoreactive neurons per side are present in abdominal ganglia. The stomatogastric nervous system in H. macracantha corresponds to that in other crustaceans and includes, among other structures, a pair of lateral neurite bundles. These innervate the gut as well as various trunk muscles and are, uniquely, linked to the unpaired median neurite bundle. We propose that most features of the cephalocarid ventral nerve cord (VNC) are plesiomorphic with respect to the tetraconate ground pattern. Further, we suggest that this ground pattern includes more serotonin-like neurons than hitherto assumed, and argue that a sister-group relationship between Cephalocarida and Remipedia, as

  15. vasa-related genes and their expression in stem cells of colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea (Arthropoda: Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    Shukalyuk, Andrey I; Golovnina, Kseniya A; Baiborodin, Sergei I; Gunbin, Konstantin V; Blinov, Alexander G; Isaeva, Valeria V

    2007-02-01

    vasa (vas)-related genes are members of the DEAD-box protein family and are expressed in the germ cells of many Metazoa. We cloned vasa-related genes (PpVLG, CpVLG) and other DEAD-box family related genes (PpDRH1, PpDRH2, CpDRH, AtDRHr) from the colonial parasitic rhizocephalan barnacle Polyascus polygenea, the non-colonial Clistosaccus paguri (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala), and the parasitic isopodan Athelgis takanoshimensis (Crustacea: Isopoda). The colonial Polyascus polygenea, a parasite of the coastal crabs Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Hemigrapsus longitarsis was used as a model object for further detailed investigations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that PpVLG and CpVLG are closely related to vasa-like genes of other Arthropoda. The rest of the studied genes form their own separate branch on the phylogenetic tree and have a common ancestry with the p68 and PL10 subfamilies. We suppose this group may be a new subfamily of the DEAD-box RNA helicases that is specific for parasitic Crustacea. We found PpVLG and PpDRH1 expression products in stem cells from stolons and buds of internae, during asexual reproduction of colonial P. polygenea, and in germ cells from sexually reproducing externae, including male spermatogenic cells and female oogenic cells.

  16. External body components and internal fat of Charolais or Nellore steers, fed with different concentrate levelComponentes externos e gordura interna de novilhos Charolês ou Nelore alimentados com diferentes proporções de concentrado

    Magali Floriano da Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the development of external body components and the distribution of internal fat of Charolais (CH and Nellore (NE steers, fed with different concentrate level in the diet. The steers were distributed in six treatments constituted by three concentrate level: 35, 50 or 65% (dry matter basis and two genetic group (Charolais or Nellore. NE steers fed with 65% concentrate in diet showed higher EBW yield, it was not different to CH and NE steers fed with 50% concentrate. Head weigth in relation to EBW was decrease with the increase of the proportions concentrate (4.67, 4.30 and 4.28 to 35; 50 and 65% concentrate, respectively. The head weigh also was lower from NE steers in relation to CH steers (4.30 versus 4.54, respectively. The absolute total weight of internal fat was higher (PAvaliaram-se os componentes externos e a distribuição da gordura interna de novilhos das raças Charolês (CH ou Nelore (NE, alimentados com diferentes proporções de concentrado na dieta. Os novilhos foram distribuídos em seis tratamentos que corresponderam a três níveis de concentrado: 35, 50 e 65% (com base na matéria seca e dois grupos genéticos (Charolês e Nelore. Os novilhos NE alimentados com 65% de concentrado na dieta apresentaram maior rendimento de corpo vazio (RCV, não diferindo dos novilhos CH e NE alimentados com 50% de concentrado. O peso da cabeça ajustado para peso de corpo vazio (PCV foi menor para os animais que consumiram dieta com proporção mais alta de concentrado (4,67, 4,30 e 4,28 para 35, 50 e 65% de concentrado, respectivamente e para os novilhos da raça NE em relação aos CH (4,30 contra 4,54, respectivamente. O peso absoluto total das gorduras internas foi superior (P<0,05 para os novilhos alimentados com proporções mais elevadas de concentrado (18,13; 22,58 e 21,74 kg para 35 50 e 65% de concentrado, e para os novilhos CH em relação aos NE (22,52 contra 19,11, respectivamente. Novilhos CH

  17. Occurrence of the lessepsian species Portunus pelagicus (Crustacea and Apogon pharaonis (Pisces in the marine area of Rhodes Island

    M. CORSINI-FOKA

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of Red Sea species are colonizing the eastern Mediterranean Sea via the Suez Canal, mainly following the Anatolian coasts and spreading westwards. Portunus pelagicus is one of the most common Red Sea swimming crabs, first recorded in the Levantine Basin in 1898. Four specimens of P. pelagicus were collected in different marine areas of Rhodes Island from 1991 to 2000, while three specimens of the lessepsian fish Apogon pharaonis, first recorded in the Mediterranean in 1947, were caught during 2002 in the NW coast of Rhodes. The sub-tropical character of the marine area around Rhodes seems to facilitate the propagation of lessepsian species. These migrants have reached the island at different velocity and degree of establishment of their populations. The occurrence of the blue swimmer crab P. pelagicus and of the bullseye cardinal fish A. pharaonis increases the number of the decapod Crustacea and fish species of Red Sea origin observed in Greek waters.

  18. Feeding adult of Artemia salina (Crustacea-Branchiopoda on the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum (Gymnodiniales and the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica

    Rauquírio André Albuquerque Marinho da Costa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out on feeding performance and survival rates of adult Artemia salina exposed to no axenic strains of the dinoflagellate Gyrodinium corsicum and of the Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. Filtration rates on R. baltica and G. corsicum varied from 3.35 to 7.14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 and from 2.97 to 15.86 ml.artemia-1.h-1, respectively. The ingestion rates observed for A. salina did not indicate any digestive dysfunction or physiological impairment for organisms fed on G. corsicum and their functional response were similar to those observed for other organisms like copepod fed on different food concentrations. Mortality rates oscillated from 2.5% to 100% when A. salina was fed on R. baltica or G. corsicum, respectively. Highest mortality rates observed for organisms fed on G. corsicum indicated that this dinoflagellate presented a hazard effect on A. salina that was not possible to confirm if it was related to toxin production or to nutritive inadequacy of this dinoflagellate as food for organisms of this species.Experimentos foram desenvolvidos para estudar as taxas de alimentação e de sobrevivência de Artemia salina alimentada com cepas não tóxicas do dinoflagelado Gyrodinium corsicum e da Chryptophyta Rhodomonas baltica. As taxas de filtração sobre R. baltica e G. corsicum variaram entre 3,35 e 7,14 ml.artemia-1.h-1 e 2,97 e 15,86 ml.artemia-1.h-, respectivamente. As taxas de ingestão observadas para A. salina não indicaram disfunção digestiva ou prejuízo fisiológico nos organismos alimentados com G. corsicum, sendo a resposta funcional destes organismos similar a observada em copépodos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de alimento. As taxas de mortalidade de A. salina oscilaram entre 2,5 e 100% quando alimentada com R. baltica e G. corsicum, respectivamente. As maiores taxas de mortalidade observadas para os organismos alimentados com G. corsicum indicam que este dinoflagelado apresenta algum efeito

  19. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes.

    Lin, Feng-Jiau; Liu, Yuan; Sha, Zhongli; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chu, Ka Hou; Chan, Tin-Yam; Liu, Ruiyu; Cui, Zhaoxia

    2012-11-16

    The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the distinct gene orders provide further

  20. Estudios sobre los Entomostráceos de Colombia.V. Limnadia Orinoquiensis, una nueva especie de la familia Limnadiidae Sars, 1896 (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Conchostraca Estudios sobre los Entomostráceos de Colombia.V. Limnadia Orinoquiensis, una nueva especie de la familia Limnadiidae Sars, 1896 (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Conchostraca

    Roessler Ewald W.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se describen rasgos morfológicos de una nueva especie colombiana del género Limnadia Brongniart, 1820, Limnadia orinoquiensis (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Conchostraca. La forma es de reproducción bisexual y típica para las aguas ácidas y oscuras de los alrededores de Puerto Inírida, Comisaria del Guainía. The present study describes morfological features of a new colombian species of the genus Limnadia Brongniart, 1820, Limnadia orinoquiensis (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Conchostraca, a species of bisexual reproduction, typical to the dark waters of temporary pools in the surroundings of Puerto Inírida, Comisaria of Guainía.

  1. Induction of ovarian growth in Aegla platensis (Crustacea, Aeglidae by means of neuroregulators incorporated to food

    Alejandra V Cahansky

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater crab Aegla platensis was used as a model to induce ovarian growth by adding different neuroregulators to a pellet food formulation. Added compounds were the dopaminergic inhibitor spiperone or the enkephalinergic inhibitor naloxone, both of them at a dose of 10-8 mol/animal. Animals were fed on the enriched pellets twice a week. After 7 wk, the gonadosomatic index (GI was calculated as (gonad fresh weight / body fresh weight x 100. GI significantly increased only for those females fed on spiperone pellets, compared to a control group receiving pellets with no compound added. During the assayed period, spiperone would be reverting the arrest exerted by dopamine on the neuroendocrine stimulation of ovarian growth. On the other hand, for both spiperone and naloxone a higher GI was correlated to a higher lipid content of both gonads and/or hepatopancreas, suggesting an increased energetic demand in accordance with an active investment in reproduction. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1201-1207. Epub 2008 September 30.Se utilizó al anomuro de agua dulce Aegla platensis como modelo para inducir el crecimiento ovárico mediante el agregado de diferentes neuroreguladores a una formulación de alimento pelleteado. Los compuestos agregados fueron el inhibidor dopaminergico spiperona ó el inhibidor encefalinérgico naloxone, ambos a una dosis de 10-8 moles/animal. Los animales fueron alimentados dos veces a la semana con pellets enriquecidos con alguno de los neuroreguladores. Luego de 7 semanas, se calculó el índice gonadomático (IG como (peso gonadal fresco/ peso corporal fresco x 100. El IG mostró un incremento significativamente sólo en aquellas hembras alimentadas con pellets enriquecidos con spiperona, en comparación con un grupo control que recibió pellets sin agregado alguno. Durante el período ensayado, la spiperona estaría revirtiendo el arresto ejercido por la dopamina sobre la estimulación neuroendocrina del crecimiento ov

  2. Efeito do consumo de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis sobre o ganho de peso e a glicemia de jejum em ratos alimentados com uma dieta hiperlipídica = Effect of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis consumption on weight gain and fasting glucose in rats fed with a high-fat diet

    Machado, Alisson Diego

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito do consumo de erva-mate sobre o ganho de peso e a glicemia de jejum em ratos alimentados com uma dieta hiperlipídica. Materiais e Métodos: Foram utilizados 14 ratos divididos em três grupos. O primeiro grupo (n=4 foi alimentado com ração comercial para ratos, o segundo (n=5 recebeu dieta hiperlipídica e o terceiro (n=5 foi alimentado com dieta hiperlipídica acrescida de infusão de erva-mate, durante 24 dias. Durante o estudo foram monitorados o peso e o índice de Lee e ao final a glicemia de jejum. Resultados: Os ratos alimentados com dieta hiperlipídica contendo infusão de erva-mate apresentaram menor ganho de peso em relação aos que consumiram apenas a ração hiperlipídica, nos três períodos experimentais analisados (p=0,048, p=0,016 e p=0,048, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa em relação ao índice de Lee entre os grupos. O consumo da erva-mate promoveu tendência a menores níveis de glicemia de jejum em relação ao grupo alimentado com dieta comercial (p=0,056 e ao grupo que recebeu dieta hiperlipídica (p=0,075. Conclusão: O consumo de erva-mate proporcionou menor ganho de peso em relação aos ratos que foram alimentados apenas com ração hiperlipídica e tendência a menores níveis de glicemia de jejum

  3. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados com diferentes volumosos Performance and carcass traits of Suffolk lambs fed with different roughages

    Eduardo Antonio da Cunha

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Cordeiros da raça Suffolk, desmamados aos 60 dias e confinados, foram alimentados com silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo granífero ou feno de Coast cross (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears e ração concentrada (3,5% do peso vivo, com o objetivo de avaliar seu desempenho, a proporção dos componentes-não-carcaça e o rendimento e características das suas carcaças. Foi utilizado um delineamento completamente casualizado em esquema fatorial (três alimentos volumosos e dois sexos. Os animais alimentados com silagem de milho ou de sorgo mostraram maior (P0,05 pelo tipo de alimento, contudo, os animais alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram carcaças com maior (P0,05 na proporção de músculos (60,0 e 60,7%. A silagem de sorgo pode substituir a silagem de milho para cordeiros confinados, contudo o uso do feno de gramínea reduz o seu desempenho.Suffolk lambs, weaned at 60 days, were raised in slatted floor pens and fed corn silage, sorghum silage or Coast cross hay (Cynodon dactylon L. Pears plus concentrate ration (3,5% of live weight to evaluate their performance, proportion of non-carcass components and carcass dressing and traits. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement (tree roughage feed X two sexes was used. Lambs fed corn silage or sorghum silage showed greater (P0.05 between feeds, although, lambs fed corn silage showed greater (P0.05 in proportion of muscle (60.0 and 60.7%. Sorghum silage can replace corn silage for feedlot lambs, but grass hay feeding worsens their performance.

  4. Consumo de nutrientes, comportamento ingestivo, caracterÃsticas de carcaÃa e de componetes nÃo-carcaÃa de ovinos Santa Ines alimentados com diferentes nÃveis energÃticos

    Rildson Melo Fontenele

    2010-01-01

    Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o consumo de nutrientes, comportamento ingestivo, ganho mÃdio diÃrio de peso (GMD), conversÃo alimentar (CA), eficiÃncia alimentar (EA), caracterÃsticas de carcaÃa, cortes comerciais, categorias de cortes comerciais, peso dos ÃrgÃos internos, conteÃdo e compartimentos gastrintestinais, peso e rendimento da buchada e panelada de ovinos Santa InÃs em crescimento, alimentados com diferentes nÃveis de energia metabolizÃvel (EM). Utilizaram-se 20 animais ...

  5. Componentes não integrantes da carcaça de cabritos alimentados em pastejo na Caatinga Noncarcass components of Caatinga grazing-fed goats

    Sharleny Braz Lobato Bezerra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o rendimento de buchada, os pesos e rendimentos de órgãos, vísceras e subprodutos da carcaça de cabritos, sem padrão racial definido, alimentados em pastejo na Caatinga, com ou sem suplementação. Dezoito cabritos machos castrados, com peso vivo inicial de 15±0,55 kg, foram mantidos em área de pastejo na Caatinga durante 105 dias. Os animais foram submetidos a três tratamentos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso: pastejo à vontade, sem suplementação; pastejo restrito; e pastejo à vontade, com suplementação de farelo de soja e palma forrageira. Animais do tratamento com suplementação apresentaram maior peso vivo ao abate (PVA, maior peso do corpo vazio (PCVZ e maior peso de língua, pulmões + traqueia, coração, baço, diafragma, pâncreas e rins. Os pesos do fígado, vesícula biliar e do aparelho reprodutor não apresentaram diferença entre os tratamentos. O valor absoluto de peso de buchada foi influenciado pelos tratamentos, e os animais alimentados com suplementação tiveram os maiores pesos. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto aos rendimentos de buchada em termos de PVA e PCVZ. A suplementação para cabritos criados em pastejo na Caatinga produz animais com maior peso vivo ao abate, maior peso do corpo vazio e maior peso de buchada, mas não influencia os rendimentos da buchada, em termos de PVA e PCVZ.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "buchada" - composed of heart, lungs, liver, spleen, intestines, stomach and blood - yields, the weights and yields of organs, visceras, and carcass of undefined breed Caatinga grazing-fed goats, with or without supplementation. Eighteen castrated male goats with initial live weight of 15±0,55 kg, were kept in a grazing area in the Caatinga vegetation, Pernambuco state, Brazil, during 105 days. Animals were subjected to three treatments in a completely randomized design: grazing at will, without supplementation

  6. Botulismo em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango Botulism in beef and dairy cattle fed with poultry litter

    Iveraldo S. Dutra

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Surtos de botulismo causados pelos tipos C e D da toxina botulínica são freqüentes no país, estando originalmente associados à osteofagia e à ingestão de alimentos e água contaminados. No presente trabalho são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais de sete surtos da intoxicação em bovinos de corte e leite alimentados com cama de frango, ocorridos nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais entre 1989 e 2000. Cinco surtos ocorreram em rebanhos de corte confinados ou criados extensivamente e suplementados com o subproduto, e dois em propriedades leiteiras. De um total de 1.535 animais alimentados regularmente com a cama de frango, 455 (29,64% morreram em um período que variou de 2 a 4 semanas. A morbidade nos sete surtos estudados variou de 3,47 a 100%, da mesma forma que a mortalidade. Em uma das propriedades a letalidade foi de 60,52%, e em todos os outros surtos ela foi acima de 88,43%; em três propriedades o coeficiente foi de 100%. Os sinais clínicos de paralisia progressiva, dificuldade na locomoção, decúbito e estado mental aparentemente normal, diminuição do tônus da musculatura da língua e cauda, sialorréia e dificuldade respiratória caracterizaram o quadro clínico. À necropsia de 30 animais não foi observada qualquer alteração macroscópica digna de nota. A presença de esporos de Clostridium botulinum foi detectada em amostras de cama de frango colhidas nas sete propriedades. Nas amostras de fígado, líquido ruminal e intestinal, provenientes dos 30 animais necropsiados, foi possível detectar toxinas botulínicas tipos C (5 ou D (9, ou classificada como pertencente ao complexo CD (1, em pelos menos um dos materiais provenientes de 15 animais, confirmando assim o diagnóstico clínico-patológico e epidemiológico de botulismo.Outbreaks of botulism caused by type C and D of the botulinum toxin are frequent in Brazil, and are associated with bone chewing and ingestion of

  7. Parâmetros zootécnicos de juvenis de pacu alimentados a diferentes frequências de arraçoamento em tanques-rede

    Talita Gabriela Dieterich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho zootécnico e as características bromatológicas e hematológicas de pacus alimentados a diferentes frequências de arraçoamento. Três mil e duzentos peixes, com peso inicial médio de 65,9±2,36 g, foram distribuídos em 16 tanques-rede de 5 m³ de volume útil. Durante 65 dias, foram avaliadas quatro frequências de arraçoamento (tratamentos: T1, às 12:00 h; T2, às 8:00 e às 17:00 h; T3, às 8:00, 12:00 e 17:00 h; e T4, às 8:00, 11:00, 14:00 e 17:00 h. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Analisaram-se parâmetros de desempenho produtivo, índices de gordura visceral e hepatossomático, composição centesimal da carcaça e parâmetros hematológicos e bioquímicos. Quanto ao ganho de peso, as frequências T3 e T4 proporcionaram melhores resultados do que T1 e T2. Embora a proteína, o colesterol e os eritrócitos tenham apresentado diferenças entre os tratamentos, permaneceram dentro dos valores de referência para pacus cultivados em tanques-rede. A frequência de três arraçoamentos diários resultou em maior ganho de peso, em comparação aos demais tratamentos, sem interferir na saúde e na composição centesimal das carcaças dos animais.

  8. DESEMPENHO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM FARELO DE CACAU (Theobroma cacao L. EM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE SUBSTITUIÇÃO

    Cristina Mattos Veloso

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e digestibilidade aparente de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau em substituição ao concentrado (milho e farelo de soja. Utilizaram-se dezesseis ovinos Santa Inês, fêmeas, não prenhes, não lactantes, com peso médio inicial de 25 kg e aproximadamente doze meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O experimento teve a duração de 78 dias, sendo 15 de período pré-experimental e 63 dias de período experimental. Forneceram-se as dietas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50% (volumoso:concentrado,sendo utilizado como volumoso o feno da parte aérea da mandioca, com níveis de inclusão de farelo de cacau no concentrado de 0%, 10%, 20% e 30%. Forneciam-se dietas pela manhã, sendo ajustadas de forma a sobrar 10%. Semanalmente, coletaram-se as sobras e amostras de alimentos para análises laboratoriais. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho médio diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e a digestibilidade aparente. A inclusão do farelo de cacau não promoveu diferença nos consumos de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, no ganho de peso médio diário,na conversão alimentar e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido aumentou linearmente com a inclusão do farelo de cacau na dieta. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Alimentação, concentrado, confinamento, ruminante, subproduto.

  9. Productividad y eficiencia de uso de nitrógeno y energía en pollos de engorda alimentados con pasta de soya o pasta de canola

    Sergio Gómez Rosales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron dos experimentos de sacrificio para evaluar el crecimiento, contenido y deposición de tejidos y retención de proteína y energía en la carne de la canal en pollos en crecimiento alimentados con pasta de canola (PCAN en sustitución de pasta de soya (PSOY. En el Exp 1, seis pollos machos, de 43 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 36 pollos fueron asignados a tres dietas con cantidades crecientes de PCAN (0, 10 y 20 % combinadas con dos niveles de lisina digestible (LD: 0.85 y 0.95 %. En el Exp 2, seis hembras y seis machos, de 28 días de edad, se sacrificaron al inicio y 72 pollos fueron asignados, por sexo, a dos dietas (PSOY o PCAN como único ingrediente proteico combinadas con tres niveles de energía (3.0, 3.1 y 3.2 Mcal de EM/kg de alimento. Cada experimento duró dos semanas y al final todos los pollos fueron sacrificados. En el Exp 1, no hubo diferencias estadísticas en la productividad o retención de proteína y energía en la canal entre niveles de PCAN (P>0.05. En el Exp 2, el consumo de alimento, proteína y energía y la deposición de grasa fueron mayores (P<0.05 con PSOY, pero la ganancia de peso, eficiencia alimenticia y retención de proteína y energía en la canal fueron similares entre dietas. Los resultados indican que es factible sustituir parcial o totalmente la pasta de soya por pasta de canola en la dieta de pollos de engorda en crecimiento.

  10. Análisis y modelado del generador de inducción doblemente alimentado. Analysis and Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Generators.

    Lesyani T. León Viltre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los generadores eólicos de velocidad variable más utilizados en la actualidad es el generador de inducción doblemente alimentado (DFIG. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esquema de control del DFIG. El convertidor de potencia del lado de la red es modelado y controlado usando el vector de tensión orientado a los ejes dq, lo que garantiza que con la componente del eje d de la corriente se pueda controlar la potencia activa y, por consiguiente, la tensión del bus DC. La componente del eje q es forzada a cero para mantener un factor de potencia unitario. En el convertidor del lado del rotor se utiliza un control orientado al flujo del estator. Para la sincronización con la red se utiliza un método novedoso basado en el método GDSC-PLL (Generalizad delayed signal cancellation. Además, se presenta un análisis del comportamiento del DFIG, ante huecos de tensión.  One of the variable speed wind turbines most commonly used today is the doubly feed induction generator(DFIG.A control scheme of DFIG is discussed in this paper. The power converter connected to the grid side (bus is modeled and controlled using voltage vectororiented dq reference frame, whichguarantees that the active power can be controlled by the daxiscurrent component and consequently the DC bus voltage. The qaxis component is forced to be zero in order to ensurethe unitary power factor. Astator flux oriented control in the rotor circuit converter is used.A novel GDSC-PLL method is used in order to achieve an efficient synchronization with the grid.Onthe order hand, this paper presents an analysis about the DFIG (Double Feed Induction Generator behavior during voltages sags.

  11. Análisis y modelado del generador de inducción doblemente alimentado; Analysis and Modeling of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    Lesyani T- León Viltre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los generadores eólicos de velocidad variable más utilizados en la actualidad es el generador de inducción doblemente alimentado (DFIG. En el presente trabajo se presenta un esquema de control del DFIG. El convertidor de potencia del lado de la red es modelado y controlado usando el vector de tensión orientado a los ejes dq, lo que garantiza que con la componente del eje d de la corriente se pueda controlar la potencia activa y, por consiguiente, la tensión del bus DC. La componente del eje q es forzada a cero para mantener un factor de potencia unitario. En el convertidor del lado del rotor se utiliza un control orientado al flujo del estator. Para la sincronización con la red se utiliza un método novedoso basado en el método GDSC-PLL (Generalizad delayed signal cancellation. Además, se presenta un análisis del comportamiento del DFIG, ante huecos de tensión. One of the variable speed wind turbines most commonly used today is the doubly feed induction generator(DFIG.A control scheme of DFIG is discussed in this paper. The power converter connected to the grid side (bus is modeled and controlled using voltage vectororiented dq reference frame, whichguarantees that the active power can be controlled by the daxiscurrent component and consequently the DC bus voltage. The qaxis component is forced to be zero in order to ensurethe unitary power factor. Astator flux oriented control in the rotor circuit converter is used.A novel GDSC-PLL method is used in order to achieve an efficient synchronization with the grid.Onthe order hand, this paper presents an analysis about the DFIG (Double Feed Induction Generator behavior during voltages sags

  12. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  13. Consumo e Absorção Aparente de Macroelementos Minerais, em Bezerros Alimentados com Dietas Contendo Diferentes Níveis de Volumoso

    Araújo Gherman Garcia Leal de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre o consumo e a absorção aparente (AP de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, magnésio (Mg, sódio (Na e potássio (K. Utilizaram-se 40 bezerros, com peso vivo médio inicial de 60 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade com rações na base da MS, com níveis crescentes de 10, 25, 40, 55 e 90% de feno de capim-coastcross (Cynodon dactylon picado. Os coeficientes de absorção aparente foram obtidos por intermédio de ensaios de digestibilidade, realizados aos 120 e 180 dias de idade dos animais, sendo usado como indicador o óxido crômico para estimar a excreção fecal. Os consumos de Ca, P, Mg, Na e K, expressos em g/dia, sofreram efeito quadrático, estimando-se os respectivos consumos máximos com os níveis de 47,0; 30,0; 45,3; 41,0; e 51,8% de volumoso na dieta. As absorções aparentes do Ca, P e K foram afetadas pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas, que apresentaram comportamento quadrático e máximas absorções de 58,7; 56,1; e 78,3% para os níveis de 20,3; 23,1; e 45,2% de volumoso nas dietas, respectivamente.

  14. Alimentación y defecación en triatominos del género Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae alimentados con sangre humana

    E. Aldana

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el comportamiento alimenticio y de defecación de Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 y R. pictipes Stal, 1872 alimentados artificialmente con sangre humana en condiciones de laboratorio. La ninfa I de todas las especies no defecaron en la primera media hora después de haber iniciado la ingesta. R. pictipes no se acercó a picar en el alimentador artificial aunque si lo hizo cuando el alimento se ofreció directamente sobre el cuerpo humano. Las ninfas y adultos de R. prolixus mostraron índices de defecación (ID superiores a los correspondientes de las otras especies, y la ninfa III presentó el mayor ID=1.62. La mayoría de individuos de todos los estadíos de desarrollo aceptaron el alimento en un tiempo entre 0 y 3 min y se alimentaron en menos de 15 minutos.Feeding and defecaction behavior of Rhodnius prolixus Stal, 1859, R. robustus Larrousse, 1927, R. neivai Lent, 1953 and R. pictipes Stal, 1872, artificially fed on human blood, were studied under laboratory conditions. In all species, first instar nymphs did not defecate in the first 30 minutes after feeding. R. pictipes did not accept artificial feeding but fed directly on humans. Nymph and adult R. prolixus had a higher defecation index (DI than other species; third instar nymphs had the highest DI=1.62. In all instars, most individuals accepted the food in £ 3 minutes and finished feeding in less than 15 minutes.

  15. Evaluation of the haematological parameters in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg (Osteichthyes, Characidae with Argulus sp. (Crustacea, Branchiura infestation and treatment with organophosphate

    Marcos Tavares-Dias

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Haematological parameters as erythrocytes, leukocytes and plasma glucose in Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 were analyzed. Fish were parasitized with Argulus sp. (Crustacea, Branchiura and treated with 0.4 mg of thriclorphon 500/L water. The effects of parasitism and the action of the treatment were evaluated. Parasitized fish showed greater number of monocytes (P>0.05 and special granulocitic cells (P0.05. Organophosphate treatment presented significantly reduction (P>0.05 in red blood cells (RBC and hemoglobin.

  16. Els isòpodes terrestres (Crustacea: Isopoda: Oniscidea) del Parc Natural de l’illa de sa Dragonera (Illes Balears, Mediterrània occidental)

    Garcia, Ll.

    2008-01-01

    S’han recol·lectat 17 espècies d’isòpodes terrestres (Crustacea: Oniscidea) al Parc natural de l’illa de sa Dragonera, situada al sud-oest de l’illa de Mallorca (Espanya, Illes Balears, Mediterrània occidental). En el decurs de vàries expedicions realitzades a l’illa en els anys 1989, 1999, 2000, 2005 i 2006 s’han capturat aproximadament 400 exemplars, directament a mà o mitjançant trampes de caiguda. Fins aleshores únicament s’havia citat a sa Dragonera una espècie d’Oniscidea...

  17. A dataset on the species composition of amphipods (Crustacea) in a Mexican marine national park: Alacranes Reef, Yucatan.

    Paz-Ríos, Carlos E; Simões, Nuno; Pech, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Alacranes Reef was declared as a National Marine Park in 1994. Since then, many efforts have been made to inventory its biodiversity. However, groups such as amphipods have been underestimated or not considered when benthic invertebrates were inventoried. Here we present a dataset that contributes to the knowledge of benthic amphipods (Crustacea, Peracarida) from the inner lagoon habitats from the Alacranes Reef National Park, the largest coral reef ecosystem in the Gulf of Mexico. The dataset contains information on records collected from 2009 to 2011. Data are available through Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). A total of 110 amphipod species distributed in 93 nominal species and 17 generic species, belonging to 71 genera, 33 families and three suborders are presented here. This information represents the first online dataset of amphipods from the Alacranes Reef National Park. The biological material is currently deposited in the crustacean collection from the regional unit of the National Autonomous University of Mexico located at Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico (UAS-Sisal). The biological material includes 588 data records with a total abundance of 6,551 organisms. The species inventory represents, until now, the richest fauna of benthic amphipods registered from any discrete coral reef ecosystem in Mexico.

  18. Comparative life-histories, population dynamics and productivity of Schistomysis populations (Crustacea, Mysida) in European shelf environments

    San Vicente, Carlos; Sorbe, Jean Claude

    2013-08-01

    A biological study of suprabenthic mysids of genus Schistomysis (Crustacea, Mysida, Mysidae) was carried out based on quantitative samples collected in coastal waters of the SE Bay of Biscay (NE Atlantic) and the Catalan Sea (W Mediterranean). Aspects of the ecology of species noted during this study are summarized and the results of previous researches are incorporated. Small and large-scale environmental factors (swash and surf climate, depth, temperature, day-night and seasonal cycles) contributed significantly to population distributions. All Schistomysis populations are characterized by faster individual growth and earlier maturity at higher temperature, resulting in intensive recruitment during spring or summer seasons in combination with higher fecundity of genitors. Regarding productivity, our production and P/B¯ estimates ranged between 2255-26,321 mg AFDW/100 m3/year and 6.09-9.73, respectively. These production values are similar to those found for comparable marine mysids with two or three generations per year. The observed demographic heterogeneity and production of populations has ecological implications in the Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean areas, where Schistomysis species are dominant components of littoral and shelf suprabenthic communities.

  19. Lunar-Rhythmic Molting in Laboratory Populations of the Noble Crayfish Astacus astacus (Crustacea, Astacidea): An Experimental Analysis

    Franke, Robert; Hoerstgen-Schwark, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile noble crayfish, Astacusastacus (Crustacea, Astacidea) in the second year of age were kept in the laboratory for a twelve-month period under continuing “summer conditions” (LD 16:8, 19°C). Molting processes in this population could be synchronized by artificial moonlight cycles. Peaks of exuviations occurred at “new moons”. Males showed a slightly higher degree of synchronization than females. A phase-shift of the artificial lunar cycle in relation to the natural cycle resulted in a corresponding shift of the molting cycle. This clearly demonstrates that changes in the nocturnal light regime provide the primary external information for the lunar-monthly molting rhythm. There is a first indication that lunar photic stimuli do not act directly but as a zeitgeber which entrains an endogenous molting rhythm to the lunar cycle. Moreover, the results of the long-term experiments suggest that the hibernal resting period of A . astacus in the field (no molts between October and April) may also involve some endogenous programming. Continuing artificial summer conditions can delay but not completely suppress this resting period. The adaptive significance of the phenomena and how the findings may be applied to improve the management of crowded crayfish stocks are discussed. PMID:23840899

  20. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-01-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation. - Bioaccumulation tests with Porcellio scaber isopods are proposed as a supplement to chemical extraction in assessing metal bioavailability before and after soil remediation.

  1. Reproductive biology and seasonality of the Indo-Australasian mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Crustacea: Mysida) in a tropical mangrove estuary, Malaysia

    Hanamura, Yukio; Siow, Ryon; Chee, Phaik-Ean

    2008-04-01

    A year-round survey of the tropical shallow-water mysid Mesopodopsis orientalis (Tattersall, 1908) (Crustacea, Mysidacea) was conducted in the Merbok mangrove estuary, northwestern Peninsular Malaysia. The mysid formed dense aggregations at the river's edge close to the mangrove forest during the daytime, but very few were captured elsewhere in the estuary system. The sampled population was found in a wide range of salinities from 16 to 32, demonstrating broad euryhalinity, and the number of the catch at the littoral zone ranged from 11.8 to 2273 ind m -2. The overall annual mean was 709.2 ind m -2. Females predominated over males in the entire population, and brooding females were present at every monthly sample, indicating that reproduction is continuous year round. The clutch size positively correlated with female body length. The diameter of eggs (Stage I embryos) was unaffected by the seasonality and independent of the maternal size within an observed size range. The life history pattern of the estuarine population of M. orientalis showed close similarity to that of the coastal counterpart. However, the former was found to produce fewer but larger eggs, and the specimens in this population were larger than those in the coastal population at the embryo, juvenile, and adult stages. This evidence indicates that the life history features of the estuarine population would differ to some degree from those of the coastal counterpart.

  2. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca.

    Agnieszka Włodarczyk

    Full Text Available The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  3. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca).

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Sonakowska, Lidia; Kamińska, Karolina; Marchewka, Angelika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda) (Crustacea, Malacostraca) is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas) after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active) mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  4. Níveis de energia no desempenho e características da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding

    Garcia Cledson Augusto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado no Setor de Ovinocultura da Universidade de Marília, objetivando estudar os efeitos de três níveis de energia (2,6; 2,8 e 3,0 Mcal EM/kg MS na ração de cordeiros inteiros Suffolk criados em creep feeding, sobre o desempenho e características de carcaça. Na parição numerava-se e registravam-se o peso ao nascer dos cordeiros que, posteriormente, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente, compondo doze repetições por tratamento. As rações foram isoprotéicas (18,46% PB fornecidas ad libitum duas vezes ao dia, pesando-se as respectivas sobras. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias, permanecendo com as ovelhas até atingirem o peso vivo final, preestabelecido em 31 kg. Em seguida, os cordeiros permaneceram em jejum alimentar por 16 horas, até o momento do abate, obtendo-se o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, registraram-se os pesos da carcaça quente e do conteúdo digestivo, para o cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças permanecerem por 24 horas na câmara de refrigeração em temperatura de 5ºC, obtendo-se o peso da carcaça fria. Para o ganho médio diário ocorreu diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, utilizando-se como covariável a idade de abate, com melhor desempenho para os cordeiros que receberam a ração com 3,0 Mcal EM. Para as características da carcaça não houve efeito dos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o nível 3,0 Mcal EM foi o mais indicado para a ração de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados e terminados em creep feeding.

  5. Meta-análise da digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos e minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas contendo enzimas

    Cheila Roberta Lehnen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, por meio da meta-análise, o efeito da fitase e da xilanase sobre a digestibilidade ileal aparente (DIa de aminoácidos, cálcio e fósforo, em suínos em fase de crescimento. A base de dados consistiu de 21 artigos publicados entre 1998 e 2009, no total de 82 tratamentos e 644 suínos. A meta-análise foi realizada por análise gráfica, de correlação, de variância-covariância. As concentrações de fósforo fítico e as frações fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e lignina em detergente ácido, nas dietas, apresentaram correlações baixas e negativas com a DIa do cálcio, fósforo e aminoácidos. A adição de fitase às dietas aumentou em 2% a DIa da arginina, em 14% a do cálcio e em 34% a do fósforo. A DIa da arginina, fenilalanina, isoleucina e lisina foi 3,3% superior em suínos alimentados com dietas com xilanase, em relação às dietas sem a enzima. O fósforo fítico e as fibras, nas dietas, reduzem a DIa do cálcio, do fósforo e dos aminoácidos essenciais. O uso de fitase e xilanase, nas dietas, melhora o aproveitamento de cálcio, fósforo e alguns aminoácidos. No entanto, o excesso de cálcio e fósforo nas dietas reduz a ação da fitase sobre a digestibilidade ileal dos nutrientes.

  6. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente em bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de volumoso

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CHOT e energia bruta (EB e sobre os consumos de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Trinta e cinco bezerros da raça Holandesa puros por cruzamento, não-castrados, com idade média de 60 dias e peso vivo inicial de 78 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com nove repetições por dieta, exceto para a dieta com 10% de volumoso, com oito repetições. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo níveis de 10, 25, 40 e 55% de volumoso, na base da MS, usando-se feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, os quais constituíram dietas com aproximadamente 16% de PB. O óxido crômico foi usado para obtenção das estimativas dos fluxos de MS fecal. Os carboidratos totais foram obtidos por 100 - (%PB + %EE + %Cinzas. O consumo de NDT foi obtido por (cPB - PBf + 2,25 (cEE - EEf + (cCHOT - CHOTf, em que c significa consumo e f, excreção fecal. Não houve efeito dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre os consumos de MS e MO (kg/dia, % PV e g/kg0,75 e de PB e CHOT (kg/dia e % PV. O consumo de FDN (kg/dia, %PV e g/kg0,75 aumentou, enquanto o consumo de EE e NDT (em kg/dia e %PV reduziu linearmente em função dos níveis de volumoso na dieta. Houve efeito linear decrescente sobre as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, PB, EE, CHOT e EB, em função do aumento dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas, enquanto a digestibilidade aparente da FDN não foi influenciada. Os consumos de EE, FDN e NDT e as digestibilidades aparentes de MS, MO, EE, PB, CHOT e EB foram influenciados pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas.

  7. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com rações contendo quatro níveis de inclusão do farelo de mamona

    Marieta Maria Martins Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de observar a influência de quatro níveis de substituição (0; 50; 75 ou 100% do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado em rações para ovinos mestiços 1/2 Morada Nova x 1/2 SPRD (sem padrão racial definido sobre o seu comportamento ingestivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os ovinos eram machos, inteiros, com peso corporal 18,01 ± 1,41 kg e idade média de 7 meses. Foram avaliadas atividades contínuas (tempo de alimentação, ruminação, outras atividades e ócio e pontuais (consumo de sal, ingestão de água, micção e defecação, como também a eficiência de alimentação (EAL, eficiência de ruminação (ERU, tempo de alimentação (TAL, tempo de ruminação (TRU, tempo de mastigação total (TMT, número de bolos ruminais (BOL, tempo de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminal (MMtb e número de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminal (MMnb. As variáveis tempo de alimentação, ruminação, outras atividades, ócio, consumo de sal e ingestão de água foram afetadas (P<0,05, especialmente o MMnb, que foi inferior para os animais alimentados com as rações com 100% de substituição, possivelmente pelo seu menor teor de fibra (oriundo da forragem, sendo possível a substituição total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado.

  8. Desempenho produtivo e respostas fisiopatológicas de tambaquis alimentados com ração suplementada com β-glucano

    Edsandra Campos Chagas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do imunoestimulante β-glucano na dieta do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum sobre o desempenho produtivo, as respostas fisiológicas e imunológicas, e a resistência ao desafio com Aeromonas hydrophila. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 5x2, com cinco níveis de β-glucano na dieta (0, 0,1, 0,2, 0,4 e 0,8% e dois tempos de amostragem (antes e após o desafio com A. hydrophila, com três repetições. Os peixes (28,65±0,49 g; 12,14±0,07 cm foram alimentados, por 60 dias, com dieta (28% de proteína bruta suplementada com preparação comercial de β-glucano. Após o período de alimentação, avaliou-se o desempenho produtivo, e os peixes foram desafiados com A. hydrophila. Os parâmetros hematológicos e imunológicos (concentração e atividade de lisozima foram avaliados antes e após o desafio bacteriano. Após o desafio bacteriano, observouse a ocorrência de anemia normocítica-normocrômica. A suplementação com β-glucano não alterou a concentração nem a atividade da lisozima; porém, a menor concentração de β-glucano (0,1% favoreceu maior sobrevivência para a espécie quando desafiada com Aeromonas hydrophila. A suplementação de β-glucano não exerce influência sobre o desempenho produtivo e nem sobre os parâmetros hematológicos do tambaqui.

  9. An overview of the distribution of the Parabathynellidae (Crustacea, Syncarida Bathynellacea on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands

    Camacho, Ana I.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews all the knowledge on the presence and distribution of 26 species of the family Parabathynellidae Noodt, 1964 (Crustacea, Syncarida, Bathynellacea on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The different genera, subgenera and species distributions are subjected to a basic analysis. The presence of these taxa in different subterranean aquatic habitats (caves, springs, wells and interstitial environment is also discussed. The most sampled habitat was the interstitial environment (45%; the least sampled habitat was springs (5%. The most commonly found genus was Iberobathynella Schminke, 1973 (54% and the rarest was Guadalopebathynella Camacho & Serban, 1998 (0.7% All the knowledge on these taxa in the study area, in Europe and in the world is compared and evaluated. More species of the Parabathynellidae live on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands than in any other part of the world (26 species. Iberobathynella is a highly diversified genus endemic to the Iberian peninsula. Its diversity is comparable to another genus in the order, Hexabathynella Schminke, 1972, which also has 18 described species. However, Hexabathynella has a cosmopolitan distribution.

    En este trabajo se reúne y actualiza el conocimiento acerca de la presencia y distribución de 26 especies de batinelas de la familia Parabathynellidae (Crustacea, Syncarida, Bathynellacea en la Península Ibérica y las Islas Baleares. Se analiza de forma crítica la distribución de los diferentes géneros, subgéneros y especies y se discute acerca de la presencia de los mismos en diferentes habitat acuáticos subterráneos (cuevas, fuentes o surgencias, pozos y medio intersticial asociado a ríos epigeos. El mayor número de puntos de muestreo corresponde al medio intersticial (45% del total y en él se encuentran los cinco géneros presentes en el área de estudio; las surgencias constituyen el conjunto con menos puntos de

  10. The little shrimp that could: phylogeography of the circumtropical Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda), reveals divergent Atlantic and Pacific lineages

    Iacchei, Matthew; Coleman, Richard R.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Browne, William E.; Bowen, Brian W.; Toonen, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    The banded coral shrimp, Stenopus hispidus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Stenopodidea) is a popular marine ornamental species with a circumtropical distribution. The planktonic larval stage lasts ∼120–253 days, indicating considerable dispersal potential, but few studies have investigated genetic connectivity on a global scale in marine invertebrates. To resolve patterns of divergence and phylogeography of S. hispidus, we surveyed 525 bp of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) from 198 individuals sampled at 10 locations across ∼27,000 km of the species range. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that S. hispidus has a Western Atlantic lineage and a widely distributed Indo-Pacific lineage, separated by sequence divergence of 2.1%. Genetic diversity is much higher in the Western Atlantic (h = 0.929; π = 0.004) relative to the Indo-Pacific (h = 0.105; π Indo-Pacific population expanded more recently (95% HPD (highest posterior density) = 60,000–400,000 yr) than the Western Atlantic population (95% HPD = 300,000–760,000 yr). Divergence of the Western Atlantic and Pacific lineages is estimated at 710,000–1.8 million years ago, which does not readily align with commonly implicated colonization events between the ocean basins. The estimated age of populations contradicts the prevailing dispersal route for tropical marine biodiversity (Indo-Pacific to Atlantic) with the oldest and most diverse population in the Atlantic, and a recent population expansion with a single common haplotype shared throughout the vast Indian and Pacific oceans. In contrast to the circumtropical fishes, this diminutive reef shrimp challenges our understanding of conventional dispersal capabilities of marine species. PMID:29527409

  11. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com inclusão de torta de macaúba na dieta Performance of lambs fed with macauba pie inclusion in the diet

    Rafael Alves de Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho produtivo e econômico de ovinos confinados da raça Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas com diferentes taxas de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Os animais (24 foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, nos tratamentos com 0, 100, 200 e 300 g kg-1 de torta de macaúba na matéria seca da dieta, em seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. A adição de torta de macaúba a taxas crescentes à dieta aumentou linearmente o consumo de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e a conversão alimentar. Não houve diferença no consumo de matéria seca, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso vivo total com a adição da torta. O tratamento com inclusão de 100 g kg-1 apresentou a melhor relação custo:benefício na avaliação das receitas bruta e líquida obtidas com a venda dos animais vivos e abatidos. A adição da torta de macaúba em até 300 g kg-1 da dieta não altera o desempenho produtivo dos animais, entretanto, a inclusão de 100 g kg-1 proporciona melhor retorno econômico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nutrient uptake and the productive and economic performance of confined Santa Inês lambs fed diets with different levels of macauba pie inclusion . The animals (24 were distributed in a randomized block design, in treatments with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 macauba pie in the diet dry matter, with six replicates during 60 days of confinement. The addition of macauba pie at increasing rates to the diet linearly increased the intake of crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion. There was no difference in dry matter intake, average daily gain and total live weight gain with the macauba pie addition. Diet with 100 g kg-1 macauba pie inclusion showed the best cost:benefit ratio in the evaluation of gross and net revenues from the sale of live and slaughtered animals. The addition

  12. Perfil lipídico tecidual de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas Tissue lipid profile of rats fed with different lipid sources

    Martha Elisa Ferreira de Almeida

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:Determinar se fontes lipídicas com diferentes razões de ácidos graxos insaturados e saturados (PUFA+MUFA/SFA na dieta altera o perfil lipídico tecidual, a concentração de lipídios (mg/g dos tecidos hepáticos e mesentérico e a digestibilidade lipídica. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada cromatografia gasosa para determinar o perfil de ácidos graxos nos tecidos hepático e adiposo de ratos alimentados com diferentes fontes lipídicas. O coeficiente de digestibilidade foi determinado a partir da relação entre a quantidade de lipídios consumidos e a quantidade fecal excretada. RESULTADOS:Diferentes fontes lipídicas (óleo de soja, manteiga, margarina e gorduras de porco e de peixe não alteraram o coeficiente de digestibilidade e o peso hepático, mas alteraram a deposição de lipídios em todos os tecidos adiposos estudados. Não foi possível fazer a correlação direta entre o perfil dietário dos ácidos graxos não essenciais e sua deposição nos tecidos estudados, visto que a lipogênese de novo impede a identificação dos ácidos graxos dietários. CONCLUSÃO:Não foi constatada uma relação direta entre o perfil dietário dos ácidos graxos e sua deposição nos tecidos estudados, exceto para os ácidos graxos trans e linoléico (C18:2 que não são sintetizados no rato. Esses ácidos graxos apresentaram uma concentração tecidual diretamente proporcional àquela das fontes dietárias. Quanto à razão (PUFA+MUFA/SFA, encontrada no tecido hepático dos diferentes grupos, observa-se que esta foi diretamente proporcional aos valores apresentados pelas fontes lipídicas dietárias. Entretanto, essa associação não foi observada nos tecidos adiposos analisados.OBJECTIVE:To determine if lipid sources with different unsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratios, (PUFA+MUFA/SFA in the diet alter the lipid profile of tissues, the lipid concentration (mg/g of the hepatic and mesenteric tissues and the lipid digestibility. METHODS

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau Ingestive behavior of Santa Inês sheep fed diets with cocoa meal

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de cacau. Foram utilizados 16 ovinos Santa Inês fêmeas, não-gestantes e não-lactantes, com peso corporal médio de 25 kg e aproximadamente 12 meses de idade, mantidos em baias individuais. O farelo de cacau foi fornecido no concentrado nos níveis de 0, 10, 20 e 30% e, como volumoso, utilizou-se feno de mandioca. As dietas foram fornecidas em mistura completa, na proporção 50:50 volumoso:concentrado. Os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio obtidos em 24 horas de observação foram semelhantes. Contudo, os animais que consumiram dietas com maiores níveis de farelo de cacau, acima de 14,8% de substituição no concentrado, reduziram o número de bolos ruminados por dia, que foi compensado pelo aumento do tempo de mastigações por bolo. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a eficiência de alimentação (g MS e FDN/hora não foram influenciados pelos níveis de farelo de cacau na dieta, entretanto, esse alimento provocou alterações na eficiência de ruminação (g MS e FDN/bolo. O número de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminado aumentou linearmente, enquanto o número de mastigações por dia apresentou comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo de 42.818,4 mastigações diárias para o nível de 16,9% de farelo de cacau. Embora não se tenha verificado diferença nos consumos de MS e FDN (kg/dia, a inclusão de farelo de cacau em dietas para ovinos Santa Inês afetou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of sheep fed diets containing cocoa meal. Sixteen Santa Inês female sheep, no-pregnant, no-lactating, averaging 25 kg of body weight and 12 months of age, maintained in individual barns were used. The cocoa meal was fed in the concentrate at the levels of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, and as forage was cassava

  14. Desempenho de motor diesel quatro tempos alimentado com biodiesel de óleo de soja (B 100 Performance of four stroke diesel cycle engine supplied with soybean oil biodiesel (B 100

    Carlos Eduardo Silva Volpato

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o desempenho de um motor de ciclo diesel quatro tempos e quatro cilindros utilizando biodiesel de óleo de soja (B100, em comparação ao óleo diesel. Foram analisados os parâmetros: potência efetiva e reduzida, torque, consumo específico e energético de combustível, eficiência termomecânica e volumétrica. Foi instalado um ensaio com delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial, realizada análise de variância e aplicado teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram pesquisados cinco níveis de rotação em quatro repetições (650, 570, 490, 410, 320 e 240 rpm. O motor alimentado com biodiesel apresentou torque e potência reduzida um pouco menor que quando alimentado com óleo diesel fóssil, entretanto, os consumos especifico e horário, apresentaram resultados mais satisfatórios que o diesel fóssil.The aim of this work was to compare the performance of a four stroke diesel cycle engine and a four cylinder using biodiesel made from soy oil (B100, in comparison with the diesel oil. The parameters analyzed were: effective power and reduced power, torque, specific and energetic consumption of fuel, thermal-mechanics and volumetric efficiency. An entirely randomized experiment design was installed (DIC in a factorial structure, the analysis of variance was carried out and the Tukey test was applied at the level of 5%. Five rotation levels were researched in four replications (650, 570, 490, 410, 320, and 240 rpm. The engine fed with biodiesel presented torque and reduced power a little lower than the engine fed with fossil diesel. However, specific and hourly consumptions presented more satisfactory results.

  15. First record of Parelasmopus setiger Chevreux, 1901 from Singapore, including synonymization of Parelasmopus siamensis Wongkamhaeng, Coleman & Pholpunthin, 2013 with Parelasmopus setiger (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Maeridae

    Azman Abdul Rahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Parelasmopus setiger has been widely described from tropical to subtropical regions from Philippine Islands, Sulu Sea, Indonesia, Australia, north Indian Ocean and the Seychelles by several authors. The present study provides detailed descriptions of Parelasmopus setiger Chevreux, 1901 (Crustacea: Amphipoda based on newly collected specimens from Pulau Hantu, Singapore. Morphological characters of the specimens closely resemble those of Parelasmopus setiger and Parelasmopus siamensis Wongkamhaeng, Coleman & Pholpunthin, 2013. The specimens of both the species were quite similar to the Singapore specimens, although the shapes of appendages vary with growth and locality; therefore, P. siamensis is synonymized with P. setiger. The following species characteristics for P. setiger are indicated: 1 antenna 1 peduncle with 2 setae; 2 male gnathopod 2 propodus palm transverse; 3 Pereopods 5 to 7 posterior margins with long slender setae; and 4 dorsal carina pattern for pereonite 7 and pleonites 1 to 3.

  16. A note on the occurrence of praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda on fishes from Northeast of Pará, Brazil

    Daniel G. Diniz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The infection of the estuarine teleost fishes Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, and Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae by praniza larvae of Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda was studied in specimens fished off the Atlantic Ocean in Northeast of Pará State, near Bragança, Brazil. The highest infection prevalence value was found in Anableps anableps (42.3% and the lowest in Conodon nobilis (9.1%. The mean intensity varied from 1 parasitein Conodon nobilis to 19.5 in Arius phrygiatus. A description of the larvae is provided. The morphology of the mouthparts is related to the blood sucking activity, and is compared with the characteristics of other gnathiidae species.Foi estudada a parasitose dos peixes estuarinos Mugil gaimardianus Desmarest, 1831 (Mugilidae, Arius phrygiatus Valenciennes, 1839 (Ariidae, Conodon nobilis Linnaeus, 1759 (Haemulidae, Cetengraulis edentulus Cuvier, 1829 (Engraulidae, e Anableps anableps Linnaeus, 1758 (Anablepidae por larvas praniza de Gnathiidae (Crustacea, Isopoda em exemplares pescados no Oceano Atlântico, no Nordeste do Pará, próximo a Bragança, Brasil. O valor mais elevado da prevalência da infecção foi observado em A. anableps (42,3% e o menor em C. nobilis (9,1%. A intensidade média da parasitose variou entre 1 parasita em C. nobilis até 19,5 em A. phrygiatus. Efetua-se a descrição da larva, verificando-se que a morfologia da armadura bucal está relacionada com a atividade sugadora de sangue, e faz-se a comparação com as características de outras espécies.

  17. Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de bovinos mestiços alimentados com diferentes volumosos e fontes protéicas Performance and carcass dressing in crossbreed steers fed different forage and nitrogen sources

    Fernanda Macitelli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta bovinos machos, com 30 meses de idade e 371 kg, foram distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizado com esquema fatorial 3 x 3, para avaliar o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça quando alimentados com diferentes fontes protéicas (Amiferm, uréia e farelo de soja e volumosos (pastagem de capim-braquiária, cana-de-açúcar e silagem de milho. As dietas foram balanceadas para conterem níveis semelhantes de EM e PB. A interação volumoso x fonte de N não foi significativa para nenhum dos parâmetros estudados. O ganho de peso vivo diário (GPV/dia dos animais alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (0,83 kg não diferiu dos mantidos em pastagem (0,82 kg, mas ambos foram menores que dos animais alimentados com silagem de milho (1,09 kg. As diferentes fontes de N proporcionaram GPV/dia semelhantes, com valores de 0,94; 0,83 e 0,97 kg, para os animais que receberam uréia, Amiferm e farelo de soja, respectivamente. As dietas contendo farelo de soja proporcionaram maior ganho de carcaça diário (0,57 kg em relação ao uso de Amiferm, não diferindo da uréia (0,55 kg. Não houve diferença entre volumosos e fontes nitrogenadas para rendimento de carcaça, rendimento de carcaça do corpo vazio, rendimento de carcaça do ganho de peso e espessura de gordura, com média de 51,03%, 54,49%, 60,10% e 8,5 mm, respectivamente. O uso de Amiferm proporcionou ganhos de peso e rendimento de carcaça semelhantes às demais fontes protéicas.Forty steers averaging 371 kg BW were allotted to a randomized block design, in a factorial scheme 3 x 3 to evaluate the effect of feeding different protein sources (urea, amiferm, soybean meal and forage (sugar cane, corn silage and pasture Bracharia brizantha on performance and carcass dressing. Diets were formulated to contain similar ME and CP protein levels. Forage and nitrogen source interaction was not significant for all studied factors. Daily live weight (LWG/day of animal fed sugar cane (0.83 kg did

  18. Desempenho de bovinos jovens alimentados com dietas contendo grão úmido de milho ou sorgo Performance of young cattle fed diets with high moisture corn or sorghum

    Mauricio Scoton Igarasi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar diferenças no desempenho de animais jovens alimentados com dietas contendo grão úmido de milho ou sorgo. Utilizaram-se dois tratamentos experimentais, nos quais a dieta total possuía, como ingrediente energético principal, grão úmido de milho (TMU ou grão úmido de sorgo (TSU. Noventa novilhos inteiros F1 Red Angus ´ Nelore, com 8 meses de idade e 240 kg de peso vivo médio inicial, foram alimentados durante 172 dias e divididos nos dois tratamentos, segundo delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Não foi verificada diferença para ganho de peso diário, ganho de peso total e peso final de abate. Com relação à carcaça, a área de olho-de-lombo, a espessura de gordura subcutânea e a espessura de gordura na garupa também não diferiram estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. Concluiu-se que a substituição integral do TMU pelo TSU não alterou o desempenho de bovinos jovens em confinamento.The differences on performance of young cattle fed diets with high moisture corn or sorghum were evaluated in two treatments, where the main energy source of the total diet was composed of high moisture corn (HMC or sorghum (HMS. Ninety Angus ´ Nelore crossbred young bulls, averaging 8 month of age and 240 kg BW and fed during 172 days were allotted to two experimental treatments as a completely randomized design. No treatment effect on average daily gain, total weight gain and slaughter final weight was observed. Regarding the carcass, ribeye area, subcutaneous fat thickness and rump fat thickness also did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, the totally replacement of high moisture corn by high moisture sorghum did not affect performance of feedlot young cattle.

  19. Influência da suplementação de vitaminas A, D e E na função imune de bezerros alimentados com dieta á base de feno capim tifton (Cynodon spp.

    Endrew R.M. Martins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As vitaminas são compostos orgânicos necessários em poucas quantidades no organismo, todavia indispensáveis para as funções metabólicas. Elas se inserem em inúmeras reações metabólicas, fisiológicas e imunes das células, necessárias para a manutenção da saúde animal, além de atuarem como imunoestimulante. Embora a dieta rica em folhagens verdes frescas forneça quantidades suficientes de vitaminas A, D e E a suplementação intensiva com alimentos conservados na forma de feno ou silagem pode reduzir em até 50 % dos teores destas vitaminas no alimento. Diante disso, a proposta do trabalho foi verificar se a administração parenteral de vitaminas A, D e E age como imunoestimulante em garrotes estabulados e alimentados exclusivamente com feno de tifton. Para tanto 14 bovinos foram divididos em dois grupos homogêneos, sendo o grupo S, suplementado com vitamina A, D e E em dose única de 30 mL por via intramuscular; e o grupo C, sem suplementação. Ambos os grupos foram alojados em baias parcialmente privadas de sol, e alimentados com feno por um período de três meses. A avaliação imune foi realizada por hemogramas e ensaio de função leucocitária (metabolismo oxidativo e fagocitose nos momentos antes do tratamento, três e dez dias após os tratamentos. Tendo em vista que a suplementação com polivitamínicos A, D e E aumentou a porcentagem da atividade de células granulocítica e a intensidade da atividade de células mononucleares, além de intensificar o efeito antioxidante prolongando a sobrevida de hemácias e neutrófilos, conclui-se que esta suplementação promoveu efeito benéfico na resposta imune de bezerros da Raça Holandesa, apesar dos efeitos deletérios da alimentação exclusiva com feno e da privação parcial da incidência solar direta.

  20. Cinética do P nos tecidos de suínos em crescimento alimentados com dietas formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal e suplementadas com enzima fitase

    J.A. Moreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da enzima fitase sobre a cinética do P nos tecidos de suínos, alimentados com dietas formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal e suplementadas com enzima fitase. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os animais foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas durante 17 dias, sendo 10 dias para adaptação e sete dias para coletas de fezes e urina. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por cinco dias. No primeiro dia da fase experimental, cada animal recebeu, por via endovenosa, uma solução radioativa com 7,4MBq de 32P. No final do período experimental, os animais foram sacrificados, e amostras de tecidos do músculo (lombo, coração, fígado, rins e ossos foram coletadas. A enzima fitase interferiu na cinética do 32P, levando a uma menor incorporação nos tecidos dos ossos.

  1. Espécies de Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota dos Supergrupos Cocciferae, Crustaceae e Perviae em restingas e costões rochosos dos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, Brasil Species of Cladonia P. Browne (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota, of Supergroup Cocciferae, Crustaceae and Perviae, from restinga vegetation and rocky shores of Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Emerson Luiz Gumboski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se conhece das espécies de Cladonia que ocorrem nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina. Informações sobre a ocorrência de liquens em restingas são muito escassas e não há qualquer registro para costões rochosos. O objetivo do trabalho foi realizar um levantamento intensivo das espécies de Cladonia presentes em áreas de restingas e costões rochosos presentes nos estados do Paraná e de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Foram encontradas nove espécies pertencentes aos Supergrupos Cocciferae, Crustaceae e Perviae, sendo que Cladonia squamosa é nova citação para o Paraná e C. palmicola para Santa Catarina. Todas as espécies encontradas ocorrem em restingas e sete delas também em costões rochosos. São apresentadas chave de identificação, descrições, comentários e ilustrações.Little is known about the species of Cladonia that occur in the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. Information about the occurrence of lichens in restinga (a type of coastal vegetation in Brazil is very scarce and there are no records from rocky shores. The main goal of the present work was to make an intensive survey of Cladonia species that grow in restinga and on the rocky shores of this region. Nine species belonging to Supergroups Cocciferae, Crustaceae and Perviae were found, and two of them were new records: Cladonia squamosa for Paraná and C. palmicola for Santa Catarina. All of the species recorded occur in restinga and seven of them are also found along rocky shores. An identification key, descriptions, comments and illustrations are provided.

  2. Brain architecture of the largest living land arthropod, the Giant Robber Crab Birgus latro (Crustacea, Anomura, Coenobitidae: evidence for a prominent central olfactory pathway?

    Krieger Jakob

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several lineages within the Crustacea conquered land independently during evolution, thereby requiring physiological adaptations for a semi-terrestrial or even a fully terrestrial lifestyle. Birgus latro Linnaeus, 1767, the giant robber crab or coconut crab (Anomura, Coenobitidae, is the largest land-living arthropod and inhabits Indo-Pacific islands such as Christmas Island. B. latro has served as a model in numerous studies of physiological aspects related to the conquest of land by crustaceans. From an olfactory point of view, a transition from sea to land means that molecules need to be detected in gas phase instead of in water solution. Previous studies have provided physiological evidence that terrestrial hermit crabs (Coenobitidae such as B. latro have a sensitive and well differentiated sense of smell. Here we analyze the brain, in particular the olfactory processing areas of B. latro, by morphological analysis followed by 3 D reconstruction and immunocytochemical studies of synaptic proteins and a neuropeptide. Results The primary and secondary olfactory centers dominate the brain of B. latro and together account for ca. 40% of the neuropil volume in its brain. The paired olfactory neuropils are tripartite and composed of more than 1,000 columnar olfactory glomeruli, which are radially arranged around the periphery of the olfactory neuropils. The glomeruli are innervated ca. 90,000 local interneurons and ca. 160,000 projection neurons per side. The secondary olfactory centers, the paired hemiellipsoid neuropils, are targeted by the axons of these olfactory projection neurons. The projection neuron axonal branches make contact to ca. 250.000 interneurons (per side associated with the hemiellipsoid neuropils. The hemiellipsoid body neuropil is organized into parallel neuropil lamellae, a design that is quite unusual for decapod crustaceans. The architecture of the optic neuropils and areas associated with antenna two

  3. Seasonal fluctuations of some biological traits of the invader Caprella scaura (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidae in the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, southern Italy

    Ermelinda Prato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Caprella scaura is an epifaunal amphipod crustacean that originates in the western Indian Ocean and has spread throughout the world, but very little is known about fundamental aspects of its biology. This paper is the first presentation of its life history traits in an invaded region. The study was conducted in the Mar Piccolo basin (southern Italy, Ionian Sea, over a one-year period. All biological parameters showed a strong seasonal pattern, breeding peaked twice during the year and the number of eggs in the ventral brood pouch ranged from 5 to 72. The sex ratio was generally close to 1:1. A strong correlation between total length of ovigerous females and number of eggs was observed. The mean length of both mature males and mature females was 10.63 and 7.70 mm, respectively. The results of this study showed that the population dynamics of this species was not dissimilar to that of other caprellids or marine epifaunal Crustacea. This caprellid has given rise to a stable population in the Mar Piccolo; it was present all year round in the study area but its density suggests that it is not yet a strong invader.

  4. Origin of the interstitial isopod Microcharon (Crustacea, Microparasellidae from the western Languedoc and the northern Pyrenees (France with the description of two new species

    Nicole COINEAU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The interstitial groundwater genus Microcharon (Crustacea, Isopoda, Microparasellidae is highly diversified in southern France. A new species, Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is described from the Aude River, whereas specimens from the Lachein River in the central Pyrenees are reassigned to another species, M. ariegensis new to Science. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is closely related to the species of the group rouchi and may belong to the phylogenetic western Mediterranean lineage. The two-step model of colonization and evolution provides an understanding of the origin and age of this stygobite. Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. is derived from marine ancestors that lived in the interstitial littoral shallow bottoms of the Atlantic embayment which covered southwestern France at the very beginning of the early Eocene period. Both the regression of this gulf at the start of the Eocene and the Pyrenees uplift may have played a major role in the evolutionary history through vicariance of Microcharon boulanouari n. sp. and of the northern Pyrenean species of the group rouchi.

  5. On the presence of the Mediterranean endemic Microdeutopus sporadhi Myers, 1969 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae in the Gulf of Naples (Italy with a review on its distribution and ecology

    M. B. SCIPIONE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Microdeutopus sporadhi (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Aoridae, endemic of the Mediterranean Sea, was described by Myers in 1969 on material collected from the Aegean Sea in a sheltered environment with high sedimentation rates. A check on the distribution and ecology of M. sporadhi showed that: — although not mentioned in the checklist of amphipods of the Italian seas, it was already found in the central Tyrrhenian Sea in 1983-84 and in the northern Adriatic Sea in 2002-03; — it was rarely found in the Mediterranean Sea, one of the most studied basins as concerns amphipod fauna; but notwithstanding the few records available, the wide ecological spectrum of this species was pointed out. The present study, conducted off the Island of Ischia (Gulf of Naples, Italy, showed the presence of rich and well established populations through time, but only in a peculiar substratum (artificial collectors and environment (low pH values. The species seems to be able to withstand harsh environmental conditions and probably to conceal itself through a cryptic behaviour, escaping traditional sampling methods. The role of rare or hidden species in bio-assessment should be re-evaluated.

  6. Evaluación del comportamiento de un sistema de refrigeración de leche alimentado con energía solar fotovoltaica en distintas condiciones climáticas y optimización de su diseño y modo de funcionamiento

    Eguaras Martínez, José Javier

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo consiste en realizar un seguimiento del funcionamiento continuado del sistema autónomo de refrigeración y conservación de leche alimentado de forma directa por energía solar fotovoltaica en el emplazamiento en el que se encuentra con el fin de examinar su comportamiento e introducir mejoras en su caso. El interés de este proyecto radica en comprobar que se puedan emplear fuentes de energía renovables para alimentar sistemas que permitan mantener leche en condiciones adecuadas ...

  7. Evaluación del crecimiento del pulpo común Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentado con dietas formuladas Growth evaluation of octopus (Octopus mimus from northern Chile fed with formulated diets

    Oscar Zúñiga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante 57 días se comparó el crecimiento y sobreviviencia de pulpos juveniles Octopus mimus del norte de Chile alimentados con tres diferentes dietas: dos dietas húmedas (A y B aglutinadas con solución de gelatina embutidas en tripa de cordero y una dieta control (C natural. La dieta (A fue elaborada en base a una mezcla de filete triturado del pescado Cheilodactylus variegatus con harina de pellet para salmón, la dieta (B con pasta de almeja (Protothaca thaca mezclada con filete de Ch. variegatus y la dieta control consistió en el suministro de almejas frescas congeladas (C. Basado en un diseño experimental de medidas repetidas, los pulpos se mantuvieron individualmente en estanques de 70 L con circulación de agua de mar y aireación permanente. Los pulpos que consumieron la dieta B no experimentaron mortalidad y la dieta control C presentó mortalidad del 16,7%, sus crecimiento fueron similares (P > 0,05 con tasas de crecimiento absoluta (AGR de 7,0 ± 0,91 (g d-1 y 6,6 ± 1,10 (g d-1 respectivamente. Los pulpos alimentados con la dieta A registraron mortalidad de 33,3% y tasa de crecimiento absoluta negativa, AGR= -1,70 ± 0,37 (g d-1. La dieta A que contenía como ingrediente pellet para salmón molido como harina no tuvo una adecuada aceptación y los ejemplares experimentaron disminución de su peso. La dieta B preparada con gelatina de origen animal como aglutinante, no implicó un efecto negativo en la palatabilidad y aceptabilidad en comparación al control basada en almeja fresca congelada, incluso los organismos lograron crecimientos similares. Los resultados permitirán a futuro mejorar la calidad nutricional de dietas artificiales para maximizar el crecimiento de O. mimus en cautiverio.The growth and survival of juvenile octopus, Octopus mimus, from northern Chile, fed three different diets were analyze during 57 days. Two of the diets (A and B were wet diets stuffed in lamb gut with a gelatin solution, and the third (C was

  8. Características de carcaça e parâmetros de qualidade de carne de bovinos jovens alimentados com grãos úmidos de milho ou sorgo

    Mauricio Scoton Igarasi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este estudo, verificar as diferenças nas características da carcaça, assim como nos parâmetros qualitativos da carne de novilhos jovens alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de grão úmido de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados dois tratamentos experimentais, nos quais a dieta total possuía como ingrediente energético principal a silagem de grão úmido de milho (TMU ou a silagem de grão úmido de sorgo (TSU. Trinta e seis novilhos inteiros F1 Red Angus ´ Nelore com 8 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 240 kg foram alimentados durante 172 dias e abatidos em seguida. O experimento foi conduzido em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Houve similaridade para o ganho de peso diário, ganho de peso total e peso final de abate. Não foi verificada diferença para o rendimento de carcaça, assim como para os rendimentos de dianteiro, traseiro e ponta de agulha. Os tratamentos TMU e TSU não afetaram os escores para cor, conformação e acabamento de gordura da carcaça. Marmorização, área de olho-de-lombo, espessura de gordura subcutânea e gordura perirenal, assim como as avaliações químicas da carne (proteína bruta e lipídios totais, também não diferiram entre os tratamentos. As dietas experimentais não afetaram a maciez da carne, assim como as perdas físicas no processo de cozimento (gotejamento e evaporação. Concluiu-se que a substituição integral da silagem de grão úmido de milho pela silagem de grão úmido de sorgo não alterou as características qualitativas e quantitativas da carcaça de bovinos jovens em confinamento.Thirty-six Angus ´ Nelore crossbred young bulls averaging 8 month of age and 240 kg BW and fed diets with high moisture corn or sorghum during 172 days were allotted to two experimental treatments (where the main energy source of total diet was composed by high moisture corn - HMC or sorghum - HMS to evaluate the differences on carcass and meat quality of young cattle. The

  9. Juvenis de carpa capim alimentados com capim teosinto e suplementados com diferentes taxas de arraçoamento Grass carp juveniles fed with teosinte grass and supplied with different feeding rates

    Mário Leão Costa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desenvolvimento de juvenis de carpa capim (Ctenopharyngodon idella alimentados com capim teosinto (Euchlaena mexicana e suplementados com ração. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, de 45 dias, utilizando 240 juvenis em cada um (peso médio: 10,9±0,3g e 20,2±0,2g. No experimento 1, os peixes foram alimentados com capim teosinto mais ração, em 4 níveis de suplementação: 1, 2, 3 e 4% do PV, denominados S1, S2, S3 e S4. No experimento 2, testou-se: C=Somente Capim Teosinto; SD=Capim Teosinto+ Suplementação diária (3%PV; SA=Capim Teosinto + Suplementação a cada dois dias (3%PV; R=Somente ração (3% PV. No experimento 1, observou-se aumento linear positivo do peso em relação à suplementação com ração. A melhor taxa de crescimento específico foi obtida com o tratamento S4. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos S3 e S4. No experimento 2, para a variável peso, o tratamento SD diferiu significativamente dos demais. Os tratamentos SD, SA e R não diferiram estatisticamente em relação ao rendimento de filé, porém, houve diferença entre o tratamento SD e o C. Conclui-se que a associação do capim teosinto com a ração (3%PV proporciona bom crescimento para juvenis de carpa capim.This study was aimed at evaluating the growth of grass carp juveniles (Ctenopharyngodon idella fed with teosinte grass (Euchlaena mexicana and supplied with different feeding rates. Two experiments were done (45 days each, using 240 juveniles (weight=10.33 ± 0.33 and 20.15 ± 0.23g. In the first, four feeding rates (1, 2, 3 and 4% of body weight (BW, called S1, S2, S3 and S4 respectively were tested. In the second, the treatments were: C = Only teosinte grass; SD = Teosinte grass + ration daily (3%BW; SA = Teosinte grass + ration each 2 days (3%BW; R = Only ration (3%BW. In the experiment 1, it was observed a weight increasing following the ration supply. The higher specific growth rate was obtained in S4. No differences among

  10. Forage intake and botanical composition of feed for cattle fed Brachiaria/legume mixtures Consumo e composição da forragem ingerida por bovinos alimentados com Brachiaria e uma leguminosa

    Robert Macedo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A key contribution to study the cycling of nutrients in soil/plant/animal systems is the evaluation of the consumption of forage and their nutrients by cattle. The objective of this study was to test techniques to evaluate faecal production, in vitro digestibility, forage consumption and the proportion of legume in the acquired diet. Five Zebu steer calves were confined and fed five diets of different combinations of Brachiaria dictyoneura and Desmodium ovalifolium. All quantities of faeces were collected per animal and these values were found to compare favourably with those derived from using the chromium oxide technique. In vitro digestibility ranged from 7 to 10% higher than the actual in vivo digestibility. Faecal samples from steers fed with diets with 25% or more of grass in the mixture were found to be depleted in δ13C between 1.7 and 2.1‰, but no depletion was observed when the diet was 100% D. ovalifolium. There was a positive linear regression (r² = 0.97*** of the δ13C of the diet with the δ13C of faeces, but if the acquired diet contained a very high proportion of legume, the legume content could be underestimated by as much as 10%. None of the internal indicators, such as lignin or ash content of the diets, were useful to predict feed intake, but the chromium oxide external indicator performed satisfactorily. The 13C analysis of the faeces was an effective predictor of the proportion of the legume in the consumed diet.Uma contribuição fundamental para o estudo da ciclagem de nutrientes no sistema solo/planta/ animal é a avaliação do consumo pelo gado de forragem e dos nutrientes nela contidos. Testaram-se, sob condições controladas, técnicas para avaliar a produção fecal, digestibilidade in vitro, consumo de forragem e a proporção de leguminosa ingerida na dieta. Cinco novilhos de Zebu foram confinados e alimentados com quantidades conhecidas de cinco rações com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria dictyoneura e

  11. Desempenho produtivo e atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido Performance and cecal microbial activity of growing rabbits fed diets with different starch levels

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do amido dietético sobre o rendimento produtivo e a atividade microbiana cecal de coelhos em crescimento, quatro dietas experimentais foram elaboradas de forma a conter níveis crescentes de amido (23, 28, 33 e 38% de amido total na base da MS, os quais foram fornecidos a 32 coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco, distribuídos em gaiolas de engorda individuais, seguindo um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Houve efeito linear decrescente para consumo e conversão alimentar, em que valores de 108,67 g/d e 3,216, respectivamente, foram obtidos para os animais alimentados com 38% de amido dietético. No entanto, o ganho de peso e o rendimento de carcaça não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Por outro lado, os valores de pH, as concentrações totais e as proporções molares dos ácidos graxos voláteis não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, porém, para o ácido propiônico, houve efeito linear decrescente, sendo a maior proporção molar (12,06% verificada no conteúdo cecal de coelhos alimentados com 23% de amido dietético. O milho-grão apresentou maior influência sobre a atividade microbiana cecal que o amido de milho purificado, porém, sem alterar o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary starch on the productive yield and cecal microbial activity for rabbits in the growing, four experimental diets were formulated to contain increasing corn starch levels (23, 28, 33 and 38 % total starch levels in dry matter basis. A total of 32 White New Zealand rabbits were allotted to finishing cages in a completely randomized block design. The results showed a decreasing linear effect for the feed intake and feed:gain ratio, where values of 108.67g/d and 3.216, respectively, were recorded for animals fed 38% dietary starch. However, no difference was observed for the weight gain and carcass yield. Regarding to cecal microbial activity, pH and

  12. Somatotropina Bovina Recombinante (rbST no desempenho e características corporais de bezerros mestiços alimentados em creep-feeding Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin (Rbst on performance and body characteristics of creep-fed crossbred calves

    Mário de Beni Arrigoni

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o desempenho e características corpóreas de bezerros mestiços submetidos à somatotropina bovina recombinate, e alimentados em “creep-feeding”. Sessenta e quatro animais com 60 dias de idade foram divididos em quatro grupos: T1 (16 fêmeas com rbST, T2 (17 fêmeas controle, T3 (15 machos com rbST e T4 (16 machos controle. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado fatorial 2 X 2, sendo “A” o sexo e “B”, o rbST. Os animais foram alimentados a pasto “ad libitum” e em “creep-feeding”. A cada quatorze dias os animais receberam doses de rbST (0,15 mg kg/PV/dia de 60 até 210 dias. O peso vivo e o crescimento ósseo foram avaliados com pesagens e mensuração de perímetro de canela a cada 14 dias. Para se avaliar a área do músculo Longissimus dorsi (AOL e espessura de gordura (EGS foi realizada ultra-sonografia aos 150 e 210 dias. Os resultados demostram que não houve diferença signicativa (p > 0,05 entre os machos para o ganho de peso, mas para as fêmeas houve diferença (p 0,05 entre os animais rbST e controle, mas houve diferença entre os sexos. O uso de rbST (0,15 mg kg/Kg/dia aumentou em 9% o peso vivo das fêmeas alimentadas em creep-feeding.This study aimed to evaluate performance and body characteristics of crossbred calves submitted to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST and creep-feeding. Sixty-four animals aging 60 days were divided in four groups: T1 (16 heifers rbST, T2 (17 heifers control, T3 (15 steers rbST, T4 (16 steers control. Randomized factorial 2 x 2 design used as “A” sex and “B” rbST. The animals were fed in pasture “ad libitun” and creep. Every 14 days animals received rbST doses (0,15 mg kg/BW/day from 60 until 210 days. Body weight and bone development were evaluated by weighting and measurement of ankle perimeter every 14 days. For Longissimus dorsi muscle area and thickness fat, ultrasonography at 150 and 210 days was used. Results showed

  13. Cultivo da levedura Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous em processo descontínuo alimentado para produção de astaxantina Cultivation of Phaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous yeast in discontinuous system to obtain astaxanthin

    Miriam Blümel Chociai

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A levedura Phaffia rhodozyma, produtora de astaxantina, pigmento carotenóide largamente empregado na aqüicultura de peixes e crustáceos, pode ser eficientemente cultivada num meio de cultura de baixo custo, à base de caldo de cana diluído 1:10 e uréia a 1 g/L. No entanto, a produção de biomassa e a formação do carotenóide sofrem a inibição pelo substrato (efeito "Crabtree", limitando desta forma a utilização do caldo de cana com concentrações da fonte de carbono superiores a 20 g/L, importante consideração na produção industrial de astaxantina. No presente trabalho, o cultivo da levedura P. rhodozyma foi realizado em processo descontínuo alimentado, no qual se obteve produtividade volumétrica de 0,024 mg astaxantina/L.h. em relação aos 0,013 mg astaxantina/L.h. obtidos no cultivo controle, que não sofreu alimentação da fonte de carbono.The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma produces astaxanthin, a carotenoid pigment widely applied in fish and crustaceous cultivation. This yeast can be efficiently cultured in a low cost medium, sugar cane broth diluted 1:10 and supplemented with 1 g/L urea. However, the biomass and astaxanthin production undergo inhibition by the substrate (Crabtree effect, limiting the utilization of sugar cane broth up to 20 g/L total sugar concentration. Therefore, this effect must be considered during the industrial production of astaxanthin. In the present work, using fed batch system to cultivate P. rhodozyma we were able to obtain 0.024 mg astaxanthin/l.h compared to 0.013 mg astaxanthin/l.h obtained by the discontinuous cultivation system.

  14. Desempenho e espermatogênese de alevinos de tilápia alimentados com farelo ou farinha de semente de algodão Performance and spermatogenesis of nile tilapia fingerlings fed with cottonseed meal or cottonseed flour

    Ana Lúcia Salaro

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou o efeito do farelo e da farinha de semente de algodão no ganho de peso e na atividade testicular de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Cento e cinqüenta alevinos com peso médio inicial de 1,26 g foram mantidos em aquários de 45 L, com renovação contínua d'água, e alimentados por 120 dias com dietas isoprotéicas (28% PB e isocalóricas (4.030 kcal EB/kg de ração contendo 0%, 2%, 4% e 6% de semente de algodão descorticada e moída, e 24% de farelo de algodão. Foi observado que os níveis avaliados interferem na atividade testicular, diminuindo a espermatogênese, embora não tenham comprometido de forma significativa o ganho de peso dos alevinos.This experiment evaluated the effect of cottonseed meal or cottonseed flour on growth and testis activity of Nile tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis niloticus. One hundred and fifty fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.26 g were maintained in 45 L aquaria with continuous water supply. Fish were fed in isoproteic (28% CP and isoenergetic (4,030 kcal CE/kg of ration diets during 120 days. The experimental diets comprised a control diet, without cottonseed flour or meal, and diets containing 2%, 4% and 6% of cottonseed flour and 24% cottonseed meal. The results indicated that the use of seed flour or meal should be limited since at the tested levels they interferred with testis activity although they had not adversely affected the weight gain of fingerlings.

  15. IRON AND HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE IN PIGS FED PHYTASE-ADDED RATIONS WITH LOWER PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FERRO E IMUNIDADE HUMORAL EM SUÍNOS ALIMENTADOS COM FITASE E NÍVEIS REDUZIDOS DE FÓSFORO

    Luiz Augusto Batista Brito

    2007-12-01

    ="MsoNormal">Key-words:  Immune system seric ferritin,  IgG, IgM, white cells count.

    A utilização de enzimas exógenas, como a fitase, permite um melhor aproveitamento de nutrientes, incrementando a utilização do fósforo, dos aminoácidos e da energia. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com objetivo de: 1 - avaliar o sistema imune por meio da quantificação de componentes sangüíneos relacionados ao metabolismo do ferro e 2 - determinar elementos da resposta imunológica humoral, em suínos recebendo dietas contendo fitase, níveis reduzidos de fósforo inorgânico (Pi e sem suplemento micromineral e vitamínico. Utilizaram-se 48 fêmeas suínas de linhagem comercial, com peso inicial de 60kg, distribuídas em seis tratamentos com oito animais em cada grupo. A colheita de sangue foi feita em um grupo de 24 animais com 100 kg e outro grupo de 24 animais com 120 kg. Tratamentos: 1. ração basal (grupo-controle; 2. ração 1, sem suplemento micromineral/vitamínico; 3. ração 2, com fitase; 4. ração 2, sem 1/3 de fósforo inorgânico (Pi e com fitase; 5. ração 2, sem 2/3 de Pi e com fitase, 6. ração 2, sem Pi e com fitase. Não se observaram diferenças (p>0,05 nos valores obtidos do leucograma e contagem de plaquetas para os animais nos diferentes tratamentos testados. Em relação à hemoglobina e ferro sérico também não foram observadas diferenças (p>0,05 nos valores obtidos para os animais nos diferentes tratamentos testados. Com relação à ferritina, verificou-se que os animais até os 100 kg de peso vivo que receberam ração sem suplemento micromineral/vitamínico, sem fósforo inorgânico e com fitase apresentaram valores superiores (p<0,05 quando comparados aos alimentados com ração sem suplemento micromineral/vitamínico, com fósforo inorgânico contendo fitase. A enzima, mesmo na ausência de suplementação, garantiu a manutenção de estoques de ferro do organismo. Não se detectou essa diferença para os animais que foram

  16. Crescimento somático do caranguejo-uçá Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae em laboratório Somatic growth of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ocypodidae in laboratory

    Giovana V. Lima

    Full Text Available Em crustáceos, o aumento de tamanho ocorre imediatamente após a muda, quando o animal está com a carapaça mole. O crescimento de Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 foi observado em laboratório, através da ocorrência de muda, incremento de muda e período de intermuda. O estudo foi realizado durante os meses de outubro/2000 a março/2002 e um total de 91 caranguejos (15 machos, 33 fêmeas e 43 juvenis foi coletado no manguezal de Itacuruçá - Coroa Grande, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os animais foram mantidos em dois tipos de tanques: os caranguejos adultos foram mantidos em tanques de 1000 l, durante 18 meses, enquanto os juvenis foram mantidos em tanques plásticos de 20 l de capacidade durante oito meses. Os animais foram mantidos em sistema aberto de circulação de água do mar e alimentados duas vezes por semana com folhas de Rhizophora mangle (L. (Rhizophoraceae e Laguncularia racemosa (Gaertn. (Combretaceae. A largura da carapaça variou entre 50,1 a 70,0 mm nos machos, 40,2 a 80,0 mm entre as fêmeas e 1,1 a 40,1 mm entre os juvenis. A sobrevivência dos espécimes estudados foi de 46,7% entre os machos, 39,4% entre as fêmeas após dezoito meses e 67,4% entre os juvenis, após oito meses de observação. Os machos e as fêmeas realizaram três mudas durante o experimento, enquanto os juvenis realizaram até duas mudas. As mudas ocorreram entre agosto e abril, mostrando maior freqüência durante a primavera e o verão. O incremento na largura da carapaça diminuiu com o tamanho do indivíduo, com média de 2,21 ± 1,39% para os machos, 1,28 ± 0,84% para as fêmeas e 2,89 ± 2,13% para os juvenis. A relação entre o incremento percentual e a largura da carapaça pode ser expresso pela equação IM = -0.0707LC + 4.645 (r²= 0.40. O período de intermuda foi de 191 ± 140 dias entre os machos, 216 ± 76,2 dias entre as fêmeas e 54 ± 1,41 dia entre os juvenis. O incremento de muda foi estatisticamente significativo (p

  17. (Crustacea) from Verlorenvlei

    1994-08-29

    Aug 29, 1994 ... (20°C and higher) at the time of our collecting. Material and .... Remarks: note that the difference in shape of carapaces in .... Scale ~ 1409 11m for G- J; 746 11m for A-C; 424 11m for E, F; 343 11m for D, K-O. R eprodu.

  18. (Stuhlmann, 1891) (Crustacea: Branchiura)

    1989-02-06

    Feb 6, 1989 ... Serial sections of Dolops ranarum were used to reconstruct the female reproductive system. The histology of the different regions is ... in a bath at room temperature, releasing the sections before they touched the water. ... the left side of the body, while Grobben (1908) concludes that a single ovary is ...

  19. CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA: THALASSINIDEA

    S. Breeding and growth in C. kraussi is compared with that in other known ... sandy areas at many estuary mouths (Day et al. 1952 ... -Present address: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban.

  20. Thalassinidea, Decapoda, Crustacea

    1986-07-23

    Jul 23, 1986 ... winter than in summer and a similar respiration rate (at a given temperature) ... Swartkops estuary and they lasted a further 2-4 days. ..... from the upper and lower reaches of the Swartkops estuary. °c 0/00 S. S:SUMMER. 500.

  1. (Ortmann) (Decapoda, Crustacea)

    1987-03-13

    Mar 13, 1987 ... duration and current velocity) of the populations to the flow of water ... The mud prawn Upogebia africana (Ortmann) is a filter ... three sources namely, treated sewage released into the ... indicating the positions of the sampling sites for macrobenthos (1 - 40) ..... punctata feeding on a variety of marine algae.

  2. Single and combined effects of cadmium and arsenate in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda): Understanding the links between physiological and behavioural responses

    Vellinger, Céline, E-mail: celine.vellinger@gmail.com [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Gismondi, Eric, E-mail: gismondi.eric@gmail.com [Laboratoire d’Ecologie animale et d’Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Chimie, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 15, B-4000 Sart-Tilman, Liège (Belgium); Felten, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.felten@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Rousselle, Philippe, E-mail: rousselle@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Mehennaoui, Kahina, E-mail: meh_kahina@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Parant, Marc, E-mail: parant@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France); Usseglio-Polatera, Philippe, E-mail: usseglio-polatera@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux (LIEC), CNRS UMR 7360, Université de Lorraine – Metz (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Linking physiological to behavioural responses of G. pulex exposed to AsV and/or Cd. •AsV and/or Cd exposure exhibited similar biomarkers responses. •Contamination increases the mobilization of detoxification systems in gammarids. •Both changes in energy reserve use and allocation are involved in gammarid response. •Increased lipid peroxidation could be the cause of increasing gammarid mortality. -- Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the individual and interactive effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenate (AsV) in Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) through the use of several biomarkers. Individuals were exposed for 240 h to two concentrations of AsV or Cd alone, and all the possible binary mixtures of these concentrations of AsV and Cd in a complete factorial design. The pattern of the biomarkers’ responses to Cd and AsV alone or in mixture was similar in Gammarus pulex, even if the response intensity varied depending on the tested conditions. G. pulex responded to contamination with increased mobilization of the detoxification systems [i.e. γ-glutamyl-cystein ligase activity (GCL), reduced glutathione content (GSH) and metallothionein concentrations (MT)]. This response seems to imply changes in energy reserve utilization (total lipids and proteins are used prior to glycogen reserves), but also a possible energy reallocation from locomotion to detoxification processes. The observed increase in lipid peroxidation could be relied to the increasing gammarid mortality, despite the higher mobilization of detoxification systems. Even if the outcome of the complex interactions between AsV and Cd remains difficult to unravel, such studies are critically important for better assessing the effects of stressors on organisms, populations and communities in a multi-contamination context of ecosystems.

  3. Microbial protein synthesis in young steers fed with grass silage and extruded corn Síntesis de proteína microbiana en novillos jóvenes alimentados con ensilaje de praderas y maíz extruido

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protein synthesis is essential to meet protein requirements in ruminants. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of incorporating extruded corn (Zea mays L. into the ration of young steers fed with grass silage on microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Twenty young steers in metabolic cages were used for supplying food. The treatments consisted of combinations of extruded corn (EC and ground corn (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC and EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. These foods constituted 40% of the ration (DM-based and the remaining 60% was grass silage. The MPS was calculated through the excretion of purine derivatives (PD in the urine, using total collection of urine. The inclusion of a higher percentage of extruded corn (EC-40 increased the PD excretion (51.85 mmol d-1, P La síntesis de proteína microbiana es fundamental para satisfacer los requerimientos proteicos en rumiantes. El objetivo de esta investigation fue evaluar el efecto de incluir maíz (Zea mays L. extruido en la ración de novillos alimentados con ensilaje de pradera, sobre la sintesis de proteina microbiana (MPS. Se emplearon 20 novillos jóvenes ubicados en jaulas metabólicas para suministro de los alimentos. Los tratamientos consistieron en combinaciones de maiz extruido (EC y maiz molido (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC y EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. Estos alimentos constituyeron el 40% de la ración (base MS y el restante 60% fue ensilaje de pradera. Se estimó la MPS a través de la excreción de derivados de purinas (PD en la orina, empleando colección total de orina. La inclusión de un mayor porcentaje de EC (EC-40 incrementó la excreción de PD (51.85 mmol d-1, P < 0,05. Los valores de excreción de PD fluctuaron entre 663 y 1078 μmol BW-075 d-1. La absorción de proteína microbiana y el flujo de N duodenal también se incrementaron por una mayor inclusión de EC (EC-40, P < 0,05. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos pueden

  4. EFEITO DA ERVA-MATE (ILEX PARAGUARIENSIS A. ST. HIL. SOBRE O PERFIL METABÓLICO EM RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS HIPERLIPÍDICAS

    S. S. MELO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito da infusão de erva-mate sobre o perfil metabólico em ratos alimentados com dietas hiperlipídicas. Foram estudados 36 ratos, linhagem Wistar, machos adultos, divididos em seis grupos (n=6: controle água; controle mate; hipercolesterolêmico água + banha; hipercolesterolêmico mate + banha; hipercolesterolêmico água + gordura vegetal hidrogenada e hipercolesterolêmico mate + gordura vegetal hidrogenada. Os animais foram acomodados individualmente em gaiolas metabólicas de aço inoxidável, com temperatura ambiente de 22ºC + 2ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas (claro/escuro. Durante as 5 semanas do estudo, os grupos hipercolesterolêmicos receberam 1% de colesterol sintético e 10% de gordura vegetal hidrogenada ou saturada adicionados à dieta controle. Na 3ª semana iniciou-se o tratamento com a infusão de erva mate. Não se observou no presente estudo efeito signifi cativo e abrangente da erva-mate sobre todos os parâmetros avaliados. Entretanto, verifi cou-se tendência de menor ganho de peso e redução dos parâmetros de glicemia, peso de fígado e transaminases, além de aumento de HDL-colesterol na presença de dieta com gordura saturada nos animais tratados com erva mate. Tais resultados são promissores e sugerem que novos estudos investiguem o possível efeito protetor da Ilex paraguariensis A. St. Hil. sobre o perfil metabólico.

  5. TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN COLLARED-ANTEATER (TAMANDUA TERTRADACTYLA FED WITH DOGS AND CATS MILK SUBSTITUTES DEFICIÊNCIA DE TAURINA EM FILHOTE DE TAMANDUÁ-MIRIM (Tamandua tetradactyla ALIMENTADO COM SUBSTITUTOS DE LEITE PARA CÃES E GATOS

    Rafael Otávio Cançado Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  The taurine is a sulphur amino acid that in most of the mammals produced in enough amounts in the liver, from metionine and cysteine, using the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. However, for felines are considered an essential amino acid, needing to be ingested as a supplement of the organism requirements. For anteaters the condition is not yet elucidated, but these animals have developed disease when fed with diet poor in this amino acid. The most frequent clinical sings observed in cats are dilated cardiomyopathy, retina degeneration, reproductive and development anomalies, increase of plaquetary aggregation, leucopenia and neurological disturbs. In the present case, a hand-hearing of collared-anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla feeding milk substitutes for dogs and cats, presented taurine deficiency, characterized mainly for loss of coats and seizures. The diagnosis was based in reply of the animal to the supplement, after which gad regression of the clinical sings without return.

    KEY WORDS: Collared-anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, taurine. A taurina é um aminoácido sulfurado e, na maioria dos mamíferos, produzida em quantidades suficientes no fígado a partir de metionina e cisteína, utilizando a enzima decarboxilase do ácido cistéico sulfínico. Para felinos é considerado um aminoácido essencial, necessitando ser ingerido para suprimento às necessidades do organismo. Em tamanduás, esta condição não está bem definida, entretanto, animais alimentados com dietas carentes nesse aminoácido têm demonstrado sinais clínicos compatíveis com deficiência de taurina. Em gatos as alterações mais freqüentes são cardiomiopatia dilatada, degeneração da retina, anormalidades reprodutivas e de desenvolvimento, aumento da agregação plaquetária, leucopenia e distúrbios neurológicos. No presente caso, um filhote de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla criado em cativeiro com substitutos de leite para c

  6. Performance of cycle diesel engine using Biodiesel of olive oil (B100 Desempenho de motor diesel quatro tempos alimentado com biodiesel de óleo de oliva (B100

    Carlos Eduardo Silva Volpato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils used in diesel engines, in any proportion with petroleum diesel, or pure. It is produced by chemical processes, usually by transesterification, in which the glycerin is removed. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a four stroke, four cylinder diesel cycle engines using either olive (B100 biodiesel oil or diesel oil. The following parameters were analyzed: effective and reduced power, torque, specific and hourly fuel consumption, thermo-mechanical and volumetric efficiency. Analysis of variance was performed on a completely randomized design with treatments in factorial and the Tukey test applied at the level of 5%. Five rotation speeds were researched in four replications (650, 570, 490, 410, 320 and 240 rpm. The engine fed with biodiesel presented more satisfactory results for torque, reduced power and specific and hourly consumptions than that fed with fossil diesel.Biodiesel é um combustível renovável derivado de óleos vegetais, usado em motores de ciclo diesel, em qualquer proporção com o diesel mineral, ou puro. É produzido por meio de processos químicos, normalmente por transesterificação, no qual é removida a glicerina. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de um motor de ciclo diesel quatro tempos e quatro cilindros, utilizando biodiesel de óleo de oliva (B100, em comparação ao óleo diesel. Foram analisados os parâmetros: potência efetiva e reduzida, torque, consumo específico e energético de combustível, eficiência termomecânica e volumétrica. Foi instalado um ensaio com delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial, realizada análise de variância e aplicado teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram pesquisados cinco níveis de rotação em quatro repetições (650, 570, 490, 410, 320 e 240 rpm. O motor alimentado com biodiesel de oliva apresentou torque, potencia reduzida e consumos especifico e

  7. Crescimento, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça de bezerros da raça holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de volumoso

    Ricardo Dias Signoretti

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito dos diferentes níveis de volumoso nas dietas sobre o consumo médio diário de matéria seca total (CDMST, o ganho médio de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça. Trinta e seis bezerros da raça Holandesa puros por cruzamento, com idade média de 60 dias e peso vivo (PV inicial de 78 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Os animais foram alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo níveis de 10, 25, 40 e 55% de volumoso, na base da MS, usando-se feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, fubá de milho e farelo de soja, os quais constituíram dietas com aproximadamente 16% de PB. Os animais foram pesados a cada periodo de 28 dias, com pesagens mais freqüentes para os animais que se aproximavam dos pesos de abate pré-estabelecidos, de 190 ± 10 kg e 300 ± 10 kg, para os grupos 1 e 2, respectivamente. O consumo de matéria seca não foi influenciado pelos níveis de volumoso nas dietas para ambos os grupos. Houve efeito linear crescente para conversão alimentar expressa em PV e peso corporal vazio (PCVZ. Os ganhos médios de peso diários expressos em PV e PCVZ decresceram linearmente, em função dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas. O peso da carcaça quente e o rendimento de carcaça quente para os animais de grupo 2 não foram influenciados, enquanto o rendimento de carcaça quente dos animais do grupo 1 decresceu linearmente, com o aumento de volumoso nas dietas. Os ganhos médios de pesos diários aos 28 e 56 dias, para o grupo 1, e aos 28, 56, 84 e 112 dias, para o grupo 2, reduziram linearmente com a elevação dos níveis de volumoso nas dietas. O desempenho dos bezerros de ambos os grupos de abate foi maior com uso de menores níveis de volumoso na dieta, porém, acima de 5 meses de idade, o uso de maiores níveis de volumoso não acarretou prejuízos à performance dos animais.

  8. Desempenho produtivo de cabritos alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, associadas com promotor de crescimento Effects of feeding different liquid diets with or without growth promoter on performance of kid goats

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliar o desempenho de cabritos tratados com leite de cabra integral ou colostro de vaca fermentado com ou sem óleo de soja, e com aplicação ou não do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Vinte e quatro cabritos da raça Alpina foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Cada animal recebeu, pela manhã, 1 L da dieta líquida e 250 g/animal/dia de concentrado. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso dos animais, os consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca, a conversão alimentar e o tamanho dos órgãos. Houve diferenças entre as dietas líquidas, com ou sem a aplicação de Zeranol, para ganho de peso aos 29, 36, e 50 dias de idade, mas não para o ganho médio diário. A não aplicação de Zeranol nos tratamentos com leite de cabra e colostro fermentado com óleo de soja proporcionou diferença média de 8% no ganho de peso dos animais alimentados com leite de cabra. Não se observou diferença nos consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca e na conversão alimentar dos animais entre as diferentes dietas líquidas avaliadas. Não houve influência do Zeranol ou do óleo de soja nas dietas líquidas sobre nenhum dos órgãos estudadosThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding whole goat milk or fermented cow colostrum supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without the growth promoter Zeranol on performance of kid goats. Twenty-four Alpine kid goats assigned to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement were used in this trial. The following variables were investigated: weight gain, intakes of dry matter and concentrate, feed conversion, and organ sizes. Significant differences were observed among liquid diets with or without Zeranol for weight gain at 29, 36, and 50 days old, but not for the average daily gain. No significant differences for intake of both dry matter and concentrate as well as for feed conversion were

  9. Desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 alimentados com rações contendo farinha de crueira de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz em substituição ao milho (Zea mays Performance of juvenile tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 fed diets containing crueira manioc flour (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in replacement of corn (Zea mays

    Geraldo Pereira Pereira Junior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de juvenis de tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, alimentados com níveis crescentes de farinha de crueira de mandioca, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, como substituto do milho (Zea mays. Os peixes (peso médio inicial de 6,6 ± 0,1 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 24 grupos (20 peixes/grupo e alimentados com as dietas experimentais em quatro repetições para avaliação da performance de crescimento, eficiência alimentar, composição corporal e os custos de produção. As performances de crescimento não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. O teor de lipídio no músculo foi diferentemente significativo em peixes alimentados com 40% e 100% em relação aos outros tratamentos. O custo de produção de milho diminuiu linearmente com a substituição. O valor da dieta diminuiu de R $ 1,43 kg-1 a R $ 1,21 kg-1 e o peixe de R $ 1,54 kg-1 a R $ 1,30 peixe kg-1. Concluiu-se que o milho pode ser totalmente substituído por farinha de crueira de mandioca na dieta de juvenil de tambaqui, sem prejudicar o seu desempenho.The main objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of young tambaqui (Colossoma macropum, fed with increasing levels of cassava flour, Manihot esculenta (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, as corn (Zea mays replacement. Fish (initial body weight 6.6 ± 0.1 g were randomly distributed in 24 groups (20 fish/group with four replications. They were fed with the experimental diets for evaluation of growth performances, feed utilization, body composition and production costs. Growth performances were not affected by the dietary treatments. Lipid content in muscle were significant different in fish fed 40% and 100% substitution when compared to the other treatments. The production cost decreased linearly with corn substitution. Diet decreased from R$ 1.43 kg-1 to R$ 1.21 kg-1 and fish production cost from R$ 1.54 kg-1 to R$ 1.30 kg-1 fish. It was

  10. Biodiversity of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda in a lowland river ecosystem

    Maciej Karpowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents comprehensive research on microcrustacean diversity in different types of aquatic environments in the Upper Narew Valley over five years. A total of 559 samples were analyzed, and 74 species of crustacean zooplankton were identified. Metacyclops planus (Gurney, 1909 is a new species for the fauna of Poland and was found in oxbow lakes and tributary streams. The results of the study suggest that oxbow lakes, with more than 80% of all recorded species, may significantly contribute to the regional biodiversity of floodplain rivers. The highest crustacean community diversity was observed in the semi-lotic oxbow lakes, which emphasizes the role of intermediate disturbance in enhancing biodiversity of water bodies in river valleys. Generally, more “heterogeneous” habitats, such as small oxbow lakes and tributary streams, had higher crustacean species richness. However, a sampling station that was quite “homogeneous”, the Narew River upstream the Siemianówka Reservoir, had high crustacean species richness. The species accumulation curves revealed that approximately 50 - 100 zooplankton samples taken from different environments of river valley are required to establish crustacean species richness. These data could be important for river catchment management and could act as pilot survey data for monitoring plans.

  11. Biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de cabritos Saanen alimentados com dietas com diferentes proporções volumoso e concentrado Anaerobic biodigestion of manure of Saanen goats fed diets with different proportions of roughage and concentrate

    Ana Carolina Amorim Orrico

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da idade do animal e da proporção de volumoso nas dietas sobre a biodigestão anaeróbia dos dejetos de cabritos Saanen. Foram utilizadas as fezes produzidas por cabritos Saanen aos 90, 120 e 150 dias de idade e alimentados com dietas de três relações volumoso:concentrado (80:20, 60:40 e 40:60, representando as dietas 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se biodigestores tipo batelada de bancada com capacidade para 12 litros de substrato em fermentação e 8% de sólidos totais iniciais para determinação das produções e dos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano, da redução de sólidos voláteis e quantificação dos teores de minerais no afluente e efluente. As maiores reduções de sólidos voláteis foram observadas nos substratos preparados com as fezes de cabritos aos 150 dias alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60. Os melhores rendimentos de substrato ou fezes foram obtidos com os dejetos dos cabritos de 120 e 150 dias de idade alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60. As maiores concentrações de minerais nos biodigestores foram observadas para as fezes de cabritos de 150 dias de idade alimentados com a dieta com relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60. A biodigestão anaeróbia é eficiente na remoção de coliformes nos dejetos de caprinos, proporcionando efluentes com no máximo 4,3 × 10² coliformes totais termotolerantes por grama de material.It was evaluated the effects of age of the animal and of the proportion of dietary roughag on anaerobic biodigestion of the manure of Saanen kids. It was used the feces produced by Saanen kids at 90, 120 and 150 days of age and fed diets with three roughage:concentrate ratios (80:20, 60:40 and 40:60, representing diets 1, 2 and 3, respectively. It was used batch digesters of bench with capacity for 12 liters of substratum in fermentation process and 8% of initial total solids for determination of biogas

  12. Comportamento ingestivo e ingestão de água em caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno e silagem de Maniçoba Ingestive behavior and water intake in goats and sheep fed with Maniçoba hay and silage

    Edson Ricardo de Farias Zumba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e consumo de água de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno ou silagem de maniçoba (Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann. Foram empregados sete caprinos sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 14,6kg e oito ovinos da raça Santa Inês de 13,9kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (forma de conservação x espécie animal. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos. Para estudo de comportamento ingestivo, os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais alimentados com feno de maniçoba mostraram maior consumo de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo (56 e 24 g/dia em relação àqueles que receberam a maniçoba conservada pela fermentação (42 e 14g/dia, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação (405,00 e 399,38 min, ruminação (625,63 e 599,38 min e ócio (413,13 e 44,01 min entre os animais alimentados com silagem e feno de maniçoba, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais alimentados com maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação apresentaram menor consumo de água no bebedouro (0,473vs 0,990kg/dia para silagem e feno, respectivamente. Assim, conclui-se que o método de conservação de maniçoba não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo, mas a ingestão da maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação leva ao menorThe objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior and water intake of goats and sheep fed Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann silage or hay. Seven goats (average live weight 14,6 ± 1,24kg and eight sheep (average live weight 13,8 ± 1,22kg were allotted to individual pens. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2 x 2 factorial outline composed of

  13. Lindersin B from Lindernia crustacea induces neuritogenesis by activation of tyrosine kinase A/phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway.

    Cheng, Lihong; Ye, Ying; Xiang, Lan; Osada, Hiroyuki; Qi, Jianhua

    2017-01-15

    Neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor (NGF) play important roles in nervous system. NGF is a potential therapeutic drug for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, because of physicochemical property, NGF cannot pass through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Hence, small molecules which exhibit NGF-mimic activity and can pass through the BBB are considered to be promising drug candidates for treatment of such diseases. The present study was designed to isolate NGF-mimic substance from extract of natural products, determine their structures and investigate mechanism of action of the active substance. Extract of Lindernia crustacean was partitioned between water and ethyl acetate to obtain water layer and ethyl acetate layer samples, respectively, and then evaluated their neuritogenic activity in PC12 cells. The active sample was separated by open columns, followed by HPLC purification to obtain active compound. Then, specific inhibitors were used to investigate signaling pathway of neurite outgrowth induced by the active compound. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to confirm the pathway proposed by inhibitor experiments. The ethyl acetate layer sample of extract of Lindernia crustacea exhibited significant neuritogenic activity. Two new compounds, named as linderside A and lindersin B, were isolated; their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical derivatization methods. Linderside A is a cucurbitane glycoside, whereas lindersin B is a cucurbitane triterpenoid. Each compound has an unusual isopentene unit, namely, a double bond bound to an unmodified isopropyl group at the end of cucurbitane triterpenoid side chain. Among them, lindersin B induced significant neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, while linderside A was inactive against PC12 cells. Western blotting analysis results showed that lindersin B-induced neuritogenic activity depended on the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal

  14. Caracterización de isopodos terrestres (Crustacea: Isopoda y su impacto en cultivos hortícolas de Boyacá

    John Wilson Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las “cochinillas de humedad” (Crustacea: isopoda, han ido surgiendo como organismos plaga de importancia en agricultura, en países como Brasil y Argentina, en donde causan daños en soya, girasol y pastos. Recientemente se han detectado en Boyacá, afectando cebolla de bulbo, frijol y frutales. Por lo anterior, fué necesario iniciar la caracterización de las especies presentes y la determinación de su impacto en la producción hortícola en algunos municipios de esta región. Se realizó muestreos en Paipa, Tibasosa, Nobsa y Santa Rosa de Viterbo, para determinar la presencia y diversidad de especies de “cochinilla de humedad”; así como, una encuesta para establecer la percepción que tenían los agricultores del daño de estos crustáceos y las estrategias de manejo empleadas. Se evaluaron 8 veredas en Paipa, 7 en Nobsa, 3 en Tibasosa y 1 en Santa Rosa de Viterbo. Se comprobó la presencia de “cochinillas de humedad” en cultivos de frutales, hortalizas y otros, en los municipios muestreados. Se identificaron las especies: Porcellios caber, Porcellio dilatatus, Porcellio pruinosus, Armadillidium vulgare y Armadillidium nasatum. El daño por estos organismos se evidenció en lechuga, brócoli, repollo, remolacha, espinaca, cebolla, cilantro, durazno, frijol, fresa, maíz y papa, especialmente en semillero. El daño observado fué mordedura en hojas (50%, raíz (32,35%, tallo (20,85% y ramas (2,94%. Se percibió falta de conocimiento de los agricultores en el manejo de las “cochinillas de humedad”, utilizándose insecticidas en un 79,41% de los casos, un manejo orgánico en 2,99% y ningún manejo en el 5,88%.

  15. Performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed corn silage and oat hay/ Desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias alimentados com silagem de milho e feno de aveia

    Adriana Pereira da Silva

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objectives to evaluate the performance of lambs weaned at 67 days of age and fed with different roughage sources in confinement. Thirty animals out of Corriedale ewes mated to Hampshire Down, Ile de France and Suffolk rams, were used. After weaning the animals were fedlot and distributed in one of the following treatments: T1 – Corn silage + concentrate; T2 – Corn silage and oat hay (50% each + concentrate; and T3 – Oat hay + concentrate. It was used a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio, dry matter basis. At the beginning of the experiment the animals weighed 11.51, 12.46 and 12.33 kg (P>0.05, and after nine weeks of feedlot the weights were 17.53, 19.34 and 19.35 kg (P>0.05, respectively, for T1, T2 e T3. Average daily weight gain was similar (P>0.05 among treatments. It was not observed differences (P>0.05 in weights and weight gains among the genetic groups. However, male lambs presented greater average daily weight gain than female lambs (0.120 x 0.091 kg. There were no differences in feed conversion among the treatments, however, animals from the T2 had greater dry matter intake. It can be concluded that either corn silage or oat hay can be used for feeding weaned lambs.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o desempenho de cordeiros desmamados aos 67 dias e alimentados com diferentes fontes de volumosos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 30 animais oriundos de cruzamentos entre ovelhas Corriedale e carneiros Hampshire Down, Ile de France e Suffolk. Logo após o desmame os animais foram confinados, sendo distribuídos para receberem um dos tratamentos: T1 – Silagem de milho mais concentrado; T2 – Silagem de milho e feno de aveia (50% do volumoso cada mais concentrado; e T3 – Feno de aveia mais concentrado. A proporção volumoso:concentrado utilizada foi de 60:40, base seca. Os pesos médios dos animais no início do experimento foram de 11,51; 12,46 e 12,33 kg (P>0,05 e os pesos finais, após nove semanas de

  16. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, FED CASSAVA (Manihot esculenta FOLIAGE IN DIETS RESPOSTAS FISIOLÓGICAS DO PACU (Piaractus mesopotamicus, ALIMENTADO COM RAMA DE MANDIOCA (Manihot esculenta NA RAÇÃO

    João Teodoro Padua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the largest world producer of cassava. Leafs and stem of cassava can be a alternative source of protein for omnivorous fish. However, the potential use is limited by the presence of high level of cyanide acid. The present study evaluated physiological responses of juvenile pacu submitted to increasing levels of the final third of the cassava foliage meal in diets. A completely randomized design was used in factorial scheme 4x2, four levels, 0, 12, 24 and 36 % of cassava foliage meal (CFM, and 2 levels of crude protein (CP, 24 % and 30 %, with three replicates. Three hundred twelve fish (55.33±6.19 g were distributed into 24 ponds of 13 m2. Results indicated that the levels of CFM inclusion affected the hemoglobin values (P<0.01, as well as the CP level (P<0.05, with interaction of these factors (P<0.01. Significant interaction among the CFM levels and CP was also observed for hematocrit, plasma protein (P<0.01 and plasma lipid (P<0.05. In the 24 % CP level was observed higher values of Hb in control and 36 % of CFM (3.51 g/dl and 3.25 g/dl respectively while with 30 % CP the control diet and 36 % CFM presented the smallest values (3.29 g/dl and 2.78 g/dl respectively. The higher level of CFM tested, inside of any protein level, had low influence on the pacu metabolism.

    KEY WORDS: Cassava leaf and stem fish metabolism, pacu, P. Mesopotamicus.
    O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de mandioca, disponibilizando a rama de mandioca como fonte alternativa na alimentação de peixes onívoros. No entanto, o potencial de uso da rama é limitado pela toxidez do ácido cianídrico. Objetivou-se avaliar a resposta fisiológica do pacu alimentado com níveis crescentes da rama de mandioca. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 4x2, quatro níveis de rama de mandioca (RM (0%, 12%, 24% e 36% e dois níveis de proteína bruta (PB (24% e 30% com três repetições. Trezentos e doze peixes (55,33±6,19 g foram

  17. Consumo, digestibilidade e produção microbiana em novilhos alimentados com diferentes volumosos, com e sem suplementação Intake, digestibility and microbial production in steers fed with different forages, supplemented or not

    S.P. Gomes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades aparentes totais da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, e estimou-se a produção microbiana (PMic de dietas para novilhos. Avaliou-se, também, a degradabilidade in situ dos alimentos. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos, fistulados no rúmen, com peso vivo (PV médio de 185,4kg, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, alimentados com: 1- capim-elefante picado (CE; 2- pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 (PS; 3- feno de capim-braquiária (FB; 4- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 0,5% PV (FB:C1; e 5- feno de capim-braquiária e concentrado a 1% PV (FB:C2. O PS proporcionou maior ingestão de MS (6kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (4,2kg/novilho/dia em relação aos demais volumosos utilizados, mostrando ser boa alternativa na nutrição de bovinos. A adição de concentrado ao feno de capim-braquiária aumentou o consumo de MS do volumoso, que passou de 2,7kg/novilho/dia para 3,9kg/novilho/dia, constituindo estratégia para a utilização de volumosos de baixa qualidade. O maior consumo do concentrado C2 (1%PV resultou em aumento no consumo de MS (0,9kg/novilho/dia e de NDT (1kg/novilho/dia na dieta FB:C2, em relação à dieta FB:C1.The intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (CHO, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC; the total digestible nutrients (TDN intake and the microbial protein production (MicP in diets of steers were determined. The in situ degradability of feeds was also evaluated. Five steers averaging 185.4kg live weight (LW and fistulated in the rumen and esophagus were randomly, assigned in a completely randomized experimental design. They were fed on: 1- chopped elephantgrass (CE; 2

  18. Desempenho bioeconômico de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco Bioeconomic performance of growing - finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal

    José Evânio da Costa Siebra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho de suínos em crescimento e terminação alimentados com rações contendo farelo de coco. Foram utilizados 20 suínos machos castrados mestiços Landrace × Large White com 19,7 ± 2,9 kg de peso vivo inicial e 89,2 ± 5,8 kg de peso vivo final distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (0, 10, 20 ou 30% de farelo de coco e cinco repetições. Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o ganho de peso médio diário, o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar nas fases de crescimento (65 a 107 dias de idade e crescimento-terminação (65 a 149 dias de idade. Os parâmetros econômicos avaliados foram a receita bruta média, o custo médio da alimentação, a margem bruta média e a rentabilidade média. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso médio diário e receita bruta média na fase de crescimento foram obtidos com o nível de 22,5% de farelo de coco na ração. Na fase de crescimento-terminação, a receita bruta média no período total indica que é possível incluir 22,4% de farelo de coco em dietas para suínos formuladas com farelo residual de milho e farelo de soja.The objective was to evaluate the performance of growing- finishing pigs fed diet with coconut meal. Twenty crossbred Large White × Landrace barrows with initial 19.7 ± 2.9 kg BW and final 89.2 ± 5.8 kg BW were allotted to complete a randomized blocks design with four levels (0, 10, 20 or 30% of coconut meal and five replications. Performance traits, as average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio in grower phase (65 to 107 days old and grower-finisher phase (65 to 149 days old were evaluated. Economic parameters evaluated were: average gross income, average feed cost, gross margin and average return. The best results of average weight daily gain and average gross income in the grower phase were obtained with the level of 22.5% of coconut meal in the diet. In grower

  19. Características da Carcaça e Qualidade da Carne de Tourinhos Alimentados com Dietas de Alta Energia Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Young Bulls Fed High Concentrate Diets

    Fábio Garcia Ribeiro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram alimentados 36 tourinhos ¾ Europeu ¼ Zebu com dietas contendo 9, 15 e 21% de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN na matéria seca. Os animais, com peso inicial de 257 kg, foram abatidos após 138 dias, com 435 kg de peso. Foram realizadas mensurações na carcaça e da composição física do corte das 9-10-11ª costelas. Amostras dos músculos Longissimus dorsi e Supraspinatus, maturadas durante 0, 7 e 14 dias, foramanalisadas quanto à textura e cor. A quantidade de gordura renal e pélvica foi maior para os tratamentos 9 e 15% de BIN. Houve tendência para maior espessura de gordura subcutânea nos tratamentos 9 e 15% de BIN. Os diferentes níveis de fibra na dieta não alteraram a composição física e as características de carcaça, porém maior acúmulo de gordura nas regiões inguinal e pélvica foi observado em tratamentos com maior teor de concentrado. A textura objetiva (WB apresentou diferença entre os três grupos de bifes maturados, nos dois músculos testados; o grupo com 14 dias de maturação foi mais macio que o tempo 7, e este, mais macio que o tempo 0. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os tratamentos nutricionais para a característica de cor, entretanto, houve efeito significativo para o período de maturação. A carne maturada (tempos 7 e 14 foi mais macia e brilhante, e suas cores, mais realçadas. A maturação teve grande impacto sobre a maciez em touros jovens produzindo carcaças de 230 kg e com 4 mm de espessura de gordura.Thirty six ¾ European ¼ Zebu bulls were fed diets containing 9, 15 and 21% of the dry matter as sugar cane bagasse in natura (BIN. The animals, with initial body weight of 257 kg, were slaughtered with 435 kg, after 138 days on feed. Measurements in the carcass and the 9-10-11th rib cut physical composition were taken. Samples of Longissimus dorsi and Supraspinatus muscles, aged 0, 7 and 14 days, were analyzed for texture and color. Renal, pelvic and inguinal fat was

  20. Fresh and matured lamb meat quality fed with sunflower seeds and vitamin E Qualidade da carne in natura e maturada de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de girassol e vitamina E

    Ronaldo Oliveira Sales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate meat quality from Ile de France lamb fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds and vitamin E. Thirty-two lamb weighing initially 15kg were housed in individual stalls and slaughtered when body weight reached 32kg. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets: D1 sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds; D2 sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds; D3 sugarcane + concentrate without sunflower seeds plus 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet dry matter (DM; and D4 sugarcane + concentrate with sunflower seeds and 1000mg vitamin E kg-1 diet DM. The parameters temperature, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force and water holding capacity were determined at maturation times of 0, 7 and 14 days on the Longissimus dorsi muscle. Qualitative characteristics of the meat were not affected by the sunflower seed combined with vitamin E diet; however, pH 24 hours was affected (P0.05 by diet or maturation times. On the other hand, shear force and water holding capacity were significantly affected (PO objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade da carne de cordeiros Ile de France alimentados com dietas contendo grãos de girassol e vitamina E. Trinta e dois cordeiros pesando inicialmente 15kg foram alojados em baias individuais e abatidos ao atingir 32kg de peso corporal. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas experimentais: D1 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado sem grãos de girassol; D2 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado com grãos de girassol; D3 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado grãos de girassol, mais 1000mg de vitamina E kg-1 de matéria seca (MS da dieta; e D4 cana-de-açúcar + concentrado com grãos de girassol e 1000mg de vitamina E dieta kg-1 de MS. Os parâmetros temperatura, pH, cor, perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento e capacidade de retenção de água foram determinados nos tempos de maturação de 0, 7 e 14 dias no músculo Longissimus dorsi. As características qualitativas da carne n

  1. Dinâmica do fósforo em ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo diversos níveis deste mineral Dynamics of phosphorus in the body of sheep fed different levels of this mineral in the diets

    Everton do Espírito Santo Borges

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a dinâmica do fósforo no organismo de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas com diversos níveis deste mineral, considerando as correlações entre os níveis de fósforo consumido e de fósforo no plasma; na saliva; no conteúdo ruminal; nas fezes; e na urina. Foram utilizados 18 cordeiros com 5 meses de idade e 27 kg de peso vivo. O experimento foi dividido em dois períodos de cinco semanas, cada um com nove animais. Os animais foram mantidos individualmente em gaiolas para estudo de metabolismo e receberam uma dieta basal constituída de feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers. e concentrado com diferentes níveis de fósforo (1,9; 2,6; 3,3 g/dia provenientes de fosfato bicálcico. No 15º dia, iniciaram-se as coletas de saliva, plasma, conteúdo ruminal, fezes e urina para as análises de fósforo inorgânico. Observaram-se correlações positivas entre o aumento do consumo de fósforo e os teores desse mineral no plasma (r = 0,64, na saliva (r = 0,86, no conteúdo ruminal (r = 0,82, nas fezes (r = 0,92 e na urina (r = 0,37, comprovando que, quando absorvido, o fósforo é distribuído no corpo pelo plasma. Após a saturação no organismo, o excesso é secretado via saliva, segue para o rúmen e, ao chegar ao intestino, é reabsorvido em menor quantidade e excretado via fezes. À medida que se aumentaram os níveis de fósforo na dieta, verificou-se aumento expressivo dos teores desse mineral na saliva, no plasma, no conteúdo ruminal e nas fezes.The dynamics of phosphorus in the body of Santa Ines lambs fed diets with different levels of this mineral was evaluated, considering the correlations among the levels of phosphorus consumed, in plasma; in saliva, in rumen contents, in feces, and in urine. Eighteen lambs were used with five mo old and 27 kg BW. The experiment was divided into two periods of five weeks, each with nine animals. The animals were individually kept in cages of metabolism study and were

  2. Desempenho produtivo de bovinos Nelore de diferentes classes sexuais alimentados com dietas contendo dois níveis de oferta de concentrado Productive performance of Nellore cattle of different gender fed diets containing two levels of concentrate allowance

    Pedro Veiga Rodrigues Paulino

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de classe sexual e nível de oferta de concentrado sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em bovinos Nelore. Trinta e cinco animais, 12 machos inteiros, 11 machos castrados e 12 fêmeas, provenientes de um mesmo grupo contemporâneo, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente a dois tratamentos, correspondentes aos níveis de oferta de concentrado, 0,6 e 1,2% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Os animais foram alimentados individualmente durante 112 dias, sendo abatidos ao final do experimento, com um grupo referência abatido ao início. Os machos inteiros foram mais eficientes, pois apresentaram maior peso final e de corpo vazio, como resultado da maior taxa de crescimento em relação às fêmeas, ficando os machos castrados em posição intermediária. Os consumos relativos de matéria seca e de todos os demais nutrientes foram superiores nas fêmeas em relação aos machos inteiros, de modo que os castrados apresentaram valores intermediários. As digestibilidades, à exceção do extrato etéreo, não foram afetadas pela classe sexual. As digestibilidades da matéria seca e matéria orgânica foram superiores para a dieta com nível de oferta de concentrado de 1,2% do PV. Classe sexual afetou o crescimento e a capacidade de consumo dos animais, porém não teve efeito sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes da dieta. Níveis de oferta de concentrado de 0,6 e 1,2% do PV não foram suficientes para promover diferenças no desempenho de bovinos Nelore, independentemente de classe sexual.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of sex class and concentrate allowance level on performance and digestibility of the nutrients in Nellore cattle. Thirty five animals were used, 12 young bulls, 11 steers and 12 heifers, from the same contemporary group, were randomly allotted into two treatments: concentrate allowance levels of 0.6 and 1.2% BW, respectively. The animals were individually

  3. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato/nitrito em bovinos alimentados com Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp. (azevém

    Fernanda Jönck

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se os dados epidemiológicos, sinais clínicos e lesões da intoxicação espontânea e experimental por nitrato e nitrito em bovinos alimentados com pastagens de Avena sativa (aveia e/ou Lolium spp (azevém. A enfermidade ocorre em diferentes regiões do Estado de Santa Catarina, quando as pastagens tem crescimento exuberante, após receberem quantidades excessivas de adubo químico e/ou orgânico, principalmente quando ocorrem condições climáticas de seca e posteriormente chuva. Os animais em contato com essas pastagens desenvolvem rapidamente mucosas de coloração marrom, taquipnéia, andar cambaleante, micção frequente, timpanismo, decúbito lateral e morte em poucos minutos, ou recuperação algumas horas após. Na necropsia de quatro animais que adoeceram espontaneamente, as principais alterações encontradas foram a coloração marrom das mucosas, a cor escura do sangue (cor de chocolate e a coloração vermelho intensa da musculatura esquelética e do miocárdio esquerdo. A reprodução experimental da doença foi realizada em sete bovinos, com pastagens de quatro propriedades onde ocorreu adoença. Aveia e/ou azevém verdes e sob a forma de feno foram administradas aos bovinos. Destes bovinos quatro morreram, dois adoeceram e se recuperam, um naturalmente e outro com a aplicação de azul de metileno a 1%, na dose de 2mg/kg/peso vivo, e um bovino não apresentou alterações. Os sinais clínicos observados e as lesões nos animais que adoeceram e morreram foram idênticos aos casos naturais. Alterações microscópicas não foram observadas nos casos naturais e experimentais. O teste da difenilamina nas amostras de pastagens onde ocorreram os surtos resultou positivo em todas as propriedades. A análise bromatológica realizada em amostras coletadas de várias propriedades em que ocorreram surtos revelou de 0,30 a 3,36% de nitrato na matéria seca. A enfermidade caracterizou-se principalmente por respiração ofegante

  4. Translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice fed an enteral diet containing prebiotics Translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos alimentados com dieta enteral contendo prebióticos

    Daniele Ferreira da Silva

    2009-04-01

    tratamentos IV, V, VIII e IX foram alimentados com dieta enteral contaminada com, aproximadamente, 10(10UFC/g de Klebsiella pneumoniae. Em tempos definidos (sexto, sétimo, nono, décimo primeiro e décimo terceiro dia de experimento, dois animais de cada grupo foram sacrificados e seus órgãos: baço, coração, fígado, pulmões e rins, foram coletados assepticamente, pesados e analisados quanto à presença de colônias típicas de Klebsiella sp. RESULTADOS: Maior número de UFC/g de Klebsiella sp. foi detectado em órgãos de animais do grupo imunodeprimidos, que receberam dieta com Klebsiella pneumoniae e sem prebióticos. Animais que receberam dieta enriquecida com frutooligossacarídeo e inulina, na concentração de 15,3mg/g de peso corporal, apresentaram menor período para a translocação de Klebsiella sp., quando comparados aos animais que não receberam prebióticos na dieta. CONCLUSÃO: A adição de frutooligossacarídeos e inulina em dietas enterais na dose de 15,3mg/g de peso corporal resultou na diminuição de translocação de Klebsiella para baço, coração, fígado, pulmão e rins de camundongos que receberam a dieta contaminada associada ou não com droga imunodepressora e antibiótico.

  5. Perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de canola em diferentes formas Meat fatty acid profile of lambs fed processed or unprocessed canola seeds

    Francisco de Assis fonseca de Macedo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a alteração do perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo grãos inteiros de canola (CI em duas formas de processamentos (quebrados - CQ ou peletizados - CP. Foram utilizados 28 cordeiros, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado e abatidos com média de peso vivo entre 31 e 33kg, coletando-se amostras entre a 12ª e 13ª costela. Houve diferença significativa para os ácidos graxos C10:0, C14:1ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7e C17:0, cujas médias foram maiores que na dieta controle. Os ácidos graxos C18:0, C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22:0 e C24:0 sofreram alterações com a inclusão de grãos de canola. Também foi observado diferença significativa para os totais de ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, porém, os totais de ácidos graxos polinsaturados e a relação entre ácidos graxos polinsaturados e saturados foram inalterados. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que a inclusão de grãos inteiros de canola nas dietas para cordeiros altera o perfil dos ácidos graxos independentemente da forma de apresentação.The objective of this experiment was to compare carcass fatty acids profile of lambs fed a control diet and diets containing either whole (WC, cracked (CC or pelleted (PC canola seeds. Twenty-eight lambs assigned to a completely randomized design were fed their respective diets for 132 days and slaughtered between 31 and 33kg of body weight. Samples of muscle Longissimus dorsi, Psoas maior and Psoas menor were collected on the left side of the carcass between the 12th and 13th ribs and 11 cm from the carcass midline. Concentrations of C10:0, C14:ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7. C17:0 and, C18:3ω3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the carcass of lambs fed the three canola seed diets than in the carcass of those fed the control diet. Pelleted canola seeds increased the percentages of C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22

  6. Dinâmica dos nutrientes no trato gastrintestinal de novilhos holandeses alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar Dynamic of the nutrients in the gastrintestinal tract of holstein steers fed sugar cane based diets

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram objetivos deste trabalho validar as predições com base nas estimativas da dinâmica ruminal e pós-ruminal dos nutrientes e do crescimento microbiano no rúmen, usando as equações que compõem o submodelo Cornell relativo ao trato gastrintestinal. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos Holandês-Zebu com peso médio de 300 kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4. Os animais experimentais foram alimentados com rações à base de cana-de-açúcar, suplementada com duas fontes de nitrogênio (uréia ou cama de frango e dois níveis de levedura (0 ou 10 g dia-1, constituindo-se esquema fatorial 2 x 2. A FDN indigestível e a FDN da cana-de-açúcar complexada com cromo foram usadas como indicadores interno e externo, para estimar a produção fecal diária e a taxa de passagem de partículas no rúmen. A dinâmica dos nutrientes baseou-se nas determinações do fluxo de nitrogênio total e do fluxo de nitrogênio de origem bacteriana no abomaso e dos carboidratos totais digeridos no rúmen. A produção microbiana não foi influenciada pelas fontes nitrogenadas e pela adição de Saccharomyces cerevisiae. O Sistema Cornell superestimou os carboidratos totais degradados no rúmen, o fluxo de nitrogênio de origem microbiana e subestimou o fluxo de N total no abomaso.The objectives of this work were to validate the predictions based on the estimates of the ruminal nutrient dynamics and on the microbial growth in the rumen, using equations of the Cornell Submodel system relative to the gastrintestinal tract. Four Holstein - Zebu steers, with 300 kg live weight, rumen and abomasal cannulated were allotted to 4x4 latin square design. The experimental animals received sugar cane based diets, supplemented with two nitrogen sources (urea or poultry litter and two yeast levels (0 or 10 g / d, being constituted 2x2 factorial arrangement. The indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF and chromium mordant

  7. Desempenho e digestibilidade in vivo de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo canola em grão integral em diferentes formas Performance and digestibility in vivo of lambs fed diets with whole canola grain in different forms

    Vanderlei Bett

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes de cordeiros alimentados com concentrados formulados com farelo de soja (FS, canola integral (CI canola quebrada (CQ ou canola peletizada (CP e feno de aveia, fornecidos na relação 30/70 (volumoso/conconcentrado, %MS foram avaliados. Vinte oito cordeiros machos com idade inicial entre 60 e 90 dias e 17 kg PV foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As ingestões (g/d de MS, PB, FDA, FDN e EB (Mcal/dia, o ganho médio diário e a conversão alimentar, foram semelhantes. Não houve diferenças para digestibilidade aparente da MS, PB e EB, exceto para digestibilidade de FDN (46,84; 60,11; 50,10; e 38,88% e FDA (45,84; 54,19; 46,57; e 29,59% para FS, CI, CQ e CP, respectivamente. Houve menor retenção de nitrogênio para CP (3,0 g/d em comparação às outras dietas (entre 5,0 e 7,3 g/d. Os tratamentos não diferiram na concentração de propionato, mas reduziram as concentrações de butirato (7,08; 4,87; 4,08; e 4,29 μM/mL de líquido ruminal e N-amoniacal (12,17; 8,69; 8,40; e 7,66 mg/100 mL de líquido de rúmen. O uso de canola, nas diferentes formas, não influenciou a ingestão e a digestão, proporcionando desempenho semelhante entre os tratamentos.The performance and digestibility of nutrients of lambs fed concentrates formulated with soybean meal (SM and whole canola grain (WC, cracked canola grain (CC or pelleted canola (PC and oat hay, fed in a 30:70 (forage to concentrate ratio, %DM were evaluated. Twenty-eight male lambs with initial age from 60 to 90 days and 17 kg LW were allotted to a completely randomized design. The intakes (g/d of DM, CP, ADF, NDF and GE (Mcal/d, the average daily gain and feed: gain ratio, were similar. There were no differences for apparent digestibilities of MS, PB and GE, except for the NDF digestibility (46.84, 60.11, 50.10, and 38.88% and ADF (45.84, 54.19, 46.57, and 29.59% for SM, WC, CC and PC, respectively. There was lower nitrogen

  8. Composição centesimal e perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilho precoce alimentado com lipídios protegidos Centesimal composition and fatty acids profile of veal calves fed protected lipids

    Ivy Scorzi Cazelli Pires

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available É crescente a preocupação da população em ingerir dietas mais saudáveis, mantendo adequado o nível de colesterol plasmático, com conseqüente redução na incidência de doenças cardiovasculares. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a composição centesimal e o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de novilho precoce de quatro grupos genéticos: Nelore (R1, Nelore x Canchin (R2, Nelore x Limousin (R3 e Nelore x Aberdeen Angus (R4, alimentados com dieta normal (D1 ou por outra constituída por lipídios protegidos (D2. Determinaram-se os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios totais, resíduo mineral fixo e o perfil de ácidos graxos. Não foram encontradas diferenças para os teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios totais, Ácidos Graxos Saturados (AGS e Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados (AGMI. A dieta protegida ocasionou aumento do teor total de Ácidos Graxos Poliinsaturados (AGPI, quando comparada à D1. Por sua vez, animais que receberam D1 apresentaram maior teor de AGPI w-3 que os da D2. Verificou-se que as técnicas de nutrição animal utilizadas neste estudo garantiram um produto com maior teor de AGPI, característica esta desejável na saúde humana. Fazem-se necessários novos estudos, utilizando-se modelos experimentais, para que sejam avaliados os efeitos da carne de novilho precoce na colesterolemia.Nowadays, the concern about ingesting healthier diets, maintaining adequate plasma cholesterol level, and consequent reduction on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases has been growing. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the centesimal composition and the fatty acids profile of calves of four different genetic groups: Nelore (R1, Nelore x Canchin (R2, Nelore x Limousin (R3, and Nelore x Aberdeen Angus (R4, fed basal diet (D1 or a diet with protected lipids (D2. No differences were observed for the contents of moisture, protein, total lipids, saturated fatty acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. The protected diet

  9. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados em comedouros privativos recebendo rações contendo semente de girassol Performance and carcass traits of lambs fed diets containing sunflower seed in creep feeding

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e as características quali e quantitativas da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com ração contendo semente de girassol. Utilizaram-se 16 cordeiros distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos (0,00; 6,60; 13,20 ou 19,80% de semente de girassol na matéria natural, cada um com quatro repetições, totalizando 16 cordeiros. As dietas continham 2,65; 2,78; 2,89 e 2,93 Mcal/kg de energia metabolizável e 18,38; 18,75; 19,98 e 21,18% de proteína bruta, respectivamente, e foi fornecida ad libitum. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias e mantidos com as ovelhas até atingirem 28 kg, quando foram abatidos, após jejum de sólidos por 18 horas, para obtenção do peso vivo ao abate e registro do peso da carcaça quente e do conteúdo gastrintestinal, utilizados no cálculo do peso de corpo vazio. As carcaças foram mantidas por 24 horas em câmara frigorífica em temperatura de 5ºC para obtenção do peso de carcaça fria. Os níveis de semente de girassol na dieta não afetaram as características de desempenho dos cordeiros. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e de carcaça fria; os pesos de pescoço, baixo, paleta, costela descoberta, costela, lombo; e os rendimentos comerciais de carcaça e costela descoberta, costela, lombo, paleta, pescoço e baixo sofreram efeito da adição da semente de girassol. O fornecimento de semente de girassol na dieta não influencia as características qualitativas e morfométricas da carcaça de cordeiros.Performance and quantitative and qualitative carcass traits of lambs fed with diets containing sunflower seed were evaluated. Sixteen lambs were randomly distributed to a completely randomized design with four diets (0.00, 6.60, 13.20 or 19.80% of sunflower seed, % as fed, with 4 replications. The diets contained 2.65, 2.78, 2.89 and 2.93 Mcal / kg of metabolize energy and 18.38, 18.75, 19.98 and 21.18% crude protein

  10. Development of young toco toucas fed with dry dog food and toucan pellets Desenvolvimento de tucanos-toco jovens alimentados com ração canina e ração para tucanos

    Heloísa Castro Pereira

    2011-09-01

    , utilizou-se o teste U de Mann-Whitney, com nível de significância de 0,05, em um teste bilateral. As aves de ambos os grupos não apresentaram alterações de comportamento como depressão ou agressividade. As dietas foram bem aceitas, não houve desperdício e todos os animais permaneceram hígidos durante a pesquisa. Tucanos alimentados com ração para cães com nível máximo de 71,15mg/Kg de ferro e 23% de proteína bruta, apresentaram melhor desenvolvimento para comprimento das asas direita e esquerda, largura da cabeça, altura do bico na base, comprimento do bico na base e ganho de peso, quando comparados com aqueles tratados com ração para tucanos. Conclui-se que as rações comerciais utilizadas, sobretudo a canina, oferecem suporte para ganho de peso, e medidas corporais favoráveis ao desenvolvimento normal de tucanos-toco jovens. Entretanto, novos estudos devem ser realizados para a determinação da dieta ideal para essas aves em cativeiro.

  11. Avaliação do desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo probiótico e diferentes níveis de nucleotídeos

    João Batista Canevari Bruno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com ração contendo um probiótico comercial e diferentes níveis de nucleotídeos. Foram utilizados 1050 pintos de 01 dia, machos da linhagem Ross 308 totalizando trinta e cinco aves por boxe, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. As aves foram criadas até 42 dias de idade, e receberam as rações experimentais a base de milho e farelo de soja contendo 6 níveis de nucleotídeos (0; 100; 200; 300; 400 e 500 gramas por tonelada de ração. Os nucleotídeos foram utilizados na fase inicial (1 a 21 dias e fase de crescimento (22 a 35 dias. Durante a fase final (36 a 42 dias os nucleotídeos foram removidos da ração . Houve melhora linear no desempenho dos frangos no período de 1 a 21 dias, indicando que, quanto maior o nível de nucleotídeos na dieta, maior o peso corporal das aves. A conversão alimentar também melhorou linearmente nesse período à medida que aumentou o nível de nucleotídeos na ração. O peso no período de 35 dias, também teve um comportamento linear, semelhante ao período de 1 a 21 dias, indicando que, o nível de nucleotídeos na ração melhorou o desempenho. A concentração plasmática de acido úrico demonstrou efeito quadrático no período de 1 a 21 dias, indicando 231,59 gramas de nucleotídeos por tonelada de ração, como o melhor, em níveis mínimos de ácido úrico, por outro lado, no período de 35 dias de idade, estimou-se o nível de 208,99 g de nucleotídeos por tonelada de ração; como o melhor em níveis mínimos de ácido úrico no sangue. No período final (35 a 42 dias e período total (1 a 42 dias de idade não foi possível o observar efeito dos contrastes testados neste trabalho.

  12. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça Intake, digestibilities of the nutrients, and ruminal variables in cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage

    B.R. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total e parcial dos nutrientes, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça e concentrado nas seguintes proporções: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50 e 35:65, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados quatro animais Holandês x Zebu, com peso corporal médio inicial de 229kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, e distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHOT, expressos em kg/dia, e a digestibilidade parcial dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF apresentaram comportamento linear crescente, com resposta platô nos níveis de concentrado de 54,1; 54,8; 52,9; 62,2; 55,2 e 52,7%. O consumo dos demais nutrientes, exceto da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, e as digestibilidades aparente total de MS, MO e CNF e a parcial de MO aumentaram linearmente com o incremento do concentrado nas dietas. Não foram encontradas diferenças no consumo e nas digestibilidades aparente total e parcial da FDN. Para concentração de amônia e pH ruminal, observou-se efeito quadrático de tempo de amostragem, com valores máximos de 24,76mg/dL e 6,53 em 2,8 e 3,5 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente.Intake; total and partial digestibilities of nutrients; and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were evaluated in beef cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage and concentrate at the following proportions: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65, in the dry matter basis. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average live weight of 229kg, fitted with ruminal and abomasal canullae, were used. The animals were allotted in a 4x4 latin square design. The intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (kg/day, as well the partials digestibilities of non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC increased linearly with plateau at the concentrate

  13. Desempenho e digestibilidade de nutrientes em ovinos alimentados com rações contendo farelo de babaçu Performance and nutrient digestibility on lambs fed diets containing different levels of babassu meal

    Antônio Robson Bezerra Xenofonte

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes, foram utilizados 24 ovinos sem raça definida (SRD, machos não-castrados, com peso inicial de 20 ± 3,25 kg e 4,6 ± 0,8 meses de idade. Os animais foram mantidos em confinamento e alimentados com dietas com farelo de babaçu (0, 10, 20 e 30% em substituição ao feno de capim-colonião. As dietas, isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas, foram fornecidas em forma de ração completa. Utilizou-se um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. O consumo de matéria seca foi influenciado pela inclusão do farelo de babaçu na dieta e apresentou redução de 302 g/dia a cada 10% de participação de farelo de babaçu. A ingestão dos nutrientes e o desempenho foram restringidos pela diminuição do consumo de matéria seca. A inclusão do farelo de babaçu reduziu linearmente o ganho de peso dos animais. A digestibilidade dos nutrientes foi influenciada pelos níveis de farelo de babaçu, mas esse aumento está associado às reduções na ingestão de matéria seca. O farelo de babaçu, ao ser utilizado como alternativa de alimento para cordeiros em crescimento, compromete o consumo de alimentos e o ganho de peso dos animais.With the objective to evaluate the performance, voluntary intake and nutrient digestibilities, 24 NDB (no defined breed, non castrated male lambs with 20 ± 3.25 BW initial and 4.6 ± 0.8 months old were used. Animals were kept in feedlot and fed diets with babassu meal (0, 10, 20 and 30% in substitution to Panicum maximum Jack hay. The diets, isoprotein and isonitrogenous, were fed in a complete mix ration. A completely blocks randomized design, with four treatments and six replicates was used. The dry matter intake was influenced by the inclusion of babassu meal in the diet and presented a reduction of 302 g/day for each 10% of babassu meal inclusion. Nutrient intake and performance were limited by

  14. Comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Ingestive behavior of lambs fed with a diet of different levels of fiber in neutrol detergent

    Adriano Ramos Cardoso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, na dieta sobre o comportamento ingestivo de cordeiros Ile de France x Texel. Foram utilizados 20 cordeiros distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em um total de quatro tratamentos com cinco repetições, e alimentados à vontade com dietas que continham 25%, 31%, 37% e 43% de FDN. Foi utilizada uma ração em mistura completa de silagem de sorgo (AG 2005E e mistura concentrada constituída por farelo de soja, grão de milho quebrado e mistura mineral. As dietas eram isoprotéicas contendo 17% de PB. As dietas foram fornecidas duas vezes ao dia, às 8:00 e às 16:00 horas. O comportamento ingestivo foi determinado mediante observação visual, ocorrido durante 24 horas, a intervalos de 5 minutos, para se determinar o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. O aumento do teor de fibra na ração não influenciou significativamente (P>0,05 os tempos despendidos em alimentação, ruminação, ócio e tempo de mastigação total. Houve efeito linear crescente sobre as variáveis eficiência de alimentação e de ruminação de FDN (P>0,05. Os ovinos confinados possuem hábito de alimentação predominantemente diurno e de ruminação noturno.The effect of different neutral detergent fiber (NDF levels in the diet on the Ile de France x Texel lambs ingestive behavior was evaluated. Twenty lambs distributed in a fully randomized experimental design were used, in a total of four treatments and five repetitions, fed ad libitum with 25%, 31%, 37% and 43% NDF diets. A ration in a complete mixing in sorghum silage (AG 2005 E and concentrate mixing of soybean meal, fragmented corn grains and mineral mixing was used. The diets were isoproteic (17% crude protein and were given twice a day, at 8 AM and 4 PM. The ingestive behavior was determined by observation, during 24 hours with 5 minutes intervals, to determine the time spent in

  15. Respuesta productiva de conejos alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico de avena, como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial Productive response of rabbits fed with green hydroponic oats forage as partial replacement of commercial concentrate

    Francisco Fabián Fuentes Carmona

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta productiva de conejos raza californiana alimentados con forraje verde hidropónico (FVH de avena como reemplazo parcial de concentrado comercial (CC, fue evaluada en condiciones de desierto en el norte de Chile. Se establecieron cinco tratamientos de alimentación, equivalentes a 0, 25, 50, 75 y 100% de reemplazo de la dieta diaria con FVH, el cual fue cosechado y utilizado directamente diez días después de la siembra. Cuarenta y cinco conejos destetados a los 31 días fueron evaluados en un diseño completamente al azar hasta alcanzar un peso de sacrificio de 2 kg de peso vivo. La calidad del FVH de avena fue considerada como buena, presentando similar valor nutritivo que el CC. Las variables evaluadas y sus respectivos rangos fueron: consumo de materia seca promedio (59.17 - 104.73 g/día, ganancia de peso vivo promedio (16.35 - 29.10 g/animal por día, conversión alimenticia promedio (3.31 - 3.93 kg MS/kg PV, tiempo de peso vivo a sacrificio (53 - 91 días, peso vivo final (1430 - 2044 g/animal, peso de la canal (1235 - 1385 g/animal y rendimiento de la canal (59.19 - 62.25%. El reemplazo de hasta 50% de la dieta base con FVH de avena no afectó significativamente (P The productive response of Californian rabbits fed with hydroponic green oats forage (HGOF as a partial replacement of commercial concentrate (CC was evaluated under desert conditions in northern Chile. Five treatments were established as follow: 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% replacement of daily diet with HGOF, which was harvested and used directly at 10 days after sowing. Forty-five rabbits weaned at 31 days were evaluated in a completely randomized design until slaughter weight of 2.0 kg. HGOF quality was considered as good, presenting similar nutritional value to CC. The variables assessed and range values were: average dry matter intake (59.17-104.73 g/d, average weight gain (16.35-29.10 g/ rabbit for day, feed conversion average (3.31-3.93 kg DM/ kg LW, time of

  16. Fluxo biológico do fósforo no metabolismo de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo fitase Biological P flow on metabolism of pigs fed diets containg phytase

    José Aparecido Moreira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida para avaliar o fluxo biológico do P em suínos, na fase de crescimento, alimentados com dietas à base de milho, farelo de soja, farelo de arroz desengordurado e óleo de soja, isentas de P inorgânico e suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase (253, 759, 1.265 e 1.748 UF/kg de dieta, e destacar o melhor nível de utilização da enzima, usando modelos matemáticos. O modelo utilizado foi determinístico e compartimental, em que o trato gastrintestinal (C1, o plasma C2, os ossos (C3 e os tecidos moles (ossos, coração, figado, rins e músculos, estudados em conjunto (C4, representaram os compartimentos. Foram utilizados dados de metabolismo e cinética do P nos tecidos, obtidos pela técnica de diluição isotópica. Os parâmetros estimados foram: absorção, retenção, P endógeno que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal, P dietético absorvido, incorporação, reabsorção, balanço de P, P proveniente do osso, dos tecidos moles e do total absorvido que retorna ao trato gastrintestinal. o modelo biomatemático utilizado mostrou-se eficiente em explicar o fluxo do fósforo no organismo de suínos em crescimento. A fitase interferiu no fluxo biológico do P do compartimento C1 para o C3 e no refluxo dos compartimentos C3 e C4 para o C1. O nível 759 UF/kg de ração disponibilizou mais eficientemente o fósforo orgânico para o metabolismo dos suínos.The study was conducted to evaluate the biological flow of P in pigs fed diets based on corn, soybean meal, defatted rice bran (DRB and soybean oil, with increasing phytase levels (253, 759, 1265 and 1748 PU/kg of diet, using mathematics models. The model was deterministic and compartimental, in which the gastrintestinal tract (GIT (C1, the plasma C2, the bones (C3 and the soft tissues (liver, heart, kidney and muscle (C4 represented the compartments. Metabolism data and kinetics of P in tissues were used in the model, obtained by the isotopic dilution technique. The

  17. Nota científica: perfil bioquímico de ratos alimentados com iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil Scientific Note: biochemical profile of rats fed yogurt containing yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil extract

    Franciele Taís Ril

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do iogurte contendo extrato de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis e com/sem culturas probióticas sobre o perfil lipídico, glicêmico, hepático e renal de ratos alimentados com esses tipos de iogurtes. Ratos da linhagem Wistar (42 foram divididos em três grupos (n=14, e receberam iogurte sem extrato de erva-mate, iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e iogurte com extrato de erva-mate 0,1% e culturas probióticas, durante 30 dias. Não foi observado no presente estudo efeito significativo do extrato de erva-mate sobre os níveis de colesterol total, colesterol HDL, triglicerídeos, uréia, ácido úrico, creatinina, glicose e na atividade das enzimas fosfatase alcalina, aspartato aminotransferase e alanina aminotransferase. O extrato de erva-mate, 0,1% no iogurte, não interfere no metabolismo de ratos alimentados por 30 dias.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoghurt containing yerba-mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis, with and without probiotic cultures, on the lipidic, glycemic, hepatic and kidney profiles of rats fed these types of yoghurt. Wistar rats (42 were divided into three groups (n=14 and for 30 days were fed yoghurt without yerba-mate extract, yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and yoghurt with 0.1% yerba-mate extract and probiotic cultures. No significant effect of the yerba mate extract on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, glucose and the activity of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase was observed in the present study. The addition of 0.1% yerba mate extract to the yoghurt did not interfere with the metabolism of the rats during 30 days.

  18. Consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae alimentado com folíolos de Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae em três níveis de maturidade Leaf consumption and biological aspects of Urbanus acawoios (Lep.: Hesperiidae fed with Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae leaflets in three maturity stages

    Henrique Trevisan

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae tem como principal hospedeiro a essência arbórea Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae, utilizada em diversos estados brasileiros, principalmente, na arborização urbana. Nos últimos anos, foram registrados surtos anuais deste inseto, principalmente no estado do Rio de Janeiro, com desfolha intensa e conseqüente estresse fisiológico das árvores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em laboratório, o consumo foliar e aspectos biológicos de U. acawoios, alimentado com folíolos de C. fairchildiana em três diferentes estádios de maturidade: novos, intermediários e velhos. O consumo de lagartas de U. acawoios foi maior com folíolos novos e a duração das fases de desenvolvimento, a longevidade e o ciclo de vida desse inseto foram afetados pelo tipo de folíolo de C. fairchildiana. A porcentagem de sobrevivência de U. acawoios foi maior para indivíduos alimentados com folíolos de C. fairchildiana de maturidade intermediária.Clitoria fairchildiana (Leguminosae: Faboideae is a tree used in several Brazilian states in the urban arborization and is the main host of Urbanus acawoios (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae. Annual outbreaks of this defoliator insect was registered in the last years mainly in Rio de Janeiro state where these trees are submitted a physiologic stress after being completely stripped. The aim of this study is to evaluate the leaf consumption and biological aspects of U. acawoios caterpillars fed with C. fairchildiana leaflets in laboratory in three maturity stages: new, middlemen and old. The consumption of U. acawoios caterpillars was larger with new leaflets and the duration of the development stages, the longevity and the life cycle were affected for the type of C. fairchildiana leaflet. The U. acawoios survival percentage were larger for individuals fed with C. fairchildiana middlemen leaflets.

  19. Eficácia do diflubenzuron no controle de Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura em jovens pacus Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae naturalmente infectados - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1235 Diflubenzuron effectiveness in Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura control in juvenile pacus Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae naturally infected - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1235

    Julieta Rodini Engrácia de Moraes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste ensaio, avaliou-se a eficácia terapêutica do diflubenzuron contra o crustáceo Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacea: Branchiura em pacus Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg 1887 (Osteichthyes: Characidae naturalmente infestados. A droga foi aplicada três vezes na concentração de 2,0 mg/L de água, na forma de banhos com trinta minutos de duração e intervalo de 24 horas. Um grupo controle foi submetido ao mesmo procedimento, sem a adição do fármaco à água. A avaliação parasitológica revelou que a eficácia da droga foi de 97,2%. No grupo tratado houve redução da glicemia, aumento da quantidade de eritrócitos, redução do percentual de células granulocíticas especiais e aumento da quantidade de trombócitos circulantes coincidentes com a eliminação dos parasitos, quando comparado ao grupo controle. Os resultados indicam que ocorreu melhora marcante na saúde dos peixesThis research evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of diflubenzuron against Dolops carvalhoi (Crustacean: Branchiura in Piaractus mesopotamicus (Osteichthyes: Characidae naturally infested. The drug was applied three times, at a dose of 2.0 mg/L of water, in the form of baths within thirty minutes and an interval of 24 hours. A control group was submitted to the same procedure, but without pharmaco in the water. The parasitological evaluation showed that the drug effectiveness was 97.2%. In the treated group there were glycemia reduction, increase in the erythrocyte number, decrease in the percentage of special granulocytic cells and increase in the number of circulant trombocytes similar to the parasites elimination when compared to the control group. Results showed an important improvement in fish health

  20. Intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and ingestive behavior of sheep fed cashew nut meal Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo em ovinos alimentados com farelo de castanha de caju

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior of sheep fed rations with cashew nut meal (CNM at the levels of 0; 10; 20 and 30% in the concentrate ration. It was used a double 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter, crude protein, mineral matter, non-fibrous carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients were not influenced by the addition of CNM, however, intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber and total carbohydrates presented a quadratic behavior with the increase of content of lipids in the ration. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, crude protein, NDF, acid detergent fiber and non-fibrous carbohydrates was not influenced by the addition of CNM in the rations; however digestibility of ether extract and total carbohydrates presented quadratic and linear behavior, respectively. It was not observed any significant differences in time spent with feeding and rumination, however, total chewing time was influenced, presenting increasing linear behavior with the levels of CNM. Concerning to intakes of dry matter and NDF per hour, feed efficiency and rumination were not affected by increase on lipid content in the rations. Ruminating chews time per rumen bolus, number of ruminated boli and the number of ruminating chews per day were not influenced by experimental rations. In sheep feeding management, it is suggested as a feeding alternative the use of up to 30% of CNM in the concentrate ration if it is available.Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com rações contendo farelo de castanha de caju (FCC nos níveis de 0; 10; 20 e 30% na ração concentrada. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi quadrado latino 4 × 4 duplo. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, matéria mineral, carboidratos n

  1. Determination of metallothionein levels in tissues of young rats fed zinc-enriched diets Determinação dos níveis de metalotioneínas em tecidos de ratos jovens alimentados com dietas enriquecidas com zinco

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    2001-12-01

    metalotioneínas (MT's em tecidos de ratos alimentados com diferentes concentrações de zinco, a fim de observar a resposta dos animais ao metal em relação a diferentes tipos de ração e checar se esta medida poderia ser utilizada como parâmetro para avaliar o estado nutricional relativo ao zinco. Trinta e dois ratos machos Wistar, recém desmamados, foram distribuídos em 4 grupos experimentais, acondicionados em gaiolas individuais, com livre acesso à água desmineralizada e às rações com diferentes concentrações de zinco, chamadas RC (dieta semelhante à AIN93 e RH (dieta habitual do restaurante universitário, ambas não suplementadas, e RCS e RHS, seus pares suplementados. Após 4 semanas, os animais foram sacrificados e o fígado, os rins, os fêmures e os testículos foram isolados para determinar-se as concentrações de metalotioneínas por meio de um ensaio de afinidade Cd/Hb. O conteúdo de zinco foi determinado por espectroscopia de absorção atômica de chama. Os resultados mostraram que a suplementação com zinco não produziu mudanças no perfil de metalotioneínas dos tecidos a partir das doses administradas. As concentrações médias mais elevadas foram encontradas no fígado, 36,21 ± 0,88 µg/g (média para os grupos RC e RCS e 28,92 ± 5,32 µg/g (média para os grupos RH e RHS. As concentrações de metalotioneína nos testículos foram significativamente altas, considerando o pequeno volume do órgão - 19,29 ± 0,54 µg/g (média para os grupos RC e RCS e 17,22 ± 1,07 µg/g (média para os grupos RH e RHS. Aumentos significativos nas concentrações de zinco foram observados nos fígados de animais jovens suplementados com o metal, 38,94 ± 3,43 µg/g de tecido para RCS e 42,83 ± 2,78 µg/g de tecido para RHS, e nos fêmures, 140,04 ± 6,03 µg/g de tecido para RCS e 86,57 ± 6,95 mg/g de tecido para RHS. As diferentes matrizes alimentares pelas quais o zinco foi veiculado não provocaram mudanças na resposta metabólica adaptativa de

  2. Desempenho de pintos de corte alimentados com rações contendo milho pré-gelatinizado Performance of broiler chicks fed pre-gelatinized corn in pre-starter and starter feed

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos para avaliar o valor nutricional do milho pré-gelatinizado para frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o metabolismo do milho pré-gelatinizado, do amido e do gérmen de milho pelo método da colheita total de excretas no período de 4 a 7 dias de idade para determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente e aparente corrigida, que foram de 3.370, 3.379,7, 3.259,1 kcal/kg de EMA e 3.299,8, 3.369,7 e 3.051,6 kcal/kg de EMAn, para o milho pré-gelatinizado, o amido de milho e o gérmen de milho integral, respectivamente. No segundo e terceiro experimentos, utilizaram-se 200 pintos alimentados com rações pré-iniciais (fase de 1 a 7 dias de idade e iniciais com 0, 20, 40 ou 60% de milho pré-gelatinizado em substituição ao milho-grão. O desempenho dos frangos no período de 1 a 7 dias não foi afetado pelos níveis de milho pré-gelatinizado na ração. Houve nesse período efeito quadrático sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade da matéria seca (ponto de mínima de 28,6% e do nitrogênio (ponto de mínima de 31,7% e efeito linear negativo sobre o coeficiente de digestibilidade do extrato etéreo. No período de 8 a 21 dias de idade, para os níveis de milho pré-gelatinizado, houve efeito linear negativo sobre o peso final, o ganho de peso e o consumo de ração e efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar (ponto de máxima de 34,3%. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, do nitrogênio e do extrato etéreo indicaram efeito linear positivo dos níveis de substituição do milho-grão moído pelo pré-gelatinizado. O milho pré-gelatinizado é uma boa alternativa para alimentação de pintos de corte na fase pré-inicial, porém, apesar do melhor aproveitamento nutricional da ração, piora o desempenho na fase de 8 a 21 dias de idade.Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance and nutritional value of the extruded

  3. Desempenho de cordeiros Santa Inês alimentados com dietas completas contendo feno de maniçoba Performance of Santa Inês lambs fed total mixed rations containing different ratios of concentrate to ceara rubbertree hay

    Jacilene Maria da Cunha Castro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dieta completa formulada com diferentes proporções de feno de maniçoba. Foram utilizados 32 animais Santa Inês machos, não-castrados (idade inicial de 70 dias e peso vivo de 16,02±2,37 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. As dietas foram constituídas de concentrado e feno de maniçoba (FM nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%. As proporções de feno na dieta não influenciaram os consumos de MS, PB e CT, cujas médias diárias foram 1,214; 0,201 e 0,816 kg, respectivamente. Os níveis de feno tiveram efeito linear positivo sobre o consumo de FDN e efeito linear negativo sobre o consumo de EM e CNF. O ganho de peso diário foi afetado pelos níveis de feno na dieta, apresentando médias de 290,84; 293,62; 253,35 e 208,48 g, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba. As dietas influenciaram a conversão (Y = 3,332+0,028x e a eficiência alimentar (Y = 0,280,0013x. Pela análise econômica, observaram-se relações custo:benefício de 1,49; 1,57; 1,69 e 1,84 para os níveis de 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno de maniçoba na dieta. O custo operacional efetivo por quilograma de carcaça produzida foi de R$ 3,68; R$ 3,49; R$ 3,23 e R$ 2,98, respectivamente, para as dietas com 20, 40, 60 e 80% de feno. A inclusão de 80% de feno de maniçoba em dietas completas possibilitou a obtenção de desempenho satisfatório dos cordeiros e melhor retorno financeiro.The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of different dietary ratios of concentrate (C to ceara rubbertree hay (CRH; Manihot Glaziovii Muell. Arg. on performance of lambs. Thirty two intact Santa Inês lambs averaging 70 days of age and 16.02±2.371 kg of body weight were fed one of the following four treatments as total mixed rations: 80C:20CRH (diet A, 60C:40CRH (diet B, 40C:60CRH (diet C, or 20C:80CRH (diet D in a completely

  4. Fermentação ruminal e eficiência microbiana em bezerros holandeses alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Ruminal fermentation and microbial efficiency in Holstein calves fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Peter Johann Bürger

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado sobre os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal, as digestibilidades aparente, total, ruminal e intestinal de N, a eficiência microbiana e o balanço de N. Cinco bezerros holandeses, inteiros, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com idade média inicial de 5,8±0,7 meses e 107,4±11,0 kg PV médio inicial, foram distribuídos em quadrado latino 5x5 (tratamento x período. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados à vontade com dietas contendo 30,0; 45,0; 60;0; 75,0; e 90,0% de concentrado, com base na MS, em rações contendo como volumoso, o feno de capim coast-cross e no concentrado, o farelo de soja, fubá de milho. Os valores de pH foram influenciados pelos níveis de concentrado das rações, e , 11,3 horas após a alimentação, foram estimandos os valores mínimos de 6,10; 5,89; 5,67; 5,46; e 5,24, para as rações com níveis de 30,0; 45,0; 60,0; 75,0; e 90,0%de concentrado nas rações, respectivamente. A concentração de amônia ruminal reduziu linearmente, em função dos tempos pós-alimentação, apresentando comportamento quadrático, com valores mínimos de 6,84; 7,14; 7,63; 7,82; 8,09; e 8,00 mg/dL, para 86,31; 84,86; 83,41; 81,95; 77,59; e 68,86% de concentrado nas rações. O numero de protozoários ruminais reduziu linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas rações. A eficiência de síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos aumentou linearmente com os níveis de concentrado nas rações.ABSTRACT - This work was conducted to evaluate the effects of different concentrate levels on the parameters of at ruminal fermentation, the apparent, total, ruminal and intestinal N digestibilities, the microbial efficiency and the N balance. Five rumen and abomasum fistulated bull Holstein calves, with an initial average age of 5.8±0.7 months and initial average of 107.4±11.0 kg LW were allotted to a 5x5

  5. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    tamanhos de 5mm e partícula inteira não afetaram o pH ruminal (P>0,05, registrando-se valores médios de pH 6,14 e 6,61, respectivamente. Verificou-se redução linear no pH ruminal dos novilhos alimentados com a dieta constituída com partícula de 10mm e constatou-se efeito quadrático para a dieta constituída com tamanho de partícula de feno de Tifton 7mm, apresentando pH mínimo de 5,39 a 8:00 horas após o fornecimento da alimentação. As concentrações de N-NH3 foram influenciadas quadraticamente pelos tempos de coleta, registrando concentrações máximas, de 15,55; 15,83; 18,32; 12,00mg/100mL de N-NH3 às 4:28; 3:58; 2:99 e 2:80 horas após alimentação, para as dietas constituídas de feno de Tifton 85 inteiro, picado em 5mm, 7mm e 10mm, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que todas as dietas permitiram padrões nictemerais normais de fermentação.

  6. Composição física da carcaça e aspectos qualitativos da carne de bovinos de diferentes raças alimentados com diferentes níveis de energia Physical composition of carcass and qualitative characteristics of meat of young bulls from different breed fed diets with different energy levels

    Ivan Luiz Brondani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar as características qualitativas da carcaça e da carne de bovinos machos não-castrados abatidos aos 13-14 meses de idade, foram utilizados 16 animais, oito Aberdeen Angus (AA e oito Hereford (HE, alimentados na fase de terminação com dietas formuladas com dois níveis de energia digestível (ED, o menor 3,07 Mcal/kg de ED (12% de concentrado e o maior 3,18 Mcal/kg de ED (32% de concentrado. Os animais foram confinados a partir dos 9 meses de idade com peso médio de 220,31 kg e foram abatidos quando, por estimativa, o peso da carcaça atingiu, no mínimo, 190 kg. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (duas raças vs dois níveis de energia. A carne dos animais HE perdeu menos líquido durante os processos de descongelamento e cocção. Além disso, apresentou maior maciez pelo painel de avaliadores e pelo aparelho Shear Force. As carcaças dos animais que receberam o maior nível de energia na dieta apresentaram maior proporção de músculo e, durante o processo de descongelamento, perdeu menos líquido (2,54 vs 7,22%. Quando avaliada pelo aparelho Shear Force, a carne dos animais alimentados com maior nível de energia na dieta mostrou-se mais macia. Verificou-se interação significativa raça ´ nível de energia para o sabor e a coloração da carne, de modo que a carne dos animais AA, alimentados com menor nível de energia, mostrou-se mais saborosa e com melhor coloração.The objective of this trial was to study the physical composition of carcass and the qualitative characteristics of the meat of 16 finishing young bulls, eight Aberdeen Angus (AA and eight Hereford (HE, fed diets with two energy levels (lower: 3.07 Mcal/kg of digestible energy - 12% of concentrate; or higher: 3.18 Mcal/kg of digestible energy - 32% of concentrate. Animals were feedlot fed since 9 months of age and an average body weight of 220.31 kg and were slaughtered

  7. Centesimal composition and physicochemical parameters of meat from santa inês lambs fed with passion fruit peelComposição centesimal e parâmetros físico-químicos da carne de cordeiros santa inês alimentados com casca de maracúja

    Cristiane Leal dos Santos-Cruz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the centesimal composition and some physicochemical parameters in the longissimus lumborum muscle from non castrated Santa Ines lambs, fed diets containing different proportions of passion fruit peel, in the following treatments: T1: 100% elephant grass, T2: 90% elephant grass + 10% dried passion fruit peel, T3: 80% elephant grass + 20% dried passion fruit peel, T4: 70% elephant grass + 30% dried passion fruit peel based on the elephant grass natural matter. The inclusion of 30% passion fruit peel in the diet of Santa Inez lambs turned the meat less intensely red (a = 7.40 but with a stronger hue (h = 59.75 than that resulting from the 10% addition. The water retention capacity was higher in the meat of lambs fed 30% passion fruit peel, as well as, shear force (0.50 and pH (6.40, but these values are adequate to assure quality. Protein content, minerals and energy did not change, but neither did their values fall below the level desired by industry. Lipid content was higher in the meat of lambs fed 20% of passion fruit peel. Therefore, the inclusion of 30% of passion fruit peel in the silage of growing Santa Inês lambs is recommended, because it improves the quality and nutritional parameters of the meat. Objetivou-se determinar a composição centesimal e alguns parâmetros físico químicos no músculo Longissimus lumborum de 16 cordeiros Santa Inês, não castrados, alimentados com diferentes dietas contendo casca desidratada de maracujá, sendo os tratamentos T1: 100% capim elefante; T2: 90% capim elefante + 10% casca desidratada de maracujá; T3: 80% capim elefante + 20% casca desidratada de maracujá; T4: 70% capim elefante + 30% casca desidratada de maracujá com base na matéria natural do capim elefante. A inclusão de 30% de casca desidratada de maracujá na dieta de cordeiros Santa Inês tornou a carne com um vermelho menos intenso (a=7,40, mas com grau de tonalidade maior (h=59,75 em relação

  8. Atividade microbiana cecal e contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes fontes de fibra e níveis de amido Caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with different starch levels and fiber sources

    Alex Martins Varela de Arruda

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo a avaliação da atividade microbiana cecal e a contribuição nutricional da cecotrofia em coelhos alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de amido (22 a 32% em média mediante a inclusão de milho grão e diferentes fontes de fibra (feno de alfafa ou casca de soja, em esquema fatorial 2x2. No primeiro experimento, 40 coelhos alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e alimentados à vontade dos 45 aos 85 dias de idade, foram abatidos para coleta dos conteúdos ileais e cecais. A concentração de ácidos graxos voláteis foi influenciada pela interação entre tratamentos, sendo 93,82 mmol/l para ração de maior nível de amido com casca de soja e 80,03 mmol/l para ração de menor nível de amido com feno de alfafa. No segundo experimento, 40 coelhos aos 65 dias de idade, alojados em gaiolas de engorda individuais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram alimentados à vontade por 10 dias, e receberam colares de madeira para permitir a coleta total de cecotrofos. Houve influência da interação entre tratamentos sobre os teores de proteína e energia dos cecotrofos, sendo de 29,66% e 4204,87 kcal/kg para ração contendo maiores níveis de amido e casca de soja e de 27,98% e 4080,46 kcal/kg para ração contendo menores níveis de amido e feno de alfafa. As rações de alto amido ou com casca de soja propiciaram maior enriquecimento do conteúdo cecal e melhor aporte nutricional para os coelhos.The objective of this study was to evaluate the caecal microbial activity and caecotrophy nutritional contribution in rabbits fed diets with differents starch levels (22 or 32% on average from a high or low inclusion of corn grain and differents fiber sources (alfalfa hay or soybean hulls, in a 2x2 factorial design. In the first experiment, 40 rabbits were individually housed in fattening cages within entirely randomized design, and fed ad libitum from 45 to 85

  9. High-voltage-powered transistorized preamplifier; Pre-amplificateur transistorise avec alimentation haute tension; Vysokovol'tnyj ehnergeticheskij predvaritel'nyj usilitel' na tranzistorakh; Preamplificador transistorizado alimentado con alta tension

    Wilson, Jr, W E; Wakefield, A W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    transistorizado unico en su genero utilizado con gran exito en la Universidad de Washington. El circuito en cuestion tiene la particularidad de que el transistor esta alimentado con la alta tension suministrada al detector de radiaciones. Con los dos transistores de union PNP empleados en el preamplificador se obtiene una ganancia de tension unidad en un intervalo dinamico de 1 mV a 5 V. La tension de trabajo del transistor con carga en el emisor se estabiliza mediante un pequeno diodo Zener. El consumo de corriente de detector de centelleo distante que utiliza el circuito esta comprendido entre 0,35 y 0.65 mA cuando la alta tension suministrada varia entre 800 y 1500 V. El dispositivo alimenta 500 pies de cable coaxial de 52 {Omega} con una perdida de un 25% en la amplitud del impulso. Se ha utilizado con excelentes resultados, con detectores de centelleo alejados y detectores neutronicos de BF{sub 3}. (author) [Russian] Odnoj iz problem, chasto vstrechayushchikhsya v oblasti yadernoj ehlektroniki, yavlyaetsya problema svyazi signala, idushchego s impul'nogo detektora izluchenij vysokogo soprotivleniya, s liniej peredachi nizkogo soprotivleniya. Inymi slovami detektory izluchenij i svyazannoe s nimi schetnoe oborudovanie chasto razdelyayutsya znachitel'nym rasstoyaniem, poehtomu sleduet predusmatrivat' nadezhnye sredstva peredachi signala iz detektora v schetnuyu sistemu. Prakticheski dlya linii peredachi ispol'zuetsya koaksial'nyj kabel' s nizkim soprotivleniem, a dlya polucheniya trebuemoj soglasovannosti impedansov ispol'zuetsya skhema s katodnym vykhodom ili skhema s ehmitternym vykhodom. V dannom doklade daetsya opisanie unikal'noj skhemy s ehmitternym vykhodom, kotoraya uspeshno primenyalas' v Vashingtonskom universitete. Skhema ehmitternogo vykhoda yavlyaetsya unikal'noj v tom smysle, chto istochnikom ehnergii tranzistornoj skhemy sluzhit vysokoe napryazhenie, podavaemoe detektoru izlucheniya. Primenenie v predvaritel'nom usilitele dvukh splavlennykh tranzistorov s

  10. Perfil metabólico de Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Aeglidae, Anomura submetida a dietas ricas em carboidratos ou proteínas Metabolic profile of Aegla platensis Schmitt, (Crustacea, Anomura submitted to carbohydrate-rich or high-protein diets

    Bibiana Della P. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidratos e uma dieta rica em proteínas sobre o metabolismo de Aegla platensis, um caranguejo anomuro de água doce. Os animais foram coletados no Arroio do Mineiro, município de Taquara, Rio Grande do Sul, em agosto/2002 e janeiro/2003, e foram alimentados durante 15 dias com carne bovina crua e arroz branco, em aquários aerados. O fotoperíodo foi controlado: 12 horas claro - 12 horas escuro. Glicose, proteínas, lipídios e triglicerídios foram dosados na hemolinfa; glicogênio e lipídios foram dosados no hepatopâncreas, brânquias e músculo. Em Aegla platensis, mantida em condições de laboratório, em todos os tecidos estudados pode ser observado que o aporte regular de alimento, bem como o tipo de dieta administrada determinaram um perfil diferenciado de resposta metabólica entre os sexos e o período de realização dos experimentos (inverno e verão.The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a carbohydrate-rich and a high-protein diets on metabolism of Aegla platensis, a freshwater anomuram crab. The animals were collected in Mineiro Creek, Taquara city, Rio Grande do Sul, at august/2002 and january/2003, and were feed during 15 days with crude bovine meat and white rice, in an aerated aquarium. The photoperiod was controlled: 12 hours day - 12 hours night. Glucose, proteins, lipids and triglycerides were dosed in haemolymph; glycogen and lipids were dosed in hepatopancreas, gills and muscle tissues. In Aegla platensis, maintained in laboratory conditions, in all studied tissues can be seen that the regular food intake, as well as the kind of administered diet determinated a differential profile of metabolic response between sexes and the period of the experiments performance (winter and summer.

  11. Composición taxonómica del zooplancton del embalse de Betania, departamento del Huila, Colombia

    Yimy Herrera Martinez

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the species composition of the zooplancton in the reservoir Betania (altitude; 560 m.a.s.l.; area: 7.4 km2; vol: 1971 x 106 m3; mean depht 28 m, at seven sites and several depths, bimonthly net samples (100 and 200 microns mesh size were taken during 1991.  Alltogether 24 species were found: Thermocyclops decipiens (Crustacea, Copepoda, Moina sp., Ceriodaphnia cornuta y Allona sp. (Crustacea, Cladocera; 19 species of rotífers, of which 7 belong to the genus Brachionus, as well as larvas of the dipter Chaoborus sp. For the first time Brachionus havanaensis, B. falcatus falcatus, b. quadridentatus, y Platyias cuadricornis  f. brevispinus  were found in Colombia.  The species composition was compared with the composition of other lakes and comparison shows that the Betania reservoir has a typical species composition for warms tropical lakes.

  12. Desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane based diets with two levels of concentrate

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em duas relações volumoso:concentrado (60:40 ou 40:60. Os animais foram mantidos confinados individualmente com controle do alimento fornecido e das sobras e pesados semanalmente para determinação do ganho de peso diário e da conversão alimentar. Simultaneamente, foram realizados ensaios de digestibilidade e metabolismo para determinação do consumo e da digestibilidade dos nutrientes e do balanço de nitrogênio das dietas experimentais. O ganho de peso foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho, de 294,6 g/dia, e com a relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60, de 314,3 g/dia. A relação volumoso:concentrado influenciou apenas os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA digestíveis, cujos maiores valores, de 125,26 e 48,97 g/dia, foram obtidos com a relação volumoso:concentrado 60:40. Os cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram maior consumo de todos os nutrientes digestíveis, exceto proteína bruta (162,00 g/dia e carboidratos não-fibrosos (471,42 g/dia. As maiores digestibilidades de matéria orgânica (80,34% e carboidratos totais (80,71% foram obtidas com a relação 40:60 e as de matéria seca (78,91%, proteína bruta (81,30% e energia bruta (78,77%, nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Os maiores valores de nitrogênio ingerido, absorvido e retido, de 32,6; 20,5 e 13,7 g/dia, respectivamente, foram observados com o fornecimento das dietas com 40% de volumoso. O tipo de volumoso influencia mais a digestibilidade dos nutrientes que sua proporção na dieta.Thirty-two non castrated Ile de France lambs fed corn silage or sugar-cane based diets with two roughage:concentrate ratios (60:40 or 40:60 were used. The animals were kept individually confined with control of the supplied food and leftovers, weekly weighted for determination of

  13. Alterações histopatológicas em girinos de rã-touro alimentados com rações comerciais de diferentes níveis protéicos Histopathological alterations in bullfrog tadpoles fed commercial diets with three levels of crude protein

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Realizaram-se necropsia e exame histopatológico de girinos de rã-touro (Rana catesbeiana alimentados com rações comerciais formuladas com 32, 36, 45 ou 55% de proteína bruta (PB visando estabelecer a relação entre o nível de proteína bruta da ração e a sanidade do animal. Na necropsia, os girinos não apresentaram externamente nenhuma alteração aparente, no entanto, o fígado dos animais, em todos os níveis de proteína bruta, apresentou-se de cor palha e manchado. Na análise histopatológica, observaram-se fígados com rarefação e degeneração celular protéica, intestinos com colite e achatamento das microvilosidades; baço com hiperplasia linfocitária; coração sem nenhuma alteração; rins com glomerulonefrite e áreas de tubulonefroses; gastrite mononuclear e hiperplasia e hipertrofia dos linfonodos regionais. Em todos os órgãos, verificou-se depósito de hemossiderina. Essas lesões sugerem quadro degenerativo nutricional, com desenvolvimento de processos inflamatórios, se difundindo para todos os órgãos. Os resultados sugerem que os animais foram alimentados com rações com proteínas de baixo valor biológico, portanto, de má qualidade, o que comprometeu a sanidade e o desempenho dos animais. Estudos complementares são necessários para compreensão do comportamento bioquímico de rãs-touro na fase de girino visando à nutrição adequada desses animais.Necropsy and histological examination were made on bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana tadpoles fed commercial rations with 32, 36, 45 or 55% crude protein (CP to establish the relationship between dietary crude protein and health of the animal. In the necropsy, the tadpoles did not show externally any changes, however, the liver of animals at all crude protein levels, presented a straw color and stained. Histological analysis showed livers with rarefaction and degeneration of cell protein, intestines, with colitis and flattening of microvilli, spleen with lymphocyte

  14. Avaliação de parâmetros da biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos alimentados com dietas à base de milho e sorgo Evaluation of anaerobic biodigestion parameters of swine waste fed with diets based on corn and sorghum

    Marco A. P. Orrico Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da dieta à base de sorgo em substituição à de milho na composição e no tratamento dos dejetos. Foram utilizados 24 biodigestores batelada de bancada, dos quais 12 foram abastecidos com dejetos de suínos alimentados com dieta á base de milho, e o restante, com dieta á base de sorgo. A cada 30 dias foram esvaziados três biodigestores dentro de cada dieta, em um total de quatro tempos de retenção hidráulica (TRH 30; 60; 90 e 120 dias. Para avaliar a eficiência do processo de biodigestão anaeróbia, foram avaliadas as reduções de sólidos totais, sólidos voláteis totais, demanda química de oxigênio, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio, número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, além dos potenciais de produção do biogás e metano. Os resultados mostraram que os dejetos dos suínos alimentados com dietas à base de sorgo apresentaram menor eficiência no processo, principalmente nos potenciais de produção de biogás e metano. Em média, os potenciais foram 8,6% menor (PThe aim of this work was to evaluate the interference of a diet based on sorghum in substitution of corn in the compound and treatment of waste. Twenty four batch digesters of bench with capacity of 12 liters, from which 12 were provided with swine waste that were fed with a diet base on corn and the others with a diet based on sorghum. At every 30 days, 3 digesters of each diet were emptied, in a total of 4 hydraulic retention times (HRT: 30; 60; 90 and 120 days. For evaluating the efficiency of anaerobic biodigestion process, reduction of total solids, total volatile solids, chemical demand of oxygen, biochemical demand of oxygen, the most probably number (NMP of total and thermo tolerant coliforms, besides potentials of biogas and methane production were evaluated. Results showed that swine waste that were fed with diets based on sorghum, presented a smaller efficiency of the

  15. Desempenho e características de carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado adicionadas de agentes tamponantes Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed high grain diets with buffer compounds

    Adilson Luis Gastaldello Junior

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar os efeitos da adição de bicarbonato de sódio ou de fontes de calcário com diferentes granulometrias na ração, associadas ou não a monensina sódica, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de cordeiros confinados recebendo dietas contendo alta proporção de concentrado. Quarenta e dois cordeiros Santa Inês com peso inicial de 21 ± 3 kg e 88 ± 5 dias de idade foram distribuídos em blocos completos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2 × 3, com seis tratamentos e sete repetições. Os animais foram alimentados com rações contendo 90% de concentrado, 10% de feno de "coastcross", uma fonte de calcário (calcário calcítico ou calcário calcítico tipo filler ou bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3, com ou sem adição de monensina sódica (30 mg/kg da MS. Não foi observada influência dos agentes tamponantes no consumo de matéria seca e no ganho de peso médio diário. Entretanto, a conversão alimentar dos animais alimentados com as rações contendo monensina sódica (3,32 kg MS/kg de ganho foi melhor que naqueles que consumiram as rações sem esse aditivo (3,58 kg MS/kg de ganho. Não houve efeito dos agentes tamponantes nos parâmetros de carcaça avaliados, observando-se valores médios de 50,4%; 2,4%; 13,9 cm² e 1,9 mm para o rendimento de carcaça quente, a perda por resfriamento, a área de olho-de-lombo e a espessura de gordura, respectivamente. A adição de monensina melhora a conversão alimentar e pode aumentar a rentabilidade do sistema de produção de cordeiros confinados.The objective of this study was to assess the effects of adding sodium bicarbonate or limestone sources with different particle sizes to the diet, and their interaction with sodium monensin, on the performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed fed high grain diets. Forty two Santa Ines lambs were used with 21 ± 3 kg initial average body weight and 88 ± 5 days old in feedlot, placed a

  16. Composição em ácidos graxos e qualidade da carne de tourinhos Nelore e Canchim alimentados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Fatty acids composition and meat quality of Nellore and Canchim young bulls fed sugar cane-based diets with two concentrate levels

    Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes Fernandes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos e a qualidade do contrafilé (músculo Longissimus lumborum de tourinhos das raças Nelore e Canchim. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado (40 e 60% na matéria seca. Os concentrados foram compostos de grãos de girassol, milho, farelo de soja, levedura seca de cana-de-açúcar, uréia e núcleo mineral. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 × 2 (grupo genético × nível de concentrado. Não foram observadas diferenças nos teores de umidade, proteína e extrato etéreo da carne. Os animais da raça Nelore apresentaram maiores concentrações de ácido linoléico conjugado (0,52%, ácidos graxos insaturados (46,82% e também relações mais elevadas de ácidos graxos insaturados:saturados (1,02 e monoinsaturados:saturados (0,86 em comparação aos tourinhos da raça Canchim. Os tourinhos da raça Canchim apresentaram maior intensidade das cores vermelha e amarela no contrafilé e maior luminosidade da gordura de cobertura. Houve interação para força de cisalhamento, que foi menor nos tourinhos Nelore alimentados com 40% de concentrado. Tourinhos da raça Nelore apresentam carne com melhor composição de ácidos graxos na gordura intramuscular do ponto de vista da saúde humana.The objective of this work was to evaluate the fatty acids composition and the qualitative and chemical characteristics of the loin meat (Longissimus lumborum muscle of Nellore and Canchim young bulls. The animals were fedlot finished and fed sugar cane-based diets with two concentrate levels (40 and 60% of dry matter. The concentrates were formulated with sunflower grains, corn, soybean meal, dry sugar cane yeast from sugar and alcohol industry, urea and mineral mixture. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement

  17. Incidência de ascite em diferentes categorias genéticas de frangos de corte alimentados com rações de alto nível energético Incidence of ascites on different genetic categories of broilers fed with high-energy diet

    Manoel Garcia Neto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de ascite em avós, matrizes e frangos de corte, de uma mesma linhagem comercial, alimentados com ração de alto nível energético, de um dia a 39 dias de idade. Todas as aves foram criadas como frangos de corte, recebendo ração ad libitum com 3.050 kcal/EM; foram utilizadas aves da linha fêmea e linha macho e frangos de corte. Um total de 2.700 aves foram usadas, alojadas ao acaso em um galpão experimental de 8x76 m, utilizando-se 27 boxes de 3x3,5 m, com 100 aves por divisão, sendo três repetições por tratamento, em esquema fatorial. A incidência de ascite não dependeu da categoria genética das aves.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of ascites on grand parents, breeders and commercial broilers from the same genetic strain of birds, fed with high energy level ration, from the first day of age to 39 days old. All birds were grown as commercial broilers receiving a ration ad libitum with 3,050 kcal/ME; birds from female line, male line and commercial broilers were tested. A total of 2,700 birds were housed at random in a experimental facility of 8x76 m, with 27 compartments of 3x3.5 m each and 100 birds per division. A factorial design was used with three replications per treatment. The incidence of ascites was not dependent on genetic category.

  18. Comparación del comportamiento en la red eléctrica del aerogenerador asincrónico de jaula de ardilla y el doblemente alimentado; Comparison of the Behavior in the Electric Network of the Squirrel Cage Wind Turbine Generator and the Doubly Fed Wind Turbin

    Mariely Francisco Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se lleva a cabo un análisis comparativo entre estos dos tipos de aerogeneradores. Labase para la comparación es el comportamiento del generador en el sistema sujeto a diferentes tiposperturbaciones tales como: valles de tensión, cortocircuitos, rachas de viento y cambios de carga.Para lasimulación se utiliza el SimPowerSystem del MATLAB. Sus últimas versiones tienen entre sus herramientasmodelos de turbinas y generadores eólicos que facilitan mucho el trabajo.En el caso de los GeneradoresAsincrónicos con Rotor Jaula de ardilla se analizaron tanto el caso de Condensadores Variables enParalelo como la utilización de Compensadores Estáticos de Reactivo. Ésta última permite la regulación dela tensión en el punto de conexión del Aerogenerador. Finalmente, queda demostrada y bien argumentadaen el trabajo la superioridad del generador doblemente alimentado. In this paper, a comparative analysis of these two types of wind turbine generators is made. The base forthe comparison is the behaviour of the generator and the system submitted to different disturbances suchas voltage dips, short-circuits, winds gusts and load changes. The MATLAB SimPowerSystem toolbox isused for doing these analyses. Its last version has a Wind Turbine Generator tool that facilitates the work.In the case of the Cage Induction Generator, a changing paralleled capacitor bank and a static varcompensator are supposed and analyzed. It is demonstrated that the last one is capable of supportnetwork voltage. Finally, the superiority of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator is clearly demonstrated andwell argument. 

  19. Anaerobic biodigestion of pigs feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages fed with diets formulated with corn or sorghum Biodigestão anaeróbia de dejetos de suínos nas diferentes fases alimentados com dietas formuladas com milho ou sorgo

    Adélia P. Miranda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and the production of biogas and biofertilizer obtained from biodigester supplied with pig feces in the initial, growing and finishing stages, fed with diets formulated based on corn or sorghum. Twenty bench biodigesters were used with hydraulic retention time of 30 days and daily loads that contained 4 to 6% of total solids (TS and 3.6 to 5.2% of volatile solids (VS. In the effluent of the biodigesters, mean levels of TS were observed ranging between 1.6 and 2.0% and of VS between 1.2 and 1.6%. The mean reductions of TS were 57.7 to 64.7% and of VS from 61.7 to 69.0%, and there was only difference in the finishing phase, in which the major averages reductions were produced by the biodigesters supplied with feces from animals fed with diets based on corn. In biodigesters supplied with feces from animals in the initial and growing stages fed with diets based on corn, were observed higher average productions of biogas and the greatest average potentials of biogas production. The average potentials obtained were 0.033; 0.181; 0.685; 0.788 and 1.132 m³ per kg of affluent, manure, TS added, VS added and VS reduced, respectively. No differences were found on the average content of methane in the biogas between diets and stages. The average concentrations of nutrients N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu in the biodigester affluent and effluent, ranged between diets and stages.Objetivou-se avaliar a produção e a qualidade do biogás e do biofertilizante obtidos em biodigestores abastecidos com dejetos de suínos, nas fases inicial, crescimento e terminação, alimentados com dietas formuladas à base de milho ou sorgo. Foram utilizados 20 biodigestores de bancada, com tempo de retenção hidráulica de 30 dias, e cargas diárias que continham 4,0 a 6,0% de sólidos totais (ST e 3,6 a 5,2% de sólidos voláteis (SV. Nos efluentes dos biodigestores, foram verificados teores médios de ST

  20. Desempenho e características de carcaça de bovinos Nelore em confinamento alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e diferentes fontes energéticas Performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot Nellore fed diets containing sugarcane bagasse and different energy sources

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso e as características da carcaça de bovinos Nelore alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (in natura ou hidrolisado como volumoso e concentrado contendo farelo de gérmen de milho, casca do grão de soja ou polpa de citrus em substituição parcial (50% ao milho. Quarenta bovinos Nelore (peso médio inicial de 340 kg e idade inicial de 32 meses foram alimentados com quatro dietas fornecidas na proporção volumoso:concentrado 39:61. As fontes substitutivas do milho não afetaram o peso final (470,8; 478,6; 476,4 e 475,3 kg e o ganho médio diário (1,1; 1,1; 1,1 e 1,2 kg/animal/dia. Não houve efeito sobre o rendimento de carcaça (55,3; 55,3; 54,0 e 54,8%, a área de Longissimus (24,2; 23,0; 25,0 e 23,2 cm²/100 kg de carcaça e a espessura de gordura (4,4; 5,6; 4,7 e 4,4 mm. O menor custo por arroba foi observado no tratamento com polpa de citrus (R$ 44,20, seguido do farelo de gérmen de milho (R$ 48,80 e da casca de soja (R$ 50,80, porém, quando utilizado somente o milho, o custo da arroba foi de R$ 51,80. O milho moído pode ser parcialmente substituído pelo farelo de gérmen de milho, pela casca de soja ou pela polpa de citrus em dietas para bovinos em confinamento alimentados com bagaço de cana-de-açúcar (in natura ou hidrolisado como volumoso, pois a substituição não alterou o ganho de peso e as características de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to evaluate weight gain and carcass traits of feedlot Nellore fed diets containing sugarcane bagasse and one of the following concentrate sources: corn germ meal, soybean hulls or citrus pulp that partially (50% DM replaced ground corn in the diet. The four experimental diets were formulated to yield a forage:concentrate ratio of 39:61. Forty Nellore animals averaging 340 kg of body weight and 32 months of age at the beginning of the trial were used. No significant differences on final weight (470.8, 478.6, 476.4, and 475.3 kg, weight gain (1

  1. Biologia e pesca do camarão sete-barbas Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller (Crustacea, Penaeidae, na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brasil Fishery and Biology of the sea-bob-shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller (Crustacea, Penaeidae, at Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesca artesanal do camarão sete-barbas é denominada "pesca de sol a sol" e realizada em grande escala no litoral brasileiro, apresentando uma significativa importância econômica, histórica, social e cultural. Atualmente, a pesca desse camarão é considerada a de maior interesse econômico e o segundo recurso pesqueiro nas regiões Sudeste-Sul do Brasil. Com o objetivo de estudar a biologia e pesca do camarão sete-barbas na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha (26º40'-26º47'S e 48º36'-48º38'W, durante o período de agosto de 1996 a julho de 2003 foram realizadas coletas mensais com 30 minutos de duração. Foram registrados o número e a biomassa dos exemplares por arrasto, e entre anos de 1996-1997 e 1999-2001, também foram anotados o sexo, o comprimento e peso total, estádio de maturação. Além dessas informações, entre agosto de 1998 a julho de 1999 foi analisado a dieta natural da espécie. X. kroyeri (Heller, 1862 apresentou comprimento total variando entre 3,0 e 16,0 cm e flutuações sazonais na abundância e biomassa, com as maiores taxas de captura ocorreram durante os meses de verão e outono. A relação peso/comprimento indicou um padrão de crescimento tendendo ao isométrico com tamanho de primeira maturação entre 7,3 a 7,9 cm, alcançados em seis meses de idade. A espécie apresentou dois picos de desova ao longo do ano, sendo que a pesca artesanal vem atuando com maior intensidade sobre o estoque adulto. O espectro trófico foi composto por 30 itens, sendo que os Gammaridae, areia, outros Crustacea e matéria orgânica os elementos básicos na dieta da espécie. Em média, 67,82 barcos atuam durante oito meses por ano na pesca do camarão sete-barbas na Armação do Itapocoroy, podendo capturar em torno de 170 toneladas/ano.The artisanal fishery of the sea-bob-shrimp is known as "sun to sun fishery" and is developed in large scale along the Brazilian coast, playing a significant economic, historical, social and

  2. Importance of diet in the growth, survivorship and reproduction of the no-tillage pest Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda Importancia de la dieta en el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la reproducción de Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea: Isopoda plaga en siembra directa

    ARIEL J FABERI

    2011-09-01

    su desarrollo y se ha convertido en una plaga importante en algunos cultivos en Argentina. Se ha demostrado que la composición de los vegetales afecta la biología de los isópodos. Nuestra hipótesis fue que los residuos vegetales de la soja tienen un valor nutritivo alto lo cual permite a A. vulgare crecer más rápido, sobrevivir más y tener una fecundidad elevada favoreciendo el incremento poblacional y convirtiéndolo en plaga de cultivos. El crecimiento y la reproducción de juveniles y adultos, el período de incubación, el número de crías por hembra y el peso medio de las crías fueron determinados en individuos alimentados con residuos de soja, girasol, trigo y pastura. El coeficiente de la tasa de crecimiento, k, en los juveniles fue mayor para la soja, intermedio para la pastura y bajo para el girasol. El crecimiento de los adultos fue mayor con soja. La supervivencia con soja y pastura fue mayor que con girasol y trigo tanto en juveniles como en adultos. Los parámetros reproductivos fueron similares en todas las dietas, el alimento no generó ningún cambio en los aspectos reproductivos de A. vulgare. Los resultados del presente estudio representan una fuente de información acerca de la biología de A. vulgare con diferentes dietas de origen agrícola, lo que permitirá establecer las bases del Manejo Integrado de esta especie como plaga. Con la provisión de residuos de soja, A. vulgare encontró las mejores condiciones para crecer más rápido, sobrevivir por más tiempo y tener una fecundidad relativamente más elevada. En campos con soja como cultivo antecesor o en sistemas con una frecuencia alta de cultivos de soja en la rotación podría encontrarse una población más abundante y con individuos más grandes de A. vulgare los cuales podrían causar mayores daños al cultivo siguiente en la rotación.

  3. Assessment of Blood Chemistry, Weight Gain and Linear Body Measurements of Pre-Puberal Buck Rabbits Fed Different Levels of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Leaf Meals Evaluación de Química Sanguínea, Ganancia de Peso y Mediciones Corporales Lineales de Conejos Pre-Púberes Alimentados con Diferentes Niveles de Harina de Hojas de Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

    I.P Ogbuewu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 16 week feeding trial was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. leaf meal (NLM on body weight gain, linear body measurements and blood chemistry of pre-puberal buck rabbits. Four treatment diets were formulated to contain the NLM at inclusion levels of 0 (control, 5, 10 and 15%. Thirty six crossbred New Zealand white × Chinchilla pre-puberal buck rabbits aged 5 to 6 mo were divided into four groups of nine rabbits and each group was further replicated into three of three rabbits each. The rabbits were randomly assigned to the four dietary treatments. Lymphocyte count of rabbits fed control diet (8.32 × 10(9 mm-3 was significantly higher than the group fed 15% NLM (4.60 × 10(9 mm-3. The mean cell hemoglobin (MCH and mean cell volume (MCV of the control bucks were significantly (p 0.05 among the treatment groups. The results suggest that buck rabbits could tolerate up to 15% dietary inclusion of NLM without deleterious effects on body weight gain, linear body measurements and some hematological parameters.Se realizó un ensayo de alimentación de 16 semanas para investigar el efecto de harina de hojas de neem Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (NML sobre ganancia de peso, mediciones corporales lineales y química sanguínea de conejos machos pre-púberes. Se formularon cuatro dietas con niveles de inclusión de NLM de 0 (control, 5, 10, y 15%. Treinta y seis conejos híbridos New Zealand white × Chinchilla, pre-púberes, de 5 a 6 meses, se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos de nueve conejos, y cada grupo fue repetido en tres grupos de tres conejos cada uno. Los conejos se asignaron aleatoriamente a las cuatro dietas tratamiento. El recuento de linfocitos de los conejos alimentados con la dieta control (8,32 × 10(9 mm-3 fue significativamente mayor que el grupo alimentado con 15% NLM (4,60 × 10(9 mm-3. La hemoglobina celular media (MCH y el volumen celular medio (MCV de los conejos control fueron

  4. Desempenho e qualidade da carne de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de sorgo em substituição ao milho Effects on performance and meat quality of replacing corn with sorghum in a broiler diet

    R.G. Garcia

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o desempenho e a qualidade da carne de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de sorgo, do cultivar SAARA, com 0,49g/kg de tanino, em substituição ao milho. Os 2600 pintos sexados de um dia de idade, da linhagem Ross 308, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com esquema fatorial 5×2 (cinco níveis de sorgo - 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% e dois sexos, e quatro repetições de 65 aves por unidade experimental. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 da substituição do milho pelo sorgo sobre as características de desempenho, de rendimentos de carcaça, carne de peito e pernas, de composição química e sensoriais. O pH observado nas carnes de peito e pernas foi maior para os machos (PThe effects of diets with graded levels of SAARA sorghum, a variety containing 0.49g/kg of tannin, on broiler performance and meat quality were evaluated. One-day-old, sexed Ross 308 chicks (n=2600 were randomly assigned within sex to one of five levels of sorghum (replacement of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of corn in the diet. There were 65 birds per experimental unit in 4 replicates of the 5 sorghum level × 2 sex factorial design. Level of corn replacement by sorghum did not affect performance characteristics, carcass characteristics, main cut yield, muscle tissue chemical composition or sensory characteristics of the meat (P>0.05. Muscle tissue from males had higher pH values than that from females, and muscle pH decreased as sorghum replaced corn in the diet (P<0.05. Loin length, width and thickness were larger for males. Breast meat from males had higher cooking loss and required greater shear force than breast meat from females (P<0.05. With increasing level of sorghum in the diet, the L value (level of light of breast and leg muscle increased, whereas a value (redness and b value (yellowness decreased (P<0.05. In summary, replacing corn in the diet with increasing levels of sorghum did not affect live performance, carcass or main cut

  5. Métodos de colheita de fezes e balanço de minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas ou não com probiótico = Methods of feces collection and mineral balance of pigs fed diets supplemented or not with probiotic

    Rizal Alcides Robles-Huaynate

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo, utilizando-se oito suínos, machos castrados, em fase de crescimento, em cada ensaio. No ensaio 1, foram comparados os teores de MS, PB, EB, EE, MM e FDN das fezes colhidas por meio de dois métodos: diretamente do reto do animal ou da caixa coletora da gaiola, realizados simultaneamenteem cada suíno. No ensaio 2, foi estudado o balanço de minerais, sendo os animais submetidos a dois tratamentos: T1 - ração basal e T2 - ração basal + 200 ppm de probiótico. Os teores dos nutrientes mensurados foram similares nas fezes colhidas em ambos os métodos, com exceção da MS. Para o balanço de minerais, não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os animais alimentados com rações, contendo ou não probiótico. Ambos os métodos de colheita de fezes poderiam ser realizados, simultaneamente, em ensaios de balanço de minerais.Two metabolism assays were conducted, with eight growing castrated male crossbred pigs in each assay. In the first assay, the levels ofDM, CP, GE, EE, MM and NDF were compared in feces, collected through two different methods: directly from the animal’s rectum or from a collection tray, collected simultaneously from each pig. The second assay evaluated the animals’ mineral balance. For this study, the animals were submitted to two treatments: T1 - basal feed and T2 - basal feed + 200ppm of probiotic. The nutrients levels were similar in the feces collected through both methods, with the exception of DM. There was no observable difference (p > 0.05 in mineral balance between the animals fed diets containing or not probiotic. Both collection methods can be undertaken simultaneously in mineral balance assays.

  6. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. = Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.

    Agenor Costa Ribeiro Neto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma Orelhade-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergenteácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto comalimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que aeficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioralobservations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time spent with

  7. Parâmetros sangüíneos de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 alimentados com dietas suplementadas com cromo trivalente em duas densidades de estocagem = Hematological parameters of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 fed diets supplemented with trivalent chromium in two stocking densities

    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com cromo trivalente (0, 6, 12 e 18 mg kg-1 de ração sobre as variáveis hematológicas de Piaractus mesopotamicus, mantidos em duas densidades de estocagem (4 e 20 kg m-3. Os mantidos na maior densidade e alimentados com dietas suplementadas com 0 e 6 mg de cromo kg-1apresentaram redução do número de linfócitos circulantes, sugerindo má adaptação a essa condição de alta densidade. Nas dietas suplementadas com 12 e 18 mg kg-1, tal efeito não foi observado, porém verificou-se aumento do número de trombócitos no tratamento com 12 mg de cromo kg-1. A inexistência de diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, aos 30 dias, sugere a adaptação dos peixes ao tipo de alimento e à situação de alta densidade. Portanto, nas condições deste ensaio, a suplementação com 12 e 18 mg de cromo kg-1 é interessante como estratégia alimentar durante 15 dias.This work evaluated the effects of chromium supplementation on thehematological parameters of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 maintained in two stocking densities. Fish were fed diets supplemented with 0, 6, 12 and 18 mg trivalent chromium kg-1 dry ration and maintained at 4 and 20 kg m-3. The fish under high stockingdensity and fed diets supplemented with 0 and 6 mg kg-1 showed reduction in the number lymphocytes, which suggests non-adaptation to this condition of high density. This was not observed in fish fed diets supplemented with 12 and 18 mg chromium kg-1, but an increasein the number of thrombocytes was evident. The lack of difference between treatments after 30 days may suggest a possible adaptation of fish to the situation. It can be added that supplementation with 12 and 18 mg chromium kg-1 is an interesting feeding strategy for aperiod of 15 days.

  8. Propriedades da carne e perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos (Tayassu tajacu alimentados com torta de babaçu (Orbignya phalerata Meat properties and fatty acids profile of the ham of peccaries (Tayassu tajacu fed babassu (Orbignya phalerata meal

    N.I. Albuquerque

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se as propriedades da carne e o perfil de ácidos graxos do pernil de catetos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes porcentagens de torta de babaçu, usada como fonte energética alternativa substituindo parte do milho na alimentação, em sistemas de produção em cativeiro. Avaliou-se o pernil de 12 animais quanto às suas propriedades - perda de peso ao cozimento, força de cisalhamento, pH e capacidade de retenção de água-, depois extraiu-se o óleo da carne e determinou-se o perfil dos ácidos graxos. Não foram observados efeitos (P>0,05 das porcentagens de torta de babaçu sobre as propriedades da carne; os ácidos graxos (AG insaturados, mono e poli-insaturados, foram encontrados em maior quantidade (51,6-57,8% que os ácidos graxos saturados (42,2-48,4% na carne do pernil. Baseando-se na teoria de que os AG poli-insaturados ingeridos na dieta humana são responsáveis pela redução nos níveis séricos de colesterol, sugere-se que a carne de catetos seja uma boa fonte alternativa de proteína.The meat properties and the fatty acids profile of the ham of peccaries ham fed diets with different levels of babassu meal, used as an alternative energy source substituting part of corn on feeding peccaries in captivity, were studied. The ham meats of 12 animals were evaluated on their properties: cooking losses, shear force, pH, and water holding capacity. After that, the meat oil was extracted to determine the fatty acids contents. No effects (P>0.05 of the babassu meal levels on the meat properties were observed. The unsaturated fatty acids, mono and polyunsaturated, were found in higher quantity than the saturated fatty acids in the ham meat of peccaries. Based on the theory that the polyunsaturated fatty acids ingested in the human diet are responsible for reduction of the seric levels of cholesterol, it can be suggested that the peccary meat is a good alternative source of protein.

  9. Síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com resíduos de mandioca e cana-de-açúcar ensilados com polpa cítrica Efficiency of microbial protein in bovine fed with cassava residues and sugar cane ensiled with citric pulp

    Ana Karina Dias Salman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se estudar a síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos, quatro animais canulados no rúmen e duodeno foram alimentados com 4 dietas: 1- Dieta basal (DB, composta por silagem de milho (SMi e farelo de soja participando na proporção de 60% da matéria seca total das dietas à base de casca e raspa de mandioca; 2- DB + silagem de raspa de mandioca (SRp; 3- DB + silagem de casca de mandioca (SCc e 4- silagem de cana-de-açúcar (SCn, sendo as silagens SRp, SCc e SCn acrescidas da polpa cítrica peletizada como aditivo. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05 em relação à composição das bactérias isoladas do conteúdo ruminal de animais que recebiam as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana das dietas com SMi, SRp e SCc foram maiores (P With the goal to study the microbial protein synthesis in bovines, four duodenal and ruminant canuleted animals were arranged in a 4 x 4 Latin square and fed with diets formulated with: corn (CS, cassava meal (CMS, cassava hull (CHS or sugar cane (SCS silage. The CMS, CHS and SCS were mixed with citric pulp. The basal diet, composed by CS and soybean meal, participated in 60% of total dry matter of cassava diets. There was no difference (p > 0.05 among diets in relation to bacterial composition isolated from the animal's ruminant contents. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis of diets on CS, CMS and CHS were larger (p < 0.05 (32.1; 22.2; 26.1 gN/kg of organic matter apparently rumen degraded, respectively than CS (16.4 gN/kg OMARD.

  10. Composição corporal e crescimento de juvenis de piava alimentados com dietas contendo farinhas de trigo e milho submetidas ao cozimento Body composition and growth of piava juveniles fed with diets containing corn and wheat flours submitted to the cooking

    Rafael Lazzari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do cozimento das farinhas de milho e trigo na composição corporal e crescimento de piavas. Foram utilizados 300 juvenis (peso no médio inicial=8,03 ± 0,02g, alimentados durante 60 dias, uma vez ao dia (3%PV. As dietas utilizadas constituíam-se de matriz única, designadas da seguinte forma: dieta B (sem cozimento, M (farinha de milho cozida, T (farinha de trigo cozida e dieta MT (ambas as farinhas cozidas. A umidade corporal foi maior nos peixes das dietas M, T e MT, ocorrendo o inverso para os lipídios corporais. As cinzas e proteína não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Não se observou efeito do tratamento térmico sobre o crescimento dos peixes. Conclui-se que o cozimento sobre as farinhas de milho, trigo ou ambas não afeta o crescimento, porém diminui a deposição de lipídios em juvenis de piava.This study was aimed at evaluating the cooking effect in corn and wheat flours in the body composition and growth of piava. They were used 300 juveniles (Initial weight=8.03 ± 0.02g, fed for 60 days, once a day (3%BW. The basal diet was constituted by only matrix, being the treatments designated: diet B (without cooking, M (cooked corn flour, T (cooked wheat flour and diet MT (both cooked flours. Body moisture was higher in fish fed with M, T and MT diets, while the inverse was observed for the body lipids. The ash and protein values didn't present significant differences. It was not observed effect of the thermal treatment on the fish growth. It's concluded that the cooking in the corn and wheat flours not affect growth, however it reduces lipids deposition in piavas juveniles.

  11. Rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Non-carcass components yield of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane under two levels of concentrate

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros terminados em confinamento recebendo dietas formuladas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado. Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em duas relações volumoso:concentrado, 60:40 ou 40:60. Os cordeiros foram mantidos em confinamento até atingirem 32 kg de peso corporal (PCA, quando foram abatidos. Após a sangria, todos os constituintes não-carcaça (sangue, pele, cabeça, patas, rúmen, retículo, omaso, abomaso, intestino delgado, intestino grosso, baço, fígado, coração, pulmão com traqueia, pâncreas, rins com gordura perirrenal, gorduras omental e mesentérica foram separados e pesados, calculando-se suas porcentagens em relação ao PCA. O conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal (TGI foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (15,17% e 60% de volumoso (14,55%; enquanto as gorduras omental e perirrenal foram maiores nos cordeiros que receberam silagem de milho, 0,53 e 0,63%, respectivamente. A relação volumoso:concentrado e o tipo de volumoso afetaram as proporções de rúmen, omaso e intestino delgado em relação ao peso total do trato gastrintestinal. A relação volumoso:concentrado e o tipo de volumoso influenciam o conteúdo do trato gastrintestinal de cordeiros, afetando indiretamente os rendimentos de carcaça. O tipo de alimentação tem maior influência sobre as proporções dos órgãos responsáveis pela digestão e absorção de nutrientes. Os fatores que influenciam os componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros são variados e contraditórios, o que torna necessária a realização de mais pesquisas para incentivar sua utilização e, consequentemente, agregar valor aos sistemas de produção de carne ovina.The objective of this result was to evaluate the yields of non-carcass components of lambs finished in feedlot feeding on diets

  12. AVALIAÇÃO DO GANHO DE PESO DE PÓS-LARVAS DO CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931, ALIMENTADOS COM PEIXES DA FAUNA ACOMPANHANTE DO CAMARÃO MARINHO EVALUATION OF WEIGHT GAIN IN POST-LARVAE OF MARINE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 FED ON FISH SPECIES WHICH COMPOSE THE MARINE SHRIMP FISHERIES BYCATCH

    Henrique José Mascarenhas dos Santos Costa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi analisar o desenvolvimento inicial de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei em água doce utilizando como alimento peixes da fauna acompanhante da pesca do camarão marinho. Cultivaram-se 48 pós-larvas com peso e comprimento médio total iniciais de 0,008±0,001 g e 11,0±0,5 mm, respectivamente. Para cada tratamento foram utilizados, como alimento, ração comercial (RC para camarão marinho com 45% de proteína bruta, Opisthonema oglinum (OO (sardinha bandeira e Chloroscombus chrysurus (CC (palombeta, respectivamente. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A densidade de estocagem consistiu de quatro camarões por aquário. Durante os 75 dias de experimento, a alimentação foi administrada ad libitum. Registrou-se a temperatura média final de 27,1±0,8ºC para os três tratamentos e o pH médio final de 7,68±0,27 para os camarões alimentados com RC e 7,66±0,22 para os indivíduos alimentados com OO e CC, respectivamente. Os pesos médios finais foram de 0,560±0,096 g, 0,495±0,091 g e 0,500±0,101 g e os comprimentos totais finais de 62,1±0,9 mm, 57,0±0,8 mm e 56,2±0,9 mm para os tratamentos com RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Os resultados do peso e comprimento final mostraram que não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os tratamentos testados. A sobrevivência final foi de 87,5±14,4%, 68,8±12,5% e 62,5±14,3% para o RC, OO e CC, respectivamente. Conclui-se que a utilização de ração para camarão marinho e os peixes marinhos O. oglinum e C. chrysurus como alimento para pós-larvas de camarão marinho apresentam desenvolvimento semelhante. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Camarão marinho, dietas, Chloroscombus chrysurus, Litopenaeus vannamei, Opisthonema oglinum. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early development of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae in freshwater fed on fish species that compose the shrimp fisheries bycatch. Forty eight post

  13. Consumo de nutrientes e desempenho de cordeiros em confinamento alimentados com dietas com polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho Nutrient intake and performance of lambs in feedlot fed diets with different levels of pressed citrus pulp in substitution of corn silage

    Mykel Stefanni Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP no desempenho de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte e quatro cordeiros com 90 dias de idade e 18,44 kg PV inicial médio foram confinados durante 67 dias e alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50 e 75% MS. Não houve diferença para ingestão de MS (IMS. Os valores médios de IMS em g, %PV e g/kgPV0,75 foram respectivamente, 1.180, 4,74 e 126. Houve redução linear na ingestão de FDN, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, com o aumento dos níveis de substituição. A ingestão de PB não foi afetada pela dieta. Verificou-se aumento linear para a ingestão de EE, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, e para a FDA, em %PV. A ingestão de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF apresentou comportamento quadrático, em %PV e em g/kgPV0,75, e linear em g/animal.dia, à medida que houve a substituição da silagem de milho pela PCUP. A substituição da silagem de milho pela PCUP não afetou a conversão alimentar (4,33 kg MS/ kg de ganho, no entanto, o ganho de peso médio apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do nível de substituição; o nível de substituição de 48% promoveu o maior ganho médio diário. Os resultados sugerem que a PCUP pode substituir a silagem de milho em dietas para cordeiros em confinamento.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the substitution of corn silage by fresh pressed citrus pulp (FPCP on the performance of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs, with average age of 90 days and initial average body weight of 18.44 kg, were feedlot during 67 days and fed with increasing levels of FPCP in substitution of corn silage (0, 25, 50, and 75 % DM. There was no difference for DM intake (DMI. The average values for DMI in g, %BW and g/kgBW0.75 were, respectively, 1,180, 4.74 and 126. There was a linear decreased in NDF intake, in %BW and g/kgBW0

  14. Avaliação econômica e desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de milheto em substituição ao milho = Economic evaluation and performance of broilers fed with different levels of pearl millet in substitution of corn

    Alice Eiko Murakami

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de determinar o valor energético do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum ADR 7010 e avaliar o desempenho e a viabilidade econômica dos frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo níveis crescentes de milheto ADR 7010. No Experimento 1 foram utilizados 72 frangos de corte com 21 dias de idade em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos, seis repetições de nove aves cada. A energia metabolizável aparente do milheto foi de 3.362,24 kcal kg-1 de matéria seca e 3.066,00 kcal kg-1 de matéria natural e o teor de proteína bruta de 12,6%. No Experimento 2 foram utilizados 960 pintos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e 32 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis níveis de substituição do milhopelo milheto, variando de 0 a 100%. Observou-se efeito linear dos níveis crescentes do milheto sobre o ganho de peso e consumo de ração no período de 1-21 dias e no ganho de peso, no período de 1-41 dias de idade. Em rações isoenergéticas e isoaminoacídicas, omilho pode ser substituído pelo milheto ADR 7010 em nível de 100%, o que corresponde a cerca de 60% de inclusão de milheto nas rações para frangos de corte, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e com maior viabilidade econômica.Two experiments were carried out to determine the energy value, performance and economical feasibility of broiler chickens feeding on different levels of ADR 7010 pearl millet. Experiment 1was conducted by using 72 broilers with 21 days of age distributed in metabolism cages. A completely randomized experimental design was conducted, with two treatments, six replicates and nine broilers per experimental unit. Pearl millet replaced 40% of reference diet. Values of apparent metabolizable energy of ADR 7010 pearlmillet were 3,362 kcal kg-1 (as dry matter and 3,066 kcal kg-1 (as feed basis and 12.6% crude

  15. Desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês (Helix aspersa maxima alimentado com rações contendo diferentes óleos vegetais Performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima fed with different vegetable oils in diets

    Carmino Hayashi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar a utilização de óleos vegetais de diferentes origens em rações no desempenho e características de carcaça do escargot francês “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima, 240 animais com peso inicial médio de 0,11g, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições com dez animais cada, em aquários de 12L. As rações foram formuladas de forma a diferirem quanto ao emprego (3 % da ração dos óleos de soja, canola, girassol, linhaça, arroz e milho. Os valores médios de peso final, conversão alimentar, taxa de eficiência protéica, rendimento de carcaça, percentagem de concha e taxa de sobrevivência dos animais alimentados com as rações com os diferentes óleos não diferiram (p>0,01 entre si. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína bruta e lipídeos totais e a relação ácidos graxos poliinsaturados/ácidos graxos saturados da porção comestível dos animais submetidos as diferentes rações não foram influenciados (p>0,05. Entretanto, os animais que receberam dieta com óleo de linhaça apresentaram o melhor (p0,05 nos teores de umidade e cinza das conchas dos animais submetidos às diferentes rações. Por outro lado, os animais que receberam óleo de linhaça tiveram concha com menor (pAiming to evaluate the use of different vegetable oil sources on performance and carcass characteristics of “gros gris” (Helix aspersa maxima diets, two hundred forty snails with initial average weight of 0.11g samples were distributed in an entirely randomized design with six treatments and four replications in twelve-liter aquaria. The diets were formulated to have differences on soybean, canola, sunflower, linseed, rice and corn oil inclusion at 3% of the diet. The average final weight, feed conversion, protein efficiency rate, carcass yields, percentage of shell and survival rates were not affected (p>0.01 by the use of different oils. The moisture, ash, crud

  16. Ácido linoléico conjugado e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios Linoleic conjugated acid and fatty acids profile in the muscle and fat layer of water buffalo steers fed different fat sources

    R.L. Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o teor de ácido linoléico conjugado (CLA e o perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo e na capa de gordura de novilhos bubalinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de lipídios. Utilizaram-se 12 animais castrados, da raça Murrah, com peso vivo de 306±8kg, submetidos aos tratamentos sem lipídeo adicional, grão de soja e óleo de soja, confinados durante 84 dias. Após o abate a carcaça foi resfriada a 5ºC, durante 24 horas. Foi feita secção entre a nona e a 11ª costelas da meia carcaça direita, de onde se separou músculo e capa de gordura, analisadas as concentrações de CLA e de ácidos graxos, por cromatografia gasosa. O fornecimento de óleo de soja resultou em maior concentração de CLA no músculo e na capa de gordura, e a adição de óleo de soja menores concentrações de ácidos graxos saturados, principalmente os ácidos mirístico e palmítico. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grão de soja integral também apresentaram menor teor de CLA e redução nas concentrações de mirístico e palmítico. Esses efeitos foram observados somente na capa de gordura e em menor intensidade.The effect of different fat sources on fatty acid concentrations in the muscle and in the fat layer of water buffalo steers was studied. Twelve water buffalo steers weighting 306±8kg, fed without additional fat, soybean grain or soybean oil and confined during 84 days were used. The animals were slaughtered after 16-hours-fasting and the carcass was cooled at 5ºC, for 24 hours. A section was extracted between 9th and 11th ribs from the right half carcass and this section was separated in bone, muscle and fat layer. In the last two fractions, the fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, were quantified by gaseous chromatography. The soybean oil provided higher CLA concentrations in the steers muscle and fat layer. Moreover, the soybean oil inclusion promoted lower saturated fatty acids contents, mainly miristic and palmitic

  17. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes proporções Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o ganho de peso de bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo concentrado e silagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu nas seguintes proporções: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 e 65:35, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados vinte e quatro animais castrados Holandês x Zebu, com peso vivo inicial médio de 364 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Por ocasião da ensilagem, procedeu-se o tratamento do capim com o inoculante enzimo-bacteriano Nutroeste 50 t. Para o cálculo da matéria seca fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAI como indicador. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados ad libitum. O ensaio teve duração de 84 dias, divididos em três períodos de 28 dias após 15 dias de adaptação. Os consumos médios de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHO e as digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CHO e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF elevaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas dietas. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para o ganho de peso médio diário, estimando-se incrementos de 0,0184 kg/unidade de concentrado adicionado. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes de PB, EE e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN não foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 77, 88 e 60%. Silagem de Brachiaria brizantha não-emurchecida, constituindo 50% da dieta de bovinos H x Z, promoveu ganhos de peso em torno de 1,0 kg/dia.Intake and total apparent digestibilities of the nutrients and average daily gains (ADG by beef cattle fed diets based on concentrate and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu silage in the following proportions: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 and 65:35, in dry matter basis were evaluated. Twenty-four crossbred (Holstein x Zebu steers, with initial live weight of

  18. Consumo, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em novilhos alimentados com cama de frango e suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of steers fed broiler litter and supplement based on lyophilized ruminal microbiota

    Ronaldo Lopes Oliveira

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de dois níveis de cama de frango (15,0 e 30,0%, associada ou não a um suplemento à base de microbiota ruminal liofilizada de bovinos adultos (0 e 10 g/animal•dia, na alimentação de novilhos Holandês/Zebu. Quatro novilhos fistulados no rúmen e abomaso foram distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4 em arranjo fatorial e alimentados individualmente à vontade. O consumo e as digestibilidades totais e parciais dos nutrientes foram avaliados. Não houve efeito do nível de cama de frango sobre o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. O aumento do nível de cama de frango na dieta elevou o coeficiente de digestibilidade intestinal e total da proteína bruta (PB, porém, quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, a digestibilidade intestinal aumentou e àquela contendo 30,0% diminuiu. Quando se adicionou o suplemento à dieta com 15,0% de cama de frango, o coeficiente de digestibilidade total não sofreu efeito, mas diminuiu para a dieta com 30%. A ingestão diária de 10 g do suplemento, por animal, não alterou o consumo e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da MS, MO e FDN.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of two levels of broiler litter (15.0 and 30.0%, associated or not to a supplement based on bovine lyophilized ruminal microbiota (0 and 10 g/animal•day, in the Holstein Zebu steers feeding. Four steers with ruminal and abomasal fistulae were allotted to a 4 x 4 latin square in a factorial arrangement and individually fullfed. The intake and total and partial digestibilities were evaluated. There was no effect of broiler litter level on the intake and coefficients of digestibilities of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The increase of the level of broiler litter in the diet increased the total and intestinal crude

  19. Composições tecidual e química do lombo de cordeiros alimentados com rações contendo semente de girassol em comedouros privativos Tissue and chemical compositions of loin from lambs fed sunflower seed in creep feeding

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado objetivando avaliar a composição tecidual e química do músculo Longissimus dorsi de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados em comedouros privativos com ração contendo 0; 6,60; 13,20 ou 19,80% de semente de girassol. Ao nascer, os cordeiros foram numerados, pesados e distribuídos aleatoriamente nos piquetes compondo quatro repetições por tratamento em um total de 16 cordeiros. As rações continham 2,65; 2,78; 2,89 ou 2,93 Mcal/kg de energia metabolizável e 18,38; 18,75; 19,98 ou 21,18% de proteína bruta e foram fornecidas à vontade aos cordeiros. Os cordeiros foram pesados a cada 14 dias e mantidos com as ovelhas até atingirem o peso vivo de abate pré-estabelecido (28 kg. As carcaças foram mantidas durante 24 horas na câmara frigorífica a 5ºC e, posteriormente, foram seccionadas em sete regiões anatômicas para coleta dos lombos esquerdo e direito e obtenção, no músculo Longissimus dorsi, do peso dos componentes do lombo (músculo, osso e gordura e da composição química e do perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo, do osso e da gordura. A semente de girassol influenciou o peso total do lombo, os pesos de músculo e tecido conjuntivo e o rendimento do tecido conjuntivo. O aumento no percentual de semente de girassol na ração diminuiu a quantidade dos ácidos láurico e palmítico (saturados e aumentou a dos ácidos oléico e linoléico (insaturados. A qualidade nutricional da carne dos cordeiros melhora com aumento da utilização de semente de girassol na dieta.The experiment carried out in aiming to evaluate the tissue and chemical composition of longissimus dorsi muscle of Suffolk lambs fed on creep feeding system with ration containing 0.0, 6.60, 13.20 and 19.80% of sunflower seed. At kidding, the lambs were identified, weighed and randomly distributed to paddocks composing four replicates per ration, totaling 16 lambs. The rations contained 2.65, 2.78, 2.89 or 2.93 Mcal/kg of ME and 18.38, 18.75, 19

  20. Nutritional characteristics of amazonian fish fat (Colossoma macropomum and its effect on lipid metabolism of rats fed hypercholesterolemic diets Características nutricionais do tambaqui (Colossoma Macropomum e seu efeito no metabolismo lipídico de ratos alimentados com dietas ricas em colesterol

    Raimundo Vicente de Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fat from tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, an Amazonian fish, on some nutritional and lipid parameters in rats were evaluated. Weaned Wistar rats were fed for 6 weeks with hypercholesterolemic diets containing 7.5% of soybean oil (SO, cod liver oil (CO, lard (LA, or tambaqui fat (TF. Food consumption, weight gain, and food conversion were measured weekly. Plasma triglycerides was determined at the beginning and on the 6th week of experiment. Plasma cholesterol was determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. After the sacrifice, hepatic lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol and plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL fractions were determined. Food consumption and weight gain were the same for all groups. There were no differences in plasma triglycerides among the four groups in the 1st and 6th weeks. Regarding the cholesterolemia, TF animals were similar to those fed SO diet, significantly lower than in LA group but higher compared to the CO group. The levels of very low density lipoprotein + low density lipoprotein (VLDL+LDL were higher in the TF and LA groups compared to the CO and SO groups. However, TA fed animals had high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels higher than the CO group. The ratio (VLDL+LDL/HDL was higher in the LA group when compared with the remaining groups. In the TA group, the triglycerides and cholesterol concentrations in the liver were similar to the SO group. It may be concluded that tambaqui fat is a good dietary source of lipids as a substitute for lard and similar to soybean oil, as far as atherosclerosis risks is concerned.Os efeitos da ingestão da gordura de Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram analisados em relação a alguns parâmetros nutricionais e lipídicos. Para isso ratos Wistar recém desmamados alimentados por 6 semanas com dietas aterogênicas contendo 7,5% óleo de soja (SO, óleo de fígado de bacalhau (CO, sebo (LA, ou gordura de Tambaqui (TF foram utilizados. Consumo alimentar e

  1. Rendimento corporal e composição química de jundiás alimentados com diferentes níveis de proteína e energia na dieta, criados em tanques-rede Catfish (jundia body yield and chemical composition fed different protein and energy level in the diet, reared in net-tanks

    Adilson Reidel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar o rendimento corporal e a composição química de jundiás, Rhamdia quelen, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de proteína e energia e criados em sistema de tanques-rede. Utilizou-se a densidade inicial de 70 peixes/m³, em 18 tanques-rede (5,0 m³, durante 324 dias. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com dois fatores - níveis de proteína bruta (PB, 25, 30 ou 35%; e níveis de energia digestível (ED: 3.250 e 3.500 kcal - e três repetições. A dieta foi fornecida à vontade, mas mensurada diariamente. No início, um lote de peixes foi sacrificado para determinação dos parâmetros corporais e químicos. A cada 28 dias, dois peixes de cada unidade experimental foram abatidos para determinação dos comprimentos total e padrão, do peso total e dos pesos de fígado, gônadas, cabeça, tronco limpo e gordura visceral, respectivamente. Posteriormente, foram realizados cálculos dos índices hepatossomático e gonadossomático, da porcentagem de cabeça e do rendimento de carcaça e do rendimento de tronco limpo. A partir do mês de junho de 2006, também foram registrados o rendimento de filé e o sexo dos indivíduos. Para determinação da composição da carne do jundiá, foram realizadas as análises químicas de umidade, proteína bruta, lipídios e matéria mineral. O fornecimento da ração com 30% de PB resultou em maior rendimento de tronco limpo. A composição do músculo não foi influenciada pelas dietas testadas. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de dietas contendo 30% de PB e 3.250 kcal de energia digestível/kg.The objective of this study was to analyze the body yield and the chemical composition of catfish (jundia, Rhamdia quelen, reared in net-tanks and fed with diets containing different levels of protein and energy. An initial density of 70 fish/m³, in 18 net-tanks (5.0 m³ was used, for 324 days. A randomized complete design was used

  2. Dinâmicas de trânsito e degradação da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade e compostos nitrogenados Transit and degradation dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and nitrogenous compounds

    I. Lazzarini

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as dinâmicas de trânsito e degradação da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade e compostos nitrogenados. Foram utilizadas cinco novilhas Holandês x Zebu fistuladas no rúmen. A alimentação volumosa basal dos animais foi constituída por feno de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., com 5,08% de proteína bruta (PB, com base na matéria seca (MS, fornecido ad libitum. Os cinco tratamentos avaliados foram definidos de acordo com o nível de suplementação proteica (0, 3, 5, 7 e 9 pontos percentuais acima do nível de PB da forragem. Como fonte de compostos nitrogenados, empregou-se mistura de ureia:sulfato de amônia:albumina (4,5:0,5:1,0. O experimento foi estruturado segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os níveis médios de PB nas dietas foram de 5,28; 8,08; 9,82; 11,87 e 13,63%, com base na MS. Verificou-se elevação linear (PRumen transit and degradation dynamics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and nitrogenous compounds were evaluated. Five crossbred heifers fitted with rumen cannulae were used. The animals were fed ad libitum with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. hay, which had crude protein (CP content of 5.08% in dry matter (DM. The five treatments were defined according to the level of CP in the diet (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 percentile points above the CP level of the roughage. The supplement was a mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate, and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The average CP levels in the diets were: 5.28, 8.08, 9.82, 11.87, and 13.63% in DM basis. The potentially degradable fraction of NDF was linearly increased (P<0.05 by CP levels in diet until 8.62% CP. From this point, there was stabilization of estimates (47.92% of NDF. The degradation rate of potentially degradable NDF showed a quadratic response (P<0

  3. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e comportamento ingestivo de bovinos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diversos tamanhos de partícula Intake, apparent digestibility and ingestion behavior in Holstein steers fed diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes

    Elzânia Sales Pereira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes da dieta e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos recebendo dietas contendo feno de capim-tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partícula (5, 7, 10 mm e inteiro. Utilizaram-se quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300 kg e idade média de 20 meses, em delineamento quadrado latino 4 × 4, com quatro animais e quatro períodos. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos não foram influenciados pelos perfis granulométricos das dietas experimentais. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca diferiram significativamente entre as dietas com feno com partículas de 7 e 10 mm (67,31 e 54,95%, respectivamente. No entanto, os resultados obtidos com essas dietas foram semelhantes aos encontrados com partículas de 5 mm e com feno inteiro, cujos valores foram intermediários, com média de 63,62%. O tempo de alimentação dos animais não diferiu entre as dietas com feno em artículas de 7 e 10 mm e inteiro. O tamanho de partícula do feno de capim-tifton 85 não influenciou o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos da raça Holandesa alimentados com dietas completas.The intake, the apparent digestibility of nutrients and the ingestion behavior of four Holstein steers with average weight of 300 kg and 20 months of age, receiving diets containing Tifton 85 hay with different particle sizes (5, 7, 10 mm and whole were evaluated. A 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four steers and four periods was used. Intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrates and non-structural carbohydrates were not influenced by the different granulometric profiles of the experimental diets. The

  4. Performance, digestibility and morphometry of ileal villi of rabbits fed with levels of inclusion of “Lithothamnium” Desempenho, digestibilidade e morfometria da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de inclusão de “Lithothamnium”

    Roberto Maurício Carvalho Guedes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the potential of seaweed meal (Lithothamnium sp in the nutrition of rabbits it were realized analysis of the presence of trace elements in the composition of Lithothamnium, a performance test with determination of apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, protein and energy and morphometric analysis of the ileal villi of rabbits fed with diets at different levels of inclusion (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1.00%. We used 60 New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes, at 30 days of age.The experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, a control and the other with the different levels of inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. to replace the inert (bentonite from the control diet ad libitum. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and twelve repetitions. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and regression analysis model with pre-defined by the statistical program SAEG. The results showed that the inclusion of Lithothamnium sp. in different concentrations did not interfere in the variables studied: intake, digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein and energy, weight gain, carcass yield and weight of edible offal. However, it was verified that the level of inclusion of 1.0% interfere in a negative way in the length and width of villi.Com o intuito de avaliar o potencial da farinha de algas marinhas (Lithothamnium sp na nutrição de coelhos, realizaram-se análises de presença de elementos traço na composição do Lithothamnium, um ensaio de desempenho com determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente para matéria seca, proteína e energia e análise morfométrica da vilosidade ileal de coelhos alimentados com dietas de diferentes níveis de inclusão (0,25%; 0,50%; 0,75% e 1,00%. Foram utilizados 60 coelhos Nova Zelândia Branco, de ambos os sexos, com 30 dias de idade. As dietas experimentais foram isoproteicas e isoenergéticas, uma controle e as demais

  5. Influência do nitrogênio degradável no rúmen sobre a degradabilidade in situ, os parâmetros ruminais e a eficiência de síntese microbiana em novilhos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar Ruminal degradable nitrogen for steers fed sugar cane: in situ degradability, ruminal parameters and microbial synthesis efficiency

    Roselene Nunes da Silveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da deficiência de nitrogênio degradável no rúmen (NDR, utilizando como volumoso cana-de-açúcar suplementada com uréia, farelo de soja ou farelo de glúten de milho - 60, sobre a eficiência de síntese microbiana e a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (MS e da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN em novilhos mestiços. Utilizaram-se oito novilhos canulados no rúmen e duodeno, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4 e alimentados com cana-de-açúcar e cana-de-açúcar suplementada com uréia, farelo de soja ou farelo de glúten de milho-60. O pH e a concentração de N-NH3 foram mensurados no fluido ruminal antes e 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas após o fornecimento da ração. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador de fluxo duodenal. A eficiência microbiana foi determinada pelas bases purinas.As fontes de proteína degradável no rúmen não influenciaram a degradabilidade da matéria seca, entretanto, o maior valor de degradabilidade efetiva da FDN foi obtido com a cana-de-açúcar com farelo de soja. O pH e a concentração de N-NH3 observados com todas as dietas foram adequados para o crescimento dos microrganismos ruminais. A deficiência de nitrogênio degradável no rúmen não influencia a síntese de proteína microbiana e a dinâmica de fase líquida.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal degradable nitrogen (RDN deficit using as roughage sugar cane supplemented with urea, soybean meal, or corn gluten meal 60 on the microbial synthesis efficiency, in situ dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF degradability. The treatments were: sugar cane, sugar cane with urea, soybean meal or corn gluten meal 60. Eight rumen and duodenum cannulated steers were used and arranged according to two 4 × 4 Latin Squares. The pH and N-NH3 were determined in the ruminal fluid before and 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours after feeding. The duodenal flow was estimated by indigestible

  6. Kägiseva lindi lood : kassetiaegne unustatud muss / Dr Alimentado

    Dr Alimentado

    2009-01-01

    1980-ndate lõpul ja 1990-ndate algul väljaantud helikassettidest: Lost Kolchoses. Kainestusmajas. I.k., i.a. ; B.D.Ö. Anblögged. Tallinn : B.D.Ö., 1993 ; Röövel Ööbik. Ilu. Tallinn : Kuldnokk, 1989 ; Rock the Christmas / Velikije Luki, Röövel Ööbik, Kumikameli ... [jt.]. Tallinn : Kuldnokk, i.a. ; Merry Christmas Mr. Lawrence. Graffity revolution. Tallinn : Kuldnokk, i.a. ; J.M.K.E. Rumal nali. Tallinn : Fucking Cunts Records, 1996

  7. Seasonal variation of the effect of high-carbohydrate and high-protein diets on the intermediate metabolism of Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae maintained in the laboratory Variações sazonais do efeito de uma dieta rica em carboidrato e rica em proteínas no metabolismo intermediário de Parastacus brasiliensis (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae mantidos em laboratório

    Bibiana K. Dutra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of a high-carbohydrate diet (HC and a high-protein diet (HP on the metabolism of the crayfish Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869, collected in different seasons and maintained in the laboratory for 15 days. Crayfish were collected monthly from January 2002 to January 2004 at São Francisco de Paula, Southern Brazil, in Guarapirá stream. In the laboratory, the animals were kept submerged in aquariums under controlled conditions. They were fed ad libitum, for 15 days with either a HC or HP diet. At the end of this period, haemolymph samples were collected, as were hepatopancreas, gills, and abdominal muscle that were removed for determination of glycogen, free glucose, lipids, and triglycerides. The haemolymph samples were used for determination of glucose, proteins, lipids, and triglycerides. Statistical analysis (ANOVA revealed significant seasonal differences in biochemical composition in crayfish maintained on HC or HP diets. Independent of the diets offered to the animals and the controlled conditions for 15 days, the indications of seasonality were unchanged. The observed changes seemed to be related to the reproductive period. Moreover, the HC diet increased all energy reserves in adult parastacids, which may aid in reproduction.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da dieta rica em carboidratos (HC e da dieta rica em proteínas (HP sobre o metabolismo do Parastacus brasiliensis (Von Martens, 1869 coletados em diferentes estações e mantidos durante 15 dias em laboratório. Os lagostins foram coletados mensalmente de Janeiro de 2002 a Janeiro de 2004 em São Francisco de Paula, Sul do Brasil, no riacho Guarapirá. No laboratório, os animais foram mantidos submersos em aquários sob condições controladas. Eles foram alimentados ad libitum por 15 dias com a dieta HC ou HP. Após o final do período, as amostras de hemolinfa foram coletadas, assim como o hepatopâncreas, as

  8. Distribution and Ecology of Cladocera in Brakish Lakes

    Amsinck, S. L.; Jeppesen, E.; Landkildehus, F.

    Organised by Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Science, Tihany, and Institute of Biology, university of Veszprém......Organised by Balaton Limnological Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Science, Tihany, and Institute of Biology, university of Veszprém...

  9. Resting eggs of zooplankton (copepoda and cladocera) from the Kiel Bay and adjacent waters (southwestern Baltic)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nehring, S.; Lenz, J.

    stream_size 11 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Biol_125_77.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  10. Influence of salinity on the life table demography of a rare Cladocera Latonopsis australis

    Haridevan, G.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Jagadeesan, L.; Biju, A.

    , 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 22 salinity). Triplicates were maintained for each treatment. The desired salinity in the experiment vials was prepared by dilution of GF/C filtered and autoclaved sea water with the desired volume of distilled water... production -0.943 p<0.001 23    Table 3 Tukeys HSD Pair wise comparison for age specific fecundity (mx) in different salinity treatments. Bold values indicates at significance level at p < 0.05. Salinity F. water 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 F. water 1 2 0.968 1...

  11. A comparison of the response of Simocephalus mixtus (Cladocera) and Daphnia magna to contaminated freshwater sediments.

    Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando; Cruz-Cisneros, Jade Lizette; García-Hernández, Leonardo

    2008-09-01

    The southeast region of Mexico is characterized by intensive oil industry activities carried out by the national public enterprise Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX). The freshwater lagoon "El Limón", located in the municipality of Macuspana, state of Tabasco, Mexico, has received over 40 years discharges of untreated waste waters from the Petrochemical Complex "Ciudad PEMEX", located on the border of the lagoon. To assess the toxicity of the sediments and, hence, to obtain information on the biological effects of these contaminating discharges, the cladoceran Simocephalus mixtus was used as a test organism in acute (48h) and chronic (12d) toxicity assays. For comparison purposes, bioassays were also conducted with the reference cladoceran Daphnia magna. The sediments of this lagoon contain important amounts of metals and hydrocarbons that have been accumulated over time; however, the acute tests only registered reduced lethal effects on the test organisms (maxima of 10% and 17% mortality for D. magna and S. mixtus, respectively). This may be due to low bioavailability of the pollutants present in the sediments. On the other hand, partial or total inhibition and delay in the start of reproduction, reduction in clutch sizes, reduced survival, as well as reduction in the size of adults and offspring were recorded in the chronic assays. The most evident chronic effects were found in S. mixtus; in this species, reproduction was inhibited up to 72%, whereas D. magna was only affected by 24%. We determined that S. mixtus is a more sensitive test organism than D. magna to assess whole-sediment toxicity in tropical environments, and that chronic exposure bioassays are required for an integrated sediment evaluation. The sediments from "El Limón" lagoon induced chronic intoxication responses and, therefore, remediation measures are urgently needed to recover environmental conditions suitable for the development of its aquatic biota.

  12. The taxonomy and seasonal population dynamics of some Magela Creek flood plain microcrustaceans (Cladocera and copedoda)

    Julli, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Six Magela Creek floodplain billabongs were sampled between September 1981 and January 1983 to determine the seasonal population dynamics of littoral and limnetic microcrustaceans. Thirty-seven cladoceran and four copepod species were identified amongst littoral weedbeds and several unidentified harpacticoid copepods and ostracods were also found. By comparison only 6 cladoceran and 4 copepod species were found in limnetic areas. Littoral species generally attained their highest densities during the mid-Wet to Early-dry seasons. The number of open water species present in samples generally increased with the progression of the Dry season. Towards the end of the Dry season, a simplification of the limnetic species assemblage occurred in some billabongs, perhaps in response to adverse changes in water quality

  13. Seasonal fluctuations in the occurrence of Cladocera in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine waters of Goa

    Goswami, S.C.; Devassy, V.P

    .78). Evadne tergestina Claus and Penilia avirostris Dana were the 2 major species representing cladoceran population, the former being dominant (85.88%). Both the species were characterisEd. by seasonality in distribution. Distribution patterns of each species...

  14. Inferring past environmental changes in three Turkish lakes from sub-fossil Cladocera

    Çakıroğlu, Ayşe İdil; Levi, Eti E.; Tavşanoğlu, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    correlated with variation in the cladoceran assemblage. Redundancy analysis showed that salinity, macrophyte abundance, fish density, depth and total phosphorus were the most correlated with change in cladoceran assemblage composition with eigenvalues for the first and the second axes being λ1 = 0.312 and λ2...... = 0.061, respectively. Sedimentary cladoceran assemblages from three cores were placed passively within the framework of the surface sediment ordination. The results reveal a prevalent impact of salinity, fish abundance and water level changes from the past to present. Thus, using cladoceran...

  15. Desempenho, digestibilidade e características de carcaça de novilhos zebuínos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Productive performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of zebu steers fed diets with different concentrate levels

    Marcos Antonio Lana Costa

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os consumos e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes; o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT das rações; a conversão alimentar (CA; os ganhos médios diários de peso vivo (GMDPV, de peso de corpo vazio (GMDPVZ e de carcaça (GMDCAR; os rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes primários da carcaça; o comprimento da carcaça (CCAR; a área de olho de lombo (AOL e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EG de novilhos anelorados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 270 kg, alimentados com dietas contendo 5, 35 e 65% de concentrado, em regime de confinamento. Os consumos de matéria seca e matéria orgânica foram afetados de forma quadrática pelo incremento de concentrado na dieta. Os consumos de extrato etéreo e carboidratos não-fibrosos aumentaram e o de fibra em detergente neutro decresceu linearmente em função do aumento de concentrado. O consumo de proteína bruta não foi afetado pelo nível de concentrado da dieta. Os teores de NDT e as digestibilidades da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, extrato etéreo e carboidratos não-fibrosos aumentaram e a digestibilidade da fibra em detergente neutro diminuiu linearmente com o aumento nos níveis de concentrado das dietas. A digestibilidade da proteína bruta (DPB não foi alterada quando a silagem pré-seca de capim-braquiária foi utilizada como volumoso. Entretanto, a DPB aumentou linearmente quando a silagem pré-seca de capim-tifton foi utilizada na alimentação dos animais. A CA reduziu, enquanto os GMDPV, GMDPVZ, GMDCAR, a AOL e a EG elevaram linearmente com o acréscimo de concentrado na dieta. O CCAR e rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes primários da carcaça, com exceção do rendimento de coxão, não foram afetados pela inclusão de concentrado nas dietas. A inclusão de concentrado nas dietas promoveu melhor digestibilidade e melhor desempenho aos animais.This research was developed to evaluate the intake and digestibility of

  16. Desempenho, características de carcaça e constituintes corporais de ovinos Santa Inês alimentados com farelo de girassol em substituição ao farelo de soja na dieta Performance, carcass characteristics and body measurements of Santa Inês sheep fed diets with different proportions of sunflower meal and soybean meal

    Helder Louvandini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão do farelo de girassol na alimentação de ovinos Santa Inês. Dezoito cordeiros com 90 dias de idade, não-castrados, com 14±1,43 kg de PV inicial, foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado e mantidos em confinamento durante 87 dias. Além do feno de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon oferecido ad libitum, os cordeiros receberam 300 g de três diferentes concentrados contendo farelo de girassol em substituição ao farelo de soja. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: S - milho triturado + farelo de soja; SG - milho triturado + 50% de farelo de soja + 50% de farelo de girassol; e G - milho triturado + 100% de farelo de girassol. O controle do consumo de alimento foi feito três vezes por semana e a pesagem dos animais, uma vez. No abate, foram determinados o peso vivo (PV, o peso de carcaça quente (PC, o peso da meia-carcaça (PMC, o comprimento de carcaça, a espessura de gordura de cobertura, a pele (peso e expessura, o peso dos órgãos torácicos (pulmão, traquéia e coração e abdominais (fígado e rins e o peso dos cortes comerciais (pescoço, pernil, lombo, paleta, costela e costela/fralda. O ganho de peso médio diário e o ganho de peso total foram melhores nos animais alimentados com o concentrado composto de milho e farelo de soja. O consumo de MS por peso metabólico nesses animais (S foi menor em relação ao obtido com o concentrado contendo 50% de girassol (SG, mas semelhante ao encontrado com 100% de farelo de girassol (G. Na avaliação das características de carcaça, os animais do grupo S apresentaram PMC, lombo e costela/fralda superiores aos dos grupos SG e G. A substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de girassol em até 50% no concentrado promoveu menor desempenho e características de carcaça inferiores em ovinos em terminação.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with sunflower meal on carcass traits and body measurements of

  17. Carcass characteristics, non-carcass components and meat quality of Nellore cattle in a feedlot and fed with different corn hybridsCaracterísticas de carcaça, de componentes não carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos nelore em confinamento e alimentados com diferentes híbridos de milho

    Carla Prado Rosolem

    2012-02-01

    significant difference (P O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as características de carcaça, de componentes não carcaça e qualidade da carne de bovinos da raça Nelore terminados em confinamento e alimentados com diferentes híbridos de milho (duro, semi duro e semi dentado na dieta. Foram utilizados 27 bovinos com peso vivo médio inicial de 350 ± 24 kg e idade média de 24 meses, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em três tratamentos (T, sendo, T1- Dieta com milho duro, T2- Dieta com milho semiduro e T3- Dieta com milho semidentado, com nove repetições por tratamento. As dietas foram isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas, com relação de volumoso: concentrado de 30:70, utilizando-se o bagaço de cana como volumoso e ração concentrada composta de farelo de soja (8%, milho grão moído (88%, suplemento mineral e vitamínico (3% e uréia (1%. Estas dietas foram fornecidas aos bovinos duas vezes ao dia (8 h e 16 h. Os animais foram confinados por um período de 95 dias, compreendendo 14 dias de adaptação e três períodos experimentais de 27 dias. Estes foram pesados em jejum de sólidos de 16 horas no inicio do experimento e ao final de cada período de 27 dias. Ao final do experimento, os animais foram abatidos em frigorífico comercial, mensurando-se os componentes não carcaça (peso do sangue, pés, couro, cabeça, cauda, órgãos, gordura retirada na toailete (pelanca, aparelho gastro-intestinal (faringe, esôfago, estômago e intestinos e as características de carcaça (rendimento de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria, comprimento de carcaça, comprimento de perna, espessura de coxão, perímetro de perna, comprimento de braço, espessura de braço perímetro de braço, peso do dianteiro e peso do traseiro e conformação. Foi colhida amostra da secção HH para avaliação da percentagem de osso, músculo e gordura e posterior utilização do músculo Longissimus dorsi para avaliação de espessura de gordura de cobertura

  18. Rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds Dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade e suplemento com compostos nitrogenados

    Cláudia Batista Sampaio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage. Five crossbred heifers with average live weight of 180 kg and fitted with rumen cannulae were used. The animals were fed ad libitum with signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. hay, which had crude protein (CP content of 4.86% of dry matter (DM. The five treatments were proposed in order to raise the CP level of diets to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 percentile points above the CP level of the forage. The supplement was a mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate, and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five experimental periods. The average CP levels in the diets were: 5.19, 7.11, 8.60, 11.67, and 13.02% on DM basis. The potentially degradable NDF was linearly increased according to the CP levels in diet up to 6.97% of CP. From this point, there was stabilization of estimates (47.87% of NDF. The degradation rate of potentially degradable NDF was linearly increased with the CP levels in diets. The rumen flow of fibrous particles (L showed a linear-response-plateau pattern according to the CP levels in diets. The plateau (maximum estimate began on 7.24% of CP. The mean retention time in the rumen and the rumen fill effect of undegradable NDF were affect by the CP levels similarly to L, with plateau (minimum beginning on 6.90 and 6.97% of CP, respectively.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com compostos nitrogenados sobre a dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN em bovinos alimentados com forragem tropical de baixa qualidade. Foram utilizadas cinco novilhas mestiças Holandês × Zebu, com peso vivo médio inicial de 180 kg, fistuladas no rúmen. A alimentação volumosa basal dos animais foi constituída por feno de capim-praquiátia (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf (4,86% de

  19. Desempenho de novilhos Nelore alimentados com casca de soja ou farelo de gérmen de milho em substituição parcial ao milho moído Effects of partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal on production of Nellore steers

    Jane Maria Bertocco Ezequiel

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar a substituição parcial (70% do milho moído pela casca de soja ou pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas contendo farelo de girassol e uréia (fontes nitrogenadas e silagem de milho (volumoso para novilhos Nelore em confinamento. Avaliaram-se o consumo, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça de 21 animais (25 meses de idade e peso inicial de 343 kg alimentados com as dietas-teste, fornecidas na proporção 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período de avaliação do consumo e do ganho de peso foi de 97 dias. Os consumos de MS (10,78; 9,73 e 10,62 kg/dia, PB (1,40; 1,22 e 1,41 kg/dia e FDN (3,41; 3,89 e 3,60 kg/dia não foram influenciados pelas dietas com milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. O consumo de FDA (0,56; 0,71 e 0,55% PV apresentou efeito significativo, observando-se maior valor quando a casca de soja substituiu 70% do milho moído. O ganho de peso não foi influenciado pelas dietas, registrando-se valores de 1,35; 1,29 e 1,32 kg/dia para as dietas contendo milho moído, casca de soja e farelo de gérmen de milho, respectivamente. Não houve efeito, também, sobre a conversão alimentar (7,88 kg de MS ingerida/kg ganho, a eficiência alimentar (0,12 kg ganho/kg MS ingerida e o rendimento de carcaça (54,52%. A substituição parcial do milho moído pela casca de soja e pelo farelo de gérmen de milho em dietas para novilhos em confinamento não afeta o desempenho e o rendimento de carcaça.The objective of this trial was to study the partial replacement of ground corn with soybean hulls or corn germ meal in diets containing sunflower meal and urea as nitrogen sources and corn silage as forage for confined Nellore steers. Twenty-one steers averaging 25 months of age and 343 kg of initial body weight were assigned to diets containing a forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40. The period for measurements of intake and weight gain lasted 97

  20. Perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com dieta suplementada com alfa-amilase de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003 Biochemichal serum profile of broilers fed diets suplemented with alfa-amylase from Cryptococcus flavus and Aspergillus niger HM2003

    Cibele Silva Minafra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o perfil bioquímico do soro de frangos de corte alimentados com a enzima α-amilase produzida por dois microrganismos. Produziram-se dois extratos, um com a-amilase obtida a partir de Cryptococcus flavus em meio de levedura comercial e outro com Aspergillus niger HM2003 em meio de proteína de soja e amido comercial, com atividade de 9,58 U/mL e 10,0 U/mL, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 360 pintos de corte Cobb 500 de 1 dia de idade e com 49,72 ± 0,68 g de peso vivo inicial. As aves foram alojadas em baterias e foram criadas até os 21 dias de idade. Foram utilizados três dietas, cada uma com cinco repetições de 12 aves, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A primeira dieta (basal foi formulada sem adição de enzima e as outras duas receberam a suplementação de a-amilase produzida por cultivo de Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. Dietas à base de milho e soja foram formuladas em duas fases: pré-inicial (1-7 dias e inicial (8-21 dias. Na fase pré-inicial, foram observados os seguintes valores médios para cálcio (6,90 e 5,99 mg/dL, proteína plasmática (2,0 e 2,50 g/dL e fosfatase alcalina (979,98 e 974,66 UI/L, respectivamente para Cryptococcus flavus e Aspergillus niger HM2003. A dieta acrescida de a-amilase obtida a partir de Aspergillus niger HM2003 determinou maior concentração sérica de fósforo. Na fase inicial, os resultados significativos relacionaram-se a potássio quando avaliadas dietas com adição de a-amilase pelas duas fontes. A incorporação das enzimas testadas não proporciona alterações metabólicas ou toxicidade nos animais.It was evaluated the biochemical serum profile of broilers fed rations supplemented with α-amylase produced by two microorganisms. Two extracts were produced, one was produced with a-amylase obtained from Cryptococcus flavus in a commercial yeast-based medium and the other with Aspergillus niger HM2003 produced in soybean protein and commercial starch medium

  1. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de sorgo e pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle fed diets with sorghum silage and tifton 85 haylage

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes, a eficiência microbiana, o balanço de nitrogênio, a taxa de passagem da digesta ruminal, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em bovinos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo como fonte de volumoso pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 e silagem de sorgo nas seguintes proporções: 100:0; 68:32; 34:66 e 0:100, respectivamente, com base na MS. Foram utilizados quatro animais mestiços Holandês × Zebu (H × Z, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso médio de 364 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 × 4. A relação volumoso:concentrado foi de 60:40, na base da MS. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, carboidratos totais (CT, assim como as digestibilidades totais da PB, EE, CNF e FDN não foram influenciados pelas dietas, registrando-se valores médios de 6,01; 5,69; 0,76 e 4,64 kg/dia e 67,94; 82,42; 84,43 e 53,57%, respectivamente. Os consumos de EE, CNF, FDN e NDT e as digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e CT aumentaram linearmente com o incremento da proporção de silagem de sorgo no volumoso. As digestibilidades ruminais e intestinais de MS, CT, CNF e FDN não foram influenciadas pelas dietas. O pH não foi alterado pelos tempos de coleta nem pelas dietas. A concentração de amônia foi influenciada pelos tempos de coleta, estimando-se valor máximo de 13,14 mg/100 mL, às 2,90 horas após a alimentação. Para as dietas contendo 0; 32; 66 e 100% de silagem de sorgo no volumoso estimaram-se taxas de passagem da digesta ruminal da ordem de 4,10: 4,22; 4,27 e 5,30%/hora, respectivamente. A eficiência microbiana não foi afetada pelo nível de silagem de sorgo na dieta. O uso de silagem pré-secada de capim tifton 85 associada à silagem de sorgo mostrou-se uma boa alternativa de volumoso para bovinos de corte.The intake and the total and partial digestibility of nutrients, the microbial efficiency, the nitrogen balance, the passage rates of ruminal

  2. Avaliação econômica do confinamento de novilhos de origem leiteira, alimentados com diferentes níveis de concentrado e de cama de frango Economic evaluation of feedlot dairy crossbred bulls fed diets with different concentrate and broiler litter levels

    Moacir Rodrigues Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram confinados 24 bezerros mestiços Holandês x Zebu, machos não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 75 kg e final de 215 kg, com o objetivo de avaliar o custo de produção. Os animais foram alimentados com capim-elefante de 30 a 45 dias de idade, concentrado à base de farelo de soja, fubá de milho, farinha de carne, mistura mineral e cama de frango, sendo constituídos os tratamentos: 1 = 50% volumoso e 50% concentrado; 2 = 50% volumoso, 35% de concentrado e 15% de cama de frango; 3 = 25% de volumoso e 75% concentrado; e 4 = 25% de volumoso, 52,5% de concentrado e 22,5% de cama de frango, na base da matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualisados, com seis repetições. A análise da renda bruta, dos custos e do lucro indicou que o lucro foi negativo em todos os tratamentos, quando o preço de venda da carne produzida foi igual ao preço do boi gordo. Entretanto, quando foram mantidos os mesmos custos (custo operacional efetivo e custo operacional total e elevado em 10% o preço de venda do quilo de carne produzida, em relação ao preço do quilo de carne de boi gordo, todos os tratamentos apresentaram lucro, sendo destacados os tratamentos 2 e 3, com R$ 0,042 e R$ 0,03 por quilo de carne produzida e retorno sobre capital investido de 14,20 e 14,64%/ano, respectivamente. A variação no preço do concentrado, de R$ 0,26 a 0,20/kg, causou maior impacto no custo operacional efetivo do tratamento 3 e menor no tratamento 2, proporcionando lucro e retorno sobre capital o investido para todos os tratamentos, a partir da relação 7,62:1 entre preço do concentrado x preço da carne. As simulações mostraram que o tratamento 2 foi economicamente mais vantajoso, visto que gerou melhor relação custo/benefício para as condições do presente trabalho.Twenty-four Holstein crossbred young bulls, with 75 kg initial average weight and 215 kg final average weight, were confined in a feedlot. The objective of this experiment

  3. Efeito da fitase e xilanase sobre o desempenho e as características ósseas de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farelo de arroz Effect of phytase and xilanase on the performance and bone characteristics of broiler chicks fed diets with rice bran

    Ademir José Conte

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do uso da fitase e xilanase no desempenho e na deposição óssea de minerais em frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo 15% de farelo de arroz, baixo fósforo disponível e sem suplementação de ferro, cobre, zinco e manganês. A fitase utilizada foi da marca comercial Natuphos 5000 e a xilanase, da marca Avizyme 1300. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4x2+1. A dieta controle foi composta por níveis adequados de nutrientes, sem farelo de arroz e sem enzimas. As dietas dos demais tratamentos foram formuladas com 15% de farelo de arroz, contendo baixo fósforo disponível (40% do recomendado e sem suplementação inorgânica de Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn, com quatro níveis de fitase (0, 400, 800 e 1.200 FTU/kg, com ou sem xilanase (1 kg/t. As variáveis estudadas aos 21 e 42 dias de idade foram desempenho e cinzas, P, Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu na tíbia. O peso vivo e consumo de ração aumentaram de maneira significativa com a adição de fitase, enquanto que a conversão alimentar não foi afetada, tanto aos 21 como aos 42 dias. O melhor nível de fitase foi de 1.105 e 1.023 FTU/kg para melhor desempenho, aos 21 e 42 dias de idade, respectivamente. A xilanase não afetou significativamente o peso vivo e o consumo de ração, porém melhorou significativamente a conversão alimentar nas duas idades avaliadas, em função de menor consumo de ração nas aves que receberam xilanase. Os níveis de fitase promoveram aumento linear nos teores de cinzas e fósforo da tíbia e não afetaram a deposição de Zn, Fe, Mn e Cu, nas duas idades estudadas. A xilanase não afetou os parâmetros avaliados na tíbia.The present work was designed to verify the effect of the use of phytase and xylanase upon the performance and bone deposition of minerals in broiler diets containing 15% of rice bran, low available phosphorus and without supplementation of iron

  4. Uso de n-alcanos na estimativa da composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf e Arachis pintoi Koprov e Gregory Use of n-alkanes to estimate the dietary botanical composition in sheep fed different proportions of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf and Arachis pintoi Koprov and Gregory

    Nelson Massaru Fukumoto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento objetivou-se avaliar o poder discriminatório dos n-alcanos para estimar com acurácia e precisão a composição botânica da dieta em ovinos alimentados com diferentes proporções de Arachis pintoi Koprov & Gregory cv. Amarillo (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60% e Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com período experimental de dez dias de adaptação à dieta e cinco dias de coleta de fezes. Nas amostras (compostas de fezes do período e nos fenos, foi analisada a concentração de n-alcanos. Para o cálculo da composição botânica, utilizou-se minimização da soma dos quadrados dos desvios, considerando as concentrações dos alcanos nos componentes da dieta e nas fezes. Para a escolha dos alcanos mais discriminatórios, foram utilizadas as análises multivariadas e as variáveis canônicas. As estimativas calculadas foram submetidas à análise de variância. As médias foram comparadas pelo teste t e as correções dos valores estimados em relação aos valores reais foram ajustadas em regressão linear. As variáveis canônicas indicaram que os alcanos C35, C33, C30, C31, C27, C29 e C36 são os de maior potencial discriminatório. O uso desses alcanos nos cálculos foi mais acurado e preciso para estimar a proporção de A. pintoi na dieta que o uso de apenas dois ou três alcanos com poder discriminatório. O melhor ajuste da regressão também foi encontrado para esses alcanos. O teste t para o intercepto da equação (a e o coeficiente de regressão (b indicaram que a = 0 e b = 1, comprovando que os valores estimados são equivalentes aos valores reais. As análises multivariadas mostraram-se ferramentas de grande importância na escolha dos n-alcanos nos cálculos nas estimativas.The objective of this experiment was to use n-alkane to estimate accurately and precisely the botanical composition of dietary forage in sheep fed different proportions of Arachis pintoi

  5. Structure, seasonal dynamics and distribution of zooplankton in lake Drukshiai in 1994

    Mazheikaite, S.; Pashkauskas, R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the zooplankton of Lake Drukshiai were carried out in 1994. There were registered 62 taxons of protozoa and 50 taxons of metazoa, and compared with the data of 1979 - 1986 the diversity of species composition decreased 2.1 times. Eurytermic and stenothermic thermophylic species prevailed in the plankton biocenosis. In protozooplankton dominated ciliates of subclasses teolotricha and spirotricha, in metazooplankton -planctonic crustacea (Copopeda and Cladocera). Rotifers (Rotaria) were abundant only in the shallow and heated water outlet area. Seasonal dynamics of protozooplankton indicated one maximum in spring and metazooplankton - in summer. High diferentiation in quantity and biomass of zooplankton in the lake revealed different level of eutrophication of some areas. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  6. Parâmetros sangüíneos de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 alimentados com dietas suplementadas com cromo trivalente em duas densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1019 Hematological parameters of pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 fed diets supplemented with trivalent chromium in two stocking densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.1019

    Flávio Ruas de Moraes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com cromo trivalente (0, 6, 12 e 18 mg kg-1 de ração sobre as variáveis hematológicas de Piaractus mesopotamicus, mantidos em duas densidades de estocagem (4 e 20 kg m-3. Os mantidos na maior densidade e alimentados com dietas suplementadas com 0 e 6 mg de cromo kg-1 apresentaram redução do número de linfócitos circulantes, sugerindo má adaptação a essa condição de alta densidade. Nas dietas suplementadas com 12 e 18 mg kg-1, tal efeito não foi observado, porém verificou-se aumento do número de trombócitos no tratamento com 12 mg de cromo kg-1. A inexistência de diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, aos 30 dias, sugere a adaptação dos peixes ao tipo de alimento e à situação de alta densidade. Portanto, nas condições deste ensaio, a suplementação com 12 e 18 mg de cromo kg-1 é interessante como estratégia alimentar durante 15 dias.This work evaluated the effects of chromium supplementation on the hematological parameters of Piaractus mesopotamicus Holmberg, 1887 maintained in two stocking densities. Fish were fed diets supplemented with 0, 6, 12 and 18 mg trivalent chromium kg-1 dry ration and maintained at 4 and 20 kg m-3. The fish under high stocking density and fed diets supplemented with 0 and 6 mg kg-1 showed reduction in the number lymphocytes, which suggests non-adaptation to this condition of high density. This was not observed in fish fed diets supplemented with 12 and 18 mg chromium kg-1, but an increase in the number of thrombocytes was evident. The lack of difference between treatments after 30 days may suggest a possible adaptation of fish to the situation. It can be added that supplementation with 12 and 18 mg chromium kg-1 is an interesting feeding strategy for a period of 15 days.

  7. Características e rendimentos de carcaça e de cortes em ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684 Characteristics and yields of carcass and cuts in Santa Ines sheep fed with different concentrations of metabolizable energy - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.9684

    José Gilson Louzada Regadas Filho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o ganho de peso (GMD, conversão alimentar (CA, eficiência alimentar (EA, características de carcaça e dos cortes comerciais de ovinos Santa Inês, alimentados com diferentes concentrações de energia metabolizável (2,08; 2,28; 2,47 e 2,69 Mcal de EM kg-1 de MS. Vinte cordeiros, com idade e peso corporal médio de 50 dias e 13,00 ± 0,56 kg, respectivamente, foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Verificou-se efeito linear crescente (p 0,05 pelos níveis energéticos das rações. No entanto, os pesos de carcaça quente e fria, e o peso do corpo vazio, expressos em kg, apresentaram efeito quadrático (p This study evaluated the weight gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, feed efficiency (FE, characteristics of carcass and retail cuts of Santa Inês sheep fed different levels of metabolizable energy (2.08, 2.28, 2.47 and 2.69 Mcal kg-1 of DM. Twenty lambs, with age and mean body weight of 50 days and 13 ± 0.56 kg, respectively, were distributed in randomized block design with five replications. We verified a linear increase effect (p 0.05 by the energy levels of the rations. Nevertheless, the weights of hot and cold carcass and theempty body , expressed in kg, presented quadratic effect (p < 0.05, as we increase the levels of metabolizable energy in experimental diets. The energy levels influenced the yield of rib and shoulder, as the loin eye area (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the manipulation of the energy level of the ration changes the ADG, the hot and cold carcass weight, the shoulder yield, the rib weight and the loin eye area of Santa Ines sheep.

  8. Métodos de colheita de fezes e balanço de minerais em suínos alimentados com dietas suplementadas ou não com probiótico - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.999 Methods of feces collection and mineral balance of pigs fed diets supplemented or not with probiotic - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.999

    Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios de metabolismo, utilizando-se oito suínos, machos castrados, em fase de crescimento, em cada ensaio. No ensaio 1, foram comparados os teores de MS, PB, EB, EE, MM e FDN das fezes colhidas por meio de dois métodos: diretamente do reto do animal ou da caixa coletora da gaiola, realizados simultaneamente em cada suíno. No ensaio 2, foi estudado o balanço de minerais, sendo os animais submetidos a dois tratamentos: T1 - ração basal e T2 - ração basal + 200 ppm de probiótico. Os teores dos nutrientes mensurados foram similares nas fezes colhidas em ambos os métodos, com exceção da MS. Para o balanço de minerais, não houve diferença (p > 0,05 entre os animais alimentados com rações, contendo ou não probiótico. Ambos os métodos de colheita de fezes poderiam ser realizados, simultaneamente, em ensaios de balanço de minerais.Two metabolism assays were conducted, with eight growing castrated male crossbred pigs in each assay. In the first assay, the levels of DM, CP, GE, EE, MM and NDF were compared in feces, collected through two different methods: directly from the animal’s rectum or from a collection tray, collected simultaneously from each pig. The second assay evaluated the animals’ mineral balance. For this study, the animals were submitted to two treatments: T1 - basal feed and T2 - basal feed + 200ppm of probiotic. The nutrients levels were similar in the feces collected through both methods, with the exception of DM. There was no observable difference (p > 0.05 in mineral balance between the animals fed diets containing or not probiotic. Both collection methods can be undertaken simultaneously in mineral balance assays.

  9. Desempenho e características de carcaça de frangos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de resíduos do processamento de camarões (Litopeneaus vannamei - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.40 Utilization and effect of shrimp waste meal in the performance and characteristics of broiler (Litopeneaus Vannamei - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.40

    Riviana Roberta de Souza Loureiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho zootécnico e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte, alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de resíduo do processamento de camarões (FC. Foram utilizados 240 pintos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, sendo 5 tratamentos (níveis de inclusão de FC: 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12% em rações a base de milho e farelo de soja com 4 repetições e 12 aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de inclusão da FC proporcionaram efeito quadrático apenas para o ganho de peso, demonstrando que os melhores níveis de inclusão na dieta foram de 5,46% e 5,87%, nos períodos de 1 a 21 e 22 a 42 dias de idade, respectivamente, melhorando, inclusive, a pigmentação na carcaça das avesThis experiment was to evaluate the performance of broiler chickens feed with different levels of shrimp meal (SM in their diet. In this experiment 240 broiler chickens were distributed at a complete randomized design in five treatments and four replications of 12 broiler chickens per experimental unit. The levels of SM were 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12% added to zea mays and soybean-meal ration based. These rations were fed to 1-day-old broiler chicks for 6 weeks (3 weeks of starter rations and 3 weeks of finished ration. Only the weight gain presented significant difference with effects on shrimp meal levels in the ration. The shrimp waste meal (Litopenaeus vannamei resulted in a quadratic effect (P<0.05, where the best level included was 5.46 and 5.87% for 1-21 and 22-42 day-old, respectively. The increasing levels of SM inclusion improved the pigmentation of the birds’ food-pad

  10. The cavernicolous Oniscidea (Crustacea: Isopoda) of Portugal

    P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Gonçalves, Fernando J.; Oromí, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The study of subterranean Oniscidea in Portugal has been neglected for nearly 70 years, but recent investigations have revealed high diversity. All the terrestrial isopods known from caves of mainland Portugal, including data from the literature and new material, are listed, revealing new biodive...

  11. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  12. NA phylogeny of Ryukyus Leucothoidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    White, K.N.; Reimer, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Commensal leucothoid amphipods collected from sponges, ascidians, and coral rubble from the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, were investigated using nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. Analysis of sequences from 21 species in three genera supported the current morphological species designations and the

  13. The Caridean Crustacea of the Canary Islands

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1949-01-01

    The present paper is based mainly on material collected at the Canary Islands during the spring of 1947 by Dr. G. Thorson of Universitetets Zoologiske Museum at Copenhagen and Dr. C. O. van Regteren Altena of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden. Most of the specimens were collected by

  14. On Parartemia zietziana Sayce (Crustacea Phyllopoda)

    Kuenen, D.J.

    1937-01-01

    On his journey to Australia, Prof. Dr. L. G. M. Baas Becking collected several specimens of Parartemia zietziana, which he kindly handed over to me for further examination. As it is a very little known species, the few details given below may add to our somewhat scanty knowledge. Sayce described

  15. Avaliação econômica e desempenho de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de milheto em substituição ao milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.5761 Economic evaluation and performance of broilers fed with different levels of pearl millet in substitution of corn - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i1.5761

    Fabiana Villa Alves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos com o objetivo de determinar o valor energético do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum ADR 7010 e avaliar o desempenho e a viabilidade econômica dos frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo níveis crescentes de milheto ADR 7010. No Experimento 1 foram utilizados 72 frangos de corte com 21 dias de idade em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos, seis repetições de nove aves cada. A energia metabolizável aparente do milheto foi de 3.362,24 kcal kg-1 de matéria seca e 3.066,00 kcal kg-1 de matéria natural e o teor de proteína bruta de 12,6%. No Experimento 2 foram utilizados 960 pintos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos, cinco repetições e 32 aves cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis níveis de substituição do milho pelo milheto, variando de 0 a 100%. Observou-se efeito linear dos níveis crescentes do milheto sobre o ganho de peso e consumo de ração no período de 1-21 dias e no ganho de peso, no período de 1-41 dias de idade. Em rações isoenergéticas e isoaminoacídicas, o milho pode ser substituído pelo milheto ADR 7010 em nível de 100%, o que corresponde a cerca de 60% de inclusão de milheto nas rações para frangos de corte, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e com maior viabilidade econômica.Two experiments were carried out to determine the energy value, performance and economical feasibility of broiler chickens feeding on different levels of ADR 7010 pearl millet. Experiment 1 was conducted by using 72 broilers with 21 days of age distributed in metabolism cages. A completely randomized experimental design was conducted, with two treatments, six replicates and nine broilers per experimental unit. Pearl millet replaced 40% of reference diet. Values of apparent metabolizable energy of ADR 7010 pearl millet were 3,362 kcal kg-1 (as dry matter and 3,066 kcal kg-1 (as feed basis and 12.6% crude

  16. Consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma gigante (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill e palma orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684 Intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp. - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i2.4684

    Valéria Louro Ribeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o consumo e comportamento ingestivo de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com palma Gigante (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill e palma Orelha-de-elefante (Opuntia sp.. Foram utilizados 20 animais mestiços, sendo dez caprinos e dez ovinos, alojados em galpão coletivo, contidos individualmente por meio de cordas, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em um arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 (duas espécies animais e duas variedades de palma. As observações comportamentais foram realizadas em intervalos de 5 min. por um período de 24h. Os consumos de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente ácido, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos foram menores (p 0,05 sobre o tempo gasto com alimentação e eficiência de alimentação. O tempo gasto com ruminação foi maior para a dieta com palma Gigante, consequentemente os animais da dieta com palma Orelha-de-elefante permaneceram mais tempo em ócio. Comparando as espécies caprina e ovina, verificou-se que a eficiência de ruminação, tanto de MS quanto de FDN, foi maior para a espécie ovina. Os animais gastaram mais tempo ruminando deitados do que em pé, mas não foi verificada diferença quanto ao lado escolhido para deitarem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and ingestive behavior of sheep and goats fed with cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and prickly pear (Opuntia sp.. Twenty crossbred animals – 10 sheep and 10 goats – were used. They were lodged in a collective shed, contained individually with ropes, distributed using a completely randomized design, and treated with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (2 animal species and 2 varieties of cactus. Behavioral observations were made at five-minute intervals during a 24-hour period. Dry matter, ether extract, acid detergent fiber, total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake were reduced (p 0.05 on feeding time and feeding efficiency. The time

  17. Predição da composição corporal e dos requisitos de energia e proteína para ganho de peso de bovinos, não-castrados, alimentados com rações contendo diferentes níveis de concentrado Prediction of body composition and of energy and protein requirements for weight gain of Nellore bulls, fed diet with different levels of concentrate

    Antonia Sherlânea Chaves Véras

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de compilar dados de dois experimentos (I e II relativos aos requisitos energéticos e protéicos, para ampliar as informações disponíveis sobre exigências nutricionais de bovinos em nível nacional. No experimento I, foram utilizados 30 bovinos Nelore não-castrados e no experimento II, 29 bovinos F1 Simental x Nelore, não-castrados. Nos dois experimentos, os animais foram alimentados com dietas contendo 25; 37,5; 50; 62,5; e 75% de concentrado. As metodologias e os procedimentos foram padronizados e possibilitaram análise conjunta dos dados. Foram ajustadas equações de regressão do logaritmo do conteúdo de gordura, proteína e energia em função do logaritmo do peso de corpo vazio (PCVZ dos animais. Derivando-se estas equações, foi obtida a composição do ganho de PCVZ. Os resultados indicaram que, para conversão do ganho de peso vivo em ganho de peso vazio, deve-se multiplicar o ganho de peso vivo pelo fator 0,964. Os requerimentos líquidos de proteína e energia de um bovino com 400 kg de PV foram de 140,26 g/kg de ganho de peso de corpo vazio (GPCVZ e 3,19 Mcal/kg GPCVZ, respectivamente. Os requisitos de PMm, PMg e PB foram de 339,88 e 285,08 g/kg GPCVZ e 939,54 g/dia, respectivamente. As exigências de EM e NDT, para ganho de peso, foram de 8,62 Mcal/kg GPCVZ e 2,38 kg/kg GPCVZ, respectivamente, para dietas com teor de EM de 2,4 Mcal/kg de MS. Para dietas com concentração de EM de 2,6 Mcal/kg de MS, os requisitos foram de 6,38 Mcal/kg GPCVZ e 1,76 kg/kg GPCVZ, respectivamente.This work was carried out to compile data of two experiments (I and II of energy and protein requirements, to enlarge the available information on nutritional requirements of bovine in national level. In the experiment I, 30 Nellore bulls were used and in the experiment II, 29 F1 Simental x Nellore bulls were used. In the both experiments, the animals were fed diets with 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, and 75% of

  18. Intake, ruminal parameters and plasmatic urea concentration in beef cattle fed diets with different levels of sunflower cake in substitution to the cotton meal Consumo, parâmetros ruminais e concentração de uréia plasmática em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de torta de girassol em substituição ao farelo de algodão

    Rinaldo Masato Mori

    2010-12-01

    em quadrado latino 5 x 5, sendo 5 animais e 5 períodos. Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias. Os animais alimentados com a ração TG0 ingeriram mais (P < 0,05 matéria seca (MS, em kg por dia, do que quando receberam rações contendo torta de girassol. No entanto, não foram observadas diferenças para os valores de pH e N-NH3 do líquido ruminal e uréia plasmática. Conclui-se que a torta de girassol pode ser usada em substituição ao farelo de algodão em rações suplementares visando médias taxas de ganho diário, pois esta em altos níveis de substituições do farelo de algodão acarretou menor ingestão de MS.

  19. Aporte de energia, composição e eficiência microbiana em bovinos alimentados com feno de capim-marandu e concentrado balanceados para diferentes ganhos de peso e potenciais de fermentação microbiana Energy aport, microbial composition and efficiency by bovines fed Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu hay and concentrate, balanced for different weight gains and potential of microbial fermentation

    Rodolfo Marques de Brito

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o aporte de energia, a composição de bactérias e a eficiência microbiana por tourinhos Santa Gertrudes canulados no rúmen e no duodeno alimentados com dietas compostas de feno de capim-marandu e concentrado. Empregou-se o delineamento em quadrado latino 4 ´ 4, no qual os tratamentos foram concentrados ajustados para ganho de peso corporal (GPC diário de 0,5 e 1 kg/animal e potencial de fermentação microbiana (y de 9,5 e 11 g de PB microbiana/MJ energia metabolizável fermentável. Houve diferença para as concentrações de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e energia metabolizável fermentável (EMFe ingeridos e para a composição em matéria orgânica e mineral das bactérias ruminais para as dietas ajustadas para diferentes GPC. Houve interação significativa GPC ´ y para a ingestão de NDT como porcentagem do peso corporal e a composição em PB e carboidratos totais das bactérias ruminais. Não foram encontradas diferenças para os potenciais de fermentação microbiana. A eficiência de síntese microbiana também não diferiu entre as dietas e apresentou valores de 12,7 g PB microbiana/100 g NDT e 9,2 g PB microbiana/MJ EMFe. As diferenças encontradas não justificaram o balanceamento dos concentrados para os diferentes potenciais de fermentação microbiana avaliados.The experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate the energy aport, microbial composition and efficiency of Santa Gertrudis young bulls, canulated in the rumen and duodenum, fed diets with palisadegrass hay and concentrates. A 4 x 4 latin square design was used, in which the treatments were composed by the concentrates adjusted for daily body weight gain (BWG of 0.5 and 1 kg/animal and potential microbial fermentation (y of 9.5 and 11 g microbial CP/MJ fermentable metabolizable energy. There were differences for the concentrations of total digestible nutrients (TDN and fermentable metabolizable

  20. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar obtido pelo método de extração por difusão ou por moagem convencional Digestibility of nutrients and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle fed rations containing sugarcane bagasse obtained by diffusion or conventional milling extraction method

    Mário Márcio Arakaki Rabelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN, obtido pelo método de extração do açúcar por difusão (BINdif ou moagem convencional (BINmoa como fonte de fibra íntegra, associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor (BTPV sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte. Quatro machos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com fístulas ruminais e peso vivo médio inicial de 380 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental quadrado latino 4 × 4. Os tratamentos foram compostos das combinações dos bagaços: 5% BINmoa + 45% BTPV; 5% BINdif + 45% BTPV; 10% BINdif + 40% BTPV; 15% BINdif + 35% BTPV. A utilização do BIN obtido por difusão, mesmo no nível mais elevado, não teve efeito sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA e EE da dieta. Entretanto, o fornecimento do bagaço obtido por difusão provocou redução nos consumos de MS, MO, PB e FDN em relação ao bagaço obtido por moagem. A produção total de ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen, a porcentagem molar dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, a relação acético/propiônico, o pH ruminal e a concentração ruminal de nirogênio amoniacal não diferiram entre os bagaços fornecidos. A utilização do bagaço obtido pelo processo de difusão ou de moagem convencional como fonte de fibra íntegra associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor não prejudicou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo 50% de concentrado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugarcane bagasse, obtained by extraction of sugar using diffusion (BINdif or conventional milling (BINmoa method, as a fiber source associated with bagasse treated under pressure and steam (BTPV on nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle. Four Nellore young bulls (380 kg

  1. Cangrejos Gecarcinidos (Crustacea; Gecarcinidae de Colombia Cangrejos Gecarcinidos (Crustacea; Gecarcinidae de Colombia

    Prahl Henry von

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic patterns and figures allow correct identifications of those crabs; also coloration, ecology and their distribution are given. The following crabs are reported for Colombia: Gecarcinus (Gecarcinus ruricola (Linnaeus, 1758, G. (G. lateralis lateralis (Freminville, 1835, G. (G. lateralis quadratus Saussure, 1835, G. (lohngarthia malpilensis Faxon, 1893, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825, C. crassum Smith, 1870, Ucides cordatus cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 and U. cordatus occidentalis. (Ortman, 1898. Se presentan diagnósticos sistemáticos y figuras, que permiten la correcta identificación de estos cangrejos, adicionando notas sobre su coloración, ecología, distribución general y distribución en Colombia.Se reportan las siguientes especies: Gecarcinus (Gecarcinus ruricola (Linnaeus, 1758, G. (G. lateralis lateralis (Freminville, 1835, G. (G. lateralis quadratus Saussure, 1835, G. (lohngarthia malpilensis Faxon, 1839, Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825, C. crassum Smith, 1870, Ucides cordatus cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763 y U. cordatus occidentalis (Ortman, 1898.   

  2. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Após o resfriamento, foram tomados nas meias-carcaças esquerdas os cortes da seção H&H para estimativa da composição tecidual da carcaça e os cortes no Longissimus dorsi à altura da 12ª e 13ª costelas para determinação da área de olho-de-lombo (AOL, da espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, da força de cisalhamento (FC e da composição química. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre a composição física e a relação entre tecidos na seção H&H, bem como para AOL, EGS e FC. A ração concentrada SGUM resultou em maiores teores de EE no Longissimus dorsi, mas não diferiu das rações SCTM e SSTM. A ração concentrada SGUM gerou maior deposição de gordura muscular em comparação à MM, no entanto, as rações SGUISCT e SGUISST não aumentaram essa deposição em comparação ao fornecimento dos grãos secos moídos. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem a composições física e química da carca��a e conferem resultados similares.The physical and chemical carcasses composition of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

  3. Desempenho e excreção de nitrogênio de leitões dos 9 aos 25 kg alimentados com dietas com diferentes níveis de lisina digestível e proteína bruta Performance and nitrogen excretion for pigs from 9 to 25 kg submitted to the diets with different levels of digestible lysine and crude protein

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar níveis de PB e lisina digestível (LISD na dieta sobre o desempenho e a excreção de nitrogênio (N de leitões na fase inicial. No experimento 1, 80 suínos machos castrados e fêmeas (peso inicial de 9,1 ± 1,2 kg e final de 21,5 ± 4,8 kg, mestiços Landrace × Large White, foram distribuídos em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2 × 4, composto de dois níveis de PB (16 e 18% e quatro níveis de LISD (0,7; 0,9; 1,1 e 1,3% com cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental durante 35 dias. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD, o consumo médio diário de ração (CMDR e a conversão alimentar (CA. No experimento 2, 32 suínos machos castrados (25,0 ± 1,3 kg, provenientes do experimento 1 foram alojados individualmente em gaiolas próprias para estudos de metabolismo (unidade experimental durante 11 dias para determinação dos teores de N ingerido (NI, N nas fezes e N na urina. As rações foram formuladas com milho, farelo de soja e leite em pó modificado e suplementadas com vitaminas e minerais. Os aminoácidos metionina e treonina foram corrigidos de acordo com os níveis de lisina, segundo o conceito de proteína ideal. Não houve efeito da interação LISD × PB sobre nenhuma variável estudada. Os níveis de LISD tiveram efeito quadrático sobre o GMDR e a CA, que foram melhores nos animais alimentados com as dietas com níveis de 1,04 e 1,09% de PB. Os níveis de N nas fezes sofreram efeito linear crescente dos níveis de LISD e PB, enquanto os níveis de N na urina foram afetados de forma quadrática pelos níveis de LISD, com melhor resultado no nível de 1,03% LISD na ração. O CMDR e o nível de N nas fezes não foram influenciados pelos níveis de LISD e PB. O nível de 1,05% LISD em dietas com 16 e 18% PB proporciona melhor desempenho e menor excreção de N nos dejetos de suínos.Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary levels of

  4. Desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes relações lisina digestível: proteína bruta Performance and carcass yield of broiler in the period from 22 to 42 days of age fed diets with different digestible lysine: crude protein ratios

    Kênia Ferreira Rodrigues

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e as características de carcaça de frangos de corte no período de 22 a 42 dias alimentados com rações formuladas com diferentes relações lisina digestível:proteína bruta (PB. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, segundo um modelo com dois critérios de classificação hierárquica. Foram utilizados 1.200 pintos de corte machos, linhagem Cobb, criados até 21 dias de idade. Depois desse período, as aves foram uniformizadas por peso (média de 879 ± 17 g e distribuídas nas parcelas experimentais. As dietas foram isonutritivas, exceto quanto aos níveis de PB e lisina digestível, formuladas com dois níveis de PB (17,0 e 19,5% e cinco relações lisina digestível:PB, correspondendo a 5,9; 6,4; 6,9; 7,4 e 7,9% em relação à ração com 17,0% de PB e 5,3; 5,7; 6,1; 6,5 e 6,9% em relação à ração com 19,5% de PB. Cada ração experimental foi fornecida a 20 aves em cada uma das seis repetições. Aos 42 dias, avaliaram-se as características de desempenho (ganho de peso, consumo de ração e conversão alimentar, quando duas aves de cada parcela foram abatidas para determinação dos rendimentos de carcaça, de cortes e de gordura abdominal. O consumo de ração diminuiu e a conversão alimentar melhorou linearmente de acordo com as relações avaliadas no nível de 17,0% PB. Não houve efeito significativo dos dois níveis de PB utilizados sobre o ganho de peso e os rendimentos de carcaça e de partes. A gordura abdominal reduziu linearmente no nível de 19,5% de PB. As relações ideais foram de 5,9% para 17,0% PB e 5,3% para 19,5% PB. O nível de PB da dieta pode ser reduzido para 17,0%, pois essa redução não afeta o desempenho das aves.This paper was developed to evaluate the performance and the carcass characteristics of broiler chickens over the period from 22 to 42 days, fed with diets formulated with different digestible lysine: crude protein (CP ratio. A completely randomized

  5. Competencia en Cladocera: implicancias de la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos tróficos Competition in Cladocera: implications of the trophic resources use overlap

    GINGER MARTINEZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar que numerosa evidencia demuestra el uso de diferentes estrategias de alimentación entre cladóceros, la clásica descripción de una conducta alimentaria pasiva ha conducido a una subestimación de la sobreposición de nicho trófico sobre sus patrones de coexistencia. En condiciones de microcosmos, se mantuvieron experimentos pareados de dinámica poblacional de los cladóceros Moina micrura (Moinidae y Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, especializados en los recursos Chlorella sp. y Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectivamente y del generalista Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, durante 35 - 45 días. Mientras que los especialistas M. micrura y C. dubia no dieron evidencias de competencia, la presencia de cada uno produjo un significativo decrecimiento de la densidad del generalista D. ambigua, ocasionando en algunos casos su extinción. A pesar que las dinámicas poblacionales de cada especialista fueron afectadas cualitativamente por la presencia del generalista, no hubo efecto de esta especie sobre las densidades, resultando una interacción asimétrica entre cada especialista con el generalista. Estos resultados demuestran que la conducta alimentaria y la sobreposición en el uso de los recursos serían condiciones determinantes en la composición de ensambles de cladócerosAlthough numerous evidence reveals the use of different feeding strategies among cladocerans, the impact of trophic niche overlap on their patterns of coexistence has been underestimated due to the classical description of passive feeding behavior. Under microcosm conditions, paired experiments of population dynamics were conducted for the cladocerans Moina micrura (Moinidae and Ceriodaphnia dubia (Daphnidae, specialists on the resources Chlorella sp. and Oocystis sp. (Chlorococcales respectively, and for the generalist species Daphnia ambigua (Daphnidae, during 35 - 45 days. While, the specialists M. micrura and C. dubia did not show evidences of competition, their presence lead to a significant decrease in the density of the generalist D. ambigua and in some cases even led to extinction. Although the generalist qualitatively affected the dynamics of each specialist, it did not affect their density, thus resulting in an asymmetrical interaction among each specialist with the generalist species. These results demonstrate that the feeding behavior and resource use overlap should be determinant conditions in the composition of cladoceran assemblages

  6. Efecto de jugos vegetales sobre la producción de Daphnia pulex (Cladocera: Daphnidae en condiciones de laboratorio

    Margarita L. Rojas

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue probar el efecto enriquecedor del jugo de hojas de rábano (Raphanus sativus y de espinaca (Spinacia oleracea, sobre un patrón de fermento de salvado de trigo (Triticum aestivum en la producción de Daphnia pulex. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en botellas de vidrio de 20 l de capacidad, llenadas con agua del grifo desclorada a un volumen de 14 l. Los cultivos tuvieron una duración de 21 días, durante los cuales las botellas testigo tan solo recibieron fermento de salvado de trigo (Triticum aestivum y las botellas experimentales (I, II y III, en el primer caso recibieron la combinación de fermento y el jugo de hojas de rábano (Raphanus sativus, y en el segundo caso el fermento y el jugo de espinaca (Spinacia oleracea. La tasa de siembra en ambos experimentos fue de 200 organismos/botella. Durante el desarrollo de los cultivos se evaluaron: temperatura del agua, oxígeno disuelto, pH, conductividad, alcalinidad y dureza total. Los parámetros ambientales se comportaron de manera similar en ambos experimentos, sin mostrar variaciones drásticas, ni grandes diferencias en sus registros. Las producciones netas obtenidas para la D. pulex fueron de: 1 722 organismos/botella en las testigo, 7 997 org/botella en las de rábano (Raphanus sativus, y de 8 921 org/botella en las de espinaca (Spinacia oleracea. De acuerdo con los datos de producción el análisis de varianza encontró diferencias significativas entre los cultivos (Fisher pWe tested the enriching effect of radish leaf (Raphanus sativus and spinach leaf (Spinacea oleracea extracts when added separately to the fermented wheat bran (Triticum aestivum for producing Daphnia pulex. The experiments were conducted in 20 l glass bottles containing 14 l of dechorinated tap water. The initial inoculation density was 200 organisms/bottle. The cultures were allowed to grow for 21 days; during this time the controls received only the fermented wheat bran (Triticum aestivum, while the test containers received either extract of radish leaf (Raphanus sativus or that of spinach leaf (Spinacea oleracea, in addition to ferment wheat bran (Triticum aestivum. We also measured some physico-chemical variables of the medium during the experimental period. These are: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, alkalinity and total hardness. These variables remained more or less the same in all test bottles reflecting non-significant variations. After the test period, the net production of D. pulex in terms of numbers was: 1 722 organisms/bottle in the controls while that receiving radish leaf (Raphanus sativus extract with 7 997 organisms/bottle and that with spinach leaf (Spinacea oleracea extract with 8 921 organisms/bottle. Test of analysis of variance showed significant differences among the cultures (Fisher p< 0.005. This study showed that the enrichment of fermented wheat bran (Triticum aestivum with spinach (Spinacea oleracea extract was a better nourishing source of food for culturing Daphnia pulex under laboratory conditions.

  7. Determination of production biology of Cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were examined. The design of the study was to compare rates of cladoceran population production at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond, the cooling reservoir located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS), and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). The statistical properties of the Edmondson egg ratio model (Edmondson, 1960) were examined to determine if it would be a suitable method for calculating cladoceran production rates for comparison between stations. Based on an examination of the variance associated with standing stock and fecundity measurements and other consideratios, the use of the egg ratio model was abandoned. Instead, a non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, were used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in species composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  8. Determination of production biology of cladocera in a reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents from a nuclear production reactor

    Vigerstad, T.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on zooplankton of residence in a cooling reservoir receiving hyperthermal effluents directly from a nuclear-production-reactor were studied. Rates of cladoceran population production were compared at two stations in the winter and summer of 1976 on Par Pond located on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, SC. One station was located in an area of the reservoir directly receiving hyperthermal effluent (Station MAS) and the second was located about 4 km away in an area where surface temperatures were normal for reservoirs in the general geographical region (Station CAS). A non-parametric comparison between stations of standing stock and fecundity data for Bosmina longirostris, taken for the egg ratio model, was used to observe potential hyperthermal effluent effects. There was a statistically higher incidence of deformed eggs in the Bosmina population at Station MAS in the summer. Bosmina standing stock underwent two large oscillations in the winter and three large oscillations in the summer at Station MAS compared with two in the winter and one in the summer at Station CAS. These results are consistent with almost all other Par Pond studies which have found the two stations to be essentially similar in spectra composition but with some statistically significant differences in various aspects of the biology of the species

  9. Linking mean body size of pelagic Cladocera to environmental variables in Precambrian Shield lakes: A paleolimnological approach

    John P. SMOL

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia and Bosmina fragments were identified and measured in the surface sediments of 42 lakes in the Muskoka-Haliburton region of Ontario, Canada, in an attempt to identify environmental factors that may influence cladoceran body size. Specifically, pecten length on Daphnia post-abdominal claws, antennule length on Bosmina headshields, and carapace and mucro lengths of Bosmina carapaces were measured. These measurements were then compared to limnological variables previously identified as possibly influencing cladoceran size, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC, total phosphorus (TP, pH, calcium (Ca, Chaoborus density, and fish presence/absence. Cladoceran size displayed a linear relationship to TP, with larger Bosmina and Daphnia present in lakes with lower nutrient levels. We suspect that, as larger individuals are more efficient grazers, they may competitively exclude smaller individuals when nutrients are limiting in these lakes. Bosmina mucro length and cladoceran community size structure displayed a step response to DOC, with mean size significantly smaller when DOC concentrations were higher than 5.89 mg L-1. Daphnia pecten length displayed a negative linear relationship to DOC above a concentration of 4.90 mg l-1. Reduced predation pressure from gape-limited macroinvertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus, may have influenced these relationships. DOC was also highly correlated to TP in these lakes, and size trends might be responding to the TP gradient rather than the DOC gradient. Mean cladoceran body size in acidic lakes (pH 6.0. There was no relationship between size structure and Ca concentrations, attributed to a narrow Ca gradient in these lakes. Predation effects were examined using limited Chaoborus density and fish presence/absence data. Although there were no significant relationships between cladoceran size and Chaoborus density, some significant relationships between size variables and fish predation were identified. The sensitivity of size variables to certain environmental gradients suggests that size structure has the potential to be an effective paleolimnological tool.

  10. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in current economical conditions. Cladoceran cultivation is especially important during the period of its active consumption by fish in summer months, when a depletion of the natural forage base occur in ponds.

  11. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  12. Culture of Daphnia sp. (crustacean – cladocera): the effect of manure variation on the growth, natality, and mortality

    Herman, H.; Andriani, Y.; Sahidin, A.; Hidayat, T.; Herawati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the growth rate, reproduction rate, and mortality rate of Daphnia sp. which cultured in variant organic manure. This research used experimental method Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with four treatment and three replications. The treatments in this research were the variant manures from chicken, quail, goat, and cow with same of growth (2,4 g/l). Daphnia cultured with using 100 breeders since from neonets (0 day) until growth up and died in one life cycle. At the 3-days, culture of Daphnia sp was give peak population with maximum age of culture using quail manure is 7 days, and other treatments are 8 days. The growth rate and the reproduction rate of using quail manure was higher than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean GR = 3.68 : 2.32 : 2.74 : 2.97; mean RR = 3.87 : 2.59 : 3.00 : 3.31; p culture, quail manure give the lowest of mortality rate than using chicken manure, goat manure, and cow manure (mean MR = 0.19 : 0.28 : 0.26 : 0.34).

  13. Effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains (Woloszynska, 1912 Senayya & Subba Raju on the mobility of Daphnia laevis (Cladocera, Daphniidae

    GC Restani

    Full Text Available Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium distributed worldwide that is known to produce cyanotoxins. Some of the Brazilian strains can produce saxitoxins (STXs, which are classified as neurotoxins and can paralyze cladocerans .Daphnia laevis is a cladoceran with a wide distribution in the Americas and has been studied as a possible test-organism in toxicity bioassays. The present work tested the acute effect on D laevis mobility when fed a saxitoxin-producing (STX and neoSTX C. raciborskii strain, CYRF-01, and compared the results with the effects of a non-toxic strain (NPCS-1. Neonates (6-24 hours after birth were exposed to concentrations of C. raciborskii varying from 102 to 106 cells·mL–1 of each strain for up to three hours. The cladocerans were then transferred to a medium without toxic filaments for 24 hours. Only the organisms exposed to the STX-producing strain showed signs of the immobilization of swimming movements, confirming the effects of the toxins. There was a linear correlation between the time required to induce stopping the swimming movement, with a shorter time to needed to induce immobilization at a higher the concentration; this correlation was inverse to the time required to recover the swimming movements (longer at higher concentrations, p < 0.1. D. laevis is a tropical and subtropical species with great potential for use in toxicity tests for the detection of STXs, despite being native to and found in a great array of freshwater bodies. This is the first assay testing STX-producing and non-producing C. raciborskii strains on D. laevis, species that are both found in Brazilian ecosystems.

  14. Effects of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii strains (Woloszynska, 1912) Senayya & Subba Raju on the mobility of Daphnia laevis (Cladocera, Daphniidae).

    Restani, G C; Fonseca, A L

    2014-02-01

    Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii is a cyanobacterium distributed worldwide that is known to produce cyanotoxins. Some of the Brazilian strains can produce saxitoxins (STXs), which are classified as neurotoxins and can paralyze cladocerans .Daphnia laevis is a cladoceran with a wide distribution in the Americas and has been studied as a possible test-organism in toxicity bioassays. The present work tested the acute effect on D laevis mobility when fed a saxitoxin-producing (STX and neoSTX) C. raciborskii strain, CYRF-01, and compared the results with the effects of a non-toxic strain (NPCS-1). Neonates (6-24 hours after birth) were exposed to concentrations of C. raciborskii varying from 102 to 106 cells·mL-1 of each strain for up to three hours. The cladocerans were then transferred to a medium without toxic filaments for 24 hours. Only the organisms exposed to the STX-producing strain showed signs of the immobilization of swimming movements, confirming the effects of the toxins. There was a linear correlation between the time required to induce stopping the swimming movement, with a shorter time to needed to induce immobilization at a higher the concentration; this correlation was inverse to the time required to recover the swimming movements (longer at higher concentrations, p < 0.1). D. laevis is a tropical and subtropical species with great potential for use in toxicity tests for the detection of STXs, despite being native to and found in a great array of freshwater bodies. This is the first assay testing STX-producing and non-producing C. raciborskii strains on D. laevis, species that are both found in Brazilian ecosystems.

  15. Effects of constant and stepwise changes in temperature on the species abundance dynamics of four cladocera species

    Verbitsky V. B.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments with natural zooplankton communities were carried out to study the effects of two contrasting temperature regimes: constant temperature (15, 20, and 25 °C and graded changes in temperature. The graded regime consisted of repeated sustained (three weeks controlled stepwise temperature changes of 5 or 10 °C within 15–25 °C on the population dynamics of four dominant species of lake littoral zooplankton, Daphnia longispina (Müller, 1785, Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Lievin, 1848, Simocephalus vetulus (Müller, 1776 and Chydorus sphaericus (Müller, 1785. The results show that controlled stepwise changes (positive or negative in temperature within the ranges of 15–20, 20–25, and 15–25 °C can exert either stimulating or inhibitory effect (direct or delayed on the development of D. longispina and S. vetulus populations. The development of D. brachyurum and Ch. sphaericus, both more steno-thermophile, was only stimulated by a stable elevated temperature (25 °C. These results support the previously formulated hypothesis that, in determining the ecological temperature optimum of a species within a natural community, it is not enough to define its optimum from constant, cyclic or random temperature fluctuations, but also from unidirectional stepwise changes in temperature. These stepwise changes may also induce prolonged or delayed effects.

  16. DYNAMICS OF THE RUMINAL FERMENTATION IN SHEEP FEEDING WITH RATION CONTAINING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CASHEW BY-PRODUCTS (Anacardium occidentale Efecto de la inclusion en los níveles crescentes del subproducto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. en la dinámica de la fermentacion ruminal de ovinos DINÂMICA DA FERMENTAÇÃO RUMINAL EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM RAÇÕES CONTENDO DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE COPRODUTOS DE CAJU (Anacardium occidentale

    Marcos Cláudio Rogério

    2009-07-01

    voláteis (AGVs do líquido ruminal, em ovinos recebendo dietas experimentais isofibrosas e isoproteicas. Distribuíram-se vinte ovinos machos, inteiros em quatro tratamentos de inclusão do coproduto de caju (zero %; 19%; 38%; 52%, segundo delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas, em que as parcelas eram as dietas e as subparcelas os tempos de colheita (zero, duas, cinco, oito horas pós-prandial com cinco repetições. O pH manteve-se dentro dos padrões citados na literatura, mesmo diante de elevadas inclusões de coproduto de caju. Os tratamentos com zero % e 52% apresentaram as maiores concentrações de N-NH3. A proporção molar dos AGVs no líquido ruminal dos ovinos alimentados com rações com o coproduto de caju foi típica de dietas ricas em volumosos. A relação acetato:propionato não foi afetada pela inclusão do coderivado de caju. A inclusão do coproduto de caju em até 19 % na ração apresentou os melhores resultados no que diz respeito aos parâmetros analisados neste trabalho.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ácidos graxos voláteis, nitrogênio amoniacal, Ovis aries, pH, parâmetros ruminais, ruminantes.

  17. Pollos cuello desnudo alimentados con harina de Morus alba y Cajanus cajan

    Tito Solís-Barros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue estudiar el comportamiento productivo de pollos cuello desnudo heterocigotos que se alimentaron con harina de hojas de Morus alba y granos de Cajanus cajan tostados a 120 ºC por 12 min, se utilizaron 144 pollos sexados de la estirpe T451N de 1 a 90 d de edad. Se distribuyeron según diseño de bloques al azar, en tres tratamientos, 48 pollos por tratamiento repartidos en ocho réplicas. Fueron criados en piso, en instalaciones rústicas. Se evaluaron indicadores productivos como el consumo de alimento, ganancia de peso promedio diario, conversión alimentaria y la eficiencia en el uso de los nutrientes. Los tratamientos fueron: T1=Control, T2=5% Cajanus cajan y 3% Morus alba y T3=3% C. cajan y 5% M. alba. El control consumió maíz y soya, como dieta base. La mayor ingestión de alimento (p

  18. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  19. Desenvolvimento do predador Podisus nigrispinus alimentado com Spodoptera frugiperda e Tenebrio molitor.

    OLIVEIRA, H.N. de; PRATISSOLI, D.; PEDRUZZI, E.P.; ESPINDULA, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ninfas de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) têm sido criadas em laboratório com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). No entanto, não existem relatos sobre a predação, no campo ou em laboratório, de P. nigrispinus em Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), uma das principais pragas de inúmeras culturas no Brasil. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento ninfal e características reprodutivas do percevejo predador P. nigrispinus em la...

  20. Desempenho e qualidade da carne de bovinos cruzados alimentados com diferentes dietas em confinamento

    Silva, Maria Lígia Pacheco da [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    Com a alta demanda mundial de carne de qualidade, a utilização de cruzamento entre raças e de dieta com teores elevados de energia são estratégias que podem ser utilizadas visando à melhorias na eficiência do sistema de produção de carne bovina e na qualidade do produto final. Assim, o objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho (pesos, ganhos em peso, consumo de matéria seca, eficiência alimentar e dias em confinamento), características de carcaça (peso e rendimento de carcaça fri...

  1. Caracterización de la microbiota bacteriana presente en biorreactores de microalgas alimentados con purines

    Prado Carrascal, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    La producción intensiva ganadera, con una alta concentración de animales estabulados, conlleva la generación de grandes cantidades de residuos semilíquidos o purines, cuyo vertido no controlado puede generar contaminación tanto en los suelos como en las aguas superficiales y subterráneas, lo que provoca importantes problemas ambientales que han obligado a legislar su gestión. El tratamiento de los purines tiene por objetivo básico reducir la materia orgánica y el contenido de nutrientes, lo q...

  2. Botulismo tipo C em suínos alimentados com restos de restaurante

    Raymundo, Djeison Lutier; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Boabaid, Fabiana M.; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Schmitz, Milene; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Dutra, Iveraldo dos Santos; Driemeier, David

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the epidemiologic data of the death of pigs during the period of 2002 to 2009 following the ingestion of botulinum neurotoxin type C. This neurotoxin was present in food residues originating from restaurant and hotel kitchens, stored in barrels without shelter from the sun and administered in a collective trough without prior thermal treatment. Animals which died at different ages showed clinical signs of botulism characterized by flaccid paralysis, weight loss, anorexia, ...

  3. Control de un generador doblemente alimentado para turbinas eólicas

    Gamarra Rodríguez, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    En los últimos años se está produciendo un crecimiento de demanda energética y un aumento de los niveles de contaminación, debido en parte a la industrialización de países en vías de desarrollo. Para controlar la problemática actual y contribuir al desarrollo sostenible se hace uso, cada vez más, de sistemas de conversión eléctrica mediante fuentes renovables. En particular una de ellas está sufriendo un aumento considerable y se prevé seguirá creciendo, la energía eólica. ...

  4. Digestibilidade pré-cecal diurna e noturna em equinos fistulados alimentados com diferentes concentrados

    Alexandre Augusto de Oliveira Gobesso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as possíveis diferenças entre períodos diurno e noturno dos coeficientes de digestibilidade parcial pré-cecal da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, amido, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro de diferentes dietas formuladas com concentrados energéticos à base de milho, aveia, sorgo e milho/aveia 50/50%. Foram utilizados quatro cavalos íleo-fistulados com 36±4 meses de idade, mestiços, machos, castrados, com peso médio de 308±32kg. O delineamento experimental foi um quadrado latino 4X4 (quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos. Houve diferenças entre os períodos diurno e noturno nas frações da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, amido, fibra em detergente ácido e fibra em detergente neutro no tratamento a base de milho, nas frações fibra em detergente acido e fibra em detergente neutro no tratamento com aveia, e na fibra em detergente ácido dos tratamentos com sorgo e milho/aveia 50/50%.

  5. HESPERIDINA DIMINUI O COLESTEROL SANGUINEO DE RATOS ALIMENTADOS COM GORDURA SATURADA

    JULIO CéSAR VINUEZA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da hesperidina nos níveis dos lípides sanguíneos em ratos tratados com dieta acrescida de gordura saturada. Ratos machos Wistar (194 ± 16g receberam hesperidina administrada isoladamente, ou adicionada ao suco de laranja, associada com dieta enriquecida com gordura saturada. Após 30 dias de tratamento foram realizadas as análises bioquímicas do colesterol total, HDL-C e triglicérides no soro dos animais. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos para os níveis de triglicérides, como também não houve diferenças no ganho de peso dos animais tratados com hesperidina ou com suco de laranja mais hesperidina. Houve, todavia, uma diminuição significativa no colesterol total e no HDL-C com a suplementação da hesperidina, isolada ou em associação com o suco de laranja. Estes resultados apontam um papel hipocolesterolêmico da hesperidina no metabolismo do colesterol no rato.

  6. Deep phylogeny and character evolution in thecostraca (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    published since Darwin's seminal monographs, few studies have tested evolutionary hypotheses about Thecostraca within a phylogenetic context. In this review, we combine a Bayesian phylogenetic method and multilocus sequence data to reconstruct the evolutionary history of 12 key thecostracan phenotypic...

  7. First Zoeal Stage of Camptandrium sexdentatum (Crustacea: Decapoda: Camptandriidae

    Park, Jay Hee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The first zoea of Camptandrium sexdentatum is described for the first time with a digital image of live zoeas. An ovigerous crab of C. sexdentatum was collected at the muddy sand flat in Namhaedo Island on 2 June 2012 and hatched in the laboratory on 6 June 2012. In Camptandriidae, the first zoea of C. sexdentatum is distinguished from the first zoeas of Cleistostoma dilatatum and Deiratonotus cristatum by having no dorsal and lateral carapace spines, an abdomen significantly broadened posteriorly, and a subovoid telson without forks. Especially, the finding of a subovoid telson without forks is the first report in brachyuran zoeas.

  8. The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure (Crustacea: Ostracoda in northeastern Argentina

    Analía R. Díaz

    Full Text Available The genus Chlamydotheca Saussure, 1858 is a typical representative of the Neotropical ostracod fauna that occupies lotic and lentic environments including temporary and permanent ponds. Up to the present, four species have been recorded in Argentina: C. iheringi (Sars, C. incisa (Claus and C. leuckarti (Claus, and C. symmetrica (Vávra. Temporary and permanent ponds of this region were sampled for ostracods, using a fine mesh net. Three species belonging to the genus Chlamydotheca were collected of which C. arcuata (Sars is recorded for first time for the Chacoan region. Limb morphology was studied under light microscope and line drawings were made using camera lucida. Valves were photographed under scanning electron microscope and redescriptions of C. arcuata and C. iheringi are provided and distributional aspects of the species sampled are discussed.

  9. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    Hansen, Bjorn Henrik, E-mail: bjorn.h.hansen@sintef.no [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Altin, Dag [BioTrix, N-7022 Trondheim (Norway); Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sorheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattorkaia 17B, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway); Storseth, Trond R. [SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, N-7465 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO{sub 2} from natural gas and for CO{sub 2} capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress ({gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC{sub 50} concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response.

  10. Introduction to Some Species of Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura ...

    PROF HORSFALL

    2017-12-12

    Dec 12, 2017 ... has been found in Asia, Europe, Africa, Australia and. North, Central, and South .... of Culture Cyprinidae in Pen Culture of Anzali. Lagoon. .... PHM; Wendelaar Bonga, SE (1999). Modulation ... auratus auratus) in India. Biolife.

  11. Comparative ultrastructure of the root system in rhizocephalan barnacles (Crustacea

    Bresciani, J; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2001-01-01

    . The rootlets consist of a cuticle, an epidermis and a subjacent layer of axial cells that often, but not always surround, a central lumen. The rootlets are at all times enclosed in a less than 0.5 microm thick cuticle, which is never molted. The cuticle consists of an inner homogeneous layer with a slightly...... by long septate junctions and exhibit the characteristics of a transporting epithelium. Experiments with acid phosphatase revealed activity both in the epidermis and among the microcuticular projections. The projections may therefore form a domain that is important in absorption and extracellular...... the rootlets towards the external reproductive body. In C. delagei the single, bladder-shaped rootlet lacks both the apical projections in the epidermis, the electron-dense cuticle layer, and the microcuticular projections. We review previous studies on the rhizocephalan root system and discuss functional...

  12. The first hypothelminorheic Crustacea (Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae, Hyalella from South America

    Stella Rodrigues

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of known troglobiotic species occur in caves and subterranean environments from great depths. However, recently more attention has been given to other subterranean environments, such as the hypothelminorheic habitats. It comprises the most superficial among all subterranean habitats. This kind of environment is characterized by the constant presence of wet spots, absence of light and very particular abiotic characteristics, comprising unique species. The first hypothelminorheic Amphipoda from South America is here described, a new species of the genus Hyalella which occurs in a wetland on Southern Brazil. The new species differs from other troglobiotics of the genus by the presence of a curved seta on the inner ramus of uropod 1 and elongation of appendices, as the first pair of antennae and peraeopods 6 and 7. However, human impacts in the area where the new species occurs have changed heavily their habitat, which may have led the species to a critical level of threat or even extinction, demonstrating the fragility of this environment.a

  13. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  14. [Walking in Crustacea: motor program and peripheral regulation (author's transl)].

    Clarac, F; Ayers, J

    1977-01-01

    1. Rock lobsters can walk in all directions. In the present study, we report the organization of the motor output of the three muscles which control the mero-carpopodite joint (M-C): the extensor E, the flexor F and the accuracy flexor FA, during unrestrained locomotion (fig. 1). 2. During lateral walking, movements of the M-C joint provide most of the propulsive force, whereas during forward and backward walking this joint function more as a strut (fig. 2). Corresponding differences are observed in the motor discharge in the different walking modes. During lateral walking, discharge in the M-C extensor and M-C flexor alternates, whereas during forward and backward walking these antagonists are coactivated (fig. 3 and 4). 3. We have also examined the effects of alterations of proprioceptive feedback: the FA tendon has been cut to eliminate MCO afferents during walking. This ablation does not modify the burst period and the temporal structure of the output pattern is largely unaffected (fig. 5, 6 and 7). MCO may influence the motor output of a given muscle depending upon whether it participates in the return stroke or the power stroke.

  15. A new alpheid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from South Vietnam

    Nguyên Van Xuân,

    2001-01-01

    A new alpheid shrimp, Thuylamea camelus gen. nov. & spec. nov., from Dong Hoa, a coastal community of Can Gio district, and northwest of Vung Tau (Cap St. Jacques), Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new genus appears not to be closely related to any of the previously described genera. It

  16. Introduction to some species of Argulus (Crustacea: Branchiura ...

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 7 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. On freshwater Ostracoda (Crustacea) collected on the Canary Islands

    Meisch, Claude; Broodbakker, Nico W.

    1990-01-01

    Les auteurs ont examiné une collection de 38 échantillons d’Ostracodes d’eau douce récoltés par le Prof. J. H. Stock sur les Iles Canaries de 1985 à 1987. Seules quelques espèces ont été trouvées. Cypridopsis lanzarotensis fut décrite par Mallwitz (1984) de l’île de Lanzarote (îles Canaries); c’est

  18. On the origin and evolution of Antarctic Peracarida (Crustacea, Malacostraca

    Angelika Brandt

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The early separation of Gondwana and the subsequent isolation of Antarctica caused a long evolutionary history of its fauna. Both, long environmental stability over millions of years and habitat heterogeneity, due to an abundance of sessile suspension feeders on the continental shelf, favoured evolutionary processes of preadapted taxa, like for example the Peracarida. This taxon performs brood protection and this might be one of the most important reasons why it is very successful (i.e. abundant and diverse in most terrestrial and aquatic environments, with some species even occupying deserts. The extinction of many decapod crustaceans in the Cenozoic might have allowed the Peracarida to find and use free ecological niches. Therefore the palaeogeographic, palaeoclimatologic, and palaeo-hydrographic changes since the Palaeocene (at least since about 60 Ma ago and the evolutionary success of some peracarid taxa (e.g. Amphipoda, Isopoda led to the evolution of many endemic species in the Antarctic. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Antarctic Tanaidacea, Sieg (1988 demonstrated that the tanaid fauna of the Antarctic is mainly represented by phylogenetically younger taxa, and data from other crustacean taxa led Sieg (1988 to conclude that the recent Antarctic crustacean fauna must be comparatively young. His arguments are scrutinized on the basis of more recent data on the phylogeny and biodiversity of crustacean taxa, namely the Ostracoda, Decapoda, Mysidacea, Cumacea, Amphipoda, and Isopoda. This analysis demonstrates that the origin of the Antarctic fauna probably has different roots: an adaptive radiation of descendants from old Gondwanian ancestors was hypothesized for the isopod families Serolidae and Arcturidae, an evolution and radiation of phylogenetically old taxa in Antarctica could also be shown for the Ostracoda and the amphipod family Iphimediidae. A recolonization via the Scotia Arc appears possible for some species, though it is not very likely (some Isopoda, like the Sphaeromatidea, are widely distributed in the Subantarctic, but rare in the high Antarctic. However, it could also be that the species of this family and others were not able to survive when the ice reached the sublittoral shelf in the high Antarctic during glacial periods.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Revision of Copepod Orders (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    Khodami, Sahar; McArthur, J Vaun; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-22

    For the first time, the phylogenetic relationships between representatives of all 10 copepod orders have been investigated using 28S and 18S rRNA, Histone H3 protein and COI mtDNA. The monophyly of Copepoda (including Platycopioida Fosshagen, 1985) is demonstrated for the first time using molecular data. Maxillopoda is rejected, as it is a polyphyletic group. The monophyly of the major subgroups of Copepoda, including Progymnoplea Lang, 1948 (=Platycopioida); Neocopepoda Huys and Boxshall, 1991; Gymnoplea Giesbrecht, 1892 (=Calanoida Sars, 1903); and Podoplea Giesbrecht, 1892, are supported in this study. Seven copepod orders are monophyletic, including Platycopioida, Calanoida, Misophrioida Gurney, 1933; Monstrilloida Sars, 1901; Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1834; Gelyelloida Huys, 1988; and Mormonilloida Boxshall, 1979. Misophrioida (=Propodoplea Lang, 1948) is the most basal Podoplean order. The order Cyclopoida Burmeister, 1835, is paraphyletic and now encompasses Poecilostomatoida Thorell, 1859, as a sister to the family Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu, 2006. Within Harpacticoida Sars, 1903, both sections, Polyarthra Lang, 1948, and Oligoarthra Lang, 1948, are monophyletic, but not sister groups. The order Canuelloida is proposed while maintaining the order Harpacticoida s. str. (Oligoarthra). Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Cyclopinidae are redefined, while Canuelloida ordo. nov., Smirnovipinidae fam. nov. and Cyclopicinidae fam. nov are proposed as new taxa.

  20. Comparison of oostegite shapes in some gammaroidean species (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Steele, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    Within the superfamily Gammaroidea oostegites vary from broad (primitive) to narrow (advanced). Broad oostegites are found in members of the Acanthogammaridae, Macrohectopidae and a few of the Gammaridae. Most species of the family Gammaridae have broad anterior oostegites and narrow posterior ones.

  1. Aspects of the biology of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. (Crustacea ...

    Amphipods form an important component of coastal fauna and this study is focused on the biology of semi-terres- trial Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. inhabiting sand and wave-cast algae on the north-eastern coast at Poste La Fayette, Mauritius. The population structure, size class variation, sex ratio and female reproductive ...

  2. Epigean freshwater Gammaridae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from La Gomera (Canary Islands)

    Beyer, Gabriele; Stock, Jan H.

    1994-01-01

    Description of two new species of freshwater amphipods from La Gomera (Canary Islands), both found in the higher parts of the island: Chaetogammarus chaetocerus n. sp. and Rhipidogammarus gomeranus n. sp. Both species have distinct Afro- Iberian relationships.

  3. Galatheoid squat lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korean waters

    Jung Nyun Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ten species of Galatheoidea (squat lobsters, belonging to two families, were collected in the Korean exclusive economic zone: Galathea balssi Miyake and Baba, 1964, Galathea orientalis Stimpson, 1858, Galathea pubescens Stimpson, 1858, and Galathea rubromaculata Miyake and Baba, 1967 belonging to Galatheidae; Bathymunida brevirostris Yokoya, 1933, Cervimunida princeps Benedict, 1902, Munida caesura Macpherson and Baba, 1993, Munida japonica Stimpson, 1858, Munida pherusa Macpherson and Baba, 1993, and Paramunida scabra (Henderson, 1885 belonging to Munididae. The present study comprises the morphological description of these ten species, including drawings and color photographs, a brief review of their regional records, and a key for their identification. Although all species are common in Japanese waters, G. balssi, G. rubromaculata, B. brevirostris, C. princeps, M. caesura, and M. pherusa are new to Korean marine fauna.

  4. Larval and Juvenile Ascothoracida (Crustacea) from the Plankton

    Grygier, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of previously recorded ascothoracid larvae from plankton over coral reefs in Hawaii and the Virgin Islands are redescribed as possible representatives of the Lauridae and Petrarcidae, respectively. A bathyal, tropical Atlantic ascothoracid larva from an epibenthic sled sample cannot confidently be identified to family. A planktonic, juvenile ascothoracidan from the eastern Indian Ocean belongs to the genus Synagoga.

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DISTRIBUTION OF TURKISH FRESHWATER ISOPODS (CRUSTACEA: ISOPODA

    Belgin Çamur-Elipek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to contribute to distribution of freshwater isopods in Marmara Region (including Gökçeada and Bozcaada islands of Turkey. For this aim, it was evaluated the material which was sampled during the years 1991, and 1998-2002 in a total of 37 localities from different water resources in the region. End of the study, it was observed that Asellus aquaticus (L. Racovitza, 1919 is a very common species in the area. Furthermore, subspecies and intersex forms belonging Asellus aquaticus were recorded in some localities.

  6. Asellus (Asellus) monticola en Iran (Crustacea, Isopoda, Asellota, Asellidae)

    Henry, Jean-Paul; Magniez, Guy

    1996-01-01

    Asellus (Asellus) monticola monticola Birstein, 1932 has been found in a spring in the extreme NW of Iran. Amplifications of the original description of this valid species, which is clearly distinct from A. aquaticus, are given. Contrary to A. aquaticus, A. monticola appears to be strongly endemic

  7. Distribution and community structure of Ostracoda (Crustacea) in ...

    The current study presents the ostracod communities recovered from 26 shallow waterbodies in southern Kenya, combined with an ecological assessment of habitat characteristics. A total of 37 waterbodies were sampled in 2001 and 2003, ranging from small ephemeral pools to large permanent lakes along broad ...

  8. Branchiuran parasites (Crustacea: Branchiura) from fishes in the ...

    Fish parasitological surveys, conducted during different times of the year in the Okavango and Upper Zambezi River systems from 1997 to 2013, revealed the presence of five branchiuran species. Dolops ranarum from the Okavango system was found on the skin and in the branchial chambers of 12 fish species. Adults and ...

  9. Additions to the barnacle (Crustacea: Cirripedia) fauna of South Africa

    The purpose of this paper is to document recent additions to the South African barnacle (Cirripedia) fauna. New species records were obtained by examining accumulated collections of unidentified material in the Iziko South African Museum, as well as via material collected directly by the authors. Fourteen species, none of ...

  10. A study of the Levantine and Pontic Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda)

    Dov Por, F.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Though both are parts of the Mediterranean basin, the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea form distinct units from both the hydrographic and the biological points of view. The Levantine basin — delimited by the Anatolian peninsula, the Syrio-Israelian shores and the Egyptian

  11. Behavioral repertory of Trichodactylus panoplus (Crustacea: Trichodactylidae under laboratory conditions

    Bianca L. Zimmermann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the behavioral repertory of Trichodactylus panoplus von Martens, 1869, based on the animals' diel activity and the possible substrate preference under laboratory experiments. Three experimental replicates were carried out, each using six animals (three males and three females. There were four periods of observation a day, with a total of 864 observation sessions and 144 hours of experiments. A total of 15 behavioral acts divided into five categories were recorded: feeding, exploration of the environment, immobility, social interaction, and self-grooming. The obtained results suggest that T. panoplus has greater activity during the night (p < 0.05, yet without showing an activity peak. In addition, the acceptance of food does not depend on the photoperiod. There was a significant preference for gravel as the chosen substrate. The Morisita index indicates an aggregated distribution of these animals, confirming their preference for substrate with gravel. The increase in activity at night and the preference for substrate with gravel, which can be used to disguise these individuals, would be associated to some anti-predator strategies of these crabs against visually orientated predators.

  12. Eocene crabs (Crustacea, Brachyura) from Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    Collins, J.H.S.; Donovan, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Recently discovered crabs from the Middle to Upper Eocene of northern Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, include well-preserved carapaces of Montezumella rutteni Van Straelen, originally described from an incomplete holotype. The more comprehensive description of this species provided herein includes

  13. The Crustacea Decapoda Macrura (the Alpheidae excepted) of Easter Island

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1972-01-01

    So far the Crustacean fauna of Easter Island has received but very little attention. In most early narratives of expeditions visiting the island no mention is made of any Crustacean. Behrens (1908: 135) who accompanied Jacob Roggeveen on the voyage during which, in 1722, the island was discovered,

  14. The decapod and stomatopod Crustacea of St Paul's Rocks

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Saint Paul's Rocks (Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo) are a small group of rocky islets on the mid-Atlantic ridge near the equator, occupying an area of roughly 250 by 425 m. There is no vegetation and, apart from birds and invertebrates, the islands are uninhabited. The Cambridge

  15. A new hypogean Cyathura from New Caledonia (Crustacea, Isopoda, Anthuridea)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1982-01-01

    Cyathuva numeae n.sp. from New Caledonia is the sixth blind species of the genus Cyathura Norman & Stebbing, 1886, found in hypogean habitats. The new species lives in the interstitia of coastal sand or gravel, like C. milloti Chappuis et al., 1956, from Réunion. A close relationship to the other

  16. Remarkable convergent evolution in specialized parasitic Thecostraca (Crustacea)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Crandall, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    the metamorphosis found in the Facetotecta and Rhizocephala suggests a common evolutionary origin, but until now no comprehensive study has looked at the basic evolution of these thecostracan groups. Results To this end, we collected DNA sequences from three nuclear genes [18S rRNA (2,305), 28S rRNA (2...... analyses indicate a convergent evolution of the very similar and highly reduced slug-shaped stages found during metamorphosis of both the Rhizocephala and the Facetotecta. This provides a remarkable case of convergent evolution and implies that the advanced endoparasitic mode of life known from...

  17. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mesozoic fossils (>145 Mya suggest the antiquity of the subgenera of Daphnia and their coevolution with chaoborid predators

    Taylor Derek J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timescale of the origins of Daphnia O. F. Mueller (Crustacea: Cladocera remains controversial. The origin of the two main subgenera has been associated with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This vicariance hypothesis is supported by reciprocal monophyly, present day associations with the former Gondwanaland and Laurasia regions, and mitochondrial DNA divergence estimates. However, previous multilocus nuclear DNA sequence divergence estimates at Daphnia. Results We describe new fossils of ephippia from the Khotont site in Mongolia associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (about 145 MYA that are morphologically similar to several modern genera of the family Daphniidae, including the two major subgenera of Daphnia, i.e., Daphnia s. str. and Ctenodaphnia. The daphniid fossils co-occurred with fossils of the predaceous phantom midge (Chaoboridae. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the main subgenera of Daphnia are likely much older than previously known from fossils (at least 100 MY older or from nuclear DNA estimates of divergence. The results showing co-occurrence of the main subgenera far from the presumed Laurasia/Gondwanaland dispersal barrier shortly after formation suggests that vicariance from the breakup of Pangaea is an unlikely explanation for the origin of the main subgenera. The fossil impressions also reveal that the coevolution of a dipteran predator (Chaoboridae with the subgenus Daphnia is much older than previously known -- since the Mesozoic.

  19. Mesozoic fossils (>145 Mya) suggest the antiquity of the subgenera of Daphnia and their coevolution with chaoborid predators.

    Kotov, Alexey A; Taylor, Derek J

    2011-05-19

    The timescale of the origins of Daphnia O. F. Mueller (Crustacea: Cladocera) remains controversial. The origin of the two main subgenera has been associated with the breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. This vicariance hypothesis is supported by reciprocal monophyly, present day associations with the former Gondwanaland and Laurasia regions, and mitochondrial DNA divergence estimates. However, previous multilocus nuclear DNA sequence divergence estimates at Pangaea. We examined new and existing cladoceran fossils from a Mesozoic Mongolian site, in hopes of gaining insights into the timescale of the evolution of Daphnia. We describe new fossils of ephippia from the Khotont site in Mongolia associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary (about 145 MYA) that are morphologically similar to several modern genera of the family Daphniidae, including the two major subgenera of Daphnia, i.e., Daphnia s. str. and Ctenodaphnia. The daphniid fossils co-occurred with fossils of the predaceous phantom midge (Chaoboridae). Our findings indicate that the main subgenera of Daphnia are likely much older than previously known from fossils (at least 100 MY older) or from nuclear DNA estimates of divergence. The results showing co-occurrence of the main subgenera far from the presumed Laurasia/Gondwanaland dispersal barrier shortly after formation suggests that vicariance from the breakup of Pangaea is an unlikely explanation for the origin of the main subgenera. The fossil impressions also reveal that the coevolution of a dipteran predator (Chaoboridae) with the subgenus Daphnia is much older than previously known -- since the Mesozoic.

  20. Sedimentary Record of Cladoceran Functionality under Eutrophication and Re-Oligotrophication in Lake Maggiore, Northern Italy

    Liisa Nevalainen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined fossil Cladocera (Crustacea communities and their functional assemblages in a ~60-year sediment record from Lake Maggiore, northern Italy. Our main objective was to document the response of aquatic community functioning to environmental stress during eutrophication (1960–1985 and recovery (post-1985, and to identify environmental controls on cladoceran functionality. Of the functional groups, large filter feeders and oval epibenthos thrived prior to eutrophication (reference conditions pre-1960 and globular epibenthos and small filter feeders increased during eutrophication and as the lake recovered. Multivariate analyses suggested that bottom-up controls (i.e., total phosphorus were important for shaping functional assemblages but taxonomic community changes were likely related to top-down control by predators, particularly the predaceous cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus. Functional diversity (FD was higher and Daphnia ephippia length (DEL larger during the reference and early eutrophication periods and decreased during eutrophication and recovery. Both FD (high and DEL (large were distinct during reference period, but were similar (FD low, DEL small between the eutrophication and recovery periods. The functional attributes and the assemblages did not recover post-eutrophication, suggesting that the system exhibited a clear shift to low FD and dominance of small filterers. Cladoceran functionality appears to be related to fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity, and may thus provide insights for long-term changes in ecological resilience.

  1. Endemism and long distance dispersal in the waterfleas of Easter Island.

    Damme, Kay Van

    2016-08-22

    Easter Island is known for a depauperate terrestrial and aquatic biota. The discovery of new taxa is unusual, even among the island's micro-invertebrates. A new cladoceran, Ovalona pascua sp. nov. (Crustacea: Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae), is described from freshwater environments. The chydorid, the only known extant cladoceran on the island, is the dominant aquatic invertebrate in the surface waters. Based on detailed morphological comparison, including a character similarity matrix applied across the species in the genus (12 characters/17 spp), the new taxon is proposed here as an insular endemic with affinities in the East (New World). The revision challenges the theory that invasive zooplankton species were introduced from the subantarctic islands during the 18th century. Human introduction is not the main mechanism through which cladocerans could have arrived on Easter Island. Late Pleistocene - Early Holocene fossils in Cañellas-Boltà et al. (2012) from cores in Rano Raraku Lake are identified here as Daphnia O.F. Müller, 1785 (subgenus Ctenodaphnia Dybowski & Grochowski, 1895). The establishment of Daphnia before human colonization on Easter Island provides strong proof of successful long distance dispersal by ephippia over thousands of kilometers of open sea.

  2. Lethal/sublethal responses of Daphnia magna to acute norfloxacin contamination and changes in phytoplankton-zooplankton interactions induced by this antibiotic

    Pan, Ying; Yan, Shi-Wei; Li, Ruo-Zhu; Hu, Yi-Wen; Chang, Xue-Xiu

    2017-01-01

    Although the well-known antibiotic norfloxacin (NOR) is recognized as an important environmental pollutant, little is known about its impacts on ecological processes, particularly on species interactions. In this paper, we quantified Daphnia magna (Crustacea, Cladocera) responses in mortality rate at lethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg L-1), and in heartbeat rate, swimming behavior and feeding rate (on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa) at sublethal NOR concentrations (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) to determine the effects of this antibiotic in plankton systems. In 96-h-long lethal experiment, mortality rates of D. magna increased significantly with increasing NOR concentration and exposure time. In sublethal experiments, heartbeat rate decreased, while time ratio of vertical to horizontal swimming (TVH) and the duration of quiescence increased in D. magna individuals exposed to increasing NOR concentrations after 4 and 12 h of exposure. These collectively led to decreases in both average swimming ability and feeding rate, consistent with the positive relationship between average swimming ability and feeding rate. Overall, results indicate that, by affecting zooplankton heartbeat rate and behavior, NOR decreased feeding efficiency of D. magna even at low doses, therefore, it might seriously compromise ecosystem health and function.

  3. Exoskeletal proteins from the crab, Cancer pagurus

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    1999-01-01

    Crustacea; decapods; cuticle; exoskeleton; structural protein; amino acid sequence; mass spectrometry......Crustacea; decapods; cuticle; exoskeleton; structural protein; amino acid sequence; mass spectrometry...

  4. Evaluation of Bacterivory of Rotifera Based on Measurements of in-Situ Ingestion of Fluorescent Particles, Including Some Comparisons with Cladocera

    Ooms-Wilms, A.L.; Postema, G.; Gulati, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Bacterivory of pelagic rotifers and cladocerans in eutrophic Lake Loosdrecht (The Netherlands) was determined by microscopic observation of in situ tracer particle uptake. Ingestion rates of rotifer species using 0.51 mu m microspheres or fluorescently labelled bacteria as tracers differed, with one

  5. Spatial distribution and temporal variation of microcrustaceans assembly (Cladocera and Copepoda) in different compartments of a reservoir in the brazilian semiarid region

    Josiane Souza Santos; Nadson Ressyé Simões; Sérgio Luiz Sonoda

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of microcrustacean assemblages of a reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region. Methods Physical and chemical water variables and samples of microcrustaceans were collected at eight sites of the reservoir between July 2013 and November 2014, in a total of seven campaigns. For this study, the reservoir was categorized in two compartments: lateral and central. Results Limnological variables showe...

  6. Diversity and structure of microcrustacean assemblages (Cladocera and Copepoda and limnological variability in perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region, Bahia, Brazil

    Nadson R. Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary wetlands undergo recurrent drought due to the scarcity of water, which disrupts the hydrological connectivity with adjacent aquatic systems. However, some environments retain water for longer periods, allowing greater persistence of the community. The current study evaluated differences in the microcrustacean assemblages and limnological variability between perennial and intermittent pools in a semi-arid region of Brazil. The abiotic features (water temperature, pH, total alkalinity, electrical conductivity and depth of intermittent pools were affected more than perennial pools due to loss of water volume. This may have contributed to a higher average richness and diversity index in some intermittent pools and differences in the structure of the assemblages. The lowest species richness and diversity were recorded where physical factors, such as a large quantity of suspended solids and variability in the electrical conductivity of the water and pH, make the environment unsuitable for these organisms. These results suggest that community development in intermittent pools is interrupted by the dry season; when the water returns, due to rainfall or rising groundwater, each pond undergoes a different process of colonization. In these circumstances, the biological importance of temporary aquatic environments is clear, since such pools provide shelters and have an important role in the maintenance of the regional diversity of aquatic environments.

  7. EVALUACIÓN DE PARÁMETROS PRODUCTIVOS Y PIGMENTACIÓN EN POLLOS ALIMENTADOS CON HARINA ZAPALLO (Cucurbita moschata

    JULIANA CARVAJAL TAPIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On the farms you can get different products from small farming system that can contribute to the economy of the poultyman farmer, for example, the squash (Cucurbita moschata. With the squash flour was evaluated pigmentation of skin and productive parameters in broilers. With the inclusion of 0, 7,5 and 15 percent in diets. A design completely at random (DCA was used with four repetitions and four animals per experimental unit. The analysis of variety did not show statistic differences (p≤0,05 for the feed intake in the two phases, either in weight gain and feed conversion in the ending phase; there were showed meaningful statistic differences for weight gain and feed conversion in the starter phase and the pigmentation in the final phase, the skin pigmentation of animals fed with squash flour was intense yellow according to the variety of colors DMS compared to those fed with the witness treatment. The inclusion of squash flour in diets for feeding broiler chicken bigger than 7,5% y less than 15%, is considered as a no conventional raw material that helps to the pigmentation of the skin, without affecting productive parameters in the ending phase and it becomes in an alternative for the productive systems of the small producers generating a value added in terms of skin pigmentation.

  8. Perfil lipídico da carne e gordura de suínos alimentados com milheto

    Rodrigo Caetano de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar níveis de milheto na alimentação de suínos na composição lipídica e de colesterol da gordura subcutânea e da carne. Foram utilizados 48 animais, machos castrados, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com quatro níveis de milheto na dieta (0; 25; 50 e 75%, seis repetições, sendo cada unidade experimental constituída por dois animais. Foram analisados os perfis lipídicos da gordura e da carne através de cromatografia gasosa e a quantidade de colesterol nas amostras de carne foi determinada seguindo a metodologia de extração. O aumento do nível de milheto na dieta dos suínos reduziu (P<0,05 a concentração dos ácidos mirístico, palmítico, palmitoleico, heptadecanoico e aumentou a concentração do ácido linoleico na gordura subcutânea. O nível de inclusão de 50,82% de milheto na dieta possibilita máxima deposição do ácido linolênico na gordura. Os níveis de milheto não modificam o perfil de ácidos graxos e o teor de colesterol na carne suína. O nível de 42,09% de inclusão de milheto na dieta resulta no maior índice trombogênico da carne.

  9. Acionamento de dois sistemas de bombeamento alimentados por uma central de microgeração fotovoltaica

    Vicentin, Tiago Aparecido [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of pumps powered by a photovoltaic microgeneration (MGD-FV), it was necessary to mount a system of monitoring and data collection of production and consumption of energy, these data needed for specific indices that would determine the pumping capacity of two separate hydraulic pumps, installed in the Site Model Farm Lageado, bringing water from a tanker to a storage tank. The performance of each pump was assessed in terms of their electrical and hydraulic character...

  10. Timpanismo gastrointestinal em equídeos alimentados com Panicum maximum com alto conteúdo de amido

    Taciane M. Souza

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Timpanismo intestinal agudo em cavalos e mulas introduzidos em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça são relatados na região norte do Brasil, durante o período das chuvas. As causas são desconhecidas, porém, tem sido sugerido que estão associados a um maior armazenamento de carboidratos não fibrosos na gramínea. Este trabalho teve por objetivos realizar um levantamento epidemiológico dos surtos de cólicas ocorridos no Estado de Rondônia, assim como contribuir com o estudo da ação dos carboidratos de P. maximum na ocorrência da doença. Para isso foram realizadas visitas em 10 propriedades que apresentaram casos da enfermidade. Em duas propriedades foram introduzidos equinos no mês de março e foram coletadas amostras de pastagens para a determinação de energia digestiva, lisina, matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis em água, carboidratos solúveis em éter, carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra de detergente neutra, fibra de detergente ácido, lignina, amido, gordura e proteína bruta. Essas determinações foram realizadas, também, em amostras de pastagens de P. maximum de outras propriedades onde não estavam ocorrendo cólicas e das pastagens de Cynodon dactylon de onde provinham os equinos. Os resultados mostraram que os surtos de cólica ocorrem na época de chuva, quando as pastagens estão rebrotando com uma morbidade de 31,6%, e letalidade de 86,1%. As análises bromatológicas mostraram uma diferença significativa nas concentrações de amido (P=0,0072 do P. maximum que causou cólica (8,3 % e 9,2%, quando comparado com o P. maximum das outras propriedades (0,9% e 4,3% e com o Tifton, utilizado previamente na alimentação dos mesmos equinos (0,2% e 0,8%. Em outra fazenda a doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em um equino, no mês de março administrando P. maximum cortado contendo 6,5% de amido. A mesma pastagem não causou cólica quando foi administrada a equinos entre os meses de novembro a fevereiro, com 2,7% a 5,1% de amido. Estes resultados sugerem que a causa das cólicas em equídeos em pastagens de P. maximum, na época de rebrote, é o alto conteúdo de amido das mesmas.

  11. Desempenho bioeconÃmico de ovinos alimentados com raÃÃes contendo farelo de mamona destoxificado

    Marieta Maria Martins Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituiÃÃo do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado sobre o consumo e o desempenho de ovinos. Foram utilizados 20 borregos, mestiÃos, machos, inteiros, com peso vivo mÃdio de 19,3 Â 1,35 kg e idade mÃdia de 7 meses, e distribuÃdos aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos de 0, 50, 75 ou 100% de substituiÃÃo, com base na matÃria seca. O volumoso utilizado foi o feno de capim-elefante. As raÃÃes foram fornecidas diariamente em duas refeiÃÃes, coletand...

  12. Desempenho de bezerros alimentados com dietas líquidas à base de leite integral ou soro de leite

    Fontes,F.A.P.V.; Coelho,S.G.; Lana,A.M.Q.; Costa,T.C.; Carvalho,A.U.; Ferreira,M.I.C.; Saturnino,H.M.; Reis,R.B.; Serrano,A.L.

    2006-01-01

    Quinze bezerros da raça Holandesa, desaleitados aos 30 dias de idade, foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de fontes protéicas alternativas, em substituição às proteínas do leite integral, na formulação de sucedâneos do leite. Os animais foram divididos em três grupos: o grupo controle (C) - recebeu leite em pó integral reconstituído; o grupo sucedâneo SL (soro/leite) recebeu 41,6% da proteína bruta (PB) vinda do concentrado protéico de soro (CPS), 23,1% do soro de leite e 35,...

  13. PERFIL METABÓLICO EM OVINOS ALIMENTADOS COM INCLUSÕES CRESCENTES DA TORTA DO BABAÇU NA DIETA

    Hemilly Menezes de Sá

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of babassu pie in sheep feeding on the energy, protein and mineral metabolism, as well as, the effect of collection period on these variables.Twenty males intact sheep were assigned to four treatments, which were inclusion levels babassu pie (zero, 7.5%, 15%, 22.5% in the diet, according to completely randomized design, in split plot, where the parcels were diets and the subplots the collection times (zero, three, six, nine and twelve hours with five replications. There was no interaction between inclusion levels babassu pie and collection time for blood concentrations of total protein, albumin, uric acid, urea, triglycerides, phosphorus and magnesium. No effect of collection time on these variables (P0.05. Having regard to behavior presented by the metabolites analyzed, babassu pie can be used by up to 22.5% in sheep diet, since this level of inclusion does not cause metabolic disorders or reduction in energy, protein and mineral metabolism.

  14. Desempenho e morfologia intestinal de frangos de corte alimentados com rações contendo aditivos alternativos a antimicrobianos

    Aryana Duckur Nunes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o efeito de um prebiótico e de um probiótico sobre o desempenho e morfologia intestinal de frangos de corte, atuando como aditivos alternativos a antimicrobianos. Foram utilizados 960 pintos de corte, criados sobre cama reutilizada. O delineamento era inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos: Antibiótico (Avilamicina; Prebiótico (MOS; Probiótico (pool bacteriano; Controle (sem aditivo, sendo 8 repetições/tratamento. Considerando-se o período total de criação, os aditivos alternativos testados pioraram o GP em relação ao antibiótico não demonstrando efeito sobre o ganho de peso (GP e consumo de ração (CR. Por sua vez, a conversão alimentar (CA dos tratamentos com aditivos alternativos foi similar à do antibiótico, entretanto, não diferiu do controle. Não foi possível observar efeito benéfico dos aditivos alternativos testados sobre a morfologia intestinal de frangos de corte.

  15. COMPORTAMENTO INGESTIVO DE TOURINHOS ALIMENTADOS COM DIETAS CONTENDO NÍVEIS DE GÉRMEN DE MILHO INTEGRAL

    Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to assess the ingestive behavior during 24 hours in eight periods of the day of 24 Limousin x Nellore young bulls in feedlot, fed with diets containing 0; 15; 30 and 45% of whole corn germ. At 9 a.m. and 4:30 p.m., the animals were fed with a roughage:concentrate ratio of 25:75. The inclusion of whole corn germ in the diets did not affect the time spent with food intake, sleeping and other activities, neither the frequencies of water drinking, urination and defecation. Food intake occurred more often during the periods when animals were fed, spending in average 137.10 minutes with this activity. Animals slept more during the night, from 2 to 5 a.m., whereas the time spent with other activities was higher from 5 to 8 p.m. Whole corn germ levels affected the rumination and leisure time in a quadratic form, with the 30% level showing higher rumination time (28.3% of the daily time, and lower leisure time (42.24% of the daily time. Animals submitted to different levels of whole corn germ showed distinct behavior for rumination, leisure, food intake, sleeping and other activities, and frequencies of water drinking, urination and defecation, during the different periods of the day. The inclusion of whole corn germ to the diet of bovines provides greater rumination time and modifies the distribution of this activity during the day.

  16. Crescimento em Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae em laboratório Growth in Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille (Crustacea, Brachyura, Grapsidae in laboratory

    Zilanda de Souza Silva

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the crab Goniospis cruentata (Latreille. 1803, was studied in the laboratory, through of the molt increment and intermolt period. A total of 86 crabs (48 males and 38 females were collected in the ltacuruçá's Mangrove in Mangaratiba's county. Rio de Janeiro. The crabs were maintened in the laboratory in four 1000 l tanks, with continuous water circulation during fifteen months. They were fed each two days with pieces of fish and fruits. The crabs varied in size from 19.3 to 56.0 mm in males and 23.3 to 48.8 mm in females. The males presented until four molts during the experiment and the females until six molts. The molts oceurred during ali the months. The mean percentage of molt increment was 6.1 ± 2.7%, for both sexes and it decreased with the animal growth. The relation between the molt increment and the carapace width can be expressed by the equation IM = -0.32LC + 18.26 (r = -0.82. This relation didn't show any significative difference between the sexes. The mean intermolt period was of 87.6 + 37.3 days in male crabs and 97.3 ± 27.6 days in females. The growth was contiguous, through successive molts, although the increment was reduced with animal size. The intermolt period was proportional to the animal size increase, however males with autotomy of limbs had the intermolt period reduced.

  17. Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the shallow waters from Quintana Roo, Mexican Caribbean coast Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de las aguas someras de Quintana Roo, Caribe mexicano

    Ramiro Román-Contreras

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have focused on the palaemonid fauna of the Mexican Caribbean. This study provides a list of shallow water free-living and symbiont shrimps of the family Palaemonidae collected on turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum in Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo and Mahahual reef lagoon, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Ten species in 8 genera are reported, of which the genus Periclimenes is the most diverse with 3 species. An updated geographic distribution along the western Atlantic and other regions is provided for all the species. The greatest affinity of the palaemonid fauna studied, besides that with the Caribbean province, is with the Brazilian, Argentinian, and Texan zoogeographic provinces. Of the 10 species reported in this paper, 8 represent new local records in the studied area.Los crustáceos de la familia Palaemonidae del Caribe mexicano han sido poco estudiados. En este trabajo se presenta un listado de palemónidos de vida libre y simbiontes recolectados en el pasto marino Thalassia testudiuim de Bahía de la Ascensión, Bahía del Espíritu Santo y la laguna arrecifal de Mahahual, Quintana Roo, México. Se registran 10 especies pertenecientes a 8 géneros, siendo el género Periclimenes el más diverso con 3 especies. Para todas las especies se proporciona su distribución geográfica en la costa del Atlántico americano así como en otras regiones. Además de la provincia Caribeña, los palemónidos recolectados también muestran alta afinidad con otras provincias zoogeográficas como la Brasileña, Argentina y Texana; de las 10 especies registradas en este estudio, 8 representan nuevo registro local en el área estudiada.

  18. Tanaidáceos (Crustacea: Peracarida de los litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca, México Littoral tanaidaceans (Crustacea: Peracarida from Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico

    Jani Jarquín-González

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Los tanaidáceos son componentes esenciales de las cadenas tróficas del bentos marino, son fuente de alimento para especies de relevancia comercial y para otros organismos marinos. A pesar de su importancia, el conocimiento del grupo se ha rezagado debido a los problemas relacionados con su biología y taxonomía, y por la carencia de muestreos exhaustivos y sistemáticos; así, en las costas de Guerrero y Oaxaca sólo se había registrado 1 género. Por lo anterior, el objetivo fue conocer la composición específica y los patrones de distribución de los tanaidáceos litorales de Guerrero y Oaxaca. De 4 275 ejemplares, se identificaron 6 familias y 9 morfotipos: Hexapleomera robusta, Sinelobus stanfordi, Leptochelia cf. dubia, Paratanais cf. denticulatus, Paradoxapseudes cf. garthi, Apseudormorpha sp., Cyclopoapseudes cf. indecorus, Synapseudes sp. y Parapseudes pedispinis. Todos son registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero y Oaxaca. Se amplía el intervalo de distribución hacia el norte, para H. robusta de islas Galápagos a Guerrero. Para S. stanfordi y P. pedispinis se proporcionan localidades intermedias que rompen con la distribución disyunta previa en el Pacífico oriental. Hay 6 especies, posiblemente nuevas, con distribución restringida; 2 son de amplia distribución y 1 restringida al Pacífico oriental tropical.The tanaidaceans are essential components in food chains of marine benthos, since they are the main food source for commercially important species and other marine organisms. Despite their importance, problems related to their biology and taxonomy have delayed the understanding of the group, as observed on the coasts of Guerrero and Oaxaca, where only 1 genus was previously known. The aim was to determine the species richness and distribution patterns of littoral tanaids from Guerrero and Oaxaca. A total of 4 275 specimens were collected and 6 families and 9 morphotypes have been identified: Hexapleomera robusta, Sinelobus stanfordi, Leptochelia cf. dubia, Paratanais cf. denticulatus, Paradoxapseudes cf. garthi, Apseudormorpha sp., Cyclopoapseudes cf. indecorus, Synapseudes sp. and Parapseudes pedispinis. All species are new records for the littorals of Guerrero and Oaxaca. Hexapleomera robusta increased the range distribution to the north, from the Galapagos to Guerrero; and S. stanfordi and P. pedispinis are the first intermediate records for a previously disjunct distribution in the East Pacific. With respect to the distribution patterns, 6 species have restricted distribution, represented by possible new species; 2 species have a wider distribution, and 1 species has restricted distribution to the tropical eastern Pacific.

  19. Shallow-water anomuran and brachyuran crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda from southern Bahia, Brazi l Cangrejos anomuros y braquiuros (Crustacea: Decapoda de aguas someras del sur de Bahia, Brasil

    Alexandre O Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the taxonomic composition and ecological aspects of decapods crustacean species belonging to the infraorders Anomura and Brachyura in shallow marine and estuarine waters from southern Bahia, a coastline about 640 km in extent, corresponding to approximately 7% of the Brazilian coast. Sixteen species of the infraorder Anomura and 68 of the infraorder Brachyura are reported for the study area. The most important families in terms of number of species were the Panopeidae with 11 species, and the Ocypodidae and Portunidae with 9. Among the Brachyura, the southern distribution of the species Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endemic to Brazil, is extended from the coast of Sergipe to Bahía (Prado, Cumuruxatiba Beach, 17°06'18.6"S, 39°10'50.4"W. The ocypodid Uca (Leptuca cumulanta Crane, 1943 and also the pinnotherids Austinixa aidae (Righi, 1967 and Fabia byssomiae (Say, 1818 are reported for the first time from the Bahia coast. The specimen of F. byssomiae examined was collected in the mantle cavity of the clam Macoma constrict (Bruchiére, 1792 (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, a new host record for the species.El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la composición taxonómica y aspectos ecológicos de los crustáceos decápodos pertenecientes a los infraórdenes Anomura y Brachyura, en aguas someras, marinas y estuarinas del sur de Bahia, Brasil, una línea costera con cerca de 640 km de extensión, que corresponde aproximadamente al 7% de la costa brasileña. Para esta area de estudio se registraron 16 especies del infraorden Anomura y 68 del infraorden Brachyura. Las familias más representativas en términos de número de especies fueron Panopeidae, con 11 especies, y Ocypodidae y Portunidae, ambas con nueve especies. Entre los Brachyura, la distribución meridional de Austinixa leptodactyla Coelho, 1997 (Pinnotheridae, endémica del Brasil, se extiende desde la costa de Sergipe hasta la costa de Bahia (Municipalidad de Prado, Playa de Cumuruxatiba, 17°06'18.6"S, 39°10'50.4"W. Se reportó por primera vez para Bahia el ocipódido Uca (Leptuca cumulanta Crane, 1943, al igual que los pinotéridos Austinixa aidae (Righi, 1967 y Fabia byssomiae (Say, 1818. El único espécimen de F. byssomiae fue recolectado al interior de la cavidad paleal del molusco Macoma constricta (Bruchiére, 1792 (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, representando un nuevo huésped para esta especie.

  20. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphism discovery from expressed sequence tags in the waterflea Daphnia magna

    Souche Erika L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daphnia (Crustacea: Cladocera plays a central role in standing aquatic ecosystems, has a well known ecology and is widely used in population studies and environmental risk assessments. Daphnia magna is, especially in Europe, intensively used to study stress responses of natural populations to pollutants, climate change, and antagonistic interactions with predators and parasites, which have all been demonstrated to induce micro-evolutionary and adaptive responses. Although its ecology and evolutionary biology is intensively studied, little is known on the functional genomics underpinning of phenotypic responses to environmental stressors. The aim of the present study was to find genes expressed in presence of environmental stressors, and target such genes for single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP marker development. Results We developed three expressed sequence tag (EST libraries using clonal lineages of D. magna exposed to ecological stressors, namely fish predation, parasite infection and pesticide exposure. We used these newly developed ESTs and other Daphnia ESTs retrieved from NCBI GeneBank to mine for SNP markers targeting synonymous as well as non synonymous genetic variation. We validate the developed SNPs in six natural populations of D. magna distributed at regional scale. Conclusions A large proportion (47% of the produced ESTs are Daphnia lineage specific genes, which are potentially involved in responses to environmental stress rather than to general cellular functions and metabolic activities, or reflect the arthropod's aquatic lifestyle. The characterization of genes expressed under stress and the validation of their SNPs for population genetic study is important for identifying ecologically responsive genes in D. magna.

  2. Distribution and abundance of mysid shrimps (Crustacea: Mysidacea) in the Northern Indian Ocean.

    Biju, A.; Jagadeesan, L.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Panampunnayil, 1993 occu- rred only in the 0–TT depth layer (Table III, Figure 11A). In the SWM, six species (A. typica orientalis, A. grossa, H. parva, S. aequiremis, L. spinicauda and A. media) grouped into one cluster as these were found only in surface... to segregate the groups with similar properties. The groups within the clusters showed homogeneity and those between clusters showed dissimilarity. In the present study, to assess the species assemblages, Bray–Curtis sim- ilarity based hierarchical cluster...

  3. Length and weight relationship of laboratory reared penaeid prawn Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) (Crustacea: Penaeidae)

    Saldanha, C.M.; Chatterji, A.

    A parabolic relationship was obtained while studying the length-weight relationship of the postlarvae of Penaeus monodon. The b value (multiplying constant) showed that in the laboratory reared penaeid prawns, length-weight relationship strictly...

  4. Cirolana bambang, a distinctive new species of Cirolana Leach, 1818 (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from Bitung, Indonesia.

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2018-01-25

    Cirolana bambang sp. nov. from Bitung, North Sulawesi, Indonesia is described. The species can be recognised by generally smooth body with small, acute, submedian nodules on pleonites 4-5 and the anterior dorsal surface of the pleotelson together with a flat, pentagonal frontal lamina, linguiform and sexually dimorphic pleotelson with the dorsal surface covered by short setae in males, deeply bifid uropod apices, and a conspicuously large robust seta on the superodistal angle of pereopod 1 ischium. Cirolana bambang sp. nov. appears to belong to a group of Indo-West Pacific Cirolana with prominent penial process, a large robust seta on the superodistal angle of pereopod 1 ischium and the presence of setae on dorsal surface of pleotelson and or uropod in males. The most similar species are Cirolana comata Keable, 2001; Cirolana dissimilis Keable, 2001; Cirolana aldabrensis Schotte Kensley, 2005; and Cirolana somalia Schotte Kensley, 2005. Cirolana kiliani Müller, 1993 and C. somalia are found not to belong to the Cirolana'parva-group'.

  5. Population biology of the crab Armases angustipes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sesarmidae at Brazilian tropical coast

    Marina de Sá Leitão C. de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi terrestrial crabs are important elements of the fauna of coastal regions. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 at estuaries of the Ariquindá River, considered a non impacted area, and Mamucabas River, considered a few impacted area, on the south coast of state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The species occurred in all months of the year. The number of individuals per month varied, being higher in the months of transition between the seasons. This is probably due to significant seasonal variations of air and burrow temperature and burrow salinity. There was no sexual dimorphism in size of A. angustipes in the mangrove of Ariquindá River, but males were larger than females in the mangrove of Mamucabas River. In both estuaries, the sex ratio did not differ from Mendelian proportion, but showed a deviation for females. The analysis of temporal variation in sex ratio showed significant differences in some months of the year. These variations are due to cyclical events that act distinctly on each sex. In both estuaries, size classes of carapace width were equally represented by both sexes. The ovigerous females of A. angustipes occurred only in some months of the year, especially in summer, in both estuaries. Probably the high phytoplankton productivity observed in summer favors the reproductive activity, since these algae serve as food for the larvae. Specimens of the population of Rio Ariquindá are largest and wider than those of Mamucabas River. This fact, associated with the low abundance of crabs and the lower frequency of ovigerous females observed in Mamucabas River, is an indication that this population may be influenced by the environmental impacts that this estuary has received.

  6. Crecimiento en poblaciones de Artemia franciscana y A. persimilis (Crustacea, Anostraca en condiciones controladas

    Patricio De los Ríos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó el crecimiento individual expresado en largo total, de dos poblaciones de A. franciscana (Utah, Estados Unidos, y Yape, Chile y A. persimilis (Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina cultivadas a partir de quistes bajo condiciones controladas (24°C, agua de mar 35 g/l, alimentación con Chaetoceros calcitrans. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en todos los estadios analizados entre las poblaciones de A. franciscana de Utah y A. persimilis, mientras que entre A. persimilis y A. franciscana de Yape, hubo similitudes sólo en dos estadios, y A. franciscana de Utah y Yape registraron similar tamaño corporal para todos los estadios analizados. Las adaptaciones a los hábitats podrían explicar estos resultados.Growth (length, was compared in A. franciscana populations from Utah, United States of America, and Yape, Chile, and A. persimilis (population from Salinas de Hidalgo, Argentina, cultured under controlled conditions (24°C, seawater 35 g/l, feeding with Chaetoceros calcitrans. There were significant differences among all stages of A. franciscana (Utah and A. persimilis, whereas we found significantly differences only in two stages of A. persimilis and A. franciscana (Yape; both A. franciscana had similar total lengths in all stages analyzed. Habitat adaptations could explain these results.

  7. The Effect of Water Temperature on Argulus foliaceus L. 1758 (Crustacea; Branchiura on Different Fish Species

    Mustafa KOYUN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parasites belonging to Argulus genus, known as fish louse (Argulus foliaceus L. significantly affect in negative way both in natural and farming environment. In this study, the pathogenic effect of fish louse temperature on fish depending on water was investigated. In this research to estimate the effects of several factors such as water temperature, gender of the fish and the infection of fish louse were studied through Poisson regression method. As fish species, Alburnus alburnus (bleak, Carassius carassius (crucian carp and Carassius auratus (golden carp were caught periodically, starting from May during the year, and the parasites were counted. The gender and metrical measures of the examined fish were categorized separately. The degrees of water temperature of the dam were measured. Results from Poisson regression analysis showed that fish louse has harmful effect on the mentioned fish, depending on the water temperature.

  8. Ecophysiology of the cave isopod .i.Mesoniscus graniger./i. (Frivaldszky, 1865) (Crustacea: Isopoda)

    Šustr, Vladimír; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Lukešová, Alena; Nováková, Alena; Tajovský, Karel; Tříska, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, 3-4 (2005), s. 69-75 ISSN 1164-5563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : isopoda * distribution * temperature Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2005

  9. Linking Insects with Crustacea: Physiology of the Pancrustacea: An Introduction to the Symposium.

    Tamone, Sherry L; Harrison, Jon F

    2015-11-01

    Insects and crustaceans represent critical, dominant animal groups (by biomass and species number) in terrestrial and aquatic systems, respectively. Insects (hexapods) and crustaceans are historically grouped under separate taxonomic classes within the Phylum Arthropoda, and the research communities studying hexapods and crustaceans are quite distinct. More recently, the hexapods have been shown to be evolutionarily derived from basal crustaceans, and the clade Pancrustacea recognizes this relationship. This recent evolutionary perspective, and the fact that the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology has strong communities in both invertebrate biology and insect physiology, provides the motivation for this symposium. Speakers in this symposium were selected because of their expertise in a particular field of insect or crustacean physiology, and paired in such a way as to provide a comparative view of the state of the current research in their respective fields. Presenters discussed what aspects of the physiological system are clearly conserved across insects and crustaceans and how cross-talk between researchers utilizing insects and crustaceans can fertilize understanding of such conserved systems. Speakers were also asked to identify strategies that would enable improved understanding of the evolution of physiological systems of the terrestrial insects from the aquatic crustaceans. The following collection of articles describes multiple recent advances in our understanding of Pancrustacean physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A new species of the genus Paracypria (Crustacea: Ostracoda: Cypridoidea) from the Fiji Islands.

    Chand, Prerna; Kamiya, Takahiro

    2016-08-30

    A new marine species of the genus Paracypria (Paracypria fijiensis n. sp.) is reported from the Fiji Islands, a small island archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean. This is the first report of a Paracypria species from the Fiji Islands. Descriptions of soft parts and valves of Paracypria fijiensis n. sp. are presented herein, and morphological comparisons are made with existing Paracypria species from Australia, Japan and New Caledonia. Although eight coastal sites were sampled across the Fiji Islands, the new Paracypria species was found at only three sites. Large numbers of P. fijiensis n. sp. were recorded from intertidal flats, indicating it to be highly tolerant of the dynamic intertidal zone conditions.

  11. Shoaling of sergestid shrimp Acetes johni (Crustacea Decapoda: Sergestidae) associated with swarming of gammarid amphipods

    Goswami, S.C.

    zooplankton standing stock (5.81 ml.m/3). The sergestid shrimps and gammarid amphipods formed 94.7% of the zooplankton population, the former constituting more than half of the biomass of the sample. Their numerical abundance decreased with depth. The adaptive...

  12. Long-term Hg pollution induced Hg tolerance in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Isopoda, Crustacea)

    Lapanje, A.; Drobne, D.; Nolde, N.; Valant, J.; Muscet, B.; Leser, V.; Rupnik, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our work was to assess the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of isopod gut microbiota and pollution-induced isopod population tolerance (PIPT). Animals collected from a chronically Hg polluted and an unpolluted location were exposed for 14 days to 10 μg Hg/g dry food under laboratory conditions. The lysosomal membrane stability, hepatopancreas epithelium thickness, feeding activity and animal bacterial gut microbiota composition were determined. The results confirm the hypothesis that the response to short-term Hg exposure differs for animals from the Hg polluted and the unpolluted field locations. The animals and their gut microbiota from the Hg polluted location were less affected by Hg in a short-term feeding experiment than those from the unpolluted environment. We discuss the pollution-induced population tolerance of isopods and their gut microbiota as a measure of effects of long-term environmental pollution. The ecological consequences of such phenomena are also discussed. - Isopods (Porcellio scaber) as well as their bacterial gut community from a mercury-polluted site are mercury tolerant

  13. Karyotype Variability and Inter-Population Genomic Differences in Freshwater Ostracods (Crustacea Showing Geographical Parthenogenesis

    Radka Symonová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transitions from sexual to asexual reproduction are often associated with polyploidy and increased chromosomal plasticity in asexuals. We investigated chromosomes in the freshwater ostracod species Eucypris virens (Jurine, 1820, where sexual, asexual and mixed populations can be found. Our initial karyotyping of multiple populations from Europe and North Africa, both sexual and asexual, revealed a striking variability in chromosome numbers. This would suggest that chromosomal changes are likely to be accelerated in asexuals because the constraints of meiosis are removed. Hence, we employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH within and among sexual and asexual populations to get insights into E. virens genome arrangements. CGH disclosed substantial genomic imbalances among the populations analyzed, and three patterns of genome arrangement between these populations: 1. Only putative ribosomal DNA (rDNA-bearing regions were conserved in the two populations compared indicating a high sequence divergence between these populations. This pattern is comparable with our findings at the interspecies level of comparison; 2. Chromosomal regions were shared by both populations to a varying extent with a distinct copy number variation in pericentromeric and presumable rDNA-bearing regions. This indicates a different rate of evolution in repetitive sequences; 3. A mosaic pattern of distribution of genomic material that can be explained as non-reciprocal genetic introgression and evidence of a hybrid origin of these individuals. We show an overall increased chromosomal dynamics in E. virens that is complementary with available phylogenetic and population genetic data reporting highly differentiated diploid sexual and asexual lineages with a wide variety of genetic backgrounds.

  14. Distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of northern Western Ghats, India

    Sameer M. Padhye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a report on the distribution and assemblages of large branchiopods from the Western Ghats of Maharashtra. Different types of water bodies were sampled including pools on lateritic outcrops. Eight species of large branchiopods were found in 72 samples collected over a period of 4 years. We found 7 large branchiopod species in rock pools, while the cyclestheriid Cyclestheria hislopi was observed only in rivers and water reservoirs. In twenty-five percent of the samples multiple species co-occurred with a maximum of 4 species in a single sample. Streptocephalus dichotomus was the most commonly observed species while Streptocephalus sahyadriensis was noted only in rock pools. Altitude and aquatic vegetation were identified as important factors for the distribution of large branchiopods in the studied area. Triops granarius was the species most commonly found to be co-occurring with other species, followed by S. sahyadriensis. Cyclestheria hislopi and Eulimnadia indocylindrova always occurred alone. 

  15. Chaetotaxy and setal diversity of grooming legs in species of porcelain crabs (Crustacea: Anomura: Porcellanidae

    Luciane Augusto de Azevedo Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The morphology of the fifth pereiopods was studied under scanning electron microscopy in ten species of porcelain crabs for chaetotaxy and setal diversity, namelly Megalobrachium pacificum, Megalobrachium roseum, Pachycheles grossimanus, Petrolisthes armatus, Petrolisthes tuberculatus, Pisidia brasiliensis, Pisidia longicornis, Polyonyx gibbesi, Porcellana platycheles and Porcellana sayana. Six setal types were identified: simple, pappose, sickle-shaped serrate, straight serrate, club-shaped and tooth-like cuspidate. Porcelain crabs can differ in the fifth pereiopod setal morphology, chaetotaxy and setal density, even among species within the same genus. The absence of sexual dimorphism of the grooming legs in porcelain crabs suggests that grooming eggs requires no particular grooming apparatus in females and that male and female are equal in grooming efficiency.

  16. Grooming as a secondary behavior in the shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea

    Lauren VanMaurik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, is a large shrimp extensively used in aquaculture whose grooming behaviors were analyzed in this study. Macrobrachium rosenbergii exhibits three unique male morphotypes that differ in their behavior, morphology and physiology: small-clawed males (SM, orange-clawed males (OC and blue-clawed males (BC. The largest and most dominant males, BC males, are predicted to have significantly different grooming behaviors compared to females and the other two male morphotypes. These BC males may be too large and bulky to efficiently groom and may dedicate more time to mating and agonistic interactions than grooming behaviors. Observations were conducted to look at the prevalence of grooming behaviors in the absence and presence of conspecifics and to determine if any differences in grooming behavior exist among the sexes and male morphotypes. Significant differences in the grooming behaviors of all individuals (females and male morphotypes were found. BC males tended to have the highest grooming time budget (percent of time spent grooming while SM males had a relatively low grooming time budget. The grooming behaviors of the male morphotypes differed, indicating while these males play distinct, separate roles in the social hierarchy, they also have different grooming priorities. The conditions in which M. rosenbergii are cultured may result in increased body fouling, which may vary, depending on the grooming efficiencies and priorities of these male morphotypes. Overall, grooming behaviors were found to be a secondary behavior which only occurred when primary behaviors such as mating, feeding or fighting were not present.

  17. Autecology of Limnomysis benedeni Czerniavsky, 1882 (Crustacea: Mysida) in Lake Constance, Southwestern Germany

    Gergs, René; Hanselmann, Almut J.; Eisele, Isabelle; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto

    2008-01-01

    The Ponto-Caspian mysid Limnomysis benedeni was first recorded in Lake Constance in summer 2006, and a stable population developed at the site of discovery. Although this mysid is common in the Rhine and Danube rivers, little is known about its ecology and impact in systems of invasion. We investigated the autecology of L. benedeni in habitat-choice and food experiments. In the habitat-choice experiments, highly structured habitats, i.e., stones covered with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorph...

  18. Nouvelles données sur le genre Bragasellus (Crustacea: Isopoda: Asellidae)

    Afonso, Odette; Henry, Jean-Paul; Magniez, Guy

    1996-01-01

    From now on, the genus Bragasellus Henry & Magniez, 1968 includes 2 oculated and 17 stygobiotic species. As a natural and monophyletic taxonomic unit, we consider it a good genus. Its original area corresponds to the north-west quarter of the Iberian Peninsula. Secondarily, this area has extended

  19. Molecular phylogeny of Pasiphaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) reveals systematic incongruence of the current classification.

    Liao, Yunshi; De Grave, Sammy; Ho, Tsz Wai; Ip, Brian H Y; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou

    2017-10-01

    Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses conducted on the concatenated dataset of 2265bp suggest the family Pasiphaeidae is not monophyletic, with Psathyrocaris more closely related to other carideans than to the other five pasiphaeid genera included in this analysis. Leptochela occupies a sister position to the remaining genera and is genetically quite distant from them. At the generic level, the analysis supports the monophyly of Pasiphaea, Leptochela and Psathyrocaris, while Eupasiphae is shown to be paraphyletic, closely related to Parapasiphae and Glyphus. The present molecular result strongly implies that certain morphological characters used in the present systematic delineation within Pasiphaeidae may not be synapomorphies and the classification within the family needs to be urgently revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epimeria of the Southern Ocean with notes on their relatives (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Eusiroidea

    Cédric d'Udekem d'Acoz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present monograph includes general systematic considerations on the family Epimeriidae, a revision of the genus Epimeria Costa in Hope, 1851 in the Southern Ocean, and a shorter account on putatively related eusiroid taxa occurring in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic seas. The former epimeriid genera Actinacanthus Stebbing, 1888 and Paramphithoe Bruzelius, 1859 are transferred to other families, respectively to the Acanthonotozomellidae Coleman & J.L. Barnard, 1991 and the herein re-established Paramphithoidae G.O. Sars, 1883, so that only Epimeria and Uschakoviella Gurjanova, 1955 are retained within the Epimeriidae Boeck, 1871. The genera Apherusa Walker, 1891 and Halirages Boeck, 1891, which are phylogenetically close to Paramphithoe, are also transferred to the Paramphithoidae. The validity of the suborder Senticaudata Lowry & Myers, 2013, which conflicts with traditional and recent concepts of Eusiroidea Stebbing, 1888, is questioned. Eight subgenera are recognized for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species of the genus Epimeria: Drakepimeria subgen. nov., Epimeriella K.H. Barnard, 1930, Hoplepimeria subgen. nov., Laevepimeria subgen. nov., Metepimeria Schellenberg, 1931, Pseudepimeria Chevreux, 1912, Subepimeria Bellan-Santini, 1972 and Urepimeria subgen. nov. The type subgenus Epimeria, as currently defined, does not occur in the Southern Ocean. Drakepimeria species are superficially similar to the type species of the genus Epimeria: E. cornigera (Fabricius, 1779, but they are phylogenetically unrelated and substantial morphological differences are obvious at a finer level. Twenty-seven new Antarctic Epimeria species are described herein: Epimeria (Drakepimeria acanthochelon subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. anguloce subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. colemani subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. corbariae subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. cyrano subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. havermansiana subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. leukhoplites subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. loerzae subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. pandora subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. pyrodrakon subgen. et sp. nov., E. (D. robertiana subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Epimeriella atalanta sp. nov., Epimeria (Hoplepimeria cyphorachis subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. gargantua subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. linseae subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. quasimodo subgen. et sp. nov., E. (H. xesta subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Laevepimeria anodon subgen. et sp. nov., E. (L. cinderella subgen. et sp. nov., Epimeria (Pseudepimeria amoenitas sp. nov., E. (P. callista sp. nov., E. (P. debroyeri sp. nov., E. (P. kharieis sp. nov., Epimeria (Subepimeria adeliae sp. nov., E. (S. iota sp. nov., E. (S. teres sp. nov. and E. (S. urvillei sp. nov. The type specimens of E. (D. macrodonta Walker, 1906, E. (D. similis Chevreux, 1912, E. (H. georgiana Schellenberg, 1931 and E. (H. inermis Walker, 1903 are re-described and illustrated. Besides the monographic treatment of Epimeriidae from the Southern Ocean, a brief overview and identification keys are given for their putative and potential relatives from the same ocean, i.e., the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic members of the following eusiroid families: Acanthonotozomellidae Coleman & J.L. Barnard, 1991, Dikwidae Coleman & J.L. Barnard, 1991, Stilipedidae Holmes, 1908 and Vicmusiidae Just, 1990. This overview revealed the existence of a new large and characteristic species of Alexandrella Chevreux, 1911, A. chione sp. nov. but also shows that the taxonomy of that genus remains poorly known and that several ‘variable widespread eurybathic species’ probably are species complexes. Furthermore, the genera Bathypanoploea Schellenberg, 1939 and Astyroides Birstein & Vinogradova, 1960 are considered to be junior synonyms of Alexandrella. Alexandrella mixta Nicholls, 1938 and A. pulchra Ren in Ren & Huang, 1991 are re-established herein, as valid species. It is pointed out that this insufficient taxonomic knowledge of Antarctic amphipods impedes ecological and biogeographical studies requiring precise identifications. Stacking photography was used for the first time to provide iconographic support in amphipod taxonomy, and proves to be a rapid and efficient illustration method for large tridimensionally geometric species. A combined morphological and molecular approach was used whenever possible for distinguishing Epimeria species, which were often very similar (albeit never truly cryptic and sometimes exhibited allometric and individual variations. However in several cases, taxa were characterized by morphology only, whenever the specimens available for study were inappropriately fixed or when no sequences could be obtained. A large number of Epimeria species, formerly considered as eurybathic and widely distributed, proved to be complexes of species, with a narrower (overlapping or not distribution. The distributional range of Antarctic Epimeria is very variable from species to species. Current knowledge indicates that some species from the Scotia Arc and the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula are narrow range endemics, sometimes confined to one island, archipelago, or ridge (South Georgia, South Orkney Islands, Elephant Island or Bruce Ridge; other species have a distribution encompassing a broader region, such as the eastern shelf of the Weddell Sea, or extending from the eastern shelf of the Weddell Sea to Adélie Coast. The most widely distributed species are E. (D. colemani subgen. et sp. nov., E. (E. macronyx (Walker, 1906, E. (H. inermis Walker, 1903 and E. (L. walkeri (K.H. Barnard, 1930, which have been recorded from the Antarctic Peninsula/South Shetland Islands area to the western Ross Sea. Since restricted distributions are common among Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Epimeria, additional new species might be expected in areas such as the Kerguelen Plateau, eastern Ross Sea, Amundsen Sea and the Bellingshausen Sea or isolated seamounts and ridges, where there are currently no Epimeria recorded. The limited distribution of many Epimeria species of the Southern Ocean is presumably related to the poor dispersal capacity in most species of the genus. Indeed with the exception of the pelagic and semi-pelagic species of the subgenus Epimeriella, they are heavy strictly benthic organisms without larval stages, and they have no exceptional level of eurybathy for Antarctic amphipods. Therefore, stretches deeper than 1000 m seem to be efficient geographical barriers for many Epimeria species, but other isolating factors (e.g., large stretches poor in epifauna might also be at play. The existence of endemic shelf species with limited dispersal capacities in the Southern Ocean (like many Epimeria suggests the existence of multiple ice-free shelf or upper slope refugia during the Pleistocene glaciations within the distributional and bathymetric range of these species. Genera with narrow range endemics like Epimeria would be excellent model taxa for locating hotspots of Antarctic endemism, and thus potentially play a role in proposing meaningful Marine Protected Areas (MPAs in the Southern Ocean.

  1. Monomia lucida sp. nov., a new swimming crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Portunidae) from the South China Sea.

    Koch, Milan; ĎuriŠ, ZdenĚk

    2018-02-27

    A new species of the portunid genus, Monomia Gistel, 1848, is described from the South China Sea in Vietnam. Monomia lucida sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to M. argentata (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861), which was originally described from Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. In addition to the stout, forward-directed anterolateral teeth of the carapace, the subrectangular sixth segment of the male pleon, and the long and slender laterally bent first gonopods, adults of the new species reach a greater size, and can also be distinguished from M. argentata by the colour pattern on the natatory dactylus. The independent specific status of M. lucida sp. nov. is also supported by molecular evidence. Aside from a comparison of this new species with other known congeners, new photographs of the holotype of M. samoensis (Ward, 1939) are also provided.

  2. A new species of the genus Linuparus White, from the South China Sea (Crustacea Decapoda)

    Bruce, A.J.

    1965-01-01

    The palinurid genus Linuparus White, 1847, has been represented by a single recent species, Linuparus trigonus (Von Siebold). The trawl survey of the northern shelf region of the South China Sea at present being carried out by the R.V. "Cape St. Mary" of the Fisheries Research Station, Hong Kong,

  3. A new species of the genus Linuparus (Crustacea, Palinuridae) from South-East Africa

    Berry, P.F.; George, R.W.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The genus Linuparus White was recently reviewed by Bruce (1965) who gave an excellent account of two species, the type species L. trigonus (Von Siebold) and a previously undescribed species L. sordidus Bruce from the South China Sea. George & Main (1967) reviewed the family Palinuridae

  4. Nannastacidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) from the Malayan shallow waters (South China Sea)

    Petrescu, Iorgu

    1997-01-01

    Four new species from the South China Sea are described: Nannastacus muelleri n.sp., Nannastacus wisseni n.sp., Scherocumella fagei n.sp. and Scherocumella malayensis n.sp. The descriptions of further 15 known species are complemented with new information ( Campylaspis amblyoda Gamo, 1960, Cumella

  5. Evolution through cold and deep waters: the molecular phylogeny of the Lithodidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Hall, Sally; Thatje, Sven

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this work are to use gene sequence data to assess the hypothesis that the Lithodinae arose from ancestors with uncalcified abdomens in shallow waters of the North-East Pacific, investigate the monophyly and interrelationships of genera within the Lithodinae and to estimate the scale and minimum number of biogeographic transitions from the shallow environment to the deep sea and vice versa. To do this, phylogenetic analysis from three mitochondrial and three nuclear markers was conducted using minimum evolution, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. The Lithodinae as defined to include North Pacific genus Cryptolithodes may be paraphyletic, with the Hapalogastrinae and Cryptolithodes as sister taxa. This implies that the soft-bodied abdomen of the Hapalogastrinae might not be plesiomorphic for the Lithodidae. Paralomis, Lopholithodes, Phyllolithodes, Lithodes and Neolithodes share a common ancestor, from which the North Pacific Hapalogastrinae did not descend. Lithodid ancestors are likely to have had a north Pacific, shallow water distribution and to have had planktotrophic larvae. North Pacific genus Paralithodes is paraphyletic; P. brevipes is the most basal member of the genus (as sampled) while P. camtschaticus and P. platypus are more closely related to the genera Lithodes and Neolithodes. Genera Lithodes, Neolithodes and Paralomis (as sampled) are monophyletic if Glyptolithodes is included within Paralomis. Lopholithodes is closely related to, but not included within, the Paralomis genus. Paralomis is divided into at least two major lineages: one containing South Atlantic, West African, and Indian Ocean species, and the other containing Pacific and South American species. Several species of Paralomis do not resolve consistently with any other groups sampled, implying a complex and possibly rapid global evolution early in the history of the genus. Relationships within the Lithodes genus vary between analytical methods, suggesting that conclusions may not be stable. Consistently, however, Indian Ocean and Pacific forms— L. murrayi, L. longispina and L. nintokuae form a group separated from Atlantic species such as L. santolla, L. confundens, L. maja and L. ferox.

  6. Declining soil Crustacea in a World Heritage Site caused by land nemertean.

    Shinobe, Shotaro; Uchida, Shota; Mori, Hideaki; Okochi, Isamu; Chiba, Satoshi

    2017-09-29

    Invasive non-native species are of great concern throughout the world. Potential severity of the impacts of non-native species is assessed for effective conservation managements. However, such risk assessment is often difficult, and underestimating possible harm can cause substantial issues. Here, we document catastrophic decline of a soil ecosystem in the Ogasawara Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage site, due to predation by non-native land nemertine Geonemertes pelaensis of which harm has been previously unnoticed. This nemertine is widely distributed in tropical regions, and no study has shown that it feeds on arthropods. However, we experimentally confirmed that G. pelaensis predates various arthropod groups. Soil fauna of Ogasawara was originally dominated by isopods and amphipods, but our surveys in the southern parts of Hahajima Island showed that these became extremely scarce in the areas invaded by G. pelaensis. Carnivorous arthropods decreased by indirect effects of its predation. Radical decline of soil arthropods since the 1980s on Chichijima Island was also caused by G. pelaensis and was first recorded in 1981. Thus, the soil ecosystem was already seriously damaged in Ogasawara by the nemertine. The present findings raise an issue and limitation in recognizing threats of non-native species.

  7. A new species of Gastrosaccus (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from the South West Coast of Australia

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    A description of a new mysid Gastrosaccus robusta, is given. This species is distinguished from related species by possessing lobes on the carapace, a strong chitinous projection on the fifth abdominal segment, characters of the male pleopods...

  8. The new species of Mysidacea (Crustacea), Anchialina labatus and Gastrosaccus sarae, from south west Australia

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    on the third segment of the mandibular palp and by the modification of the exopod of the third pleopod of the male. G. sarae is distinguished from the other species by the shape and armature of the telson...

  9. Ecomorphology of crabs and swimming crabs (Crustacea DecapodaBrachyura from coastal ecosystems

    Murilo Zanetti Marochi

    Full Text Available Abstract Brachyuran crabs are one of the most diverse taxa of crustaceans, occurring in almost all coastal habitats. Due to their high morphological diversification, the authors sought to ascertain the existence of morphological patterns related to the habitat of coastal brachyuran crabs. We analyzed 17 species from mangrove forests, rocky shores, sandy beaches and exclusively aquatic marine/estuarine ecosystems. A total of 16 linear measurements of males and 17 of females were obtained for each habitat. We were able to discriminate three functional groups of crab species, based on their habitat: 1. Complex Substrates, 2. Semiterrestrial, 3. Exclusively Aquatic. The species belonging to the Complex Substrates group had long ambulatory legs, as well as being heteroquely related to uneven terrain. Semiterrestrial species showed ambulatory legs of different sizes, allowing them to walk easily on the terrestrial terrain due to the long fourth ambulatory leg, and long eyestalks which are important for visual communication. Exclusively Aquatic species showed the largest carapace widths and the shortest eyestalks. The presence of different crab lineages in the environments analyzed allows us to demonstrate the clear evolutionary convergence, by which the crabs adapted to their specific habitat and environment.

  10. A new genus and species of Heteromysini (Crustacea- Mysidacea) from the backwater of Kochi (Kerala, India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Buju, A.

    minor inlets. The water is saline (5–32 psu) during the dry season and almost fresh water during the monsoon (May to October). The salinity gradient in the Kochi backwater supports diverse species of flora and fauna depending on their capacity....1080/00222930701515553 Downloaded By: [CSIR Order] At: 10:52 24 October 2007 Genus Kochimysis gen. nov. Diagnosis General form small and slender. Carapace broadly triangular in front. Eyes normal. Male lobe of antennule reduced to small setiferous lobe; antennal scale oval...

  11. New sibling species and new occurrences of squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda from the western Indian Ocean

    Enrique Macpherson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous specimens of squat lobsters belonging to the families Munididae, Munidopsidae and Eumunididae were collected during several cruises along the eastern coasts of Africa. The study of these specimens revealed the presence of 10 new species (one Eumunida Smith, 1883, eight Munida Leach, 1820 and one Munidopsis Whiteaves, 1874. We describe and illustrate these new species, providing some new data on occurrences and colour patterns for previously described taxa. We have also included molecular data from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and COI to support the taxonomic status of different species. Some deep-sea species show a clear increase in their geographic range distribution. Finally, a key to known species of the genus Munida from the western and central Indian Ocean is also presented.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships, character evolution, and taxonomic implications within the slipper lobsters (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae).

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Bracken-Grissom, Heather; Kim, Dohyup; Crandall, Keith A; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2012-01-01

    The slipper lobsters belong to the family Scyllaridae which contains a total of 20 genera and 89 species distributed across four subfamilies (Arctidinae, Ibacinae, Scyllarinae, and Theninae). We have collected nucleotide sequence data from regions of five different genes (16S, 18S, COI, 28S, H3) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among 54 species from the Scyllaridae with a focus on the species rich subfamily Scyllarinae. We have included in our analyses at least one representative from all 20 genera in the Scyllaridae and 35 of the 52 species within the Scyllarinae. Our resulting phylogenetic estimate shows the subfamilies are monophyletic, except for Ibacinae, which has paraphyletic relationships among genera. Many of the genera within the Scyllarinae form non-monophyletic groups, while the genera from all other subfamilies form well supported clades. We discuss the implications of this history on the evolution of morphological characters and ecological transitions (nearshore vs. offshore) within the slipper lobsters. Finally, we identify, through ancestral state character reconstructions, key morphological features diagnostic of the major clades of diversity within the Scyllaridae and relate this character evolution to current taxonomy and classification. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Reproductive biology of galatheoid and chirostyloid (Crustacea: Decapoda) squat lobsters from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Kilgour, Morgan J; Shirley, Thomas C

    2014-01-16

    Reproductive timing, fecundity, and average egg sizes were examined for galatheoid and chirostyloid squat lobster collections from the Gulf of Mexico. While congeners did not always significantly differ in egg size or timing, each genus had a unique average egg diameter size which may indicate whether the developing embryos will be lecithotrophic or planktotrophic larvae. The eggs of Eumunididae, Galatheidae, and Munididae were more numerous and smaller than the larger and less abundant eggs of Chirostylidae and Munidopsidae. With the exception of members of the Munididae, members of genera within the same family had distinct egg diameters. Ovigerous females were significantly larger than non-ovigerous females in some species (i.e., Uroptychus nitidus, Munida forceps, Galacantha spinosa, Munidopsis abbreviata, M. alaminos, M., erinacea, M. robusta, M. sigsbei, and M. simplex). Munidopsis erinacea and Munida affinis males were significantly larger than females; the reverse was true for Munidopsis robusta and Munidopsis simplex. All other species studied did not have a significant difference between males and females. The spatial and bathymetric ranges for many species are extended in this study from prior reports. Seasonality of reproduction was evident in few species, but this may be a result of limited sample sizes.

  14. Additional slipper lobsters of the subfamily Scyllarinae Latreille, 1825 (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae) from Taiwan.

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2014-08-15

    Five scyllarine lobsters are recorded from Taiwan for the first time. They are Bathyarctus rubens (Alcock & Anderson, 1894), Biarctus sordidus (Stimpson, 1860), Chelarctus aureus (Holthuis, 1963), Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905) and Petrarctus veliger Holthuis, 2002. The distributions of B. rubens, C. aureus and P. veliger are extended northwards to Taiwan. Distinguishing characters of these five species are illustrated and color photographs of all but B. sordidus are provided. Altogether, nine genera and 17 species of scyllarine lobsters are now known from Taiwan. 

  15. Descriptions of Five Species of Scyllarine Lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Scyllaridae in Korea

    Joo Il Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five scyllarine lobster species, belonging to the family Scyllaridae, are described from Korean waters: Chelarctus cultrifer (Ortmann, 1897, Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905, Galearctus kitanoviriosus (Harada, 1962, G. timidus (Holthuis, 1960, and Petrarctus brevicornis (Holthuis, 1946. Of these, three species, C. bicuspidatus, G. timidus, and P. brevicornis are new to Korean marine carcinological fauna. This report extends the known range of G. timidus to the southern coast of Korea from Taiwan in the East China Sea. Excluding C. bicuspidatus and G. kitanoviriosus, the other three species are relatively rare in Korean waters. They are described herein with color photographs, and a key to the Korean genera and species of Scyllarinae is also presented.

  16. First Report of Two Species of Genus Raymunida (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura from Korea

    Sanghui Lee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of squat lobsters, Raymunida formosanus Lin, Chan and Chu, 2004 and Raymunida lineata Osawa, 2005, are newly added to the Korean decapod fauna. The genus Raymunida Macpherson and Machordom, 2000 is also reported for the first time in Korea. It differs morphologically from other Korean genera, Munida and Paramunida, in having the first to third pereopods with epipods and the carpus of the third maxilliped with a distal spine on flexor margin. Illustrations and pictures of these two species are provided with descriptions, and the key to the species of Korean Munidids is also provided.

  17. On the type material of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Scyllaridae

    Marcos Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The only specimen listed in the original description of Scyllarides deceptor Holthuis, 1963 is the holotype from São Paulo, Brazil, presently housed in the Leiden Museum. From the original description, however, it is clear that the new species was actually based on a number of additional specimens. Six of them exist in the collections of the Museum of Zoology in São Paulo, and are shown herein to be paratypes of S. deceptor. Scyllarides deceptor and S. brasiliensis Rathbun, 1906, continue to be confounded with one another, in consequence of their very similar color patterns and locally sympatric distributions. As many as 251,786 tons of slipper lobsters have been landed in Santa Catarina between 2000 and 2007. These catches have been attributed to S. deceptor alone and did not take into consideration the existence of a second species in the area, S. brasiliensis. Correct recognition of slipper-lobster species will be critical to properly evaluate the lobster stocks in southeastern Brazil. An opportunity is taken herein to elaborate on the taxonomy of S. deceptor and S. brasiliensis.

  18. Comparative Ultrastructure and Carbohydrate Composition of Gastroliths from Astacidae, Cambaridae and Parastacidae Freshwater Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda

    Gérard Alcaraz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans have to cyclically replace their rigid exoskeleton in order to grow. Most of them harden this skeleton by a calcification process. Some decapods (land crabs, lobsters and crayfish elaborate calcium storage structures as a reservoir of calcium ions in their stomach wall, as so-called gastroliths. For a better understanding of the cyclic elaboration of these calcium deposits, we studied the ultrastructure of gastroliths from freshwater crayfish by using a combination of microscopic and physical techniques. Because sugars are also molecules putatively involved in the elaboration process of these biomineralizations, we also determined their carbohydrate composition. This study was performed in a comparative perspective on crayfish species belonging to the infra-order Astacidea (Decapoda, Malacostraca: three species from the Astacoidea superfamily and one species from the Parastacoidea superfamily. We observed that all the gastroliths exhibit a similar dense network of protein-chitin fibers, from macro- to nanoscale, within which calcium is precipitated as amorphous calcium carbonate. Nevertheless, they are not very similar at the molecular level, notably as regards their carbohydrate composition. Besides glucosamine, the basic carbohydrate component of chitin, we evidenced the presence of other sugars, some of which are species-specific like rhamnose and galacturonic acid whereas xylose and mannose could be linked to proteoglycan components.

  19. Can contrasting environmental conditions of mangroves induce morphological variability in Aratus pisonii (Crustacea: Brachyura: Sesarmidae?

    Beatriz López-Sánchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aratus pisonii is one of the most common crab species in Neotropical mangroves. It shows great plasticity in its life history traits, which makes it an interesting subject for comparative studies. This study evaluated the morphometric variability in five populations of A. pisonii inhabiting mangroves with different degrees of structural development under contrasting environmental conditions. Mangrove forests located on the northwest coast of Venezuela were studied during the rainy season in 2006. The results showed morphometric differences and interaction between sampling sites and sex (PERMANOVA, P=0.0001, as well as the presence of five morphological groups in males and four in females. The findings support the existence of sexual dimorphism. Females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove showed a wide variability associated with the chelipeds. The differences in crab morphology between sites seem to be related to a combination of environmental factors that is unique for each habitat, leading to the formation of different morphological groups, in which the mangrove structural development (resource availability and salinity (which compromises the energy budget play an important role. The presence of more robust chelipeds in females from the dwarf hypersaline mangrove seems to reflect an adaptation to the biomechanical properties of the leaves (sclerophylly.

  20. Evolutionary history of true crabs (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) and the origin of freshwater crabs.

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Schubart, Christoph D; Ahyong, Shane T; Lai, Joelle C Y; Au, Eugene Y C; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ng, Peter K L; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-05-01

    Crabs of the infra-order Brachyura are one of the most diverse groups of crustaceans with approximately 7,000 described species in 98 families, occurring in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. The relationships among the brachyuran families are poorly understood due to the high morphological complexity of the group. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive phylogeny of Brachyura to date using sequence data of six nuclear protein-coding genes and two mitochondrial rRNA genes from more than 140 species belonging to 58 families. The gene tree confirms that the "Podotremata," are paraphyletic. Within the monophyletic Eubrachyura, the reciprocal monophyly of the two subsections, Heterotremata and Thoracotremata, is supported. Monophyly of many superfamilies, however, is not recovered, indicating the prevalence of morphological convergence and the need for further taxonomic studies. Freshwater crabs were derived early in the evolution of Eubrachyura and are shown to have at least two independent origins. Bayesian relaxed molecular methods estimate that freshwater crabs separated from their closest marine sister taxa ~135 Ma, that is, after the break up of Pangaea (∼200 Ma) and that a Gondwanan origin of these freshwater representatives is untenable. Most extant families and superfamilies arose during the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  1. A new species of Hyalella from the Andes in Perú (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae

    Exequiel R González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyalella pauperocavae n. sp. from Huancayo, Perú, is described. Five other epigean freshwater amphipods have been described from Peru (excluding Lake Titicaca, but the lack of type material and poor descriptions do not allow the assignment of the species described here to any of the names known for the areaSe describe la especie Hyalella pauperocavae n. sp. recolectada en la localidad de Huancayo, Perú. Otras cinco especies de anfípodos epígeos se conocen para el Perú (excluyendo aquellas presentes en el Lago Titicaca. La ausencia de material tipo y descripciones poco claras impidieron la asignación de la especie descrita aquí a alguno de los nombres conocidos para el área

  2. A new species of Hyalella from the Andes in Perú (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyalellidae).

    González, Exequiel R; Watling, Les

    2002-06-01

    Hyalella pauperocavae n. sp. from Huancayo, Perú, is described. Five other epigean freshwater amphipods have been described from Peru (excluding Lake Titicaca), but the lack of type material and poor descriptions do not allow the assignment of the species described here to any of the names known for the area.

  3. Morphometric differences in two calanoid sibling species, Boeckella gracilipes and B. titicacae (Crustacea, Copepoda

    Patricio De los Ríos Escalante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Calanoid copepods are abundant in South American inland waters and include widespread species, such as Boeckella gracilipes (Daday, 1902, which occurs from the Ecuador to Tierra del Fuego Island. This species occurs under various environmental conditions, and is found in oligotrophic lakes in Patagonia (39-54°S and in shallow mountain lakes north of 39°S. The aim of the present study is to conduct a morphometric comparison of male specimens of B. titicacae collected in Titicaca and B. gracilipes collected in Riñihue lakes, with a third population of B. gracilipes collected in shallow ponds in Salar de Surire. Titicaca and Riñihue lakes are stable environments, whereas Salar de Surire is an extreme environment. These ponds present an extreme environment due to high exposure to solar radiation and high salinity levels. The results of the study revealed differences among the three populations. These results agree well with systematic descriptions in the literature on differences between the populations of Titicaca and Riñihue lakes, and population of Salar de Surire differs slightly from the other two populations. It is probable that the differences between the population of Salar de Surire and the other two populations result from the extreme environment in Salar de Surire. High exposure to solar radiation, high salinity and extreme variations in temperature enhance genetic variations that are consequently expressed in morphology.

  4. Effect of environmental stress on clonal structure of Eucypris virens (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    Martins M. J. F.; Vandekerkhove J.; Adolfsson S.; Rossetti G.; Namiotko T.; Jokela J.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental stress imposes strong natural selection on clonal populations, promoting evolutionary change in clonal structure. Environmental stress may also lead to reduction in population size, which together with clonal selection may reduce genotypic diversity of the local populations. We examined how clonal structure in wild-collected samples of two parthenogenetic populations of the freshwater ostracod Eucypris virens responded to hypersalinity and starvation, and the combination of the ...

  5. Feeding of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faroni Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda in the laboratory

    Luz Amelia Vega-Pérez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior of juveniles of the planktonic shrimp Lucifer faxoni Borradaile was studied in the laboratory under light and dark conditions. Newly-hatched nauplii and metanauplii of Artemio were used as prey organisms. The fecding raie of L. foxoni was dependent on prey size and prey density, but was not obviously affected by light or dark conditions. The capture of the prey tended to increase with longer exposure time to prey. The maximum ingestion rate was 17.28 and 13.40 nauplii.L. faxoni .d- , in the light and in the dark conditions, respectively.O comportamento alimentar de espécimens jovens de Lucifer faxoni Borradaile, em laboratório, sob condições de luz e escuro, foi estudado utilizando-se como alimento náuplios recém-eclodidos e metanáuplios de Artemio. Neste estudo a taxa de alimentação de L. faxoni foi influenciada pelo tamanho e concentração da presa, bem como pelo tempo de contato com a mesma. A atividade alimentar de L. faxoni foi maior em condições de luz, quando comparado com as condições de escuro. f- taxa máxima de ingestão calculada foi de 17,28 e 13,40 náuplios.L. faxoni .d- para as condições de luz e escuro, respectivamente.

  6. Role of maxilla 2 and its setae during feeding in the shrimp Palaemon adspersus (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Garm, A; Hallberg, E; Høeg, J T

    2003-01-01

    The movements of the basis of maxilla 2 in Palaemon adspersus were examined using macro-video recordings, and the morphology of its setae was examined using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The basis of maxilla 2 performs stereotypical movements in the latero-medial plane and g...

  7. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  8. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Chthamalid Barnacles from the North-Eastern Pacific (Crustacea Cirripedia.

    Benny K K Chan

    Full Text Available The biogeography and ecology of the species of Chthamalus present on the west coast of America are described, using data from 51 localities from Alaska to Panama, together with their zonation on the shore with respect to that of other barnacles. The species present were C. dalli, Pilsbry 1916, C. fissus, Darwin, 1854, C. anisopoma Pilsbry 1916 and four species in the C. panamensis complex. The latter are C. panamensis Pilsbry, 1916, C. hedgecocki, Pitombo & Burton, 2007, C. alani nom. nov. (formerly C. southwardorum Pitombo & Burton, 2007 and C. newmani sp. nov.. These four species were initially separated by enzyme electrophoresis. They could only be partially separated by DNA bar coding but may be separated using morphological characters.

  9. Growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name (Crustacea, Isopoda, Philosciidae from a Brazilian Restinga Forest

    Paula Beatriz Araujo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial isopod Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 occurs from the U.S.A. (Florida to Brazil and Argentina. In the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul, the species is recorded in many localities, in urban and in non-urban areas. The growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana based on field data is presented. The specimens were sampled from April, 2000 to October, 2001 at the Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Captured individuals were sexed and had their cephalothorax width measured, with the data analyzed with von Bertalanffy's model. The growth curves for males and females are described, respectively, by the equations: Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] and Wt = 1.682 [1 - e-0.00575 (t + 59.13]. The curves showed differential growth between sexes, where females reach a higher Wµ with a slower growth rate. Based on the growth curves it was also possible to estimate life expectancy for males and females.O isópodo terrestre Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 ocorre desde os Estados Unidos (Flórida até o Brasil e Argentina. No Rio Grande do Sul a espécie é registrada em muitas localidades, em áreas urbanas e não-urbanas. Este trabalho apresenta a curva de crescimento de Atlantoscia floridana, baseada em dados de campo. Os espécimes foram amostrados desde abril, 2000 a outubro, 2001 na Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Os indivíduos capturados foram sexados e tiveram o cefalotórax medido. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o modelo de von Bertalanffy. A curva de crescimento para machos e fêmeas são descritas, respectivamente, pelas equações Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] e Wt = 1.682 [1 - e -0.00575 (t + 59.13]. As curvas mostraram crescimento diferencial entre os sexos, onde as fêmeas atingem o maior Wµ com uma taxa de crescimento menor. Com base nas curvas de crescimento também foi possível estimar a expectativa de vida para machos e fêmeas.

  10. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae) in a Brazilian tropical estuary.

    Araújo, Marina S L C; Barreto, Aline V; Negromonte, Aurinete O; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively), an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p estuary, an area of major marine influence (p salinity in order to provide a more favorable environment for embryonic and larval development and to enhance larval dispersal. Recruitment of juveniles was continuous along the year, but intensified from March to June and, with less intensity, from October to December.

  11. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae in a Brazilian tropical estuary

    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively, an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever a estrutura populacional do siri Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 em um dos estuários mais produtivos do Brasil, o Canal de Santa Cruz. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de Janeiro a Dezembro/ 2009 em quatro estações ao longo do canal, duas no estuário superior e duas no estuário inferior. Um total de 2373 exemplares de C. danae foi coletado. Os machos apresentaram média de largura de carapaça superior à das fêmeas não-ovígeras (60,0 ± 15,6 mm e 5,9 ± 12,4 mm, respectivamente, uma adaptação que confere maior proteção às fêmeas durante a cópula. A proporção sexual total não diferiu significativamente de 1:1. Porém, avaliando a 'sex-ratio' por área de coleta, os machos e os juvenis residem preferencialmente no estuário superior (p < 0, 05, enquanto as fêmeas adultas e ovígeras habitam no estuário inferior, área de maior influência marinha (p < 0, 05. Enquanto os juvenis procuram águas estuarinas devido a abundância de abrigos e comida, as fêmeas ovígeras migram para áreas de maior profundidade e maior salinidade visando prover um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento embrionário e larval, além de favorecer a dispersão da prole. O recrutamento de juvenis foi contínuo ao longo do ano, mas intensificado entre Março e Junho, e em menor intensidade, de Outubro a Dezembro.

  12. Three species of Crustacea Decapoda Macrura from Southern Brazil, including a new species of Upogebia

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1956-01-01

    In June 1954, during an ecological study of the mangroves near the Research Station of the São Paulo University Oceanographic Institute at Cananeia, about 200 km south of Santos, southern Brazil, Dr. S. Gerlach of the Zoological Institute and Museum of the University of Kiel, Germany, collected some

  13. Detection of Wolbachia (Alphaproteobacteria: rickettsiales in three species of terrestrial isopods (crustacea: isopoda: oniscidea in Brazil

    Bianca Laís Zimmermann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial isopods are widely infected with Wolbachia. However, little is known about the presence of bacteria in the Neotropical species. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis of presence of Wolbachia infection in the native species of terrestrial isopods, Atlantoscia floridana and Circoniscus bezzii, and in the introduced species Burmoniscus meeusei.

  14. New Report of the Varunid Crabs, Hemigrapsus takanoi and Sestrostoma toriumii (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae from Korea

    Sanghui Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As a result of continuous taxonomic studies on the Korean crabs, two varunid crabs, Hemigrapsus takanoi Asakura and Watanabe, 2005 and Sestrostoma toriumii (Takeda, 1974, are newly reported from Korean waters. Hemigrapsus takanoi, as a sibling species of H. penicillatus, has not been recognized in Korean waters, and this species occurs in the sympatric habitat with H. penicillatus in the Korean peninsula. Sestrostoma toriumii (Takeda, 1974 is associated with thallassinid Upogebia major (De Haan, 1841 and echiuran Urechis unicintus (Von Drache, 1881 as the case of S. balssi (Shen, 1932. The Korean S. toriumii showed smaller size than those mentioned in the original description. Their illustrations and pictures are provided with descriptions, and the distributions of these species in the Korean peninsula are also provided.

  15. Thermal biology of the sub-polar-temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae).

    Cumillaf, Juan P; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-02-15

    Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34-36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5-6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae)

    Cumillaf, Juan P.; Blanc, Johnny; Paschke, Kurt; Gebauer, Paulina; Díaz, Fernando; Re, Denisse; Chimal, María E.; Vásquez, Jorge; Rosas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus) and critical temperatures (CT), can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i) thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii) respiratory metabolism, and (iii) haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin) and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax). These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C). Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C). The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C) matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C) of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei) involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature. PMID:26879464

  17. A phylogeny-based revision of the family Luciferidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    Vereshchaka, Alexander L.; Olesen, Jørgen; Lunina, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    different types of oceanic habitat. The phylogenetic analysis revealed monophyly of Luciferidae and the presence of two terminal robust clades within the family, which we treat as separate genera, Lucifer and Belzebub gen. nov. Morphological trends within Luciferidae are discussed, and diagnoses and keys...

  18. Two new species of Urothoe (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea From The East Johor Islands Archipelago, Malaysia

    Azman Abdul Rahim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of urothoid amphipods from Pulau Sibu and Pulau Tinggi, Johor are described and illustrated. The specimens of Urothoe sibuensis new species were collected by vertical haul plankton net and is distinctively different from other existing Urothoe species by these combination of special characters; similar gnathopods 1–2 with short and stout propodus expanded into poorly defined palms; large eyes and epimeron 3 smooth. Urothoe tinggiensis new species as collected using an airlift suction sampler at seagrass area is characterized by its different gnathopodal configuration with setose dactylus of 5th pereopod; eyes minute; carpus is wider than merus in the 5th pereopod; subquadrate coxa 4; merus and carpus of pereopods 6–7 are linear.

  19. A fresh look at the higher classification of the Siphonoecetini Just, 1983 (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Ischyroceridae) 12

    Just, Jean-Jose Andre Auzimour

    2017-01-01

    With increased knowledge of the Amphipoda Siphonoecetini over the past 30 years, classification of this group of shallow water benthic amphipods is reappraised. The cerapodids and ericthonids are removed from the Siphonoecetini, and two new tribes, Cerapodini and Ericthonini, are diagnosed in the...

  20. Spatial distribution and general population characteristics of Pseudanchialina pusilla (Crustacea: Mysida) in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Biju, A.

    'un projet de recherche marine multidisciplinaire sur le programme d'évaluation des ressources du vivant . P. pusilla présente une large gamme de variations dans la dynamique des populations de la zone d'étude et leur densité de population sur l'ensemble de... la zone d'étude variait de 0 à 12000 ind.1000 m-3. La plus forte abondance durant la mousson du sud-ouest (SWM) de 2004 (43,4% de la population totale de l'échantillonnage), suivie par l'inter mousson (IM) de 2005 (37,0%) et le Nord- mousson (NEM...

  1. Caridean shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) from seagrass habitats in Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea

    Grave, de Sammy

    1999-01-01

    Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to

  2. A Study of the Morphology and Biology of Thompsonia littoralis (Crustacea: Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Jespersen, Åse

    1992-01-01

    Interna development within the intertidal tropical crab, Leptodius exaratus, requires up to 4.5 months; the roots become distributed from the CNS along the major nerves and, when the crab moults, results in emergence of numerous externae located symmetrically on the abdomen and bases of the thora......Interna development within the intertidal tropical crab, Leptodius exaratus, requires up to 4.5 months; the roots become distributed from the CNS along the major nerves and, when the crab moults, results in emergence of numerous externae located symmetrically on the abdomen and bases...... of the thoracic appendages. As many externae drop off, their number is continuously reduced; the survivors reach sexual maturity and ovulate after 2.5 months and complete embryonic development after 2 more months. At the next moult a new and more numerous generation of externae appears, and this is repeated until...

  3. Functional morphology of the hepatopancreas of Palaemonetes argentinus (Crustacea: Decapoda) : influence of environmental pollution

    Sousa, L. G.; Petriella, A. M.

    2007-01-01

    Morphological and functional state of hepatopancreas were analyzed in Palaemonetes argentinus from two environments with different pesticide concentrations. Los Padres lagoon (Argentina) is an area subjected to contamination due to the slow exchange of water, the shallow depth and the input of contaminated water. Prawns living in this lagoon accumulate high amounts of organochlorine pesticides in their tissues. Hepatopancreas of prawns from Canal 5, an adjacent shallow stream where the amount of pesticides is below toxic levels, and from Los Padres lagoon were processed by standard histological techniques with light microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. At Los Padres lagoon, there were found important tissular alterations, such as intertubular infiltration of haemocytes and connective tissue, epithelial retraction in some tubules, and a folded basal lamina. Important necrotic desquamation, with cariolysis, cariorrexis and lack of cellular details were also observed. Numerous tubules presented an enlarged and irregular lumen with the epithelium atrophied or completely absent. In general, the lesions were particularly located in the medullar region of the organ. At the ultrastructural level, R and F cells were the most damaged. Both cell types had nuclear retraction, chromatin condensation and cytoplasmic lysis. Some R cells also had dilated mitochondria and numerous lysosomes, and the basal cytoplasm was nearly completely lysed. The hepatopancreas of prawns from Canal 5 did not evidence any alterations. The histopathological study of the hepatopancreas is a highly sensitive tool to evaluate the physiological condition of prawns and water quality. Other environmental conditions were similar, so it can be assumed that pollutants were the main cause of organ deterioration. (author)

  4. Hatching phenology and voltinism of Heterocypris barbara (Crustacea: Ostracoda from Lampedusa (Sicily, Italy

    Valeria Rossi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of crustacean populations in ephemeral ponds requires appropriate adaptations in life history strategies (e.g. in hatching phenology. Organisms take advantage of pond filling when it occurs and hedge their bets for the possibility to complete one or more life cycles or to produce resting stages that ensure that the population will not go extinct. We carried out laboratory experiments to investigate the dynamics of a sexual population of Heterocypris barbara from a vernal pool in Lampedusa Island (Sicily. Experimental organisms were obtained hydrating sediments from Aria Rossa temporary pond. Recruitment from resting eggs, voltinism, mean body size and sex ratio were observed in microcosms at different conductivities (high 2.0-2.7 mS cm-1, intermediate 1.0-1.1 mS cm-1 and low 0.5-0.6 mS cm-1. Microcosms were kept in laboratory controlled conditions: constant (24°C 12:12 L:D and 16°C 10:14 L:D photoperiod or fluctuating thermal regimes. The experiment lasted 7 months. Resting and non-resting egg production and up to a bivoltine life cycle were observed. Recruitment events from egg bank and voltinism varied by thermal regime and conductivity. A prolonged recruitment phase occurred in conditions that could be considered a proxy of a rainy season (16°C, 10:14 L:D and low conductivity or of long hydroperiods (spring thermal fluctuating regime and intermediate conductivity. At 24°C, age at reproduction of females from resting eggs almost doubled at low conductivity (in comparison with high conductivity. Low conductivity also reduced hatching time of resting eggs while it increased development time and age at maturity. In thermal fluctuating regime, degree-days to reproduction were about double than at constant 24°C. Males, observed in all microcosms, reached maturity faster and had a shorter life span than females. Males initially outnumbered females, but later in the experiments females became dominant. We also evaluated the effect of conductivity and thermal regimes on other traits like recruitment from egg bank, voltinism and sex ratio. We discuss whether our observations on a small population from temporary pools could be considered part of a diversified bet-hedging strategy.

  5. Three new sympatric species of Remipedia (Crustacea) from Great Exuma Island, Bahamas Islands

    Koenemann, Stefan; Iliffe, Thomas M.; Ham, van der Joris

    2003-01-01

    Three new sympatric species of remipede crustaceans, Speleonectes tanumekes, Speleonectes parabenjamini and Speleonectes minnsi, are described from an anchihaline cave on Great Exuma Island in the central Bahamas. Speleonectes tanumekes is a comparatively long and slender species distinguished by

  6. Two new species of Colletteidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Tanaidomorpha from Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Juliana L. Segadilha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples from deep benthic areas in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, revealed the presence of two new species of Colletteidae: Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. and Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. resembles F. moskalevi in its habitus; it can, however, be distinguished by characters such as the pleonites and pleotelson with lateral margins parallel and the uropod exopod being longer than half of the first endopod article. Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. differs from the other species of Macrinella in the shape of the uropod and the pleotelson, with the uropod exopod shorter than the first article of the endopod, the uropod about as long as the pleotelson and the pleotelson with a rounded tip. The number of species of Tanaidacea recorded from Antarctica increases to 162, while the colletteids are now represented by 16 species. Moreover, the diagnosis of the genus Filitanais is herein modified.

  7. Effects of terrestrial isopods (Crustacea: Oniscidea on leaf litter decomposition processes

    Khaleid F. Abd El-Wakeil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The leaf litter decomposition is carried out by the combined action of microorganisms and decomposer invertebrates such as earthworms, diplopods and isopods. The present work aimed to evaluate the impact of terrestrial isopod on leaf litter decomposition process. In Lab experimental food sources from oak and magnolia leaves litter were prepared. Air dried leaf litter were cut to 9 mm discs and sterilized in an autoclave then soaked in distilled water or water percolated through soil and left to decompose for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. 12 groups from two isopods species Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare, were prepared with each one containing 9 isopods. They were fed individually on the prepared food for 2 weeks. The prepared food differed in Carbon stable isotope ratio (δ13C, C%, N% and C/N ratios. At the end of the experiment, isopods were dissected and separated into gut, gut content and rest of the body. The δ13C for the prepared food, faecal pellets, remaining food, gut content, gut and rest of isopod were compared. The feeding activities of the two isopods were significantly different among isopods groups. Consumption and egestion ratios of magnolia leaf were higher than oak leaf. P. scaber consumed and egested litter higher than A. vulgare. The present results suggested that the impact of isopods and decomposition processes is species and litter specific.

  8. Growth of hatchery raised banana shrimp Penaeus merguiensis (de Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda) juveniles under different salinity

    Saldanha, C.M.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    relationships of estuaries to the fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico, in Estuaries, edited by Lauff G H (Amer Ass Adv Sci Publ, Washington D C) 1967, pp. 621-638. 3 Mair J McD, Salinity and water-type preference of four species of postlarval shrimp (Penaeus) from... west Mexico, J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 45(1980)69-82. 4 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Biology of commercially important penaeid prawns of Goa waters, Indian J Mar Sci, 15 (1986)171-173. 5 Achuthankutty C T & Parulekar A H, Distribution of penaeid...

  9. Spelaeomysis cochinensis, a new mysid (Crustacea: Mysidacea) from a prawn culture field in Cochin, India

    Panampunnayil, S.U.; Viswakumar, M.

    to S. servatus Fage (1925) known from Zanzibar and S. cardisomae Bowman (1973) known from Mexico in many of its characters, notably in having separate eye- plates with visual elements and in the apical arma- ture of the telson. But S. cochinensis...

  10. Descriptions of five new species of Haplostylus (Mysidaceae crustacea) from South West Australia

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    area 1 m sup(2) from the upper 50 m of the water column by oblique hauls. The samples were received at the Regional Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography, Cochin from CSIRO, Australia. All the type forms are deposited in the Reference...

  11. Mysids (Crustacea) from the Exclusive Economic Zone of India with description of a new species

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    from all the known species of the genus Pseuderythrops by the irregularly lobed cornea of the eye, narrow upturned rim of the anterior region of carapace and the absence of distal suture on the antennal scale. Three species, Boreomysis plebeja...

  12. Description of two new apseudomorphan Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Kochi Backwaters, India

    PandiyaRajan, R.S.; Jyothibabu, R.; Arunpandi, N.; Biju, A.

    the Southwest Monsoon and Post-Southwest Monsoon periods. A total of 109 individuals of P. kochindica and 180 individuals of C. indiana were examined. P. kochindica and C. indiana are distinguished from all the known species of their respective congeners...

  13. Mysidacea (Crustacea) from the Minicoy lagoon (Lakshadweep, India) with description of a new species of Anisomysis

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    Four species of mysids collected from the Minicoy lagoon are reported. Anisomysis minicoyensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the related species by the shape of the rostrum, the relative length of the antennal scale and the short protuberances...

  14. An overview of the limnetic Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda of the Philippines, with emphasis on Mesocyclops

    Rey Donne S. Papa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 120 (subspecies of Cyclopidae have been reported from South and Southeast (SE Asia, where the Philippine archipelago – with 16 (including two endemic taxa – is one of the least explored parts of the region. Our study, part of current efforts to assess freshwater biodiversity, was undertaken to update the diversity and geographic distribution of the cyclopid copepods living in the limnetic zone of the freshwater lakes in the Philippines. Examination of the samples from 22 lakes in five islands (Luzon, Mindoro, Cebu, Leyte and Mindanao revealed a novel species from lake Siloton (Mindanao, Mesocyclops augusti n. sp. The new species can be distinguished from the congeners by the surface ornamentation of the hindgut, among others. The same character state was found in a Mesocyclops from North Vietnam, which is provisionally identified as M. augusti n. sp., though the Vietnam and Mindanao specimens differ in a few (yet polymorphic in the close relatives characters. Mesocyclops microlasius Kiefer, 1981 endemic to the Philippines is redescribed, based on females and males from lake Paoay (North Luzon. Sister relationships of M. augusti n. sp. and M. microlasius were tested in a phylogenetic analysis that included the closely related Old World representatives of the genus. The max. parsimony trees show M. dissimilis Defaye et Kawabata, 1993 (East Asia as the closest relative of M. augusti n. sp. (Mindanao, Vietnam, and support sister relationship between M. geminus Holynska, 2000 (East Borneo and M. microlasius (Luzon, Mindanao. A mainland clade (M. francisci, M. parentium, M. woutersi, M. dissimilis, M. augusti appears in most reconstructions; all members of the clade occur in continental Asia though some species also live in islands that have never been connected to the SE Asian shelf. In most trees with the mainland clade the insular taxa (M. microlasius, M. geminus, M. friendorum form either a paraphyletic (basal to mainland or monophyletic sister group of the mainland clade. We also established the first records of Thermocyclops taihokuensis (Harada, 1931 in the Philippines (Luzon, so far known from East and Central Asia. In all, 11 taxa [Mesocyclops (4, Thermocyclops (4, Microcyclops (1, Tropocyclops (1 and Paracyclops (1] including only one endemic species (M. microlasius have so far been found in the limnetic waters. We expect significantly higher diversity and higher rate of endemism of the freshwater cyclopids in the littoral (paludal and subterranean habitats in the Philippines.

  15. Distribution of some Calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala

    Gerd-Oltmann Brandorff

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.El sur de México y América Central tienen varios cuerpos de agua con diferente morfología, composición química y una interesante fauna de zooplancton procedente de América del Norte o del Sur. Un grupo de 63 muestras, fueron tomadas en 2005 y 2008 para conocer la cantidad de copépodos calanoides en los cuerpos de agua del karst Península de Yucatán, Belice y Guatemala. Se utilizó literatura antigua y reciente para la identificación de los especímenes a nivel de especie y se preparon dibujos con un microscopio y una cámara lúcida. En un total de 32 muestras se obtuvieron seis especies de copépodos calanoides: un pseudodiaptomidos estuarino y cinco diaptomidos de agua dulce. Pseudodiaptomus marshi fue encontrado a diferentes salinidades. Además, se confirmó que los diaptomidos más comunes en la Península de Yucatán fueron: Arctodiaptomus dorsalis y Mastigodiaptomus nesus. El primero se registró también en el lago de Amatitlán. Mastigodiaptomus nesus está ampliamente distribuido al igual que A. dorsalis, pero se encuentra ausente en el área del Lago Petén en Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae fue localizado en dos hábitats poco profundos, éstos especímenes difieren de los tipos de la localidad, por tener un grupo de espinas de gran tamaño en la última parte de la caja toráxica y los segmentos del urosoma de las hembras. Leptodiaptomus siciloides se encontró sólo en el Lago Ayarza, el cual contiene alta salinidad. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis se localizó en las tierras altas de Guatemala en el Lago de Güija y en la zona del Petén en Laguna Sacpuy. Se contribuye con registros de presencia de especies para un mejor conocimiento de la distribución geográfica de algunos copépodos calanoides. De la misma forma, los hallazgos morfológicos en algunas especies son de gran valor taxonómico para la diferenciación de especies.

  16. Physiological and behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea: Amphipoda) exposed to cadmium

    Felten, V.; Charmantier, G.; Mons, R.; Geffard, A.; Rousselle, P.; Coquery, M.; Garric, J.; Geffard, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium on physiological and behavioural responses in Gammarus pulex. In a first experiment, cadmium LC50s for different times were evaluated in 264 h experiment under continuous mode of exposure (LC50 96h = 82.1 μg L -1 , LC50 120h = 37.1 μg L -1 , LC50 168h = 21.6 μg L -1 , LC50 264h = 10.5 μg L -1 ). In a second experiment, the physiological and behavioural responses of the amphipod exposed to cadmium (0, 7.5 and 15 μg L -1 ) were investigated under laboratory conditions. The mortality and the whole body cadmium concentration of organisms exposed to cadmium were significantly higher than in controls. Concerning physiological responses, cadmium exposure exerted a significant decrease on osmolality and haemolymph Ca 2+ concentration, but not on haemolymph Na + and Cl - concentrations, whereas the Na + /K + -ATPase activity was significantly increased. Behavioural responses, such as feeding rate, locomotor and ventilatory activities, were significantly reduced in Cd exposed organisms. Mechanism of cadmium action and consequent energetic reallocation in favour of maintenance functions (i.e., osmoregulation) are discussed. The results of this study indicate that osmolality and locomotor activity in G. pulex could be effective ecophysiological/behavioural markers to monitor freshwater ecosystem and to assess the health of organisms

  17. A new species of Hyalella (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae) from the Atlantic Forest of Misiones, Argentina

    Colla, María Florencia; César, Inés Irma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater genus Hyalella Smith, 1874 has a distribution restricted to the Western Hemisphere with most species being found in South America. In this report we describe a new species of Hyalella from the Atlantic Forest of the Misiones province, Argentina. PMID:25685030

  18. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  19. Red Sea Leucothoidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) including new and re-described species

    White, Kristine N.; Krapp-Schickel, Traudl

    2017-01-01

    Examination of leucothoid amphipods of the Red Sea has revealed seven species not previously reported from this location. Leucothoe minoculis sp. nov., Leucothoe pansa sp. nov., Leucothoe reimeri sp. nov., and Paranamixis sommelieri sp. nov. are described and the range of Leucothoe predenticulata Ledoyer, 1978, L. acutilobata Ledoyer, 1978 and L. squalidens Ledoyer, 1978 is expanded to include the Red Sea. Clarification of reports of L. acanthopus Schellenberg, 1928 and L. bannwarthi (Schellenberg, 1928) is provided and Leucothoe alani sp. nov. is described from outside the Red Sea.

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Tributyltin on the Mysid Acanthomysis sculpta (Crustacea, Mysidacea).

    1986-05-01

    juveniles . . . 19 12. Summary of chronic values in pg/L TBT . . . 26 viii INTRODUCTION Tributyltin ( TBT ) is commonly used as an antifouling toxicant in...juveniles was determined at 0 42-jig L TBT . Reproductive effects were the most sensitive sublethal indicator of TBT toxicity . A chronic value of 0.14-pgL...SI[CUmITV CLAShIFICATION OF THIS PASU M DAI &W- A comparison of TBT toxicity was performed using a TBT solution leached from painted panels

  1. Testosterone metabolism in the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) following tributyltin exposure.

    Verslycke, Tim; Poelmans, Sofie; De Wasch, Katia; Vercauteren, Jordy; Devos, Christophe; Moens, Luc; Sandra, Patrick; De Brabander, Hubert F; Janssen, Colin R

    2003-09-01

    Current evidence suggests that the biocide tributyltin (TBT) causes the development of imposex, a state of pseudohermaphrodism in which females exhibit functional secondary male characteristics, by altering the biotransformation or elimination of testosterone. Imposex in gastropods following TBT exposure is the most complete example of the effects of an endocrine disrupter on marine invertebrates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the estuarine mysid Neomysis integer converts testosterone into multiple polar and nonpolar metabolites resulting from both phase I and phase II biotransformations. In this study, the effects of TBT chloride (TBTCl) on the phase I and II testosterone metabolism of N. integer were evaluated. The TBTCl was highly toxic to N. integer (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] of 164 ng/L). To assess the effects on testosterone metabolism, mysids were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of TBTCl (control, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/L), and testosterone elimination as polar hydroxylated, nonpolar oxido-reduced, and glucose- and sulfate-conjugated metabolites was examined. The TBTCl differentially affected testosterone metabolism. The effect of TBTCl on phase I metabolism was unclear and has been shown to vary among species, likely depending on the inducibility or presence of certain P450 isozyme families. Reductase activity and metabolic androgenization were induced in the 10-ng/L treatment, whereas higher concentrations resulted in a reduction of sulfate conjugation. The exact mechanisms underlying TBT-induced imposex and alterations in the steroid metabolism need to be further elucidated.

  2. Stygofauna of the Canary Islands, 9. The amphipod genus Pseudoniphargus (Crustacea) in the Canary Islands

    Stock, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Pseudoniphargus was known from inland stygohabitats in the Iberian peninsula, the Azores, Madeira, N.W. Africa, and Bermuda, but not from the Canary Islands. Systematic sampling in six of the seven larger islands of the latter archipelago has revealed the presence of the genus in Tenerife (4

  3. [Abundance and body size of Menippe mercenaria (Crustacea: Brachyura), in artificial refuges in Quintana Roo, Mexico].

    Cervantes-Martínez, A; Ramírez-González, A

    2001-01-01

    In Florida and Cuba the stone crab Menippe mercenaria (Say, 1818) is under strong fishing-pressure; nevertheless in the Mexican Caribbean it is considered as sub-utilized and poorly known resource. Artificial shelters ("condominios cubanos") were used to study relative abundance, age structure, claw length-carapace amplitude relation, and population in three seasons and four sectors at Bahía Ascension, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The abundance varied according to the sector and sampling season: population was higher in the south and during the north wind ("Nortes") season (January to March). The carapace amplitude was directly proportional to claw length (r2 = 0.83, 0.97 and 0.89; p < 0.05 in females, males and total, respectively). The results suggest that specimens with 37.5 and 67.5 mm of carapace amplitude are the most limited regarding refuge availability in the Bay.

  4. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  5. First Record of Cleantioides planicauda (Crustacea: Isopoda: Holognathidae from South Korea

    Gi-Sik Min

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleantioides planicauda (Benedict, 1899 has previously been recorded in China and Japan. In the present study, to our knowledge, we report for the first time the occurrence of this species in South Korea. Here, we provide detailed descriptions and illustrations of the diagnostic characteristics of C. planicauda. Further, for the first time, we determined the partial sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 gene of C. planicauda for molecular characteristic. Additionally, we provide a key to the Korean species and distribution of the genus Cleantioides. As a result of this study, four species of the genus Cleantioides, including C. planicauda, have now been recorded in South Korea.

  6. Justitia Holthuis, 1946 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palinuridea) from the Middle Eocene of Verona and Vicenza (northern Italy)

    Garassino, Alessandro; Angeli, De Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Beschin et al. (2001) have described two specimens of palinurids, discovered at Chiampo (“Albanello” quarry, Vicenza, northern Italy). Preserved three dimensionally, these were collected from limestones of Lutetian (middle Eocene) age. The peculiar ornament of the dorsal carapace surface,

  7. Formation of the hindgut cuticular lining during embryonic development of Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda

    Polona Mrak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The hindgut and foregut in terrestrial isopod crustaceans are ectodermal parts of the digestive system and are lined by cuticle, an apical extracellular matrix secreted by epithelial cells. Morphogenesis of the digestive system was reported in previous studies, but differentiation of the gut cuticle was not followed in detail. This study is focused on ultrastructural analyses of hindgut apical matrices and cuticle in selected intramarsupial developmental stages of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber in comparison to adult animals to obtain data on the hindgut cuticular lining differentiation. Our results show that in late embryos of stages 16 and 18 the apical matrix in the hindgut consists of loose material overlaid by a thin intensely ruffled electron dense lamina facing the lumen. The ultrastructural resemblance to the embryonic epidermal matrices described in several arthropods suggests a common principle in chitinous matrix differentiation. The hindgut matrix in the prehatching embryo of stage 19 shows characteristics of the hindgut cuticle, specifically alignment to the apical epithelial surface and a prominent electron dense layer of epicuticle. In the preceding embryonic stage – stage 18 – an electron dense lamina, closely apposed to the apical cell membrane, is evident and is considered as the first epicuticle formation. In marsupial mancae the advanced features of the hindgut cuticle and epithelium are evident: a more prominent epicuticular layer, formation of cuticular spines and an extensive apical labyrinth. In comparison to the hindgut cuticle of adults, the hindgut cuticle of marsupial manca and in particular the electron dense epicuticular layer are much thinner and the difference between cuticle architecture in the anterior chamber and in the papillate region is not yet distinguishable. Differences from the hindgut cuticle in adults imply not fully developed structure and function of the hindgut cuticle in marsupial manca, possibly related also to different environments, as mancae develop in marsupial fluid. Bacteria, evenly distributed within the homogenous electron dense material in the hindgut lumen, were observed only in one specimen of early marsupial manca. The morphological features of gut cuticle renewal are evident in the late marsupial mancae, and are similar to those observed in the exoskeleton.

  8. Ensayo de diferentes lecitinas en la dieta de juveniles de Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Ana Denisse Re-Araujo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para comparar diferentes niveles y calidades de lecitina se hizo un bioensayo nutricional con dietas isoenergéticas; para medir el crecimiento, la tasa de conversión alimenticia y sobrevivencia de juveniles de P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02. Las lecitinas experimentales fueron de calamar, lecitina liquida de soya (7%, lecitina desaceitada de soya (3.48% en combinación con aceite de pescado o lípidos neutros de calamar, en una formula parcialmente desaceitada. Las cinco dietas fueron administradas ad libitum con cuatro replicas (estanques de 15 camarones cada uno (5 x 4 x 15, durante 28 días. La mayor ganancia en peso fue (191% y FCR (1.69±0.041 fueron obtenidos con la dieta que contenía 7% de lecitina cruda de soya como única fuente de lípidos, seguida por la dieta que contenía 3.94% de lecitina desaceitada y 2.24% de aceite Menhaiden (172% y 2.03±0.054 respectivamente. Como se esperaba los resultados menos propicios fueron con la dieta que no contenía lecitina (121% y 2.42±0.129. La lecitina cruda de soya, cubrió los requerimientos de fosfolípidos y de lípidos neutrales, tanto como la dieta con lecitina desaceitada de soya con aceite de pescado o aceite de calamarThe effect of different lecithin sources and presentations on growth, food conversion ratio and survival of P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02 was studied. The bioassay was designed in order to compare different dietary levels and different quality of lecithin. Squid lecithin, crude soybean (7%, deoiled soybean lecithin (3.48% in combination with fish oil or squid neutral lipids, in a partially dilapidate formula. The isoenergetic diets were fed ad libitum to four replicate groups (tanks of 15 shrimps each (5 x 4 x 15, during 28 days. The result of the bioassay with the partially dilapidate formulas was; the best growth rate (191% and FCR (1.69±0.041 were obtained with the diet containing 7% of soybean crude lecithin as the unique lipid source. Followed by the diet countering 3.94% deoiled lecithin and 2.42% Menhaden oil (172% and 2.03±0.054 respectively. As expected, the worst results were obtained without the dietary lecithin 121% and 2.42±0.129. Crude soybean lecithin alone covered the phospholipid and neutral lipids requirements as well as the combination of deoiled soybean lecithin with fish or squid oil

  9. Siamthelphusa holthuisi spec. nov., a new species of gecarcinucoid freshwater crab (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Thailand

    Naiyanetr, P.; Ng, P.K.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new species of freshwater crab, Siamthelphusa holthuisi spec. nov., is described from eastern Thailand. This species is closely allied to Siamthelphusa improvisa (Lanchester, 1901) from southern Thailand and northern Malaysia, but can be easily separated by its different male first pleopod

  10. Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Copepoda in the Iberian Peninsula: climate implications on host–parasite interactions

    Sánchez-Hernández Javier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-native parasitic anchor worm (Lernaea cyprinacea may induce anaemia, malformations, reduced growth and increased susceptibility to secondary infection to its hosts. The objectives of this study were to (i compile a list of the host species of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula and (ii assess if climate may impact on infestation levels of the parasite. There were two primary sources for data collection: (i fish sampling in the Tormes Basin (Ávila, central Spain during August 2010 and 2016 and (ii data retrieved from publications containing relevant information about L. cyprinacea. Eleven temperature variables were obtained from Worldclim. Next, the relationship between infestation levels of the anchor worm (prevalence, intensity and abundance and temperature was tested using mixed models. Fifteen cyprinids species among 18 species are host of L. cyprinacea in the Iberian Peninsula. Infestation levels of the anchor worm are highly connected to temperature. Finally, the possible implications of global warming for host–parasite interactions are discussed.

  11. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil, Upper Aptian-Albian

    Lucas Silveira Antonietto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sergipe-Alagoas Basin has one of the most complete, exposed lithological successions of the Cretaceous period in the continental margin of Brazil. It captures several phases of the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean, including rift, gulf and drift. The upper Aptian–Albian Riachuelo Formation corresponds to the first stages of the southern proto-Atlantic Ocean invasion in that basin. The present study reviews the taxonomic identification and ecology of 39 ostracod species of this formation, proposing a new genus – Gabonorygma gen. nov. – and three new species – Praebythoceratina deltalata sp. nov., Gabonorygma sergipana gen. et sp. nov. and Brachycythere smithsoniana sp. nov. Other taxa include Conchoecia? sp. 1, Cytherella sp. 1, C. besrineensis comb. nov., Cytherelloidea aff. globosa, C. btaterensis, Bairdoppilata sp. 1, Bairdoppilata sp. 2, B. comanchensis comb. nov., B. pseudoseptentrionalis, Robsoniella falklandensis, Cetacella sp. 1, Paracypris eniotmetos, Harbinia sinuata?, H. crepata, Liasina sp. 1, Praebythoceratina amsittenensis comb. nov., P. trinodosa comb. nov., Patellacythere sp. 1, P. shimonensis comb. nov., Xestoleberis? sp. 1, Xestoleberis? sp. 2, Apatocythere? sp. 1, Neocythere? aff. pseudovanveeni, N. (Physocythere tenuis, Aracajuia antiqua comb. nov., A. benderi, A. fragilis comb. nov., Eocytheropteron sp. 1, Metacytheropteron aff. minuta, Microceratina? sp. 1, M. azazoulensis, Veenia guianensis, Algeriana? sp. 1, Quasihermanites? sp. 1 and Sergipella viviersae.

  12. The shallow-water Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda from the Beagle Channel: Preliminary taxonomic and zoogeographical results

    Brenda Lía Doti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water Asellota from the Beagle Channel were investigated, based on material collected at four localities in 2001-2002. A total of 3,124 asellotes were sorted, and three new species and 12 new records of distribution were reported. The Paramunnidae showed the highest species diversity and abundance (11 species and 1,463 specimens. The present research raises the number of species known from the Beagle Channel to 23; of these, 16 were previously reported from the Magellan Straits, representing 69% of similarity. Based on the present results and published data, the faunistic affinities for the shallow-water Asellota was 30% between the Magellan region and the Scotia Arc, and 26% between the Magellan region and the Antarctic Peninsula.

  13. PREVALENCE OF BARNACLES (CRUSTACEA; CIRRIPEDIA AND ITS POSSIBLE RELATION TO FIBROPAPYLLOMATOSIS IN CHELONIA MYDAS

    R. R. Zamana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A fibropapilomatose é uma afecção tumoral, caracterizada pela presença de tumores cutâneos que variam em tamanho entre 0.1 a mais de 30 cm de diâmetro. É considerada uma afecção debilitante e potencialmente fatal para as tartarugas marinhas, afetando principalmente a espécie Chelonia mydas, mas também é uma doença que tem sido registrada em outras espécies. Evidências levam a crer que a etiologia da fibropapilomatose é viral e está associada a áreas costeiras poluídas que apresentam alta densidade humana, grande aporte de resíduos industriais, domésticos e agrícolas e biotoxinas marinhas, contudo, fatores como parasitos podem ser um adicional a etiologia da afecção. Sanguessugas, cracas, algas e trematodas digenéticos foram sugeridos como um possível fator adicional na etiologia da fibropapilomatose nas tartarugas verdes (Chelonia mydas. O objetivo do presente estudo é estudar a possível associação de cracas com a fibropapilomatose na espécie Chelonia mydas (tartaruga-verde. Para isso foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico sobre a presença de cracas em Chelonia mydas e a possível relação dessas espécies de cracas com a fibropapilomatose. Os dados foram obtidos de artigos, base de dados, cartilhas, livros, revistas científicas, sites e teses. Nesse estudo, foram encontradas 20 espécies de cracas associadas à Chelonia mydas. Sendo que dos 18 trabalhos analisados as espécies que apresentam maior frequência são a Chelonibia testudinaria (55,56% e Platylepas hexastylos (33,34%. Nenhum trabalho com o objetivo exclusivo de estudar a relação das cracas com a fibropapilomatose foi encontrado. No entanto, alguns estudos relatam a presença de cracas em Chelonia mydas com fibropapilomas. Possivelmente não há associação de cracas com a fibropapilomatose, no entanto há a necessidade da realização de trabalhos de pesquisa com o objetivo exclusivo de estudar a relação das cracas com os fibropapilomas, já que os trabalhos encontrados que citam alguma consideração sobre o tema são poucos e restritos a determinadas regiões e não identificam as espécies de cracas, o que indica que também há a necessidade de estudos taxonômicos para as espécies.

  14. A new spelaeogriphacean (Crustacea: Peracarida) from the Upper Jurassic of China

    Yan-bin, Shen; Taylor, Rod S.; Schram, Frederick R.

    1998-01-01

    A new monotypic genus of Spelaeogriphacea is described from the Upper Jurassic of Liaoning Province, north-east China. This new genus and species brings the number of known spelaeogriphacean taxa to four, the others being two recent forms from Brazil and South Africa, and one from the Carboniferous

  15. Behavioural responses of Gammarus pulex (Crustacea, Amphipoda) to low concentrations of pharmaceuticals

    Lange, de H.J.; Noordoven, W.; Murk, A.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The continuous discharge of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the environment results in a chronic exposure of aquatic organisms to these substances and their metabolites. As concentrations in surface waters are in the ng/L range, and sometimes in the low microg/L range, they are not

  16. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  17. Thermal biology of the sub-polar–temperate estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Varunidae

    Juan P. Cumillaf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimum temperatures can be measured through aerobic scope, preferred temperatures or growth. A complete thermal window, including optimum, transition (Pejus and critical temperatures (CT, can be described if preferred temperatures and CT are defined. The crustacean Hemigrapsus crenulatus was used as a model species to evaluate the effect of acclimation temperature on: (i thermal preference and width of thermal window, (ii respiratory metabolism, and (iii haemolymph proteins. Dependant on acclimation temperature, preferred temperature was between 11.8°C and 25.2°C while CT was found between a minimum of 2.7°C (CTmin and a maximum of 35.9°C (CTmax. These data and data from tropical and temperate crustaceans were compared to examine the association between environmental temperature and thermal tolerance. Temperate species have a CTmax limit around 35°C that corresponded with the low CTmax limit of tropical species (34–36°C. Tropical species showed a CTmin limit around 9°C similar to the maximum CTmin of temperate species (5–6°C. The maximum CTmin of deep sea species that occur in cold environments (2.5°C matched the low CTmin values (3.2°C of temperate species. Results also indicate that the energy required to activate the enzyme complex (Ei involved in respiratory metabolism of ectotherms changes along the latitudinal gradient of temperature.

  18. Anxiety-like behaviour increases safety from fish predation in an amphipod crustacea.

    Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Banchetry, Loan; Cézilly, Frank

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety is an emotional state generally expressed as sustained apprehension of the environment and elevated vigilance. It has been widely reported in vertebrates and, more recently, in a few invertebrate species. However, its fitness value remains elusive. We investigated anxiety-like behaviour and its consequences in an amphipod crustacean, using electric shock as aversive stimuli, and pharmacological assays. An anxiety-like state induced by electric shocks in Gammarus fossarum was expressed through increased sheltering behaviour in the absence of predation risk, thereby showing the pervasive nature of such behavioural response. Increasing the number of electric shocks both increased refuge use and delayed behavioural recovery. The behavioural effect of electric shock was mitigated by pre-treatment with LY354740, a metabotropic glutamate receptor group II/III agonist. Importantly, we found that this modulation of decision-making under an anxiety-like state resulted in an increased survival to predation in microcosm experiments. This study confirms the interest in taking an evolutionary view to the study of anxiety and calls for further investigation on the costs counterbalancing the survival benefit of an elevated anxiety level evidenced here.

  19. Diversity of Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Peracarida in the world's oceans--how far have we come?

    Magdalena Blazewicz-Paszkowycz

    Full Text Available Tanaidaceans are small peracarid crustaceans which occur in all marine habitats, over the full range of depths, and rarely into fresh waters. Yet they have no obligate dispersive phase in their life-cycle. Populations are thus inevitably isolated, and allopatric speciation and high regional diversity are inevitable; cosmopolitan distributions are considered to be unlikely or non-existent. Options for passive dispersion are discussed. Tanaidaceans appear to have first evolved in shallow waters, the region of greatest diversification of the Apseudomorpha and some tanaidomorph families, while in deeper waters the apseudomorphs have subsequently evolved two or three distinct phyletic lines. The Neotanaidomorpha has evolved separately and diversified globally in deep waters, and the Tanaidomorpha has undergone the greatest evolution, diversification and adaptation, to the point where some of the deep-water taxa are recolonizing shallow waters. Analysis of their geographic distribution shows some level of regional isolation, but suffers from inclusion of polyphyletic taxa and a general lack of data, particularly for deep waters. It is concluded that the diversity of the tanaidomorphs in deeper waters and in certain ocean regions remains to be discovered; that the smaller taxa are largely understudied; and that numerous cryptic species remain to be distinguished. Thus the number of species currently recognized is likely to be an order of magnitude too low, and globally the Tanaidacea potentially rival the Amphipoda and Isopoda in diversity.

  20. Prediction of Scylla olivacea (Crustacea; Brachyura) peptide hormones using publicly accessible transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) sequences.

    Christie, Andrew E

    2016-05-01

    The aquaculture of crabs from the genus Scylla is of increasing economic importance for many Southeast Asian countries. Expansion of Scylla farming has led to increased efforts to understand the physiology and behavior of these crabs, and as such, there are growing molecular resources for them. Here, publicly accessible Scylla olivacea transcriptomic data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts; the proteins deduced from the identified sequences were then used to predict the structures of mature peptide hormones. Forty-nine pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 187 distinct mature peptides. The identified peptides included isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, bursicon β, CCHamide, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide, HIGSLYRamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, pyrokinin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide and tachykinin-related peptide, all well-known neuropeptide families. Surprisingly, the tissue used to generate the transcriptome mined here is reported to be testis. Whether or not the testis samples had neural contamination is unknown. However, if the peptides are truly produced by this reproductive organ, it could have far reaching consequences for the study of crustacean endocrinology, particularly in the area of reproductive control. Regardless, this peptidome is the largest thus far predicted for any brachyuran (true crab) species, and will serve as a foundation for future studies of peptidergic control in members of the commercially important genus Scylla. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of Somanniathelphusa boyangensis and phylogenetic analysis of Genus Somanniathelphusa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Parathelphusidae.

    Xin-Nan Jia

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors first obtained the mitochondrial genome of Somanniathelphusa boyangensis. The results showed that the mitochondrial genome is 17,032bp in length, included 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs genes, 22 tRNAs genes and 1 putative control region, and it has the characteristics of the metazoan mitochondrial genome A+T bias. All tRNA genes display the typical clover-leaf secondary structure except tRNASer(AGN, which has lost the dihydroxyuridine arm. The GenBank database contains the mitochondrial genomes of representatives of approximately 22 families of Brachyura, comprising 56 species, including 4 species of freshwater crab. The authors established the phylogenetic relationships using the maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods. The phylogenetic relationship indicated that the molecular taxonomy of S. boyangensis is consistent with current morphological classification, and Parathelphusidae and Potamidae are derived within the freshwater clade or as part of it. In addition, the authors used the COX1 sequence of Somanniathelphusa in GenBank and the COX1 sequence of S. boyangensis to estimated the divergence time of this genus. The result displayed that the divergence time of Somanniathelphusa qiongshanensis is consistent with the separation of Hainan Island from mainland China in the Beibu Gulf, and the divergence time for Somanniathelphusa taiwanensis and Somanniathelphusa amoyensis is consistent with the separation of Taiwan Province from Mainland China at Fujian Province. These data indicate that geologic events influenced speciation of the genus Somanniathelphusa.

  2. (Crustacea: Branchiura) from a bony fish in Algoa Bay, South Africa

    Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, P.O. Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006 Republic of South Af"ica. Received J December 1994; accepted 29 September 1995. The new species is characterized by the unique shape of the antennule, antenna and maxilla. In addition, huge scales are present on the mouth tube ...

  3. Maeridae from the Indo-Pacific: Elasmopus, Leeuwinella gen. nov., Maeropsis, Pseudelasmopus and Quadrimaera (Amphipoda: Crustacea).

    Hughes, Lauren E

    2015-12-22

    Twenty-two species of Maeridae including the new genus, Leeuwinella, and eight new species are described from Indo-Pacific waters. Leeuwinella mistakensis gen. et sp. nov. from southern Western Australia has dorsal carinae and serrate epimeral margins on pleonites 1-3 and mandibular palp article 3 concave; this significant combination of characters justifies erection of a new genus. Elasmopus coxacallus sp. nov., with a castelloserrate posterior margin of pereopod 7 presents a novel character for the genus, which contains over 100 described species. Elasmopus incomptus sp. nov. and E. norfolkensis sp. nov. are also described from Norfolk Island, South Pacific, while new distribution records are provided for E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938, E. integer Myers, 1989, and E. molokai J.L. Barnard, 1970 from northwestern Australia, and E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003, from the Kermadec Islands. New distribution records for Maeropsis griffini (Berents, 1983) from Bedout Island in Western Australia are the first of the species outside the Queensland type locality and new records of M. thetis (Lowry & Springthorpe, 2005) from mainland Australia to Tasmania and across the Tasman Sea extending its range. Pseudelasmopus walkerae sp. nov. is described from Norfolk Island, and is the second species recorded in the genus, previously known only from Mauritius. Lastly, three new Quadrimaera species, Q. gregoryi, Q. brownorum and Q. vallaris, along with eight known Quadrimaera species, are reported from various locations extending their distributions in the Indo-Pacific.

  4. Dry season distribution of land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus (Crustacea: Gecarcinidae, in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica

    Megan E Griffiths

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The land crab Gecarcinus quadratus is an engineering species that controls nutrient cycling in tropical forests. Factors regulating their coastal distribution are not fully understood. We quantified land crab distribution during the dry season at Sirena Field Station in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, and found that land crab burrow density decreases with increasing distance from the ocean. Leaf litter depth and tree seedling density are negatively correlated with land crab burrow density. Burrows are strongly associated with sand substrate and burrow density is comparatively low in clay substrate. Results suggest that G. quadratus is limited to a narrow coastal zone with sand substrate, and this distribution could have profound effects on plant community structure. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 219-224. Epub 2007 March. 31.El cangrejo terrestre Gecarcinus quadratus es una especie "ingeniera" que controla el ciclo de nutrientes en los bosques tropicales. Los factores que regulan su distribución a lo largo de las costas no se conocen de forma definitiva. Se cuantificó la distribución del cangrejo terrestre durante la estación seca en la Estación de Campo Sirena en el Parque Nacional de Corcovado, Costa Rica, y se encontró que la densidad de galerías del cangrejo terrestre disminuye al aumentar la distancia al océano. La profundidad de la hojarasca y la densidad de plántulas de especies arbóreas están negativamente correlacionadas con la densidad de galerías del cangrejo terrestre. Las galerías aparecen fuertemente asociadas con el sustrato arenoso y la densidad de galerías es comparativamente más baja en sustratos arcillosos. Estos resultados sugieren que G. quadratus se encuentra en una zona costera estrecha con sustrato arenoso, y que esta distribución podría tener efectos importantes en la estructura de la comunidad vegetal.

  5. The Common Marine Isopod Crustacea of Puerto Rico A handbook for marine biologists

    Menzies, Robert J.; Glynn, Peter W.

    1968-01-01

    The collecting sites from which isopods were obtained are located around the island (see p. 84). Concentrated collecting at several depths was done in the San Juan area at Boca de Cangrejos and at La Parguera where the Institute of Marine Biology is located. Many collections were made by washing a

  6. A new raninid crab, Pseudorogueus Rangiferus (Decapoda, Crustacea, from the Eocene of Spain

    Fraaye, R. H.B.

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available new genus and species of raninid crab, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, is described from the Lower Eocene of Catalunya, Spanish Pyrenees.Se describe un nuevo género y especie de cangrejo Raninidae, Pseudorogueus rangiferus, proveniente del Eoceno inferior de los Pirineos Catalanes (Cataluña, España.

  7. Five Sarsiellidae ostracods (Crustacea: Myodocopida) from the South Coast of Korea (East China Sea).

    Karanovic, Ivana; Soh, Ho-Young

    2015-04-17

    The East China Sea is part of the Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific zoogeographic province and, as such, has a high biodiversity and many tropical and subtropical biotic elements. Nevertheless, many invertebrate groups from this area remain poorly studied. Ostracods are one of them, especially those belonging to the subclass Myodocopa. In this paper we provide the first data on a diverse myodocopid family, Sarsiellidae, not only for the East China Sea, but also for Korea. Five species are reported in this paper from three Korean islands (Jeju, Chuja, and Maemul), and they are only a part of the ostracods collected during this study, indicating a high diversity of the group in this region. Three new species, Eurypylus koreanus sp. nov., Eusarsiella hanguk sp. nov., and Sarsiella nereis sp. nov., clearly stand apart from their respective congeners, mostly by prominent shell characters but also by details of the soft part morphology. Their affinity though clearly indicates a close connection of the region with the more southern zoogeographical realms, especially Central Indo Pacific and partly Temperate Australasia. Two species previously known from Japan (north part of the Sea of Japan and southeastern part of the Pacific Coast of Japan), Sarsiella japonica Hiruta, 1977 and S. misakiensis Kajiyama, 1912, are redescribed. Based on 11 newly obtained COI sequences we construct a preliminary phylogenetic tree, which supports previous hypotheses based on the morphological data, that Eusarsiella Cohen & Kornicker, 1975 is a polyphyletic taxon. With the maps of species distribution provided for each of the three genera, we give an overview of their current zoogeography, and clearly indicate areas that have no data, mostly due to the lack of investigation.

  8. Copepod (Crustacea) emergence from soils from everglades marshes with different hydroperiods

    Loftus, W.F.; Reid, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    During a severe drought period in the winter and spring of 1989, we made three collections of dried marsh soils from freshwater sloughs in Everglades National Park, Florida, at sites characterized by either long or intermediate annual periods of flooding (hydroperiod). After rehydrating the soils in aquaria, we documented the temporal patterns of copepod emergence over two-week periods. The species richness of copepods in the rehydrated soils was lower than in pre-drought samples from the same slough sites. Only six of the 16 species recorded from the Everglades emerged in the aquarium tests. The long hydroperiod site had a slightly different assemblage and higher numbers of most species than the intermediate-hydroperiod sites. More individuals and species emerged from the early dry-season samples compared with samples taken later in the dry season. The harpacticoid, Cletocamptus deitersi, and the cyclopoid, Microcyclops rubellus, were abundant at most sites. The cyclopoids - Ectocyclops phaleratus, Homocyclops ater, and Paracyclops chiltoni - are new records for the Everglades. We infer that 1) only a subset of Everglades copepod species can survive drought by resting in soils; and that 2) survival ability over time differs by species.

  9. Checklist of copepods (Crustacea: Calanoida, Cyclopoida,Harpacticoida) from Wyoming, USA, with new state records

    Presentation of a comprehensive checklist of the copepod fauna of Wyoming, USA with 41 species of copepods; based on museum specimens, literature reviews, and active surveillance. Of these species 19 were previously unknown from the state. This checklist includes species in the families Centropagida...

  10. First record of the Asian diaptomid Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida in Europe

    Giuseppe Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania, as well as a great part of the Balkan area in general, still suffers a lack of environmental studies especially in limnological research. The Dumre plateau, in Central Albania, is characterized by an extraordinary high number of karst lakes in a small geographic area. Despite their environmental peculiarity, very few biological data are to date available for these lakes, none on the zooplankton. For this reason, 15 water bodies located in the central area of the plateau were selected for a preliminary limnological survey carried out in the years 2008-2011. Neodiaptomus schmackeri (Poppe & Richard, 1892, a diaptomid calanoid copepod characterized by a South-Eastern Palearctic - Oriental distribution, and the most widely spread Neodiaptomus species in Asia, was found in 8 lakes of the Dumre area. This finding represents the first record of the species, and of the entire genus Neodiaptomus, for Europe. Several environmental variables were measured to characterize the lakes, and the co-occurring planktonic crustaceans were also identified. Taxonomical drawings and descriptions of the main morphological features of both sexes are herein provided in order to compare the Albanian populations of N. schmackeri with those of the native distribution area of the species. The possible causes which determined the occurrence of this non-indigenous species in several Dumre lakes are discussed.

  11. A new species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Lysmatidae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Prakash, Sanjeevi; Baeza, J Antonio

    2017-12-12

    A new species of peppermint shrimp, Lysmata baueri n. sp., is described based on a single specimen from the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be distinguished from other morphologically similar species of Lysmata Risso, 1816 by the number of teeth, length and shape of the rostrum, the length of the antennular peduncle relative to the scaphocerite, the number of meral and ischial articles in the second pereiopods, and the number of spines on the flexor margin of the dactyli from the third to fifth pereiopods. Morphological characters demonstrate that L. baueri n. sp., is most closely related to the eastern Pacific L. californica (Stimpson, 1866), L. nayaritensis Wicksten, 2000 and L. porteri (Rathbun, 1907).

  12. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    F. A. LANSAC-TÔHA

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  13. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil

    LANSAC-TÔHA F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mum mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  14. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  15. Parasitic manipulation and neuroinflammation: Evidence from the system Microphallus papillorobustus (Trematoda - Gammarus (Crustacea

    Thomas Frederic

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathological consequences of neuroinflammatory processes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases affecting the central nervous system (CNS. Glial cells, the resident immune cells of the CNS, respond to tissue injury by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and free radicals such as nitric oxide. We explored the possibility that neuroimmune responses are involved in parasitic manipulation of host behavior in a trematode-crustacean association. The cerebral larva of the flatworm Microphallus papillorobustus alters responses to environmental stimuli - and thus reflex pathways - in the crustacean Gammarus insensibilis, in a way that enhances predation of the crustacean by birds, definitive hosts of the parasite. Results Immunocytochemical experiments followed by confocal microscopy were performed to study the distribution of glutamine synthetase, a glial cell marker, and nitric oxide synthase in the brain of gammarids. Astrocyte-like glia and their processes were abundant at the surface of the parasites while levels of nitric oxide synthase were elevated at the host-parasite interface in the brain of gammarids harboring mature cerebral larvae and demonstrating altered behavior. Conclusion Taken together these results lend support to the neuroinflammation hypothesis whereby a chronic CNS specific immune response induced by the parasite plays a role in the disruption of neuromodulation, neuronal integrity, and behavior in infected hosts.

  16. Bodotria jejuensis sp. nov. (Crustacea, Cumacea, Bodotriidae), a new Korean cumacean.

    Lee, Chang-Mok; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Young-Hyo

    2016-09-06

    A new species of Cumacea belonging to the genus Bodotria Goodsir, 1843 was collected from the Jeju-do Island, Korea. The new speices, Bodotria jejuensis sp. nov. is similar to B. similis Calman, 1907, B. rugosa Gamô, 1963, B. carinata Gamô, 1964, and B. biplicata Gamô, 1964 in having a pitted carapace, prominent dorso-lateral carina, and unarticulated endopod of uropod. However, longish elliptical shape of carapace, well-developed dorso-lateral carina and distinct lateral ridge are the major characteristics which serve to distinguish the new species from its congeners. The new species is fully illustrated and extensively compared with related species. A key to the Korean Bodotria species is also provided.

  17. A New Species and a New Record of the Diastylidae (Crustacea: Cumacea from Korea

    Chang-Mok Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new species, Dimorphostylis breviplicata n. sp. is described and illustrated on the basis of specimens collected from the shallow Korean waters. This new species is similar to Dimorphostylis brevicaudata (Zimmer, 1903, Dimorphostylis acroplicata Harada, 1960 and Dimorphostylis valida Gamo, 1962 in that the carapace has three pairs of oblique ridges on the surface. However, the new species is distinguished by the combination of the following features: the middle oblique ridge is short and not joined to the other oblique ridges; the transverse ridge is absent on the frontal lobe; the dorso-median process on the pereonite 5 is only barely visible; the male telson has no short stout seta on the both lateral margins; the length ratio of the first to remaining articles combined on the male uropod is 1 : 0.7. A key to the Korean Dimorphostylis species is provided. Also, Diastylis alaskensis Calman, 1912 is redescribed as a new recorded species of the Korean fauna.

  18. The occurrence of Callinectes arcuatus ordway, 1863 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in Bahia, Brazil

    Edilson Pires de Gouvêa

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available During the study of the Carcinofauna of the Bahian Coast, some Brachyura Portunidae were found. Some of these animals were Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 which has its distribution restricted to the Pacific Ocean, from California to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. This is the first occurrence of this species reported from the Atlantic Ocean and the Brazilian Coast (Bahia, 38º50'Wand 12º50'S.Durante o estudo da carcinofauna do litoral baiano, muitos Braquiuros Portunidae foram encontrados. Alguns destes animais foram Callinectes arcuatus Ordway, 1863 que possuia sua distribuição restrita da Califórnia ao Peru e Ilhas Galápagos, no Oceano Pacífico. Esta é a primeira ocorrência desta espécie no Oceano Atlântico e na Costa Brasileira. (Bahia, 12º50'S e 38º50'W.

  19. Presencia de Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890) (Crustacea: Alpheidae) en el Caribe colombiano

    Navas-S., G.R.; Lattig, P.; Moreno-Forero, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of skeletons of the coral Acropora palmata obtained on the reef crest of Isla Grande, Islas del Rosario (colombian Caribbean),were found to contain two specimens of the family Alpheidae, Metalpheus rostratipes (Pocock, 1890). This shrimp species is reported for the first time from the colombian Caribbean.

  20. Callianassa ehsani, a new species of Callianassidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Axiidea) from Gulf of Oman, Iran.

    Sepahvand, Vahid; Tudge, Christopher; Momtazi, Farzaneh

    2018-04-17

    Callianassa ehsani sp. nov. is described as a new species from the Gulf of Oman, Iran. It differs from all other members of the subfamily Callianassinae in having a well-developed meral hook on the merus and 6 or 7 acute spines on the ischium of the large cheliped and characters of the small cheliped and telson. This new species is most similar to Callianassa thailandica Sakai, 2005 and Callianassa persica, Sakai, 2005. The generic assignment of the new species is provisional, reflecting the unstable state of the taxonomy of this family.

  1. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  2. Red Sea Leucothoidae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) including new and re-described species

    White, Kristine N.

    2017-05-31

    Examination of leucothoid amphipods of the Red Sea has revealed seven species not previously reported from this location. Leucothoe minoculis sp. nov., Leucothoe pansa sp. nov., Leucothoe reimeri sp. nov., and Paranamixis sommelieri sp. nov. are described and the range of Leucothoe predenticulata Ledoyer, 1978, L. acutilobata Ledoyer, 1978 and L. squalidens Ledoyer, 1978 is expanded to include the Red Sea. Clarification of reports of L. acanthopus Schellenberg, 1928 and L. bannwarthi (Schellenberg, 1928) is provided and Leucothoe alani sp. nov. is described from outside the Red Sea.

  3. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to sample the deepest ones directly.

  4. Dusk but not dawn burrow emergence rhythms of Nephrops norvegicus (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Valerio Sbragaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus, can be captured by haul nets only during the emergence from its burrow. In the last few decades, an extensive field research revealed distinct diel (24-h–based catchability patterns at different depths. Laboratory experiments suggested that burrow emergence (used as a proxy of catchability is endogenously controlled via a circadian system. Results were usually presented in terms of mean effects without a quantification of inter-individual variability and arrhythmia. Here, we studied the burrow emergence of 52 adult Nephrops by an infrared actograph endowed with an artificial burrow. Animals were exposed to 12-12 h light-darkness cycle, simulating photic condition of the lower shelf. Forty-five animals showed rhythmic emergence (87%, while seven were arrhythmic (13%. Rhythmic animals were clustered according to their timing of emergence: 54% at dusk and 4% at dawn. Moreover, other animals showed fully diurnal or nocturnal emergence (10% and 19%, respectively. The comparison of our results with those derived from temporally scheduled trawling indicates that bimodal catch patterns observed in shelf populations are poorly observed during individual experiments in the laboratory, where the same light conditions are simulated. Nephrops burrow emergence seems to be the result of a mixed endogenous-exogenous control, while arrhythmia could also be present in the wild.

  5. Notes on a Sacculina carpiliae Guérin-Ganivet (Crustacea Rhizocephala)

    Boschma, H.

    1949-01-01

    Certain Rhizocephalan parasites of the crabs Xanthias lamarcki (H. M. E.), Lybia tesselata (Latr.), and Glyptoxanthus vermiculatus (Lam.) mutually so closely correspond in all their characters that undoubtedly they belong to the same species. When the characters of this species are defined it

  6. Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Extant Freshwater Ostracodes (Crustacea in Ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania

    Julia Lorenschat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We carried out an intensive sampling survey in ancient Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania, covering all seasons, to determine total species number, relative species abundances and spatial distribution of Ostracoda. We identified 32 living species that belong to seven families (Candonidae, Ilyocyprididae, Cyprididae, Leptocytheridae, Limnocytheridae, Cytherideidae, and Darwinulidae and 15 genera (Candona, Fabaeformiscandona, Candonopsis, Cypria, Cyclocypris, Ilyocypris, Eucypris, Prionocypris, Bradleystrandesia, Herpetocypris, Dolerocypris, Amnicythere, Paralimnocythere, Cytherissa, and Darwinula. Six additional species were identified from empty carapaces and valves. Dominant families in Lake Ohrid were Candonidae and Limnocytheridae, representing 53% and 16% of all species, respectively. Prevalence of species flocks in these two families confirms the “young” ancient status of the lake. Amnicythere displays a preference for oligo-haline to meso-haline waters, but some species are found in saline environments, which suggests Lake Ohrid has a marine history. Recent studies, however, indicate fluvial/glaciofluvial deposition at the onset of Lake Ohrid sedimentation. Candona is the most diverse genus in Lake Ohrid, represented by 12 living species. Paralimnocythere is represented by five living species and all other genera are represented by one or two species. Reports of Candona bimucronata, Ilyocypris bradyi, Eucypris virens, Eucypris sp., Prionocypris zenkeri, Bradleystrandesia reticulate, Herpetocypris sp. 2, and Dolerocypris sinensis are firsts for this lake. Living ostracodes were collected at the maximum water depth (280 m in the lake (Candona hadzistei, C. marginatoides, C. media, C. ovalis, C. vidua, Fabaeformiscandona krstici, Cypria lacustris, C. obliqua and Amnicythere karamani. Cypria lacustris was overall the most abundant species and Cypria obliqua displayed the highest abundance at 280 m water depth. Principal environmental variables that influence ostracode distributions in Lake Ohrid are water depth and conductivity. In general, species richness, diversity and evenness were greater in waters <60 m deep, with highest values often found in the littoral zone, at depths <30 m. Candonids, however, displayed highest diversity in the sublittoral (30–50 m and profundal (50–280 m zones. The most frequent species encountered are taxa endemic to the lake (14 living species, which have a wide depth range (≤280 m, and display higher abundance with greater water depth. Non-endemic species were rare, limited to water depths <50 m, and were found mainly in the north part of the lake where anthropogenic pressure is high. Several cosmopolitan species were encountered for the first time, which suggests that these widespread species are new arrivals that may replace endemics as human impacts increase.

  7. Two new species of Anisomysis (Crustacea - Mysidacea) from the Lakshadweep archipilago

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Plankton_Res_15_1141.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Plankton_Res_15_1141.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  8. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2005-01-01

    We studied electrophysiological properties of single chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus to complement our growing understanding of the behavioral roles of mouthparts of decapod crustaceans. Food mixtures and 13 single compounds...

  9. On a new genus and species of Hemicytheridae (Ostracoda, Crustacea from the southern Brazilian coast

    Anderson L. M. de Morais

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on 62 samples of phytal and bottom sediments collected along rocky beaches (< 3 m water depth of the central and northern coasts of the state of Santa Catarina (26º10'/27º50'S – 48º26'/48º40'W, southern Brazil. Living and dead ostracodes distributed among 16 families were recovered. In this paper is emphasized one new hemicytherid genus and species that is described and richly illustrated: Auricythere sublitoralis gen. nov. and sp. nov. Some ecological and zoogeographical aspects of this new ostracode are briefly discussed.

  10. Two new species of Siriella (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from the southwest coast of Australia

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Plankton_Res_17_1939.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Plankton_Res_17_1939.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  11. The genus Bathyporeia Lindström, 1855, in western Europe (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Pontoporeiidae)

    Udekem d’Acoz, d' C.

    2004-01-01

    The amphipod genus Bathyporeia Lindström, 1855, on the European Atlantic coasts is revised and new identification keys are provided. The importance of new characters such as the morphology of the first uropod is stressed. The following species are fully redescribed and illustrated: B. elegans

  12. Cypris morphology in the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas (Crustacea: Cirripedia Thoracica) implications for cirripede evolution

    Høeg, Jens T; Achituv, Yair; Chan, Benny K K

    2009-01-01

    We used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe cypris morphology in species of the barnacles Ibla and Paralepas, both of which are pivotal in understanding cirripede evolution. In Ibla, we also studied late naupliar stages with video and SEM. Special emphasis was put on the lattice organs...

  13. Growth and molting in epizoic pedunculate barnacles genus Octolasmis (Crustacea: Thecostraca: Cirripedia: Thoracica)

    Blomsterberg, Mikkel; Glenner, Henrik; Høeg, Jens T

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and histology were used to study growth in species of the pedunculate barnacle genus Octolasmis (O. angulata, O. cor, O. californiana, O. mülleri). These species are epizoic in the gill chamber of portunid crabs and have highly reduced capitular she...

  14. Mysids (Crustacea) from the salt pans of Mumbai, India, with a description of a new species

    Biju, A.; Panampunnayil, S.U.

    on Marine Science, University of Tokyo 256–273. Quintero C, de Roa EZ. 1973. Notas bioecologicas sobre Metamysidopsis insularis Brattegard (Crusatacea-Mysidacea) en una laguna litoral de Venezuela. Acta Biologica Venezuelica 8: 245-278. Ramamoorthy K...

  15. Studies on planktonic decapoda and stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the Arabian Sea

    Paulinose, V.T.; Goswami, S.C.; Nair, V.R.

    and longitudes 66 degrees 00' and 78 degrees 00'E and depths ranging from 25 to 500 m. Only 40 samples out of 93, contained planktonic decapods and stomatopods. Maximum number of larvae (1501/100 m3) was obtained from Station 228 (Ga. Cr. 13), a very shallow...

  16. Two new species of Urothoe (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Gammaridea) from the East Johor Islands Archipelago, Malaysia.

    Azman, B A R; Melvin, C W H

    2011-03-24

    Two new species of urothoid amphipods from Pulau Sibu and Pulau Tinggi, Johor are described and illustrated. The specimens of Urothoe sibuensis new species were collected by vertical haul plankton net and is distinctively different from other existing Urothoe species by these combination of special characters; similar gnathopods 1-2 with short and stout propodus expanded into poorly defined palms; large eyes and epimeron 3 smooth. Urothoe tinggiensis new species as collected using an airlift suction sampler at seagrass area is characterized by its different gnathopodal configuration with setose dactylus of 5th pereopod; eyes minute; carpus is wider than merus in the 5th pereopod; subquadrate coxa 4; merus and carpus of pereopods 6-7 are linear.

  17. Dry season distribution of land crabs, Gecarcinus quadratus (Crustacea: Gecarcinidae), in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica.

    Griffiths, Megan E; Mohammad, Basma A; Vega, Andres

    2007-03-01

    The land crab Gecarcinus quadratus is an engineering species that controls nutrient cycling in tropical forests. Factors regulating their coastal distribution are not fully understood. We quantified land crab distribution during the dry season at Sirena Field Station in Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica, and found that land crab burrow density decreases with increasing distance from the ocean. Leaf litter depth and tree seedling density are negatively correlated with land crab burrow density. Burrows are strongly associated with sand substrate and burrow density is comparatively low in clay substrate. Results suggest that G. quadratus is limited to a narrow coastal zone with sand substrate, and this distribution could have profound effects on plant community structure.

  18. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  19. Asellus and Gammarus spp. (Crustacea) in changing environments: effects of acid stress and habitat permanence

    Hargeby, A.

    1993-03-01

    The research underlying this thesis included laboratory and field studies on how acid stress affects the benthic crustaceans Asellus aquaticus L. and Gammarus pulex (L.). A laboratory chamber was constructed to study growth and survival of G. pulex during acid stress. Low pH (6.0) caused 64-92% mortality within three weeks and reduced growth rate and food conversion efficiency in surviving animals. In a field experiment along a pH gradient, the mortality of G. pulex increased below pH 6. The whole-body content of sodium and potassium was reduced in surviving individuals, indicating osmoregulatory disturbance. In Asellus aquaticus, mortality was not affected by pH within the tested range (4.3-7.5). Laboratory experiments showed that interspecific interactions between A. aquaticus and G. pulex can include both exploitative competition and predation by G. pulex on A. aquaticus. Effects of seasonal habitat alterations was studied in a lake by comparing invertebrate assemblages associated with two species of submerged macroalgae (Characea), one perennial and one senescent during autumn. (28 refs.).

  20. Effekte von Xenohormonen auf die limnischen Invertebraten Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) und Marisa cornuarietis (Mollusca, Prosobranchia)

    Schirling, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden Effekte von Xenohormonen auf Gammarus fossarum und Marisa cornuarietis anhand verschiedener Parameter, auf unterschiedlichen biologischen Ebenen dargestellt. In einem Laborexperiment mit G. fossarum, das Grundlage für weitere Untersuchungen im Rahmen dieser Arbeit war, konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich die Stressproteine hsp90 und hsp70 im Laufe der Oocytenreifung gegenläufig verhalten. Sowohl in einem Freilandversuch, bei dem der Einfluss von Kläranlageneinleitern ...