WorldWideScience

Sample records for crude oil effects

  1. Assessment of crude oil biodegradation in arctic seashore sediments: effects of temperature, salinity, and crude oil concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Schiewer, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The expected increase in offshore oil exploration and production in the Arctic may lead to crude oil spills along arctic shorelines. To evaluate the potential effectiveness of bioremediation to treat such spills, oil spill bioremediation in arctic sediments was simulated in laboratory microcosms containing beach sediments from Barrow (Alaska), spiked with North Slope Crude, and incubated at varying temperatures and salinities. Biodegradation was measured via respiration rates (CO2 production); volatilization was quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS) analysis of hydrocarbons sorbed to activated carbon, and hydrocarbons remaining in the sediment were quantified by GC/flame ionization detector (FID). Higher temperature leads to increased biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, while the release of volatile organic compounds was similar at both temperatures. Increased salinity had a small positive impact on crude oil removal. At higher crude oil dosages, volatilization increased, however CO2 production did not. While only a small percentage of crude oil was completely biodegraded, a larger percentage was volatilized within 6-9 weeks.

  2. Embryotoxic effects of crude oil in mallard ducks and chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent studies in this laboratory have revealed that surface applications of microliter amounts of some crude and fuel oils that coat less than 10% of the egg surface reduce hatching considerably in different avian species. Applications of paraffin compounds that coat equal areas of the egg surface do not reduce hatching suggesting that toxicity is due to causes other than asphyxia. In the present study, 1?10 :l of South Louisiana crude oil, an API reference oil, were applied to the surface of fertile mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Early embryolethality was greater in mallard embryos than in chick embryos, but later embryolethality that coincided with the time of rapid outgrowth of the chorioallantoic membrane was more prevalent in chick embryos. The overall incidence of embryolethality was similar in both species. Retardation of growth as reflected by embryonic body weight, crown-rump length, beak length, and general appearance was more pronounced in chick than mallard embryos. Teratogenic defects were more frequent in chick embryos, and incomplete or abnormal ossification of the skull was the most common. External application of equivalent amounts of a mixture of paraffin compounds present in crude oil had virtually no embryotoxic effects in either species, suggesting that other components including aromatic hydrocarbons and organometallics may cause the embryotoxicity.

  3. How toxic is oil? Investigating specific receptor-mediated toxic effects of crude and refined oils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Crude oils and refined oil products are major pollutants of the environment. Large oil spills, such as the recent blowout of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico, raise concerns about the long term health effects of petroleum hydrocarbon exposure on wildlife and humans. In the environmental r

  4. Effects of Biodegradation on Crude Oils from Karamay Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌; 杨坚强; 等

    1989-01-01

    Studies of biological marker compou nds in five oil samples from a profile wherenormal crude oil,low condensate oil and heavy oil are produced in the Karamay Oilfield have been carried out with great empha-sis on the biodegradation-resisting capability of 13,17 secosteranes,8,14 secohopanes,gammacerane and carotenes.Based on these studies,a sequence of biodegradation-resisting intensities has been established for saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in crude oils from the Karamay Oilfield.

  5. effect of crude oil contamination on the compressive strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    This revealed clearly that crude oil is a compressive strength inhibitor in the production of concrete. ... the near shore community. ... the resulting emulsified water, affect aquatic life [3]. 2. ... impacts. Large areas of the mangrove ecosystem have.

  6. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  7. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  8. Effects of crude oil ingestion on avian intestinal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastin, W.C.; Murray, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal function in mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) on a freshwater regime was studied after a 7-day dietary ingestion of 0.25% and 2.5% Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) or a 2.5% paraffin mixture with an in vivo luminal perfusion technique. Dietary ingestion of 2.5% PBCO may have an effect on the integrity of the duckling intestine. There were no significant effects of PBCO on the absorption of Na, Cl, K, or H2O compared with control animals. The ducklings fed 2.5% paraffin had a significant depression in Na and H2O absorption compared with controls. However, this depression dose not seem to be related to an effect on intestinal mucosa Na-K-ATPase activity.

  9. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish Heterobranchus ... carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum hydrocarbon was extracted from the two oils in separate 30litre ...

  10. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  11. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.;

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... above 75% for the crude oils, showing that it only has a limited effect on the burning efficiency as higher burning efficiencies have been reported for larger scales. Furthermore, the results showed that the burning mechanisms differ for pure and crude oil, indicating that the hydrocarbon mixture...

  12. Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil Pollution of Soil on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    ABSTRACT: The effect of Bonny Light Crude oil pollution of soil and ... In the Control treatments, a declining trend in plant growth was observed from .... needed to accommodate 2 oil levels replicated 5 times. Fresh unweathered Bonny Light Crude (BLC) ... Mean * Plant Height (cm) at Different Successive Plantings.

  13. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  14. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  15. Effects of weathering on the dispersion of crude oil through oil-mineral aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustitus, Sarah A; John, Gerald F; Clement, T Prabhakar

    2017-02-08

    Crude oil that is inadvertently spilled in the marine environment can interact with suspended sediment to form oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). Researchers have identified OMA formation as a natural method of oil dispersion, and have sought ways to enhance this process for oil spill remediation. Currently there is a lack of understanding of how the weathering of oil will affect the formation of OMA due to a lack of published data on this relationship. Based on literature, we identified two conflicting hypotheses: OMA formation 1) increases with weathering as a result of increased asphaltene and polar compound content; or 2) decreases with weathering as a result of increased viscosity. While it is indeed true that the viscosity and the relative amount of polar compounds will increase with weathering, their net effects on OMA formation is unclear. Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to systematically test these two conflicting hypotheses. Experimental results using light, intermediate, and heavy crude oils, each at five weathering stages, show a decrease in OMA formation as oil weathers.

  16. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  17. Effect of active species in crude oil on the interfacial tension behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Liwei; Hou Jirui; Yue Xiang'an; Zhao Ji

    2008-01-01

    The effect of active species present in crude oil on the interfacial tension (IFT) behavior of alkali/synthetic surfactants/crude oil systems was studied. The system consisted of heavy alkyl benzene sulfonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydrate and Daqing crude oil. Experimental results indicated that active species would diffuse from oil/aqueous interface to aqueous phase and finally an equilibrium could be reached in the system with increasing contact time. Moreover, the minimum IFT and equilibrium IFT values increased with increasing contact time and a linear relationship existed between dynamic IFT and t-1/2 when IFT value approaching the minimum and after the minimum IFT was reached. This indicated that the dynamic IFT-time behavior was diffusion controlled. The oil and aqueous phases were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. IR spectra of oil and aqueous phases illustrated that the content of active species in the oil phase decreased, but the content of active species in the aqueous phase increased after alkali reacted with crude oil. This indicated that the active species present in oil played an important role in reducing IFT.

  18. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  19. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  20. Effects of Iranian crude oil on the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem); Nissenbaum, A.; Eisler, R.

    1977-03-01

    Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of Iranian crude oil on colonies of the Red Sea octocoral Heteroxenia fuscescens were studied under static and continuous flow assay conditions. Static toxicity bioassays conducted in 3 litre jars at 41/sup 0///sub 00/ salinity showed that the concentration of crude oil fatal to 50 percent of the test colonies in 96 h was 12 ml/litre. Colonies surviving exposure to high sublethal levels of crude oil were adversely affected both during treatment and afterwards. Tank tests conducted in 1500 litre, deep (2 m) containers and flowing sea water demonstrated that Heteroxenia were more resistant to crude oil than when assayed in jars; no deaths were observed in tanks during exposure for 168 h to initial concentrations of 10 ml/litre (15 litres added at surface). The number of colonies exhibiting signs of stress decreased with increasing distance from the oil film at the surface. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that petroleum derived hydrocarbons were incorporated into tissues. The highest level of pollutant hydrocarbons found in these colonies was about 1 percent of their endogenic hydrocarbon content. It is concluded that while crude oil may not be acutely toxic to Heteroxenia, exposure to high sublethal oil levels may result in long term deleterious effects.

  1. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  3. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  4. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTION ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Marinescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollution caused by crude oil is the most prevalent problem in the environment. The release of crude oil into theenvironment by oil spills is receiving worldwide attention. The effect of crude oil pollution on soil properties wasinvestigated by achieving a case study in Perisoru, Braila County. It has been achieved a profile until 120 cm and soilsamples were collected according to the methodology and analyzed for some physical and chemical properties. In caseof physical analysis, the values obtained for granulometric fractions were not influenced by the presence of crude oil.Results obtained showed variation in chemical properties of soil. Organic carbon increased from 2.23% for anunpolluted soil to 5.51% in polluted soil. C/N ratios increased from 13.01 for an unpolluted soil to 20.54 in pollutedsoil. Mobile phosphorous and potassium registered in polluted soil similar values with the one characteristic forunpolluted soil. Crude oil at high pollution levels inhibited the growth of crops.

  5. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage.

  6. The Effects of Biodiesel and Crude Oil on the Foraging Behavior of Rusty Crayfish, Orconectes rusticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcak, Ana M; Gauthier, Steven J; Moore, Paul A

    2015-11-01

    Environmental pollutants, such as crude oil and other petroleum-based fuels, inhibit and limit an organism's ability to perceive a chemical stimulus. Despite the increased use of alternative fuels, such as biodiesel, there have been few studies investigating the impact of these chemicals on the behavior of aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the sublethal effects of biodiesel and crude oil exposure on chemically mediated behaviors in a freshwater keystone species. Crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) were tested on their ability to respond appropriately to a positive chemical stimulus within a Y-maze choice paradigm. Behavior was quantified by measuring time spent finding an odor source, duration of time spent at the odor source, percentage of crayfish that found the odor source, and percentage of crayfish that chose the correct arm of the arena. Results indicated negative impacts of both biodiesel and crude oil on the ability of crayfish to locate the food source. However, there were no significant differences between behavioral performances when crayfish were exposed to crude oil compared with biodiesel. Thus, biodiesel and crude oil have equally negative effects on the chemosensory behavior of crayfish. These findings indicate that biodiesel has the potential to have similar negative ecological impacts as other fuel source toxins.

  7. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  8. Solubility and effects of natural gas and air in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, D.B.; Calkin, L.P.

    1926-02-01

    This document includes data obtained in investigating the effect of pressure and temperature on the amounts of natural gas and air that can be held in solution in different crude and refined oils, as well as the effect on gravity and volume.

  9. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  10. The effect of asphaltene-paraffin interactions on crude oil stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.C. del; Carbogani, L. [PDVSA, Caracas (Venezuela)

    2000-08-01

    The effect of asphaltene-paraffin complexes on crude oil stability, in terms of wax crystallization and asphaltene deposits solubility, was studied. The influence of flocculated asphaltenes on the wax crystallization tendency of a paraffinic crude oil was evaluated by means of Polarized Light Microscopy. Heavy linear paraffins (nC24+ paraffins) were added to the crude oil in a controlled fashion in order to evaluate its effect on the cloud point and the effectiveness of a maleic anhydride copolymer derivative paraffin inhibitor. Experiments done in the presence and absence of asphaltene fraction allowed to demonstrate that flocculated asphaltenes provide wax crystallization sites whose presence increases the cloud point of crude oil and also interferes with crystal inhibition mechanism. The existence of asphaltene-paraffins complexes and some structural effects were further assessed by HPLC kinetic dissolution studies of composite materials formed by combinations of such hydrocarbon types. Commercial macrocrystalline and microcrystalline waxes were used in these experiments. Different types of asphaltenes were probed as well, covering varying ranges of aromaticities and stability. (au)

  11. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  12. Contamination by oil crude extraction - Refinement and their effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Isabel; Arevalo, Ana Paulina; Sotomayor, Santiago; Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia

    2017-08-18

    The harmful effects of oil on various species of flora and fauna have been studied extensively; however, few studies have studied the effects of oil exposure on human health. The objective of this research was to collect information on the acute health effects and serious psychological symptoms of the possible consequences of such exposure to crude oil. Some studies focused on the composition of different chemicals used in the extraction process, and wastes generated proved to be highly harmful to human health. Thus, studies have shown that individuals who live near oil fields or wells - or who take part in activities of cleaning oil spills - have presented health conditions, such as irritation to the skin, eyes, mucous membranes, kidney damage, liver, reproductive, among others. In Ecuador, this reality is not different from other countries, and some studies have shown increased diseases related with oil crude and oil spills, like skin irritation, throat, liver, lung, infertility, and abortions, and it has been linked to childhood leukemia. Other studies suggest a direct relationship between DNA damage because of oil resulting in a genetic instability of the main enzymes of cellular metabolism as well as a relationship with some cancers, such as leukemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of the effects of crude oil pollution and oil-degrading bacteria on some biochemical and growth factors of Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Keramat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria-Plant systems for bioremediation of oil polluted sites are one of the most effective approaches of biotechnology in the recent years. It is well known that oil pollution induces oxidative stress in plants. In this research, the effects of crude oil pollution on Zea mays and bioremediation by synergism between plant and crude oil degrading bacteria, four different treatments were designed. Some physiological and microbial factors were assayed for determining the effects of oil pollution. The results showed that 1% crude oil in soil shoot, dry weight was reduced and the amount of phenolic compounds increased. With crude oil and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterium, shoot dry weight, chlorophyll (a, total chlorophyll and anthocyanins decreased wherase phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase enzyme activity increased. With 1% crude oil and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus bacterium, significant changes were seen in the parameters of growth. Photosynthetic pigment did not increase whereas anthocyanin, phenolic compounds, malodialdehyde and catalase activity increased. White Crude oil and the presence of both bacteria shoot dry weight and chlorophyll levels decreased and increased levels of anthocyanin and malon-dialdehyde were observed. Addition of oil to the soil, increased the numbers of crude oil degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria but crude oil were removed from soil by biodegradation. By application of bacterial-plant systems in the field, industrial wastes from refinery and biochemical factories could be removed oppropriately.

  14. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  15. Effect of biodegradation on steranes and terpanes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, W.K.; Moldowan, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    Steranes and terpanes biodegrade at a slower rate than isoprenoids and survive moderate biodegradation. Heavy biodegradation results in destruction of regular steranes, survival of diasteranes (20R better than 20S) and tricyclic terpanes and transformation of hopanes to Ring A/B demethylated hopanes. These survivors can be used as source fingerprints in biodegraded crudes. The structure of predominant steranes in undegraded to moderately degraded fossil fuels was proven to be 14..beta..,17..beta..(H) (20R + S) by molecular spectroscopy. These compounds plus the 20S epimers of regular 5..cap alpha..-steranes (20R) were identified as major constituents and their 5..beta..-counterparts as minor components in a cholestane isomerizate (300/sup 0/C, Pt on C), allowing assessment of relative thermodynamic stabilities. An observed increase of optical activity in heavily degraded crudes from three different basins is interpreted to be the result of bacterial transformation of terpanes and steranes to new optically active species plus enrichment of the latter by n + isoparaffin depletion rather than total bacterial synthesis. Diagnostic ion profiling by GC-MS-C is a convenient tool for surveying the relative abundance of individual diasteranes and regular steranes plus distinguishing epimeric and ring skeletal isomeric series in complex fossil fuel mixtures. A new practical method of determining the absolute quantities of individual steranes by spiking with 5..beta..-cholane and integration of mass chromatograms is described. 6 tables; 6 figures.

  16. EVALUATING THE SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF U.S. CRUDE OIL INVENTORY LEVELS ON WTI CRUDE OIL PRICE FROM 1993 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Olasojiand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to investigate the short-term influence of U.S. crude oil inventories on WTI crude oil prices from 1993 to 2013. This study is important for policy makers who wish to reduce the persistent and growing price volatility of crude oil and its related products as well as businesses such as airline companies who wish to make annual budgetary sales decisions. Using OLS multiple regression, cointegration, VECM and Ex-post forecast techniques; we provide evidence of an inelastic relationship in which a 1% increase in U.S. crude oil inventories is associated with 0.46% decrease in WTI crude oil prices; however this was only valid for 22% of WTI crude oil price variation. We also find that past data on U.S. crude oil inventories could be used to predict future WTI crude oil prices movement. Contrary to literature, the results of the VECM analysis indicate there is no short-run relationship between both variables over the trajectory.

  17. Effect of Crude Oil Price on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (1981 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    ... 131-139, 2013 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research ... rate, crude oil price, capital stock, labour, land and fertilizer. ... gross domestic product and accounting for ... the international oil market (Aigbedion and.

  18. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian-ru; ZHOU Qi-xing; REN Li-ping; ZHU Yong-guan; SUN Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jemsalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (A calypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoltatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis,but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S.perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  19. Ecological effects of crude oil residues on the functional diversity of soil microorganisms in three weed rhizospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-ru; Zhou, Qi-xing; Ren, Li-ping; Zhu, Yong-guan; Sun, Shu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Ecological effects of crude oil residues on weed rhizospheres are still vague. The quantitative and diversity changes and metabolic responses of soil-bacterial communities in common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), jerusalem artichoke (Silphium perfoliatum L.) and evening primrose (Acalypha australis L.) rhizospheric soils were thus examined using the method of carbon source utilization. The results indicated that there were various toxic effects of crude oil residues on the growth and reproduction of soil bacteria, but the weed rhizospheres could mitigate the toxic effects. Total heterotrophic counting colony-forming units (CFUs) in the rhizospheric soils were significantly higher than those in the non-rhizospheric soils. The culturable soil-bacterial CFUs in the jerusalem artichoke (S. perfoliatum) rhizosphere polluted with 0.50 kg/pot of crude oil residues were almost twice as much as those with 0.25 kg/pot and without the addition of crude oil residues. The addition of crude oil residues increased the difference in substrate evenness, substrate richness, and substrate diversity between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of T. officinale and A. australis, but there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the Shannon's diversity index between non-rhizospheric and rhizospheric soils of S. perfoliatum. The rhizospheric response of weed species to crude oil residues suggested that S. perfoliatum may be a potential weed species for the effective plant-microorganism bioremediation of contaminated soils by crude oil residues.

  20. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  1. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    of the dispersants were toxic, except IB 2/80, to the bacterial population. All of the dispersants, when used alone, or in combination with the crude oil, supported good growth of bacteria. The Saudi Arabian crude oil by itself was toxic to the bacteria, and when...

  2. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  3. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  4. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL DISPERSANTS AND MINERAL FINES ON CRUDE OIL DISPERSION IN A WAVE TANK UNDER BREAKING WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interaction of chemical dispersants and suspended sediments with crude oil influences the fate and transport of oil spills in coastal waters. A wave tank study was conducted to investigate the effects of chemical dispersants and mineral fines on the dispersion of oil and the ...

  5. The Effect of Temperature and Rock Permeability on Oil-Water Relative Permeability Curves of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Cao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wax deposition has always been a problem for the production of waxy crude oil. When the reservoir temperature is below the wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax would precipitate in the oil phase as wax crystals, which could increase the oil viscosity and decrease the permeability of the rock. In this study, a series of core flooding experiments under 5 different temperatures and using two groups of core samples with permeability liein300 md and 1000 md respectively were carried out to investigate the effect of temperature and rock permeability on waxy crude oil-water relative permeability curves under reservoir condition. The results revealed that temperature has a significant influence on relative permeability, especially when the temperature is below the WAT (70℃ in this study. The initial water decreased by 40% and the residual oil saturation increased to about 2.5 times when temperature decreased from 85℃ to 50℃ for experiments of both two groups in this study. Oil recovery decreased as the temperature dropped. There was not much difference between the oil recovery of cores with permeability of 1000 md and that with permeability of 300 md until the temperature dropped to 70℃, and the difference increased to 8% when temperature decreased to 50℃, which implies that reservoir with lower permeability is easier to be damaged by wax deposition only when the temperature drops to below WAT. According to this work, it is suggested that reservoir temperature should be better maintained higher than theWAT when extracting waxy crude oil of this reservoir, or at least above 60℃.

  6. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  7. Long term effects of crude oil on common murres (Uria aalge) following rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, R.A.; Ryan, P. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. Johns (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    Oil spilled or discharged at sea is known to contaminate and cause mortality in seabirds and in some instances, these losses can be substantial as reported recently following an oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaskan waters. Crude petroleum alters the arrangement of the feather barbules causing a loss of buoyancy and hypothermia. Attempts to rehabilitate birds with light to moderate amounts of oil exposure have met with modest success. Following cleaning and release, many of these birds never recovered and little is known of their survival rate in nature subsequently. A number of oiled sea birds, primarily common murres (Uria aalge), were retrieved recently by the Canadian Coast Guard and attempts to rehabilitate them were conducted. Since the majority of birds were retained longer than the usual 4 to 5 days recommended by the Bird Rescue International Centre after retrieval, it soon became apparent that many were suffering from problems other than diet or thermoregulation. Following autopsy/necropsy, extensive organ damage was observed in all of the birds. The purpose of this communication is to report the long term effects of crude oil on common murres.

  8. Crude Oil Trading Using Turbo Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šoltés

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two objectives. The first one is to contribute to the debate regarding the validity of the Hubbert Crude Oil Peak Theory. Its acceptance should guide economic policies, especially over time. The other objective is to characterize modern investment tools for short-term investments, or more precisely for trading, which use the leverage effect significantly. They are so called Turbo Certificates and they are used to trade crude oil.

  9. Effect of Alkali on Daqing Crude Oil/Water Interfacial Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jixiang; Li Mingyuan; Lin Meiqin; Wu Zhaoliang

    2007-01-01

    Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding using sodium hydroxide as the alkali component to enhance oil recovery in Daqing Oilfield,northeast China has been successful,but there are new problems in the treatment of produced crude. The alkali added forms stable water-in-crude oil emulsion,hence de-emulsification process is necessary to separate oil and water. The problems in enhanced oil recovery with ASP flooding were investigated in laboratory by using fractions of Daqing crude oil. The oil was separated into aliphatics,aromatics,resin and asphaltene fractions. These fractions were then mixed with an additive-free jet fuel to form model oils. The interfacial properties,such as interfacial tension and interfacial pressure of the systems were also measured,which together with the molecular parameters of the fractions were all used to investigate the problems in the enhanced oil recovery. In our work,it was found that sodium hydroxide solution reacts with the acidic hydrogen in the fractions of crude oil and forms soap-like interfacially active components,which accumulate at the crude oil-water interface.

  10. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts: Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania, E-mail: jamrania2@yahoo.f [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia); Aloui, Chaker, E-mail: chaker.aloui@fsegt.rnu.t [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes.

  11. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts. Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes. (author)

  12. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  13. Effect of corrosion on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu Van, Tuyen; Yang, Ping

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of corrosion wastage on the ship hull of a double hull very large crude oil carrier. To calculate the ultimate bending moment capacity, along with the neutral axis position at the limit state, section modulus, and moment of inertia, the incremental-iterative method is employed. This paper also considered the residual strength checking criteria of ship hull and the ultimate stress behaviors of the representative structural elements. Then, Paik's probabilistic corrosion, which employs two levels of corrosion rate and three different assumptions of coating life time, is applied to assess the corrosion effects. The calculation results obtained through relevant analyses are also presented.

  14. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  15. Comparative Laboratory-Scale Testing of Dispersant Effectiveness of 23 Crude Oils Using Four Different Testing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled laboratory study was conducted to measure the dispersion effectiveness of Corexit 9500 on 20 different crude oils. This study was a part of a larger project initiated by the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) testing 20 oils to compare the predict...

  16. Effect of Contact Time and Gas Component on Interfacial Tension of CO2/Crude Oil System by Pendant Drop Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pendant drop method has been used to measure the equilibrium interfacial tension and dynamic interfacial tension of CO2/crude oil system under the simulated-formation condition, in which the temperature is 355.65 K and pressure ranges from 0 MPa to 30 MPa. The test results indicated that the equilibrium interfacial tension of CO2/crude oil systems decreased with the increase of the systematic pressure. The dynamic interfacial tension of CO2/original oil, CO2/remaining oil, and CO2/produced oil systems is large at the initial contact and decreases gradually after that, and then finally it reaches dynamic balance. In addition, the higher the pressure is, the larger the magnitude of changing of CO2/crude oil interfacial tension with time will reduce. Moreover, by PVT phase experiment, gas-oil ratio, gas composition, and well fluid composition have been got, and different contents of light components in three oil samples under reservoir conditions have also been calculated. The relationship between equilibrium interfacial tensions and pressures of three different components of crude oil and CO2 system was studied, and the higher C1 is, the lower C2–C10 will be, and the equilibrium interfacial tension will get higher. Therefore, the effect of light weight fractions on interfacial tension under formation conditions was studied.

  17. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. Effects of Shear Rate and Inhibitors on Wax Deposition of Malaysian Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ridzuan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wax deposition can cause a serious problem in crude oil flow assurance, especially in deep water operation due to the long chain of n-paraffin. This paper examines the effects of two factors on the deposition process, which are shear rate and different types of inhibitors. 10 mL of four different types of wax inhibitors (cocamide diethanolamine (C-DEA, diethanolamine (DEA, poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA and poly (maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene (MEA were injected into a crude oil vessel where the temperature of cold finger and water bath were set at 5°C and 50°C, respectively. The rotation speed was operated at different ranges between 0 and 600 rpm. From the result, it was found that the amount of total wax deposit decreased when shear rate increased. EVA showed a strong effect to inhibit wax formation with 33.33% reduction of wax deposit at 400 rpm as compared to other inhibitors.

  19. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  20. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  1. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  2. Differential effects of crude oil on denitrification and anammox, and the impact on N2O production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Hugo; Mucha, Ana P; Azevedo, Isabel; Salgado, Paula; Teixeira, Catarina; Almeida, C Marisa R; Joye, Samantha B; Magalhães, Catarina

    2016-09-01

    Denitrification and anammox are key processes for reducing the external nitrogen loads delivered to coastal ecosystems, and these processes can be affected by pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of crude oil on denitrification and anammox. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed using sediment slurries from the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal). Anammox and denitrification rates were measured using (15)N-labeled NO3(-), and the production of (29)N2 and (30)N2 quantified by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Results revealed that while denitrification rates were stimulated between 10 and 25 000 times after crude oil amendment, anammox activity was partially (between 2 and 5 times) or completely inhibited by the addition of crude oil when comparing to rates in unamended controls. Similar results were observed across four estuarine sediment types, despite their different physical-chemical characteristics. Moreover, N2O production was reduced by 2-36 times following crude oil addition. Further work is required to fully understand the mechanism(s) of the observed reduction in N2O production. This study represents one of the first contributions to the understanding of the impact of crude oil pollution on denitrification and anammox, with profound implications for the management of aquatic ecosystems regarding eutrophication (N-removal).

  3. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  4. Activated Orange Meso-Carp Carbon (AOMC; An Acceptable Remediation Techniques for Crude Oil Pollution Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atulegwu Patrick Uzoije

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orange mesocarp with its potentials application to remove spilled crude oil was used to prepare an activated adsorbent. Therefore, adsorption of crude oil onto the activated orange meso-carp (AOMC was investigated. Batch experiment was adopted for the equilibrium studies and the studies were conducted for various operational parameters such as varying crude oil concentration and temperature values. The crude oil samples of A, B, C, D and E, with concentrations 6045, 4393, 8508, 11583, and 5220, respectively and temperature values varied between 10-50ºC were used for the experiment. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 40 min of adsorption time. Partition coefficients, kd (L/kg for various samples reacted inversely with temperature and were in the ranges of 0.37-0.69, 0.65-1.11, 1.28-2.04, 1.17-1.39 and 1.23-4.53 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. percentage of crude oil samples on the AOMC decreased with low crude oil hydrocarbons and the trend was shown as follows D>C >A>E>B. Percentage ranges for samples A, B, C,D and E were given to be 86.8-88%, 60.5-72.4, 52.5-55.2, 47.9-55.4 and 45.3-49.2%, respectively. Sorption of the crude oil samples to AOMC was found to be spontaneous, exothermic, and physio-sorption controlled with G values being in the ranges of -71.49 to -21.29, -18.25 to -5.43, -30.24 to -21.11, -28.55 to -11.33 and -50.74 to -50.12 KJ/mol for samples A ,B , C , D and E, respectively. Enthalpy(H and Entropy changes(S were also found to be -10.28, -12.24, -8.92, -6.9, -50.28 J/mol/K and -2.92, -0.32, -0.50, -0.44, -0.01 for samples A, B, C, D and E, respectively. Activated orange meso-carp provides a veritable environmentally remediation technique for crude oil spillage.

  5. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  6. Effects of Crude Oil Price Changes on Sector Indices of Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Toraman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil price is one of the most important economic factors directing the world economy. A small change in oil prices has positive or negative affects on all the economic factors. Aim of this study is to investigate the affects of oil price changes on Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE 100 composite index, services index, industrial index and technology index of ISE. Long-run relationship is tested by Cointegration tests and short-run relationship is tested by Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. According to the results of the study, 32.71 % of the forecasting error variance of industrial index and 16.40% is explained by crude oil prices of the forecasting error variance of ISE 100 index. About the other indices; 12.60 % of the forecasting error variance of services index, 11.82 % of the forecasting error variance of financial index and 5.38 % of the forecasting error variance are explained by crude oil prices. Consequently, investors purposing to invest in ISE Market should consider the oil prices and especially investors of ISE industrial index and ISE 100 index should follow the developments in crude oil prices.

  7. Effects of Crude Oil Price Changes on Sector Indices of Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Toraman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil price is one of the most important economic factors directing the world economy. A small change in oil prices has positive or negative affects on all the economic factors. Aim of this study is to investigate the affects of oil price changes on Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE 100 composite index, services index, industrial index and technology index of ISE. Long-run relationship is tested by Cointegration tests and short-run relationship is tested by Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. According to the results of the study, 32.71 % of the forecasting error variance of industrial index and 16.40% is explained by crude oil prices of the forecasting error variance of ISE 100 index. About the other indices; 12.60 % of the forecasting error variance of services index, 11.82 % of the forecasting error variance of financial index and 5.38 % of the forecasting error variance are explained by crude oil prices. Consequently, investors purposing to invest in ISE Market should consider the oil prices and especially investors of ISE industrial index and ISE 100 index should follow the developments in crude oil prices.

  8. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti-Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (PDemodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo.

  9. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  10. Effect of Crude Oil Spills on the Abundance and Distribution of Soil Microartropods at Different Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.N. Iloba

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecological study of the effect of various quantities of crude oil spills on the soil microarthropod fauna was conducted. Three stations P.Q and R were polluted with 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 L, respectively. The control station C, was not polluted. A total of 553 microarthropods were collected for a period of 6 months. The microarthropod populations collected were classified into 3: Insecta, Acari and Myriapoda which were further divided into 13 families, Soil pH, temperature, moisture content and Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC were measured. Abundance of microarthropods correlated positively with increasing moisture content and pH and negatively with increasing THC and temperature in the upper 10 cm of soil in stations P, Q and R. Of the total microarthropod, the Acarina and hymenopterans were the most abundant groups. The least abundant were the Isopterans and Myriapods.

  11. Effects of dispersants on microbial growth and biodegradation of crude oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Four oil spill dispersants when used along (0.1% V/V) or in combination with Saudi Arabian Crude (0.5% V/V) were non-toxic to Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis. At a higher concentration of 0.6% (V/V) only D2 was found to be toxic to both...

  12. The effects of crude oil and remediation burning on three clones of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.L.; Proffitt, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Burning has been employed as an oil spill remediation technique in coastal marshes, even though the combined and interactive effects of soil and burning on vegetation are poorly understood. Variation among clones of perennial marsh grasses in response to these perturbations is not known. We performed a greenhouse experiment designed to assess the effects of Venezuelan crude oil alone and of oil followed by burning on three clonal genets of Spartina alterniflora. The fully-crossed 6-mo experiment involved five dosages of oil (0 l m-2, 4 l m-2, 8 l m-2, 16 l m-2, and 24 l m-2) and two burn treatments (burned or unburned) applied to ramets from three clones. All oil-only dosages reduced survival, but burning after oiling (oil + burn treatments) increased survival relative to oil-only groups in all except the highest two oil dosages. Higher oil-only treatments also reduced ramet densities and inhibited density increases over 6 mo. Burning after treatment with the 16 l m-2 oil concentration allowed increased production of new ramets, but burning exacerbated the negative impacts on ramet density at the oil concentration of 24 l m-2. At some intermediate oil dosages, burning remediated the negative effects of oil on aboveground biomass production and growth in height. There was a significant effect of oil-only treatments on numbers of flowering ramets produced, in which two clones responded with decreased flower production and one exhibited increased flowering. There was no main effect of oil + burn on flowering. There were significant among-clones differences in all response variables to one or both treatments. Our experiment demonstrates that burning of oiled S. alterniflora marshes may have little measurable effect at low levels of Venezuelan crude oil, can remediate the effects of oil at intermediate oil concentrations, but can increase the negative impacts at high concentrations of oil. These results indicate that oil spills have the potential to adversely affect

  13. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  14. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  15. Effects of Biodegradation on the Distribution of Alkylcarbazoles in Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHUNMING(张春明); MEI BOWEN(梅博文); STEVE R.LARTER; MARTIN P.KOOPMANS; XIAO QIANHUA(肖乾华)

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the distributions of alkylcarbazoles in a series of crude oils with different biodegradation extents, in combination with biomarker parameters, stable carbon isotopic ratios and viscosities. The analyses showed that slight biodegradation has little effect on alkylcarbazoles. The concentrations of C0-, C1-, and C2-carbazoles seem to display a slight decrease with biodegradation through the moderately biodegraded stage, and an abrupt decrease to the heavily biodegraded stage. The relative concentrations of C0-, C1-, and C2-carbazoles do not show any apparent change in the non-heavily biodegraded stages, but through non-heavily biodegraded to heavily biodegraded stages, the percentages of C0- and C1-carbazoles decrease,and those of C2-carbazoles increase significantly, which may indicate that C2-carbazoles are more resistant to biodegradation than lower homologous species. As to C2-carbazole isomers,the relative concentrations of the pyrrolic N-H-shielded, pyrrolic N-H partially shielded and pyrrolic N-H-exposed isomers do not show any obvious variation in the non-heavily biodegraded oil, but there is an abrupt change through the mid-biodegraded stage to the heavily biodegraded stage.

  16. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites.

  17. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  18. Effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of crude oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuino, Homer C; Horvath, Dayton T; King'ondu, Cecil K; Hoag, George E; Collins, John B; Suib, Steven L

    2012-04-01

    The effects of visible and UV light on the characteristics and properties of Prudhoe Bay (PB) and South Louisiana (SL) emulsions were investigated to better understand the role of sunlight on the fate of spilled crude oils that form emulsions with a dispersant in the aquatic environment. Before irradiation, crude oil emulsions showed the presence of dispersed crude oil micelles in a continuous water phase and crude oil components floating on the surface. The crude oil micelles decreased in size with irradiation, but emulsions retained their high degree of polydispersity. UV irradiation reduced the stability of emulsions more effectively than visible light. The reduction of micelles size caused the viscosity of emulsions to increase and melting point to decrease. Further, irradiation increased acid concentrations and induced ion formation which lowered the pH and increased the conductivity of emulsions, respectively. Ni and Fe in PB emulsions were extracted from crude oil with UV irradiation, which may provide an efficient process for metal removal. The emulsions were stable toward freeze/thaw cycles and their melting temperatures generally decreased with irradiation. Evidence of ˙OH production existed when emulsions were exposed to UV but not to visible light. The presence of H(2)O(2) enhanced the photodegradation of crude oil. Overall, the changes in emulsion properties were attributed to direct photodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil components.

  19. Crude oil price dynamics: A study on effects of market expectation and strategic supply on price movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin

    Recent years have seen dramatic fluctuations in crude oil prices. This dissertation attempts to better understand price behavior. The first chapter studies the behavior of crude oil spot and futures prices. Oil prices, particularly spot and short-term futures prices, appear to have switched from I(0) to I(1) in early 2000s. To better understand this apparent change in persistence, a factor model of oil prices is proposed, where the prices are decomposed into long-term and short-term components. The change in the persistence behavior can be explained by changes in the relative volatility of the underlying components. Fitting the model to weekly data on WTI prices, the volatility of the persistent shocks increased substantially relative to other shocks. In addition, the risk premiums in futures prices have changed their signs and become more volatile. The estimated net marginal convenience yield using the model also shows changes in its behavior. These observations suggest that a dramatic fundamental change occurred in the period from 2002 to 2004 in the dynamics of the crude oil market. The second chapter explores the short-run price-inventory dynamics in the presence of different shocks. Classical competitive storage model states that inventory decision considers both current and future market condition, and thus interacts with spot and expected future spot prices. We study competitive storage holding in an equilibrium framework, focusing on the dynamic response of price and inventory to different shocks. We show that news shock generates response profile different from traditional contemporaneous shocks in price and inventory. The model is applied to world crude oil market, where the market expectation is estimated to experience a sharp change in early 2000s, together with a persisting constrained supply relative to demand. The expectation change has limited effect on crude oil spot price though. The world oil market structure has been studied extensively but no

  20. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  1. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  2. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  3. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  4. Effect of Operating Conditions on Sulfur and Metal Content of Basrah Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In the present work, Basrah crude oil, atmospheric distillate of 305-623 K boiling range, vacuum distillate of 623-823 K boiling range, and wide petroleum distillate of boiling range 305-823 K are hydrotreated in trickle bed reactor using Cobalt-Molybdenum alumina as a catalyst. Hydrotreating temperatures are 598-648K, 598-673K, 648-673K and 648K respectively while LHSV are 0.7-2 hr-1, 1 hr-1, 0.7-2 hr-1 respectively. The operating pressure  and H2/Oil ratio for all experiments are kept constant at 3 Mpa and 300 liter/liter.    The results show that Sulphur and metal content decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV.     Vacuum residue of boiling range above 823K is mixed with hydrotreated atmospheric distillate, vacuum distillate and with the hydrotreated wide petroleum distillate. The temperature for hydrotreating the mixed sample is 648K and LHSV is 1 hr-1. It was found that hydrotreating crude oil is the best choice since it gives the highest removal of sulphur, vanadium and cobalt removal.

  5. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  6. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-04-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3-4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼ 18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites.

  7. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  8. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  9. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  10. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g(-1) after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  12. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  13. A Model of the Dynamics of the Effect of World Crude Oil Price and World Rice Price on Indonesia’s Inflation Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the dynamics of the effects of world crude oil prices and world rice prices on Indonesia’s inflation rate in the period between January 2004 and September 2015. Monthly time series data spanning from January 2004 to September 2015 are analyzed using difference equation model as the econometric tool. Test result shows that there existed a dynamic effect of world oil crude prices and world rice prices on inflation rate in Indonesia. The World crude oil prices positively affected the inflation rate in that each 1% increase (decrease in the world crude oil prices caused the inflation rate to go up (drop by 0.33%. The world rice prices also positively affected the inflation rate, where each 1% increase (decrease in world rice prices was followed by a 0.52% rise (fall of the inflation rate.

  14. The effects of crude oil shocks on stock market shifts behaviour A regime switching approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania [International Finance Group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we develop a two regime Markov-switching EGARCH model introduced by Henry [Henry, O., 2009. Regime switching in the relationship between equity returns and short-term interest rates. Journal of Banking and Finance 33, 405-414.] to examine the relationship between crude oil shocks and stock markets. An application to stock markets of UK, France and Japan over the sample period January 1989 to December 2007 illustrates plausible results. We detect two episodes of series behaviour one relative to low mean/high variance regime and the other to high mean/low variance regime. Furthermore, there is evidence that common recessions coincide with the low mean/high variance regime. In addition, we allow both real stock returns and probability of transitions from one regime to another to depend on the net oil price increase variable. The findings show that rises in oil price has a significant role in determining both the volatility of stock returns and the probability of transition across regimes. (author)

  15. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis crude oils (EuO supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS without EuO (T1 and with EuO (T2 supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS without EuO (T3 and with EuO (T4 supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p0.05 affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01 by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas

  16. Effects of UV-Vis Irradiation on Vanadium Etioporphyrins Extracted from Crude Oil and the Role of Nanostructured Titania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Jene Kirkconnell Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of UV-irradiation on oil and its derivatives is particularly important for analyzing the degradability of specific oil compounds. Also, nanostructured-TiO2 is one of the most promising photocatalysts so it is expected to be useful in their degradation. However the complexity of crude oil, as well as that of the reactions involved, is such that the effect of the presence of TiO2 under illumination is not well understood. In this paper, the influence of UV-Vis irradiation on vanadium etioporphyrins, extracted from crude oil from Dos Bocas, Tabasco, Mexico, is studied using UV-Vis spectrophotometry in the absence and presence of nanostructured TiO2 or nitrogen-doped TiO2 modified with copper (N-TiO2/Cu. It is shown that the addition of water shortens the time to start photodegradation. However, once this process has initiated, the system enters a second stage, that is very similar for samples with or without water. It is also shown that the use of N-TiO2/Cu induces an important delay in the initiation of the porphyrins’ photodegradation process. Additionally, it has been found that the presence of TiO2 in samples extracted with water induces a small reduction in the photodegradation duration and, hence, that TiO2 can catalyze the degradation of petroporphyrins.

  17. Crude Oil Spills and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Enforcement, U.S. Department of the Interior Emergency Management: Oil Spills U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Oil Spill Preparation and Response U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Return to top Oil Spills and Wildlife ...

  18. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1) after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1) after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1) after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1) after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  19. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Hernández, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Adams, R.H.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Pérez-Hernández, V.; Jarquín-Sánchez, A.; Geissen, V.; Martínez-Zurimendi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and

  20. Modeled Effects of Encapsulated Crude Oil on Light Transmission Through Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carns, R.; Light, B.

    2015-12-01

    As part of ongoing research to further advance a range of oil spill response technologies in the Arctic, nine oil and gas companies established the Arctic Oil Spill Response Technology Joint Industry Programme (JIP) in 2012. One research theme is designed to expand the industry's remote-sensing and monitoring capabilities. A suite of sensors was tested on a saltwater ice sheet grown in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) Ice Engineering Research Facility test basin while oil was injected under the ice at different points in the ice growth. The ice continued to grow after the oil injection, allowing the oil to become encapsulated so testing could occur with various thicknesses of ice below the oil. Measurements of apparent optical properties were taken before and after the injection of oil and during various stages of ice growth. We have used a Monte Carlo model of radiative transfer for sea ice [Light et al., 2003] to explore light transmission through sea ice containing encapsulated oil. This model uses a cylindrical domain, making it well-suited for determining how large a pool of oil encapsulated in a given thickness of ice must be before it is detectable from beneath the ice cover. We use this model in combination with the optical observations to predict the amount of light transmitted and reflected from sea ice of various thicknesses containing oil. We also examine the effects of a scattering layer on the ice surface, as would commonly be present in the Arctic, either in the form of snow or the surface scattering layer that develops on melting ice. We evaluate the feasibility of distinguishing between different types of oil based on the spectral signature of light transmitted through the ice. Further model sensitivity studies yield insight about the effects of the distribution of the oil within the ice cover. Light, B., G. A. Maykut, and T. C. Grenfell (2003), A two-dimensional Monte Carlo model of

  1. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-12-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  2. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  3. [Studies on the genotoxic effects of crude liver oils from 3 species of Mediterranean sharks by means of in vitro micronucleus test using human lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfai, E; Orsière, T; Duffaud, F; Villani, P; Pompili, J; Botta, A

    2000-01-01

    Lymphoid system tumours have been identified in two subjects who used to handle for several years mediterranean shark liver oil and squalen extracted from this oil. Moreover, scientific data, reported in 1959 by Kröning, show the induction of lymphoid tumours in C57 B1 mice after exposure of their skin to squalen. These observations rose the question of a possible mutagenic power of shark liver oil. In order to determine the genotoxicity of these oils, in vitro assays have been performed on crude hepatic oil of three species of mediterranean sharks: two benthic sharks, Centrophorus granulosus and Galeus melastomus, and one pelagic specie, Prionace glauca. Genotoxicity of oils have been assayed using a micronucleus test which can detected simultaneously clastogen and aneugen effects. The incubation of human cells with the hepatic crude oils of Centrophorus granulosus increases the rate of the binucleated micronucleated cell in a dose dependent manner. The mean micronucleated cell rate was 9.0%. +/- 1.1 in controls and increased up to 27,1%. +/- 4,0 for the highest concentrations of oil extracts. Similar results have been obtained with crude hepatic oils of Galeus melastomus and Prionace glauca. The results of this experimental study show that the crude liver oils of three species of sharks are genotoxic and confirm a high carcinogenic risk.

  4. Colombian coal liquefaction and its coprocessing with Venezuelan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Nagaishi, H. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Ishiguro, H. [Nippon Kokan K.K. Kawasaki (JP)] (and others)

    1999-09-01

    Titiribi coal from Colombia shows an excellent reactivity to liquefaction and coprocessing. Anthracene oil was excellent as a vehicle oil to facilitate the liquefaction reaction during the initial stage at 400{sup o}C. In the case of coprocessing with Morichal crude oil and red-mud/sulfur catalyst, the maximum conversion of Titiribi coal was ca. 79 wt% daf at 400{sup o}C and ca. 93 wt% daf at 450{sup o}C. The hydrogen consumption in the presence of Morichal crude oil is lower than that in the presence of anthracene oil. It is considered to be the effect of hydrogen sulfide and the hydrogen donor ability of Morichal crude oil. (author)

  5. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  6. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  7. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  8. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  9. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiple kernel learning (MKL-based regression model for crude oil spot price forecasting and trading. We used a well-known trend-following technical analysis indicator, the moving average convergence and divergence (MACD indicator, for extracting features from original spot prices. Additionally, we factored in the possibility that movements of target crude oil prices may be related to other important crude oil markets besides the target market for the prediction time horizon since traders may find price movement information within other relevant crude oil markets useful. We also considered multiple timeframes in this study since trends may differ across different timeframes and, in fact, traders may use their own timeframes. Therefore, for forecasting target crude oil prices, this study emphasizes on features pertaining to other important crude oil markets and different timeframes in addition to features of the target crude oil market and target timeframe. Moreover, the MKL framework has been used to fuse information extracted from different sources and timeframes of the same data source. Experimental results show that out-of-sample forecasting using the MKL method is superior to benchmark methods in terms of root mean square error (RMSE and average percentage profit (APP. They also show that the information from multiple timeframes is useful for prediction, but that from another crude oil market is not.

  10. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  11. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  12. Extraction of bitumen, crude oil and its products from tar sand and contaminated sandy soil under effect of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, O V; Abramov, V O; Myasnikov, S K; Mullakaev, M S

    2009-03-01

    In the present paper, the kinetics of the water extraction of bitumen from tar sand and crude oil or residual fuel oil from model contaminated soils under the effect of ultrasound is studied. The influence of process temperature, ultrasound power, the nature, and properties of the components of heterogeneous mixtures being separated, and the concentration of added alkaline reagents on the rate and degree of oil recovery is investigated. A functional form of the dependencies of separation efficiency on the mean size of solid particles and the temperature of a working medium is found. Optimum concentrations of reagents in the process solution are determined. It is shown that the spent solution of sodium silicate can be multiply used for separation, its reuse even speeding up the yield of oil in the initial period. Taking into account obtained results, a multipurpose pilot plant with a flow-type reactor for ultrasonic extraction of petroleum and its products from contaminated soils was manufactured and tested. During tests, the purification of sandy soil contaminated with residual fuel oil was carried out which verified the results of laboratory studies.

  13. Evaluation of biosurfactants for crude oil contaminated soil washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urum, Kingsley; Pekdemir, Turgay

    2004-12-01

    An evaluation of the ability of aqueous biosurfactant solutions (aescin, lecithin, rhamnolipid, saponin and tannin) for possible applications in washing crude oil contaminated soil was carried out. The biosurfactants behaviour in soil-water, water-oil and oil-soil systems (such as foaming, solubilization, sorption to soil, emulsification, surface and interfacial tension) was measured and compared with a well-known chemical surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) at varying concentrations. Results showed that the biosurfactants were able to remove significant amount of crude oil from the contaminated soil at different solution concentrations for instance rhamnolipid and SDS removed up to 80% oil and lecithin about 42%. The performance of water alone in crude oil removal was equally as good as those of the other biosurfactants. Oil removal was due to mobilization, caused by the reduction of surface and interfacial tensions. Solubilization and emulsification effects in oil removal were negligible due to the low crude oil solubilization of 0.11%. Therefore, these studies suggest that knowledge of surfactants' behaviour across different systems is paramount before their use in the practical application of oil removal.

  14. Effects of crude oil and oil/dispersant mixture on growth and expression of vitellogenin and heat shock protein 90 in blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Susan C; Taylor, Caz M

    2017-06-30

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) resulted in over 780million liters of crude oil spilling into Gulf waters. In an effort to disperse the oil, nearly 7.6million liters of dispersant was applied. Many commercially and recreationally important species reside in or near the area of the spill. The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, is common in the NGOM and is both economically and ecologically important in this region. In this study, after exposing juvenile blue crabs to oil or a mixture of oil and dispersant we tested for relative expression of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and vitellogenin (vtg) by measuring their corresponding mRNA expression. We also monitored crabs over two molts to test for effects on growth. Expression of hsp90 was significantly downregulated, and we did not detect any effects of exposure to oil or oil/dispersant mixture on growth or vtg expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  16. Effects of Exposure of Pink Shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, Larvae to Macondo Canyon 252 Crude Oil and the Corexit Dispersant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Laramore

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The release of oil into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM during the Deepwater Horizon event coincided with the white and pink shrimp spawning season. To determine the potential impact on shrimp larvae a series of static acute (24–96 h toxicity studies with water accommodated fractions (WAFs of Macondo Canyon (MC 252 crude oil, the Corexit 9500A dispersant, and chemically enhanced WAFS (CEWAFs were conducted with nauplii, zoea, mysid, and postlarval Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 were calculated and behavior responses (swimming, molting, light sensitivity evaluated. Impacts were life stage dependent with zoea being the most sensitive. Behavioral responses for all stages, except postlarvae, occurred at below LC50 values. Dispersants had the greatest negative impact while WAFs had the least. No short-term effects (survival, growth were noted for nauplii exposed to sub-lethal CEWAFs 39 days post-exposure. This study points to the importance of evaluating multiple life stages to assess population effects following contaminant exposure and further, that the use of dispersants as a method of oil removal increases oil toxicity.

  17. [Synthesis of biodiesel from crude oil by immobilized lipase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junkui; Lu, Jike; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei; Deng, Li

    2009-06-01

    We used immobilized lipase from Candida sp. 99-125 to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from crude oil and methanol. We studied the effects of phospholipids on activity of immobilized lipase, reaction velocity, stability of immobilized lipase and the stability of immobilized lipase in crude and refined oil. Results showed that the activity of the lipase immersed in petroleum ether with 1% phospholipids dropped more quickly than the lipase in petroleum ether without phospholipids. When soybean oil was used without phospholipids as material, the FAMEs yield of 15 min was 26.2%, whereas the yield decreased to 12.4% when there were 5% phospholipids in the soybean oil. However when the phospholipids content was below 1%, the stability of the lipase did not change obviously. The lipase was stable when used to catalyze crude soybean oil and crude jatropha oil, after 10 cycles the FAMEs yield was still above 70%. This lipase showed great potential for industrial production of biodiesel from crude oil.

  18. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  19. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed S. Al-Wasify

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  20. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  1. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  2. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  3. Properties of Tahe crude oil and influence of separation components on crude oil viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaogang, Chen; Hongjun, Deng [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Meiqin, Lin [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    The Tahe oil field in Xinjiang produces oil from depths of 5500m to 7000m whose temperatures range from 128 to 140 Celsius. The formation waters have a high salinity. To determine the major factors that contribute to the viscosity of the oil, such as saturate, aromatic resin, and asphaltene, a variety of techniques were used. Measurements were done using IR, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis (EDX), elemental analysis, and ICP techniques. It was found, as predicted, that the viscosity of the crude oil decreased with increase of the temperature. However, different types of crude oil have various levels of temperature-sensitive turning points. The Tahe oil fields have a higher turning point due to the asphaltene and resins. To conduct the experiment the Tahe crude AD11 was separated into oil fractions using toluene as the solvent. It was concluded that the asphaltene has the greatest impact on viscosity.

  4. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  5. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have......, for a fixed period of CWI, was higher than its final saturation in tertiary CWI. We also show that the nucleation and growth of the new gaseous phase is directly proportional to the amount of hydrocarbon gas dissolved in the oil which is a function of oil properties and saturation pressure and temperature....

  6. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  7. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    was measured by gravimetric and gas chromatographic methods. Around 45-55% of the total fractions of crude oil (containing 50% aliphatics, 31% waxes and bitumin, 14% aromatics and 5% polar compounds) were removed in the presence of these cultures within 10 days...

  8. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  9. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution. ... Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization ... impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota interactions, ecosystem monitoring, ...

  10. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  11. Effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonite on the biodegradation and adsorption of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-09-01

    Cation exchange capacity, surface acidity and specific surface area are surface properties of clay minerals that make them act as catalysts or supports in most biogeochemical processes hence making them play important roles in environmental control. However, the role of homoionic clay minerals during the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds is not well reported. In this study, the effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonites in the removal of some crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The homoionic montmorillonites were prepared via cation exchange reactions by treating the unmodified montmorillonite with the relevant metallic chloride. The study indicated that potassium-montmorillonite and zinc-montmorillonite did not enhance the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whereas calcium-montmorillonite, and ferric-montmorillonite enhanced their biodegradation significantly. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was significant during biodegradation with potassium- and zinc-montmorillonite where there was about 45% removal of the polycyclic aromatic compounds by adsorption in the experimental microcosm containing 5:1 ratio (w/w) of clay to oil.

  12. THE LONG-RUN AND SHORT-RUN EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL PRICE ON METHANOL MARKET IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Komijani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substituting crude oil exports with value-added petrochemical products is one of the main strategies for policy makers in oil-driven economies to isolating the real sectors of economy from oil price volatility. This policy inclination has led to a body of literature in energy economics in recent decades. As a case study, this paper investigates the short-run and long-run relationship between Iran’s oil price and methanol price which is one of the most important non-oil exports of the oil-exporting country. To do so, the weekly data from 18 Jan. 2009 to 18 Sep. 2011 in a VECM framework is applied. The results show that in the long-run, oil price hikes leads to proportional increase in methanol price while in the short-run, this impact is not significant.

  13. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  14. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  15. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  16. Some advances in crude oil rheology and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张劲军; 柳歆

    2008-01-01

    Waxy crude oil exhibits complex shear-and-thermal-history-dependent non-Newtonian behaviors.In the past 10 years,driven by the petroleum industry,crude oil rheology has been an active field.Studies on crude oil rheology have been passing a way from simply relying on rheological measurements,through quantitative experimental simulation of shear and thermal history effects in pipelining,to recent development of correlation between flow properties and shear and thermal history.Currently,the study is toward quantitative inquiry of relations between the rheological behaviors and micro-structures of wax crystals as well as oil compositions.Advances achieved by the author’ team are summarized,including simulation of the thermal and shear history effects,correlations and computation of flow properties,fractal characterization of morphology and structure of wax crystals,relations of rheological behaviors to fractal dimension and oil compositions,and the most successful example of the application of rheology in crude oil pipelining.Future studies are prospected.

  17. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA PAPATULICǍ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International crude oil market faces almost 2 years of sharp fall in benchmark crude oil prices (mainly Brent from $ 105.7 / barrel in June 2014 to $ 36 / barrel in December 2015 and a minimum of $ 27-28 / barrel (for the last 13 years, in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a “growth factor or a curse” for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession. Opinions about the effects of the sharp decline, in world oil prices are divided. Some analysts say that such evolution is good for consumers, while others consider it is bad for the global economy. Low oil prices could create disadvantages by causing deflation. The risk is that deflationary expectations determine consumers to refrain from additional purchases in anticipation of even lower prices. This would lead to an excess of production capacity and to ample inventories that will force down the prices even further. When buyers’ suspicions are confirmed, they delay further consumption resulting in a vicious circle. Historically, plummeting crude oil prices have been perceived as a growth factor, especially in the net importing countries. But this has not yet been translated into tangible positive economic effects worldwide.

  18. Toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil in aquatic environment on Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant defense system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuanyuan; ZHOU Qixing; PENG Shengwei; MA Lena Q; NIU Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    Under the indoor simulant conditions, toxic effects of crude-oil-contaminated soil which was put into aquatic environment on the young fishes Carassius auratus and their hepatic antioxidant system after a 20-d exposure were investigated. Results showed that the relationship between the mortality of C. auratus and the exposed doses could be divided to 3 phases: fishes exposed to the low dose groups (0.5--5.0 g/L) were dead due to the ingestion of crude-oil-contaminated soils in aquatic environment; at the medium dose groups (5.0--25.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to the penetration of toxic substances; at the high dose groups (25.0--50.0 g/L) fishes were dead due to environmental stress. The highest mortality and death speed were found in the 1.0 g/L dose group, and the death speed was sharply increased in the 50.0 g/L dose group in the late phase of the exposure. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the content of malaondialdehyde (MDA) in the hepatic tissues of C. auratus were induced significantly. The activity of SOD was first increased and then decreased, and was significantly inhibited in the 50.0 g/L dose group. The activity of CAT was highly induced, and restored to a little more than the control level when the exposed doses exceeded 10.0 g/L. The activity of GST was the most sensitive, it was significantly induced in all dose groups, and the highest elevation was up to 6 times in the 0.5 g/L dose group compared with the control. The MDA content was significantly elevated in the 50.0 g/L dose group, and the changes of the MDA content were opposite with the changes of the GST activity.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON CRUDE OIL YIELD AND GERMINATION OF SUNFLOWER-TANAY VARIETY (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. VAİZOĞULLAR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of gamma rays on crude oil yield, seedling growth, germination and antimicrobial activity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus. As plant materials, sunflower variety Tanay seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological.To determine seed viability, tetrazolium chloride (TTC test was performed. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts and seeds were subjected to germination tests. The seeds were treated with 100 ppm doses of GA3 for 24 hours (GA, soaking for 24 hours (SB, preheating for 24 hours in a week (PH and precooling for 24 hours in a week (PC for optimization of germination.The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy. As a result of testing of seed viability, 95% viability in seeds was determined. In 12L/12D light photoperiod, 25% germination in seeds was detected at GA application the highest, the lowest 5% germination in seeds was determined in PC application. It was found that minimum and maximum values ranged between 5.72and 10.81% for humidity rate.Extraction of the seed of Sunflower-Tanay was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours. Antimicrobial activity of Sunflower-Tanay extract were tested by a disk diffusion method. Extracts of the H.annuus L.(sunflower-Tanay showed no antimicrobial activity against M.luteus NCIMB 13267 and E. coli ATCC 25922.

  20. Effects of crude oil exposure on bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of adult and larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles. However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L(-1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L(-1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50 for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L(-1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L(-1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1 A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2 larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3 some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators.

  1. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  2. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  4. AN INVESTIGATION OF SOME HEDGING STRATEGIES FOR CRUDE OIL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Assis de Salles

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modelling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions making them more realistic.

  5. Simultaneous optimization of heat-integrated crude oil distillation systems☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqing Luo; Liwen Wang; He Wang; Xigang Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil distil ation is important in refining industry. Operating variables of distil ation process have a critical ef-fect on product output value and energy consumption. However, the objectives of minimum energy consumption and maximum product output value do not coordinate with each other and do not lead to the maximum eco-nomic benefit of a refinery. In this paper, a systematic optimization approach is proposed for the maximum an-nual economic benefit of an existing crude oil distil ation system, considering product output value and energy consumption simultaneously. A shortcut model in Aspen Plus is used to describe the crude oil distillation and the pinch analysis is adopted to identify the target of energy recovery. The optimization is a nonlinear program-ming problem and solved by stochastic algorithm of particle warm optimization.

  6. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  7. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  8. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  9. Characterization of water-in-crude oil emulsions in oil spill response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The formation of water-in-crude oil emulsions occurs when crude oils are spilled into sea. The water-in-crude oil emulsionssignificantly change the properties of the spilled crude oils and in turn influence the choices made relating to oil spill countermeasures. Thewater-in-crude oil emulsions were characterized using various techniques in this study. The environmental scanning electron microscopyobservation of water droplets in the emulsions is also presented. It is a powerful tool in emulsion observations.

  10. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marbuah, George

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  11. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  12. Effect of electric field treatment on unsaturated fatty acid in crude avocado oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Ortega, José Alberto; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Díaz-Reyes, Joel; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly del Socorro

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of the fatty acids in avocado oil when the product is subjected to different conditions of electric field treatment (voltage: 5 kV cm(-1); frequency: 720 Hz; treatment time: 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min). Fatty acids were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-infrared region. Electric field is a suitable method to preserve the oil quality and composition with minimal modifications in unsaturated fatty acids.

  13. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  14. Upgrading of crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Peigao; Savage, Phillip E

    2011-01-01

    We determined the influence of a Pt/C catalyst, high-pressure H2, and pH on the upgrading of a crude algal bio-oil in supercritical water (SCW). The SCW treatment led to a product oil with a higher heating value (∼42 MJ/kg) and lower acid number than the crude bio-oil. The product oil was also lower in O and N and essentially free of sulfur. Including the Pt/C catalyst in the reactor led to a freely flowing liquid product oil with a high abundance of hydrocarbons. Overall, many of the properties of the upgraded oil obtained from catalytic treatment in SCW are similar to those of hydrocarbon fuels derived from fossil fuel resources. Thus, this work shows that the crude bio-oil from hydrothermal liquefaction of a microalga can be effectively upgraded in supercritical water in the presence of a Pt/C catalyst. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms. The ion specific interaction between fines and polar fractions of crude oil at the oil-water interface has been less explored. In this study the relative affinity between different ions and the oil surface was determined. The experiments prove the importance of Ca2+, SO42-, and HPO42- ions...... emulsion formation at 0.05 mol/1. The amount of emulsion formation showed significant dependency on the type of acid doped in oil. Experiments demonstrate that the brine solution can alter the micro forces at the oil-water interface, and this ion specific interaction leads to oil emulsion formation......The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...

  16. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Benyahia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20 sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80 gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  17. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-15

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  18. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  19. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  20. Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH

  1. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  2. Colloidal analysis of the asphaltene and their fractions with p-nitrophenol (PNP) of the Furrial crude oil for effect of the hydrotreating to different pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labrador-Sanchez, H. [Univ. de Carabobo, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Quimica, Grupo de Petroleo, Hidrocarburo y Derivados; Lindarte, L. [Univ. de Carabobo, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Quimica, Grupo de Petroleo, Hidrocarburo y Derivados; Univ. de Carabobo, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Quimica, Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion; Luis, M.A. [Univ. de Carabobo, Estado Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Quimica, Laboratorio de Catalisis y Metales de Transicion

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of hydrotreating Furrial crude oil on asphaltene and its fractions (A1 and A2) obtained by the p-Nitrophenol (PNP) method. A batch reactor was used at different pressures of hydrogen to perform 8 hydrotreating reactions on the Furrial crude oil. Asphaltenes were separated from the oil and fractioned with PNP to obtain A1 and A2. The asphaltene and their fractions were characterized for flocculation threshold, percentage of total sulfur, nuclear magnetic resonance of 13C and elemental composition. The study showed that hydrotreating influenced the colloidal behaviour of the asphaltene and that the catalyst promoted the conversion of asphaltene, its stability, and its desulfurization. Hydrotreating had a greater affect on the A2 fraction than the A1 fraction. 2 refs.

  3. A study of the effects of phenolic de-emulsifier solutions in xylene on the de-emulsification of a Nigerian crude oil emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Enontiemonria Efeovbokhan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The research and development of de-emulsifiers for separating water from crude oil emulsions usually result in varying degrees of success, depending on the location and the type of crude being treated. This makes de-emulsifiers crude oil specific and thus gives rise to the continuous search for more and effective de-emulsifiers that can meet the specific needs of each locality. In this study, base-catalyzed phenol formaldehyde resins were formulated at varying formaldehyde to phenol ratios (1.2:1–1.8:1; the assessment was carried out by the bottle test method at varied de-emulsifier concentrations (vol/vol in xylene acting as solvent diluent. The bottle test was carried out at an optimum temperature of 70 °C, dosage of 50 ppm and residence times of 10 and 20 min. A factorial design was done to determine the best combination of the de-emulsification conditions for the resolution of the Nigerian crude oil emulsion. The results were analyzed and optimized using Minitab 16 utilizing a Pareto chart, normal effects, main effects and interaction plots. From the analysis carried out, it was found that the most effective formulated de-emulsifier was obtained at formaldehyde to phenol (F:P mole ratio of 1.8:1, 80% de-emulsifier concentration in xylene and residence time of 20 min. This de-emulsifier obtained a water separation efficiency of 79% compared to the commercial de-emulsifier which gave 71% efficiency. Thus the solution of P:F de-emulsifiers in xylene enhances the de-emulsification of the Nigerian crude oil emulsions.

  4. Factors influencing crude oil biodegradation by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Felix Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Yarrowia lipolytica is unique strictly aerobic yeast with the ability to efficiently degrade hydrophobic substrates such as n-alkenes, fatty acids, glycerol and oils. In the present work, a 2(4 full factorial design was used to investigate the influence of the independent variables of temperature, agitation, initial cell concentration and initial petroleum concentration on crude oil biodegradation. The results showed that all variables studied had significant effects on the biodegradation process. Temperature, agitation speed and initial cell concentration had positive effects, and initial petroleum concentration had a negative effect. Among the crude oil removal conditions studied, the best temperature and agitation conditions were 28ºC and 250 rpm, respectively.

  5. Toxicological effects of crude oil and oil dispersant: biomarkers in the heart of the juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Imbert, Nathalie; Sanchez, Wilfried; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    Dispersant use is a controversial oil spill response technique in coastal areas. Using an experimental approach, this study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant use upon juveniles of golden grey mullet (Liza aurata). Fish were exposed for 48 h to either dispersant only, chemically dispersed oil, mechanically dispersed oil, the water soluble fraction of oil or to control conditions. Following exposure and a depuration period, biomarkers were assessed in fish hearts, namely the total glutathione content and the activity of four enzymes (glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxides). Comparing biomarker responses between the different treatments, this study revealed that 48 h exposure to dispersed oil (whether mechanically or chemically dispersed) resulted in a toxicity that was still detectable after a 14 days depuration period. Comparing biomarkers responses after an exposure to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil, this study suggests that chemical dispersion of the oil slick would not be more toxic than its natural dispersion under certain turbulent meteorological conditions (e.g. waves). Furthermore, the results indicated that the heart could be a target organ of interest in further studies investigating the toxicity of hydrocarbons. This study, which has been integrated into the DISCOBIOL project (Dispersant et techniques de lutte en milieu côtier: effets biologiques et apport à la réglementation), presents information of interest when attempting to provide a framework for dispersant applications in coastal areas.

  6. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  7. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  8. Libya, Algeria and Egypt: crude oil potential from known deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietzman, W.D.; Rafidi, N.R.; Ross, T.A.

    1982-04-01

    An analysis is presented of the discovered crude oil resources, reserves, and estimated annual production from known fields of the Republics of Libya, Algeria, and Egypt. Proved reserves are defined as the remaining producible oil as of a specified date under operating practice in effect at that time and include estimated recoverable oil in undrilled portions of a given structure or structures. Also included in the proved reserve category are the estimated indicated additional volumes of recoverable oil from the entire oil reservoir where fluid injection programs have been started in a portion, or portions, of the reservoir. The indicated additional reserves (probable reserves) reported herein are the volumes of crude oil that might be obtained with the installation of secondary recovery or pressure maintenance operations in reservoirs where none have been previously installed. The sum of cumulative production, proved reserves, and probable reserves is defined as the ultimate oil recovery from known deposits; and resources are defined as the original oil in place (OOIP). An assessment was made of the availability of crude oil under three assumed sustained production rates for each country; an assessment was also made of each country's capability of sustaining production at, or near, the 1980 rates assuming different limiting reserve to production ratios. Also included is an estimate of the potential maximum producing capability from known deposits that might be obtained from known accumulations under certain assumptions, using a simple time series approach. The theoretical maximum oil production capability from known fields at any time is the maximum deliverability rate assuming there are no equipment, investment, market, or political constraints.

  9. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  10. Effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Lim, T.H.; Yu, C.W. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)

    2002-11-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuels for diesel engines. CPO is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. However, at room temperature (30-32 deg C) CPO has a viscosity about 10 times higher than that of diesel. To lower CPO's viscosity to the level of diesel's viscosity, a heating temperature of at least 92 deg C is needed. At this temperature, there is a concern that the close-fitting parts of the injection system might be affected. This study focused on finding out the effects of preheating of fuel on the injection system utilising a modified method of friction test, which involves injecting fuel outside the combustion chamber during motoring. Results show that preheating of CPO lowered CPO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow, but did not affect the injection system, even heating up to 100 deg C. Nevertheless, heating up to such a high temperature offered no benefits in terms of engine performance. However, heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. Both can be achieved by heating CPO to 60 deg C. Combustion analyses comparisons between CPO and diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6%, a shorter ignition delay of 2.6 deg, a lower maximum heat release rate and a longer combustion period. Over the entire load range, CPO combustion produced average CO and NO emissions that were 9.2 and 29.3% higher, respectively, compared with those from diesel combustion. (Author)

  11. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T. [Hyogo Perfectural Inst. of Environmental Science, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants as demulsifiers for crude oil emulsions: 2-demulsification of different types of crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Azim, A.A.A.; Abdel-Raouf, M.E.S.; Abdul-Raheim, A.R.M.; Maysor, N.E.S. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.], e-mail: drmanar770@yahoo.com

    2010-10-15

    The present work studies demulsification of two types of crude oil emulsions by nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants. The effect of pH and salinity of aqueous phase of crude oil on emulsion stability was considered, and the correlation between demulsification rate and the type of crude was studied. Nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants were tested as demulsifiers for light and heavy crudes at different aqueous phase conditions. It was found that the light crude was more easily demulsified than the heavy crude. The experimental data showed that changes in pH or salinity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion enhance its stability and decrease the demulsification efficiency of the applied demulsifiers. Also, it has been shown that surfactants based on glucose octyl amine ethoxylates (GO) are the most effective in demulsifying the investigated emulsions. The data reveal that maximum demulsification efficiency is attained at a neutral pH whereas it decreases in both directions for either of the investigated crude oils. Furthermore, the results indicate that the percentage of water separation decreases as the salinity of the emulsion's aqueous phase increases. Light crudes showed better demulsification than heavy crudes under any test condition. The demulsification process for selected emulsions was monitored by optical microscopy. (author)

  13. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  14. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. The environmental impact of petroleum exploration in. Nigeria and other oil producing countries has been on the increase. ... The test organisms were isolated from crude oil sludge environment of Qua Iboe ... was supplemented with 1% Bunny light crude oil (from Exxonmobil. Producing ...

  15. Study of weathering effects on the distribution of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in crude oils and oil residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanyuan; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu; Guo, Ping; Zhao, Mingming

    2014-01-01

    The composition and distribution of triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons in oil residues after biodegradation and photo-oxidation processes were detected, and the diagnostic ratios for oil spill identification were developed and evaluated based on the relative standard deviation (RSD) and the repeatability limit. The preferential loss of C27 methyl triaromatic steranes (MTAS) relative to C28 MTAS and C29 MTAS was shown during the photo-oxidation process. In contrast to the photochemical degradation, the MTAS with the original 20R biological configuration was preferentially degraded during the biodegradation process. The RSD of most of the diagnostic ratios of MTAS ranged from 9 to 84% during the photo-oxidation process. However, the RSDs of such ratios derived from MTAS were all hydrocarbons retained their molecular compositions after biodegradation and photo-oxidation and most of the diagnostic ratios derived from them could be efficiently used in oil spill identification.

  16. Enrichment and isolation of crude oil degrading bacteria from some mussels collected from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Zeynab; Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Hesni, Majid Askari

    2015-12-15

    To date, little is known about existing relationships between mussels and bacteria in hydrocarbon-contaminated marine environments. The aim of this study is to find crude oil degrading bacteria in some mussels at the Persian Gulf. Twenty eight crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from three mussels species collected from oil contaminated area at Persian Gulf. According to high growth and degradation of crude oil four strains were selected between 28 isolated strains for more study. Determination the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that these isolated strains belong to: Shewanella algae isolate BHA1, Micrococcus luteus isolate BHA7, Pseudoalteromonas sp. isolate BHA8 and Shewanella haliotis isolate BHA35. The residual crude oil in culture medium was analysis by Gas Chromatography (GC). The results confirmed that these strains can degrade: 47.24%, 66.08%, 27.13% and 69.17% of crude oil respectively. These strains had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production. Also, the effects of some factors on crude oil degradation by isolated strains were studied. The results show that the optimum concentration of crude oil was 2.5% and the best degradation take place at 12% of salinity. This research is the first reports on characterization of crude oil degrading bacteria from mussels at Persian Gulf and by using of these bacteria in the field the effect of oil pollution can be reduce on this marine environment.

  17. Embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Bryson E; Wooten, Kimberly J; Smith, Philip N

    2011-08-01

    Weathered crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico can result from oil spills such as the Deepwater Horizon incident that occurred on April 20, 2010 or from natural seeps. Adult waterbirds of the Gulf Coast region may become exposed to weathered crude oil while foraging, wading, or resting, and residues can then be transferred to nests, eggs, and hatchlings. Although the toxicity of many types of crude oil to avian embryos has been thoroughly studied, the effects of weathered crude oil on developing avian embryos are not well characterized. The objective of the present study was to examine embryotoxicity of weathered crude oil collected from the Gulf of Mexico in June 2010 using mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) as a model species. Weathered crude oil was applied to fertilized mallard duck eggs by paintbrush in masses ranging from 0.1 to 99.9 mg on day 3 of incubation. Mortality occurred as early as day 7 and the conservatively derived median lethal application of weathered crude oil was 30.8 mg/egg (0.5 mg/g egg) or 30.7 µl/egg (0.5 µl/g egg). Body mass, liver and spleen mass, crown-rump and bill lengths, and frequency of deformities were not significantly different among hatchlings from oiled and control eggs. In comparison to published reports of fresh crude oil embryotoxicity, weathered crude oil was considerably less toxic. We conclude that avian toxicity varies according to the degree of crude oil weathering and the stage of embryonic development at the time of exposure. Results indicate bird eggs exposed to weathered crude oil from the Gulf of Mexico during summer 2010 may have had reduced hatching success.

  18. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  19. Non-Aqueous and Crude Oil Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blázquez Christian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foams produced from non-aqueous media are less common than water-based foams but they play an important role in many industries and engineering processes. The low surface tension of hydrocarbon fluids limits the adsorption of common surface activity substances and different compounds and methods must be considered to generate and stabilize oil-based foam. Likewise, the destruction of unwanted non-aqueous based foam requires specific considerations not found with aqueous systems. Of particular interest are petroleum-based foams, which are highly complex due to the wide variety of compounds and gases that can be found. We provide an overview of the major mechanisms known to be important for non-aqueous foam stability with a spotlight on crude-oil foams.

  20. Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    M?jean, A.; Hope, Chris

    2010-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil (SCO) produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs...

  1. Effects of temperature and fertilization on the structure of total versus active bacterial communities from sub-Antarctic seawater exposed to crude oil and diesel fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Rodríguez-Blanco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polar environments are exposed to the risk of oil pollution. However, there is limited knowledge regarding how the variation of physicochemical factors influencing biodegradation may affect bacterial community structure. The effects of temperature (4, 10 and 20°C and organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22 on community structure and diversity of bacteria inhabiting Kerguelen sub-Antarctic waters were studied in crude- and diesel-amended microcosms. Dynamics of total (i.e., 16S rDNA-based and metabolically active (i.e., 16S rRNA-based bacterial community structure and diversity were monitored using capillary-electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism. Results showed that total and active community structures were differently influenced by temperature and fertilization in the presence of hydrocarbons. Both fertilization and temperature induced changes in total community structure in the presence of crude oil and diesel. However, temperature showed a limited influence on active community structure, and fertilization induced changes in the presence of crude oil only. Simpson's index decreased for total bacterial communities at all temperatures in the presence of crude oil and diesel, whereas a lower reduction was observed for active bacterial populations. In the presence of fertilizer, the diversity of the whole community approached control values after seven incubation weeks; this was not observed for the active bacterial community. This study evidenced qualitative differences in total and active bacterial community structures of Kerguelen seawaters in the presence of hydrocarbons and different responses relative to variation in temperature and fertilization. These factors and hydrocarbons composition have to be taken into account to understand bacterial community dynamics after an oil spill.

  2. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. (Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  3. Compositional heterogeneity of crude oil and its origin in the Linnan subsag, Linyi County, Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Xiangchun; DUAN Yunge; CHEN Qingchun; MA Lixin

    2008-01-01

    The Linnan subsag is the main oil producer of the Linpan oil zone. Based on the oil group composition, gas chromatography data and biomarker analysis, it was indicated that crude oils from different oilfields varied greatly in group composition and showed obvious heterogeneities in the aspects of precursor type, crude oil maturity and hydrocarbon depositional environment. According to the characteristics of source rocks, three oil populations can be distinguished, i.e., the southern, northern and transitional oil populations. Furthermore, on the basis of post-reservoir reworking processes, the medium conditions of hydrocarbon-generating environment and differences in maturity, six oil families and twelve sub-families were distinquished. An integrated study suggested that the factors leading to such heterogeneities in crude oil composition mainly include different source rocks, multi-stage oil/gas charging, geo-chromatographic effects during oil/gas migration, reservoir heterogeneities and various post-reservoir secondary alterations.

  4. Effect of hydrocarbons and crude oil contamination on the sensitivity of French bean to alfalfa mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurík, M; Gallo, J; Subr, Z

    1995-12-01

    Determination of local necrotic lesions on primary leaves infected by alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) revealed that hydrocarbons (HC) contamination of the substrate used for cultivation of French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cv. Black Turtle Soup) caused a reduction of bean leaf area and an increase of plant sensitivity to AMV infection. On the other hand, superficial contamination of the leaves by crude oil caused an inhibition of lesion formation. Changes of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of extractable bean leaf proteins related to the cultivation substrate contamination by HC were also detected.

  5. growth development in pre-pubertal female rabbits fed crude oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMA

    ... was conducted to examine the effects of crude oil (Bonny Light Grade) on the ... that growth was significantly depressed (P≤0.05) in the crude oil treated diets ... However, few works ... The results in this study revealed a severe depression in.

  6. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  7. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis ... observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the ... changing oil prices on stock prices and exchange rates an important guide to.

  8. Effect of Fenton pre-oxidation on mobilization of nutrients and efficient subsequent bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlan; Kong, Fanxing; Song, Shaohua; Cao, Qianqian; Huang, Tinglin; Cui, Yiwei

    2017-08-01

    Fenton pre-oxidation and a subsequent bioremediation phase of 80 days were used to investigate the importance of matching concentration of residual indigenous bacteria and nutrient levels on subsequent bioremediation of crude oil. Experiments were performed using either high (>10(7.7 ± 0.2) CFU/g soil) or low (soil) concentrations of bacteria and three different nutrient levels: enough (C/N > 9.8), moderate (C/N:5-9.8), and lacking nutrient level (C/N nutrient level and the population of residual indigenous bacteria. Up to 53% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and 58% of main hydrocarbon (C15C25, during the first 10 days) were removed from the soil. Under matching conditions, the activity of indigenous bacteria and nutrient mobilization were enhanced, promoting the bioremediation of crude oil. In addition, the biodegradation of long chain molecules (C26C30) required a high level of NH4(+)-N. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  10. Hedging effectiveness and volatility models for crude oil market: a dynamic approach; Modelos de volatilidade e a efetividade do hedge no mercado de petroleo: um abordagem dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Andre Assis de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The hedge strategies allow negotiators that have short and long positions in the market protection against price fluctuations. This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the Western Texas Intermediate - WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modeling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions. The data used is logarithm returns of daily prices quoted in dollars per barrel from November 2008 to May 2010 for spot and future contracts, in particular the June contract. (author)

  11. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  12. Building a Consensus Forecast for Crude Oil Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    recommendations for follow-on research. 4 II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins with a review of the history of crude oil production beginning...import supply curves Domestic crude oil production Domestic natural gas liquids production Domestic gas-to-liquids production Domestic coal-to-liquids

  13. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge

  14. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  15. Estimating 'Value at Risk' of crude oil price and its spillover effect using the GED-GARCH approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China); Zhang, Yue-Jun [Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Institute of Policy and Management, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100080 (China); Tsai, Hsien-Tang [College of Management, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424 (China)

    2008-11-15

    Estimation has been carried out using GARCH-type models, based on the Generalized Error Distribution (GED), for both the extreme downside and upside Value-at-Risks (VaR) of returns in the WTI and Brent crude oil spot markets. Furthermore, according to a new concept of Granger causality in risk, a kernel-based test is proposed to detect extreme risk spillover effect between the two oil markets. Results of an empirical study indicate that the GED-GARCH-based VaR approach appears more effective than the well-recognized HSAF (i.e. historical simulation with ARMA forecasts). Moreover, this approach is also more realistic and comprehensive than the standard normal distribution-based VaR model that is commonly used. Results reveal that there is significant two-way risk spillover effect between WTI and Brent markets. Supplementary study indicates that at the 99% confidence level, when negative market news arises that brings about a slump in oil price return, historical information on risk in the WTI market helps to forecast the Brent market. Conversely, it is not the case when positive news occurs and returns rise. Historical information on risk in the two markets can facilitate forecasts of future extreme market risks for each other. These results are valuable for anyone who needs evaluation and forecasts of the risk situation in international crude oil markets. (author)

  16. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  17. Effect of Pressure on Wetting Properties of Crude Oil, Sandstone Rock, Water, CO2 and (or) Flue Gas System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojaikaveh, N.; Amerighasrodashti, A.; Rossen, W.R.; Bruining, J.; Wolf, K-H.A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide injection, either miscible or immiscible, has been known as an efficient strategy to enhance oil recovery as well as reduce CO2 emission. Wettability has a significant effect on the performance of enhanced oil recovery techniques because of its effect on fluid saturation distribution

  18. Process for Separation of Petroleum Acids from Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new technique for separation of petroleum acids from crude oil was proposed. The method relates to processes for treating acidic oils or fractions thereof to reduce or eliminate their acidity by addition of effective amounts of crosslinked polymeric amines such as polypropylene amine and anionic exchange resins having amino-groups. Petroleum acids contained in the mixture can be extracted by a complex solvent. The results indicate that more than 80 % of the petroleum acids are removed and the process does not cause environmental pollution because all the solvents are recovered and reused in the test.

  19. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan;

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...... on the bare surfaces, surfaces with an adsorbed oil layer, and surfaces after being exposed to aqueous salt solutions. This showed that the silica surface became more hydrophobic after oil adsorption, while the wettability of the calcium carbonate surface was not significantly changed by adsorption of an oil...... layer. A surface energy component analysis based on the acid base theory showed that oil adsorption on the surfaces depends upon apolar, acidic, and basic oil components of the crude oil and that the adsorbed oil components differ for adsorption to silica and calcium carbonate. Desorption of the crude...

  20. Influence of incipient chain dimension of EVA flow improver on the rheological behaviour of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.W.; Qi, G.R.; Han, D.L.; Yang, S.L. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    1996-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of Daqing crude oil with different incipient chain dimensions of the same ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, prepared with different solvents, solution concentrations and temperatures was studied. It was shown that the EVA flow improver with a compact incipient shape before addition to the oil is preferable for reduction of apparent viscosity, pour point and wax crystallization temperature of crude oil. The compact dimension effect is probably due to strongly selective action in the flow of crude oil. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  2. Co-processing of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan

    2017-05-01

    The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.

  3. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  4. Macondo crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupts specific developmental processes during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Soysa T Yvanka

    2012-05-01

    hydrocarbon components of the oil. Conclusions Whether these teratogenic effects are unique to the oil from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill or generalizable for most crude oil types remains to be determined. This work establishes a model for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms behind crude oil mediated deformations. In addition, due to the high conservation of genetic and cellular processes between zebrafish and other vertebrates, our work also provides a platform for more focused assessment of the impact that the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has had on the early life stages of native fish species in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Effect of Pour Point Depressant on Wax Precipitation From Crude Oil%降凝剂对原油石蜡沉积的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈五花; 陈建

    2013-01-01

    Economic loss due to wax precipitation in oil exploitation and transportation has reached several billion dollars a year recently. Addition of pour point depressants(PPD)has been proved to be an efficient way to inhibit wax deposition. It is important to study the effect of PPD on wax precipitation. In this paper, effect of PPD on wax precipitation of Daqing crude oil was studied from the aspects of rheology and wax crystal morphology. The results show that after adding PPD, the wax precipitation temperature is almost constant and the wax precipitation peak temperature of crude oil is shifted to lower temperature. This result is due to that the crystal structure of wax can be partly transformed into hexagonal from orthorhombic form and wax crystallization can be dramatically slowed by PPD. The size of paraffin particles increases , and the shape of wax crystal is getting more near to sphericity after adding PPD in crude oil, so the connection capability among paraffin particles is lowered and the flow properties of waxy crude oil at low temperatures is improved.%  在石油开采和输送过程中由于石蜡沉积造成的经济损失每年达数十亿美元。添加化学降凝剂的方法可以避免或减小固相沉积造成的不利影响和危害,因此研究降凝剂对石蜡沉积的影响有非常重要的意义。从流变学和晶体学方面对降凝剂影响原油中的石蜡沉积进行了实验研究。实验数据显示,加剂后原油的析蜡点不变,析蜡峰温向低温方向移动,这是因为降凝剂的加入使得蜡晶的晶格结构由正交型转变为了旋转型,延缓了蜡晶的析出速率,且由于加剂后蜡晶颗粒变大,形状更接近于球形、使得蜡晶聚集体的絮凝能力减弱,原油的低温流动性得到了改善。

  6. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  7. China Brings in More Crude Oil in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Venezuela to increase oil export to China Venezuela plans to increase its oil sales to China by 50,000 barrels a day by the end of the year, the country's oil minister Rafael Ramirez said in mid-August. Venezuela's state oil company, Petroleos de Venezuela SA, will increase sales to China to 200,000 barrels a day from the current 150,000 barrels per day. The shipments include crude and other products, such as fuel oil.

  8. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  9. Waxes and asphaltenes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, N.X. [Branch of Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Min City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Geochemistry; Hsieh, M.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-07-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons (> C{sub 40}) and asphaltenes are important constituents of petroleum, and can cause problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation, as well as in the formation of tar mats. However, traditional methods to isolate asphaltene fractions, by adding 40 volumes in excess of low boiling point solvents such as pentane, hexane or heptane, can produce asphaltene fractions which are contaminated with a significant amount of microcrystalline waxes (> C{sub 40}). The presence of these microcrystalline waxes in the asphaltene fractions has the potential to provide misleading and ambiguous results in modeling and treatment programs. The sub-surface phase behaviour of an asphaltene fraction will be quite different from that of a wax-contaminated asphaltene fraction. Similarly accurate modelling of wax drop-out requires information on pure wax fractions and not asphaltene-dominated fractions. Hence the aim of this paper is to describe a novel method for the preparation of wax-free asphaltene fractions. In addition, this method provides a quantitative subdivision of the wax fraction into pentane soluble and insoluble waxes which, when correlated with physical properties of crude oil such as viscosity, pour point, cloud point, etc., may help explain causes of wax deposition during production, transportation and storage of petroleum. (author)

  10. Removal of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via organoclay-microbe-oil interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-05-01

    Clay minerals are quite vital in biogeochemical processes but the effect of organo-clays in the microbial degradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is not well understood. The role of organo-saponite and organo-montmorillonite in comparison with the unmodified clays in crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal via adsorption and biodegradation was studied by carrying out microcosm experiments in aqueous clay/oil systems with a hydrocarbon degrading microbial community that is predominantly alcanivorax spp. Montmorillonite and saponite samples were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organo-montmorillonite and organo-saponite used in this study. Obtained results indicate that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as montmorillonite produced organo-clay (organomontmorillonite) that was not stimulatory to biodegradation of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds, especially the low molecular weight (LMW) ones, such as dimethylnaphthalenes. It is suggested that interaction between the organic phase of the organo-clay and the crude oil PAHs which is hydrophobic in nature must have reduced the availability of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for biodegradation. Organo-saponite did not enhance the microbial degradation of dimethylnaphthalenes but enhanced the biodegradation of some other PAHs such as phenanthrene. The unmodified montmorillonite enhanced the microbial degradation of the PAHs and is most likely to have done so as a result of its high surface area that allows the accumulation of microbes and nutrients enhancing their contact.

  11. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  12. The effect of sublethal concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of crude oil on the chemosensory function of Caspian roach, Rutilus caspicus (YAKOVLEV, 1870).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Abtahi, Behrooz; Hashtroudi, Mehri Seyed; Mohaddes, Effat; Døving, Kjell B

    2015-08-01

    The water-soluble fraction of crude oil is a complex and toxic mixture of hydrocarbons. Because aquatic organisms directly encounter it, the water-soluble fraction plays an important role in the toxicity of crude oil in aquatic environments. To determine whether fish are attracted to or avoid the water-soluble fraction, Caspian roaches (Rutilus caspicus) were exposed to different concentrations of the water-soluble fraction in a choice maze apparatus. The results showed that Caspian roaches can detect and avoid 2 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. To study the effect of the water-soluble fraction on the olfactory function of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction for 96 h; afterward, exposed fish encountered food extract in a choice maze apparatus. The present study showed that the water-soluble fraction significantly impairs the olfactory function of roaches. To investigate the effect of olfactory system dysfunction on the feeding behavior of fish, Caspian roaches were exposed to 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction. After 4 d, 8 d, and 12 d of exposure, the feeding behavior toward the food extract was tested. The results showed that both 3.2 mg/L and 16 mg/L of the water-soluble fraction suppress the feeding behavior of Caspian roaches. The present study demonstrates that sublethal concentrations of crude oil's water-soluble fraction impair the olfactory function of fish and consequently suppress the feeding behavior. © 2015 SETAC.

  13. Preparation of Biodiesel by Methanolysis of Crude Moringa Oleifera Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel was prepared from the unconventional crude oil of Moringa oleifera by transesterification with methanol and alkali catalyst. Moringa oleifera oil is reported for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. Moringa oleifera oil contains a high amount of oleic acid (>70%) with sat...

  14. The effects of weathering and chemical dispersion on Deepwater Horizon crude oil toxicity to mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; Hoenig, Ronald; Brown, Tanya L; French, Barbara L; Linbo, Tiffany L; Lay, Claire; Forth, Heather; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Incardona, John P; Morris, Jeffrey M; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the impact of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident on commercially and ecologically important pelagic fish species, a mahi-mahi spawning program was developed to assess the effect of embryonic exposure to DWH crude oil with particular emphasis on the effects of weathering and dispersant on the magnitude of toxicity. Acute lethality (96 h LC50) ranged from 45.8 (28.4-63.1) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for wellhead (source) oil to 8.8 (7.4-10.3) μg l(-1) ΣPAH for samples collected from the surface slick, reinforcing previous work that weathered oil is more toxic on a ΣPAH basis. Differences in toxicity appear related to the amount of dissolved 3 ringed PAHs. The dispersant Corexit 9500 did not influence acute lethality of oil preparations. Embryonic oil exposure resulted in cardiotoxicity after 48 h, as evident from pericardial edema and reduced atrial contractility. Whereas pericardial edema appeared to correlate well with acute lethality at 96 h, atrial contractility did not. However, sub-lethal cardiotoxicity may impact long-term performance and survival. Dispersant did not affect the occurrence of pericardial edema; however, there was an apparent reduction in atrial contractility at 48 h of exposure. Pericardial edema at 48 h and lethality at 96 h were equally sensitive endpoints in mahi-mahi.

  15. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  16. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  17. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  18. Process Considerations in the Biodesulfurization of Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, A.P.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1998-10-20

    Biodesulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional hydrodesulfurization due to the mild operating conditions and reaction specificity afforded by the biocatalyst. The enzymatic pathway existing in Rhodococcus has been demonstrated to oxidatively desulfhrize the organic sulfbr occurring in dibenzothiophene while leaving the hydrocarbon intact. In order for biodesulfiization to realize commercial success, a variety of process considerations must be addressed including reaction rate, emulsion formation and breakage, biocatalyst recovery, and both gas and liquid mass transport. This study compares batch stirred to electro-spray bioreactors in the biodesulfurization of both model organics and actual crudes in terms of their operating costs, ability to make and break emulsions, ability to effect efficient reaction rates and enhance mass transport. Further, sulfim speciation in crude oil is assessed and compared to the sulfur specificity of currently available biocatalyst.

  19. Biodiesel production in crude oil contaminated environment using Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaaldi Kalhor, Aadel; Mohammadi Nassab, Adel Dabbagh; Abedi, Ehsan; Bahrami, Ahmad; Movafeghi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Biodiesel is a valuable alternative to fossil fuels and many countries choose biodiesel as an unconventional energy source. A large number of investigations have been done on microalgae as a source of oil production. In recent years, wastewater pollutions have caused many ecological problems, and therefore, wastewater phycoremediation has attracted the international attention. This paper studied the cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in a crude oil polluted environment for biodiesel production. Intended concentrations were 10 and 20gperliter (crude oil/water) at two times. The results showed that the growth of C. vulgaris was improved in wastewater and the maximum amount of dry mass and oil was produced at the highest concentration of crude oil (0.41g and 0.15g/l, respectively). In addition, dry mass and oil yield of the microalga were significantly enhanced by increasing the experiment duration.

  20. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... respectively for maize growing on crude oil polluted soils. These results .... organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were analyzed using methods .... applied facilitated the degradation of the contaminant by aiding the ...

  1. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  2. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional

  3. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Papatulica; Petre Prisecaru

    2016-01-01

    ...), in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a "growth factor or a curse" for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession...

  4. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Species diversity, impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota ... and inundated soil environment has proven to be a .... These were stored at -80°. ... For PCR AOA (Polymerase Chain Reaction – Ammonia Oxidizing.

  5. A method to refine crude cottonseed oil using non-toxic polyamine-based cationic polymers☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hailin Lin; Tom C Wedegaertner; Xiaoyun Mao; Xudong Jing; Aicardo Roa-Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The traditional method to refine crude cottonseed oil is time-consuming and expensive. This study evaluates the effectiveness of coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process using quaternary polyamine-based polymers in refining crude cottonseed oil. Flocculated by four commercial polyamine-based cationic polymers (SL2700, SL3000, SL4500 and SL5000) with varied molecular weight (MW) and charge density (CD) and followed by co-agulation with sodium hydroxide, crude cottonseed oil can be effectively purified. Free fatty acids, gossypol, pig-ments and trace elements are all effectively and sufficiently removed by the four polymers in a MW-and CD-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the use of polyamine-based cationic polymers may offer an effective and feasible alternative to the traditional method for crude cottonseed oil refining.

  6. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  7. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  8. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open...

  9. Effects of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure, temperature and developmental stage on oxygen consumption of embryonic and larval mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasparakis, Christina; Mager, Edward M; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin

    2016-12-01

    The timing and location of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) incident within the Gulf of Mexico resulted in crude oil exposure of many commercially and ecologically important fish species, such as mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus), during the sensitive early life stages. Previous research has shown that oil exposure during the embryonic stage of predatory pelagic fish reduces cardiac function - a particularly important trait for fast-swimming predators with high aerobic demands. However, it is unclear whether reductions in cardiac function translate to impacts on oxygen consumption in these developing embryos and larvae. A 24-channel optical-fluorescence oxygen-sensing system for high-throughput respiration measurements was used to investigate the effects of oil exposure, temperature and developmental stage on oxygen consumption rates in embryonic and larval mahi-mahi. Oil-exposed developing mahi-mahi displayed increased oxygen consumption, despite clear cardiac deformities and bradycardia, confirming oxygen uptake and delivery from a source other than the circulatory system. In addition to metabolic rate measurements, nitrogenous waste excretion was measured to test the hypothesis that increased energy demand was fueled by protein catabolism. This is the first study to our knowledge that demonstrates increased energy demand and energy depletion in oil-exposed developing mahi-mahi.

  10. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  11. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  12. Enhanced Phytoremediation of Crude Oil-Polluted Soil by Four Plant Species: Effect of Inorganic and Organic Bioaugumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia Oluchi; Frac, Magdalena; Nwoha, Paul Aleruchi; Eragbor, Progress

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment investigating the removal and/or uptake of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and specific metals (As, Cd, Cr) from a crude oil polluted agricultural soil was performed during the 2013 wet season using four plant species: Fimbristylis littoralis, Hevea brasilensis (Rubber plants), Cymbopogom citratus (Lemon grass), and Vigna subterranea (Bambara nuts). Soil functional diversity and soil-enzyme interactions were also investigated. The diagnostic ratios and the correlation analysis identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs at the study site. A total of 16 PAHs were identified, 6 of which were carcinogenic. Up to 42.4 mg kg(-1) total PAHs was recorded prior to the experiments. At 90 d, up to 92% total PAH reduction and 96% As removal were achieved using F. littoralis, the best performing species. The organic soil amendment (poultry dung) rendered most of the studied contaminants unavailable for uptake. However, the organic amendment accounted for over 70% of the increased dehydrogenase, phosphatase, and proteolytic enzymes activities in the study. Overall, the combined use of soil amendments and phytoremediation significantly improved the microbial community activity, thus promoting the restoration of the ecosystem.

  13. Distribution and Recovery of Crude Oil in Various Types of Porous Media and Heterogeneity Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick, G. R.; Ghosh, J.; Greenberg, R. R.; Akyol, N. H.

    2015-12-01

    A series of pore-scale experiments were conducted to understand the interfacial processes contributing to the removal of crude oil from various porous media during surfactant-induced remediation. Effects of physical heterogeneity (i.e. media uniformity) and carbonate soil content on oil recovery and distribution were evaluated through pore scale quantification techniques. Additionally, experiments were conducted to evaluate impacts of tetrachloroethene (PCE) content on crude oil distribution and recovery under these same conditions. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SXM) was used to obtain high-resolution images of the two-fluid-phase oil/water system, and quantify temporal changes in oil blob distribution, blob morphology, and blob surface area before and after sequential surfactant flooding events. The reduction of interfacial tension in conjunction with the sufficient increase in viscous forces as a result of surfactant flushing was likely responsible for mobilization and recovery of lighter fractions of crude oil. Corresponding increases in viscous forces were insufficient to initiate and maintain the displacement of the heavy crude oil in more homogeneous porous media systems during surfactant flushing. Interestingly, higher relative recoveries of heavy oil fractions were observed within more heterogeneous porous media indicating that wettability may be responsible for controlling mobilization in these systems. Compared to the "pure" crude oil experiments, preliminary results show that crude oil with PCE produced variability in oil distribution and recovery before and after each surfactant-flooding event. Such effects were likely influenced by viscosity and interfacial tension modifications associated with the crude-oil/solvent mixed systems.

  14. Bioconversion of heavy crude oils: A basis for new technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.

    1995-10-01

    Systematic studies of chemical mechanisms by which selected microorganisms react with crude oils have led to the identification of biochemical markers characteristic of the interactions of microbes with oils. These biomarkers belong to several groups of natural products ranging from saturate and polyaromatic hydrocarbons containing heterocyclics to organometallic compounds. The biochemical conversions of oils can be monitored by these chemical markers, which are particularly useful in the optimization of biochemical processing, cost efficiency, and engineering studies. Recent results from these studies will be discussed in terms of biochemical technology for the processing of crude oils.

  15. Evaluate the effect of the soluble fraction of crude oil on changes of symbiotic Zooxanthellae clades with two species of reef-building corals in vitro and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Faghidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pollution is one of the factors affecting symbiotic Zooxanthellae with coral stone. It seems that one of the causes of coral bleaching is soluble fraction of crude oil and its effect on their symbiotic algae physiology, which can lead to the loss of Zooxanthellae clades or change in the type of their clades. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the soluble fraction of crude oil on changes of symbiotic Zooxanthellae clades with two species of reef-building corals in vitro and molecular methods. Method: In this study, two species corals of Faviapallidae and Psammocoracontigua were sampled on the Larak Island. Corals were stored for two weeks in three treatments, 50% and 30% and 10% of the soluble fraction of crude oil. After leaving slime Zooxanthellae of coral tissues by air pump and extraction of their DNA, using PCR and target gene was evaluated (ITS2 Internal Transcribed spacer in the presence of different clouds using specific primers. Results: in samples of 50% of the soluble fraction of crude oil, after 9 days, bleaching was observed, and after two weeks, all samples were bleached. Also in the molecular study showed that, pallidaeFavia coral specie in three treatment by soluble fraction of crude oil have clade D and sub-clade D1a and not changed, and Psammocoracontigua coral have clade D and sub-clade D1a and C1 D1a and not changed.

  16. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Safarkhani; Ali Akbar MiranBeigi; Amir Vahi; Abolghasem Mirhoseini

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs) have been modified. Improve and reform the electro...

  17. Hydrogen isotope type-curves of very hot crude oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, József; Sajgó, Csanád; Demény, Attila

    2011-01-15

    Several crude oil accumulations in the Pannonian Basin are trapped in uncommonly hot (>170°C) reservoirs. Their maturities range from mature to very mature on the basis of cracking parameters of their biological marker homologous series (ratio of products to reactants). A stable carbon isotopic study of these oils, poor in biological markers commonly used for correlation purposes, did not provide a reliable oil-to-oil correlation. As an alternative tool, the hydrogen isotope compositions of oil fractions separated on the basis of different polarities were measured, and hydrogen isotope type-curves were generated for a set of mature to very mature crude oil samples. This method of presenting hydrogen isotope composition of fractions as type-curves is novel. Nineteen samples (17 crude oils from SE-Hungary, 1 oil condensate and 1 artificial oil) were chosen for the present study. The aim was to examine the applicability of hydrogen isotope type-curves in oil-to-oil correlation and to test the simultaneous application of carbon and hydrogen isotope type-curves in the field of petroleum geochemistry. We have shown that, although the conventionally used co-variation plots proved to be inadequate for the correlation of these hot and mature oils, the simultaneous use of carbon and the newly introduced hydrogen isotope type-curves allows us to group and distinguish oils of different origins.

  18. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  19. A Heuristic Approach for International Crude Oil Transportation Scheduling Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Izuno, Tsukasa

    In this paper, we propose a heuristic algorithm to solve a practical ship scheduling problem for international crude oil transportation. The problem is considered as a vehicle routing problem with split deliveries. The objective of this paper is to find an optimal assignment of tankers, a sequence of visiting and loading volume simultaneously in order to minimize the total distance satisfying the capacity of tankers. A savings-based meta-heuristic algorithm with lot sizing parameters and volume assignment heuristic is developed. The proposed method is applied to solve a case study with real data. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the heuristic algorithm compared with that of human operators.

  20. Combined heating and chemical treatment for oil recovery from aging crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chunjuan; Jiang, Qingzhe; Song, Zhaozheng; Tan, Guorong; Shi, Zhan

    2016-07-01

    With increasing use of chemical oil displacement agents in tertiary recovery and the application of various demulsifiers for crude oil dehydration, a large amount of aging crude oil containing a high ratio of water is produced, and it is very difficult for processing and utilisation. In this article, we chose aging crude oil samples from a union station in an oilfield in China. Sample composition was analysed to demonstrate that the key of aging crude oil dehydration is the removal of solid impurities. Thus, an efficient method of combining heating and chemical treatments was developed to treat aging crude oil. It includes two steps: The first step is washing of aging crude oil with hot water with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate; the second step is chemical demulsification of the above mixture with hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride solution. The result showed that 2.9% of solid impurities and 29.2% of water were removed in the first step; 27.2% of oil, 24.3% of water, and 3.47% of solid impurities in the aging crude oil were recycled in the second step. A total 87.07% of aging crude oil could be solved with this method. The present two-step treatment method can ensure that the dehydration process runs normally and efficiently in the union station, making it a promising method in the recycling of aging crude oil. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  2. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  3. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Udemezue

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  4. Chemical and Molecular Characterization of Crude Oil Obtained by Olive-Pomace Recentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil-mills, olive-pomace recentrifugation is a common way to reduce pomace moisture and, at the same time, to recover the oil therein. According to current rules, the obtained oil is defined as “crude olive-pomace oil.” The aim of this work is to verify the effect of recentrifugation on specific chemical and molecular parameters of the crude olive-pomace oil, by comparing it with the corresponding virgin olive oil obtained from the same olive lots. In particular, the following were considered: (i the polar compounds of the oils that include compounds originated from oxidative and hydrolytic degradation, analyzed by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC, and (ii the profile of DNA microsatellite molecular markers that was analyzed by using the High Resolution Melting (HRM technique. The obtained results evidenced the significantly higher hydrolytic degradation of crude olive-pomace oil, compared with the corresponding virgin olive oil, but at an extent unlikely able to allow the detection of fraudulent admixtures with virgin olive oils. In addition, the findings demonstrated the feasibility of the application of the HRM analysis of DNA microsatellites to crude olive-pomace oil, able to reveal the alteration of the declared varietal profile of a virgin olive oil sample by simply checking the HRM curve profiles.

  5. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  6. Sublethal Toxicity of Crude Oil Exposure in The Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, at Two Life History Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltz, Sarah M; Taylor, Caz M

    2017-02-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred during peak spawning season for many Gulf of Mexico fish and invertebrates. Early life stages of important fishery species were at risk to encounter crude oil. In this study, we investigated the effect of crude oil exposure on two life stages of the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). We tested the effects of oil exposure on the survival and growth of larval (pelagic) and juvenile (estuarine) blue crabs as well as the effects of oil on the molt frequency of juveniles. Larval crabs exposed to crude oil showed no discernable growth or mortality differences when compared to non-exposed controls. Juvenile crabs exposed to oil also showed no differences in size but exhibited increased intermolt duration (time between molts). Our study suggests that different life-stages may respond differently when exposed to crude oil and that oil exposure negatively affects growth rate of juvenile blue crabs.

  7. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  8. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  9. Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhus, Elin; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Harman, Christopher; Jentoft, Sissel; Meier, Sonnich

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity resulting from exposure to oil droplets in marine fish embryos and larvae is still subject for debate. The most detailed studies have investigated the effects of water-dissolved components of crude oil in water accommodated fractions (WAFs) that lack bulk oil droplets. Although exposure to dissolved petroleum compounds alone is sufficient to cause the characteristic developmental toxicity of crude oil, few studies have addressed whether physical interaction with oil micro-droplets are a relevant exposure pathway for open water marine speices. Here we used controlled delivery of mechanically dispersed crude oil to expose pelagic embryos and larvae of a marine teleost, the Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Haddock embryos were exposed continuously to two different concentrations of dispersed crude oil, high and low, or in pulses. By 24 hours of exposure, micro-droplets of oil were observed adhering and accumulating on the chorion, accompanied by highly elevated levels of cyp1a, a biomarker for exposure to aromatic hydrocarbons. Embryos from all treatment groups showed abnormalities representative of crude oil cardiotoxicity at hatch (5 days of exposure), such as pericardial and yolk sac edema. Compared to other species, the frequency and severity of toxic effects was higher than expected for the waterborne PAH concentrations (e.g., 100% of larvae had edema at the low treatment). These findings suggest an enhanced tissue uptake of PAHs and/or other petroleum compounds from attached oil droplets. These studies highlight a novel property of haddock embryos that leads to greater than expected impact from dispersed crude oil. Given the very limited number of marine species tested in similar exposures, the likelihood of other species with similar properties could be high. This unanticipated result therefore has implications for assessing the ecological impacts of oil spills and the use of methods for dispersing oil in the open sea. PMID:25923774

  10. Crude Oil Stockpiling Needed in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The two oil crises in the 1970's had badly disturbed the economy and the way of life of those oil importing countries, which began to realize the importance of oil stockpiling. With the rapid development of economy, China could no longer satisfy itself soly with the domesticallyproduced oil.

  11. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Hernández, I; Ochoa-Gaona, S; Adams, R H; Rivera-Cruz, M C; Pérez-Hernández, V; Jarquín-Sánchez, A; Geissen, V; Martínez-Zurimendi, P

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and Tabebuia rosea (macuilis). Three-month-old plants were planted in soil with three treatments of heavy petroleum and a control (C0 0 mg kg(-1); C1 18,000 mg kg(-1); C2 31,700 mg kg(-1); C3 47,100 mg kg(-1)) with four repetitions per treatment and species; the experiment was carried out for 245 days. Height and biomass of all species significantly diminished as petroleum concentration increased, although plant survival was not affected. The quantity of colony-forming units (CFU) of rhizospheric bacteria varied among tree species and treatments; petroleum stimulated bacterial CFU for S. macrophylla. The number of fungi CFU for S. macrophylla and T. rosea was significantly greater in C0 than in soil with petroleum, but among species and among different concentrations, no significant differences were found. The greatest percentage of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation was found in C1 for soil without plants (45 %). Differences from the remaining treatments (petroleum concentrations in soil and plant species) were not significant (P trees, H. campechianum had the greatest TPH degradation (32.5 % in C2). T. rosea (C1) and H. campechianum (C2) resulted in petroleum degradation at levels ranging from 20.5 to 32.5 %. On the basis of this experiment, the tree species used did not improve TPH degradation. However, all of them showed high rates of survival and vigor. So, as tree species provide goods and services, experiments with inoculation of hydrocarbonclastic microorganisms, addition of fertilizers, and mixture of tree and grasses are recommended.

  12. Variation of yield stress of Daqing crude oil with pipelining history

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立; 侯磊; 孙立新

    2008-01-01

    The yield stress of waxy crude oil is a fundamental parameter in the calculation of pipelining technique and analysis of flow safety for the heated oil transported through pipeline.Daqing crude oil was studied and the variation of yield stress with shear history was explored through simulation experiment of pipelining.It is found that the effect of throughput variation or shear rate on yield stress is not obvious.With the decrease of final dynamic cooling temperature,the yield stress of waxy crude oil decreases,but there exists a little increase at the beginning.The prediction model of yield stress for waxy crude oil under the condition of shutdown is developed and it can be used to predict the yield stress of Daqing crude oil at certain heating temperature,final dynamic cooling temperature and measurement temperature.For the 139 groups of yield stress data of Daqing crude oil from the simulation experiment of pipelining,the result of prediction with this model shows that the average relative deviation between the yield stress measured and predicted is 30.27%,and the coefficient of correlation is 0.962 3.

  13. Cracking conditions of crude oil under different geological environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    There are mainly 3 kinds of existing states of oil generating from source rocks,that is,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon inside of source rock,dispersive liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock and concentrated liquid hydrocarbon outside of source rock.Because of the differences in thermal history and medium conditions around,and the interaction of organic and inorganic matter,the liquid hydrocarbon with 3 kinds of existing state has different cracking conditions.The gas generation dynamics experiments of crude oil matching different mediums indicate that the distribution of activation energy of methane changes a lot according to medium difference.The carbonate has a main influence on oil cracking conditions and can largely reduce its activation energy,which reflects the lower cracking temperature of crude oil.The mudstone takes a second place and the sandstone is the smallest.The catalytic cracking function to the oil of the carbonate,of the mudstone and of the sandstone changes weaken in turn.The corresponding Ro values of main gas generation period in different mediums are as follows:1.5%―3.8%with pure crude oil,1.2%―3.2%with dispersive crude oil in carbonate,1.3%~3.4% with dispersive crude oil in mudstone and 1.4%―3.6%with dispersive crude oil in sandstone.The influence of pressure to crude oil cracking is relatively complicated.In the low heating speed condition, pressure restrains the oil cracking and gas generation,but in the high heating speed condition,pressure has an indistinctive influence to the oil cracking and gas generation.Pressure also makes a different effort in different evolvement stage.Taking the middle and lower Cambrian source rocks in the Tarim Basin as an example,primary oil generating quantity is 2232.24×10 8 t,residual oil and oil cracking gas quantity is 806.21×10 8 t and 106.95×10 12 m 3 respectively.

  14. Effects of the organic solvents addition about crude oil rheological behavior from 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brazil); Efeito da adicao de solventes organicos sobre o comportamento reologico do petroleo cru oriundo do 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Luis A.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Vieira, Jacyara M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Minas; Almeida, Yeda M.B.; Sarmento, Sandra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The crude oil rheological properties are quite important in its transport and refining processes. They can affect the head losses and, thus, the pressure within a refining unit. These properties can be affected by the temperature and the chemical composition as well as by solvents added to the crude oil. The current work studied the rheological behaviour of both a crude oil from the Reconcavo Baiano (Brazil) and mixture of this crude oil with organic solvents (toluene and xylene). The solvent type and concentration effects on the rheological parameters, were studied. The Brookfield viscometer, model LDVD-II, was used. The results brought to light that the crude oil and the crude oil-solvent mixtures behaved, discretely, as thixotropic fluids. The model of Herschel-Bulkley for viscoplastic fluid was the best in fitting the experimental data for both crude oil and crude oil - solvent mixture. The toluene was found to be more efficient in reducing both the apparent viscosity and apparent yield stress of the crude oil than the xylene for a given concentration. The solvent concentration affects indirectly the rheological properties of the crude oil. (author)

  15. Upgrading of maatjes herring byproducts: production of crude fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.; Padt, van der A.; Boom, R.M.; Luten, J.B.

    2001-01-01

    Fish oil has been extracted from byproducts of the maatjes (salted) herring production using a pilot plant consisting of a mincer, heat exchanger, and three-phase decanter. The crude herring oil obtained had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV) and free fatty acids (FFA) level of onl

  16. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  17. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn. and Gmelina arborea (Roxb. for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlings planted in the uncontaminated soils. T. grandis and G. arborea as shown in this study could be good species for phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated habitats due to oil exploration and exploitation especially at low concentrations.

  18. Bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil--effect of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge application on biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okieimen, C O; Okieimen, F E

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory bioremediation experiments were carried out on crude oil-polluted soil samples by applying various amounts of poultry droppings and natural rubber processing sludge as nutrient supplements at 29 degrees and using slurry-phase and solid-phase biodegradation techniques. Changes in the total hydrocarbon content of the soil were determined using a spectrophotometric technique as a function of time. It was found that the extent of crude oil degradation in untreated soil samples was markedly lower (by up to 100%) than in the soil samples treated with nutrient supplements. Hydrocarbon degradation efficiency was higher in the slurry-phase than in the soil-phase technique.

  19. Hydrobiogeochemical controls on a low-carbon emitting energy extraction mechanism: exploring methanogenic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna; McIntosh, Jennifer; Akob, Denise; Spear, John; Warwick, Peter; McCray, John

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting naturally-occurring microbial communities in the deep subsurface could help mitigate the effects of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. These microbial communities, a combination of methanogens and syntrophic bacteria, can perform methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, namely the conversion of crude oil to natural gas, and have also been detected in biodegraded, methanogenic reservoirs. These microbes could target residual crude oil, a high-carbon, hard-to-obtain fossil fuel source, and convert it to natural gas, effectively "producing" a lower CO2 per BTU fuel source. Yet, little is known about what geochemical parameters are driving microbial population dynamics in biodegraded, methanogenic oil reservoirs, and how the presence of specific microbial communities may impact methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. To investigate methanogenic crude oil biodegradation, 22 wells along a subsurface hydrogeochemical gradient in the southeastern USA were sampled for DNA analysis of the microbial community, and geochemical analysis of produced water and crude oil. A statistical comparison of microbial community structure to formation fluid geochemical parameters, amount of crude oil biodegradation, and relative extent of methanogenesis revealed that relative degree of biodegradation (high, medium, or low), chloride concentration (550 mM to 2100 mM), well depth (393 m to 1588 m), and spatial location within the reservoir (i.e., oil field location) are the major drivers of microbial diversity. There was no statistical evidence for correlation between extent of methanogenesis and the subsurface community composition. Despite the dominance of methanogens in these sampled wells, methanogenic activity was not predicted solely based on the microbial community composition. Crude oil biodegradation, however, correlates with both community composition and produced water geochemistry, suggesting a co-linear system and implying that microbial communities associated with degree

  20. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  1. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  2. CRUDE OIL PRICE FORECASTING WITH TEI@I METHODOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shouyang; YU Lean; K.K.LAI

    2005-01-01

    The difficulty in crude oil price forecasting,due to inherent complexity,has attracted much attention of academic researchers and business practitioners.Various methods have been tried to solve the problem of forecasting crude oil prices.However,all of the existing models of prediction can not meet practical needs.Very recently,Wang and Yu proposed a new methodology for handling complex systems-TEI@I methodology by means of a systematic integration of text mining,econometrics and intelligent techniques.Within the framework of TEI@I methodology,econometrical models are used to model the linear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,main trends) while nonlinear components of crude oil price time series (i.e.,error terms) are modelled by using artificial neural network (ANN) models.In addition,the impact of irregular and infrequent future events on crude oil price is explored using web-based text mining (WTM) and rule-based expert systems (RES) techniques.Thus,a fully novel nonlinear integrated forecasting approach with error correction and judgmental adjustment is formulated to improve prediction performance within the framework of the TEI@I methodology.The proposed methodology and the novel forecasting approach are illustrated via an example.

  3. Aminated Copolymers as Flow Improvers for Super-viscous Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong; Shen Benxian

    2007-01-01

    The new flow improvers for super-viscous crude oils were developed via esterification of polybasic high carbon alcohol with methacrylate and copolymerization of monomers followed by amination of copolymers.The structure of the synthesized polymer flow improver additive was confirmed by IR spectroscopy and the crystal structure of the flow improver additives were determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.The structure of wax crystals was also studied at the same time.The results showed that the wax crystal structure was closely related with the crystal structure of the flow improver,which could change the pour point depression and viscosity reduction behavior of the crude oil.When the wax crystal structure matched well with that of the additive,the Wax crystals were dispersed satisfactorily,resulting in favorable effects in terms of pour point depression and viscosity reduction.The new synthesized aminated polymer flow improver additive was most efficient for treating super-viscous crude oils.The super-viscous crude oil had a high content of resins and asphaltenes,which might aggregate onto the surface of wax crystals to form blocks to limit the crude oil fluidity.However,amination of copolymers having similar structure with the resins and asphaltenes contained in crude oil could dissolve the huge polar groups to make the deposit formation difficult.

  4. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-liang; WU Yue-ting; QIAN Xin-ping; MENG Qin

    2005-01-01

    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain ofPseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the biodegradation of hydrocarbons, 1 g/L glycerol or 0.22 g/L rhamnolipid was initially added into the medium to facilitate the biodegradation of crude oil. In both situations, more than 58% of crude oil was degraded and further converted into accumulated cell biomass and rhamnolipids. These results suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa could degrade most of crude oil with direct or indirect addition of rhamnolipid. And this conclusion was further supported by another adsorption experiment, where the adsorption capacity of crude oil by killed cell biomass was negligible in comparison with the biologic activities of live cell biomass.

  5. Rheological properties of crude oils in Yaregskoye and Yaraktinskoye oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzhai, V. N.; Le Grand Monkam Monkam, Clovis; Terre, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    Rotary viscometer tests of crude oil with a high content of resins and asphaltenes (Yaregskoye oil field) and crude oil with high paraffin content (Yaraktinskoye oil field) have been conducted. The typical flow curves for these oil types have been plotted. It has been detected that these oils are non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity of which is dependent on shear rate. Based on Arrhenius-Eyring equation, calculations of viscous flow activation energy and complex structural unit (CSU) sizes have been performed. It has been stated that there is a tenfold reduction in CSU size in asphaltic crude oil with the increase in shear rate in a rotary viscometer, while particle size in paraffinic crude oil does not essentially change under the same hydrodynamic conditions.

  6. Crude oil exposures reveal roles for intracellular calcium cycling in haddock craniofacial and cardiac development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørhus, Elin; Incardona, John P.; Karlsen, Ørjan; Linbo, Tiffany; Sørensen, Lisbet; Nordtug, Trond; van der Meeren, Terje; Thorsen, Anders; Thorbjørnsen, Maja; Jentoft, Sissel; Edvardsen, Rolf B.; Meier, Sonnich

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that crude oil exposure affects cardiac development in fish by disrupting excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. We previously found that eggs of Atlantic haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) bind dispersed oil droplets, potentially leading to more profound toxic effects from uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using lower concentrations of dispersed crude oil (0.7-7 μg/L ∑PAH), here we exposed a broader range of developmental stages over both short and prolonged durations. We quantified effects on cardiac function and morphogenesis, characterized novel craniofacial defects, and examined the expression of genes encoding potential targets underlying cardiac and craniofacial defects. Because of oil droplet binding, a 24-hr exposure was sufficient to create severe cardiac and craniofacial abnormalities. The specific nature of the craniofacial abnormalities suggests that crude oil may target common craniofacial and cardiac precursor cells either directly or indirectly by affecting ion channels and intracellular calcium in particular. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes encoding specific components of the EC coupling machinery suggests that crude oil disrupts excitation-transcription coupling or normal feedback regulation of ion channels blocked by PAHs. These data support a unifying hypothesis whereby depletion of intracellular calcium pools by crude oil-derived PAHs disrupts several pathways critical for organogenesis in fish.

  7. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  8. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  9. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: I. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong; Berg, Eric Paul

    2014-04-01

    The effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of yearling heifers were investigated in a 150-day feeding trial. Eighteen, crossbred heifers (Brahman x Thai native) were randomly allotted according to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Low or high levels of CEP (15 or 30% of concentrate, LCEP, or HCEP) were basal treatments and 0, 2, and 4% CPO were daily top-dressed. Concentrate was supplemented at 1.75% of body weight (BW) and rice straw offered ad libitum. CEP level had no significance on feed intake. CPO increased roughage intake, concentrate intake, and total feed intake when expressed as %BW/d (P 0.05). Intake of fat increased with higher levels of CPO (P 0.05). We concluded that CEP can be used up to 30% in the diet, with or without additional fat inclusion.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Crude oil biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hamme, J.D.

    2000-07-01

    Mixed cultures with broad substrate specificity usually form the basis for biological methods used for the remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated wastes. Bow River crude oil was used as a model substrate for the study of microbe-microbe and microbe-substrate interactions in batch fermentation systems. Substrate availability limited the mixed-bacterial culture due to hydrocarbon insolubility. A method of improving biodegradation through the use of chemical surfactants was tested. A hydrophile-lipophile balance of 13 led to optimum enhancement at supra-critical micellization concentrations not exceeding a critical level, as indicated by the results of a detailed study with nonylphenol ethoxylates. A broad variety of trypticase soy agar-culturable bacteria was contained in the culture. Initially, Pseudomonas Flavimonas and Stenotrophomonas spp. dominated in the fermentations with different hydrocarbon mixtures. The lag time of Stenotrophomonas sp. and exposure to Bow River saturates selected for an Acinetobacter calcoacetius strain were increased by a chemical surfactant. Following prolonged incubation, a greater variety of mainly non-hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated in each case. Low molecular weight volatile hydrocarbons were degraded in closed systems and the greatest activity from the culture occurred against the saturate and aromatic fractions. To monitor volatile hydrocarbon degradation in live cultures at 30 degrees Celsius, a rapid and sensitive solid phase microextraction methodology was developed. Only the cultures grown on crude oil in sealed flasks, or in open flasks amended with yeast extract retained their volatile hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities. Correlated with reduced proportions of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in biodegradation flasks, metabolic capacity decreased with inoculum age. The degradation hierarchy and chemical surfactant effects were confirmed by pure and co-culture studies. The presence of a chemical surfactant

  12. Stability of crude herring oil produced from fresh byproducts : influence of temperature during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.; Lourenco, S.; Padt, van der A.; Luten, J.B.; Boom, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Crude herring oil, extracted from fresh byproducts, was stored at 0, 20, and 50°C in order to study the effect of temperature on lipid oxidation. The oil had an initial peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV), and free fatty acids of 0.7 meq peroxides/kg of lipid, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. Duri

  13. Evaluation of Tectona grandis (Linn.) and Gmelina arborea (Roxb.) for Phytoremediation in Crude Oil Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerioborue Mary Agbogidi; Efemena Dickens Dolor; Ebere Mercy Okechukwu

    2007-01-01

    A study on the effectiveness of Tectona grandis and Gmelina arborea as forest species for the phyto- remediation of crude oil contaminated soils showed that both plants responded differently to the crude oil effects. Although the plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, plant girth and the dry biomass of the test plants were significantly P≥0.05 affected at higher levels of oil treatments 10% and 15%, the 1% and 5% levels of contamination did not significantly P≤0.05 differ from the seedlin...

  14. Effect of dispersed crude oil exposure upon the aerobic metabolic scope in juvenile golden grey mullet (Liza aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Lucas, Julie; Le Floch, Stéphane; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Lefrançois, Christel

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity of dispersant application which is, in nearshore area, a controversial response technique to oil spill. Through an experimental approach with juveniles of Liza aurata, the toxicity of five exposure conditions was evaluated: (i) a chemically dispersed oil simulating dispersant application; (ii) a single dispersant as an internal control of chemically dispersed oil; (iii) a mechanically dispersed oil simulating natural dispersion of oil; (iv) a water soluble fraction of oil simulating an undispersed and untreated oil slick and (v) uncontaminated seawater as a control exposure condition. The relative concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) biliary metabolites showed that the incorporation of these toxic compounds was increased if the oil was dispersed, whether mechanically or chemically. However, toxicity was not observed at the organism level since the aerobic metabolic scope and the critical swimming speed of exposed fish were not impaired.

  15. EFFECT OF AMOUNT OF CRUDE OIL ON EXTENT OF ITS BIODEGRADATION IN OPEN WATER- AND SANDY BEACH-LABORATORY SIMULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation of marine oil spills, a technology using hydrocarbon-degrading and emulsifying capabilities of microorganisms, has many unexplored limitations, and among them is degree of environmental oil contamination. We examined the biodegradation of varying amounts of artifi...

  16. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  17. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  18. Chronic Toxicity Study of 'I'he Effect of Crude Petroleum (Bonny ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Toxicity Study of 'I'he Effect of Crude Petroleum (Bonny Light), Kerosine and ... Blood Cell Counts (WBC) were used to assess the etlect of crude oil (bony light) .... some Aquatic Organism Chemical and Institution of ... communities.

  19. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  20. Analysis of OPEC's Monopoly in Crude Oil Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly and historically reviews the polices of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC) and analyzes the factors that facilitate or hinder OPEC's monopoly in the crude oil market. The industrial concentration ratio is chosen to measure OPEC's monopoly power based on the data from 1986 to 2004. It is concluded that OPEC possesses a long-standing cartel foundation and a rather strong monopoly in the world crude oil market. At the same time, there are unstable factors that influence and even weaken OPEC's monopoly.

  1. Research on the Volatility Spillover Effects between Domestic and International Crude Oil Markets%国内外原油市场波动溢出效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金良; 谭忠富

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly applies ADLM-GARCH-BEKK model to analyze the volatility spillover effects and dynamic correlation among Angola,Russia and Daqing crude oil market.The empirical results show that there are bidirectional volatility spillover relations between Angola and Russia crude oil markets at 90% confidence level.But there exist unilateral volatility spillover from Daqing to Angola crude oil market and Daqing to Russia crude oil market at 95% confidence level.Besides,there are smaller positive correlation between Daqing and Angola crude oil market,Daqing and Russian crude oil market.The correlation coefficient is gradually increasing.The results will help predict the trend of the domestic crude oil market and provide a reference for policy making of crude oil.%文中首次利用ADLM-GARCH-BEKK模型,分析了安哥拉、俄罗斯和大庆原油市场间的波动溢出效应与动态相关性。实证结果表明:第一,在90%的置信水平下,大庆和安哥拉原油市场间存在着双向的波动溢出效应;而在95%的置信水平下,仅存在从大庆到安哥拉原油市场和大庆到俄罗斯原油市场的单向波动溢出效应。第二,大庆和安哥拉原油市场以及大庆和俄罗斯原油市场之间具有较小的正相关性,并有逐步提高的趋势。上述分析结果将有助于预测国内原油市场的走势,为我国原油政策的制定提供参考。

  2. Crude oil production prospects for continental Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, P. [British Petroleum Co. Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    A medium term view of the prospects for oil production in continental Europe, focusing on the offshore production in UK and Norwegian waters, is presented. The paper begins with a recent history and an overview of current oil production and recent trends. The growth of North Sea production has been important, contributing more than two-thirds of the growth in non OPEC oil production. The development of the Andrew field in the UK North Sea is presented as an example of new management methods succeeding in enhancing the economic viability of oil fields that would otherwise be marginal or non economic The Foinaven field in the new West of Shetlands province illustrates the way in which the combination of technological advances and changes in industry practices is extending the frontiers of commercial viability. Supply projections show North Sea production continuing to grow, but not as rapidly as over the past five years. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs.

  3. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  4. Formation of chocolate mousse from Statfjord crude oil and seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thingstad, T.; Pengerud, B.

    1983-06-01

    Physical factors affecting the formation of water-in-oil emulsions ('chocolate mousse') from crude Statfjord oil was investigated in the laboratory. Irradiation by visible light and mechanical agitation are shown to be essential. It is suggested that photochemical oxidation of oil components leads to the formation of surface-active, oil-soluble compounds. When these reach a sufficient concentration in the oil, water will be retained within the oil during physical mixing. The plausibility of such a mechanism is investigated further using additions of tetradecanal as an oil-soluble, surface-active agent and ..beta..-carotene as an inhibitor of photooxidation. The use of additives to stop 'mousse' formation is suggested.

  5. Crude Imports Triggers Investment Fever of Oil Wharves in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China's record high crude import of 80 million tons in 2003 has triggered a fever of oil wharf construction along the country's eastern coastal regions. Reportedly, the coastal harbor cities, such as Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, Nantong, Ningbo,Zhoushan, Maoming and Zhanjiang, have stepped up the efforts for construction of wharves, the large-scale berths for oil products in particular, so as to stimulate the rapid development of the local petrochemical and commodity flow industries.

  6. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini [Institute for Education and Research in Management and Planning, Tehran (Iran); Maryam Kazemi Manesh [University of Mannheim (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  7. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

    2010-03-15

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  8. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.;

    2012-01-01

    Mountains fault block in central Belize which separates the Corozal Basin in northern Belize from the Belize Basin to the south. Numerous petroleum seeps have been reported in both of these basins. Small-scale oil production takes place in the Corozal Basin and the North and South Petén Basins....... For this study, samples of crude oil, seepage oil and potential source rocks were collected from both countries and were investigated by organic geochemical analyses and microscopy. The oil samples consisted of non-biodegraded crude oils and slightly to severely biodegraded seepage oils, both of which were...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  9. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  10. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  11. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional correla

  12. New system facilitates handling heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senties, A.

    1970-11-01

    Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has found a new way to produce heavy oil from pumping wells. The key component is a bottom-hole stuffing box which reduces the friction of the pumping string during the downstroke. The relatively simple system has already proven successful in the Ebano-Panuco area of Mexico, where Pemex produces highly viscous oil (10/sup 0/ to 14/sup 0/ API). Basically, the Pemex method consists of a special downhole stuffing box and polished rod anchored at the end of the pumping string. The isolated tubing is filled with water to minimize friction, and the heavy oil is produced through the annular space located between tubing and casing strings.

  13. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  14. Effect of crude oil pollution on organic carbon and humus content in grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saimbulek; DOSBERGENOV

    2010-01-01

    The organic carbon and humus content in oil polluted brown and grey-brown soils in Mangyshlak,Pre-Caspian Sea Region,was analyzed from 2000 to 2008.The results indicated that bitumen substances from crude oil pollution deteriorated the soil property,however,the organic carbon content increased significantly.The products of oil pollution changed the composition of car-bonaceous substances which formed soil humus,and changed the ratios of the humus components.Residual insoluble carbon increased with the rise of oil organic carbon.The mobility of humus components was significantly increased because of the high oxidation-reduction process in the topsoil,and the humus content and microorganism activity increased.The organic carbon content increased significantly,while it decreased with the distance away from the oil well.The rearrangement of physical,physical-chemical and chemical properties of the polluted soils was significant.

  15. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing officers to determine the exporter's compliance with the five...

  16. The Effect of Consumer Expectation Index, Economic Condition Index and Crude Oil Price on Indonesian Government Bond Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Budiawan Tjandrasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments sell bonds to finance their budget. The investors willing to buy government bonds because of the yield they will get, but on the other hand if government bond yields is  too high it would burden the state in paying the interest due. Various studies have been done to find the variables that affect government bond yield significantly, such as exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate, and oil price. This study found two more variables namely consumer expectations index and the economic conditions index to complement the variables that have been discovered. Those two variables are used as a proxy of economic stability of a country, the increase of those variables represent the increase of economic stability and will reduce the level of risk and lowering the yield that investors demand. This research use descriptive method and explanatory study with secondary data using multivariate regression equation model. The results shown consumer expectation index and economic condition index have significant effect on Indonesian Government Bond yield. To keep consumer expectation index and economic condition index increase government should give a positive signal and a sense of security to investor.

  17. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V

    2015-01-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  18. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI EKSPOR CRUDE PALM OIL INDONESIA DALAM PERDAGANGAN INTERNASIONAL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    fakhrus radifan

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Crude Palm Oil merupakan salah satu komoditas perkebunan ekspor unggulan yang mampu memberikan kontribusi dan sebagai salah...

  19. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil.

  20. Light scattering in Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Stelmaszewski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the scattering of radiation by a Baltic crude oil - seawater emulsion. The scattering spectrum calculated using the Mie solution in the spectral range from 380 nm to 730 nm is compared with the measured spectrum of light scattered through a right angle. Spectra in the wavelength range from 210 nm to 730 nm were measured using a spectrofluorimeter for fresh and stored samples of the Baltic crude oil emulsion. Scattering increases with wavelength in the UV range and then decreases slightly with the wavelength of visible light. The result of the calculation is similar to the measured spectra. Both the calculated and measured spectra display numerous relative extremes throughout the spectral area. Light scattering in the emulsion decreases during storage as the oil concentration in the medium diminishes. The results also demonstrate that the single scattering model describes the phenomenon correctly.

  1. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of

  2. Multiwall carbon nanotubes increase the microbial community in crude oil contaminated fresh water sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Palanisami, Thavamani; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Since crude oil contamination is one of the biggest environmental concerns, its removal from contaminated sites is of interest for both researchers and industries. In situ bioremediation is a promising technique for decreasing or even eliminating crude oil and hydrocarbon contamination. However, since these compounds are potentially toxic for many microorganisms, high loads of contamination can inhibit the microbial community and therefore reduce the removal rate. Therefore, any strategy with the ability to increase the microbial population in such circumstances can be of promise in improving the remediation process. In this study, multiwall carbon nanotubes were employed to support microbial growth in sediments contaminated with crude oil. Following spiking of fresh water sediments with different concentrations of crude oil alone and in a mixture with carbon nanotubes for 30days, the microbial profiles in these sediments were obtained using FLX-pyrosequencing. Next, the ratios of each member of the microbial population in these sediments were compared with those values in the untreated control sediment. This study showed that combination of crude oil and carbon nanotubes can increase the diversity of the total microbial population. Furthermore, these treatments could increase the ratios of several microorganisms that are known to be effective in the degradation of hydrocarbons.

  3. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  4. Effect of NiW Modified HZSM-5 and HY Zeolites on Hydrocracking Conversion of Crude Palm Oil to Liquid Hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliwan Subsadsana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic conversion of crude palm oil over HZSM-5 and HY zeolites modified with NiW as catalysts in the hydrocracking process was investigated. These zeolites supported by NiW catalysts were prepared employing the impregnation technique. NiW was added to the zeolites in order to induce bi-functional properties (both acid and metal sites in the catalysts. Subsequently, the catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, ammonia temperature programmed desorption (NH3-TPD andnitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms analysis. The catalytic activity of prepared catalysts was evaluated through the conversion of crude palm oil to biofuels. These results indicate that the incorporation of NiW over HZSM-5 and HY zeolites improves the conversion efficiency and enhances the yield of biofuel (gasoline, kerosene, and diesel, possibly due to NiW promote of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reaction.

  5. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  6. Production of Low-carbon Light Olefins from Catalytic Cracking of Crude Bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ni Yuan; Tie-jun Wang; Quan-xin Li

    2013-01-01

    Low-carbon light olefins are the basic feedstocks for the petrochemical industry.Catalytic cracking of crude bio-oil and its model compounds (including methanol,ethanol,acetic acid,acetone,and phenol) to light olefins were performed by using the La/HZSM-5 catalyst.The highest olefins yield from crude bio-oil reached 0.19 kg/(kg crude bio-oil).The reaction conditions including temperature,weight hourly space velocity,and addition of La into the HZSM-5 zeolite can be used to control both olefins yield and selectivity.Moderate adjusting the acidity with a suitable ratio between the strong acid and weak acid sites through adding La to the zeolite effectively enhanced the olefins selectivity and improved the catalyst stability.The production of light olefins from crude bio-oil is closely associated with the chemical composition and hydrogen to carbon effective ratios of feedstock.The comparison between the catalytic cracking and pyrolysis of bio-oil was studied.The mechanism of the bio-oil conversion to light olefins was also discussed.

  7. Transient effect of single dose exposure of Nigerian Bonny-light crude oil on testicular steroidogenesis in Wistar rats is accompanied by oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike Peter; Ramesh, Parjapath; Mathur, Premendu Prakash; Farombi, Ebenezer Olatunde

    2015-10-01

    The folkloric use of Nigerian Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO) in Niger Delta area of Nigeria is a common practice. There is increasing experimental evidence portending the adverse effects of BLCO an environmental toxicant on testicular function. We investigated the effects of single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) on the activities of steroidogenic and antioxidant enzymes such as serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone, 3 β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (3 β-HSD), 17 β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase (17 β-HSD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione reduced (GSH) and steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein, in testes of rats. There was a sequential reduction in the concentration of steroid hormones and activities of steroidogenic enzymes with a concomitant decrease in levels of StAR protein, followed by a parallel increase in antioxidant enzyme activities and levels of LPO. These findings revealed inhibitory effects of BLCO on testicular steroidogenesis and the possible role of oxidative stress in testicular dysfunction observed in this study.

  8. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  9. Thermal infrared emissivity spectrum and its characteristics of crude oil slick covered seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Pan; Gu, Xing-Fai; Yu, Taol; Meng, Qing-Yan; Li, Jia-Guoi; Shi, Ji-xiang; Cheng, Yang; Wang, Liang; Liu, Wen-Song; Liu, Qi-Yuei; Zhao, Li-Min

    2014-11-01

    Detecting oil slick covered seawater surface using the thermal infrared remote sensing technology exists the advantages such as: oil spill detection with thermal infrared spectrum can be performed in the nighttime which is superior to visible spectrum, the thermal infrared spectrum is superior to detect the radiation characteristics of both the oil slick and the seawater compared to the mid-wavelength infrared spectrum and which have great potential to detect the oil slick thickness. And the emissivity is the ratio of the radiation of an object at a given temperature in normal range of the temperature (260-320 K) and the blackbody radiation under the same temperature , the emissivity of an object is unrelated to the temperature, but only is dependent with the wavelength and material properties. Using the seawater taken from Bohai Bay and crude oil taken from Gudao oil production plant of Shengli Oilfield in Dongying city of Shandong Province, an experiment was designed to study the characteristics and mechanism of thermal infrared emissivity spectrum of artificial crude oil slick covered seawater surface with its thickness. During the experiment, crude oil was continuously dropped into the seawater to generate artificial oil slick with different thicknesses. By adding each drop of crude oil, we measured the reflectivity of the oil slick in the thermal infrared spectrum with the Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (102F) and then calculated its thermal infrared emissivity. The results show that the thermal infrared emissivity of oil slick changes significantly with its thickness when oil slick is relatively thin (20-120 μm), which provides an effective means for detecting the existence of offshore thin oil slick In the spectrum ranges from 8 to 10 μm and from 13. 2 to 14 μm, there is a steady emissivity difference between the seawater and thin oil slick with thickness of 20 μm. The emissivity of oil slick changes marginally with oil slick thickness and

  10. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  11. Microbial degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons on organoclay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-11-01

    The role of organoclays in hydrocarbon removal during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The clays used for this study were Na-montmorillonite and saponite. These two clays were treated with didecyldimethylammonium bromide to produce organoclays which were used in this study. The study indicated that clays with high cation exchange capacity (CEC) such as Na-montmorillonite produced an organomontmorillonite that was inhibitory to biodegradation of the crude oil hydrocarbons. Extensive hydrophobic interaction between the organic phase of the organoclay and the crude oil hydrocarbons is suggested to render the hydrocarbons unavailable for biodegradation. However, untreated Na-montmorillonite was stimulatory to biodegradation of the hydrocarbons and is believed to have done so because of its high surface area for the accumulation of microbes and nutrients making it easy for the microbes to access the nutrients. This study indicates that unlike unmodified montmorillonites, organomontmorillonite may not serve any useful purpose in the bioremediation of crude oil spill sites where hydrocarbon removal by biodegradation is desired within a rapid time period.

  12. Crude oil ''Windfall Profit'' Tax Act of 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Administrative problems and compliance planning opportunities are the focus of this overview of the windfall profit tax on crude oil, which is actually an excise tax of a portion of domestic crude oil revenues that is tied to the removal of existing price controls on domestic crude oil. The retroactive effective date of the statute meant that the Internal Revenue Service had to draft and issue interim rules in haste, and now has to mesh the interim and final regulations with the petroleum industry's regular business practices. Producers, purchasers, and other who are affected by the tax should be alert to potential problems as well as planning opportunities that may develop during this process. The author provides a roadmap through the existing interim regulations to help interpret new changes. 204 references.

  13. Role of cyanobacteria in the biodegradation of crude oil by a tropical cyanobacterial mat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillan, F; Gugger, M; Saliot, A; Couté, A; Oudot, J

    2006-03-01

    Cyanobacterial mats are ubiquitous in tropical petroleum-polluted environments. They form a high biodiversity microbial consortium that contains efficient hydrocarbons degraders. A cyanobacterial mat collected from a petroleum-contaminated environment located in Indonesia was studied for its biodegradation potential. In the field, the natural mat was shown to degrade efficiently the crude oil present in the environment. This natural mat demonstrated also a strong activity of degradation on model crude oil under laboratory conditions. In axenic cultures, the monospecific cyanobacterium Phormidium animale that constitute the bulk of the biomass did not exhibit any degradative capacity on hydrocarbons in the range of C13-C35 carbon atom number either in autotrophic or heterotrophic conditions. It was concluded that this cyanobacterial strain living on a heavily contaminated site had no direct effect on biodegradation of crude oil, the degradation activity being exclusively achieved by the other microorganisms present in the microbial consortium of the mat.

  14. Crude-oil biodegradation via methanogenesis in subsurface petroleum reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D M; Head, I M; Gray, N D; Adams, J J; Rowan, A K; Aitken, C M; Bennett, B; Huang, H; Brown, A; Bowler, B F J; Oldenburg, T; Erdmann, M; Larter, S R

    2008-01-10

    Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely affected the majority of the world's oil, making recovery and refining of that oil more costly. The prevalent occurrence of biodegradation in shallow subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been attributed to aerobic bacterial hydrocarbon degradation stimulated by surface recharge of oxygen-bearing meteoric waters. This hypothesis is empirically supported by the likelihood of encountering biodegraded oils at higher levels of degradation in reservoirs near the surface. More recent findings, however, suggest that anaerobic degradation processes dominate subsurface sedimentary environments, despite slow reaction kinetics and uncertainty as to the actual degradation pathways occurring in oil reservoirs. Here we use laboratory experiments in microcosms monitoring the hydrocarbon composition of degraded oils and generated gases, together with the carbon isotopic compositions of gas and oil samples taken at wellheads and a Rayleigh isotope fractionation box model, to elucidate the probable mechanisms of hydrocarbon degradation in reservoirs. We find that crude-oil hydrocarbon degradation under methanogenic conditions in the laboratory mimics the characteristic sequential removal of compound classes seen in reservoir-degraded petroleum. The initial preferential removal of n-alkanes generates close to stoichiometric amounts of methane, principally by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Our data imply a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism in subsurface degraded oil reservoirs, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration, and the common association of dry gas with severely degraded oils observed worldwide. Energy recovery from oilfields in the form of methane, based on accelerating natural methanogenic biodegradation, may offer a route to economic production of difficult-to-recover energy from oilfields.

  15. Hydrous pyrolysis of crude oil in gold-plated reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiale, J.A.; Lundegard, P.D.; Kharaka, Y.K.

    1992-01-01

    Crude oils from Iraq and California have been pyrolyzed under hydrous conditions at 200 and 300??C for time periods up to 210 days, in gold-plated reactors. Elemental (vanadium, nickel), stable isotopic (carbon), and molecular (n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steranes, terpanes and aromatic steroid hydrocarbons) analyses were made on the original and pyrolyzed oils. Various conventional crude oil maturity parameters, including 20S/(20S + 20R)-24-ethylcholestane ratios and the side-chain-length distribution of aliphatic and aromatic steroidal hydrocarbons, were measured in an effort to assess the modification of molecular maturity parameters in clay-free settings, similar to those encountered in "clean" reservoirs. Concentrations of vanadium and nickel in the Iraq oil decrease significantly and the V/(V + Ni) ratio decreases slightly, with increasing pyrolysis time/temperature. Whole oil carbon isotope ratios remain fairly constant during pyrolysis, as do hopane/sterane ratios and carbon number distribution of 5??(H),14??(H),17??(H),20R steranes. These latter three parameters are considered maturity-invariant. The ratios of short side-chain components to long side-chain components of the regular steranes [C21/(C21 + C29R)] and the triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons [C21/(C21 + C28)] vary systematically with increasing pyrolysis time, indicating that these parameters may be useful as molecular maturity parameters for crude oils in clay-free reservoir rocks. In addition, decreases in bisnorhopane/hopane ratio with increasing pyrolysis time, in a clay-free and kerogen-free environment, suggest that the distribution of these compounds is controlled by either differential thermal stabilities or preferential release from a higher-molecular weight portion of the oil. ?? 1992.

  16. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  17. Fatty acid fragmentation of triacylglycerol isolated from crude nyamplung oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparamarta, Hakun Wirawasista; Anggraini, Desy; Istianingsih, Della; Susanto, David Febrilliant; Widjaja, Arief; Ju, Yi-Hsu; Gunawan, Setiyo

    2017-05-01

    Nyamplung (Calophylluminophyllum) has many benefits ranging from roots, stems, leaves, until seeds. In this seed, C. inophyllum contained significantly high amount of crude oil (70.4%). C. inophyllum oil is known as non edible. Therefore Indonesian people generally only know that seeds can produce oil that can be used for biodiesel. In this work, the fragmentation of fatty acid in triacylglycerols (TAG) was studied. The isolation process was started with separation of non polar lipid fraction (NPLF) from crude C. inophyllum oil via batchwise multistage liquid extraction. TAG was obtained in high purity (99%) and was analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). It was found that fatty acids of TAG are palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1c), linoleic acid (C18:2c), and linolenic acid (C18:3c). Moreover, TAG isolated from C. inophyllum oil was promising as edible oil.

  18. Corresponding morphological and molecular indicators of crude oil toxicity to the developing hearts of mahi mahi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Richard C.; Gill, J. A.; Baldwin, David H.; Linbo, Tiffany L.; French, Barbara L.; Brown, Tanya L.; Esbaugh, Andrew J.; Mager, Edward M.; Stieglitz, John; Hoenig, Ron; Benetti, Daniel; Grosell, Martin; Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Incardona, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Crude oils from distinct geological sources worldwide are toxic to developing fish hearts. When oil spills occur in fish spawning habitats, natural resource injury assessments often rely on conventional morphometric analyses of heart form and function. The extent to which visible indicators correspond to molecular markers for cardiovascular stress is unknown for pelagic predators from the Gulf of Mexico. Here we exposed mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) embryos to field-collected crude oil samples from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. We compared visible heart defects (edema, abnormal looping, reduced contractility) to changes in expression of cardiac-specific genes that are diagnostic of heart failure in humans or associated with loss-of-function zebrafish cardiac mutants. Mahi exposed to crude oil during embryogenesis displayed typical symptoms of cardiogenic syndrome as larvae. Contractility, looping, and circulatory defects were evident, but larval mahi did not exhibit downstream craniofacial and body axis abnormalities. A gradation of oil exposures yielded concentration-responsive changes in morphometric and molecular responses, with relative sensitivity being influenced by age. Our findings suggest that 1) morphometric analyses of cardiac function are more sensitive to proximal effects of crude oil-derived chemicals on the developing heart, and 2) molecular indicators reveal a longer-term adverse shift in cardiogenesis trajectory.

  19. Modeling the global market for crude oil and forecasting the price: a comprehensive study

    OpenAIRE

    Behmiri, Niaz Badhiri

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil prices before 1970 were under control by multinational monopolist oil companies; from 1970 to 1986 OPEC administered pricing system determined crude oil prices; and from 1986 to the present, crude oil prices are determined by a market-linked pricing mechanism or demand-to-supply ratio, taking in account a set of many other factors, such as economic, political, financial, technological, meteorological and oil reserves. As in a market-linked pricing mechanism, the main determinant fac...

  20. An experimental study of the effects of Statfjord crude oil and application of Inipol and fish meal on the sea ice biota in Svalbard in February-April 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikavalko, J. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aquatic Sciences and Hydrobiology; Gerdes, B.; Dieckmann, G. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil and oil product shipping is expected to increase in the Arctic in the near future, particularly in the Barents Sea. In addition to increasing transportation, the risks of an oil spill or accident are also elevated, particularly in view of the relative inexperience in large-tonnage tanker navigation under Arctic conditions and insufficient emergency services resources. While birds and mammals suffer from oiling of plumage or skin with subsequent thermoregulation difficulties, most underwater nature is also threatened by the chemical effects of hydrocarbons. Oil can cause damage to marine organisms on several systematic levels. Eggs, as well as larval and juvenile stages of organisms are particularly sensitive to hydrocarbons. Information on the consequences of oil contamination on unicellular aquatic organisms is scarce. This paper discussed a 63 day field experiment in Van Mijenfjorden, Sweden, which was conducted to study crude oil and nutrient addition effects on Arctic sea ice biota. It was determined that once oil is released in the marine environment in the presence of ice cover, several processes may take place depending on the season, the site of the oil spill and the state of ice growth or melt. During the pack ice season, an under-ice spill will lead to the formation of oil lenses beneath the ice sheet. During ice growth, oil may become sealed within the ice to migrate to the top of the Arctic multi-year ice. Hydrocarbon concentrations increase notably during ice break up. Fresh melt water migrates downwards and facilitates the release of ice associated organisms into the underlying water. Acute toxic effects of an oil spill on Arctic ice biota and planktonic communities in the water column will become apparent during the surface melting or break-up of the ice. Low concentrations of PAH compounds can inhibit the growth of multicellular algae. Changes were noted in phytoplankton, but diatoms appear to be more tolerant to oil than other protists

  1. Improving the Demulsification Process of Heavy Crude Oil Emulsion through Blending with Diluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Salam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In crude oil production from brown fields or heavy oil, there is production of water in oil emulsions which can either be controlled or avoided. This emulsion resulted in an increase in viscosity which can seriously affect the production of oil from sand phase up to flow line. Failure to separate the oil and water mixture efficiently and effectively could result in problems such as overloading of surface separation equipments, increased cost of pumping wet crude, and corrosion problems. Light hydrocarbon diluent was added in varied proportions to three emulsion samples collected from three different oil fields in Niger delta, Nigeria, to enhance the demulsification of crude oil emulsion. The viscosity, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and quality of water were evaluated. The viscosity of the three emulsions considered reduced by 38, 31, and 18%. It is deduced that the increase in diluent blended with emulsion leads to a corresponding decrease in the value of viscosity. This in turn enhanced the rate of demulsification of the samples. The basic sediment and water (BS&W of the top dry oil reduces the trace value the three samples evaluated, and with optimum value of diluent, TPH values show that the water droplets are safe for disposal and for other field uses.

  2. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  3. Occurrence of phenylalkanes in some Australian Crude Oils and Sediments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, L.; Langworthy, T. A.; Winans, R.; Anderson, K. B.; Winans, R. E.; Chemistry; Curtin Univ. of Tech.; Univ. of South Dakota

    1996-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the proposition that phenylalkanes in some Australian crude oils and sediments are of geochemical origin as opposed to resulting from contamination from byproducts of the petrochemical manufacture of surfactants. Evidence presented shows that: (1) an unexposed sediment core was found to contain phenylalkanes; (2) the molecular weight range of phenylalkanes in sediments and crude oils is usually wider than that found in surfactants, extending in some cases beyond C35; (3) abundant phenylalkanes were generated by pyrolysis of extracted sediments, and (4) phenylalkanes were found in the neutral lipid extract of extant Thermoplasma bacteria. Also, the presence of phenylalkanes and possibly phenylalkenes in the pyrolyzates of torbanites suggests that these compounds may also be formed from fossil algae.

  4. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  5. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Glikin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  6. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve

    2002-06-01

    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  7. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  8. A new method for petroleum fractions and crude oil characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, F. (Univ. of Barcelono (ES)); Miquel, J. (Politechnic Univ. of Catalunya (ES)); Hernandez, J. (Repsol S.A. Co. (ES))

    1992-05-01

    In this paper a new procedure for petroleum fraction and crude oil characterization is proposed that is based on pseudocomponent breakdown by the integral method. The method requires only the atmospheric true-boiling-point (TBP) distillation curve and whole-fraction density. The pseudocomponents are obtained by sequentially applying an optimization procedure in which the mass balance is accomplished exactly and the molar-balance error is minimized.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECT UPGRADING PROCESS FOR HEAVY CRUDE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The direct upgrading process from heavy crude oil to sweet and light oil (IKC process) has been deve-loped for about 10 years in Idemitsu Kosan. Compared with conventional refinery scheme consisting of YR-HDS, VGOHYC and so on, the new refinery scheme combined with IKC process and Topper was always economically feasible with lower cost and smaller energy consumption. In the existing refinery of no middle distillate HDS and residue HDS of HYC plants to supplement IKC process is expected to be one of the efficient methods to cope with the environmental regulations.

  11. Highly-efficient enzymatic conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Liu, Jin; Gerken, Henri; Zhang, Chengwu; Hu, Qiang; Li, Yantao

    2014-11-01

    Energy-intensive chemical conversion of crude algal oils into biodiesel is a major barrier for cost-effective algal biofuel production. To overcome this problem, we developed an enzyme-based platform for conversion of crude algal oils into fatty acid methyl esters. Crude algal oils were extracted from the oleaginous microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica IMET1 and converted by an immobilized lipase from Candida antarctica. The effects of different acyl acceptors, t-butanol as a co-solvent, oil to t-butanol ratio, oil to methanol ratio, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel conversion efficiency were studied. The conversion efficiency reached 99.1% when the conversion conditions were optimized, i.e., an oil to t-butanol weight ratio of 1:1, an oil to methanol molar ratio of 1:12, and a reaction time of 4h at 25°C. The enzymatic conversion process developed in this study may hold a promise for low energy consumption, low wastewater-discharge biochemical conversion of algal feedstocks into biofuels.

  12. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masih, Mansur [Department of Finance and Economics, Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Algahtani, Ibrahim [Department of Finance and Economics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); De Mello, Lurion [Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  13. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. The Biodiversity Changes in the Microbial Population of Soils Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasian, Firouz; Lockington, Robin; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Crude oil spills resulting from excavation, transportation and downstream processes can cause intensive damage to living organisms and result in changes in the microbial population of that environment. In this study, we used a pyrosequencing analysis to investigate changes in the microbial population of soils contaminated with crude oil. Crude oil contamination in soil resulted in the creation of a more homogenous population of microorganisms dominated by members of the Actinomycetales, Clostridiales and Bacillales (all belonging to Gram-positive bacteria) as well as Flavobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadales (all belonging to Gram-negative bacteria). These changes in the biodiversity decreased the ratios of chemoheterotrophic bacteria at higher concentrations of crude oil contamination, with these being replaced by photoheterotrophic bacteria, mainly Rhodospirillales. Several of the dominant microbial orders in the crude oil contaminated soils are able to degrade crude oil hydrocarbons and therefore are potentially useful for remediation of crude oil in contaminated sites.

  15. Hidden Markov Model and Forward-Backward Algorithm in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib Bon, Abdul; Isah, Nuhu

    2016-11-01

    In light of the importance of crude oil to the world's economy, it is not surprising that economists have devoted great efforts towards developing methods to forecast price and volatility levels. Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile such as economic, political and social. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid unforeseen circumstances towards economic activity. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2nd January to 29th May 2015. We used Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and Forward-Backward Algorithm to forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using Maple software. Based on the study, we concluded that model (0 3 0) is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  16. Formation, prevention and breaking of sea water in crude oil emulsions, chocolate mousses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridie, A.L.; Wanders, T.H.; Zegveld, W.; Van Der Hiejde, H.B.

    1980-12-01

    During the combating of oil spills, the handling of stable sea water in crude oil emulsions called chocolate mousses is often a major problem. A recent laboratory study of the formation and properties of such emulsions revealed the key roles played by asphaltenes and crystallized wax in their stability. A chemical additive, designated LA 1834, was found to be effective in preventing the formation of mousses.

  17. Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil using nut grass, Cyperus rotundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basumatary, Budhadev; Saikia, Rubul; Bordoloi, Sabitry

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Cyperus rotundus (nut grass), that could be effective in phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil. A net house experiment was conducted with different concentrations (2.05, 4.08, 6.1, 8.15 and 10.2%) of crude oil-contaminated soil for 180 days. Plant growth, biomass, total oil and grease (TOG) degradation and microbial numbers were analyzed at different intervals i.e. 60,120 and 180 days in different percentages of crude oil contaminated soil. In presence of crude oil, plant biomass and heights reduced up to 26 and 21.9% respectively. Concerning TOG content in soil, C. rotundus could decrease up to 50.01, 46.1, 42.6, 38.8 and 32.6% in treatment I, II, III, IV and V respectively in vegetated pots during 180 days. In case of unvegetated pots, the reductions of TOG were 4.4, 5.6, 6.6, 7.6 and 9.6% in treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively. However, there was significant degradation (P = 0.05) of TOG in vegetated pots in comparison to unvegetated pots thereby proving the efficacy of this plant species for use in phytoremediation.

  18. What does the convenience yield curve tell us about the crude oil market?

    OpenAIRE

    Alquist, Ron; Gregory H. Bauer; Díez de los Ríos, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Using the prices of crude oil futures contracts, we construct the term structure of crude oil convenience yields out to one-year maturity. The crude oil convenience yield can be interpreted as the interest rate, denominated in barrels of oil, for borrowing a single barrel of oil, and it measures the value of storing crude oil over the borrowing period. We show that the convenience yield curve is well explained by a level and a slope factor. Consistent with the theory of storage, convenience y...

  19. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  20. Bohai crude oil identification by gas chromatogram fingerprinting quantitative analysis coupled with cluster analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peiyan; BAO Mutai; GAO Zhenhui; LI Mei; ZHAO Yuhui; WANG Xinping; ZHOU Qing; WANG Xiulin

    2006-01-01

    By gas chromatogram, six crude oils fingerprinting distributed in four oilfields and four oil platforms were analyzed and the corresponding normal paraffin hydrocarbon (including pristane and phytane) concentration was obtained by the internal standard method. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution patterns of six crude oils were built and compared. The cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration was conducted for classification and some ratios of oils were used for oils comparison. The results indicated: there was a clear difference within different crude oils in different oil fields and a small difference between the crude oils in the same oil platform. The normal paraffin hydrocarbon distribution pattern and ratios, as well as the cluster analysis on the normal paraffin hydrocarbon concentration can have a better differentiation result for the crude oils with small difference than the original gas chromatogram.

  1. Novozym 435-catalysed transesterification of crude soya bean oils for biodiesel production in a solvent-free medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Jing; Liu, De-hua

    2004-10-01

    When crude soya-bean oil was used as the source for biodiesel production, the yield of methyl ester was significantly lower than that from refined soya-bean oil. The major difference between refined and crude soya-bean oils was found to be due to the contents of phospholipids, free acid and water, which have varied influences on biodiesel production. Phospholipid content was the most influential factor; the higher the phospholipid content in the oil, the lower is the methyl ester yield. The optimal water activity was found to be in the range 0.12-0.44, and free acid included in crude soya-bean oils showed no negative effect on enzymic transesterification. During our study of three-step methanolysis of crude soya-bean oils for biodiesel production, we noted that the second-step methanolysis was much faster than the first-step reaction. On the basis of this finding, the proposal that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils contributes to improvement in enzyme activity has been put forward. In addition, it has been demonstrated that immersing pretreatment of lipase in oils could improve both the reaction rate and methyl ester yield significantly. A methyl ester yield of 94% could be achieved by immersing lipase in crude oils for 120 h and this was just as high as the yield for refined oils.

  2. DOES VOLATILITY IN CRUDE OIL PRICE PRECIPITATE MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayoola Omojolaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of crude oil price changes on economic activity in an oil dependent economy-Nigeria. A small open economy structural vector autoregressive (SVAR technique is employed to study the macroeconomic dynamics of domestic price level, economic output, money supply and oil price in Nigeria. The sample covers the data from 1985:q1 to 2010:q4. The Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and the Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs results suggest that domestic policies, instead of oil-boom should be blamed for inflation. Also, oil price variations are driven mostly by oil shocks, however, domestic shocks are responsible for a reasonable portion of oil price variations.

  3. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  4. Protocol for testing bioremediation products against weathered Alaskan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venosa, A.D.; Haines, J.R.; Nisamaneepong, W.; Govind, R.; Pradhan, S.

    1990-01-01

    In the summer of 1989, EPA and Exxon Corp. conducted a joint field study to determine if natural biodegradation of the Prudoe Bay crude oil spilled from the Exxon Valdez could be accelerated by application of oleophilic and water soluble fertilizers. Numerous private firms have since submitted proposals to have their microbial products tested for bioremediation enhancement. EPA commissioned the National Environmental Technology Applications Corporation (NETAC) to coordinate an effort to select and test commercial products for efficacy against Alaskan crude oil. A panel of experts was assembled to review the proposals, and nine products were selected for the first tier of testing. The experiments were conducted at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati. Three lines of evidence were used to select the final products for further testing: cumalative oxygen uptake via electrolytic respirometry, microbial growth, and compositional analysis of treated oil by GC and GC/MS. The commercial products were compared against oleophilic and inorganic fertilizers in a comprehensive protocol incorporating sterile and non-sterile controls. Respirometric vessels and shaker flask microcosms were set up for the comparative testing using weathered oil and natural seawater from Prince William Sound. The paper presents the protocol, the test results, and conclusions derived from the study.

  5. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  6. Distribution and evolution of isoprenoid in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanfa, F.; Shanchun, J.; Fenfang, X.

    1981-12-01

    By means of chromatography-mass spectrography and gas chromatography, isoprenoids (i15-i20) have been identified in 49 crude oil samples and 3 rock samples from oil fields in Shengli, Huabei, Subei, Dagang, Liaohe and Daqing and also from Sichuan, Gueizhou etc. The relative contents, in percentage of phytane (Ph), pristane (Pr), norpristane (i18), 2.6.10-trimethyl-tridecane (i16) and farnesane (i15) are determined, as well as the ratios of Pr/Ph, Pr/nC/sub 17/, Ph/nC/sub 18/ and i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr. The curves of the relative contents of Ph, Pr, i18, i16 and i15 may show the character of different oils, useful for correlation purposes. The evolution of isoprenoids in crude oils is divided into sub-mature stage (Pr/Ph < 0.8, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr = 0.2 - 0.5); mature stage (Pr/Ph > 0.8, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr = 0.3 - 0.6) and highly mature stage (Pr/Ph > 1.0, i18 + i16 + i15/Ph + Pr > 0.6). 4 figures, 5 tables.

  7. A process and assembly for desalinating and dehydrating crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, V.V.; Fotescu, L.; Mihalache, I.; Neagu, R.; Suditu, I.N.; Tirboiu, D.

    1981-08-05

    A process is patented for desalinating and dehydrating crude oils by washing them with hot water (the assembly contains a demulsifier) for several stages depending on the salt content and a free water separating stage, after which an optimum dose of demulsifier is injected into the oil; the oil is heated up and injected into a settling tank where a coalescent layer if formed (depending on the type of oil). Coalescence can be conducted in the heat exchanger which is located before the settling tank and from which the hot water recirculates for washing. The treated oil, which may contain water and volatile components, can be injected into the stripper in a heated or unheated state. In the stripper, the oil makes contact with heated gas in a counterflow, which extracts the steam and the volatile hydrocarbons. The dehydrated oil is removed from the bottom of the stripper; steam and hydrocarbons move to the top of the stripper where they condense. The hydrocarbons are passed on for further use. The corresponding device which operates in the described manner is also patented.

  8. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  9. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  10. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions.

  11. Data used for Raimondo et al. 2016 "Effects of Louisiana Crude Oil on the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) During a Life-Cycle Exposure to Laboratory Oiled Sediment"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data are provided describing reproduction, length, weight, liver weight, and ovary weight in fish exposed to sediment spiked with weathered oil. Data are also...

  12. Biodegradation of crude oil and origin of thick oil in Liaohe Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.; Gao, J.; Chen, Y.; Song, S.

    1986-01-01

    The saturated hydrocarbon of crude oil in the Western Depression, Liaohe Basin have been analyzed by computerized GC-MS. The hopanes, regular steranes, diasteranes, specifically, 25-norhopanes were identified. Heavy biodegradation results in destruction of regular steranes and transformation of regular hopanes to 25-norhopanes. Diasteranes and 25-norhopanes survive heavy biodegradation and they can be used as source fingerprints for biodegraded crudes. The existence of the diasteranes and 25-norhopanes in the thick oil shows that the biodegradation plays important part in origin of the thick oil

  13. Market Efficiency in the Crude Oil Futures Market - an Empirical Study after the Shale Oil Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lade, Ragne Myrhol

    2016-01-01

    This thesis has studied efficiency in the crude oil futures market for WTI and the Brent Blend for a period including the “shale oil revolution”. The main objective was to provide new information by investigating a period in time not much explored in already published articles. Furthermore, the thesis sought to close a gap of earlier empirical studies performed, by combining the two crude oil types and including up to 6 months maturities for futures contracts, while at the same time having a ...

  14. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez, Jesus [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Solis, Ricardo [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  15. Geochemical characteristics of crude oils from the Cuyo Basin, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, H.J. (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)); Puettmann, W. (RWTH, Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Geologie, Geochemie und Lagerstaetten des Erdoels und der Kohle)

    1990-01-01

    Crude oils from the Triassic Cuyo Basin are thought to be derived from a fresh-water lacustrine source rock, mainly the Upper Triassic organic-rich shales of Cacheuta Fm. By means of GC and GC-MS methods, the oils were analysed for characteristics compounds which may reflect biological input to the source sediments and maturity variations. Pristane/phytane ratios, distributions of n-alkanes, and the presence of significant amounts of bacteriohopanoid-derived compounds (hopanes, 8,14-secohopanes, 8,14-monoaromatic secohopanoids, benzohopanes) together with bicyclic sesquiterpanes in all the samples studied, are taken as an indication of possible reworking of algal organic matter by bacteria. Sterane distributions were consistent with a lacustrine origin of the oils. (author)

  16. Waxes in asphaltenes of crude oils and wax deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M. Ganeeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Composition and molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes in asphaltenes of crude oils of different ages and in wax deposits formed in the borehole equipment were studied. In asphaltenes, n-alkanes from C12 to C60 were detected. The high molecular weight paraffins in asphaltenes would form a crystalline phase with a melting point of 80–90 °C. The peculiarities of the redistribution of high molecular paraffin hydrocarbons between oil and the corresponding wax deposit were detected. In the oils, the high molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons C50–C60 were found, which were not practically detected in the corresponding wax deposits.

  17. Processing emulsions from desalting of crude oil using centrifuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiger, W.; Westenthanner, F.; Reichl, J. [Flottweg GmbH und Co. KGaA, Vilsbiburg (Germany)

    2006-12-15

    Crude oil directly from the well contains brine. This brine is separated using static settling in tanks. Thereby a layer of emulsion is built up in the interface between oil and the brine, which reduces the available tank volume and makes the separation process difficult. In order to break the emulsion there are several approaches, e.g., use of emulsion breaker, treatment using electrical field, ultra sonic, microwave, etc., This article describes a successful commissioning of a centrifuge, a FLOTTWEG, TRICANTER {sup registered}, in the ural-central region. The FLOTTWEG TRICANTER {sup registered} enables a continuous 3-phase-separation, i. e., separation of the emulsion into oil, water and solids without chemical additives. (orig.)

  18. 原油组成对碱-表面活性剂-聚合物三元复合驱的影响%Effect of crude oil composition on ternary composite alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙哲; 孙学法; 卢祥国; 陈欣; 喻琴; 田春雨

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between oil/water samples from different districts in Daqing oilfield with ternary composite alkali-surfactant-polymer(ASP) system were studied. The effects of the crude oil compositions on the crude oil production increment with the ASP system and the properties of the produced fluid were studied. The oil/water samples,extracted active ingredients,raffinate oil and sulfur content in the oil phase were analyzed by means of FTIR,GC-MS and XRF. It was showed that,the characteristic peaks of the active ingredients in the oil/water samples accorded with the features of typical saturated monocarboxylic acids(fatty acids and naphthenic acids). The concentration ofn-alkanes with heavy component in the raffinate oil from the Lamadian oil/water sample was higher,and its composition was closer to that of the surfactant(heavy alkylbenzene sulfonates). It was indicated that,the interfacial tensions between the ASP system and the active ingredients in the oil/water samples or the raffinate oil were high, but there were ultra-low interfacial tensions between the ASP system and the crude oils.%采用大庆油田不同区域油水样与碱-表面活性剂-聚合物(ASP)三元复合体系相互作用,研究了原油组成对三元复合驱增油效果及采出液性质的影响;采用FTIR,GC-MS,XRF等方法对原油油水样、萃取活性组分、萃余油组分及油相中硫元素含量进行表征。表征结果显示,各油水样中的萃取活性组分均具有典型一元饱和羧酸(脂肪酸和环烷酸)峰值特征,喇嘛甸油水样萃余油正构烷烃中的重质组分含量较高,其组成与表面活性剂重烷基苯磺酸盐的组分更接近。实验结果表明,油水样中萃取活性组分及萃余油与三元复合体系间界面张力虽较高,但原油与三元复合体系间却可实现超低界面张力。

  19. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  20. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  1. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation.

  2. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... of the biodegradable commercial kinetic inhibitor (Luvicap-Bio) on natural gas hydrate formation with and without crude oil (30%) was investigated. The strength of kinetic inhibitor was not affected by salts, but decreased significantly in the presence of crude oil. Data for hydrate formation at practical conditions...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  3. Solubility of crude oil in methane as a function of pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, L.C.; Wenger, L.M.; Ging, T.; Blount, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The solubility of a 44?? API (0.806 sp. gr.) whole crude oil has been measured in methane with water present at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 740 to 14,852 psi, as have the solubilities of two high molecular weight petroleum distillation fractions at temperatures of 50 to 250??C and pressures of 4482 to 25,266 psi. Both increases in pressure and temperature increase the solubility of crude oil and petroleum distillation fractions in methane, the effect of pressure being greater than that of temperature. Unexpectedly high solubility levels (0.5-1.5 grams of oil per liter of methane-at laboratory temperature and pressure) were measured at moderate conditions (50-200??C and 5076-14504 psi). Similar results were found for the petroleum distillation fractions, one of which was the highest molecular weight material of petroleum (material boiling above 266??C at 6 microns pressure). Unexpectedly mild conditions (100??C and 15,200 psi; 200??C and 7513 psi) resulted in cosolubility of crude oil and methane. Under these conditions, samples of the gas-rich phase gave solubility values of 4 to 5 g/l, or greater. Qualitative analyses of the crude-oil solute samples showed that at low pressure and temperature equilibration conditions, the solute condensate would be enriched in C5-C15 range hydrocarbons and in saturated hydrocarbons in the C15+ fraction. With increases in temperature and especially pressure, these tendencies were reversed, and the solute condensate became identical to the starting crude oil. The data of this study, compared to that of previous studies, shows that methane, with water present, has a much greater carrying capacity for crude oil than in dry systems. The presence of water also drastically lowers the temperature and pressure conditions required for cosolubility. The data of this and/or previous studies demonstrate that the addition of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane, or butane to methane also has a strong positive effect on crude oil

  4. Reduced hydrogen sulfide from crude oil using metal nanoparticles produced by electrochemical deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Safarkhani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide is one of the most dangerous contaminants in crude oil and natural gas that must be removed before transport and refining. It has multiple effects on the environment and the industry is bad that these effects include acid rain, cancer, corrosion of pipelines, poison catalytic converters in car exhaust. In this study, to eliminate H2S crude oil Nano emulsion used ionic liquid. Ionic liquids also with metal nanoparticles (MNPs have been modified. Improve and reform the electrochemical deposition of metal salts is done. Ionic liquid 1 - Hydro One Atyl2- methyl imidazolium de cyanimide [HEMIM] [DCA] is inherently hydrophilic as Scavenger H2S was added to the crude oil. Two types of metal salts of Fe (acac 3 and Cu (SO4 electrochemical deposition method for producing metal nanoparticles in the ionic liquid [HEMIM] [DCA] was used. Suitable concentrations of ionic liquids for the complete removal of hydrogen sulfide from crude oil were determined by two methods: static and dynamic methods. Dynamic method to determine the required dose used to remove H2S. Static method using response surface and through statistical experimental design for modeling and assessment CCD H2S was removed parameters. Three factors, namely Scavengerdose, contact time and the reaction temperature were studied. The interaction between these factors on the concentration of H2S in the crude oil was studied. 3 important statistical models for ionic liquids and ionic liquid containing two types of metal nanoparticles were developed. This model has an index of noncompliance was not important. The ionic liquid modified with nanoparticles , activity and H2S removal capacity is significantly increased , to the extent that the effect of one or two major factors were considered too small or unimportant . Copper metal nanoparticles showed better performance for the removal of H2S to iron

  5. Ham Petrol Fiyatlarındaki Volatilitenin Gayri Safi Yurtiçi Hasıla Büyümesi Üzerindeki Etkileri: Türkiye Örneği( The Effects on Gross Domestic Product Growth of Crude Oil Price Volatility: A Case Study for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif ÖZSAĞIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between international crude oil prices and GDP growth in Turkey was studied for 1987-2007 period. Crude oil prices with reference to the study,. Include annual average data. GDP data was obtained from Central Bank of Turkish as US dolar. With a view to display cointegration relationship between the data, Angle Granger and Johansen methods were applied. Notwithstanding, the results were inquired with VAR method. In the meanwhile; Dickey Fuller, Unit Root and Modified Akaike tests were executed too. Crude oil prices volatility effects on GDP growth, and also affect in question has appeared especially as from the second period (1997-2007.

  6. Dynamic Correlation between Stock Market Returns and Crude Oil Prices: Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike O. Kalu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Modeling the correlation of assets returns volatilities across different markets or segments of a market has practical value for portfolio selection and diversification, market regulation, and risk management. This paper therefore evaluates the nature of time-varying correlation between volatilities of stock market and crude oil returns in Nigeria using Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH model. Results from DCC-GARCH (1,1 model show evidence of volatility clustering and persistence in Nigeria stock market and crude oil returns. The results also show that there is no dynamic conditional correlation in ARCH effects between stock market returns and crude oil prices in Nigeria. The results further show that there is strong evidence of time-varying volatility correlation between stock market and crude oil returns volatility. The findings will help shape policy-making in risk management and market regulation in Nigeria.

  7. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-11-25

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies.

  8. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  9. Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ovalles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extra-heavy crude oil underground upgrading concept and laboratory experiments are presented which involve the addition of a hydrogen donor (tetralin to an Orinoco Basin extra-heavy crude oil under steam injection conditions (280–315 °C and residence times of at least 24-h. Three iron-containing nanocatalysts (20 nm, 60 nm and 90 nm were used and the results showed increases of up to 8° in API gravity, 26% desulfurization and 27% reduction in the asphaltene content of the upgraded product in comparison to the control reaction using inert sand. The iron nanocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDAX, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before and after the upgrading reactions. The results indicated the presence of hematite (Fe2O3 as the predominant iron phase. The data showed that the catalysts were deactivating by particle sintering (~20% increase in particle size and also by carbon deposition. Probable mechanisms of reactions are proposed.

  10. Research on the trend of Yen exchange rate and international crude oil price fluctuation affected by Japan’s earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Whether this earthquake would become a turning point of the high oil price and whether it would have big impact on yen exchange rate are two issues to be discussed in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: To analyze deeply the internal relations between changes in yen exchange rate caused by Japan’s earthquake and price fluctuation of international crude oil, this research chooses middle rate of yen exchange rate during the 45 days around Japan’s earthquake and price data of international crude oil to do an empirical study, uses VAR model and HP trend decomposition to estimate the mutual effect of yen exchange rate change and price fluctuation of international crude oil in this period.Findings: It has been found in the empirical study with VAR model and HP filter decomposition model on the yen exchange rate and the international crude oil price fluctuation during 45 days around Japan’s earthquake that: the fluctuation of yen exchange rate around the earthquake is one of the main reasons for the drastic fluctuation of international crude oil price in that period. The fluctuation of international crude oil price directly triggered by yen exchange rate occupies 13.54% of its total variance. There is a long-term interactive relationship between yen exchange rate and international crude oil price. The upward trend of international crude oil price after the earthquake was obvious, while yen exchange rate remained relatively stable after the earthquake.Originality/value: As economic globalization goes deeper, the influence of natural disasters on international financial market and world economy will become more and more obvious. It has a great revelatory meaning to studying further each kind of natural disaster’s impacts on international financial market and world economics.

  11. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, J Christoff; van Wyk, Johannes H; Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Mokwena, Lucky M

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge regarding the potential impacts of crude oil on endocrine signaling in freshwater aquatic vertebrates is limited. The expression of selected genes as biomarkers for altered endocrine signaling was studied in African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, tadpoles and juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to weathered bunker and unweathered refinery crude oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs). In addition, the expression of the aforementioned genes was quantified in X. laevis tadpoles exposed to surface water collected from the proximity of an underground oil bunker. The (anti)estrogenicity and (anti)androgenicity of crude oil, crude oil WAFs, and surface water were furthermore evaluated using recombinant yeast. Thyroid hormone receptor beta expression was significantly down-regulated in X. laevis in response to both oil WAF types, whereas a further thyroid linked gene, type 2 deiodinase, was up-regulated in O. mossambicus exposed to a high concentration of bunker oil WAF. In addition, both WAFs altered the expression of the adipogenesis-linked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in X. laevis. The crude oil and WAFs exhibited antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in vitro. However, O. mossambicus androgen receptor 2 was the only gene, representing the reproductive system, significantly affected by WAF exposure. Estrogenicity, antiestrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity were detected in surface water samples; however, no significant changes were observed in the expression of any of the genes evaluated in X. laevis exposed to surface water. The responses varied among the 2 model organisms used, as well as among the 2 types of crude oil. Nonetheless, the data provide evidence that crude oil pollution may lead to adverse health effects in freshwater fish and amphibians as a result of altered endocrine signaling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1330-1342. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Dispersion Properties of NMR Relaxation for Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ranhong; Xiao Lizhi

    2007-01-01

    Special requirements for design of tools used for wireline NMR logging and NMR logging while drilling and for interpretation model are demanded due to the dispersion properties of NMR relaxation for crude oil.NMR longitudinal relaxation time (T1) and transverse relaxation time (T2) of the dead oil samples with different viscosities were measured by NMR spectrometers with a Larmor frequency of 2 MHz and 23 MHz at five different temperatures respectively.The results showed that T1 was obviously dependent on the Larmor frequency of NMR spectrometer.The degree of T1 dispersion became stronger with the increasing crude oil viscosity,Larmor frequency and the viscosity/temperature ratio.T2 was independent of NMR spectrometer measuring frequency.It is suggested that the resonance frequency should be selected lower than 2 MHz when measuring T1 in logging while-drilling and that T1 dispersion should be corrected when Larmor frequency is higher than 2 MHz.

  13. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  14. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-06-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly.

  15. Visualization and Imaging of Crude Oil Mobilization on the Pore Network Scale by Low Salinity Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, W. B.; Rucker, M.; Mahani, H.; Berg, S.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Conventional oil recovery techniques leave about 60-70% of the original oil in place in reservoirs. To improve efficiency, enhanced or improved oil recovery (EOR/IOR) techniques are employed. The principle of all EOR/IOR techniques is the (re)formation of an oil bank with reduced trapping probability and/or increased connectivity of the oil phase compared to conventional water flooding. One of these techniques is low salinity waterflooding (LSF) where the injected brine is of reduced salinity and/or modified ionic composition. Research covering LSF predominantly discusses Darcy scale experiments and incremental recovery on the one hand and pore scale experiments looking at wettability alteration in model systems on the other. Attempts have been made on finding correlations between properties of the crude oil-brine-rock (COBR) system and incremental recovery. However, predictive capability of both the occurrence and magnitude of the low salinity effect (LSE) has not been achieved. Therefore, we suggest a different approach where we study the length scale in between the pore and Darcy scale at which the actual transport of crude oil occurs. More specifically, we study prerequisites deemed important for the occurrence of the LSE and try to define relevant physics. Relevance is defined here as physics that potentially contributes to oil bank formation, which is a necessary requirement if any (additional) oil is to be recovered. In this work we use micro-models and micro-CT technique to study this length scale. We will show how microscopy in combination with micro-models, and micro-CT in combination with COBR systems provide insight in the relevant length-scale consistent physics for LSF. We show that the presence of clay and the initial wettability state seem to have little influence on the occurrence of the LSE whereas the presence of crude oil is required. This leads us to believe that it is necessary to have charged surfaces (solid and crude oil) present for the LSE

  16. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  17. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values......-at-Risk are calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The resulting out-of-sample forecasts based on the simulations suggests that the GARCH method with implied volatility as explanatory variable captures the risk structure well....

  18. GEANT4 simulation of water volume fraction measurement in dehydrated crude oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JING Chunguo; XING Guangzhong; LIU Bin

    2007-01-01

    Online measurement of water volume fraction (WVF) in dehydrated crude oil is a difficult task due to very little water in dehydrated crude oil and high precision requirements. We presents a method to measure water volume fraction in dehydrated crude oil with γ-ray densitometry. The Monte Carlo computer simulation packet GEANT4 was used to analyze the WVF measuring sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry at different γ-ray energies, and effects of temperature, pressure, salinity and oil components on WVF measurement. The results show that the γ-ray densitome-try has high sensitivity in γ-ray energy ranges of 16~25 keV, and it can distinguish WVF changes of 0.0005. The calculated WVF decreases about 0.0002 with 1 ℃ of temperature increase and they have approximately linear relation with temperature when water volume fraction remains the same. Effects of pressure, salinity and oil components on water volume fraction can be neglected. Experiments were done to analyze sensitivity of the γ-ray densitometry. The results, as compared with simulations, demonstrate that simulation method is reliable and it is feasible to gauge low water volume fraction using low energy γ-rays.

  19. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Xiaodong, E-mail: xdu23@wisc.ed [Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Yu, Cindy L., E-mail: cindyyu@iastate.ed [Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, IA (United States); Hayes, Dermot J., E-mail: dhayes@iastate.ed [Department of Economics and Department of Finance, Iowa State University, IA (United States)

    2011-05-15

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  20. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K. Kuwornoo, Julius C. Ahiekpor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 oC.

  1. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or with......Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil–brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses...... of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs....

  2. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  3. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  4. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkl, Nicole [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany) and PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: nmerkl@uni-hohenheim.de; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: rsk@uni-hohenheim.de; Infante, Carmen [PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela) and Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), FUNINDES, Unidad de Gestion Ambiental, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: luchoben@cantv.net

    2005-11-15

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils.

  5. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    OpenAIRE

    Ekundayo, F. O.; Olukunle, O.F.; Ekundayo, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil w...

  6. Market structure and exhaustible resources: The case of natural gas and crude oil in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czastkiewicz, Carolina

    Using a dataset of natural gas and crude oil production in the state of California, evidence shows overextraction incentives among market participants that shared a common pool. Due to these incentives the supply of gas and crude oil extraction tends to become more inelastic as the number of firms in the pool increases. Using an instrumental variables estimation of the supply function, the results show that the common pool externality caused an average overproduction rate of 11% and 4% over the 1977--2001 period, in natural gas and crude oil, respectively. These figures imply 1 year and 4 years of additional production for natural gas and crude oil, respectively.

  7. Esterification of Free Fatty Acid in Crude Palm Oil Off Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The esterification of free fatty acids (FFA found in crude palm oil (CPO off grade with methanol is a promising technique to convert FFA into valuable fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, biodiesel and obtain a FFA-free oil that can be further transesterified using alkali bases. In this work, the effects of the main variables involved in the esterification process i.e. alcohol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature, agitation speed and the initial amount of FFA of oil, were studied in the presence of sulphuric acid as catalyst at concentration of 1%-w. The experimental results show that the esterification process could lead to a practical and cost effective FFA removal unit in front of typical oil transesterification for biodiesel production. Keywords: CPO off grade, esterification, free fatty acid

  8. Forecasting Crude Oil Price with Multiscale Denoising Ensemble Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil price becomes more volatile and sensitive to increasingly diversified influencing factors with higher level of deregulations worldwide. Current methodologies are being challenged as they have been constrained by traditional approaches assuming homogeneous time horizons and investment strategies. Approximations they provided over the long term time horizon no longer satisfy the accuracy requirement at shorter term and more microlevels. This paper proposes a novel crude oil price forecasting model based on the wavelet denoising ARMA models ensemble by least square support vector regression with the reduced forecasting matrix dimensions by independent component analysis. The proposed methodology combines the multi resolution analysis and nonlinear ensemble framework. The wavelet denoising based algorithm is introduced to separate and extract the underlying data components with distinct features, corresponding to investors with different investment scales, which are modeled with time series models of different specifications and parameters. Then least square support vector regression is introduced to nonlinearly ensemble results based on different wavelet families to further reduce the estimation biases and improve the forecasting generalizability. Empirical studies show the significant performance improvement when the proposed model is tested against the bench-mark models.

  9. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  10. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  11. Crude oil geochemistry of the southern Songliao Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Taiming; Rullkoetter, J.; Radke, M.; Schaefer, R.G.; Welte, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-three crude oils from the southern Songliao Basin, Heilongjiang Province (People's Republic of China), were characterized by various organic geochemical techniques to have a very uniform bulk and molecular composition in terms of source characteristics (type I kerogen) but to vary significantly in thermal maturity. Two middle Cretaceous source rocks, i.e. the Members 1 of the Qingshankou (Qn/sub 1/) and Nenjiang (Nen/sub 1/) Formations, were considered to be the most likely origin of the oils investigated, but a Jurassic source cannot be fully excluded for the Nang'An oils. Molecular maturation indicators including carbon preference indices, sterane isomerisation, conversion of mono- into triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons, relative concentration of diasteranes and the 18..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane/17..cap alpha..(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane ratio showed that there is a positive correlation between thermal maturity of the oils and the age of their reservoirs. This was interpreted as an indication of limited cross-stratigraphic migration and further evidence for the generation in the Qn/sub 1/ and Nen/sub 1/ source rocks.

  12. Effectiveness of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions in inducing mortality and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in chick embryo in ovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, P.; Khan, S.; O' Brien, P.J.O.; Rahimtula, A.T.; Payne, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) and its aliphatic, aromatic and heterocyclic fractions were tested on the developing chick embryo for (i) embryotoxicity (ii) their ability to induce hepatic and renal cytochrome P450 levels as well as hepatic, renal and pulmonary aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. On the basis of its concentration in PBCO, the aromatic fraction was responsible for most of the embryotoxicity as well as for the enzyme inducing ability. The NOS fraction constituted less than 7% (w/v) of PbCO but, on a weight equivalent basis, was roughly as potent as the aromatic fraction in causing embryotoxicity and in inducing cytochrome P450 levels and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. The aliphatic fraction was found to be essentially inactive. The results are consistent with the concept that elevation of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase levels by certain components of PBCO may lead to increased embroyotoxicity.

  13. Toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to juvenile rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R. (National Marine Water Quality Lab., Narragansett, RI); Kissil, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Toxicities were determined for two crude oils, one from the Persian Gulf (Iran) and one from the Sinai Peninsula (Gulf of Suez), to rabbitfish, Siganus rivulatus, an economically important species of teleost from the Red Sea. Also tested for toxicity were ST 5, a chemical oil dispersant, and oil-ST 5 mixtures in the ratio 10:1 vol/vol. Static tests conducted in small (3-liter) jars at 41 /sup 0///sub 00/ salinity and 23/sup 0/C produced LC/sub 50/ (168 h) values of 0.74 ml/liter for Iranian crude, 14.5 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and 0.010 ml/liter for ST 5; LC/sub 50/ values for oil-ST 5 mixtures reflected biocidal properties of ST 5 alone. Iranian oil became less toxic with increasing time in seawater over a period of 168 hours; the reverse was observed for Sinai crude. ST 5 exhibited a dramatic reduction in lethality after 2 hours in the assay medium. The most toxic component tested of Iranian crude was the lowest-boiling fraction; with Sinai crude it was the highest-boiling fraction; with ST 5 the volatile surfactant component accounted for almost all deaths. Liver enlargement in rabbitfish was linked with exposure to comparatively high concentrations of crude oil. High sublethal levels of ST 5 caused reductions in blood hematocrit. Rabbitfish survival at a given petrochemical concentration was highest at intermediate salinities of 30-50 /sup 0///sub 00/ in the salinity range tested of 20 to 60 /sup 0///sub 00/. Rabbitfish were more resistant to crudes and oil-dispersant mixtures in continuous flow bioassays conducted in large tanks than in static jar bioassays. Tank tests also suggested that mortalities were higher among toxicant-stressed fish confined 0.2 to 1.0 meters from the surface than among fish held 1.0 to 1.8 m from the surface. (auth)

  14. Effects of storage and industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability characteristics of crude sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirci, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of industrial oilseed extraction methods on the quality and stability of crude sunflower oil (pre-pressed, solvent-extracted, full-pressed and mixed oils was studied by means of the determination of free fatty acids, peroxide value, color value, iron, phosphorus, total and individual tocopherol contents, their stability against oxidation (Rancimat induction time and the fatty acid composition with special emphasis on trans fatty acids. In addition, these crude oils were stored for a period of four months at 40 ± 2°C and analyzed at monthly intervals for free fatty acids, peroxide value, and Rancimat induction time to evaluate their storage stability. The results revealed that the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction method had worse quality and stability parameters than the crude oils obtained by other extraction methods. Tocopherol content showed a drastic decrease with full-pressed extraction. Also, the crude sunflower oils obtained by the full-pressed extraction presented a higher total trans fatty acid content than the others. On the contrary, the solvent extraction method influenced the phosphorus and iron contents more than the others. The results indicated, however, that pre-pressing the oil appeared to be better than other methods. This study suggests that it is absolutely necessary for the vegetable oil industry to reevaluate the full pressing method as well as the solvent extraction conditions used for sunflowerseeds in order to retain both nutritive value and oxidative stability.La influencia de los métodos industriales de extracción de semillas oleaginosas sobre la calidad y la estabilidad de aceites crudos de girasol (pre-prensado, extraídos con disolventes, prensado completo y mezclas de aceites se ha estudiado mediante la determinación de los ácidos grasos libres, índice de peróxidos, valor del color, hierro, fósforo, contenido de tocoferoles totales e individuales, así como su

  15. Impacts of Deepwater Horizon crude oil exposure on adult mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) swim performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, John D; Mager, Edward M; Hoenig, Ronald H; Benetti, Daniel D; Grosell, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The temporal and geographic attributes of the Deepwater Horizon incident in 2010 likely exposed pelagic game fish species, such as mahi-mahi, to crude oil. Although much of the research assessing the effects of the spill has focused on early life stages of fish, studies examining whole-animal physiological responses of adult marine fish species are lacking. Using swim chamber respirometry, the present study demonstrates that acute exposure to a sublethal concentration of the water accommodated fraction of Deepwater Horizon crude oil results in significant swim performance impacts on young adult mahi-mahi, representing the first report of acute sublethal toxicity on adult pelagic fish in the Gulf of Mexico following the spill. At an exposure concentration of 8.4 ± 0.6 µg L(-1) sum of 50 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; mean of geometric means ± standard error of the mean), significant decreases in the critical and optimal swimming speeds of 14% and 10%, respectively (p < 0.05), were observed. In addition, a 20% reduction in the maximum metabolic rate and a 29% reduction in aerobic scope resulted from exposure to this level of ΣPAHs. Using environmentally relevant crude oil exposure concentrations and a commercially and ecologically valuable Gulf of Mexico fish species, the present results provide insight into the effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on adult pelagic fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2613-2622. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Influence of crude oil exposure on cardiac function and thermal tolerance of juvenile rainbow trout and European sea bass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Katja; Mauduit, Florian; Le Floch, Stéphane; Claireaux, Guy; Nikinmaa, Mikko

    2017-07-05

    Oil spills pose a threat to aquatic organisms. However, the physiological effects of crude oil on cardiac function and on thermal tolerance of juvenile fish are still poorly understood. Consequently, in this paper, we will present results of two separate experiments where we exposed juvenile rainbow trout and European sea bass to crude oil and made cardiac thermal tolerances and maximum heart rate (f Hmax) measurements after 1 week (rainbow trout) and 6-month recovery (sea bass). In both species, the f Hmax was lower in crude oil-exposed fish than in the control ones at temperatures below the optimum but this difference disappeared at higher temperatures. More importantly, the oil-exposed fish had significantly higher Arrhenius break point temperature for f Hmax, which gave an estimate for optimum temperature, than the control fish in both species even though the exposure conditions and recovery times differed between species. The results indicated that exposure of juvenile fish to crude oil did not have a significant negative impact upon their cardiac performance in high temperatures and upper thermal tolerance increased when the fish were tested 1 week or 6 months after the exposure. Our findings suggest that the cardiac function and thermal tolerance of juvenile fish are relatively resistant to a crude oil exposure.

  17. Study of Oil/Water Interfacial Tension of Vacuum Residual Fractions from Iranian Light Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭勃; 李明远; 赵锁奇; 吴肇亮; JohanSjoblom; HaraldHoiland

    2003-01-01

    The vacuum residual from Iranian Light crude oil are separated into a series of 16 narrow fractions according to the molecular weight by the supercritical fluid extraction and fractional (SFEF) technology. The chemical element and the UV spectrum of each fraction are analyzed. The effects of several factors on the interfacial tension are investigated, which are the fraction concentration in oil phase, the ratio of oil component, the salts dissolved in the water phase and the pH value. The interfacial tension decreases rapidly as the concentration of the residual fraction in the oil increases, showing a higher interfacial activity of the fraction. The interfacial tension changes, as the amount of absorption or the state of the fractions in the interface changes resulting from different ratios of oil, different kinds or concentrations of salts in water, and different pH values. It is concluded that the intrfacial tension changes regularly, corresponding to the regular molecular parameters of the vacuum residual fractions.

  18. Preparation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyl-Terminated Silicone Oil Fiber and Its Application to Analysis of Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method to analyze the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in crude oils has been developed based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC × GC/TOFMS. A novel fiber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyl-terminated silicone oil (MWNTs-TSO-OH, was prepared by sol-gel technology. Using standard solutions, the extraction conditions were optimized such as extraction mode, extraction temperature, extraction time, and salts effect. With the optimized conditions, a real crude oil sample was extracted and then analyzed in detail. It shows that the proposed method is very effective in simultaneously analyzing the normal and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and biomarkers of crude oil such as steranes and terpanes. Furthermore, the method showed good linearity (r > 0.999, precision (RSD < 8%, and detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 ng/L.

  19. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P. [ConocoPhillips, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  20. BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM CRUDE OIL IN SANDY-BEACH MICROCOSMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Though the lower n-alkanes are considered the most degradable components of crude oil, our experiments with microcosms simulating oiled beaches showed substantial depletion of fluorene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene, and other PAH in control treatments consisting of raw seawater...

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF DEMULSIFIER FORMULATION FOR SEPARATION OF WATER FROM CRUDE OIL EMULSIONS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajivand, P; Vaziri, A

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study, various water-soluble and oil-soluble demulsifiers were selected for separation of water from crude oil emulsions and their productivity measured using the Bottle-test method at 70...

  2. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  3. Exploring the WTI crude oil price bubble process using the Markov regime switching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Wang, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The sharp volatility of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price in the past decade triggers us to investigate the price bubbles and their evolving process. Empirical results indicate that the fundamental price of WTI crude oil appears relatively more stable than that of the market-trading price, which verifies the existence of oil price bubbles during the sample period. Besides, by allowing the WTI crude oil price bubble process to switch between two states (regimes) according to a first-order Markov chain, we are able to statistically discriminate upheaval from stable states in the crude oil price bubble process; and in most of time, the stable state dominates the WTI crude oil price bubbles while the upheaval state usually proves short-lived and accompanies unexpected market events.

  4. Studies on water-in-oil products from crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingas, Merv; Fieldhouse, Ben

    2012-02-01

    Water-in-oil mixtures such as emulsions, often form and complicate oil spill countermeasures. The formation of water-in-oil mixtures was studied using more than 300 crude oils and petroleum products. Water-in-oil types were characterized by resolution of water at 1 and 7 days, and some after 1 year. Rheology measurements were carried out at the same intervals. The objective of this laboratory study was to characterize the formed water-in-oil products and relate these properties to starting oil properties. Analysis of the starting oil properties of these water-in-oil types shows that the existence of each type relates to the starting oil viscosity and its asphaltene and resin contents. This confirms that water-in-oil emulsification is a result of physical stabilization by oil viscosity and chemical stabilization by asphaltenes and resins. This stabilization is illustrated using simple graphical techniques. Four water-in-oil types exist: stable, unstable, meso-stable and entrained. Each of these has distinct physical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  6. Treatment of oil refinery wastewater using crude Coprinus cinereus peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikehata, K.; Buchanan, I. D.; Smith, D. W. [University of Alberta, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    Enzymatic treatment of oil refinery wastewater was investigated using crude peroxidase derived from the fungus Coprinus cinereus (CIP), and hydrogen peroxide. Further objectives were to investigate the effects of residual organic compounds in the crude enzyme, and compare the performance of CIP to those of purified horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) in the treatment of a strong refinery wastewater. Phenols in the wastewater were converted to coloured polymeric products and then removed by coagulation with alum. As a result of the enzymatic treatment and alum coagulation of the wastewater containing 6.4 mM total phenol, the chemical oxygen demand and the 5-d biochemical oxygen demand were reduced by 52 per cent and 58 per cent, respectively. Reduction of the oxygen demands notwithstanding, the dissolved organic materials in the crude CIP were not affected by either of these processes and tended to remain in the treated wastewater. 31 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Benzene exposure on a crude oil production vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkeleit, J; Riise, T.; Bratveit, M.; Moen, B.E. [University of Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Public Health and Primary Health Care

    2006-07-01

    Objectives: The aim was to describe the personal exposure to benzene on a typical crude oil production vessel and to identify factors influencing the exposure level. Methods: The study population included process operators, deck workers, mechanics and contractors on a production vessel in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The personal exposure to benzene during ordinary activity, during a short shutdown and during tank work was monitored using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges (3MTM3500). Information on the tasks performed on the day of sampling was recorded. Exposure was assessed by grouping the measurements according to job category, mode of operation and the tasks performed on the sampling day. Univariate analysis of variance was used to test the differences between the groups. Results: Forty-two workers participated in the exposure assessment, comprising a total of 139 measurements. The arithmetic and geometric mean of benzene exposure for all measurements was 0.43 and 0.02 p.p.m., respectively. Twenty-five measurements (18%) were below the limit of detection (0.001 p.p.m.), while ten samples (7%) exceeded the occupational exposure limit of 0.6 p.p.m. The geometric mean exposure was 0.004 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.003-0.006) during ordinary activity, 0.01 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.005-0.02) during shutdown and 0.28 p.p.m. (95% CI 0.16-0.49) during tank work. Workers performing annual cleaning and maintenance of tanks containing crude oil or residues of crude oil had higher levels of exposure than workers performing other tasks, including work near open hydrocarbon-transport systems (all P < 0.001). However, because of the mandatory use of respirators, the actual personal benzene exposure was lower. The job categories explained only 5% of the variance in exposure, whereas grouping by mode of operation explained 54% of the variance and grouping by task 68%. Conclusion: The results show that, although benzene exposure during ordinary and high activity seems to be low in

  8. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E.; Connelly, Tara L

    2016-01-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil...... in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models...

  9. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  10. Production Costs of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Influence of Crude Oil Price and Technology Maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Pierpaolo; Morrison, Geoff; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Cuenot, Francois; Ghandi, Abbas; Fulton, Lewis

    2013-07-01

    This study examines the production costs of a range of transport fuels and energy carriers under varying crude oil price assumptions and technology market maturation levels. An engineering ''bottom-up'' approach is used to estimate the effect of the input cost of oil and of various technological assumptions on the finished price of these fuels. In total, the production costs of 20 fuels are examined for crude oil prices between USD 60 and USD 150 per barrel. Some fuel pathways can be competitive with oil as their production, transport and storage technology matures, and as oil price increases. Rising oil prices will offer new opportunities to switch to alternative fuels for transport, to diversify the energy mix of the transport sector, and to reduce the exposure of the whole system to price volatility and potential distuption of supply. In a time of uncertainty about the leading vehicle technology to decarbonize the transport sector, looking at the fuel cost brings key information to be considered to keep mobility affordable yet sustainable.

  11. Molecular dynamics and composition of crude oil by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zijian; Xiao, Lizhi; Wang, Zhizhan; Liao, Guangzhi; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Can

    2016-08-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are widely used to identify pure substances and probe protein dynamics. Oil is a complex mixture composed of hydrocarbons, which have a wide range of molecular size distribution. Previous work show that empirical correlations of relaxation times and diffusion coefficients were found for simple alkane mixtures, and also the shape of the relaxation and diffusion distribution functions are related to the composition of the fluids. The 2D NMR is a promising qualitative evaluation method for oil composition. But uncertainty in the interpretation of crude oil indicated further study was required. In this research, the effect of each composition on relaxation distribution functions is analyzed in detail. We also suggest a new method for prediction of the rotational correlation time distribution of crude oil molecules using low field NMR (LF-NMR) relaxation time distributions. A set of down-hole NMR fluid analysis system is independently designed and developed for fluid measurement. We illustrate this with relaxation-relaxation correlation experiments and rotational correlation time distributions on a series of hydrocarbon mixtures that employ our laboratory-designed downhole NMR fluid analyzer. The LF-NMR is a useful tool for detecting oil composition and monitoring oil property changes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  13. Crude oil as a microbial seed bank with unexpected functional potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Man; Nie, Yong; Chi, Chang-Qiao; Tang, Yue-Qin; Li, Yan; Wang, Xing-Biao; Liu, Ze-Shen; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2015-11-01

    It was widely believed that oil is a harsh habitat for microbes because of its high toxicity and hydrophobicity. However, accumulating evidence has revealed the presence of live microbes in crude oil. Therefore, it’s of value to conduct an in-depth investigation on microbial communities in crude oil. To this end, microorganisms in oil and water phases were collected from four oil-well production mixtures in Qinghai Oilfield, China, and analyzed for their taxonomic and functional compositions via pyrosequencing and GeoChip, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of 16S rRNA gene sequences and functional genes clearly separated crude oil and water phases, suggestive of distinct taxonomic and functional gene compositions between crude oil and water phases. Unexpectedly, Pseudomonas dominated oil phase where diverse functional gene groups were identified, which significantly differed from those in the corresponding water phases. Meanwhile, most functional genes were significantly more abundant in oil phase, which was consistent with their important roles in facilitating survival of their host organisms in crude oil. These findings provide strong evidence that crude oil could be a “seed bank” of functional microorganisms with rich functional potentials. This offers novel insights for industrial applications of microbial-enhanced oil recovery and bioremediation of petroleum-polluted environments.

  14. Ignitability of crude oil and its oil-in-water products at arctic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranellone, Raymond T; Tukaew, Panyawat; Shi, Xiaochuan; Rangwala, Ali S

    2017-02-15

    A novel platform and procedure were developed to characterize the ignitability of Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil and its water-in-oil products with water content up to 60% at low temperatures (-20-0°C). Time to ignition, critical heat flux, in-depth temperature profiles were investigated. It was observed that a cold boundary and consequent low oil temperature increased the thermal inertia of the oil/mixture and consequently the time to sustained ignition also increased. As the water content in the ANS water-in-oil mixture increased, the critical heat flux for ignition was found to increase. This is mainly because of an increase in the thermal conductivity of the mixture with the addition of saltwater. The results of the study can be used towards design of ignition strategies and technologies for in situ burning of oil spills in cold climates such as the Arctic.

  15. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  16. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...

  17. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  18. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price

  19. Chemical composition of asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Klyavina, O.A.; Kolyabina, N.A. [L.N. Tolstoi Tula State Pedagogical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1994-09-10

    Asphaltenes of crude oil from Baradero field in Cuba have been studied by physical and physicochemical methods. Dynamics of distribution of nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen and also various functional groups in asphaltenes has been described. These data can be used for the proper deasphalting of crude oil and further treatment of asphaltenes.

  20. Volatility spillovers in US crude oil, ethanol, and corn futures markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trujillo Barrera, A.A.; Mallory, M.; Garcia, P.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes recent volatility spillovers in the United States from crude oil using futures prices. Crude oil spillovers to both corn and ethanol markets are somewhat similar in timing and magnitude, but moderately stronger to the ethanol market. The shares of corn and ethanol price variabi

  1. Quality of Crude Oil Extracted from Aging Walleye Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) Byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality of crude oil extracted from pollock byproducts aged at 6 and 15 'C for up to 4 and 10 days was examined. Longer storage of byproducts resulted in higher free fatty acid (FFA) and an increase in retinol levels in the extracted crude oils. Primary and secondary oxidative assays consisting of p...

  2. Conditional Correlations and Volatility Spillovers Between Crude Oil and Stock Index Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the conditional correlations and volatility spillovers between crude oil returns and stock index returns. Daily returns from 2 January 1998 to 4 November 2009 of the crude oil spot, forward and futures prices from the WTI and Brent markets, and the FTSE100, NYSE,

  3. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  4. INTENSIFYING DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL BY USING DIFFERENT ADDITIVES%不同类型添加剂强化原油蒸馏过程及机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红研; 沙峰; 朱建华

    2002-01-01

    Enriched-aromatics oils,surfactants and a new activator were used as the additives. The effects of intensifying distillation on Daqing crude oil were determined at different concentrations and distillation temperatures by simple distillation and TBP distillation. The mechanisms of intensifying distillation of crude oil by using different additives are discussed.The experimental results show that the types of additives, concentrations and distillation temperatures are main factors which affect intensifying distillation of crude oil.The intensifying effect of the new activator developed in this work is better than that of the other additives.

  5. Extreme-volatility dynamics in crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Qiu, Tian; Ren, Fei

    2017-02-01

    Based on concepts and methods from statistical physics, we investigate extreme-volatility dynamics in the crude oil markets, using the high-frequency data from 2006 to 2010 and the daily data from 1986 to 2016. The dynamic relaxation of extreme volatilities is described by a power law, whose exponents usually depend on the magnitude of extreme volatilities. In particular, the relaxation before and after extreme volatilities is time-reversal symmetric at the high-frequency time scale, but time-reversal asymmetric at the daily time scale. This time-reversal asymmetry is mainly induced by exogenous events. However, the dynamic relaxation after exogenous events exhibits the same characteristics as that after endogenous events. An interacting herding model both with and without exogenous driving forces could qualitatively describe the extreme-volatility dynamics.

  6. Cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinxin; Lu, Xinsheng; Yue, Gongzheng; Li, Jianfeng

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the cross-correlations between the US monetary policy, US dollar index and WTI crude oil market, using a dataset covering a period from February 4, 1994 to February 29, 2016. Our study contributes to the literature by examining the effect of the US monetary policy on US dollar index and WTI crude oil through the MF-DCCA approach. The empirical results show that the cross-correlations between the three sets of time series exhibit strong multifractal features with the strength of multifractality increasing over the sample period. Employing a rolling window analysis, our empirical results show that the US monetary policy operations have clear influences on the cross-correlated behavior of the three time series covered by this study.

  7. A New Method for Determination of Naphthenic Acids in Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Zhenbo; Zhai Yuchun; Zhao Shanlin; Zhuang Lihong

    2004-01-01

    The petroleum acids in crude oil were separated by extraction with column chromatogram and anion exchange resin. The separation effect and the related composition and structure of petroleum acids were obtained by using IR (Infra-Red) spectra techniques. The separated petroleum acids can under special conditions react with methanol to form corresponding esters, which can be analyzed by CI (chemical ionization)-MS (mass spectrometry). The characteristic ion peaks m/z (M+15)+ of naphthenic acid esters combined with z-series formula CnH2n+zO2 of naphthenic acids can be used to classify naphthenic acids into fatty acids, mono-cyclic, bi-cyclic, tri-cyclic, and higher polycyclic acids. The analytical results can give the molecular weight and the carbon number distribution of petroleum acids contained in crude oil. The results of study indicate that this method is simple, rapid and easy in operation.

  8. Geochemistry and familial association of crude oils from the Birdbear Formation in southeastern Saskatchewan, Williston Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermajer, M.; Osadetz, K.G.; Fowler, M.G.; Snowdon, L.R. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to determine the geochemical composition of 9 crude oils from a subset of Upper Devonian Birdbear reservoirs in the Canadian Williston Basin. The geochemical signatures of these oils are compared with those of family D2 oils produced from the Middle Devonian Winnipegosis Formation. Also included in the sample set are 1 Birdbear- and 1 Winnipegosis-reservoired oil samples from the American Williston Basin. While considering a larger set of samples than that originally analyzed in the literature, emphasis is placed on the variations of gasoline range and saturated hydrocarbons. Following oil-oil correlation, a possible relationship between Birdbear-reservoired oils and Devonian source rocks is briefly introduced. Crude oils in the Upper Devonian Birdbear Formation have a distinctive geochemical composition and appear to belong to a separate compositional oil family. An oil-oil correlation with Winnipegosis-reservoired oils shows that not only is their stratigraphic occurrence different, but also that they have variable gasoline range characteristics, and different saturate biomarket compositions. Both stratigraphically restricted groups of oils have different Paraffin Indices and `Mango` parameters, different C13-C30 normal alkane profiles, different relative concentrations of acyclic isoprenoids and resulting Pr/Ph, Pr/nC17 and Ph/nC18 ratios. Although the distributions of terpane biomarkers show some similarities, Birdbear-reservoired oils have less pronounced C34 hopane predominance and Ts/Tm ratios typically less than 1.0. The sterane biomarker signatures are quite different with high concentrations of diasteranes and prominent C21 regular steranes in the Birdbear oil samples, and a very different relative abundance of C27, C28, and C29 regular steranes. There is no evidence for a maturity effect. These compositional differences may be genetic in nature showing a different source rock for oils found in the Birdbear Formation and

  9. Properties Correlations and Characterization of Athabasca Oil Sands-derived Synthetic Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun; Zhao Suoqi; Xu Chunming; Chung Keng H.

    2007-01-01

    Narrow fractions of Athabasca oil sands-derived synthetic crude oil (SCO) from Canada were obtained by distillation at 20 ℃ to 500 ℃ and characterized. The yield and properties, such as density, refractive index, viscosity,freezing point, sulfur and nitrogen content and UOP K-index, were correlated as a function of boiling temperature (Tb).The properties of naphtha fractions, jet fuel and diesel fractions could be predicted accurately with the correlations, which are useful for process design considerations, such as optimizing operating conditions of refinery processing units. The other key properties and characteristics of naphtha fractions, jet fuel, diesel and vacuum gas oil were also determined.

  10. Development of Three Bacteria Consortium for the Bioremediation of Crude Petroleum-oil in Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdualdaim M. Mukred

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We have to developed active microbial consortium that could be of higher degradation of crude oil contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Among four isolates that showed good growth only three different isolates (Acinetobacter faecalis WD2, Staphylococcus. sp DD3 and Neisseria elongate TDA4. were selected based on the growth ability and degradation. Significant growth and effectiveness of hydrocarbon biodegradation of the bacterial consortium examined bacterial strains and their mixtures in both were observed after 5, 10 and 15 days of degradation. Gas chromatography showed that more than 96 and 98% degradation of total hydrocarbon by consortia sp respectively.

  11. Response of the Polish Wheat Prices to the Worlds Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAMULCZUK

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural commodities prices play crucial role both in farmers income determination and in price relationship establishment for the whole economy. Among the factors influencing the wheat prices, crude oil prices are considered as one of the most important. The aim of this paper was to assess the character of linkage between world crude oil prices and Polish wheat prices. Results of the research confirm the existence of such linkage although the nature and the strength of this relationship changes over time. However, the long-run relationships between the crude oil and Polish wheat prices were not proven. Moreover, growing impact of crude oil prices on Polish wheat prices over time was not detected. The results suggest that exchange rates may strongly influence wheat prices. This in turn may weaken response of Polish wheat prices in relation to world crude oil prices.

  12. DID SPECULATIVE ACTIVITIES CONTRIBUTE TO HIGH CRUDE OIL PRICES DURING 1993 TO 2008?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun ZHANG; Kin Keung LAI; Shouyang WANG

    2009-01-01

    By applying two nonlinear Granger causality testing methods and rolling window strategy to explore the relationship between speculative activities and crude oil prices, the unidirectional Granger causality from speculative activities to returns of crude oil prices during the high price phase is discovered. It is proved that speculative activities did contribute to high crude oil prices after the Asian financial crisis and OPEC's output cut in 1998. The unidirectional Granger causality from returns of crude oil prices to speculative activities is significant in general. But after 2000, with the sharp rise in crude oil prices, this unidirectional Granger causality became a complex nonlinear relationship, which cannot be detected by any linear Granger causality test.

  13. Stable distribution and long-range correlation of Brent crude oil market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Jin, Xiu; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-11-01

    An empirical study of stable distribution and long-range correlation in Brent crude oil market was presented. First, it is found that the empirical distribution of Brent crude oil returns can be fitted well by a stable distribution, which is significantly different from a normal distribution. Second, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that there are long-range correlation in returns. It implies that there are patterns or trends in returns that persist over time. Third, the detrended fluctuation analysis for the Brent crude oil returns shows that after the financial crisis 2008, the Brent crude oil market becomes more persistence. It implies that the financial crisis 2008 could increase the frequency and strength of the interdependence and correlations between the financial time series. All of these findings may be used to improve the current fractal theories.

  14. Mixed Multifractal Analysis of Crude Oil, Gold and Exchange Rate Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Meifeng; Shao, Shuxiang; Gao, Jianyu; Sun, Yu; Su, Weiyi

    2016-11-01

    The multifractal analysis of one time series, e.g. crude oil, gold and exchange rate series, is often referred. In this paper, we apply the classical multifractal and mixed multifractal spectrum to study multifractal properties of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series and their inner relationships. The obtained results show that in general, the fractal dimension of gold and crude oil is larger than that of exchange rate (RMB against the US dollar), reflecting a fact that the price series in gold and crude oil are more heterogeneous. Their mixed multifractal spectra have a drift and the plot is not symmetric, so there is a low level of mixed multifractal between each pair of crude oil, gold and exchange rate series.

  15. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  16. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  17. Analysis of the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Zhuang, Xin-tian; Liu, Zhi-ying; Huang, Wei-qiang

    2014-01-01

    As one of the fundamental energy sources and important chemical raw materials, crude oil is crucially important to every country. Especially, the price shock of crude oil will bring about hidden dangers in energy security and economic security. Therefore, investigating the dynamics of frequent price shocks of crude oil markets seems to be crucial and necessary. In order to make the conclusions more reliable and valid, we use two different representations of the price shocks (inter-event times and series of counts) to study the temporal properties of price shock sequences in crude oil markets, such as coefficient of variation, Allan Factor, Fano Factors, Rescaled Range analysis and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. We find evidence that the time dynamics of the price shock sequences can be considered as a fractal process with a high degree of time-clusterization of the events. It could give us some useful information to better understand the nature and dynamics of crude oil markets.

  18. Profiling of Indigenous Microbial Community Dynamics and Metabolic Activity During Enrichment in Molasses-Supplemented Crude Oil-Brine Mixtures for Improved Understanding of Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Amalia Yunita; Pedersen, Dorthe Skou; Nielsen, Sidsel Marie; Lantz, Anna Eliasson

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic incubations using crude oil and brine from a North Sea reservoir were conducted to gain increased understanding of indigenous microbial community development, metabolite production, and the effects on the oil-brine system after addition of a complex carbon source, molasses, with or without nitrate to boost microbial growth. Growth of the indigenous microbes was stimulated by addition of molasses. Pyrosequencing showed that specifically Anaerobaculum, Petrotoga, and Methanothermococcus were enriched. Addition of nitrate favored the growth of Petrotoga over Anaerobaculum. The microbial growth caused changes in the crude oil-brine system: formation of oil emulsions, and reduction of interfacial tension (IFT). Reduction in IFT was associated with microbes being present at the oil-brine interphase. These findings suggest that stimulation of indigenous microbial growth by addition of molasses has potential as microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) strategy in North Sea oil reservoirs.

  19. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  20. Biological evaluation of crude and degummed oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela de Fátima Andrade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the oil extracted from Moringa oleifera (fam. Moringaceae seeds from the nutritional standpoint. Nutritional evaluation of crude or degummed moringa oil or soybean oil (as a control involved the determination of the Food Efficiency (FE in male Fisher rats and the fatty acid composition of the moringa oil. Hepatic and renal functions were assessed by measuring serum transaminases activity and urea and creatinine concentrations, respectively. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins and albumine were also measured. Results showed that FE was slightly increased by the crude moringa oil while no differences were found between the soybean and degummed moringa oil regarding this parameter. Renal or hepatic injures as well as major alterations in serum proteins were not induced by the tested oils. These results suggested that degummed M. oleifera oil possessed adequate biological quality as compared to the crude oil.

  1. Colombian (Titiribi) coal liquefaction and its co-processing with Venezuelan (Morichal) crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, R.; Ishiguro, H.; Maekawa, Y.; Mondragon, F. (Government Industrial Development Laboratory, Hokkaido (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The reactivity in the liquefaction of Titiribi coal from Colombia was studied without a vehicle oil and with Morichal crude oil from Venezuela and anthracene oil derived from coal as a vehicle oil in a batch autoclave in order to obtain fundamental data on the liquefaction and co-processing characteristics. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 - Statutory Provisions Dealing With Exports of Crude Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sustained oil prices significantly above world market levels that would cause sustained material adverse... caused sustained material oil supply shortage or sustained oil prices significantly above world market... Exports of Crude Oil No. Supplement No. 3 to Part 754 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating...

  3. Extractive oxidative desulfurization of model oil/crude oil using KSF montmorillonite-supported 12-tungstophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Rafiee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 12-Tungstophosphoric acid (PW supported on KSF montmorillonite, PW/KSF, was used as catalyst for deep oxidative desulfurization (ODS of mixed thiophenic compounds in model oil and crude oil under mild conditions using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an oxidizing agent. A one-factor-at-a-time method was applied for optimizing the parameters such as temperature, reaction time, amount of catalyst, type of extractant and oxidant-to-sulfur compounds (S-compounds molar ratio. The corresponding products can be easily removed from the model oil by using ethanol as the best extractant. The results showed high catalytic activity of PW/KSF in the oxidative removal of dibenzothiophene (DBT and mixed thiophenic model oil under atmospheric pressure at 75 °C in a biphasic system. To investigate the oxidation and adsorption effects of crude oil composition on ODS, the effects of cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene and o-xylene with different concentrations were studied.

  4. Acute effects of non-weathered and weathered crude oil and dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident on the development of marine bivalve and echinoderm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Emily S; Langdon, Chris J; Pargee, Suzanne M; Blunt, Susanna M; Gage, Susan J; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-08-01

    Acute toxicity tests (48-96-h duration) were conducted with larvae of 2 echinoderm species (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Dendraster excentricus) and 4 bivalve mollusk species (Crassostrea virginica, Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and Mercenaria mercenaria). Developing larvae were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) and chemically enhanced water-accommodated fractions (CEWAFs) of fresh and weathered oils collected from the Gulf of Mexico during the Deepwater Horizon incident. The WAFs (oils alone), CEWAFs (oils plus Corexit 9500A dispersant), and WAFs of Corexit alone were prepared using low-energy mixing. The WAFs of weathered oils had no effect on survival and development of echinoderm and bivalve larvae, whereas WAFs of fresh oils showed adverse effects on larval development. Similar toxicities were observed for weathered oil CEWAFs and WAFs prepared with Corexit alone for oyster (C. gigas and C. virginica) larvae, which were the most sensitive of the tested invertebrate species to Corexit. Mean 10% effective concentration values for total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dipropylene glycol n-butyl ether (a marker for Corexit) in the present study were higher than all concentrations reported in nearshore field samples collected during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident. The results suggest that water-soluble fractions of weathered oils and Corexit dispersant associated with the Deepwater Horizon incident had limited, if any, acute impacts on nearshore larvae of eastern oysters and clams, as well as other organisms with similar sensitivities to those of test species in the present study; however, exposure to sediments and long-term effects were not evaluated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2016-2028. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Exploring the Feasibility of Robotic Pipeline Surveillance for Detecting Crude Oil Spills in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’tega A. Ejofodomi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills have significant negative effects on the environment in which they occur, including damage to aquatic, aerial and terrestrial life. In the oil-producing Niger Delta, oil spillage is largely due to pipeline corrosion and crude oil theft and sabotage. This paper explores the feasibility of utilizing small mobile robots for early detection of ground oil leakage, a methodology defined as Ground Robotic Oil Spill Surveillance (GROSS. GROSS robot was constructed using iRobot Create, element serial Bluetooth Adapter Module (BAM and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG sensor, and programmed using MATLAB to patrol a pipeline route 5 m in length. To simulate oil spills, varying volumes of gasoline - 30, 59, 118, 236, 354, 472, 590, and 708 ml – were placed along the pipeline route prior to the robot‟s patrol. GROSS robot demonstrated capability of detecting spills as little as 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 liters when running at 100, 200, and 300 mm/s respectively. Detection distance between LPG sensor and spill ranged from 76 – 157 cm. GROSS robots could assist in early detection of oil spills. Future work includes improvement in GROSS robot design and determining the effect of soil absorption and API density on the robot‟s ability to detect spills.

  6. Biodegradation of Crude Oil in Contaminated Soils by Free and Immobilized Microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen-Yu; XU Ying; WANG Hao-Yun; ZHAO Jian; GAO Dong-Mei; LI Feng-Min; B. XING

    2012-01-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized bacterial cultures of petroleum hydrocarbon degraders were evaluated and compared in this study.Hydrocarbon-degrading microbial communities with high tolerance to and high degrading ability of crude oil were obtained from the soil contaminated with crude oil in the Yellow River Delta.Then,the microbial ceils were immobilized in sodium alginate (SA) beads and sodium alginate-diatomite (SAD) beads.The biodegradation of crude oil in soil by immobilized cells was compared with that by free cells at three inocuIation concentrations,1 × 104 colony forming units (cfu) kg-1 (low concentration,L),5 × 104 cfu kg-1 (medium concentration,M),and 1 × 105 cfu kg -1 (high concentration,H).At 20 d after inoculation,the maximum degradation rate in the immobilized systems reached 29.8% (SAD-M),significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the free cells (21.1%),and the SAD beads showed greater degradation than the SA beads.Moreover,both microbial populations and total microbial activity reached significantly higher level (P < 0.05) in the immobilized systems than free cell systems at a same initial inoculation amount.The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) images also confirmed the advantages of the immobilized microstructure of SAD beads.The enhanced degradation and bacterial growth in the SAD beads indicated the high potential of SAD beads as an effective option for bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soils in the Yellow River Delta.

  7. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  8. CRUDE PALM OIL AS A BIOADDITIVE IN POLYPROPYLENE BLOWN FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  9. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  10. The Success of Economic Policies in Russia: Dependence on Crude Oil vs. Export Diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kuzmenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of numerous debates around Russia’s dependence on crude oil and the necessity to diversify the Russian economy, the present paper investigates how closely federal budget revenues, structure of export basket and GDP growth in Russia are tied up with crude oil prices (POIL on the one hand and the real effective exchange rate of ruble (REER on the other. The study covers the period from 2000:Q1 till 2014:Q4 and employs index analysis along with vector error correction model (VECM based on Johansen co‑integration technique. The calculated REER revealed its significant appreciation, that together with a high share of mineral products in total Russian exports points to Dutch disease presence. The constructed econometric models revealed the existence of long‑run relationships among the analyzed indicators. Post‑estimation tests proved the validity of the VECMs. According to the obtained results, in order to stimulate “non‑oil” exports monetary authorities should depreciate national currency, whilst fiscal burden should be mild towards “non oil” producers. However, the observed dynamics of macroeconomic indicators points to the fact that the Russian economy is still substantially influenced by POIL and this influence is much more stronger than it is exerted by fiscal and monetary regulators. It allows us to conclude that crude oil will continue to play, at least in foreseeable future, a dominant role in further development of the Russian economy.

  11. Evaluation on heating energy saving of double crude oil pipelines laid in one trench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Yu; Yue Shi; Xin Liu; Jinjun Zhang [China University of Petroleum (Beijing), Beijing (China). Beijing Key Lab. of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology; Jinjia Wei [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China). State Key Lab. of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering

    2009-12-19

    Laying two hot pipelines in one trench is probably an effective way not only to minimize environmental damage but also to bring tremendous economic and social benefits. In this paper heating energy saving evaluations of operation on two hot crude oil pipelines laid in one trench as compared to single pipeline system are performed. In the calculations a Delaunay triangulation method is used to generate the grids of the soil domain automatically with denser meshes near the pipelines. A structural grid generation in polar coordinates is applied to the steel pipe wall and corrosion protective covering. A finite volume method combined with a finite difference scheme is used to discretized the governing equations. The discretized equations are solved by a Gauss-Seidel method. The thermal impact between two hot crude oil pipelines laid in one trench under four operating conditions are numerically analyzed. Through numerical simulations the outlet temperatures for safe pipelining hot crude oils of double pipelines can be obtained as well as heating energy consumption. Comparison between double-pipeline system and single pipeline system is made to evaluate the economy of different operating schemes. It is found that applying the prospective new technology can dramatically lower the outlet temperatures of the two pipelines and it would save a lot of heating energy. (author)

  12. Experimental study of Iranian heavy crude oil viscosity reduction by diluting with heptane, methanol, toluene, gas condensate and naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Saeedi Dehaghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high viscosity of heavy crude oils, production from these reservoirs is a demanding task. To tackle this problem, reducing oil viscosity is a promising approach. There are various methods to reduce viscosity of heavy oil: heating, diluting, emulsification, and core annular flow. In this study, dilution approach was employed, using industrial solvents and gas condensate. The viscosity of two Iranian heavy crude oils was measured by mixing with solvents at different temperatures. Dilution of both oil samples with toluene and heptane, resulted in viscosity reduction. However, their effect became less significant at higher concentrations of diluent. Because of forming hydrogen bonds, adding methanol to heavy crude oil resulted in higher viscosity. By adding condensate, viscosity of each sample reduced. Gas condensate had a greater impact on heavier oil; however, at higher temperatures its effect was reduced. Diluting with naphtha decreased heavy oil viscosity in the same way as n-heptane and toluene. Besides experimental investigation, different viscosity models were evaluated for prediction of heavy oil/solvent viscosity. It was recognized that Lederer' model is the best one.

  13. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  14. Crude Oil Model Emulsion Characterised by means of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallevik, H.; Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Sæther, Ø.

    2000-01-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering of the wa......Water-in-oil emulsions are investigated by means of multivariate analysis of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic profiles in the range 1100 - 2250 nm. The oil phase is a paraffin-diluted crude oil from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The influence of water absorption and light scattering...

  15. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Larry [Energy Research Group, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  16. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  17. De-emulsifiers for water-in-crude oil-emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaki, N. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst. (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt); Al-Sabagh, A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Inst. (EPRI), Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-01-01

    The efficiency of 18 different polyalkylphenols-polyalkylene-polyamines-formaldehyde ethoxylates (PAPAFE) in the deemulsification of water-in-crude oil-emulsion were studied. In this respect, two naturally occurring Egyptian water-in-curde oil-emulsions were used to test the investigated de-emulsifiers. The effect of the variation in the molecular structure of the (PAPAFE) on their de-emulsification potency is investigated. The investigation reveals that de-emulsifiers containing nonyl phenol reduce crude oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) and are more efficient than those containing dodecyl phenol. PAPAFE containing more amino groups are found to have better emulsion breaking ability. This is attributed to their enhanced ability to solubilize asphaltenes, which are the prime motivators for crude oil-water emulsion stability. They drag asphaltenes crosslinked at the water-crude oil interface and consequently, resulting in a substantial decrease in emulsion stability. There exists an optimum hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) for the investigated PAPAFE, ranging from 12 to 13.5 at which their maximum de-emulsification ability is attained. All studied PAPAFE showed increased de-emulsification performance by increasing the temperature from 50 to 70 C. Increasing the temperature reduces the viscosity of the crude oil continuous phase and increases the rate of diffusion of both the surfactant molecules and the dispersed water droplets. This will cause an increase in the rate of coalescence of the water droplets. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurde die Wirkung von 18 verschiedenen Polyalkylphenolpolyalkylenpolyamine-formaldehydethoxylaten (PAPAFE) bei der Demulgierung von Wasser-in-Rohoel-Emulsionen untersucht. Zwei in Aegypten natuerlich vorkommende Wasser-in-Rohoel-Emulsionen wurden fuer die Versuche eingesetzt, dabei wurde der Einfluss der molekularen Struktur der PAPAFEs auf das Demulgiervermoegen untersucht. Es zeigte sich, dass Demulgatoren mit Nonylphenol die

  18. Crude oil price forecasting based on hybridizing wavelet multiple linear regression model, particle swarm optimization techniques, and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabri, Ani; Samsudin, Ruhaidah

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR) is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI), has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  19. Crude Oil Price Forecasting Based on Hybridizing Wavelet Multiple Linear Regression Model, Particle Swarm Optimization Techniques, and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil prices do play significant role in the global economy and are a key input into option pricing formulas, portfolio allocation, and risk measurement. In this paper, a hybrid model integrating wavelet and multiple linear regressions (MLR is proposed for crude oil price forecasting. In this model, Mallat wavelet transform is first selected to decompose an original time series into several subseries with different scale. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA is used in processing subseries data in MLR for crude oil price forecasting. The particle swarm optimization (PSO is used to adopt the optimal parameters of the MLR model. To assess the effectiveness of this model, daily crude oil market, West Texas Intermediate (WTI, has been used as the case study. Time series prediction capability performance of the WMLR model is compared with the MLR, ARIMA, and GARCH models using various statistics measures. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the individual models in forecasting of the crude oil prices series.

  20. Modernization or Conservation: The Role of Export Duty on Crude Oil and Petroleum Products

    OpenAIRE

    Georgy Idrisov; Sergey Sinelnikov-Murylev

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of the consequences of the abolition of export duties on crude oil and petroleum products as a necessary measure to create incentives to improve energy efficiency of the Russian economy and the elimination of underdevelopment caused by the unprecedented long-term subsidies to inefficient Russian oil refining. The authors consider three possible scenarios for the abolition of export duties on crude oil and domestic market and the conservation of tax revenues ...

  1. IRS' administration of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowsher, C.A.

    1984-06-18

    Anticipating that the removal of oil controls would significantly increase the oil industry's profits, the Congress enacted the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act of 1980. Under the act, oil producers pay a tax on the difference between the free market price of a barrel of oil and its controlled selling price under Department of Energy regulations. Although IRS received no supplemental funding to administer the tax, it moved quickly to establish a compliance program. So that it can further strengthen this program, GAO recommends that IRS develop a more effective means for deciding which properties containing oil wells should be subject to IRS examination; ensuring that the windfall profit tax was in fact assessed on the initial sale of oil subsequently resold many times; and examining tax refund claims based on the very complex section of the law which is designed to assure that the tax is levied only on barrels of oils which, when sold, yield a profit to the seller. The Congress, Treasury, and IRS have improved the administration of the windfall profit tax by defining key terms involved in calculating the tax. To further facilitate windfall profit tax administration, however, the Congress should consider streamlining procedures for issuing tax due notices and appealing IRS decisions to the courts. Treasury and IRS generally agreed with GAO's conclusions and recommendations. 1 figure, 1 table.

  2. Non Dispersive Chemical Deacidification of Crude Palm Oil in Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiar Purwasasmita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance of chemical deacidification of crude palm oil (CPO using aqueous NaOH solution in a polysulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane was investigated. The effects of operating temperature, NaOH concentration and flow rates on percentage of free fatty acids (FFA removal, oil loss, soap entrainment and overall mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Overall mass transfer coefficients, soap content in oil and neutral oil loss all increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 70°C due to an increase of the FFA distribution value. A minimum 0.25 N of NaOH or a NaOH to FFA molar ratio of about 7.62 was required to facilitate the expected extraction efficiency. The increased oil flowrate slightly enhanced the solute transport kinetics, while the aqueous phase flowrate did not significantly influence deacidification efficiency or mass transfer coefficient. About 97% of FFA removal was achieved within 4 hours. The maximum oil loss observed was 11% and the highest soap content in the oil without separation step was 3150 ppm. The values of the overall mass transfer coefficient varied from 2.97×10-7 to 7.71×10-7 m/s. These results show the potential of using the non dispersive membrane contacting process for chemical deacidification of CPO as well as other vegetable oils.

  3. Process for desalting and dehydration of crude oil including hot water washing and gas stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, V.V.; Suditu, I.; Neagu, P.; Fotescu, L.; Mihalache, I.; Tirboiu, D.

    1979-12-25

    Process and apparatus for the desalting and dehydration of crude oil is described, in which the crude oil is washed in one or several stages using fresh or recirculated hot water containing a demulsifier. The crude oil is also passed through a coalescence stage, and a settling stage aimed at obtaining a salt content to meet crude oil specifications. Subsequently the crude oil is led into a lower stripping compartment of a column, in which dehydration is carried out to the desired level by using fuel or combustion gas. The stripping temperature is reached by heating the crude or the gas or both. The gas-vapor mixture is cooled in the upper compartment of the column by a cooling fluid such as the untreated crude oil or recirculated or fresh water, depending upon the nature and salt content of the crude. The cooled gas is recirculated within the column or led to a pipeline for consumption, while the cooling fluid, in the case of water, is recirculated in the unit.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain N002, Isolated from Crude Oil-Contaminated Soil from Geleky, Assam, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhjit Sarma; Baruah, Reshita; Gogoi, Dhrubajyoti; Borah, Maina

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of crude oil-degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain N002, isolated from a crude oil-polluted soil sample from Geleky, Assam, India. Multiple genes potentially involved in crude oil degradation were identified. PMID:23405324

  5. Impact of different deacidification methods on quality characteristics and composition of olein and stearin in crude red palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanth Kumar, Punathil Kannan; Gopala Krishna, Ambale Gundappa

    2014-01-01

    Crude red palm oil of 8.7% free fatty acid content was deacidified using enzyme (lipase from Rhizomucor miehei), solvent (ethanol) and chemical (aqueous Sodium hydroxide) and its impact on chemical characteristics and composition were evaluated. Deacidification of oil using enzyme showed nearly 100% product yield. The neutral lipid loss after ethanol and sodium hydroxide deacidification of the oil was 13.6% and 19.5% respectively. The enzyme deacidified oil has shown a higher value in unsaponifiable matter (0.91%), monoacylglycerols (2.8%) and diacylglycerols (18.7%) contents as compared to the other two methods of deacidification. Also it showed a higher retention of nutraceuticals such as carotenoids (94%), phytosterols (57%), total tocopherols (71%), squalene (72%), coenzyme Q10 (99%) and total phenolics (69%) with IC50 value of 19.7 mg of oil/ml. Stearin content increased in the oil after deacidification with enzyme (47.4%) compared to the stearin content of crude red palm oil (28.6%). The olein fraction contained less saturated fatty acids (41.6%) than the fraction obtained by other two methods (47.2%). The enzyme catalyzed the esterification reaction of free fatty acids in crude red palm oil with added glycerol at 63°C with a rotation speed of 150 rpm under vacuum of 5 mmHg for the period of 12 h showed that enzyme based deacidification can be effectively utilized for the preparation of low acidic nutraceutical retained red palm oil.

  6. The effect of aging on the viscosity and stability of water-in-crude oil emulsions; Efeito do envelhecimento sobre a viscosidade e a estabilidade de emulsoes de petroleo do tipo agua-oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Joao B.V.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: jramalho@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    During the process of crude oil production, it is common for emulsions to appear formed of drops of water dispersed in crude oil and stabilized by the presence of natural emulsifiers on the interface region. These emulsions present viscosity rates higher than the dehydrated crude oil and bear influence on the sizing of equipment used in the production, processing and transfer. As these emulsions grow older, the emulsifier adsorption on the surface increase, and consequently the emulsion gets more stable. The results of laboratory tests are presented, the emulsion being synthesized with 50% water content in volume, and the dynamic viscosity and efficiency of water-oil gravitational separation is evaluated on the first day the emulsion was prepared, and then after 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. An increase in viscosity and stability was observed as a result of the aging process. (author)

  7. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  8. Air Flow Detection in Crude Oil by Infrared Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used infrared light in the range of 8–12 μm to develop and test an optical imaging system to detect air bubbles flowing in oil. The system basically comprises a broadband light source and a 31 × 32 thermopile array to generate images. To analyze the effects related to light absorption, reflection, and refraction on air-oil boundaries, a numerical model was developed and the predominance of the refraction instead of the absorption in bubbles with diameters below a certain critical value was observed. The IR region of the electromagnetic spectrum has both optical and thermic behavior. To understand the limits of each effect on the oil flow imaging, a study of the influence of temperature variation on the petroleum optical detection was performed. The developed optical imaging system allowed the detection of air flow in static oil and in oil-air two-phase flow. With the presented system, it was possible to achieve images through up to 12 mm of oil volumes, but this may be enhanced by the use of optimized IR sources and detectors.

  9. Composition, stabilisation and cleavage of crude oil emulsions. Pt. 1. Mechanism of stabilization and cleavage of crude oil emulsions. Aufbau, Stabilisierung und Spaltung von Rohoelemulsionen. T. 1. Mechanismus der Stabilisierung und Spaltung von Rohoelemulsionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oetter, G. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Forschungsabteilung); Oppenlaender, K. (BASF AG, Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany). Forschungsabteilung)

    Asphaltenes and resins, two chemically and structurally different colloid fractions, are responsible for the stability of crude oil emulsions. Their aggregation behavior and interfacial properties are studied. The crude oil stability is mainly governed by the shear viscosity and elasticity of the interfacial film and less by the interfacial tension. The mechanism of emulsion destabilization by chemical demulsifiers as well as coagulation and coalescence of the water droplets are discussed. The effectiveness of the demulsifier can be monitored by physicochemical parameters of the interfacial film. (orig.)

  10. Phylogenetic diversity of dominant bacterial communities during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thomas Cloete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities respectively. Bacterial dynamics in crude oil-polluted soil microcosms undergoing bioremediation were investigated over a 42-day period. Four out of the five microcosms containing 4kg of pristine soil each were contaminated with 4% Arabian light crude oil. Three microcosms were amended with either 25g of NPK fertilizer, calcium ammonium nitrate or poultry droppings respectively while the fourth designated oil-contaminated control was unamended. The fifth microcosm had only pristine soil and was set up to ascertain indigenous bacterial community structure pre-contamination. Biostimulated soils were periodically tilled and watered. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured throughout the experimental period by gas chromatography. Gas chromatographic tracing of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second (day 14 till the sixth (day 42 week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks was seen in the oil contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities involved in aerobic biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils and controls were generated with DGGE using PCR-amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from extracted total soil community DNA. DGGE fingerprints demonstrated that NPK, calcium ammonium nitrate and poultry droppings selected different bacterial populations during the active phase of oil

  11. Energetic dependency on the oil reserve- resources of crude oil in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil belongs to the most important energy resources nowadays., However its reserves are the smallest in comparison with other energy resources as coal, gas or uranium. The world oil consumption continuously increases and within 20-year period there could be about one third. So, the consumption of combustibles will probably increase and the reserves will decrease. Promising are new resources or a better utilization of primary sources. It´s a question of a short time when world scientists should think about this indisputably worldwide problem and would provide an equivalent substitution with an available ecological solution.

  12. Impact of Crude Oil Quality on the Refining Conditions and Composition of Nutraceuticals in Refined Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Klicia A; Ayala, Jose Vila; Van Hoed, Vera; Monteiro, Simone; Ceriani, Roberta; Verhé, Roland; Meirelles, Antonio J A

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil is the major vegetable oil used worldwide due to its unique properties. The effect of crude palm oil acidity on the final free fatty acids (FFA) content, neutral oil loss (NOL), and nutraceutical compounds, such as carotenes, total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), squalene, and phytosterols was investigated. A central composite design was employed to study the influence of the refining conditions: temperature (200 to 260 °C), steam percentage (0.5% to 3.5%), and initial FFA content (2.2% to 6.0%) on the quality of the refined product. The results revealed that initial palm oil acidity is a statistically important parameter to obtain commercially acceptable values for final FFA content. The increase of temperature presented the most important effect on the reduction of all nutraceutical compounds. The highest tocopherols (88%), phytosterols (98%), and squalene retention (84%) was obtained when applying the mildest temperature (200 °C). From the experimental results, 3 equations were generated enabling the prediction of the free fatty acids content, the tocols content, and the losses of neutral oil. Therefore, this work contributes to the understanding and optimization of the process for the production of palm oil with high nutraceutical quality and low free fatty acid contents. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. An empirical analysis of the impacts of taxes and royalties on the supply of conventional crude oil in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoah, B.

    1998-12-31

    The economic impact of taxes, royalties and government fiscal policy tools on conventional crude oil supply in Alberta was examined. A dynamic economic model of Alberta`s conventional petroleum industry was developed and used to evaluate the quantitative impacts of government fiscal policies on exploration and extraction of conventional crude oil in the province. It was determined that taxes and royalties can shorten the life of the industry, reduce activity level, reduce ultimate recovery of conventional crude oil, render more of the established reserves sub-economic and create social welfare loss. It was also revealed that compared to provincial corporate income tax and crown royalties, federal corporate income tax has a larger adverse effect on the performance of the industry in terms of creating higher dead-weight loss and shortening the life of the industry.

  14. Factors Affecting the Stability of Crude and Transmission Oil Emulsion Swith Surfactant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Martínez Martín

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil emulsions with surfactant solutions are used to transport this for piping systems. The applicationof this technique requires that the emulsions remain stable during the pumping period and haveseparated after transporting the crude. In this paper, experimental assays were performed using differentconcentrations of surfactant, and mixing types settling conditions. They were employed as the continuousphase two substances: oil transmission and Cuban crude oil. The strong infl uence of the concentrationand type of mixing on the stability of the emulsions was observed. The results demonstrate the similaritiesin thermalhydraulic fl uid parameters objects of study. Allowing infer the approximate behavior of theCuban crude oil from experimental work with transmission oil.

  15. Measuring salinity in crude oils: Evaluation of methods and an improved procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montserrat Fortuny; Elisangela B. Silva; Agnaldo C. Filho; Rosana L.F.V. Melo; Marcio Nele; Raquel C.C. Coutinho; Alexandre F. Santos [Programa de Engenharia de Processos/Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    In this work, a novel procedure is developed to determine the amount of salt for crude oils in which the available laboratory techniques are unable to provide accurate salt content values. The technique is based on measuring the salinity of the wash water that is vigorously mixed with the crude oil (forming an emulsion) and then separating it from the water-in-oil emulsion by irradiating microwave energy during few minutes. This three step process involves the emulsification of the wash water exempt of salt in crude oil, followed by the recovery of the water by microwave heating and, finally, the analysis of the salt content using the classical Mohr's method titration procedure. The novel technique presented here was able to provide reliable information about the salt content on Brazilian crude oils, in a rapid manner, without need of unsafe time-consuming solvent extraction procedures. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. The geochemical characteristics and origin of crude oils in the Kekeya Oilfield, Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Youjun; ZAN Ling; HOU Dujie; XIAO Zhongyao

    2008-01-01

    GC/MS and GC/MS/MS techniques were employed to describe the characteristics of biomarker assemblages in two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks, Jurassic and Permian, in southwestern Tarim, and the parameters for the classification of the two sets of hydrocarbon source rocks have been established. It is found that diahopane and C30-unknown terpane are abundant in Permian samples, the contents of diahopane in Jurassic samples are relatively low, and terpenoids have been detected in Jurassic samples but not in Permian source rock samples. Kekeya crude oils are abundant in diahopane and C30-unknown terpane. The results of fine oil-rock correlation indicated that Kekeya crude oils were derived mainly from the Permian hydrocarbon source rocks. However, a small amount of diterpenoid was detected in the crude oils, indicating that the Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks also made a certain contribution to Kekeya crude oils.

  17. The human health implications of crude oil spills in the Niger delta, Nigeria: An interpretation of published studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best Ordinioha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The health hazards created by oil exploration and exploitation are covert and slow in action. They are not given the deserved attention in official documents in Nigeria, even as they can be major contributors to the disease burden in oil-bearing communities. This study is an interpretation of the data reported in several published studies on crude oil spills in the Niger delta region, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A manual and Internet search was conducted to extract quantitative data on the quantity of crude oil spilled; the concentrations of the pollutants in surface water, ground water, ambient air and plant and animal tissue; and the direct impact on human health and household food security. Results: An average of 240,000 barrels of crude oil are spilled in the Niger delta every year, mainly due to unknown causes (31.85%, third party activity (20.74%, and mechanical failure (17.04%. The spills contaminated the surface water, ground water, ambient air, and crops with hydrocarbons, including known carcinogens like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benxo (a pyrene, naturally occurring radioactive materials, and trace metals that were further bioaccumulated in some food crops. The oil spills could lead to a 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of reducing the ascorbic acid content of vegetables by as much as 36% and the crude protein content of cassava by 40%. These could result in a 24% increase in the prevalence of childhood malnutrition. Animal studies indicate that contact with Nigerian crude oil could be hemotoxic and hepatotoxic, and could cause infertility and cancer. Conclusions: The oil spills in the Niger delta region have acute and long-term effects on human health. Material relief and immediate and long-term medical care are recommended, irrespective of the cause of the spill, to ensure that the potential health effects of exposures to the spills are properly addressed.

  18. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  19. Dynamic Jump Intensities and Risk Premiums in Crude Oil Futures and Options Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Li, Bingxin

    2016-01-01

    and dynamic jump intensities in these markets. Allowing for jumps is crucial for modeling crude oil futures and futures options, and we find evidence in favor of time-varying jump intensities. During crisis periods, jumps occur more frequently. The properties of the jump processes implied by the option data......Options on crude oil futures are the most actively traded commodity options. We develop a class of computationally efficient discrete-time jump models that allow for closed-form option valuation, and we use crude oil futures and options data to investigate the economic importance of jumps...

  20. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  1. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  2. Exxon Valdez to Deepwater Horizon: comparable toxicity of both crude oils to fish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incardona, John P; Swarts, Tanya L; Edmunds, Richard C; Linbo, Tiffany L; Aquilina-Beck, Allisan; Sloan, Catherine A; Gardner, Luke D; Block, Barbara A; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2013-10-15

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster in the Gulf of Mexico was the largest oil spill in United States history. Crude oils are highly toxic to developing fish embryos, and many pelagic fish species were spawning in the northern Gulf in the months before containment of the damaged Mississippi Canyon 252 (MC252) wellhead (April-July). The largest prior U.S. spill was the 1989 grounding of the Exxon Valdez that released 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil (ANSCO) into Prince William Sound. Numerous studies in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill defined a conventional crude oil injury phenotype in fish early life stages, mediated primarily by toxicity to the developing heart. To determine whether this type of injury extends to fishes exposed to crude oil from the Deepwater Horizon - MC252 incident, we used zebrafish to compare the embryotoxicity of ANSCO alongside unweathered and weathered MC252 oil. We also developed a standardized protocol for generating dispersed oil water-accommodated fractions containing microdroplets of crude oil in the size range of those detected in subsurface plumes in the Gulf. We show here that MC252 oil and ANSCO cause similar cardiotoxicity and photo-induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Morphological defects and patterns of cytochrome P450 induction were largely indistinguishable and generally correlated with polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) composition of each oil type. Analyses of embryos exposed during different developmental windows provided additional insight into mechanisms of crude oil cardiotoxicity. These findings indicate that the impacts of MC252 crude oil on fish embryos and larvae are consistent with the canonical ANSCO cardiac injury phenotype. For those marine fish species that spawned in the northern Gulf of Mexico during and after the Deepwater Horizon incident, the established literature can therefore inform the assessment of natural resource injury in the form of potential year-class losses.

  3. Hematological profile as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Muccillo-Baisch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxicity of petroleum components is well described in the literature, especially with regard to mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In some groups of animals, such as birds, oil exposure seems to alter blood parameters, while this relationship is poorly understood in rodents. The study aimed to investigate alterations in hematological profile in the wild rodent Calomys laucha exposed to crude oil contaminated soils. In this study, males specimens of Calomys laucha were exposed for 14 days to two soils contaminated by petroleum: (I landfarming soil, coming from a bioremediation area of contaminated soil from a Petrochemical Complex through landfarming technique and (II soil of a simulated oil spill in laboratory conditions. The animals were exposed individually in cages containing 1 kg soil with free access to food and water. Control animals were exposed to an artificial uncontaminated soil. At the end of the experiment, animals were anesthetized and blood was collected for hematological profile. The animals exposed to soil landfarming had significant reduction in the number of bands, segmented, eosinophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and increased red cell distribution width (RDW, while animals exposed to simulated soil spillage in laboratory had decreased number of bands, but an increase in the number of lymphocytes and platelets. These changes in hemostasis may indicate an early stage of the development of associated pathologies, while the hematological profile can be used as a crude oil exposure-related marker in wild rodents.

  4. Ultrafiltration-based degumming of crude rice bran oil using a polymer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehn, G.A.R.; GonCalves, L.A.G.; Ming, C.C.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane technology has been gaining momentum in industrial processes, especially in food technology. It is believed to simplify processes, reduce energy consumption, and eliminate pollutants. The objective was to study the performance of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and polyethersulfone (PES) polymeric membranes in the degumming of the miscella of crude rice bran oil by using a bench-scale tangential filtration module. In addition, oil miscella filtration techniques using hexane and anhydrous ethyl alcohol solvents were compared. All membranes showed the retention of phospholipids and high flow rates. However, the best performance was observed using the 50-kDa PVDF membrane in miscella hexane solven