WorldWideScience

Sample records for crude oil effects

  1. Effect of temperature on biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.; Chaalal, O.

    2005-01-01

    An active strain of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria was isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. This project studied the effect of temperature, salinity and oil concentration on biodegradation of crude oil. Oil weight loss, microbial growth and the changes of the crude oil asphaltene concentration are used to evaluate the oil degradation by this strain. A series of batch experiments was performed to study the effects of bacteria on the degradation of crude oil. The effects of oil concentration, bacteria concentration, temperature and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. The temperatures of the studied systems were varied between 35 and 75 o C and the salt concentrations were varied between 0 and 10%. Oil concentrations were ranged from 5 to 50% by volume. Experimental work showed the bacteria employed in this project were capable of surviving the harsh environment and degrading the crude oil at various conditions. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of oil degradation by bacteria. Increasing the oil concentration in general decreases the rate of bacteria oil degradation. Salinity plays a major role on the acceleration of biodegradation process of crude oil. An optimum salinity should be determined for every studied system. The finding of this project could be used in either the treatment of oil spill or in-situ stimulation of heavy oil wells. (author)

  2. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  3. Influence of the type of crude oil to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming in one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of more important parameters is the type of crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA-Crude Oil Refinery -Skopje, Macedonia. (Original)

  4. Influence of the crude oil type to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming is one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of the more important parameters is the type of the crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje (Macedonia). (Author)

  5. OPEC announcements and their effects on crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Tamvakis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate evidence on the effects of OPEC announcements on world oil prices by examining announcements from both official conferences and ministerial meetings on major international crudes, including the key benchmarks and several other heavy and light grades. With data from 1982 to 2008, we use event study methodology and find differentiation in the magnitude and significance of market responses to OPEC quota decisions under different price bands. We also find some (weak) evidence of differentiation between light and heavy crude grades. (author)

  6. Acute Toxicological Effects of Crude Oil On Haematological And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicological effects of Brass blend of crude oil on the haemoglobin concentration, and Liver functions in the Guinea pig were studied. 25 Guinea pigs divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups. One group served as a control group, while the others received ...

  7. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  8. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    Oil dispersants (5 from Castrol Ltd., Bombay and 2 from British Petroleum, London) were studied individually and in combination with Saudi Arabian crude oil for their effect on the growth of indigenous bacteria and on the biodegradation of oil. None...

  9. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  10. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  11. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  12. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakiri, J.O.; Onofeghara, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays F7 and F27 and Capsicum frutescens were investigated. Crude oil was found to inhibit the germination of all the seed types used. The rate of germination decreased signficantly with increase in the length of the period of presoaking. The germination percentage of oil-soaked seeds of Zea mays also fell significantly with time. Seeds of Capsicum frutescens are most tolerant of crude oil in their germination response. The seeds were found to retain almost 100% viability after nearly 1 year of presoaking in crude oil. The lag phase preceding the germination of such seeds, however, increased threefold. Germination inhibition is attributed primarily to the physical surface characteristics of soil, which make it function as a physical barrier to water and oxygen. However, crude oil, where it penetrates, may be toxic to the embryos.

  14. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on crude oil degradation in a sandy soil. With poultry manure alone, optimal crude oil degradation was obtained at a concentration of 4.0% ...

  15. Comparison of the effects of crude and spent oils on Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of bonnylight crude and spent oils on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were conducted under laboratory conditions at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria for two months. Five concentrations (5 ml/L, 10 ml/L, 20 m1/L, 50 m1/L and l00 ml/L) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude and spent oils were ...

  16. Hedging strategy for crude oil trading and the factors influencing hedging effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Jae Kim, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the hedging effectiveness of different hedge type and period by Korean oil traders. Both crude oil price and exchange rate risks are considered. Theoretical models are formulated to estimate the hedge ratios by separate and complex hedge types. The hedging period covers 1-12 months. This study also performs some statistical works to investigate the relationship between the hedging effectiveness and the crude oil price sensitivity to exchange rate. In addition, the relationship between the hedging effectiveness and the volatilities of crude oil price and exchange rate is analyzed. (author)

  17. Effect of crude oil and palm bunch ash on maize growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanue Ogboma Dania; Temitayo Fayehun; Osemhengbe Ruth Akhabue

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of different crude oil fractions (whole crude and water soluble fraction) at 2% contamination (98% distilled water) and the effect of 2 g of palm bunch ash (PBA) on the phytotoxicity of crude oil fraction on growth parameters such as percentage of seedling emergence, plant height, number of leaves, length of root, length of radical and leaf area in maize (Zea mays). Methods: A total of 180 bags containing 500 g of loamy soil each were used for this study, of which 30 bags containing loamy soil each served as control, 60 bags of soil were added each 2% crude oil fraction and 60 bags of soil were added each 2% crude oil fraction and 2 gPBA each, while 30 bags of soil contained each 2 g ofPBA only. The maize grown on the soil was harvested after 7, 14 and 21 days of seedling emergence and assessed for growth parameters. Results: The growth parameters (plant height, length of root, length of radicle, number of leaves, and leaf area) in maize were significantly reduced in the crude oil fraction treatment (P≤0.05). The treatment containingPBA was found to have significant improvement compared to the crude oil fraction contaminated treatment. Conclusions: The study has revealed the deleterious effect of crude oil at 2% on maize and its effect was ameliorated usingPBA.

  18. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  19. Market potential for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Fisher, L.; Golosinski, D.; Luthin, A.; Gill, L.; Raggett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Future key markets for Canadian crude were evaluated, and probable flow volumes and prices were identified. Key concerns of market participants such as pricing, alternative crude sources, pipeline tariffs and crude quality, were examined. An overview of the competition faced by Canadian crude supply in global markets was presented. World crude oil supply and demand was discussed. US and Canadian crude oil supply (2000 to 2010), refinery demand for light and heavy crudes, existing future crude oil and refined product pipeline infrastructure, and pricing implications of changing crude oil flows were analyzed. The general conclusion was that the US market will continue to provide growing markets for Canadian crude oil, and that the Canadian supply to fulfill increased export requirements will be available due to the combined effects of increasing heavy crude supply, growing production from the east coast offshore, and recent and ongoing pipeline expansions and additions. 20 refs., 64 tabs., 42 figs

  20. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  1. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  2. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  3. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  4. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  5. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  6. Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in Ihiagwa, Imo State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  7. Effect of Crude Oil Price on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (1981 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2013. Effect of Crude Oil ... foreign exchange earnings since early. 1970s. ..... has been an improvement in the devaluation of the currency in .... IMF papers, Vol. 27:637 – 677.

  8. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  9. The effect of crude oil on growth of the weed (Paspalum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of grasses for phytoremediation of crude oil polluted soils especially in the tropics is a new area of study with a lot of potentials. The effect of different levels (0.00, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, 10.00, 12.50 and 15.00%) of crude oil contamination on the growth of Paspalum scrobiculatum, a common weed in Nigeria was ...

  10. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  11. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  12. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Effects of Particle Size Distribution on Bioremediation of Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation has been proven to be the most effective method of cleaning up oil contaminated soils through the application of nutrients and microorganism. ... The parameters examined were: moisture content, particle size distribution, total hydrocarbon content, soil pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, total ...

  14. Effect of biosurfactants on crude oil desorption and mobilization in a soil system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyukina, M.S.; Ivshina, I.B. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation). Institute of Ecology and Genetics of Microorganisms; Makarov, S.O.; Litvinenko, L.V. [Perm State University, Perm (Russian Federation); Cunningham, C.J. [University of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre; Philp, J.C. [Napier University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). School of Life Sciences

    2005-02-01

    Microbially produced biosurfactants were studied to enhance crude oil desorption and mobilization in model soil column systems. The ability of biosurfactants from Rhodococcus ruber to remove the oil from the soil core was 1.4-2.3 times greater than that of a synthetic surfactant of suitable properties, Tween 60. Biosurfactant-enhanced oil mobilization was temperature-related, and it was slower at 15{sup o}C than at 22-28{sup o}C. Mathematical modelling using a one-dimensional filtration model was applied to simulate the process of oil penetration through a soil column in the presence of (bio)surfactants. A strong positive correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.99) was found between surfactant penetration through oil-contaminated soil and oil removal activity. Biosurfactant was less adsorbed to soil components than synthetic surfactant, thus rapidly penetrating through the soil column and effectively removing 65-82% of crude oil. Chemical analysis showed that crude oil removed by biosurfactant contained a lower proportion of high-molecular-weight paraffins and asphaltenes, the most nonbiodegradable compounds, compared to initial oil composition. This result suggests that oil mobilized by biosurfactants could be easily biodegraded by soil bacteria. Rhodococcus biosurfactants can be used for in situ remediation of oil-contaminated soils. (author)

  15. Growth enhancement of effective microorganisms for bioremediation of crude oil contaminated waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukred, Abdualdaim Mohammed; Abd-Hamid, Aidil; Hamzah, Ainon; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2008-07-01

    The bioremediation of polluted groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond sites was investigated using bacteria isolated from these sites located at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Out of 62 isolates, only 16 isolates from groundwater (8) and wastewater aeration pond (3) and biopond (5) were chosen based on growth medium containing 1% (v/v) Tapis crude oil. Only four isolates; Acinetobacter faecalis, Staphylococcus sp., Pseudomonas putida and Neisseria elongata showed percentage biodegradation of crude oil more than 50% after 5 days using Mineral Salts Medium (MSM). The effect of physical parameters (temperature, pH and agitation) on growth by all four strains showed a maximum growth in MSM medium with 1% Tapis crude oil at 37 degrees C with pH 7 and agitation of 130 rpm.

  16. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  17. Effects of Different Pretreatments to Fresh Fruit on Chemical and Thermal Characteristics of Crude Palm Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minmin; Xia, Qiuyu; Holland, Brendan J; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Yufeng; Li, Rui; Cao, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    This study selected 5 methods, including boiling, hot air drying, high-pressurized steam, freezing, and microwave radiation to pretreat fresh oil palm fruit before solvent extraction of the oil. Using fresh fruit as a control, the pretreatment methods were compared for the effects on the activity of the 2 main enzymes in the fruit and some physicochemical properties of the crude palm oil. The results indicated, although all the 5 pretreatments could inactivate lipase and peroxidase in the treated flesh significantly (P oils. The crude oil from frozen fruit contained significantly more vitamin E (37829.33 ppm) than previously reported. Microwave radiation was shown to significantly decrease the free fatty acid content and the peroxide value, while increasing the oxidative stability index. Thermal behaviors of the oils were significantly different to each other with the exception a few parameters (P < 0.05). © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experiment on the Effects of Storage Duration of Biodiesel produced from Crude Palm Oil, Waste Cooking oil and Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanihar, Nadiarulah; Khalid, Amir; Mustaffa, Norrizal; Jaat, Norrizam; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari; Sunar, Norshuhaila Mohamed

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel based on vegetable oil is an alternative that had various advantage in term of sustainability and environmental attractive compare to others conventional diesel. Biodiesel is product of any fat or oil that derived from any organic sources through a refinery process called transesterification process. This research investigates the effects of storage duration and variant ambient condition on the biodiesel properties and characteristics. In this study, there are three types of blending which is 5vol% blends ( 5vol% plant oil 95vol% diesel), 10vol% blending (10vol% plant oil and 90vol% diesel) and 15vol% blending (15vol% plant oil and 85vol% diesel) each called CPO5 (crude palm oil 5vol%), CPO10 (crude palm oil 10vol%),CPO15 (crude palm oil 15vol%), JO5 (jatropha oil 5vol%), JO10 (jatropha oil 10vol%),and JO15 (jatropha oil 15vol%) respectively. Biodiesel samples were stored at indoor condition and outdoor condition for a 3 months period. The fuel properties such as acid value, viscosity, density, water content and flash point are observed with the laboratory instrument. Flash point value and water content increased under both of indoor and outdoor condition and a steady data for viscosity and density. However, acid value at indoor condition nearly constant but increased dramatically for outdoor condition over the time.

  20. Effects of a dual-pump crude-oil recovery system, Bemidji, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2014-01-01

    A crude-oil spill occurred in 1979 when a pipeline burst near Bemidji, MN. In 1998, the pipeline company installed a dual-pump recovery system designed to remove crude oil remaining in the subsurface at the site. The remediation from 1999 to 2003 resulted in removal of about 115,000 L of crude oil, representing between 36% and 41% of the volume of oil (280,000 to 316,000 L) estimated to be present in 1998. Effects of the 1999 to 2003 remediation on the dissolved plume were evaluated using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells plus measurements of dissolved oxygen in groundwater. Although the recovery system decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of the remediation wells, average oil thicknesses measured in wells were largely unaffected. Dissolved-oxygen measurements indicate that a secondary plume was caused by disposal of the pumped water in an upgradient infiltration gallery; this plume expanded rapidly immediately following the start of the remediation in 1999. The result was expansion of the anoxic zone of groundwater upgradient and beneath the existing natural attenuation plume. Oil-phase recovery at this site was shown to be challenging, and considerable volumes of mobile and entrapped oil remain in the subsurface despite remediation efforts.

  1. Rockets and Feathers: The Asymmetric Effect between China’s Refined Oil Prices and International Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs an asymmetric error-correction model (AECM, and uses monthly data on wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel products in China and international crude oil prices from February 2006 to October 2013 to examine whether China’s gasoline and diesel prices adjust asymmetrically to international crude oil price changes. Our empirical results suggest that increases and decreases in international oil prices have asymmetric effects on both wholesale prices of gasoline and diesel fuel in China, and that both increases and decreases in international oil prices have a greater effect on diesel prices than on gasoline prices in China. If there is no change in the maximum retail price, the asymmetry results from the transmission of wholesale prices in China with international oil prices. However, if there is a change in maximum retail prices, both international oil prices and maximum retail prices cause the asymmetry.

  2. SEM study of the effects of crude oil on the gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrastructural studies on the effects of crude oil on the gills are scanty. Recently, researchers studied the effect of crude oil on the air breathing organs of striped gourami using scanning electron microscope and observed mucous cell hyperplasia coupled with telangiectasis in the epithelia of air breathing organs. The present investigation has been undertaken to study crude oil toxicity by observing the morphological changes occurring in the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus at SEM level. Since the epithelia of gills and air breathing organs function in two different media, a comparative account for their sensitivity to crude oil solutions would be informative

  3. EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL POLLUTED SOIL ON THE SEEDLING GROWTH OF PENNISETUM GLAUCUM (L. R. BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SHAFIQ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollution by crude oil is an important environmental issue all around the world. Increase in oil pollution level in the environment produce toxic effects on flora and fauna of the region. The effects of different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of crude oil polluted soil on the growth of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum were studied. The polluted soil affected the root, shoot length, seedling size, number of leaves and leaf area of P. glaucum. The significant (p<0.05 effects of polluted soil on fresh and dry weight of root, stem, leaves, and seedling of P. glaucum were also recorded. Leaf area, leaf number and total seedling dry weight were noticeably reduced in 10 and 15% polluted soil than control soil treatment. Principally, 20% crude oil polluted soil treatment exhibited highest percentage of decrease in most of the seedling growth parameters of P. glaucum than control. Hence, the effects on seedling growth parameters were increased with increasing levels of polluted soil. For most of the growth parameters, the mean values obtained were found higher for the control soil and progressively decreased from 5-20% crude oil polluted soils. The seedlings of P. glaucum were also tested for tolerance to polluted soil treatment. The results showed that the seedlings of P. glaucum showed high percentage of tolerance to low concentration (5% of polluted soil treatment as compared to control soil treatment (0%.

  4. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  5. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  6. Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-acute exposure to bonny light crude oil on plasma biochemistry and liver histopathology of albino rat. Christopher Efe Oritseweyinmi Ikanone, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye, Regina Ngozi Ugbaja, Samuel Olatunbosun Omotainse, Olusola Lawrence Ajayi, Tolumide Michael Shopein ...

  7. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  8. Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of crude oil and manure treatments and its effects on the agronomic characteristics of maize (Zea mays l.) M.O Onu, N.C Ohazurike, D.K Madukwe. Abstract. An experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State, University, Owerri ...

  9. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  11. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  12. EVALUATING THE SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF U.S. CRUDE OIL INVENTORY LEVELS ON WTI CRUDE OIL PRICE FROM 1993 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Olasojiand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to investigate the short-term influence of U.S. crude oil inventories on WTI crude oil prices from 1993 to 2013. This study is important for policy makers who wish to reduce the persistent and growing price volatility of crude oil and its related products as well as businesses such as airline companies who wish to make annual budgetary sales decisions. Using OLS multiple regression, cointegration, VECM and Ex-post forecast techniques; we provide evidence of an inelastic relationship in which a 1% increase in U.S. crude oil inventories is associated with 0.46% decrease in WTI crude oil prices; however this was only valid for 22% of WTI crude oil price variation. We also find that past data on U.S. crude oil inventories could be used to predict future WTI crude oil prices movement. Contrary to literature, the results of the VECM analysis indicate there is no short-run relationship between both variables over the trajectory.

  13. Low level exposure to crude oil impacts avian flight performance: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill effect on migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history. The three month oil spill left tens of thousands of birds dead; however, the fate of tens of thousands of other migratory birds that were affected but did not immediately die is unknown. We used the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects of a single external oiling event on the flight performance of birds. Data from GPS data loggers revealed that lightly oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home and spent more time stopped en route than unoiled birds. This suggests that migratory birds affected by the oil spill could have experienced long term flight impairment and delayed arrival to breeding, wintering, or crucial stopover sites and subsequently suffered reductions in survival and reproductive success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Protective Effect of Hippophae Rhamnoides Carotenoid Extract Against Lipid Peroxidation in Crude Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda Andrei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are important elements of the human diet because they contain essential nutritional factors. Due to the manufacturing processes or inadequate conditions of storage, they may also contain lipid oxidation products that are toxic to the body. The purpose of this paper is to test the protective effect of carotenoid-rich extracts obtained from the fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides on crude sunflower, pumpkin and olive oils oxidative processes. In order to evaluate the effect of antioxidant carotenoids, three stages were followed: thermal induction of lipid peroxidation in the presence of AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation in oxidized oils in the presence and absence of antioxidants, by quantifying the concentration of conjugated dienes and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA; determination of the level of lipid peroxidation by evaluating the profile of the fatty acids and the ratio between the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA / SFA, using an GC-MS method. In the case of sunflower oil, it was observed that sea buckthorn fruit extract significantly decreased MDA concentration but does not significantly reduce the concentration of conjugated dienes. The protective effect of carotenoids is more evident in the case of oil from pumpkin seeds. In the olive oil, unlike the first two types of oils, the carotenoids extract inhibits both the MDA and the conjugated dienes formation to a lesser extent, statistically insignificant. Overall, the ratio UFA / SFA decreases in crude oxidized oils. In the oils in which carotenoids were added was observed an increase in the UFA / SFA ratio. Carotenoids fraction from sea buckthorn fruits, rich in xanthophylls’ esters, possess a good antioxidant effect, protecting vegetable oils against peroxidation processes induced in the presence of AAPH

  15. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  16. Isolation of Crude Oil from Polluted Waters Using Biosurfactants Pseudomonas Bacteria: Assessment of Bacteria Concentration Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khalifeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological decomposition techniques and isolation of environmental pollutions using biosurfactants bacteria are effective methods of environmental protection. Surfactants are amphiphilic compounds that are produced by local microorganisms and are able to reduce the surface and the stresses between surfaces. As a result, they will increase solubility, biological activity, and environmental decomposition of organic compounds. This study analyzes the effects of biosurfactants on crude oil recovery and its isolation using pseudomonas sea bacteria species. Preparation of biosurfactants was done in glass flasks and laboratory conditions. Experiments were carried out to obtain the best concentration of biosurfactants for isolating oil from water and destroying oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions in two pH ranges and four saline solutions of different concentrations. The most effective results were gained when a concentration of 0.1% biosurfactants was applied.

  17. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  18. Hedging Effectiveness and Optimal Hedge Ratios: An Analysis of Malaysian Crude Palm Oil Futures Market

    OpenAIRE

    OH, STELLA JIA XIN

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of hedge ratios and hedging effectiveness of crude palm oil futures market in Malaysia for the period from January 2000 to August 2015. To measure hedging performances of optimal hedge ratio, different measures have been employed such as the static hedge ratio estimation models of conventional Ordinary Least Square (OLS) model and Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), while the time-varying model is presented by the Diagonal Vech Multivariate Generalized A...

  19. The Effect Of Additional Detergent In Crude Palm Oil In The Process Of Separation Stearin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezekyah Hasibuan, Vina; aini, Nur; Febriyanti; Ayubi Pane, Salahudin Al

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find out how much stearin is formed from the addition of detergent and to understand the process of separation of crude olein with crude stearin from raw material of crude palm oil (CPO). Using a detergent fractionation system, detergent fractionation is a continuous crystallization of oil with controlled cooling and the separation of fractions by weight or centrifuge after supplementing surfactant.

  20. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  1. effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of african catfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Nigerian Bonny light crude oil and Exxon Mobil Oso off-shore condensate during a ... of Oso condensate extract when larval integument was damaged. It is ... Spills of oil condensate from Oso Exxon Mobil Oil rig readily enter the .... compounds are extracted from oil films in natural .... Resources and Fishing Rome, 9-13 Dec.

  2. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  3. Long term effects of crude oil on common murres (Uria aalge) following rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, R.A.; Ryan, P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil spilled or discharged at sea is known to contaminate and cause mortality in seabirds and in some instances, these losses can be substantial as reported recently following an oil spill from the Exxon Valdez in Alaskan waters. Crude petroleum alters the arrangement of the feather barbules causing a loss of buoyancy and hypothermia. Attempts to rehabilitate birds with light to moderate amounts of oil exposure have met with modest success. Following cleaning and release, many of these birds never recovered and little is known of their survival rate in nature subsequently. A number of oiled sea birds, primarily common murres (Uria aalge), were retrieved recently by the Canadian Coast Guard and attempts to rehabilitate them were conducted. Since the majority of birds were retained longer than the usual 4 to 5 days recommended by the Bird Rescue International Centre after retrieval, it soon became apparent that many were suffering from problems other than diet or thermoregulation. Following autopsy/necropsy, extensive organ damage was observed in all of the birds. The purpose of this communication is to report the long term effects of crude oil on common murres

  4. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, JI-XIN; SUN, YAN-HONG; LI, CHAO-PIN

    2015-01-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro. The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome ...

  5. The effect of several crude oils and some petroleum distillation fractions on intestinal absorption in ducklings (Anas platyhynchos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, A D; Cronshaw, J; Holmes, W N

    1975-01-01

    Ducklings given hypertonic saline drinking water show significant increases in the rates of Na+ and water transfer across the intestinal mucosa. These increased rates of transfer are maintained as long as the birds are fed dypertonic saline. Oral administration of a single small dose of crude oil had no effect on the basal rate of mucosal transfer in freshwater-maintained ducklings but the adaptive response of the mucosa is suppressed in birds given hypertonic saline. When crude oils from eight different geographical locations were tested, the degree of inhibition varied between them; the greatest and smallest degrees of inhibition being observed following administration of Kuwait and North Slope, Alaska, crude oils respectively. The effects of distallation fractions derived from two chemically different crude oils were also examined. The volume of each distallation fraction administered corresponded to its relative abundance in the crude oil from which it was derived. The inhibitory effect was not associated exclusively with the same distallation fractions from each oil. A highly naphthenic crude oil from the San Joaquin Valley, California, showed the greatest inhibitory activity in the least abundant (2%), low boiling point (smaller than 245 degrees C) fraction and the least inhibitory activity in the highest boiling point (greater than 482 degrees C) most abundant (47%) fraction. In contrast, a highly paraffinic crude oil from Paradox Basin, Utah, showed the greatest inhibitory effect with the highest boiling point fraction and a minimal effect with the lowest boiling point fraction; the relative abundances of these two fractions in the crude oil represented 27 and 28% respectively. Water-soluble extracts of both crude oils also had inhibitory effects on mucosal transfer rates and these roughly proportionate to the inhibitory potency of the low boiling point fraction of each oil. Weathered samples of San Joaquin Valley, California, and the Paradox Basin, Utah

  6. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts. Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes. (author)

  7. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts: Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jammazi, Rania, E-mail: jamrania2@yahoo.f [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia); Aloui, Chaker, E-mail: chaker.aloui@fsegt.rnu.t [International finance group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2010-03-15

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes.

  8. Wavelet decomposition and regime shifts: Assessing the effects of crude oil shocks on stock market returns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2010-01-01

    While there is a large body of empirical studies on the relationship between crude oil price changes and stock market returns, they have failed to achieve a consensus on this subject. In this paper, we combine wavelet analysis and Markov Switching Vector Autoregressive (MS-VAR) approach to explore the impact of the crude oil (CO) shocks on the stock market returns for UK, France and Japan over the period from January 1989 to December 2007. Our procedure involves the estimation of the extended MS-VAR model in order to investigate the importance of the resultant wavelet filtering series (after removing random components) in determining the behavior of the stock market volatilities. We show that CO shocks do not affect the recession stock market phases (except for Japan). However, they significantly reduce moderate and/or expansion stock market phases temporarily. Moreover, this negative relationship appears to be more pronounced during the pre-1999 period. The empirical findings will prove extremely useful to investors who need to understand the exact effect of international oil changes on certain stocks prices as well as for policy managers who need a more thorough evaluation about the efficiency of hedging policies affected by oil price changes.

  9. Economic and environmental effects of the FQD on crude oil production from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; De Buck, A.; Afman, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Berg, J.; Otten, G.J. [Carbon Matters, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The production of unconventional crudes in Canada and Venezuela and exports of these crudes to the EU are investigated. In addition the potential economic and environmental impact of the proposed EU FQD measures (Fuel Quality Directive) on the production of crudes from tar sands and on new tar sand exploration projects are examined. CE Delft has analysed the impact by using a dedicated cost model. For existing projects, the model determines the effect on the basis of marginal production costs. For planned projects the model used the net present value (NPV) of proposed investments. The impacts were determined for a range of crude oil prices and FQD price effects. Combined, for existing and new projects together, the maximum effect would be at a price level at 60 USD/bbl, with savings of up to 19 Mt CO2/y at an FQD price differential of 3 euro/bbl. This overall effect would be substantial and come on top of the total emission reduction effect of the FQD of 60 Mt CO2/y, which will be achieved mostly by the blending of low-carbon fuels and reduced flaring and venting. As part of the reduction of transport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the revised FQD obliges fuel suppliers to reduce these emissions by 6% by 2020 on a well-to-wheel basis. The EU is currently developing a methodology to differentiate fossil fuels on the basis of feedstock and GHG emissions. In the proposal, diesel produced from tar sands, has been given a default emission value of 108.5 gCO2 eq/MJ, while diesel from conventional crude was set at 89.1 gCO2 eq/MJ. The Commission's proposal is currently undergoing an impact assessment and is expected to be resubmitted to the Council later this year (2013)

  10. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and lease... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements...

  11. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water juvenile shrimps were more sensitive to the mixture of the hydro-test effluent and crude oil than the freshwater habitat. This could be ...

  13. Latent effects of Iranian crude oil and a chemical oil dispersant on red sea molluscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R

    1973-01-01

    Predation rate of the gastropod drill, Drupa granulata, on the mussel, Mytilus variabilis, was measured over a period of 28 days after adults from both species had been immersed for 168 h in seawater solutions containing high sublethal concentrations (10 ml/liter) of Iranian crude oil. Predation rate was three times higher in controls than in the group where both predator and prey had been exposed initially; intermediate values were determined among groups where only one species had been treated initially. Fecundity of drills, as evidenced by number of egg cases deposited, was directly related to mussel consumption. In a similar study with a chemical oil dispersant, exposure to high (0.003 ml/liter) sublethal levels for 168 h did not affect markedly the rate at which mussels were destroyed and consumed during post-treatment. However, the fecundity of untreated drills feeding on untreated mussels (controls) was 3 to 10 times greater than among groups in which one or bothsc species had been exposed initially to dispersant. Except for mussels consumed by drills, there were no deaths during the post-treatment period in either study, and all organisms appeared normal.

  14. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  15. Bacterial degradation of emulsified crude oil and the effects of various surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of surfactants on the oxidation rate of alkanes in crude oil were investigated using a selected bacterial species, Rhodococcus sp., pregrown to various growth stages. Oxidation rates were measured in a three-hour period by Warburg respirometry. Response to emulsified oil was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the bacteria. In the exponential growth phase oxidation rates were negatively affected by surfactant amendment, whereas in the stationary growth phase oxidation rates appear to have been stimulated. The stimulatory effect was attributed to the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of the surfactants. Surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (HLB) in the intermediate range of 8-12 gave the best values. Neither the commercial dispersants nor the biosurfactants exhibited any stimulative effects. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  16. Effect of Sewage-Sludge on Bioremediation of a Crude-Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sharifi Hosseini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan Province accommodates the largest oil-fields with huge petroleum production in Iran. During the Persian Gulf war in 1991, more than 6-8 million gallons of oil was spilt in the Persian Gulf, the greatest amount of which was transported into Khuzestan soil. Thus, oil removal from contaminated soil by advanced technologies such as bioremediation seems to be of vital necessity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage-sludge application on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. Soil samples (5kg were artificially contaminated with crude oil to a level of 1000 mg/kg. Sewage sludge treatments were applied at the 3 levels of 0, 100, and 200 gr/5kg soil in 3 replicates. The soils were kept in the normal moisture aerobic environment for 5 and 10 weeks. The soils were then analyzed for Hydrocarbon-degrading heterotrophic bacterial count. Oil extraction from the samples was accomplished using the oil Soxhlet extraction method and oil degradation was measured by GC chromatography. The results showed that the hydrocarbon-degrading and heterotrophic bacterial counts in all the treatments increased with time. Results indicate that heterotrophic bacterial population increased from 6×103 cfu/gr soil to  2×1010  cfu/gr soil. Also, C/N ratio decreased from 6 to 3. GC results indicated that all normal Alkanes and Isopernoids, i.e. Phytane and Pristane, decreased by 50-90 percent in all the treatments. It was also found that the application of sewage sludge at 100 gr/5kg soil to oil-contaminated soil leads to greater rates of biodegradation after 5 weeks

  17. The Effects of Crude Oil on Stock Markets with use of Markov Switching Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Thor August Mediaas

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, a two regime Markov switching (MS) model is implemented to examine the relationship between crude oil, both brent oil and WTI, and stock markets. In particular, the model is applied to stock markets in both oil importing and exporting countries which include Canada, China, Japan, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States. This paper first evaluates the significance of oil parameters in the detected regimes, where the two regimes respond to low mean...

  18. Effect-directed analysis and mixture effects of AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and coastal sediments contaminated by the Hebei Spirit oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seongjin; Lee, Sangwoo; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Gi Beum; Ha, Sung Yong; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jongseong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Jung, Jinho; Giesy, John P.; Khim, Jong Seong

    2015-01-01

    The major AhR-active PAHs were identified in crude oil and oil-contaminated sediments by use of effect-directed analysis. As part of the study, an enhanced potency balance analysis was conducted by establishing the novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs from the H4IIE-luc bioassay. Silica gel column fractionation of crude oil resulted in greater AhR-mediated potencies in fractions of aromatics (F2) and resins (F3), and such trend was also observed for field collected sediment samples. AhR-mediated potencies of six F2 sub-fractions from HPLC indicated that the majority of F2 responses were attributable to 3–4 ring aromatics. Target PAHs including C4-phenanthrene, C1-chrysene, and C3-chrysene in sediments explained ∼18% of the bioassay-derived TCDD-EQs, however, the unknown AhR agonists and potential mixture effects remain in question. Overall, the AhR-potency and antagonistic potential of residual oil in sediment tended to decrease over time, thus monitoring of weathering process would be key for the post management of oil-contaminated sites. - Highlights: • AhR-active PAHs in crude oil and sediments were newly determined using EDA. • Novel relative potency values of (alkyl)-PAHs for AhR activity were established. • Three to four ring PAHs were identified to be major AhR agonists in crude oil. • Parent and alkyl-PAHs explained ∼18% of the total AhR-mediated potencies of crude oil. • AhR-mediated potencies apparently decreased by the timely weathering processes. - “Major AhR agonists were identified three to four ring PAHs in crude oil and sediments determined by use of effect-directed analysis.”

  19. The price of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The price of crude oil is among the most important prices quoted daily across the world - which is not surprising, since crude oil is the most widely used source of energy worldwide, as well as being a unique commodity. When petroleum burst onto the world stage in 1859, its price first went through some initial gyrations (1860-70), before settling in the $1.00 - 2.00 per barrel range (barring a few exceptions) for a full century. Then, the price underwent two 'shocks' (1973 and 1980), followed by the 'counter-shock' of 1986. Thereafter, the price entered the relative stability of the $15 - 20 /b consensus, where it lingered until recently. Some day, there is bound to be a fresh paradigm of 'insufficient oil reserves', thus ushering in a new era for oil prices. Taking into consideration available data on reserves and expert analysis, it would seem that that day may be years rather than decades away

  20. Importance of the slick thickness for effective in-situ burning of crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Brogaard, Nicholas L.; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2015-01-01

    height. The experiments were performed in a new experimental apparatus, the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus (COFA), which has been developed to study ISB of oil on water in a controlled laboratory environment with large water-to-oil ratios. The regression rate, average mass loss rate and burning...... efficiency reached a constant maximum value for all oils at slick thicknesses exceeding 10–20 mm. For thinner initial slick thicknesses, these values were greatly reduced, most likely due to heat losses to the water. A further increase in the initial slick thickness could not improve the burning efficiency......In order to improve the potential of in-situ burning (ISB), the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils (n-octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame...

  1. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  2. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on crude oil yield of some soybean seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the crude oil yield of eight different varieties of soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds ... the health advantages of soybeans in both in vivo and in vitro experiments [2]. Therefore, plant breeding has gained importance especially soybean plants. ..... Ionizing radiation might affect the quality of oils.

  4. Effects of acute and chronic exposition on larvae of pejerrey Odontesthes Argentinensis to water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusmao, Emeline P.; Rodrigues, Ricardo V.; Moreira, Caue B.; Seyffert, Bianca; Ignacio, Gabriela; Fillmann, Gilberto; Sampaio, Luis A.; Miranda-Filho, Kleber C. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Petroleum is considered one of the greatest marine water pollutants, but there have been few studies on the impact of oil on biota. The water-soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil contains a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols and heterocyclic compounds. Marine 'pejerrey' Odontesthes argentinensis (Teleostei: Atherinopsidae) is a important commercial species in Brazilian southern region and has great potential for mariculture. The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal and sub-lethal effects of the WSF crude oil exposition on the early life stages of O. argentinensis using acute (96 hours) and chronic (21 days) toxicity tests. Water-soluble fraction of heavy crude oil was prepared using a ratio of one part crude oil to nine parts filtered seawater and mixing for 24 h. Newly hatched larvae and 17 days old larvae were used for the tests, respectively. According to the results, median lethal concentration (LC50) was estimated in 55.0% of the WSF and safe level was estimated in 5.5% of WSF. These data can be used as a tool in environmental conservation studies. Heavy crude oil WSF presented total PAHs of 197.83 ng/mL and total BTEX of 106.1 {mu}g/L. (author)

  5. Effect of paraffin saturation in a crude oil on operation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebin, G F; Kapyrin, Yu V

    1968-11-01

    Both theoretical and practical studies in recent years have shown that in planning operational procedures for an oil field, the paraffin saturation of the crude oil must be considered. If the crude oil is essentially saturated with paraffin at reservoir condition, then paraffin deposition can occur around the well and in the well. Temperature in the reservoir can be lowered by 2 mechanisms: (1) by injection of water below reservoir temperature, and (2) by expansion of produced gas and consequent cooling of the produced oil. Possible application of these principles to several Soviet oil fields is discussed. In the Uzen field, a preliminary investigation is under way to test the feasibility of heating the injection water to prevent paraffin deposition in the reservoir.

  6. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  7. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ting-Huan; Su, Hsin-Mei

    2010-01-01

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  8. The substitutive effect of biofuels on fossil fuels in the lower and higher crude oil price periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ting-Huan [Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu County 310 (China); Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China); Su, Hsin-Mei [Department of Banking and Finance, Tamkang University, No.151, Ying-Chuan Road, Taipei County 251 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Various biofuels, including bioethanol and biodiesel are technologically being considered replacements for fossil fuels, such as the conventional gasoline and diesel. This paper aims to measure whether economic substitutability can be generated during periods of higher and/or lower prices of crude oil. The empirical results of the bivariate EGARCH model prove that this substitutive effect was occurred during the higher crude oil price period due to the significant price spillover effects from crude oil futures to corn and soybean futures, indicating that the increase in food prices can be attributed to more consumption of biofuels. We suggest more extensive research in the search for fuel alternatives from inedible feedstock such as pongamia, jojoba, jatropha, especially the 2nd generation biofuel technologies such as algae-based biofuels. (author)

  9. The effect of uncertainty and aggregate investments on crude oil price dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvedt, Jostein

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a study of the dynamics of the oil industry and we derive a mean reverting process for the crude oil price. Oil is supplied by a market leader, OPEC, and by an aggregate that represents non-OPEC producers. The non-OPEC producers take the oil price as given. The cost of non-OPEC producers depends on past investments. Shifts in these investments are influenced by costs of structural change in the construction industry. A drop in the oil price to below a given level triggers lower investments, but if the oil price reverts back to a high level investments may not immediately expand. In an uncertain oil demand environment cost of structural change creates a value of waiting to invest. This investment behaviour influences the oil price process

  10. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, Edward N.; Pratt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  11. Effect of crude oil contamination on the engineering behavior of clay soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, H.; Abdoljaowad, S.N.

    2005-01-01

    Humans are, unintentionally or intentionally contaminating soil from different sources. The contaminated soil are not only a challenge for the environmentalists but also for geotechnical engineers. When contaminated by crude oil, the soil is subjected to a change in its engineering properties. The soil, which is mostly affected by its environment, is clay, being active electro-chemically. So, a comprehensive laboratory-testing program was performed to compare the engineering properties of an uncontaminated and a contaminated clay. Laboratory tests included all basic and advanced geotechnical tests along with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Crude oil was chosen as the contaminant. The clay was taken from the Al-Qatif area of the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The selected soil is considered to be highly expansive in nature. The comparison between uncontaminated and crude oil contaminated clay showed that there would be a significant change in the engineering behavior of the clay if it were contaminated by crude oil. The contaminated clay behaves more like sand, owing to the formation of agglomerates. The coarse-grained soil-like behavior was observed in the strength of the oil-contaminated clay. The contamination has affected the plasticity and the cation exchange capacity of the investigated clay. The swelling pressure of the contaminated clay is 1/3 of that of the uncontaminated clay while the swelling is almost the same. (author)

  12. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  13. Effect of Prudhoe Bay crude oil on the homing of coho salmon in marine waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, R.E.; Nevissi, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Resource managers and the fishing industry have expressed concern that a crude-oil spill occurring in the pathway of a salmon run may destroy the ability of the maturing salmon to reach the home stream. To address this concern, groups of mature 3-year-old and precocious 2-year-old coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were tagged and exposed in seawater for 1 hr to sublethal concentration of Prudhoe Bay crude oil, dispersed oil, or seawater oil dispersant alone, and then were released in seawater about 5 km from their home stream. The results show that the coho salmon's homing success and speed of return to the home stream were not affected by any of the treatments. The longevity or holding tests, in which coho salmon were held in saltwater netpens after experimental treatments, showed that the larger 3-year-old coho salmon were more sensitive to the stress of confinement than the smaller 2-year-old fish

  14. Volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines exhibit antiparasitic activity against human Demodex with no adverse effects in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Xin; Sun, Yan-Hong; Li, Chao-Pin

    2015-04-01

    Demodex is a type of permanent obligatory parasite, which can be found on the human body surface. Currently, drugs targeting Demodex usually result in adverse effects and have a poor therapeutic effect. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the use of Chinese crude medicine volatile oils for targeting and inhibiting Demodex in vitro . The volatile oils of six Chinese crude medicines were investigated, including clove, orange fruit, Manchurian wildginger, cinnamon bark, Rhizome Alpiniae Officinarum and pricklyash peel, which were extracted using a distillation method. The exercise status of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis and the antiparasitic effects of the volatile oils against the two species were observed using microscopy. A skin irritation test was used to examine the irritation intensity of the volatile oils. In addition, an acute toxicity test was utilized to observe the toxicity effects of the volatile oils on the skin. Xin Fumanling ointment was employed as a positive control to identify the therapeutic effects of the volatile oils. The results indicated that all six volatile oils were able to kill Demodex efficiently. In particular, the clove volatile oil was effective in inducing optimized anti- Demodex activity. The lethal times of the volatile oils were significantly decreased compared with the Xin Fumanling ointment (Poil did not trigger any irritation (0.2 and 0.3 points for intact and scratched skin, respectively), and had a safety equal to that of distilled water. There were not any adverse effects observed following application of the clove volatile oil on the intact or scratched skin. In conclusion, the volatile oils of Chinese crude medicines, particularly that of clove, demonstrated an evident anti- Demodex activity and were able to kill Demodex effectively and safely in vivo .

  15. Effects of Dual-Pump Recovery on Crude-Oil Contamination of Groundwater, Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, G. N.; Herkelrath, W. N.; Lounsbury, S.

    2009-12-01

    In 1979 a crude-oil pipeline ruptured near Bemidji, Minnesota spilling about 1.7 million liters of crude oil onto a glacial-outwash deposit. Initial remediation efforts in 1979-80 removed about 75% of this oil. In 1983 the U.S. Geological Survey and several academic institutions began research to study the fate and transport of the petroleum hydrocarbons in the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In 1998 the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) requested that the pipeline company remove as much of the remaining oil as possible. A dual-pump recovery system was installed using five wells to remove the free-phase oil. Each well had an oil skimming pump as well as a deeper pump in the groundwater, which was used to create a cone of depression in the water table near the well. The oil/water mixture from the skimming pump was pumped to a treatment facility where the oil was separated for later removal from the site. Pumped wastewater was injected into an upgradient infiltration gallery. Despite large public and private expenditures on development and implementation of this type of remediation system, few well-documented field-scale case studies have been published. The renewed remediation presented an opportunity to document how the dissolution, biodegradation, vapor transport, and other processes changed as the site transitioned from natural attenuation to a condition of pump-and-treat remediation and back again following termination of the remediation. Impacts of the remediation were evaluated in part using measurements of oil thicknesses in wells, dissolved-oxygen concentrations in groundwater, and concentrations of methane and other gases in the unsaturated zone. The remediation from 1999 - 2004 resulted in removal of about 114,000 liters of crude oil from the site, or about 27% of the total that remained following the initial remediation in 1979-80. Although the renewed remediation decreased oil thicknesses in the immediate vicinity of remediation

  16. Effects of dispersants on microbial growth and biodegradation of crude oils

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Four oil spill dispersants when used along (0.1% V/V) or in combination with Saudi Arabian Crude (0.5% V/V) were non-toxic to Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis. At a higher concentration of 0.6% (V/V) only D2 was found to be toxic to both...

  17. Effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eggs and larvae of Heterobranchus longifilis were exposed to extracts of different concentrations of Nigerian Bonny light crude oil and Exxon Mobil Oso off-shore condensate during a comparative toxicity experiment carried out in the Institute of Oceanography Fish Farm, University of Calabar, Nigeria. Petroleum ...

  18. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  19. Effect of subsidies to fossil fuel companies on United States crude oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Peter; Down, Adrian; Lazarus, Michael; Koplow, Doug

    2017-11-01

    Countries in the G20 have committed to phase out `inefficient' fossil fuel subsidies. However, there remains a limited understanding of how subsidy removal would affect fossil fuel investment returns and production, particularly for subsidies to producers. Here, we assess the impact of major federal and state subsidies on US crude oil producers. We find that, at recent oil prices of US50 per barrel, tax preferences and other subsidies push nearly half of new, yet-to-be-developed oil investments into profitability, potentially increasing US oil production by 17 billion barrels over the next few decades. This oil, equivalent to 6 billion tonnes of CO2, could make up as much as 20% of US oil production through 2050 under a carbon budget aimed at limiting warming to 2 °C. Our findings show that removal of tax incentives and other fossil fuel support policies could both fulfil G20 commitments and yield climate benefits.

  20. Effect of crude oil petroleum hydrocarbons on protein expression of the prawn Macrobrachium borellii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, M Y; Dreon, M S; Gutierrez Rivera, J N; Vázquez Boucard, C; Heras, H

    2013-05-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution is a major environmental threat to ecosystems in marine and freshwater environments, but its toxicological effect on aquatic organisms remains little studied. A proteomic approach was used to analyze the effect of a freshwater oil spill on the prawn Macrobrachium borellii. To this aim, proteins were extracted from midgut gland (hepatopancreas) of male and female prawns exposed 7 days to a sublethal concentration (0.6 ppm) of water-soluble fraction of crude oil (WSF). Exposure to WSF induced responses at the protein expression level. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed by WSF exposure. Seven proteins were identified using MS/MS and de novo sequencing. Nm23 oncoprotein, arginine methyltransferase, fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase were down-regulated, whereas two glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoforms and a lipocalin-like crustacyanin (CTC) were up-regulated after WSF exposure. CTC mRNA levels were further analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR showing an increased expression after WSF exposure. The proteins identified are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, detoxification, transport of hydrophobic molecules and cellular homeostasis among others. These results provide evidence for better understanding the toxic mechanisms of hydrocarbons. Moreover, some of these differentially expressed proteins would be employed as potential novel biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. First crude oil from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenbrister, L.P.; Demidenko, K.A.; Zhmykhova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the crude taken from Neogene deposits at a depth of 1486-1443 m are analyzed. The oil is distinguished by low contents of sulfur and resinous-asphaltenic substances, a high content of wax, and a high yield of light cuts distilling below 350 degrees C. The naptha cuts have high contents of naphthenes, and the diesel fuel cuts have high cetane numbers, low sulfur contents, and high contents of straight chain paraffins. The vacuum gasoil has a low density, a low viscosity, a low carbon residue and low contents of sulfur and nitrogen. This gasoil is a good feedstock for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The Verkhne-Echin crude is classified as light, low-sulfur, lowresin and high-wax. It can be used to produce jet fuels and summer-grade diesel fuels with low sulfur contents, as well as high-V.I. lube base stocks and liquid and solid paraffins.

  2. Effects of Subsurface Microbial Ecology on Geochemical Evolution of a Crude-Oil Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Godsy, E. M.; Warren, E.; Hostettler, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    We have identified several subsurface habitats for microorganisms in a crude oil contaminated located near Bemidji, Minnesota. These aquifer habitats include: 1) the unsaturated zone contaminated by hydrocarbon vapors, 2) the zones containing separate-phase crude oil, and 3) the aqueous-phase contaminant plume. The surficial glacial outwash aquifer was contaminated when a crude oil pipeline burst in 1979. We analyzed sediment samples from the contaminated aquifer for the most probable numbers of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters, and three types of methanogens. The microbial data were then related to gas, water, and oil chemistry, sediment extractable iron, and permeability. The microbial populations in the various contaminated subsurface habitats each have special characteristics and these affect the aquifer and contaminant chemistry. In the eight-meter-thick, vapor-contaminated vadose zone, a substantial aerobic population has developed that is supported by hydrocarbon vapors and methane. Microbial numbers peak in locations where access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface is maximized. The activity of this population prevents hydrocarbon vapors from reaching the land surface. In the zone where separate-phase crude oil is present, a consortium of methanogens and fermenters dominates the populations both above and below the water table. Moreover, gas concentration data indicate that methane production has been active in the oily zone since at least 1986. Analyses of the extracted separate-phase oil show that substantial degradation of C15 -C35 n-alkanes has occurred since 1983, raising the possibility that significant degradation of C15 and higher n-alkanes has occurred under methanogenic conditions. However, lab and field data suggest that toxic inhibition by crude oil results in fewer acetate-utilizing methanogens within and adjacent to the separate-phase oil. Data from this and other sites indicate that toxic inhibition of

  3. Potentially beneficial spill-related effects of chemicals routinely added to crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, S.; Maharaj, S.

    1993-01-01

    Amoco Trinidad Oil Company produces 60,000 bbl/d of oil from the Trinidadian offshore. The oil is pipelined ashore where it is processed and returned offshore to a buoy mooring for transport up Trinidad's east coast. Amoco Trinidad has developed comprehensive oil spill contingency plans, starting from computer models of spill scenarios. The models used initially assumed that the oils would emulsify quickly and the spills would become highly viscous and persistent, reaching the shoreline in 15-24 h. Such behavior would render ineffective the use of dispersants as a spill countermeasure. Studies showed a poor potential capability of physical recovery systems for spills off the Trinidad east coast due to high sea states, strong winds, and other factors. These results led to questioning of the spill model's assumptions, and laboratory tests were conducted to study the actual behavior of the crude oils. It was found that the oil was difficult to emulsify and highly prone to breakup and dispersion. These surprising results were explained by the presence of surfactants added during processing. A revised modelling exercise showed that if the surfactants stay with the oil, spills up to 100,000 bbl will dissipate in 15 h or less at average wind conditions. To guard against the possibility that the surfactants may not stay with the spilled oil, and to help accelerate dispersion of oil spills, Amoco Trinidad has developed a dispersant-use capacity for its spill contingency plan. It is suggested that additives normally added to crude oils during production and processing in other areas may also be providing spill cleanup benefits similar to those found in the Trinidad case. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. [Physical and chemical interactions of Enhanced Oil Recovery reagents with hydrocarbons present in petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  5. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  6. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  7. Effects of Cuban Crude Oil on the Process of Leach, Sedimentation and Distillation in Nicaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. María Elena Magaña-Haynes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ine"> effect of the use of Cuban crude in the process of leaching, sedimentation and distillation ofthe processed minerals at “René Ramos Latour” Company was evaluated. Two periods of testswere performed; one when oil was introduced into the furnace by spear and the other when itwas introduced by spear and chamber. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using theCuban crude in reduction and leaching process of mineral by the use of spear and chamber aswell. Nickel and cobalt extractions achieved by stepwise exceed values found in the relatedliterature. Deposition of mineral was good reaching values of 1,736 -1,745 kg/m3 at the bottomof the sedimentation stage leach and 1,774 -1,807 kg/m3 in the washing stage. The thickenerswere maintained with high clear liquor level throughout the test with values between 28,0-30,0ppm. The sedimentation rate achieved low values both in the first and in the second leachingstage. Sedimentation unit area was 0,23 m2 /T day, so that no sedimentation problems werepresented. It was observed an increase in the sulfur content up to values of 6,52 g/L for a nickelcontent of 12,0g/L, which caused that the dissolved nickel in downloading stills were of 0,392 g/L and 2,58 g/L of ammonia. The sulfur content in the nickel carbonate was increased upto 6,30 %, which is 2,5 % higher than conventional.

  8. Comparison of crude oil interfacial behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetge, J.H.; Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The bulk properties of crude oil are used to predict its behaviour with regards to treatment, transport and processing. Surface active components, such as asphaltenes, are often used to study or explain critical interfacial behaviour of crude oil. This study investigated the differences and similarities in the interfacial behaviour of the collective surface active component in various crude oils from different sources. The properties of interfaces between crude oil and water were compared using a Teclis drop shape tensiometer. A portion of a crude oil sample was diluted in toluene and contacted with water in a rising drop configuration. Dynamic surface tension and interfacial rheology was examined as a function of time from the early stages of interface formation. Sinusoidal oscillation of the drop volume allowed for the evaluation of visco-elastic behaviour of the crude oil/water interface as it developed with time. The Gibbs elastic modulus, as well as its elastic and viscose components were calculated from the drop shape. The interfacial behaviour was expressed in terms of concentration, oscillation frequency and interface age. It was concluded that knowledge of crude oil interfacial character could be of value in the treatment, transport and processing of crude oils because the its behaviour may play a significant role in crude oil production and processing.

  9. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, N.B.; Sjoegren, C.E.; Lichtenthaler, G.

    1987-01-01

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  10. Crude oil price dynamics: A study on effects of market expectation and strategic supply on price movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin

    Recent years have seen dramatic fluctuations in crude oil prices. This dissertation attempts to better understand price behavior. The first chapter studies the behavior of crude oil spot and futures prices. Oil prices, particularly spot and short-term futures prices, appear to have switched from I(0) to I(1) in early 2000s. To better understand this apparent change in persistence, a factor model of oil prices is proposed, where the prices are decomposed into long-term and short-term components. The change in the persistence behavior can be explained by changes in the relative volatility of the underlying components. Fitting the model to weekly data on WTI prices, the volatility of the persistent shocks increased substantially relative to other shocks. In addition, the risk premiums in futures prices have changed their signs and become more volatile. The estimated net marginal convenience yield using the model also shows changes in its behavior. These observations suggest that a dramatic fundamental change occurred in the period from 2002 to 2004 in the dynamics of the crude oil market. The second chapter explores the short-run price-inventory dynamics in the presence of different shocks. Classical competitive storage model states that inventory decision considers both current and future market condition, and thus interacts with spot and expected future spot prices. We study competitive storage holding in an equilibrium framework, focusing on the dynamic response of price and inventory to different shocks. We show that news shock generates response profile different from traditional contemporaneous shocks in price and inventory. The model is applied to world crude oil market, where the market expectation is estimated to experience a sharp change in early 2000s, together with a persisting constrained supply relative to demand. The expectation change has limited effect on crude oil spot price though. The world oil market structure has been studied extensively but no

  11. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B. S.; Yin, W. F.; Sang, D. H.; Jiang, Z. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 °C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr5S8 phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  12. Partitioning of fresh crude oil between floating, dispersed and sediment phases: Effect of exposure order to dispersant and granular materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2016-06-15

    When three or more high and low energy substrates are mixed, wetting order can significantly affect the behavior of the mixture. We analyzed the phase distribution of fresh floating Louisiana crude oil into dispersed, settled and floating phases depending on the exposure sequence to Corexit 9500A (dispersant) and granular materials. In the experiments artificial sea water at salinity 34‰ was used. Limestone (2.00-0.300 mm) and quartz sand (0.300-0.075 mm) were used as the natural granular materials. Dispersant Corexit 9500A increased the amount of dispersed oil up to 33.76 ± 7.04%. Addition of granular materials after the dispersant increased dispersion of oil to 47.96 ± 1.96%. When solid particles were applied on the floating oil before the dispersant, oil was captured as oil-particle aggregates and removed from the floating layer. However, dispersant addition led to partial release of the captured oil, removing it from the aggregated form to the dispersed and floating phases. There was no visible oil aggregation with the granular materials when quartz or limestone was at the bottom of the flask before the addition of oil and dispersant. The results show that granular materials can be effective when applied from the surface for aggregating or dispersing oil. However, the granular materials in the sediments are not effective neither for aggregating nor dispersing floating oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  14. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  15. Study on ionizing radiation effects in diesel and crude oil: organic compounds, hydrocarbon, sulfur and nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Luana dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum is the most important energy and pollution source in the world, nowadays. New technologies in petrochemical industry aim to minimize energy spending at the process and to reduce pollution products. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds generate environmental problems; the most relevant is air pollution that affects the population health directly. The nuclear technology has been used in environmental protection through pollutants removal by free radicals produced at action of the radiation in water molecule. The objective of this study is to evaluate the radiation effects on oil and diesel, mainly in the hydrocarbons, organic sulfur, and nitrogen compounds. It was studied a molecule model of sulfur, named benzothiophene, diesel and crude oil samples. The samples were irradiated using a Co-60 source, Gammacell type. The total sulfur concentration in the samples was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The study of molecular model showed that 95% was degraded at 20 kGy dose rate. Irradiation at 15 kGy of absorbed dose showed some cracking in petrol hydrocarbons, however with higher doses it was observed polymerization and low efficiency of cracking. It was observed that the sulfur compounds from diesel and petroleum was efficiently reduced. The applied doses of 15 kGy and 30 kGy were the most efficient on desulfurization of petroleum, and for diesel the highest variation was observed with 30 kGy and 50 kGy of absorbed dose. The distillation and chromatographic separation using an open column with palladium chloride as stationary phase showed a preferential separation of organic sulfur compounds in petroleum. (author)

  16. Evolutionary and immediate effects of crude-oil pollution: depression of exploratory behaviour across populations of Trinidadian guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, L; Dybwad, C; Rolshausen, G; Hendry, A P; Reader, S M

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced perturbations such as crude-oil pollution can pose serious threats to aquatic ecosystems. To understand these threats fully it is important to establish both the immediate and evolutionary effects of pollutants on behaviour and cognition. Addressing such questions requires comparative and experimental study of populations that have evolved under different levels of pollution. Here, we compared the exploratory, activity and social behaviour of four populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) raised in common garden conditions for up to three generations. Two of these populations originated from tributaries with a long history of human-induced chronic crude-oil pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to oil exploitation in Trinidad, the two others originating from non-polluted control sites. Laboratory-raised guppies from the oil-polluted sites were less exploratory in an experimental maze than guppies from the non-polluted sites and in a similar manner for the two independent rivers. We then compared the plastic behavioural responses of the different populations after an acute short-term experimental exposure to crude oil and found a decrease in exploration (but not in activity or shoaling) in the oil-exposed fish compared to the control subjects over all four populations. Taken together, these results suggest that both an evolutionary history with oil and an acute exposure to oil depressed guppy exploratory behaviour. We discuss whether the behavioural divergence observed represents adaptation to human-induced pollutants, the implications for conservation and the possible knock-on effects for information discovery and population persistence in fish groups.

  17. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  18. Effects of crude oil on water and tracer movement in the unsaturated and saturated zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delin, Geoffrey N; Herkelrath, William N

    2017-05-01

    A tracer test was conducted to aid in the investigation of water movement and solute transport at a crude-oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota. Time of travel was measured using breakthrough curves for rhodamine WT and bromide tracers moving from the soil surface through oil-contaminated and oil-free unsaturated zones to the saturated zone. Results indicate that the rates of tracer movement were similar in the oil-free unsaturated and saturated zones compared to the oily zones. These results are somewhat surprising given the oil contamination in the unsaturated and saturated zones. Rhodamine tracer breakthrough in the unsaturated and saturated zones in general was delayed in comparison to bromide tracer breakthrough. Peak tracer concentrations for the lysimeters and wells in the oily zone were much greater than at the corresponding depths in the oil-free zone. Water and tracer movement in the oily zone was complicated by soil hydrophobicity and decreased oil saturations toward the periphery of the oil. Preferential flow resulted in reduced tracer interaction with the soil, adsorption, and dispersion and faster tracer movement in the oily zone than expected. Tracers were freely transported through the oily zone to the water table. Recharge calculations support the idea that the oil does not substantially affect recharge in the oily zone. This is an important result indicating that previous model-based assumptions of decreased recharge beneath the oil were incorrect. Results have important implications for modeling the fate and transport of dissolved contaminants at hydrocarbon spill sites. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The effects of crude oil and the effectiveness of cleaner application following oiling on US Gulf of Mexico coastal marsh plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, S R; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2001-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in two different marsh habitats in Louisiana coastal wetlands to evaluate the effects of oiling (using South Louisiana Crude oil, SLC) and the effectiveness of a shoreline cleaner (COREXIT 9580) in removing oil from plant canopies. The study sites represented two major marsh habitats; the brackish marsh site was covered by Spartina patens and the freshwater marsh was covered by Sagittaria lancifolia. Field studies were conducted in each habitat using replicated 5.8 m2 plots that were subjected to three treatments; oiled only, oiled + cleaner (cleaner was used 2 days after oiling), and a control. Plant gas exchange responses, survival, growth, and biomass accumulation were measured. Results indicated that oiling led to rapid reductions in leaf gas exchange rates in both species. However, both species in 'oiled + cleaned' plots displayed improved leaf conductance and CO2 fixation rates. Twelve weeks after treatment initiation, photosynthetic carbon fixation in both species had recovered to normal levels. Over the short-term, S. patens showed more sensitivity to oiling with SLC than S. lancifolia as was evident from the data of the number of live shoots and above-ground biomass. Above-ground biomass remained significantly lower than control in S. patens under 'oiled' and 'oiled + cleaned' treatments while it was comparable to controls in S. lancifolia. These studies indicated that the cleaner removed oil from marsh grasses and alleviated the short-term impact of oil on gas exchange function of the study plants. However, use of cleaner had no detectable effects on above-ground biomass production or regeneration at the end of the first growing season in S. patens. Similarly, no beneficial effects of cleaner on carbon fixation and number of live shoots were apparent beyond 12 weeks in S. lancifolia.

  20. Effect of Operating Conditions on Sulfur and Metal Content of Basrah Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzher M. Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available       In the present work, Basrah crude oil, atmospheric distillate of 305-623 K boiling range, vacuum distillate of 623-823 K boiling range, and wide petroleum distillate of boiling range 305-823 K are hydrotreated in trickle bed reactor using Cobalt-Molybdenum alumina as a catalyst. Hydrotreating temperatures are 598-648K, 598-673K, 648-673K and 648K respectively while LHSV are 0.7-2 hr-1, 1 hr-1, 0.7-2 hr-1 respectively. The operating pressure  and H2/Oil ratio for all experiments are kept constant at 3 Mpa and 300 liter/liter.    The results show that Sulphur and metal content decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing LHSV.     Vacuum residue of boiling range above 823K is mixed with hydrotreated atmospheric distillate, vacuum distillate and with the hydrotreated wide petroleum distillate. The temperature for hydrotreating the mixed sample is 648K and LHSV is 1 hr-1. It was found that hydrotreating crude oil is the best choice since it gives the highest removal of sulphur, vanadium and cobalt removal.

  1. Crude oil growth impact on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of crude oil production and supply in Canada. Details of oil sands projects in Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River were presented. A chart of oil sands growth by major project was provided. A list of new emerging oil sands crude types was also presented along with details of a synthetic bitumen blending synergy. Maps of Western Canadian crude oil markets were provided, along with details of refinery and market demand by crude type. Various pipeline alternatives to new markets were examined, with reference to Enbridge Pipeline's supply and capacity. Details of the Hardisty to U.S Gulf Coast Pipeline and the Edmonton to Prince Rupert Pipeline and its terminal and dock facilities were presented. It was concluded that pipeline capacity and seasonal factors will influence market demand, while linefill, crude types and the quality of the product will influence operational strategies. tabs., figs

  2. Corrosion rate of API 5L Gr. X60 multipurpose steel pipeline under combined effect of water and crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jian; Wang, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Multipurpose pipeline is often seriously corroded during its service life, and the phenomenon is more prominent once the transportation medium is changed. Electrochemical polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy of the API 5L Gr. X60 steel pipeline's corrosion process in sedimentary water with different ion types and their concentrations have been studied in this work. The results showed that the corrosion rates were found to be 0.00418 and 0.00232 mm/a for pure water and crude oil, respectively. However, for the mixtures of water and crude oil (with water content increased from 0.2 vol% to 10 vol%), the corrosion rate increased consistently and reached a maximum value of 0.15557 mm/a for 10 vol% water in crude oil. The effect of the concentration of various ions, namely, chloride, bicarbonate and sulfate in (oil/water) mixtures on the corrosion rate was characterized by weight-loss method. The results showed that with increasing the ions' concentrations, the corresponding exchange current density increased significantly. The results were further supported by the observations of corrosion morphology using scanning electron microscopy and are helpful in devising guidelines which would help in reducing corrosion in multipurpose transport pipelines involving a change of transported medium during their service life.

  3. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  4. Synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion in crude oil distillation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.S., E-mail: yinwenfeng2010@163.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Yin, W.F. [College of Mechatronic Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Sang, D.H. [Sheng Li Construction Group International Engineering Department, Shandong, Dongying, 257000 (China); Jiang, Z.Y. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Sichuan, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion of a carbon-manganese steel and a stainless steel in sulfur and/or naphthenic acid media was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion rate of the carbon-manganese steel increased with the increase of the acid value and sulfur content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical values of the concentration of sulfur and acid for corrosion rate of the stainless steel were ascertained respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The stainless steel is superior to the carbon-manganese steel in corrosion resistance because of the presence of stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases. - Abstract: The synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion at high temperature in crude oil distillation unit was studied using Q235 carbon-manganese steel and 316 stainless steel. The corrosion of Q235 and 316 in corrosion media containing sulfur and/or naphthenic acid at 280 Degree-Sign C was investigated by weight loss, scanning electron microscope (SEM), EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis. The results showed that in corrosion media containing only sulfur, the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316 first increased and then decreased with the increase of sulfur content. In corrosion media containing naphthenic acid and sulfur, with the variations of acid value or sulfur content, the synergy effect of naphthenic acid corrosion and sulfur corrosion has a great influence on the corrosion rate of Q235 and 316. It was indicated that the sulfur accelerated naphthenic acid corrosion below a certain sulfur content but prevented naphthenic acid corrosion above that. The corrosion products on two steels after exposure to corrosion media were investigated. The stable Cr{sub 5}S{sub 8} phases detected in the corrosion products film of 316 were considered as the reason why 316 has greater corrosion resistance to that of Q235.

  5. Protective effect of oryzanol isolated from crude rice bran oil in experimental model of diabetic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsuvra B. Ghatak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated the involvement of poor glycemic control and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the development of diabetic neuropathic pain, an important microvascular complication affecting more than 50% of diabetic patients. However, lack of understanding of the underlying etiology, development of tolerance, inadequate relief and possible toxicity associated with classical analgesics warrant the investigation of the novel agents. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the effect of oryzanol (OZ, a commercially-important potent antioxidant component isolated from from crude rice bran oil (cRBO, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. After eight weeks, diabetic rats developed neuropathy which was evident from decreased tail-flick latency (thermal hyperalgesia and increased nociceptive behavior during the formalin test. This was accompanied by decreased motor coordination based on the evaluation of neuromuscular strength. Na+ K+ ATPase, a biochemical marker associated with the development of diabetic neuropathy, was significantly inhibited in the sciatic nerve of diabetic animals. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation levels were significantly elevated in diabetic rats, indicating the involvement of oxidative stress in diabetic neuropathy. Chronic treatment with oryzanol (OZ (50 and 100 mg/kg per oral (p.o. and standard drug glibenclamide (Gl (10 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the behavioral as well as biochemical changes associated with diabetic neuropathy. The findings provide experimental evidence to the protective effects of OZ on hyperglycemia-induced thermal hyperalgesia and oxidative stress which might be responsible for diabetes induced nerve damage.

  6. Procedures in field systems for collecting and demulsifying crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhitov, G G; Graifer, V I; Tronov, V P; Zakirov, I G

    1969-01-01

    This microscopic study of crude oil emulsification and demulsification showed that the sooner an emulsion is chemically treated, the less its stability. This finding led to the practice of adding demulsifiers to the crude oil in pipelines. This method of demulsification is now used in Romashkino, Bablinsk, and Elkhovs fields. By this early addition of a chemical, the tendency of the pipeline to form stable, highly viscous emulsions is reduced. This treatment also facilitates separation of water from oil in storage tanks. Repeated tests have shown that pipeline demulsification is a highly effective and economic process. This method reduces crude oil dewatering costs by several hundred percent.

  7. Enzymatic lipophilization of epicatechin with free fatty acids and its effect on antioxidative capacity in crude camellia seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sa-Sa; Luo, Shui-Zhong; Zheng, Zhi; Zhao, Yan-Yan; Pang, Min; Jiang, Shao-Tong

    2017-02-01

    Crude camellia seed oil is rich in free fatty acids, which must be removed to produce an oil of acceptable quality. In the present study, we reduced the free fatty acid content of crude camellia seed oil by lipophilization of epicatechin with these free fatty acids in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435), and this may enhance the oxidative stability of the oil at the same time. The acid value of crude camellia seed oil reduced from 3.7 to 2.5 mgKOH g -1 after lipophilization. Gas chomatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that epicatechin oleate and epicatechin palmitate were synthesized in the lipophilized oil. The peroxide, p-anisidine, and total oxidation values during heating of the lipophilized oil were much lower than that of the crude oil and commercially available camellia seed oil, suggesting that lipophilized epicatechin derivatives could help enhance the oxidative stability of edible oil. The enzymatic process to lipophilize epicatechin with the free fatty acids in crude camellia seed oil described in the present study could decrease the acid value to meet the quality standards for commercial camellia seed oil and, at the same time, obtain a new edible camellia seed oil product with good oxidative stability. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  9. The Comparison of Effects of Gamma Radiation of Crude Oil Yield on Some Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havser ERTEM VAİZOĞULLAR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of different doses gamma radiation on crude oil yield and moisture of different six variety sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. seeds. As materials, sunflower variety Ege-2001, Turay, AS-508, Tunca, TR-3080 and Tarsan-1018 seeds were used and irradiated with doses of 0 (control, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 Gy gamma radiation. Irradiation was performed in a cesium (Ce137 Gammacell 3000 Elan source, dose rate about 9.75 Gy/min (2900 Ci in the Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine in the department of the radiological. Moisture amount of seeds were also measured by AOCS standarts. Extraction of the seeds was done with soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether by hot continuous extraction for 6 hours.  It was found that the highest moisture rate in 100 Gy for all seeds variety. The moisture rate ranged between 3.00 and 9.68% in TR-3080 and Ege-2001, respectively. According to the our results, seed moisture content was affected by gamma radiation in a significant negative one-way. The significant reduction in seed moisture content (9.68% began at 100 Gy of gamma rays and continued to decline to up to 4.04% at 500 Gy. The crude oil yield showed not a important increase in 100 and 200 Gy doses. The result showed that the highest crude oil yield was also obtained from 400 Gy and 33.49% in Ege-2001 seeds.

  10. Estimating 'Value at Risk' of crude oil price and its spillover effect using the GED-GARCH approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ying; Wei, Yi-Ming; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Tsai, Hsien-Tang

    2008-01-01

    Estimation has been carried out using GARCH-type models, based on the Generalized Error Distribution (GED), for both the extreme downside and upside Value-at-Risks (VaR) of returns in the WTI and Brent crude oil spot markets. Furthermore, according to a new concept of Granger causality in risk, a kernel-based test is proposed to detect extreme risk spillover effect between the two oil markets. Results of an empirical study indicate that the GED-GARCH-based VaR approach appears more effective than the well-recognized HSAF (i.e. historical simulation with ARMA forecasts). Moreover, this approach is also more realistic and comprehensive than the standard normal distribution-based VaR model that is commonly used. Results reveal that there is significant two-way risk spillover effect between WTI and Brent markets. Supplementary study indicates that at the 99% confidence level, when negative market news arises that brings about a slump in oil price return, historical information on risk in the WTI market helps to forecast the Brent market. Conversely, it is not the case when positive news occurs and returns rise. Historical information on risk in the two markets can facilitate forecasts of future extreme market risks for each other. These results are valuable for anyone who needs evaluation and forecasts of the risk situation in international crude oil markets. (author)

  11. The effects of crude oil shocks on stock market shifts behaviour A regime switching approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania [International Finance Group-Tunisia, Faculty of Management and Economic Sciences of Tunis, Boulevard du 7 novembre, El Manar University, B.P. 248, C.P. 2092, Tunis Cedex (Tunisia)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper we develop a two regime Markov-switching EGARCH model introduced by Henry [Henry, O., 2009. Regime switching in the relationship between equity returns and short-term interest rates. Journal of Banking and Finance 33, 405-414.] to examine the relationship between crude oil shocks and stock markets. An application to stock markets of UK, France and Japan over the sample period January 1989 to December 2007 illustrates plausible results. We detect two episodes of series behaviour one relative to low mean/high variance regime and the other to high mean/low variance regime. Furthermore, there is evidence that common recessions coincide with the low mean/high variance regime. In addition, we allow both real stock returns and probability of transitions from one regime to another to depend on the net oil price increase variable. The findings show that rises in oil price has a significant role in determining both the volatility of stock returns and the probability of transition across regimes. (author)

  12. The effects of crude oil shocks on stock market shifts behaviour A regime switching approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloui, Chaker; Jammazi, Rania

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two regime Markov-switching EGARCH model introduced by Henry [Henry, O., 2009. Regime switching in the relationship between equity returns and short-term interest rates. Journal of Banking and Finance 33, 405-414.] to examine the relationship between crude oil shocks and stock markets. An application to stock markets of UK, France and Japan over the sample period January 1989 to December 2007 illustrates plausible results. We detect two episodes of series behaviour one relative to low mean/high variance regime and the other to high mean/low variance regime. Furthermore, there is evidence that common recessions coincide with the low mean/high variance regime. In addition, we allow both real stock returns and probability of transitions from one regime to another to depend on the net oil price increase variable. The findings show that rises in oil price has a significant role in determining both the volatility of stock returns and the probability of transition across regimes. (author)

  13. The hepatotoxic potential of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil: effect on mouse liver weight and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Irfan, M.; Rahimtula, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The hepatotoxic properties of a Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO) were evaluated in mice. Administration of PBCO (5.0 m1/kg body wt, daily for 2 days) to mice resulted in an increase in (i) liver wet and dry weight, (ii) hepatic total proteins RNA, glycogen and lotal lipids, and (iii) individual lipids such as cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Hepatic protein biosynthesis, determined in vivo by administration of L-[ 14 C] Leucine was increased in PBCO exposed in mice. The rate of 3 H incorporation from 3 H 2 O was significantly enhanced in liver fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides and thus ultimately in total lipids. Also, an increase in 3 H incorporation was noticed in hepatic glycogen after PBCO administration. The results suggest that PBCO may induce hepatotoxicity by altering the intermediary metabolism of biochemical constituents. (author) 39 refs

  14. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have...

  15. REVIEW OF PVT CORRELATIONS FOR CRUDE OILS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win

    approaches that of the fluids used. During the last 50 years, ... applied to crude oils from other regions (Sutton and Farshad,. 1990). ... S. S. Ikiensikimama, Department of Chemistry Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. O. Ogboja ...

  16. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Hernández, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Adams, R.H.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Pérez-Hernández, V.; Jarquín-Sánchez, A.; Geissen, V.; Martínez-Zurimendi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and

  17. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  18. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  19. Effect of crude oil and refined petroleum product imports on the national security. Critical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The report contains the results of an investigation requested under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act to study the effect of oil imports on the domestic petroleum industry and on United States energy security. It reviews previous energy security assessments and resulting initiatives, assesses current US energy security, and studies emergency petroleum requirements. The report finds that there have been substantial improvements in US energy security since the last Section 232 Petroleum finding in 1979. However, declining domestic oil production, rising oil imports, and growing dependence on potentially insecure sources of supply raise concerns of vulnerability to a major supply disruption

  20. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study established in Fairbanks in 1995. The original study sought to determine how the introduction of plants (Festuca rubra, Lolium multiflorum), nutrients (fertilizer), or their combination would affect degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminated soils (crude oil or diesel) over time. Within the year following initial treatments, the plots subjected to both planting and/or fertilization showed greater overall decreases in TPH concentrations in both the diesel and crude oil contaminated soils relative to untreated plots. We re-examined this field site after 15 years with no active site management to assess the long-term effects of phytoremediation on colonization by native and non-native plants, their rhizosphere microbial communities and on petroleum removal from soil. Native and non-native vegetation had extensively colonized the site, with more abundant vegetation found on the diesel contaminated soils than the more nutrient-poor, more coarse, and acidic crude oil contaminated soils. TPH concentrations achieved regulatory clean up levels in all treatment groups, with lower TPH concentrations correlating with higher amounts of woody vegetation (trees & shrubs). In addition, original treatment type has affected vegetation recruitment to each plot with woody vegetation and more native plants in unfertilized plots. Bacterial community structure also varies according to the originally applied treatments. This study suggests that initial treatment with native tree species in

  1. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  2. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Effect of fertilizer formulation and bioaugmentation on biodegradation and leaching of crude oils and refined products in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, F; Brassington, K J; Bazin, R; Linnet, P E; Thomas, K A; Mitchell, T R; Lethbridge, G; Smith, J W N; Pollarda, S J T

    2012-09-01

    The effects of soil characteristics and oil types as well as the efficacy of two fertilizer formulations and three bioaugmentation packages in improving the bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils were assessed as a means of ex situ treatment selection and optimization through seven laboratory microcosm studies. The influence of bioremediation on leaching of oil from the soil was also investigated. The studies demonstrated the benefits ofbiostimulation to overcome nutrient limitation, as most of the soils were nutrient depleted. The application of both liquid and pelleted slow-release N and P fertilizers increased both the hydrocarbon biodegradation rates (by a factor of 1.4 to 2.9) and the percentage of hydrocarbon mass degraded (by > 30% after 12 weeks and 80% after 37 weeks), when compared with the unamended soils. Slow-release fertilizers can be particularly useful when multiple liquid applications are not practical or cost-effective. Bioaugmentation products containing inoculum plus fertilizer also increased biodegradation by 20% to 37% compared with unamended biotic controls; however, there was no clear evidence of additional benefits due to the inocula, compared with fertilizer alone. Therefore biostimulation is seen as the most cost-effective bioremediation strategy for contaminated soils with the levels of crude oil and refined products used in this study. However, site-specific considerations remain essential for establishing the treatability of oil-contaminated soils.

  5. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  6. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.A.; Callaghan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 109 refs

  7. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, S.; Bobra, M.; Liuzzo, P.; Callaghan, S.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Ackerman, F.; Cao, J.

    1993-02-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 140 refs

  8. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs.

  9. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  10. Effect of incremental levels of crude degummed canola oil on milk progesterone, plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of lactating cows with fat can alter the profiles of key reproductive hormones and boost postpartum energy balance. However, published data under Australian pasture-based dairy production conditions are scanty and inconsistent. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether dietary inclusion of crude degummed canola oil (CDCO at incremental levels for eight-weeks will have significant influence on progesterone (P4, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows grazing pastures. We tested the hypothesis that postpartum supplementation of primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows with dietary CDCO in a pasture-based system will alter the concentrations of P4, LH and FSH reproductive hormones. A random allocation of twenty primiparous Holstein–Friesian cows into four treatment groups that consisted of a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with no supplemental CDCO (control, or a wheat-based pelleted basal diet with CDCO added at 25 ml/kg (low, 35 ml/kg (medium and 50 ml/kg (high was employed in an eight-week feeding trial after two weeks of adjustment. Supplementation levels of CDCO and week of data collection were significant sources of variation (P  0.05. It was apparent that cows in the high (0.459 ng/ml, medium (0.367 ng/ml and low (0.251 ng/ml levels of oil treatments had higher mean plasma FSH concentrations compared to the control (0.172 ng/ml cows. It was concluded that the current levels of CDCO can be used in pasture-based dairy systems to increase FSH, but not LH and P4.

  11. EFFECT OF DIESEL CONTAMINATION ON CAPACITANCE VALUES OF CRUDE PALM OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. FIZURA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of crude palm oil (CPO contamination is a major concern in CPO quality monitoring. In this study, capacitive sensing technique was used to monitor diesel contamination levels in CPO. A low cost capacitive sensing system was developed by using AD7746 capacitance to digital converter. The capacitance value of CPO samples with different contamination levels (v/v% ranged from 0% to 50% was collected at a room temperature (25°C. The objective of this study is to find a relationship between capacitance values and diesel contamination levels in CPO. The results showed that capacitance value decreased as the diesel contamination levels increased. For the 0% to 50% contamination range, the regression equation was y = 0.0002x2 - 0.0125x + 0.936 with R2 value of 0.96. For the 0% to 10% contamination range (where the percentage was the representative of potential contaminations levels found in CPO the correlation equation was y = -0.02x + 0.95 with R2 value of 0.95. These results indicated that capacitive sensing technique has potential for CPO quality monitoring.

  12. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  13. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  14. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  15. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  16. Combined Effects of Deepwater Horizon Crude Oil and Environmental Stressors on Fundulus grandis Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Maria L; Jones, Elizabeth R; Klinkhamer, Christopher; Mahapatra, Cecon T; Serafin, Jennifer; Bosker, Thijs; Perkins, Christopher; Griffitt, Robert J; De Guise, Sylvain; Sepúlveda, Maria S

    2018-04-16

    In this study, we examined how sensitivity to oil changes in combination with environmental stressors in Fundulus grandis embryos. We exposed embryos (< 24 hours post fertilization) to a range of High Energy Water Accommodated Fraction (HEWAF) concentrations (0-50 ppb total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) made from Macondo oil in conjunction with various environmental conditions (temperature: 20, 30°C; salinity: 3, 7, 30 practical salinity units (PSU); DO: 2, 6 mg/L). Endpoints included mortality, hatching rates, and expression of cytochrome p450 1a and 1c (cyp1a, cyp1c) in hatched larvae. There was 100% mortality for all fish under the 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) regimes. For the 6 mg/L DO treatments, mortality and mean lethal time were generally higher in the 30°C treatments versus the 20°C treatments. Oil increased mortality in fish exposed to the highest concentration in the 20-3-6 (°C-PSU-mg/L), 25-7-6, and 30-30-6 conditions. Hatching was driven by environmental conditions, with oil exposure only having a significant impact on hatching in the 25-7-6 and 30-30-6 groups at the highest HEWAF exposure. Expression of cyp1a was upregulated in most treatment groups versus the controls, with cyp1c expression exhibiting a similar pattern. These data suggest interactive effects among temperature, salinity, and PAHs, highlighting a need to further assess the effects of oil exposure under various environmental conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  18. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  19. Effects of Three Types of Oil Dispersants on Biodegradation of Dispersed Crude Oil in Water Surrounding Two Persian Gulf Provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A.; Bijani, S.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Emtyazjoo, M.; Poursafa, P.; Mehrabian, S.; Farkhani, D.; Mirmoghtadaee, P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30 C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05). Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05). Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from off shores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  20. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Fan, Ying; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence. (author)

  1. Effects of three types of oil dispersants on biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in water surrounding two Persian gulf provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, Azadeh; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Poursafa, Parinaz; Mehrabian, Sedigheh; Bijani, Samira; Farkhani, Daryoush; Mirmoghtadaee, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30°C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in microorganisms. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P < 0.05). Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.

  2. The future for heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expectation, still held in 1993, that the light oil-heavy crude oil differential would go on increasing in favour of light oil has not been fulfilled. Current perceptions are that heavy oil will continue to be relatively strong and there is no inevitable upward trend in light-heavy crude differentials. Non-OPEC production has grown significantly lighter overall in recent years and is likely to continue so for several more years. This is due to expanded light oil production in the North Sea, Latin America and the Far East, and contractions in heavy oil production in Russia and the USA. OPEC production has also become lighter with, in particular, an expansion in light oil and contraction in heavy grades from Saudi Arabia. At the same time, the nature of the demand from refineries has changed with the introduction of new units designed to process the residium from heavy oil distillation. Thus the supply of light oil has expanded while demand for it has contracted with the reverse being true for heavy oil. (2 figures, 1 table) (UK)

  3. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  4. Test methods for determining asphaltene stability in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The development of test methods for the determination of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was rendered necessary, due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in harsh production environments, namely the underwater systems in offshore deepwater. The Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization were used for the purposes of this study, to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided, and the experimental data obtained as a result was presented. Correlation with data on the deposition histories of the oils was used to validate the experimental stability data. The author discussed the effectiveness of the different tests for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. The prediction of a crude oil's propensity towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., 31 figs.

  5. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  6. Effect of Fenton pre-oxidation on mobilization of nutrients and efficient subsequent bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinlan; Kong, Fanxing; Song, Shaohua; Cao, Qianqian; Huang, Tinglin; Cui, Yiwei

    2017-08-01

    Fenton pre-oxidation and a subsequent bioremediation phase of 80 days were used to investigate the importance of matching concentration of residual indigenous bacteria and nutrient levels on subsequent bioremediation of crude oil. Experiments were performed using either high (>10 7.7 ± 0.2  CFU/g soil) or low ( 9.8), moderate (C/N:5-9.8), and lacking nutrient level (C/N bioremediation of crude oil. In addition, the biodegradation of long chain molecules (C 26 C 30 ) required a high level of NH 4 + -N. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  8. Effects of crude oil on the feeding behaviour of the zoanthid Palythoa variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A A

    1975-01-01

    Palythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) has a well-coordinated, sterotyped feeding response similar to that described for other zoanthids. The feeding reaction can be elicited by the heterocyclic amino acid proline and by some of its analogs. The addition of an OH group (hydroxyproline) or of a glycyl group (prolylglycine) annuls the activity of the proline molecule. Substitutions (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) or additions (glycylproline) to the amino group do not alter the effectivity of the activator. The size of the ring can be altered within certain limits (azetidine-2-carbocylic acid and pipecolic acid) without affecting the activity of the molecule. Feeding reactions culminating with ingestion can be elicited by Marine Diesel and Bunker-C oils. Exposure to oil affects the ability of polyps to discriminate between inert and chemically active particles for 3 to 5 days; responses to proline are not altered for at least 3 days following the exposure, but become slower and are present in fewer polyps after that period. Oil is retained in the coelenteron for several days following exposure and is periodically released in the form of timy droplets.

  9. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  10. Effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Khan, Muhammad Mujahid; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spill in sea water represents a huge environmental disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The aim was to investigate the effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water. The present study was conducted under the supervision of Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period July 2003 - December 2004. This was a comparative study of spirometry in 31 apparently healthy, non smoking, male workers, exposed to crude oil spill environment during the oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with similar number of male, non smoking control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air for periods longer than 15 days showed a significant reduction in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow in 25-25% (FEF25-75%) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Air environment polluted due to crude oil spill into sea water caused impaired lung function and this impairment was associated with dose response effect of duration of exposure to air polluted by crude oil spill into sea water.

  11. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  12. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  13. THE LONG-RUN AND SHORT-RUN EFFECTS OF CRUDE OIL PRICE ON METHANOL MARKET IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Komijani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substituting crude oil exports with value-added petrochemical products is one of the main strategies for policy makers in oil-driven economies to isolating the real sectors of economy from oil price volatility. This policy inclination has led to a body of literature in energy economics in recent decades. As a case study, this paper investigates the short-run and long-run relationship between Iran’s oil price and methanol price which is one of the most important non-oil exports of the oil-exporting country. To do so, the weekly data from 18 Jan. 2009 to 18 Sep. 2011 in a VECM framework is applied. The results show that in the long-run, oil price hikes leads to proportional increase in methanol price while in the short-run, this impact is not significant.

  14. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  15. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  16. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  17. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production. PMID:28830128

  18. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2018-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian) uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW]) were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05) among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM) area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  19. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil in diets on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Chanjula

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO on performance, carcass traits, meat quality, and muscle chemical composition. Methods Twenty-four crossbred (Thai Native×Anglo Nubian uncastrated male goats (16.8± 0.46 kg body weight [BW] were assigned to a completely randomized design and subjected to four experimental diets containing 0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% of CGWVO (63.42% of glycerol and 47.78% of crude fat on a dry matter (DM basis. The diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed rations twice daily. The feed intake, feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass and meat traits, and muscle chemical composition were evaluated. Results Based on this experiment, there were significant differences (p>0.05 among groups regarding DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits where goats receiving 6% of CGWVO had lower daily DM intake, growth performance, and carcass traits than those fed on 0%, 2%, and 4% of CGWVO. There were no effects of CGWVO on carcass length, carcass width, Longissimus muscle (LM area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color of LM at 45 min after slaughter, as well as on other carcass cut and muscle chemical composition. Conclusion In conclusion, the addition of up to 4% of DM in the diets for crossbred finishing goats seems to be the most interesting strategy, since it promotes greatest animal performance. Moreover, this study was a suitable approach to exploit the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  20. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  1. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  2. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  3. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  4. Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Chai, Chao; Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctiluca and Aurelia aurita and the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, and on survival of ephyra larvae of A. aurita and cydippid larvae of M. leidyi, in the laboratory. Adult P. noctiluca showed 100% mortality at oil concentration ≥20 µL L−1 after 16 h. In contrast, low or non-lethal effects were observed on adult stages of A. aurita and M. leidyi exposed at oil concentration ≤25 µL L−1 after 6 days. Survival of ephyra and cydippid larva decreased with increasing crude oil concentration and exposition time. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for ephyra larvae ranged from 14.41 to 0.15 µL L−1 after 1 and 3 days, respectively. LC50 for cydippid larvae ranged from 14.52 to 8.94 µL L−1 after 3 and 6 days, respectively. We observed selective bioaccumulation of chrysene, phenanthrene and pyrene in A. aurita and chrysene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]anthracene in M. leidyi. Overall, our results indicate that (1) A. aurita and M. leidyi adults had a high tolerance to crude oil exposure compared to other zooplankton, whereas P. noctiluca was highly sensitive to crude oil, (2) larval stages of gelatinous zooplankton were more sensitive to crude oil than adult stages, and (3) some of the most toxic PAHs of crude oil can be bioaccumulated in gelatinous zooplankton and potentially be transferred up the food web and contaminate apex predators. PMID:24116004

  5. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  6. Effect of biosurfactant and fertilizer on biodegradation of crude oil by marine isolates of Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilizers and biosurfactants on biodegradation of crude oil by three marine bacterial isolates; Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five sets of experiments were carried out in shake flask and microcosm conditions with crude oil as follows: Set 1-only bacterial cells added (no fertilizer and biosurfactant), Set 2-with additional fertilizer only, Set 3-with additional biosurfactant only, Set 4-with added biosurfactant+fertilizer, Set 5-with no bacterial cells added (control), all the above experimental sets were incubated for 168 h. The biosurfactant+fertilizer added Set 4, resulted in maximum crude oil degradation within shake flask and microcosm conditions. Among the three bacterial isolates, P. aeruginosa and biosurfactant produced by this strain resulted in maximum crude oil degradation compared to the other two bacterial strains investigated. Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (Set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in Set 4 with added fertilizer+biosurfactant were only 4-5% higher degradation level in shake flask and 3.2-7% in microcosm experiments for all three bacterial strains used. It is concluded that, biosurfactants alone capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers, which will reduce the cost of bioremediation process and minimizes the dilution or wash away problems encountered when water soluble fertilizers used during bioremediation of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  9. Results of a Workshop on Health Effects of Crude Oil Exposures Related to Operation Desert Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Field, 15 miles south of Kuwait City. This field produces intermediate crude, API gravity from the high teens to the low 30’s, and has a subsurface...taste in the mouth. ANSI: (037.12-1974) anorexia . lassitude, slight but definite impairment o A0S ppm (eight-hour, time-weighted coordination and reaction... anorexia , pal- above the acceptable ceiling concen- pitation and extreme weakness. Loss of coordination tration for an eight-hour shift. maxi- was

  10. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  11. Identification of CYP1A inducing compounds in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Hollebone, B.P.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    One of the major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic ecosystems is crude oil. PAHs are responsible for developmental malformations in the early life stages of fish. The induction of CYP1A enzyme is characteristic of developmental toxicity caused by crude oil. As such, it is an effective biomarker of PAH uptake. It is not known which PAHs cause toxicity because of the complex chemical composition of crude oil. In this study, an approach called Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) was used with different crude oils to separate bioavailable PAHs into petroleum sub-fractions. The extent of CYP1A induction in rainbow trout was measured after 48 hour exposures to each fraction. Low temperature vacuum distillation was used to create white gas, kerosene, coal tar/bitumen and wax fractions. Hepatic CYP1A activity was induced by whole oil and some fractions. The highest PAH concentration was found in the coal tar/bitumen fraction which accounted for most CYP1A induction in whole oil. The wax fraction also caused moderate CYP1A induction, but the white gas fraction did not cause any CYP1A induction. The hypothesis that alkyl PAH may be the most significant source of CYP1A inducers in the coal tar/bitumen fraction was supported by chemical analysis of CYP1A induction potency. Results showed that benzo[a]pyrene accounts for nearly all of the CYP1A induction caused by the wax fraction.

  12. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  13. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E. O.; Kpeglo, D. O.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Schandorf, C.; Adu, P. A. S.; Faanu, A.; Abankwah, E.; Lawluvi, H.; Awudu, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. (authors)

  14. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R

    2012-02-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers.

  15. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  16. Efficacy of intervention strategies for bioremediation of crude oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for the solution to ameliorate the seemingly unending pollution and its side effects necessitated the evaluation on the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation of crude oil pollution in soil microcosms. The bacterial species selected for this study (Bacillus thuringensis strain LG32 and ...

  17. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  18. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  20. Influence of chemical surfactants on the biodegradation of crude oil by a mixed bacterial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hamme, J.D.; Ward, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the effects of surfactant physicochemical properties on crude oil biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture were examined. The effects of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and molecular structure on the biodegradation of Bow River crude oil were determined. It was shown that chemical surfactants have the potential to improve crude oil biodegradation in complex microbial systems. Surfactant selection should consider factors such as molecular structure, HLB and surfactant concentration. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyahia, Farid; Embaby, Ahmed Shams

    2016-02-15

    This work was aimed at evaluating the relative merits of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of a desert soil contaminated by crude oil through biopile treatment. The results show that the desert soil required bioaugmentation and biostimulation for bioremediation of crude oil. The bioaugmented biopile system led to a total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) reduction of 77% over 156 days while the system with polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80) gave a 56% decrease in TPH. The biostimulated system with indigenous micro-organisms gave 23% reduction in TPH. The control system gave 4% TPH reduction. The addition of Tween 80 led to a respiration rate that peaked in 48 days compared to 88 days for the bioaugmented system and respiration declined rapidly due to nitrogen depletion. The residual hydrocarbon in the biopile systems studied contained polyaromatics (PAH) in quantities that may be considered as hazardous. Nitrogen was found to be a limiting nutrient in desert soil bioremediation.

  2. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  3. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... aiding the activities of the large numbers of microbes ... math of crude oil pollution of agricultural soils to forestall the adverse effects induced .... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A) manual series. No. 1, Ibadan ...

  4. Effect of Water Content, Temperature and NaCl on CO2 Corrosion of Carbon Steel (A106B in Iraqi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Ahmed Jafar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to determine the corrosion rate of carbon steel (A 106 GradeB as flow line in crude oil production with CO2 content employing three Iraqi crude oil (Kirkuk crude oil, Halfaya crude oil, and Rumalia crude oil with identical produced water (brine [1%NaCl,2%NaCl, and 3%NaCl]. Experiments were performed in an autoclave test apparatus, crude oilproduced water mixtures, water cuts were (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 100%, and temperature (20, 40, 60°C. For all experiments, CO2 partial pressure was maintained at 4bar and rotational speed 500 rpm. The corrosion rates were determined by the weight loss method. The results revealed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel increased by increasing water cut and temperature, but decreased with increasing salt concentration for all types of crude oil. Rumaila crude oil exhibited the highest corrosion rate and Kirkuk crude oil exhibits the lowest corrosion rate while Halfaya crude oil exhibits a moderate corrosion rate.

  5. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHINEDU

    oil either orally or through polluted marine species represents a pathway for the delivery of potential toxicants ... however, no significant difference (p>0.05) between the SOD activity of the rats treated with 3 ml of ... On land, petroleum products.

  6. Effect of Bonny Light Crude Oil Pollution of Soil on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    In the Control treatments, a declining trend in plant growth was observed from the 1st to the 5th crop. ... water infiltration into subsoil layers (Amadi et al;. 1996). Even after 22 years ... In May 2000, an oil pipe leakage occurred at the Diebu ...

  7. Comparative study on the effect of symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates on crude oil remediaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis. Gas chromatographic (GC analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg. By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH

  8. Electrical desalting - preparing of the crude oil for further processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Nadija; Minovski, Mino; Sokolovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Desalting as well as dewatering of the crude oil is important preparing process, which takes place in crude units on the refinery plants. One of the most efficient ways of desalting is use of high voltage electricity. In this work attention is paid on the principals of this process, illustrated with practically gained results from the OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Macedonia. (Original)

  9. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  10. The Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    on microorganisms are more important than ab - the filamentous fungal population was greater in solute numbers. the winter plot than in the summer...nalkanes by McCown, B.H., F.J. Deneke, W.E. Rickard and L.L. Tieszen Cladosporium resinae Applied Microbiology, vol 25, p (197 t) The response of...alkanes.on Impact of Oil Resource Deselopment on Northern Plant Com- Cladosporium resinae Canadian Journal of Microbiology. vol munities University of

  11. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  12. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  13. An analysis of the effectiveness of a joint commodity and foreign exchange rate futures hedge: The case of a Canadian crude oil trader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klusa, L.J.

    1993-04-01

    This study focused on reducing risk for Canadian crude oil traders exposed to crude oil price and exchange rate uncertainty. Joint static and flow period hedges were developed and compared to unhedged positions and to naive and simple hedges. Optimal hedge ratio size and hedging effectiveness were identified for a variety of hedge lifting periods and durations. The in-sample results indicated that joint hedge models were more effective than other models in terms of minimizing the variance of returns. Out-of-sample results indicated that joint and simple commodity hedges were equally effective. Other findings included: shorter duration, close to expiry hedges were the most effective; the difference between the variability of spot and future price differences and their correlations were related to hedge ratio size; and a flow period hedge was the most effective hedge when spot prices were monthly average prices. 53 refs., 3 figs., 49 tabs

  14. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  15. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  16. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  17. Effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, S.; Lim, T.H.; Yu, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    Crude palm oil (CPO) is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuels for diesel engines. CPO is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. However, at room temperature (30-32 deg C) CPO has a viscosity about 10 times higher than that of diesel. To lower CPO's viscosity to the level of diesel's viscosity, a heating temperature of at least 92 deg C is needed. At this temperature, there is a concern that the close-fitting parts of the injection system might be affected. This study focused on finding out the effects of preheating of fuel on the injection system utilising a modified method of friction test, which involves injecting fuel outside the combustion chamber during motoring. Results show that preheating of CPO lowered CPO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow, but did not affect the injection system, even heating up to 100 deg C. Nevertheless, heating up to such a high temperature offered no benefits in terms of engine performance. However, heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. Both can be achieved by heating CPO to 60 deg C. Combustion analyses comparisons between CPO and diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6%, a shorter ignition delay of 2.6 deg, a lower maximum heat release rate and a longer combustion period. Over the entire load range, CPO combustion produced average CO and NO emissions that were 9.2 and 29.3% higher, respectively, compared with those from diesel combustion. (Author)

  18. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  19. CFD modeling of fouling in crude oil pre-heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mahmoud; Aminian, Javad; Bazmi, Mansour; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Sharifi, Khashayar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual CFD-based model to predict fouling in industrial crude oil pre-heaters. ► Tracing fouling formation in the induction and developing continuation periods. ► Effect of chemical components, shell-side HTC and turbulent flow on the fouling rate. - Abstract: In this study, a conceptual procedure based on the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has been developed to predict fouling rate in an industrial crude oil pre-heater. According to the developed CFD concept crude oil was assumed to be composed of three pseudo-components comprising of petroleum, asphaltene and salt. The binary diffusion coefficients were appropriately categorized into five different groups. The species transport model was applied to simulate the mixing and transport of chemical species. The possibility of adherence of reaction products to the wall was taken into account by applying a high viscosity for the products in competition with the shear stress on the wall. Results showed a reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the plant data. The CFD model could be applied to new operating conditions to investigate the details of the crude oil fouling in the industrial pre-heaters.

  20. Effect of nitrogen form for the amendment of crude oil bioremediation field experiment in the Sea of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, H.; Hiwatari, T.; Kohata, K.; Watanabe, M.; Miyazaki, H.; Yamasaki, F.; Tanimoto, T.

    2002-01-01

    Some small-scale field experiments have been conducted regarding the bioremediation of oil at a rocky beach in the Sea of Japan. During the 4 month experiment, artificial mixtures of weathered Arabian light crude oil and sand were wrapped in teflon net envelopes which were placed in perforated vessels to facilitate exchange with seawater in the intertidal area. Two inorganic and two organic slow release nitrogen fertilizers were added to the oil and sand mixtures which were then periodically sampled and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Individual petroleum compounds degraded at a quicker rate when fertilizer was added. In addition, fertilizer helped to remove the oil from the sand. After 4 months, the oil content in the sands fertilized with ammonium sulfate, urea and isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) was one third that of the control sand. Ammonium nitrate fertilizers did not work as well at removing the oil from the sand. It was concluded that organic nitrogen fertilizers such as urea and IBDU have significant potential to stimulate microbial degradation and physical removal of oil rather than organic nitrogen fertilizers. 16 refs., 3 figs

  1. NEB view of development potential and markets for heavy crude oil. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotland, W A; Gutek, A M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The phased reduction in total crude oil and equivalent exports, from 911 Mpbd in 1974 to 465 Mbpd in 1976, has no doubt had a disruptive effect on the rate of development of heavy crude oil reserves. The effect could have become more series as total exports continued to drop. However, the separate licensing of heavy crude oil for export will allow heavy crude oil to enter available markets until the early 1980s. The construction of one or several upgrading facilities by the early 1980s, combined with growing domestic requirements for heavy crude oil feedstock, could make the disposition of heavy oil largely independent of the purchasing patterns of export markets. The prospect of increased market stability combined with increasing cash flows should provide an appropriate environment to optimize the role that heavy oil resources can play in Canada's future energy balance. (12 refs.)

  2. Improving oil biodegradability of aliphatic crude oil fraction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of biodegrading ability of B. subtilis and the mixture of these bacteria to n-alkanes and isoprenoids (pristine, phytane) were measured and compared with control. Crude oil is used as a sole source of energy and the incubation period was 24 days, the hydrocarbons loss are detected each 6 day interval using ...

  3. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  4. Down-hole catalytic upgrading of heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.G.; Kessler, R.V.; Sawicki, R.A.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Laureshen, C.J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Several processing options have been developed to accomplish near-well bore in-situ upgrading of heavy crude oils. These processes are designed to pass oil over a fixed bed of catalyst prior to entering the production well, the catalyst being placed by conventional gravel pack methods. The presence of brine and the need to provide heat and reactant gases in a down-hole environment provide challenges not present in conventional processing. These issues were addressed and the processes demonstrated by use of a modified combustion tube apparatus. Middle-Eastern heavy crude oil and the corresponding brine were used at the appropriate reservoir conditions. In-situ combustion was used to generate reactive gases and to drive fluids over a heated sand or catalysts bed, simulating the catalyst contacting portion of the proposed processes. The heavy crude oil was found to be amenable to in-situ combustion at anticipated reservoir conditions, with a relatively low air requirement. Forcing the oil to flow over a heated zone prior to production results in some upgrading of the oil, as compared to the original oil, due to thermal effects. Passing the oil over a hydroprocessing catalyst located in the heated zone results in a product that is significantly upgraded as compared to either the original oil or thermally processed oil. Catalytic upgrading is due to hydrogenation and the results in about a 50% sulfur removal and an 8{degree} API gravity increase. Additionally, the heated catalyst was found to be efficient at converting CO to additional H{sub 2}. While all of the technologies needed for a successful field trial of in-situ catalytic upgrading exist, a demonstration has yet to be undertaken. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  6. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  7. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  9. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  10. Effect of Chemical Remediation of Crude-Oil-Polluted Agricultural Land on Soil Properties and Crop Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Essien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical degreaser with detergent was used to wash crude-oil-polluted agricultural soil and restore it to 83% -93% of the unpolluted soil's status for sustainable productivity. Comparison of reclaimed soil's properties with unpolluted soil sample of the significant differences (p=0.05 between their values for soil moisture content, soil pH, evapotranspiration, root elongation and soil fertility. Root elongation at 1.1 cm/day in the reclaimed soil compared with 1.29 cm/day in unpolluted soil indicated 83% recovery. Saturated hydraulic conductivity also had 83% recovery. However, infiltration rate showed a low recovery of 30%, perhaps, due to the wetness of the reclaimed soil's surface prior to the reclamation process. The soil macro/microspores were unblocked by the degreaser enabling the root pores to overcome the osmotic problem caused by oil-molecules' blockade and conduct moisture through to the phloem and leaves to sustain evapotranspiration, leaves turgidity chemical reclamation by degreaser with detergent is highly recommended for short-duration in-situ remediation of crude-oil-polluted agricultural land.

  11. Modeling the Effect of Crude Oil Impacted Sand on the Properties of Concrete Using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. O. Ajagbe; A. A. Ganiyu; M. O. Owoyele; J. O. Labiran

    2013-01-01

    A network of the feedforward-type artificial neural networks (ANNs) was used to predict the compressive strength of concrete made from crude oil contaminated soil samples at 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, and 168 days at different degrees of contamination of 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. A total of 49 samples were used in the training, testing, and prediction phase of the modeling in the ratio 32 : 11 : 7. The TANH activation function was used and the maximum number of iterations was limited to 20,...

  12. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  13. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  14. Effects of silica-based nanostructures with raspberry-like morphology and surfactant on the interfacial behavior of light, medium, and heavy crude oils at oil-aqueous interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lingyun; Li, Chunyan; Korte, Caroline; Huibers, Britta M. J.; Pales, Ashley R.; Liang, Wei-zhen; Ladner, David; Daigle, Hugh; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2017-11-01

    Any efficient exploitation of new petroleum reservoirs necessitates developing methods to mobilize the crude oils from such reservoirs. Here silicon dioxide nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) were used to improve the efficiency of the chemical-enhanced oil recovery process that uses surfactant flooding. Specifically, SiO2 NPs (i.e., 0, 0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 wt%) and Tween®20, a nonionic surfactant, at 0, 0.5, and 2 critical micelle concentration (CMC) were varied to determine their effect on the stability of nanofluids and the interfacial tension (IFT) at the oil-aqueous interface for 5 wt% brine-surfactant-SiO2 nanofluid-oil systems for West Texas Intermediate light crude oil, Prudhoe Bay medium crude oil, and Lloydminster heavy crude oil. Our study demonstrates that SiO2 NPs may either decrease, increase the IFT of the brine-surfactant-oil systems, or exhibit no effects at all. For the brine-surfactant-oil systems, the constituents of the oil and aqueous substances affected the IFT behavior, with the nanoparticles causing a contrast in IFT trends according to the type of crude oil. For the light oil system (0.5 and 2 CMC Tween®20), the IFT increased as a function of SiO2 NP concentration, while a threshold concentration of SiO2 NPs was observed for the medium (0.5 and 2 CMC Tween®20) and heavy (2 CMC Tween®20) oil systems in terms of IFT trends. Concentrations below the SiO2 NP threshold concentration resulted in a decrease in IFT, and concentrations above this threshold resulted in an increase in IFT. The IFT decreased until the NP concentration reached a threshold concentration where synergetic effects between nonionic surfactants and SiO2 NPs are the opposite and result in antagonistic effects. Adsorption of both SiO2 NPs and surfactants at an interface caused a synergistic effect and an increased reduction in IFT. The effectiveness of the brine-surfactant-SiO2 nanofluids in decreasing the IFT between the oil-aqueous phase for the three tested crude oils

  15. Physical and biological effects of experimental crude oil spills on Low Artic tundra in the vicinity of Tuktoyaktuk, N. W. T. , Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, W.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1976-10-01

    Data are presented on the effects of simulated crude oil spills on two Low Arctic terrestrial tundra plant communities near Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories. Spills of fresh, unweathered crude oil had a general herbicidal effect, resulting in rapid damage to, and subsequent death of, all aboveground actively growing foliage coming in contact with the oil. Most species were defoliated. Mosses and lichens were especially susceptible and killed. However, within several weeks of the summer oil spillages, a limited number of relatively tolerant vascular plant species began to develop regrowth shoots. Summer spills were markedly more damaging than were equivalent spills made in winter. No increases were seen in active layer depth from spills made in summer. However, winter spills on one of the two sites did show consistent and statistically significant (P > 0.01) increases in depth of thaw. Examination of several key energy budget parameters at these field sites indicated consistently lower albedos and evapotranspiration and consistently higher soil surface temperatures and soil heat flux at all oil spill sites, relative to their controls. However, except for a winter spill on one site, the recorded differences were not sufficiently large in magnitude to produce significant increases in active layer thaw depths.

  16. Changes in cardiac activity, oxygen uptake and perfusion indices in Carcinus maenas (L. ) exposed to crude oil and dispersant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac activity and oxygen consumption increased when C. maenas were exposed to a 20% solution of the water-soluble fraction of Fortes crude oil, a 10% solution of the dispersant BP1100WD or a combination of both. Normal feeding behaviour was disrupted. Perfusion indices (Q/VO2) decreased as locomotor activity increased following exposure to crude oil. However, exposure to dispersant or dispersant + crude oil resulted in elevation of perfusion index despite crabs becoming active. All test animals survived for at least 6 weeks following exposure to the pollutants. The acute, sublethal effects of dispersant and dispersant + crude oil were more severe than the effects of crude oil alone.

  17. Investigating the influence of pressure and temperature on malaysian crude oil density and viscosity for improved recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.K.; Derahman, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaysia has great potential as a crude oil or fossil fuel producing country. To increase oil production, behavior of Malaysian Crude Oil has been analyzed with reference to temperature and pressure variations. The effect of these parameters on crude oil density and viscosity has been observed, to select the methodology to be adopted for increases recovery by implementing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project. Based on this study it has been decided to further explore the feasibility of increasing reservoir pressure. (author)

  18. Effect of Lanthanum-Natural Zeolite, La/NZA catalyst on biodiesel production from crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setianingsih, A.; Wisrayetti; Khairat; Bahri, S.

    2018-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oils through the trans-esterification process. In this study, potential vegetable oil of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) was used as sample. The purposes of this research were to produce biodiesel from CPO as an alternative fuel, having study the ratio of impregnation of Lanthanum on NZA, and its catalyst weight to the biodiesel yield. The La/NZA catalyst is made as followed, first the natural zeolite size was reduced using grinding, then activated using HCl 6 N and NH4Cl 1 N, followed with the drying process. La is impregnated into NZA as solution having variations of 1 and 3% (w/w) of NZA, then it was followed with dried in an oven, calcination, oxidation and reduction. Production of biodiesel is carried out through two stages of esterification and transesterification processes. In the trans-esterification process conducted with the various variation of catalyst weight i.e. 1, 2 and 3% of La/NZA (w/w) for a total weight of 80 grams of CPO sample, having the ratio of oil : methanol 1 : 9. Reaction was lasted for 60 minutes at 60°C having 400 rpm stirring speed. From the result, the conversion of 85.37% is given by the run on using 3% La/NZA catalyst having catalyst weight 1%.

  19. Hedging effectiveness and volatility models for crude oil market: a dynamic approach; Modelos de volatilidade e a efetividade do hedge no mercado de petroleo: um abordagem dinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Andre Assis de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The hedge strategies allow negotiators that have short and long positions in the market protection against price fluctuations. This paper examines the performance of bivariate volatility models for the crude oil spot and future returns of the Western Texas Intermediate - WTI type barrel prices. Besides the volatility of spot and future crude oil barrel returns time series, the hedge ratio strategy is examined through the hedge effectiveness. Thus this study shows hedge strategies built using methodologies applied in the variance modeling of returns of crude oil prices in the spot and future markets, and covariance between these two market returns, which correspond to the inputs of the hedge strategy shown in this work. From the studied models the bivariate GARCH in a Diagonal VECH and BEKK representations was chosen, using three different models for the mean: a bivariate autoregressive, a vector autoregressive and a vector error correction. The methodologies used here take into consideration the denial of assumptions of homoscedasticity and normality for the return distributions. The data used is logarithm returns of daily prices quoted in dollars per barrel from November 2008 to May 2010 for spot and future contracts, in particular the June contract. (author)

  20. Induction of reactive oxygen species in marine phytoplankton under crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan, Koray; Zahraeifard, Sara; Smith, Aaron P; Bargu, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of phytoplankton to the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil can elicit a number of stress responses, but the mechanisms that drive these responses are unclear. South Louisiana crude oil was selected to investigate its effects on population growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, antioxidative defense, and lipid peroxidation, for the marine diatom, Ditylum brightwellii, and the dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, in laboratory-based microcosm experiments. The transcript levels of several possible stress-responsive genes in D. brightwellii were also measured. The microalgae were exposed to crude oil for up to 96 h, and Chl a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the glutathione pool (GSH and GSSG), and lipid peroxidation content were analyzed. The cell growth of both phytoplankton species was inhibited with increasing crude oil concentrations. Crude oil exposure did not affect Chl a content significantly in cells. SOD activities showed similar responses in both species, being enhanced at 4- and 8-mg/L crude oil exposure. Only H. triquetra demonstrated enhanced activity in GSSG pool and lipid peroxidation at 8-mg/L crude oil exposure, suggesting that phytoplankton species have distinct physiological responses and tolerance levels to crude oil exposure. This study indicated the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phytoplankton under crude oil exposure; however, the progressive damage in cells is still unknown. Thus, ROS-related damage in nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and DNA, due to crude oil exposure could be a worthwhile subject of study to better understand crude oil toxicity at the base of the food web.

  1. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  2. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Ngai, Heather M; Romero, L Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  3. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  4. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  5. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  6. Crude oil polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal via clay-microbe-oil interactions: Effect of acid activated clay minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Fialips, Claire I

    2017-07-01

    Acid treatment of clay minerals is known to modify their properties such as increase their surface area and surface acidity, making them suitable as catalysts in many chemical processes. However, the role of these surface properties during biodegradation processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is only known for mild acid (0.5 M Hydrochloric acid) treated clays. Four different clay minerals were used for this study: a montmorillonite, a saponite, a palygorskite and a kaolinite. They were treated with 3 M hydrochloric acid to produce acid activated clay minerals. The role of the acid activated montmorillonite, saponite, palygorskite and kaolinite in comparison with the unmodified clay minerals in the removal of PAHs during biodegradation was investigated in microcosm experiments. The microcosm experiments contained micro-organisms, oil, and clays in aqueous medium with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community predominantly composed of Alcanivorax spp. Obtained results indicated that acid activated clays and unmodified kaolinite did not enhance the biodegradation of the PAHs whereas unmodified montmorillonite, palygorskite and saponite enhanced their biodegradation. In addition, unmodified palygorskite adsorbed the PAHs significantly due to its unique channel structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of mushroom ( Pleurotus tuber-regium ) inoculums on crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollution of soils by crude oil in Niger-Delta of Nigeria has brought untold hardship to the inhabitants of the region. This study was carried out in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 to determine the effect of Pleurotus tuber-regium (mushroom) inoculums on crude oil polluted soil on stover and grain yields and as well as cob length ...

  8. Study of the gelation behaviour of Brazilian waxy crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziglio, C.M.; Sant' Ana, D.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The precipitation of wax from crude oil results in the formation of a paraffin network which evolves into a gel structure, causing a major operating issue for the petroleum industry. A gelled oil in a pipeline may need a very high re-start pressure that is beyond the capacity of the pump. The gelation of the oil can also develop into a wax deposit on the pipeline wall that restricts the flow of crude oil. Rheometry tests were used in this study to determine the yielding process of wax gels formed by the cooling of Brazilian crude oils. The effect of selected chemical additives on the gel strength was also examined. Dynamic rheology was used to study the oil-gel transition under quiescent conditions. Two rheological methods were used to study the gel yield stress, which is related to the gel strength. In the Creep and Recovery method, a stress was applied to the sample for a short period while the resulting deformation was measured. The stress was then removed to allow the sample to recover the gel structure. The steps of creep and recovery were repeated with an increasing stress value. The yield stress was identified as the minimum stress to cause an irreversible deformation in the sample. The yield stress of the gelled oil was estimated through dynamic measurements. Gel breakdown occurred when the sample was submitted to a critical strain, which is related to the yield stress value. This study showed that the gelation temperature can be reduced considerably by adding small amounts of readily available additives. These additives have an influence on yield stress values. In a cold re-start situation, they can reduce the pump pressure.

  9. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  10. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  11. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  12. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  13. Coalescence kinetics of dispersed crude oil in a laboratory reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, M.C. Jr.; Ojo, T.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Ernst, A.N.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of salinity and mixing energy on the resurfacing and coalescence rates of chemically dispersed crude oil droplets. This kinetic study involved the use of mean shear rates to characterize the mixing energy in a laboratory reactor. Coagulation kinetics of dispersed crude oil were determined within a range of mean shear rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 per second, and with salinity values of 10 and 30 per cent. Observed droplet distributions were fit to a transport-reaction model to estimate collision efficiency values and their dependence on salinity and mixing energy. Dispersant efficiencies were compared with those derived from other laboratory testing methods. Experimentally determined dispersant efficiencies were found to be 10 to 50 per cent lower than predicted using a non-interacting droplet model, but dispersant efficiencies were higher than those predicted using other testing methods. 24 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  14. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  15. New contact system in crude oil desalting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J; Duque; Diaz, J; Nunez, A; Guarin, F; Carvajal, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the ICP contactor and the mixture valve on the desalting process was evaluated as a contact system in the crude oil washing process. The evaluation was carried out in the two desalters at the Cartagena refinery (GRC) and a desalter at the Barrancabermeja refinery (GCB) of ECOPETROL. The pressure drop was measured and the efficiency of the desalting processes, dehydration and hydrocarbon crude intake in the water was calculated based on the BS and W measurement, salt content and hydrocarbon concentration in the water. Results showed that the contactor improved desalting, water in the crude oil was reduced and crude carry-over in the wastewater was reduced between 50 and 92% at the Barrancabermeja refinery, and between 40 and 95% at the Cartagena refinery, which mean savings of approximately us$ 373.000 dollars per year at both refineries, due to the fact that less water is loaded into the process. Furthermore, hydrocarbon 1055 in wastewater was reduced by about 3650 barrels per year. The pressure drop was reduced between 88 and 94 % in relation to the mixing valve

  16. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  17. Two-stage hydroprocessing of synthetic crude gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahay, A.; Chmielowiec, J.; Fisher, I.P.; Monnier, J. (Petro-Canada Products, Missisauga, ON (Canada). Research and Development Centre)

    1992-02-01

    The hydrocracking of synthetic crude gas oils (SGO), which are commercially produced from Canadian oil sands, is strongly inhibited by nitrogen-containing species. To alleviate the pronounced effect of these nitrogenous compounds, SGO was hydrotreated at severe conditions prior to hydrocracking to reduce its N content from 1665 to about 390 ppm (by weight). Hydrocracking was then performed using a commercial nickel-tungsten catalyst supported on silica-alumina. Two-stage hydroprocessing of SGO was assessed in terms of product yields and quality. As expected, higher gas oil conversion were achieved mostly from an increase in naphtha yield. The middle distillate product quality was also clearly improved as the diesel fuel cetane number increased by 13%. Diesel engine tests indicated that particulate emissions in exhaust gases were lowered by 20%. Finally, pseudo first-order kinetic equations were derived for the overall conversion of the major gas oil components. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Crude Oil on Vegetative and Physiologic Performance of Seeds and Seedlings of Ziziphus, Prosopis, Acacia and Robinia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fayyaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of crude oil (0 to 20% w/w, one of the main pollutants of current age, on physiological characteristics of Prosopis juliflora, Acacia victoria, Ziziphus spina-chrisi and Robinia pseudoacacia in seed and seedling stages based on a completely randomized design with 10 replications in each experimental unit has been studied. The results revealed that germination rate of Prosopis and Acacia was not affected by the pollutant, but the germination reduced in Ziziphus with more than 6 percent pollutant and 4% pollution led to full inhibition in Robinia. The ED50 based on radicle growth for Acacia, Prosopis, Ziziphus and Robinia was 6.9, 3.2, 3.6 and 2.7%, respectively. In seedling stage green leaf percentage, chlorophyll concentration, and efficiency of photosystem II decreased by increasing contamination. Increasing oil concentration stopped seedling growth of Robinia and reduced stem length in Acacia and Prosopis, but no significant difference was observed in the root length. The increase of oil pollution up to more than three percentages was associated with increased growth of shoot and root in Ziziphus. The difference in response pattern of different species to crude oil enables us to select species based on a variety of objects from bio monitoring to phytoremediation.

  20. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  1. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  2. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  3. Evaluating the effect of chemical agents on the displacement coefficient of crude oils using a centrifuging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, B M; Tulbovich, B I

    1974-01-01

    A centrifuge was used to determine effectiveness of surfactants in displacing oil from carbonate and terrigenous cores. Essential procedure was to centrifuge the cores, weigh them after each experimental step, and extract to determine residual oil saturation. The 3 surfactants used in this experimental program were a nonionic agent, trisodium phosphate, and a mixture of benzene sulfonates and alkylphenol ethers. The agents were used at 0.05 to 1% concentration. From 9 to 27% of normally unrecoverable oil was recovered with surfactants. The most effective material was the mixture of benzene sulfonates and alkylphenol ethers, used at 0.1% concentration.

  4. MICROWAVE HEATING AND SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION FROM MEXICAN CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    VAZQUEZ V., ADRIAN; LOPEZ M., ARTURO; ANDRADE C., LUIS J.; VAZQUEZ A., ARIANA M.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave heating and gravity sedimentation are alternatives for demulsification and layer separation into oil and water layers, this process was demonstrated in the laboratory and provides an option for reducing and oil recovering from water-in-oil Mexican oil emulsions. The combinatorial process was implemented in a test lab using Mexican crude oil samples. The Laboratory samples were 100% and 50-50%, crude and crude-water respectively, were heated. The results were encouraging show that mi...

  5. The Effect on the Indicators of Unemployment of International Crude Oil Price Volatility: Empirical Findings on the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Erkan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil prices may have an impact on economic activity through various transmission channels. A number of recent studies have emphasized the role of oil prices and macro-economic variables. The aim of this paper is to study the short-term/longterm relationship between oil prices and unemployment in Turkey. The most common cause of increasing oil prices over the last thirty years has been a decrease in supply. Prices increased during the early 1970s as OPEC reduced supply. Again prices increased in the late 1970s and early 1980s as the collapse of the government of the Shah of Iran and subsequent war between Iran and Iraq threatened supply. We applied Granger causal modals to determine if oil prices “Granger Caused” unemployment for data between 2005:01 and 2009:12 in Turkey. However, we performed Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR to determine the relationship between to variables in question, to estimate these relationships and to determine the delay values. As a result, long-term relationship between oil prices and unemployment rate are available in Turkey, and changes in the unemployment rate do not affect oil prices, oil prices changes affect the unemployment rate (this effect is the opposite direction

  6. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  8. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4–3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod"−"1 d"−"1, which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-C_c_o_p_e_p_o_d"1 d"−"1. Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L"−"1) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼1.3–2.6 mg-oil m"−"3 d"−"1, which would represent ∼0.15%–0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. - Highlights: • Copepods exposed to dispersed crude oil produced fecal pellets contained numerous small oil droplets (2.4 to 3.5 µm). • Copepods could reject large oil droplets or oil droplets are broken into

  9. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  10. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  11. The relationship between renewable energy assets and crude oil prices : an empirical analysis with emphasis on the effects of the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Grøm, Halvdan Alexander

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I have analysed the relationship between renewable energy stocks and the price of crude oil. As a part of my analysis I have provided a basic economic overview of the research period and how the value of renewable energy stocks and crude oil is determined. In order to analyse this relationship I have utilized a Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR) in addition to a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). My findings indicate that the aforementioned assets follow a simi...

  12. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  13. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  14. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  15. Expanding U.S. markets for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Angevine, G.; Chan, K.; Renne, G.; Stariha, J.; MacKay, E.

    1993-01-01

    The quantities and types of Canadian, U.S. and competing foreign crudes flowing into U.S. market regions and the potential to retain and/or expand Canadian crude oil sales in each of those markets, was studied. The various pipeline system expansion/construction proposals were reviewed. Findings of the study with respect to prospects for crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were presented. Opportunities and constraints with regard to the potential for incremental crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were detailed. The study concluded that there was a substantial market in the U.S. for incremental sales of Canadian crudes. Most of the refineries in the U.S. market regions were more flexible in terms of their crude diet than they were before the rationalization and restructuring of the industry began. The market for crude oil in the U.S. was shown to be one of the most competitive in the world and the most volatile. The study also revealed that there were risks associated with large additions to the capacity to ship crude oil by pipeline from Western Canada, given the uncertainties surrounding future supply. 4 refs., figs., tabs

  16. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  17. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  18. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  19. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  20. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purho, P.

    2001-01-01

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  1. Upgrading of heavy crude oil with supported and unsupported transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nares, H.R.; Schacht-Hernandez, P.; Cabrera-Reyes, M.C.; Ramirez-Garnica, M.; Cazarez-Candia, O. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Atepehuacan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Heavy crude oil presents many problems such as difficulty in transportation, low processing capacity in refineries, and low mobility through the reservoir due to high viscosity which affects the index of productivity of the wells. Because of these challenges, it is necessary to enhance heavy crude oil, both aboveground and underground. The effects of several metallic oxides used to upgrade heavy crude oil properties were examined in order to increase the mobility of reservoir oil by reducing viscosity and improving the quality of the oil. This can be accomplished by reducing the asphaltene and sulfur contents and increasing the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity using transition metal supported in alumina and unsupported from transition metals derived from either acetylacetonate or alkylhexanoate in liquid phase homogeneously mixed with heavy crude oil as well as metal transition supported in alumina. KU-H heavy crude oil from the Golf of Mexico was studied. The results were obtained by Simulated Distillation and True Boiling Point (TBP). It was concluded that the use of crude oil thermal hydrocracking allowed the API gravity to increase and considerably reduce the viscosity. As a result, the productivity index in wells was increased. However there is a high formation of coke that could damage the conductivity of the rock and then reduce the potential of oil recovery. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  3. Transesterification of Jatropha curcas crude oil to biodiesel on calcium lanthanum mixed oxide catalyst: Effect of stoichiometric composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rashid, Umer; Islam, Aminul; Hussien, Mohd Zobir; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas oil catalyzed by CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed oxide. • Effects of Ca-to-La ratio, catalyst concentration, methanol/oil ratio and reaction temperature were optimized. • Biodiesel yield >85% was achieved at 65 °C temperature. • CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst can be easy regenerated. - Abstract: Heterogeneous solid mixed oxide (CaO–La 2 O 3 ) catalysts with different molar ratios of calcium to lanthanum (Ca-to-La) were synthesized by co-precipitation method. The synthesized solid CaO–La 2 O 3 mixed metal oxide catalysts were utilized in transesterification of Jatropha curcus oil as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Under the optimized conditions at 65 °C, 4% catalyst dose with 24:1 MeOH to Jatropha oil molar ratio, the transesterification reaction exhibited 86.51% of biodiesel yield. The prepared catalysts were characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption with Brunauer–Emmer–Teller (BET) method, temperature-programmed desorption of CO 2 (CO 2 -TPD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Influence of Ca-to-La atomic ratio in the mixed metal oxide catalyst, catalyst amount, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction time, different oils on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield were appraised. Different catalyst regeneration procedures were also performed to investigate the reusability of the CaO–La 2 O 3 catalyst

  4. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  5. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Second, since Hamilton (1983) documented the impact of crude oil price volatility .... Hariri,2013) sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). .... is explained by identifying the relative importance of a variable in generating.

  6. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Increase in biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase ... compounds by various bacteria and fungi (Gianfreda et al, 1999) ... into a clean plastic container. Microbial.

  7. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  8. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  9. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(81), pp. ... The removal of crude oil by bioremediation was achieved in less time as compared to natural attenuation ... Environmental pollution, especially with hydrocarbons is a major ...

  10. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  11. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  12. Pricing and crude oil self-sufficiency. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    How Canada should go about achieving crude oil self-sufficiency and who should develop Canada's petroleum resources are discussed. The degree of urgency and the level of commitment required by government, industry, and consumers are evaluated. What the price should be of Canadian crude oil and who should establish this price are also discussed. The economic aspects of investment, return, and taxation are also included. (DC)

  13. Evaluating the US government's crude oil price projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 official long run crude oil price projections are evaluated by comparing parameter averages for the forecast period (1991-2010) to parameter averages from crude oil price history (1859-1990). The parameters used in the evaluation are average price, average annual price changes, and average cycle duration (in years). All prices used in the analysis are annual prices in constant 1990 dollars per barrel. 13 figs

  14. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  15. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  16. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. Exergy analysis of a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.; Gonzalez, G.V.; Garcia, V.H.; Pulido, R.; Escarcega, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of an exergy analysis to an existing and operating crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. The objective of such an analysis is to fully understand where energy inefficiencies and real energy losses are located and where modifications should be implemented to improve the overall utilization of energy in the plant. First, the description of the process and the block diagram are presented. After that, the calculating procedure to obtain the exergy balance, the exergy losses, the effectiveness and the improvement potential for each plant component is described and the corresponding results are shown. Finally, the component and overall evaluations are discussed

  18. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  19. Performance Optimization of Centrifugal Pump for Crude Oil Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.I. Bellary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil transport is an essential task in oil and gas industries, where centrifugal pumps are extensively used. The design of a centrifugal pump involves a number of independent parameters which affect the pump performance. Altering some of the parameters within a realistic range improves pump performance and saves a significant amount of energy. The present research investigated the pump characteristics by modifying the number of blades and the exit blade-angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard k-ε two-equation turbulence closure were used for steady and incompressible flow of crude oil through the pump. The experimental set-up was installed and the pump performance calculated numerically  was compared with the experiments.   The investigations showed that the number of blades and the exit blade-angles have a significant influence on the head, shaft power, and efficiency. The vortical flow structures, recirculation and reverse flow characteristics around the impeller were investigated to explain the flow dynamics of impeller and casing. A larger number of blades on the rotor showed dominant streamlined flow without any wake phenomena. The combined effect of the number of blades and exit blade angle has led to an increase in head and efficiency through the parametric optimization.

  20. Short-term outlook for Canadian crude oil to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report is intended to expand the effectiveness of the Board's monitoring activities by providing an assessment of the current state of the petroleum industry and the potential for growth. It provides an 18-month outlook on international and domestic crude oil prices; drilling and exploration activity; supply projections for Canadian crude oil and petroleum products; Canada's crude oil trade balance and markets for Canadian crude; existing export pipeline networks and project expansion plans; and, the Canadian petroleum products industry and the impact of higher prices. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's crude oil. The 2 major oil producing areas in Canada are the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) including the oil sands, and offshore eastern Canada. While conventional production in the WCSB is declining, development focus has shifted to Alberta's oil sands as well as Hibernia, Terra Nova and White Rose, the 3 major oil fields offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. High energy prices have resulted in record profits for the Canadian oil and gas industry, and has stimulated billions of dollars in investment, with Alberta's oil sands being the main beneficiary. The 19 refineries in Canada have been operating at about 90 per cent capacity for the last several years due to strong demand for transportation fuels. 10 tabs., 37 figs., 2 appendices

  1. Investigation of alkaline–crude oil reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, this mechanism and related issues are discussed, analyzed or quantified. In particular, the numerical simulation approach is used. The results show that only a fraction of acid components can be converted into soap; the amount of generated soap could be low. A minimum pH (e.g. 9 is needed for the acids to be converted to soap. The literature information on the effect of amount of acid components (total acid number on oil recovery is also discussed.

  2. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  3. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 long-chain (≥C 20 ) polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA) confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO) was evaluated. Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO): a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC); 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM) and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH). Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly ( P  culinary preparation method can be used as effective management tools to deliver nutritionally improved ω3 LC-PUFA lamb to meat consumers.

  4. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  5. Biodegradation of crude oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of rhamnolipids*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guo-liang; Wu, Yue-ting; Qian, Xin-ping; Meng, Qin

    2005-01-01

    The potential biodegradation of crude oil was assessed based on the development of a fermentative process with a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produced 15.4 g/L rhamnolipids when cultured in a basal mineral medium using glycerol as a sole carbon source. However, neither cell growth nor rhamnolipid production was observed in the comparative culture system using crude oil as the sole carbon source instead. As rhamnolipid, an effective biosurfactant, has been reported to stimulate the b...

  6. Effects of the organic solvents addition about crude oil rheological behavior from 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brazil); Efeito da adicao de solventes organicos sobre o comportamento reologico do petroleo cru oriundo do 'Reconcavo Baiano' (Brasil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Luis A.P. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica; Vieira, Jacyara M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia de Minas; Almeida, Yeda M.B.; Sarmento, Sandra M. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The crude oil rheological properties are quite important in its transport and refining processes. They can affect the head losses and, thus, the pressure within a refining unit. These properties can be affected by the temperature and the chemical composition as well as by solvents added to the crude oil. The current work studied the rheological behaviour of both a crude oil from the Reconcavo Baiano (Brazil) and mixture of this crude oil with organic solvents (toluene and xylene). The solvent type and concentration effects on the rheological parameters, were studied. The Brookfield viscometer, model LDVD-II, was used. The results brought to light that the crude oil and the crude oil-solvent mixtures behaved, discretely, as thixotropic fluids. The model of Herschel-Bulkley for viscoplastic fluid was the best in fitting the experimental data for both crude oil and crude oil - solvent mixture. The toluene was found to be more efficient in reducing both the apparent viscosity and apparent yield stress of the crude oil than the xylene for a given concentration. The solvent concentration affects indirectly the rheological properties of the crude oil. (author)

  7. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  8. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...

  9. New insights into oxidation behaviours of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Innovative technologies will be needed to develop many of the world's oil reservoirs in an economically sustainable manner. In recent years, air injection for light oil reservoirs has gained recognition as an Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) process. In this process, the oxygen from the injected air reacts with a small fraction of the reservoir oil at high temperature to produce a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The produced gas generated by the reaction mobilizes the oil downstream, thereby sweeping oil towards the production wells. High pressure air injection used in light oil reservoirs differs from the process used in heavy oil reservoirs, despite the fact that various oxidation reaction schemes exist. The key challenge facing the air injection process is the complexity of the oxidation reaction for crude oil and the lack of understanding of the oxidation behavior of light oils. This study identified a range of oxidation behaviors between light oil and heavy oil. The relationship between crude oil composition and its oxidation behaviors was also examined with reference to 3 different oils and their SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) fractions. This study was carried out at various pressures and temperatures using thermogravimetry and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) as the thermal analysis techniques.

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  11. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hii, Y.S.; Law, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  12. Comparative study on adsorption of crude oil and spent engine oil from seawater and freshwater using algal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boleydei, Hamid; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Farhadian, Omidvar

    2018-05-15

    Efficiency of a biosorbent prepared from the green macroalga Enteromorpha intestinalis biomass for decontamination of seawater and freshwater polluted by crude oil and engine spent oil was compared. The effect of different experimental conditions including contact time, pH, particle size, initial oil concentration, and biosorbent dose on the oil biosorption was studied in the batch method. The biosorbent was characterized by CHNOS, FTIR, and SEM analysis. The experimental data were well fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Based on the obtained results, the adsorption of spent oil with higher viscosity was better than crude oil. The biosorption of oil hydrocarbons from seawater was more efficient than freshwater. The algal biomasses which are abundantly available could be effectively used as a low-cost and environmentally friendly adsorbent for remediation of oil spill in the marine environments or in the water and wastewater treatment.

  13. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, J.L.

    1999-08-01

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  14. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  15. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content. In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions: 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.

  16. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, F.F.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  17. Physical aspects of crude oil spills on northern terrain. Task Force on Northern Oil Development, Report No. 74-25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, D; Charles, M E; Phillips, C R

    1974-01-01

    The physical aspects of crude oil spills on the terrain of the Mackenzie Valley were investigated. The aqueous solubility of Norman Wells crude oil has been determined and it has been established that about half of the dissolved hydrocarbon is aromatic. The distribution of hydrocarbons between the oil and aqueous phases is in good agreement with predicted values. The permeability of the surface terrain to oil at Norman Wells was found to decrease very rapidly with depth below the surface. A simple, in-situ method for determination of the profile was developed. The implication of the results is that flow will occur more readily near the surface than near the basement. The spreading rates of two crude oils on water were studied on two lakes near Inuvik. Pembina crude oil showed only one spreading front, whereas Norman Wells crude oil showed a bulk front preceded by a surface-slick. Once the initial separation occurred, wind drove both fronts across the water at about 6 percent of the wind speed. The area of surface-active contamination was several times the area of the bulk oil film. The isothermal spreading of five crude oils on ice under gravity-viscous conditions was examined. The radius of the slick was found to increase linearly with the ratio (time/viscosity)/sup /sup 1///sub 5//. Surface roughness effects were negligible. An attempt has been made to predict the behavior of a 50,000 barrel oil spill in the taiga region of the Mackenzie Valley, under both summer and winter conditions. The areas affected and the amounts of hydrocarbon evaporated were predicted. These predictions are valuable in providing a scenario of an oil spill incident which will assist in assessing the environmental impact of oil spills in the Mackenzie Valley and in preparing for clean-up measures. Burning as a clean-up procedure considered in some detail. Other methods specifically designed for Arctic conditions will probably prove more satisfactory.

  18. Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Amin, Imran; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2018-06-07

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for the cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This study aimed to develop plant-bacterial synergism for the successful remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortia of three endophytic bacteria was augmented to two grasses, Leptochloa fusca and Brachiaria mutica, grown in oil-contaminated soil (46.8 g oil kg -1 soil) in the vicinity of an oil exploration and production company. Endophytes augmentation improved plant growth, crude oil degradation, and soil health. Maximum oil degradation (80%) was achieved with B. mutica plants augmented with the endophytes and it was significantly (P oil reduction indicates that catabolic gene expression is important for hydrocarbon mineralization. This investigation showed that the use of endophytes with appropriate plant is an effective strategy for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil under field conditions.

  19. Experimental Study on Characteristics of Oil Particle Distribution in Water-Gelled Crude Oil Two-Phase Flow System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional gathering and transportation mode of heating the produced fluid of oil wells with hot water or steam may result in excessive energy consumption. In order to perform the unheated transportation, the idea of hydraulic suspension transport of the gelled crude oil is proposed based on the actual production of Daqing Oilfield, and the experimental system is established to test characteristics of oil particle distribution which have an important effect on the hydraulic suspension transportation. In the experiment, the image of gelled crude oil particle distribution was obtained in a horizontal pipe with inner diameter of 0.053 m, and then the law of particle distribution was investigated by the theoretical model. The results showed that the gelled crude oil hydraulic suspension transport could be achieved without any chemical reagent when the gelled crude oil was transformed into particles and dispersedly suspended in water. The results also showed that the gelled oil particles of 0–4 mm in size accounted for 92% or more of all particles, and the percentage of gelled crude oil particles of a size of 4 mm gradually increased with the increasing mixed flow rate.

  20. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  1. Forecasting crude oil price with an EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Lean; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2008-01-01

    In this study, an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) based neural network ensemble learning paradigm is proposed for world crude oil spot price forecasting. For this purpose, the original crude oil spot price series were first decomposed into a finite, and often small, number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Then a three-layer feed-forward neural network (FNN) model was used to model each of the extracted IMFs, so that the tendencies of these IMFs could be accurately predicted. Finally, the prediction results of all IMFs are combined with an adaptive linear neural network (ALNN), to formulate an ensemble output for the original crude oil price series. For verification and testing, two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil spot price and Brent crude oil spot price, are used to test the effectiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning methodology. Empirical results obtained demonstrate attractiveness of the proposed EMD-based neural network ensemble learning paradigm. (author)

  2. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  3. Degummed crude canola oil, sire breed and gender effects on intramuscular long-chain omega-3 fatty acid properties of raw and cooked lamb meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Ross Flakemore

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 long-chain (≥C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3 LC-PUFA confer important attributes to health-conscious meat consumers due to the significant role they play in brain development, prevention of coronary heart disease, obesity and hypertension. In this study, the ω3 LC-PUFA content of raw and cooked Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL muscle from genetically divergent Australian prime lambs supplemented with dietary degummed crude canola oil (DCCO was evaluated. Methods Samples of LTL muscle were sourced from 24 first cross ewe and wether lambs sired by Dorset, White Suffolk and Merino rams joined to Merino dams that were assigned to supplemental regimes of degummed crude canola oil (DCCO: a control diet at 0 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOC; 25 mL/kg DM of DCCO (DCCOM and 50 mL/kg DCCO (DCCOH. Lambs were individually housed and offered 1 kg/day/head for 42 days before being slaughtered. Samples for cooked analysis were prepared to a core temperature of 70 °C using conductive dry-heat. Results Within raw meats: DCCOH supplemented lambs had significantly (P < 0.05 higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5ω3 and EPA + docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6ω3 acids than those supplemented with DCCOM or DCCOC; Dorset sired lambs contained significantly (P < 0.05 more EPA and EPA + DHA than other sire breeds; diet and sire breed interactions were significant (P < 0.05 in affecting EPA and EPA + DHA concentrations. In cooked meat, ω3 LC-PUFA concentrations in DCCOM (32 mg/100 g, DCCOH (38 mg/100 g, Dorset (36 mg/100 g, White Suffolk (32 mg/100 g, ewes (32 mg/100 g and wethers (33 mg/100 g, all exceeded the minimum content of 30 mg/100 g of edible cooked portion of EPA + DHA for Australian defined ‘source’ level ω3 LC-PUFA classification. Conclusion These results present that combinations of dietary degummed crude canola oil, sheep genetics and culinary preparation method can be used as

  4. Three essays in corporate finance: Examining the influence of government ownership and evaluating crude oil arbitrage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Kateryna

    The aim of this dissertation is twofold: first, to evaluate how governments influence firms in which they invest (chapters one and two), and second, to examine arbitrage in the crude oil market by investigating the relationship between crude oil inventories, physical prices, and financial prices (chapter three). In the first chapter (The Wealth Effects of Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I study how government share ownership affects shareholder wealth. I find that government investments with higher likelihood of political interference have a negative influence on shareholder wealth, while the opposite is true for government investments with economic objectives. In the second chapter (Government Ownership and the Cost of Debt: Evidence form Government Investment in Publicly Traded Firms), I investigate how government share ownership affects the cost of debt of publicly traded firms. I find that government ownership generally leads to a higher cost of debt, except for times of economic and firm distress, when the value of the implicit government guarantee is associated with a reduction in the cost of debt. In the third chapter (Financial Trading, Spot Oil Prices, and Inventory: Evidence from the U.S. Crude Oil Market), I confirm the existence of an active cash and carry market in crude oil in Cushing, OK, the main U.S. crude oil futures settlement location. In other words, crude oil inventories in Cushing, but not in any other U.S. crude oil storage locations, are explained by the spread between the financial and the physical price of oil in addition to operational factors.

  5. Global economic activity and crude oil prices. A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanan; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the cointegrating relationship between crude oil prices and global economic activity. The Kilian economic index is used as an indicator of global economic activity. Based on a supply-demand framework and the cointegration theory, we find that real futures prices of crude oil are cointegrated with the Kilian economic index and a trade weighted US dollar index, and crude oil prices are influenced significantly by fluctuations in the Kilian economic index through both long-run equilibrium conditions and short-run impacts. We also develop an empirically stable, data-coherent and single-equation error-correction model (ECM) which has sensible economic properties. Empirical results based on the ECM show that the adjustment implied by a permanent change in the Kilian economic index is a relatively drawn-out process. (author)

  6. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  7. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  8. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  9. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  10. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  11. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  12. Evaporation of Arabian light crude oil spilled on sea and on beach sands : influence of solar radiation and wind velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Marti, A.; Fuertes, A.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.

    1998-01-01

    The evaporation of crude oil resulting from a spill on sea water was studied to develop a simulation model. Evaporation takes place within a complex process of mass and energy transfer. The effects of physical and chemical variables (such as wind velocity and direct and diffused solar radiation) and the environmental conditions of the spillage were also considered. Arabian crude oil was used in the simulation model for crude oil spillage on sea water. An equation for the evaporation process was used to correlate the evaporated fraction of oil as a function of time. The area of spreading was determined as a function of the dominant stage at each moment of spreading. The evaporation of spilled crude oil on beach sand consisting of three different particle sizes was also studied and used for a simulation model for crude oil spillage on a polluted beach. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Testing the evolution of crude oil market efficiency: Data have the conn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bing; Li, Xiao-Ming; He, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Utilising a time-varying GAR (1)-TGARCH (1,1) model with different frequency data, we investigate the weak-form efficiency of major global crude oil spot markets in Europe, the US, the UAE and China for the period from December 2001 to August 2013. Our empirical results with weekly data indicate that all four markets have reached efficiency with few brief inefficient periods during the past decade, whereas the daily crude oil returns series suggest intermittent and inconsistent efficiency. We argue that the weekly Friday series fit the data better than the average series in autocorrelation tests. The evidence suggests that all four markets exhibit asymmetries in return-volatility reactions to different information shocks and that they react more strongly to bad news than to good news. The 2008 financial crisis has significantly affected the efficiency of oil markets. Furthermore, a comovement phenomenon and volatility spillover effects exist among the oil markets. Policy recommendations consistent with our empirical results are proposed, which address three issues: implementing prudential regulations, establishing an Asian pricing centre and improving transparency in crude oil spot markets. - Highlights: • We adopt a time-varying model to test the weak-form efficiency of crude oil markets. • Weekly oil returns series have been extremely efficient during the past decade. • Daily oil returns series have presented intermittent and inconsistent efficiency. • Oil markets react asymmetrically to different information shocks. • Policy recommendations are proposed according to the degree of efficiency

  14. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Geng, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  15. Breakthrough Adsorption Study of Crude Oil Removal Using Buffing Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L. W. N.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Prasetyo, A.; Arimanintan, S. K.; Putri, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of leather industry solid waste as adsorbent to separate oil from water emulsions of surfactant flooding process is a solution that is relatively inexpensive. This study was conducted aiming to obtain a mathematical model that is appropriate for the adsorption process of crude oil by buffing dust in emulsion phase with a continuous adsorption method. Variations in the column adsorption experiments were carried out, such as: flow rate of feed of water-crude oil-surfactant, the concentration of crude oil in the feed, and mass of adsorbent used. Data were evaluated using three models: Adams Bohart, Thomas and Yan. Best results are obtained on the following conditions, the feed flow rate of 60 mL/minute, the crude oil concentration in feed is 1.5% volume and the mass of adsorbent used was 10 g. The values of kinetic constant and adsorption capacity obtained from Yan Model was 21.7774 mL/mg/minute and 220.9581 mg/g with the relative error obtained is 5.4424%.

  16. Canadian crude oil production and supply forecast 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In order to enable members to plan for pipeline capacity requirements for transporting Canadian crude oil to markets, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) 2006-2020 crude oil production and supply forecast provides a long-range outlook of Canadian crude oil production. It provides a forecast of supply and demand for both western and eastern Canada. Because offshore eastern oil production does not rely on pipeline access to reach markets, the analysis primarily focuses on western Canadian production and supply. Over the next fifteen years, Alberta's oil sands provides the main source of growth in the western Canadian production forecast. A survey of CAPP members encompassing all oil sands projects was conducted. Survey responses reflect both planned and envisioned projects over a fifteen year period, although some of the envisioned projects have been risk adjusted by modifying the potential completion schedules for projects which are deemed more uncertain. Detailed tables are provided on forecast data. Three sets of tables are included to show production, two supply scenarios and a high level assessment of the need for incremental pipeline capacity. The report also discusses delays and risk factors that could slow the pace of oil sands development and the corresponding increase in production being forecast in the base case. 16 tabs

  17. Effect of Sludge Concentration and Crude Glycerol Matrix as a Substrate on the Production of Single-Cell Oil by Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Ram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of excess crude glycerol produced by the booming biodiesel industry and wastewater sludge solid waste has become a severe problem, and alternate routes of use and valorization of these waste byproducts are needed. The use of cheaply available wastewater sludge solids in fermentation media is very much desirable to reduce the cost of production. The strains of Yarrowia lipolytica can assimilate a wide array of waste substrates, such as crude glycerol, waste cooking oil, starch wastewater, and cellulosic. This study optimized the concentration of wastewater sludge solids (5–35 g/L to be used with crude glycerol in fermentation media to produce microbial oil as feedstock for biodiesel production. The results indicated that 20 g/L of sludge solids with 40 g/L of crude glycerol resulted in highest lipid content of 29.35% in 96 h. Further, assuming wet extraction of lipids, it was found that at least 11.2% or higher lipid content is required for this process to have an overall positive net solid waste reduction. Insignificant inhibition was observed by the crude glycerol used in this study as compared to pure glycerol, which proves it to be an adequate source of carbon substrate for lipid production.

  18. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Les

    2012-01-01

    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  19. Distillation fraction-specific ecotoxicological evaluation of a paraffin-rich crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlacher, Elisabeth; Loibner, Andreas P.; Kendler, Romana; Scherr, Kerstin E.

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) with distinct chemical, physical and toxicological properties relevant for contaminated site risk assessment. Ecotoxicological effects of crude oil distillation fractions on luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), earthworms (Dendrobaena hortensis) and invertebrates (Heterocypris incongruens) were tested using two spiked soils and their elutriates. Fraction 2 (F2) had an equivalent carbon number (ECN) range of >10 to 16, and F3 from >16 to 39. F2 showed a substantially higher ecotoxicological effect than F3 for Vibrio and Dendrobaena. In contrast, severe inhibition of Heterocypris by the poorly soluble F3 is attributed to mechanical organ blockage. Immediate sequestration of PHC to the organic matter-rich soil effected reduced toxicity for all organisms. This study indicates that a more differentiated consideration (i) of PHC mixtures based on ECN range and (ii) of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into PHC-contaminated site risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► Crude oil distillates show distinctly different effects on receptor organisms. ► Toxicity of the higher boiling point Fraction is attributed to physical effects. ► TPH sorption to the organic-matter rich soil occurred immediately after spiking. -- A differentiated consideration of the prevailing crude oil distillation fractions and of model soil properties employed for ecotoxicity testing should be included into the risk assessment of crude oil contaminated sites

  20. Indigenous production of biosurfactant and degradation of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rashedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Iranian oil wells. The biosurfactant production of bacteria isolates was evaluated and confirmed using hemolysis and emulsification tests. The biodegradation of crude oil was studied using GC and HPLC analysis. A total of 45 strains have been isolated. These strains showed less than a 40 mN m-1 reduction in surface tension. The effects of different pH (4.2-9.2, salinity concentrations (1%-15%, and temperatures (25-50 in biosurfactant production of isolated strains were evaluated. One of the strains (Bacillus sp. NO.4 showed a high salt tolerance and a successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH range. Its maximum biomass production (about 3.1 g L-1 dry weight was achieved after 60 hours of growth. The surface tension of the culture broth dropped rapidly after inoculation and reached its lowest value (36 mN m-1 during the exponential phase after about 36-48 hours of growth. The study of the GC graphs showed that higher aliphatic reduction occurred in fractions with C14 to C24 hydrocarbons. The depicted results of the HPLC graphs indicated a 100% degradation of chrysene and fluorine. In this study, we demonstrated the useful capacities of the isolates in removing oil pollutants and their application in MEOR in vitro.

  1. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  2. A novel apparatus for long term weathering of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Lun, R.; Skogen, E.; Ooijen, H. Van; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel apparatus is under development for exposing oil in the laboratory to prolonged weathering. The apparatus is mechanically simple and robust and involves contacting oil with water and air, and possibly with solar radiation, under controlled conditions of salinity and turbulence. The principle of operation is that the oil rests on the concave surface of water, which is held in a cylindrical glass vessel and rotated at 33 rpm. The oil is agitated by a fixed stirrer which has a variable pitch. Three oils were studied: Canadian Environmenal Protection Service standard, Kuwait crude, and Prudhoe Bay crude. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed the expected changes in composition due to evaporation, and purge and trap analysis of the water in contact with the oil determined the nature and concentration of the dissolved hydrocarbons. The apparatus also proved successful for testing the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. It is hoped that the system will contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the long term weathering processes which occur when oil is spilled at sea. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Effects of partial replacement of maize in the diet with crude glycerin and/or soyabean oil on ruminal fermentation and microbial population in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja-Salcedo, Yury Tatiana; Duarte Messana, Juliana; Carneiro de Souza, Vinícius; Lino Dias, Ana Veronica; Takeshi Kishi, Luciano; Rocha Rebelo, Lucas; Teresinha Berchielli, Telma

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether a combination of crude glycerin (CG) and soyabean oil (SO) could be used to partially replace maize in the diet of Nellore steers while maintaining optimum feed utilisation. Eight castrated Nellore steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a double 4×4 Latin square design balanced for residual effects, in a factorial arrangement (A×B), when factor A corresponded to the provision of SO, and factor B to the provision of CG. Steers feed SO and CG showed similar DM intake, DM, organic matter and neutral-detergent fibre digestibility to that of steers fed diets without oil and without glycerine (P>0·05). Both diets with CG additions reduced the acetate:propionate ratio and increased the proportion of iso-butyrate, butyrate, iso-valerate and valerate (Pdiets containing SO had less total N excretion (Pdiet generated a greater ruminal abundance of Prevotella, Succinivibrio, Ruminococcus, Syntrophococcus and Succiniclasticum. Archaea abundance (P=0·002) and total ciliate protozoa were less in steers fed diets containing SO (P=0·011). CG associated with lipids could be an energy source, which is a useful strategy for the partial replacement of maize in cattle diets, could result in reduced total N excretion and ruminal methanogens without affecting intake and digestibility.

  4. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

    2010-03-15

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Price volatility, hedging and variable risk premium in the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jalali-Naini; Maryam Kazemi Manesh

    2006-01-01

    The crude oil price exhibits a high degree of volatility which varies significantly over time. Such characteristics imply that the oil market is a promising area for testing volatility models. Testing and predicting volatility using ARCH and GARCH models have grown in the literature. A useful application of the volatility models is in the formulation of hedging strategies. In this paper we compare the optimal hedge ratio for the crude oil using the classical minimum risk approach and use ARCH to incorporate the effect of heteroskedasticity in the residuals on the hedge ratio. In addition, we test for the existence of a variable risk premium in the crude oil market. We find that, assuming rational expectations, there is a non-zero risk premium. We test for the variability of the risk premia and find evidence in its support when we employed a multivariate GARCH model. (author)

  6. Assessment of antioxidant indices after incorporating crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were divided into six groups of five rats each as follows: group 1: control, group 2: rats fed crude petroleum oil contaminated catfish diet (CPO-CCD) only, group 3: ... Administration of MWE, MEE and MDEE to the rats fed CPO-CCD significantly (p<0.05) increased the level of blood GSH, blood GSSG, SOD, CAT and ...

  7. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to ...

  8. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  9. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of bioaugumentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria, biostimulation with agricultural fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and tilling were employed as remedial options for 20 weeks in a crude oil polluted tidal plain dominated by mangrove (Rhizophora, Laguncularia and Avicenia) vegetation. Soil ...

  10. Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production: a case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta State of ... The results also showed an increase in the occurrence of health hazard, air/noise pollution and heightened deforestation in these communities.

  11. The phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to detoxify crude oil-polluted aquatic environments. There were fifteen (15) experimental units; twelve (12) had water hyacinth ...

  12. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at...

  13. Impact of Crude-Oil Spillage Pollution and Chemical Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the level of degradation, except in infiltration rate. Soil pH increased by 26% .... volumes of water were added into the containers on day six. As the days ... crude oil spillage reduced soil moisture availability or.

  14. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  15. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  16. (A. Chev.) Stevels) Exposed to Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six accessions of cultivated Okra (Abelmoschuscaillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) and Abelmoschusesculentus (L.) Moench) were evaluated using growth parameters in crude oil contaminated soil. Seeds were collected from collected from Nigerian Institute of Horticulture (NIHORT), Ibadan and from home gardens in Benin City.

  17. Distribution and geochemical application of aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Tahira, F.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in a set of crude oils, five from northern Indus basin of potwar area and two from southern Indus basin. Diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons were separated from highly complex mixture of sedimentary organic matter by using liquid chromatography techniques such as column chromatography, TLC and GC-FID. These classes of compounds were identified to alkylated isomers of naphthalenes and phenanthrenes by using reference chromatograms and literature data. High concentration of di-,tri- and tetra-methyl naphthalenes was observed in all crude oils except Kal. The relative increase in concentration of alkyl naphthalenes was found as moved to higher methyl substituted isomers. This suggests that they are the product of sedimentary alkylation reactions during catagensis and metagensis. The significant concentration of methyl phenanthrenes indicated source of organic matter. High levels of both 1-MP and 9-MP showed marine and terrestrial source of organic matter except Umer crude oil which is most likely to have terrestrial origin. The ratios of beta-substituted to the alpha-substituted isomers of both alkyl naphthalenes and alkyl phenanthrene were used to assess the thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, which revealed high maturity level of Dhurnal, Pindori, Badin and Toot crude oils. (author)

  18. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401 ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2015 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  19. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  20. The Effect of Consumer Expectation Index, Economic Condition Index and Crude Oil Price on Indonesian Government Bond Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Budiawan Tjandrasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments sell bonds to finance their budget. The investors willing to buy government bonds because of the yield they will get, but on the other hand if government bond yields is  too high it would burden the state in paying the interest due. Various studies have been done to find the variables that affect government bond yield significantly, such as exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate, and oil price. This study found two more variables namely consumer expectations index and the economic conditions index to complement the variables that have been discovered. Those two variables are used as a proxy of economic stability of a country, the increase of those variables represent the increase of economic stability and will reduce the level of risk and lowering the yield that investors demand. This research use descriptive method and explanatory study with secondary data using multivariate regression equation model. The results shown consumer expectation index and economic condition index have significant effect on Indonesian Government Bond yield. To keep consumer expectation index and economic condition index increase government should give a positive signal and a sense of security to investor.

  1. Chemically emulsified crude oil as substrate for bacterial oxidation : differences in species response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of bacterial species to oxidize alkanes in crude oil in water emulsions was studied. Alkanes in crude oil need specific physiological adaptations to the microorganisms. Synthesis of biosurfactants has been considered as a prerequisite for either specific adhesion mechanisms to large oil drops or emulsification of oil followed by uptake of submicron oil droplets. In this study four bacterial species were tested. Emulsions were prepared by nonionic sorbitan ester and polyoxyethylene ether surfactants. The oxidation rates were measured. Both positive and negative effects of surfactant amendments were observed. The same surfactant affected different bacteria in different ways. The response to the surfactant amendment depended on the physiological state of the bacteria. The results showed that surfactants resulted in decreased cell adhesion to the oil phase for all the bacteria. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  2. Crude oil prices : how high, how much harm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, M.; Alexander, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the issue of crude oil prices and the economy. Crude oil prices are on the rise due to the recent events in the Middle East. In early April, West Texas Intermediate crude oil climbed to nearly US$28 a barrel. Most of the increase reflects the expectation of stronger world oil demand combined with supply constraints on the part of OPEC. Although there has been some concern expressed that rising oil prices may hinder economic recovery, the authors of this report do not see evidence that rising oil prices would throw economic recovery off course, arguing that the current spike will be short-lived. They stated that even under a worse-case scenario where prices remain inflated, there is little reason to fear for the health of the Canadian economy. OPEC is expected to increase its low production quotas in June. In addition, non-OPEC nations (Russia in particular) are expected to increase oil production in the coming months. The authors also indicated that it is unlikely that conflict in the West Bank will disrupt oil supply because Israel is not an oil-exporting nation. However, oil supply could be affected if other Arab nations were drawn into the issue. It was also noted that military action against Iraq would increase oil prices, possibly as high as US$40 a barrel, but the full extent of this hike in price will probably be unsustainable. In addition, the authors emphasized that the increase in energy costs would not be enough to seriously jeopardize the economic recovery in the United States. As for Canada, it is estimated that a US$10 per barrel increase in crude oil prices would have a small, but positive impact on Canadian GDP because in contrast to the United States, Canada produces much more energy than it consumers. In 2001, Canada ran a trade surplus of $2.8 billion. The report ended by stating that although higher oil prices could add a full percentage point to headline inflation by the end of the year, core inflation is likely to remain

  3. Phytoremediation of some tropical soils contaminated with petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyibo, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken in three phases to identify (phase 1), screen (phase 11) and evaluate (phase 111) plants for their phytoremediation potential. In Phase 1, 15 plant species made up of grasses and legumes namely: Paspalum. vaginatum, Cynodon.dactylon, Pueraria. phaseoloides, Centrosema. pubescens, Panicum. maximum, Schrankia. leptocarpa, Eclipta. alba (Linn.), Cyperus. haspen (Linn.), Melastromastrum. capitatum, Acreceras. zizanoides Dandy, Pteridum aquilinum (Linn), Ludwigia.decurrens Walt,Setaria longiseta P.Beauv., Physalis angulata (Linn.), and Desmodium scorpiurus Desv.were identified on sites previously polluted by crude oil spills in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The first 6 species were used in phase 11 while the first four species were earmarked (rolled over) for phase 111. Responses to Questionnaire indicated that majority of residents in the selected sites/communities had lived in these areas for 10 or more years had mainly JHS/SHS education; were self employed – mainly farmers and fishers although most were unemployed in the public sector. Adverse effects of the operations of oil companies particularly oil spillage on the environment and local residents include: loss of vegetation and farmlands, soil and water body contamination, weak social and cultural institutions (disrespect by youth for elders and institutions), militancy and hostage taking among youth from the area. In phase 11, seeds of legumes among the six selected species were collected from Accra, Aburi environs and Kusi in the Eastern region of Ghana; they were scarified, cultured in growth medium and the seedlings which emerged from them were transplanted into experimental pots, each containing 2000g of either Alajo or Toje soil series. One week after transplanting, each pot was simulated with a corresponding serial crude oil concentration of 0% (control) 1 % (24ml), 3% (83ml), 5.5% (130ml) and 8% (189ml) or 10% (237ml) in three replicates. These concentrations were arrived at

  4. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longpre, D.; Jaouich, A.; Jarry, V.; Venosa, A.D.; Lee, K.; Suidan, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills

  5. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longpre, D; Jaouich, A [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Jarry, V [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Venosa, A D [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Lee, K [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice Lamontagne; Suidan, M T [Cincinnati Univ., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills.

  6. GC/MS determination of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Landriault, M.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted in which sesquiterpanes, a component of crude oils and petroleum products, were identified and characterized in an effort to determine the feasibility of using them as biomarkers for fingerprinting and identifying unknown lighter petroleum product spills. The study compared the distributions of sesquiterpanes in different oils, oil distillation fractions and refined products, including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels and lubricating oils. Evaporative weathering effects on sesquiterpane distribution and concentration were quantitatively studied and several diagnostic indices of sesquiterpane were developed for oil correlation and differentiation. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and oil products have much different abundances and distributions. Therefore, the relevant sesquiterpane ratios are different. Bicyclic sesquiterpanes are mostly partitioned into the medium distillation fractions. The study showed that concentrations of sesquiterpanes in crude oil and diesel fuel increase in proportion with the increase of weathering percentages. Relevant diagnostic ratios therefore remained stable. It was concluded that C 15 and C 16 sesquiterpanes may be alternative internal tracers to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. 13 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  7. Forecasting ability of the investor sentiment endurance index: The case of oil service stock returns and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ling T.; Casey, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a binomial probability distribution model this paper creates an endurance index of oil service investor sentiment. The index reflects the probability of the high or low stock price being the close price for the PHLX Oil Service Sector Index. Results of this study reveal the substantial forecasting ability of the sentiment endurance index. Monthly and quarterly rolling forecasts of returns of oil service stocks have an overall accuracy as high as 52% to 57%. In addition, the index shows decent forecasting ability on changes in crude oil prices, especially, WTI prices. The accuracy of 6-quarter rolling forecasts is 55%. The sentiment endurance index, along with the procedure of true forecasting and accuracy ratio, applied in this study provides investors and analysts of oil service sector stocks and crude oil prices as well as energy policy-makers with effective analytical tools

  8. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  9. Salt marsh recovery from a crude oil spill: Vegetation, oil weathering, and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.Z.; Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    When a spill of Prudhoe Bay crude oil covered a fringing Salicornia virginica marsh in Fidalgo Bay, Washington (northern Puget Sound) in February 1991, response personnel used several low-impact techniques to remove oil from the marsh, and minimized access by cleanup workers. Following the response, a monitoring program was established to track marsh recovery, and to document the effectiveness of the response techniques used and their impacts on the marsh. Through monthly sampling over a 16-month period, vegetative growth was monitored and chemical degradation of remaining oil was tracked. Sampling was conducted along transects located in four areas affected in different ways by the spill, including an oiled, trampled section; an oiled, vacuumed section; and an oiled, washed, and vacuumed section. In addition, a control transect was established in an unoiled adjacent marsh. The study included both biological and chemical components. Biological measurements included percent cover of live vegetation (sampled monthly) and below-ground plant biomass (sampled at the beginning of each growing season in April 1991 and April 1992). Sediment samples included surface sediment (monthly) and core samples collected at the beginning and end of the growing seasons. Sediment samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and indicator compounds were tracked to determine rates of oil degradation. Results from 16 months of post-spill monitoring show that foot trampling was most detrimental to marsh plants, while washing with vacuuming removed the most oil and minimized adverse impacts to vegetation. Dense clay substrate helped prevent oil from penetrating the sediment, thus minimizing acute toxic effects from oil exposure to marsh plant rootstock. By the second growing season post-spill, Salicornia and other marsh plants were growing in all areas except one heavily oiled patch

  10. The composite barrel of retail prices and its relationship to crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanoff, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper challenges assumptions about the relationship between refinery gate prices, retail prices paid by consumers and crude oil prices. The analysis presented here considers their relationship within the context of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries' (OPEC's) composite barrel statistics, which includes taxes and other government policy effects on prices. Speed of adjustment and retail price response to taxes are analysed with respect to crude import prices. OPEC's composite barrel is explained and evaluated. Test results are summarized. (UK)

  11. Crude oil prices: Robust demands strengthens outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the growth in the global demand for oil products by showing the historical trends in production and demand in developing countries. It shows world incremental production growth from 1985 to 1995 and developing countries's demands from 1971 to 1989. The paper goes on to make predictions as to whether the demand growth rate can be sustained. It provides information on the status of the world offshore drilling and production facilities to determine the capacity of this resource

  12. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  13. Supplying synthetic crude oil from Canadian oil sands: A comparative study of the costs and CO2 emissions of mining and in-situ recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Méjean, Aurélie; Hope, Chris

    2013-01-01

    High crude oil prices and the eventual decline of conventional oil production raise the issue of alternative fuels such as non-conventional oil. The paper describes a simple probabilistic model of the costs of synthetic crude oil produced from Canadian oil sands. Synthetic crude oil is obtained by upgrading bitumen that is first produced through mining or in-situ recovery techniques. This forward-looking analysis quantifies the effects of learning and production constraints on the costs of supplying synthetic crude oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that before 2035, the most influential parameters are the learning parameter in the case of in-situ bitumen and the depletion parameter in the case of mined bitumen. After 2035, depletion dominates in both cases. The results show that the social cost of CO 2 has a large impact on the total costs of synthetic crude oil, in particular in the case of synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen, due to the carbon intensity of the recovery techniques: taking into account the social cost of CO 2 adds more than half to the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from mined bitumen in 2050 (mean value), while the cost of producing synthetic crude oil from in-situ bitumen more than doubles. - Highlights: • We model the cost of Canadian synthetic crude oil (SCO) using Monte-Carlo techniques. • We reveal the uncertainty associated with each input parameter. • We quantify the effect of learning, depletion and CO 2 using sensitivity analyses. • Accounting for the social cost of CO 2 doubles the cost of SCO from in-situ bitumen. • CO 2 pricing could have a large effect on the economics of the oil sands

  14. Bioremediation of soil contaminated crude oil by Agaricomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sichani, M Maryam; Assadi, M Mazaheri; Farazmand, A; Kianirad, M; Ahadi, A M; Ghahderijani, H Hadian

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems is the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soil, particularly in the oil-rich country. Bioremediation is the most effective way to remove these pollutants in the soil. Spent mushroom compost has great ability to decompose lignin-like pollution. The purpose of this study was the bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil by an Agaricomycetes . Soil sample amended with spent mushroom compost into 3%, 5% and 10% (w/w) with or without fertilizer. Ecotoxicity germination test was conducted with Lipidium sativa . The amplified fragment (18 s rDNA) sequence of this mushroom confirmed that the strain belonged to Pleurotus ostreatus species with complete homology (100% identity). All tests experiment sets were effective at supporting the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil after three months. Petroleum contaminated soil amended with Spent mushroom compost 10% and fertilizer removed 64.7% of total petroleum hydrocarbons compared control. The germination index (%) in ecotoxicity tests ranged from 60.4 to 93.8%. This showed that the petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil amended with 10% Spent mushroom compost had higher bioremediation ability and reduced soil toxicity in less than three months.

  15. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  16. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  17. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  18. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  20. Islamic versus conventional stock market and its co-movement with crude oil: a wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Eka Azrin; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil market plays an important role in economic development and its price changes give huge impact to the financial markets. In this paper, the relationships between crude oil and stock markets are examined. This study has selected Malaysian Islamic and conventional stock markets as a case study. Financialisation of crude oil and its frequent inclusion into investment portfolios warrant an analysis of the relationship between crude oil and stock market indices at various time scales or i...

  1. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of size of the asphaltene aggregates, whereas polydisperse

  2. Influence of asphaltene aggregation and pressure on crude oil emulsion stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auflem, Inge Harald

    2002-07-01

    Water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilised by various surface-active components are one of the major problems in relation to petroleum production. This thesis presents results from high-pressure separation experiments on ''live'' crude oil and model oil emulsions, as well as studies of Interactions between various indigenous stabilising materials in crude oil. A high-pressure separation rig was used to study the influence of gas and gas bubbles on the separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions. The results were interpreted as a flotation effect from rising gas bubbles, which led to increased separation efficiency. The separation properties of a ''live'' crude oil were compared to crude oil samples recombined with various gases. The results showed that water-in-oil emulsions produced from the ''live'' crude oil samples, generally separated faster and more complete, than emulsions based on recombined samples of the same crude oil. Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto a hydrophilic surface from solutions with varying aromatic/aliphatic character was investigated by a quarts crystal microbalance. The results showed that asphaltenes adsorbed to a larger degree than the resins. The resins were unable to desorb pre-adsorbed asphaltenes from the surface, and neither did they adsorb onto the asphaltene-coated surface. In solutions of both of resins and asphaltenes the two constituents associated in bulk liquid and adsorbed to the surface in the form of mixed aggregates. Near infrared spectroscopy and pulsed field gradient spin echo nuclear magnetic resonance were used to study asphaltene aggregation and the influence of various amphiphiles on the asphaltene aggregate size. The results showed Interactions between the asphaltenes and various chemicals, which were proposed to be due to acid-base interactions. Among the chemicals used were various naphthenic acids. Synthesised monodisperse acids gave a reduction of

  3. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  4. Comparisons Between Asphaltenes from the Dead and Live-Oil Samples of the Same Crude Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aquino-Olivos, M.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.

    2003-01-01

    extracted and analyzed. These pressure-driven asphaltenes found on the filter were found to make up in the range between 50 and 100 ppm of the whole crude oil. Opening of the cell did not reveal asphaltenes retained due to wall adhesion. Size exclusion chromatography tests performed on both the live......-oil-derived asphaltenes and the standard asphaltenes as precipitated by atmospheric titration on the same crude oil, revealed that the live-oil asphaltenes had apparent smaller hydrodynamic volume and narrower distributions than the standard asphaltenes for two oils. Further FTIR tests also showed large differences...

  5. Isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading euryhaline consortia from crude oil and mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedad Díaz, M; Grigson, S J; Peppiatt, C J; Burgess, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater (35 g/L NaCl) and synthetic media containing 0 to 100 g/L NaCl (1.7 M). Salinities over twice that of normal seawater decreased the biodegradation rates. However, even at the highest salinity biodegradation was significant. Ratios of nC17 to pristane and nC18 to phytane were significantly lowered across the range of salinity. The lowest values were at 0 and 20 g/L (0.34 M). Phytane was degraded in preference to pristane. The degradation of these compounds was constant over the salinity range, with evidence of a slight increase for consortium MPD-M with increasing salinity. In general, the consortium isolated from mangrove root sediments was more efficient in metabolizing North Sea crude oil than the consortium isolated from Cormorant crude oil. The 5 strains that comprise MPD-M have been tentatively identified as species of the genera Marinobacter, Bacillus, and Erwinia. This is the first report of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia isolated from crude oil and mangrove sediments that are capable of treating oily wastes over such a wide range of salinity.

  6. Evaluation of the therapeutic effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Okbi, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepato and reno-protective effect of Nigella sativa crude oil and its binary blend with omega-3 fatty acid-rich oils (fish and flaxseed oils was studied in a modified hepatorenal syndrome model (MHRS in rats. MHRS was induced through feeding a high fructose diet followed by an intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine hydrochloride. Nigella oil and its different blends were given as a daily oral dose to MHRS rats. Two control groups of MHRS and normal healthy rats were run. Different biochemical and nutritional parameters were assessed. The induction of MHRS produced liver and kidney dysfunction, and elevated oxidative stress, an inflammatory biomarker, endothelin 1, and plasma cholesterol. Reduced plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol, albumin and Ca and elevated urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase and liver fats were noticed. The administration of Nigella crude oil that originally had 0.2% total omega-3 fatty acids or its blend with fish oil (17.9% omega-3 or flaxseed oil (42.1% omega-3 significantly improved all biochemical parameters of MHRS. There was no significant difference in the biochemical parameters among the different oil treated groups regardless of the omega-3 fatty acid content. This may point out to the potential profound effect of the volatile oil fraction of Nigella crude oil which may compensates for its low omega-3 content.En el presente estudio, el efecto hepato- y reno-protector de aceites crudos de Nigella sativa y su mezcla binaria con aceites ricos en ácidos grasos omega-3 (pescado y aceites de linaza fue estudiado en un modelo modificado de síndrome hepatorenal (MHRS en ratas. MHRS fue inducido a través de la alimentación de una dieta alta en fructosa seguido de la inyección intraperitoneal de clorhidrato de galactosamina. Diferentes aceites fueron suministrados como dosis oral diaria a ratas con MHRS. Se realizaron dos grupos de control de MHRS y ratas sanas normales. Se

  7. The importance of subsample preparation practices in the analysis of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, K.S.; Iorio, S.M.B.M. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas], e-mail: katiapereira@petrobras.com.br; Marques, M.L.S.P. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    There have been many subsample preparation practices proposed to reduce sources of error in analyses of crude oils. Optimal subsample preparation allows keeping the degree of representativity of the final aliquot going into the laboratory analyzer. The objective of this work was to discuss some experiences in order to understand the importance of sampling practices to obtain representative subsamples of crude oils and petroleum products, and measurements with minimized uncertainty whenever possible. Specific practices, whose effectiveness was tested by experiments, are discussed in this work. The analysis of variance showed that the subsamples should not be used in vapor pressure tests unless in case of interlaboratory cross check, and have to be considered as the first test from the bottle subsample. Sometimes long periods of crude oils samples storage are necessary for a complete evaluation, but because of the effect of this storage time it was observed a trend in the reducing of acidity and sulfur content. (author)

  8. Fate and Effects of Crude Oil Spilled on Subarctic Permafrost Terrain in Interior Alaska: Fifteen Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    areas. The soil is cold and wet, a Histic downslope movement of the oil past the last Pergelic Cryaquept (Rieger 1983), typical of the Sau- mapped...histic pergelic cryaquept soil. mosses, lichens and shrubs were killed soon after have even flourished (Fig. 11). Most of the associat- the original

  9. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  10. LOWERING UNCERTAINTY IN CRUDE OIL MEASUREMENT BY SELECTING OPTIMIZED ENVELOPE COLOR OF A PIPELINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Saadat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lowering uncertainty in crude oil volume measurement has been widely considered as one of main purposes in an oil export terminal. It is found that crude oil temperature at metering station has big effects on measured volume and may cause big uncertainty at the metering point. As crude oil flows through an aboveground pipeline, pick up the solar radiation and heat up. This causes the oil temperature at the metering point to rise and higher uncertainty to be created. The amount of temperature rise is depended on exterior surface paint color. In the Kharg Island, there is about 3 km distance between the oil storage tanks and the metering point. The oil flows through the pipeline due to gravity effects as storage tanks are located 60m higher than the metering point. In this study, an analytical model has been conducted for predicting oil temperature at the pipeline exit (the metering point based on climate and geographical conditions of the Kharg Island. The temperature at the metering point has been calculated and the effects of envelope color have been investigated. Further, the uncertainty in the measurement system due to temperature rise has been studied.

  11. Improving the Forecasting Accuracy of Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuluo Yin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, oil is the key element of energy sustainability, and its prices and economy have a strong mutual influence. Modeling a good method to accurately predict oil prices over long future horizons is challenging and of great interest to investors and policymakers. This paper forecasts oil prices using many predictor variables with a new time-varying weight combination approach. In doing so, we first use five single-variable time-varying parameter models to predict crude oil prices separately. Second, every special model is assigned a time-varying weight by the new combination approach. Finally, the forecasting results of oil prices are calculated. The results show that the paper’s method is robust and performs well compared to random walk.

  12. World market of crude oil - review of possible scenarios of forecasting for the crude oil price movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of 2002, crude oil prices were solidly within the range preferred by producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), $22 to $28 per barrel for the OPEC 'basket price' (Fig. 1). OPEC producers have been demonstrating disciplined adherence to announced cutbacks in production. Early in 2003, a dramatic upward turn in crude oil prices was brought about by a combination of two factors. First, a general strike against the Chavez regime resulted in a sudden drop in Venezuela's oil exports. Although other OPEC producers agreed to increase production to make up for the lost Venezuelan output, the obvious strain on worldwide spare capacity kept prices high. Second, price volatility was exacerbated by fears of war in Iraq. (Original)

  13. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P < 0.05) in HCEP-fed cattle, but bone percentage and lean/bone ratio were less (P < 0.05) than LCEP-fed cattle. Carcass fat (P < 0.05) and fat content (P < 0.01) were significantly increased with levels of dietary CPO. Diets with 4 % CPO supplementation had better effects on redness (a*, P < 0.01) and chroma (C*, P < 0.001) values. In conclusion, up to 30 % CEP can be used to improve lean carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  14. Biological treatment: Soil impacted with crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, N.; Severns, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Biological land treatment proved to be a successful way to manage contamination at a California oil and gas production property. During the project, approximately 120,000 yards of contaminated soil was treated in the treatment plots to below the cleanup goals of 1,000 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) total petroleum hydrocarbons. In general, remaining hydrocarbon levels in treated soil were the 200 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons range or lower. Cleanup goals were achieved in less than 2 months for each lift of soil treated. The treated soil was used as fill material in the excavation. No significant odor problems occurred during the project. Groundwater monitoring confirmed that no impact to groundwater occurred due to the biological land treatment process. Design of the treatment plan and regulatory requirements are also discussed

  15. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  16. Exergy analysis of a distillation tower for crude oil fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the application of the exergy method to a crude oil atmospheric distillation tower is presented. The fundamentals and procedures are presented as well as the main parameters used to describe the thermodynamic performance of the system, such as Exergy Losses, Effectiveness and Improvement Potential. A parametric analysis of the influence on the effectiveness of the tower is then performed as a function of the number of trays, the amount of stripping steam, the use of reboilers and the operation pressure. The results obtained are discussed. As expected, the effectiveness of the tower increases with the overall number of trays in the tower and in the stripping columns for a constant operation pressure and a constant amount of stripping steam but there is a limit at which the pressure drop across the trays and the stripping steam requirements make the effectiveness decrease. The use of reboilers in the stripping columns adjacent to the main tower allows an increase in the effectiveness basically due to a greater heat integration. Finally, the increase in the operation pressure of the tower produces an increase of the effectiveness but also an increase in the stripping steam requirements

  17. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  18. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

    2012-01-27

    Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.

  19. Use of adsorption and gas chromatographic techniques in estimating biodegradation of indigenous crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokub, D.; Allahi, A.; Shafeeq, M.; Khalid, Z.M.; Malik, K.A.; Hussain, A.

    1993-01-01

    Indigenous crude oils could be degraded and emulsified upto varying degree by locally isolated bacteria. Degradation and emulsification was found to be dependent upon the chemical composition of the crude oils. Tando Alum and Khashkheli crude oils were emulsified in 27 and 33 days of incubation respectively. While Joyamair crude oil and not emulsify even mainly due to high viscosity of this oil. Using adsorption chromatographic technique, oil from control (uninoculated) and bio degraded flasks was fractioned into the deasphaltened oil containing saturate, aromatic, NSO (nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen) containing hydrocarbons) and soluble asphaltenes. Saturate fractions from control and degraded oil were further analysed by gas liquid chromatography. From these analyses, it was observed that saturate fraction was preferentially utilized and the crude oils having greater contents of saturate fraction were better emulsified than those low in this fraction. Utilization of various fractions of crude oils was in the order saturate> aromatic> NSO. (author)

  20. Problems in waterflooding fields containing paraffinic crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A G; Lyutin, L V; Perevalov, V G

    1968-11-01

    When Caspian seawater is injected into the Uzen field reservoir, the temperature of the reservoir oil can be lowered 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C below initial reservoir temperature. Because Uzen crude oil is saturated with paraffin, the cold injection water can deposit paraffin in the formation and reduce oil recovery. In a related study, it was shown that the lower temperature should not adversely affect capillary and wettability behavior of the crude oil in the reservoir. Oil recovery was found to be essentially independent of water composition. However, fresh water is easier to handle in injection systems than brines. Several studies have shown that oil recovery from Uzen field should be increased by use of hot injection water. Various methods of heating the water are discussed. To reduce corrosivity and scaling of hot brine, sodium hexametaphosphate is added in concentrations of 2 to 15 mg/liter. It is concluded that it would be practical to use hot injection water in this field.

  1. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  2. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress of captivity and/or oil exposure.

  3. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  4. The effects of short term exposure to Bass Strait crude oil and Corexit 8667 on benthic community metabolism in Posidonia australis Hook. f. dominated microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, A.I.; Larkum, A.W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Microcosms consisting of a sublittoral seagrass meadow from Botany Bay, N.S.W. were maintained in aquaria in a controlled environment room from March to August 1979. Oxygen production and consumption in the microcosms and leaf turnover of the seagrass, Posidonia australis Hook.f. were measured before, during and after a 7-day treatment in June with Bass Strait crude oil and the dispersant Corexit 8667. Four microcosms received oil and two of these received dispersant. The leaf turnover of P. australis was not significantly affected by the addition of oil and dispersant. Photosynthetic oxygen production decreased and respiration increased in the microcosms during treatment. In August, 40 days after treatment, oxygen production rates and P/R ratios in the oil-treated microcosms were higher than rates measured before treatment. The oil-and-dispersant-treated microcosms did not show this trend. The results of this study indicate that a more severe stress is placed on the P. australis dominated benthic community by oil and dispersant than by oil alone.

  5. An experimental study of the effects of Statfjord crude oil and application of Inipol and fish meal on the sea ice biota in Svalbard in February-April 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikavalko, J.

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil and oil product shipping is expected to increase in the Arctic in the near future, particularly in the Barents Sea. In addition to increasing transportation, the risks of an oil spill or accident are also elevated, particularly in view of the relative inexperience in large-tonnage tanker navigation under Arctic conditions and insufficient emergency services resources. While birds and mammals suffer from oiling of plumage or skin with subsequent thermoregulation difficulties, most underwater nature is also threatened by the chemical effects of hydrocarbons. Oil can cause damage to marine organisms on several systematic levels. Eggs, as well as larval and juvenile stages of organisms are particularly sensitive to hydrocarbons. Information on the consequences of oil contamination on unicellular aquatic organisms is scarce. This paper discussed a 63 day field experiment in Van Mijenfjorden, Sweden, which was conducted to study crude oil and nutrient addition effects on Arctic sea ice biota. It was determined that once oil is released in the marine environment in the presence of ice cover, several processes may take place depending on the season, the site of the oil spill and the state of ice growth or melt. During the pack ice season, an under-ice spill will lead to the formation of oil lenses beneath the ice sheet. During ice growth, oil may become sealed within the ice to migrate to the top of the Arctic multi-year ice. Hydrocarbon concentrations increase notably during ice break up. Fresh melt water migrates downwards and facilitates the release of ice associated organisms into the underlying water. Acute toxic effects of an oil spill on Arctic ice biota and planktonic communities in the water column will become apparent during the surface melting or break-up of the ice. Low concentrations of PAH compounds can inhibit the growth of multicellular algae. Changes were noted in phytoplankton, but diatoms appear to be more tolerant to oil than other protists

  6. An experimental study of the effects of Statfjord crude oil and application of Inipol and fish meal on the sea ice biota in Svalbard in February-April 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikavalko, J. [Helsinki Univ., Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aquatic Sciences and Hydrobiology; Gerdes, B.; Dieckmann, G. [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil and oil product shipping is expected to increase in the Arctic in the near future, particularly in the Barents Sea. In addition to increasing transportation, the risks of an oil spill or accident are also elevated, particularly in view of the relative inexperience in large-tonnage tanker navigation under Arctic conditions and insufficient emergency services resources. While birds and mammals suffer from oiling of plumage or skin with subsequent thermoregulation difficulties, most underwater nature is also threatened by the chemical effects of hydrocarbons. Oil can cause damage to marine organisms on several systematic levels. Eggs, as well as larval and juvenile stages of organisms are particularly sensitive to hydrocarbons. Information on the consequences of oil contamination on unicellular aquatic organisms is scarce. This paper discussed a 63 day field experiment in Van Mijenfjorden, Sweden, which was conducted to study crude oil and nutrient addition effects on Arctic sea ice biota. It was determined that once oil is released in the marine environment in the presence of ice cover, several processes may take place depending on the season, the site of the oil spill and the state of ice growth or melt. During the pack ice season, an under-ice spill will lead to the formation of oil lenses beneath the ice sheet. During ice growth, oil may become sealed within the ice to migrate to the top of the Arctic multi-year ice. Hydrocarbon concentrations increase notably during ice break up. Fresh melt water migrates downwards and facilitates the release of ice associated organisms into the underlying water. Acute toxic effects of an oil spill on Arctic ice biota and planktonic communities in the water column will become apparent during the surface melting or break-up of the ice. Low concentrations of PAH compounds can inhibit the growth of multicellular algae. Changes were noted in phytoplankton, but diatoms appear to be more tolerant to oil than other protists

  7. Causality Relationship between Crude Oil Variables and Budget Variables in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Zukarnain; Shamsuddin, Sofian

    2017-01-01

    As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia profited from higher world energy prices. However, the fall in oil prices from highs in 2014 significantly affected Malaysia’s government revenue (GR), hence its expenditure since the Malaysian GR still largely depends on oil revenues. Malaysia also has problems with high spending on energy subsidy, shrinking in its net crude oil export, and narrowing the gap between its crude oil production and consumption. Given this scenario, not only shocks in crude oi...

  8. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Glikin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  9. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  10. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  11. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Yue-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  12. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  13. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat......-cooled holder for a cone calorimeter under incident heat fluxes of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kW/m2. The results clearly showed that the weathered oils were the hardest to ignite, with increased ignition times and critical heat fluxes of 5-10 kW/m2. Evaporation and emulsification were shown...

  14. Coals to Newcastle: Will Alberta become a crude oil importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Foley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The security of markets for Canadian heavy crude oil (HCO) under different conditions is examined. The emphasis of the study is on the conditions under which bitumen blend from Alberta could penetrate certain markets that have generally been identified as potential prospects. A secondary question concerns the cost reductions in bitumen production and upgrading that would be needed for bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil (SCO) to penetrate these same markets if long-term oil prices settle at US$18/bbl for Saudi light delivered to the USA Gulf Coast in 2010. A brief overview is first presented of some of the world and US factors that will affect the demand for Canadian HCO, with specific reference to the demand in the northern USA in 2010. The determination of the volume of HCO that can or will be processed at a refinery or a combination of refineries in a given market is then discussed. The cost and volume numbers for 2010 as provided in the National Energy Board's latest Canadian energy supply and demand forecast are used in the analysis. It is concluded that all traditional markets outside of the Canadian prairies could be lost if world oil prices stay below US$18/bbl for extended periods. At prices below US$17/bbl, bitumen producers would have trouble competing with imported crude oils in Edmonton unless bitumen production costs decline from current levels. The potential for bitumen production costs to decline enough for diluted bitumen to compete with US$18/bbl oil is better than the prospect for SCO costs to decrease enough to compete in eastern Canada or the northern USA at those price levels. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  16. Fatigue behaviour of X70 steel in crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-246 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * S-N curve * X70 steel * crude oil * separated water Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2015 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit152/gajdos.pdf

  17. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  18. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Characterisation of crude oil components, asphaltene aggregation and emulsion stability by means of near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aske, Narve

    2002-06-01

    Effective separation of water-in-crude oil emulsions is a central challenge for the oil industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf, especially with the future increase in subsea and even down-hole processing of well fluids. The mechanisms and properties governing emulsion stability are far from fully understood but the indigenous surface active crude oil components are believed to play a major role. In this work a thorough physico-chemical characterisation of a set of crude oils originating from a variety of production fields has been performed. Crude oil properties responsible for emulsion stability were identified by use of multivariate analysis techniques like partial least squares regression (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). Interfacial elasticity along with both asphaltene content and asphaltene aggregation state were found to be main contributors to emulsion stability. Information on a crude oils ability to form elastic crude oil-water interfaces was found to be especially crucial when discussing emulsion stability. However, measured values of interfacial elasticity were highly dependent on asphaltene aggregation state. Several experimental techniques was utilised and partly developed for the crude oil characterisation. A high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) scheme was developed for SARA-fractionation of crude oils and an oscillating pendant drop tensiometer was used for characterisation of interfacial rheological properties. For emulsion stability a cell for determining the stability as a function of applied electric fields was used. In addition, near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) was used throughout the work both for chemical and physical characterisation of crude oils and model systems. High pressure NIR was used to study the aggregation of asphaltenes by pressure depletion. A new technique for detection of asphaltene aggregation onset pressures based on NIR combined with PCA was developed. It was also found that asphaltene aggregation is

  20. Economic repercussions of OPEC's crude oil price increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merklein, H A

    1980-05-01

    Accusations that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) created the world energy crisis and destroyed the economies of oil-importing nations are challenged by Dr. Merklein. He shows that the economic impact of OPEC price increases have only accelerated an already-developing energy shortage and only reflect the existing problems of inflation, unemployment, and declining currency exchange rates. The real problem is argued to be a US energy policy that is incapable of responding appropriately to what should be a manageable crude oil tax. When the arguments against OPEC policies are examined in an historical context, they are shown to be essentially neutral. 4 tables. (DCK)

  1. Deep hydrotreating of middle distillates from crude and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, M.V. [The Blechner Center for Industrial Catalysis and Process Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1997-06-20

    The potential scientific and technological solutions to the problems that appear as a result of shifting the hydrotreating of crude oil middle distillates and shale oils from the `normal` to the `deep` mode are considered on the basis of the reactivities and transformation routes of the least-reactive sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. The efficiency of selecting the optimal feedstock, increasing the process severity, improving the catalysts activity, and using alternative catalytic routes are compared, taking into account the specific issues related to deep hydrodesulfurization/hydrodenitrogenation/hydrodeoxygenation, i.e., chemical aspects, kinetics and catalysts

  2. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, Mansur; Algahtani, Ibrahim; De Mello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  4. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  5. Extraction and characterization of crude oil asphaltenes sub fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Silas R.; Calado, Lucas S.; Honse, Siller O.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2011-01-01

    Asphaltenes from crude oil have been studied for a long time. However, until today their chemical structures and physical-chemical properties are not well established. Nowadays, it is accepted that asphaltenes are dispersed in the crude oil as macro structures, which are mainly constituted of some condensed aromatic rings (about 6-20), containing aliphatic or naphthenic groups. The asphaltenes are also defined as the crude oil fraction that is insoluble in low molar mass n-alkanes and soluble in aromatic solvents, like benzene and toluene In order to investigate the molecular structure, in this work the asphaltenes were separated by using a different procedure as that normally described in the literature and characterized by infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray fluorescence, elemental analyses and particle size and size distribution. The difference in subfractions polarity can be attributed not only to the aromaticity changes but also to the content of elements, such as N, O, Fe, V, Si e Ni. (author)

  6. Acid esterification of a high free fatty acid crude palm oil and crude rubber seed oil blend: Optimization and parametric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Modhar A.; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni M. [Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Chemical Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Free fatty acids content plays an important role in selecting the appropriate route for biodiesel production. Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (author)

  7. Method for estimating boiling temperatures of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Evaporation is often the dominant mechanism for mass loss during the first few days following an oil spill. The initial boiling point of the oil and the rate at which the boiling point changes as the oil evaporates are needed to initialize some computer models used in spill response. The lack of available boiling point data often limits the usefulness of these models in actual emergency situations. A new computational method was developed to estimate the temperature at which a crude oil boils as a function of the fraction evaporated using only standard distillation data, which are commonly available. This method employs established thermodynamic rules and approximations, and was designed to be used with automated spill-response models. Comparisons with measurements show a strong correlation between results obtained with this method and measured values

  8. Influence of the addition and storage time of crude extract of tea leaves (camellia sinensis l.) toward value of free fatty acid in crude palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin; Wahifiyah, E.; Hairani, R.; Panggabean, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the crude extract of tea leaves (Camellia sinensis L.) and storage time on the content of free fatty acid in palm oil. The dried tea leaves were macerated and concentrated by rotary evaporator. The extract obtained was added to crude palm oil with various added mass of the extract and various storage times. Phytochemical tests indicated the presence of secondary metabolites including alkaloids, triterpenoids, steroids, phenolics and flavonoids. The ANOVA test showed a decrease in free fatty acid content in crude palm oil with the addition of tea leaves extract. The LSD (Least Significant Difference) test showed the best influence on ALB of palm oil is on the total extract mass of 2 grams and the storage time of 20 days.

  9. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  10. In situ oil burning in the marshland environment : soil temperatures resulting from crude oil and diesel fuel burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, N.P.; Walton, W.D.; Twilley, W.H.; Roadarmel, G.; Mendelssohn, I.A.; Lin, Q.; Mullin, J.V.

    2001-01-01

    The unique challenge associated with oil spill cleanups in sensitive marsh environments was discussed. Mechanical recovery of crude or refined hydrocarbons in wetlands may cause more damage to the marsh than the oil itself. This study evaluated whether in situ burning of oiled marshlands would provide a less damaging alternative than mechanical recovery. This was done through a series of 6 crude oil and 5 diesel fuel burns conducted in a test tank to examine the impact of intentional burning of oil spilled in a wetlands environment. There are several factors which may influence how well such an environment would recover from an in situ oil burn, such as plant species, fuel type and load, water level, soil type, and burn duration. This paper focused on soil, air and water temperatures, as well as total heat fluxes that resulted when 3 plant species were exposed to full-scale in situ burns that were created by burning diesel fuel and crude oil. The soil temperatures were monitored during the test burn at three different soil/water elevations for 700 second burn exposures. A total of 184 plant sods were harvested from marshlands in southern Louisiana and were subjected to the burning fuel. They were instrumental in characterizing the thermal and chemical stress that occur during an in-situ burn. The plants were inserted into the test tanks at various water and soil depths. The results indicated that diesel fuel and crude oil burns produced similar soil temperature profiles at each of three plant sod elevations. Although in-situ burning did not appear to remediate oil that had penetrated into the soil, it did effectively remove floating oil from the water surface, thereby preventing it from potentially contaminating adjacent habitats and penetrating the soil when the water recedes. The regrowth and recovery of the plants will be described in a separate report. 25 refs., 7 tabs., 15 figs

  11. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.W.; D'Aria, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 μm atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4%. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 μm window from 0.90 to 3.65%. In addition, the authors show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 μm region, because the very high absorption coefficient of water in this wavelength region prevents volume scattering in foam bubbles. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature. Thus, thermal infrared multispectral remote sensing appears to offer a simple and reliable technique for aircraft or satellite detection of oil slicks

  12. EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL INOCULA IN ENHANCING BIODEGRADATION OF WEATHERED CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING A PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND BEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a laboratory study evaluating the effectiveness of 10 commercial products in stimulating enhanced biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil, two of the products provided significantly greater alkane degradation in closed flasks than indigenous Alaskan bacterial population...

  13. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  14. Evaluation of the effects resulting from the application of magnetic fields on the properties of crude oils and paraffins; Avaliacao da influencia da aplicacao de campos magneticos sobre as propriedades de petroleo e parafinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Lenise Couto; Rocha, Nelson de Oliveira; Dittz, Carlos Henrique da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Setor de Tecnologia de Processamento e Transporte

    2000-03-01

    In petroleum industry the phenomenon of build-up of organic deposits, basically of paraffinic nature, into surface equipment, flow lines and columns has been one of the greatest problems concerning the production and transfer of crude oils, leading to significant and increasing losses in production. The approach through the application of magnetic field is a novel technique, neither explained nor exploited altogether, not one that turns out to be a simple preventive solution for the problem requiring low investment and showing expressive benefits, provided its effectiveness is confirmed. The main results of laboratory test where the effects of application of magnetic fields on the properties of two crude oil types, one mixture of paraffins and two reference solution were evaluated are presented herein, and this paper also approaches the influence of process variables (Magnetization temperature, exposure time and magnetic field density) on the efficiency of this process of treatment. (author)

  15. Development of Three Bacteria Consortium for the Bioremediation of Crude Petroleum-oil in Contaminated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualdaim M. Mukred; Aidil A. Hamid; Ainon Hamzah; Wan M. Wan Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    We have to developed active microbial consortium that could be of higher degradation of crude oil contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Among four isolates that showed good growth only three different isolates (Acinetobacter faecalis WD2, Staphylococcus. sp DD3 and Neisseria elongate TDA4.) were selected based on the growth ability and degradation. Significant growth and effectiveness of hydrocarbon biodegradation of the bacter...

  16. "Forecasting Volatility and Spillovers in Crude Oil Spot, Forward and Futures Markets"

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Roengchai Tansuchat

    2009-01-01

    Crude oil price volatility has been analyzed extensively for organized spot, forward and futures markets for well over a decade, and is crucial for forecasting volatility and Value-at- Risk (VaR). There are four major benchmarks in the international oil market, namely West Texas Intermediate (USA), Brent (North Sea), Dubai/Oman (Middle East), and Tapis (Asia- Pacific), which are likely to be highly correlated. This paper analyses the volatility spillover effects across and within the four mar...

  17. A new approach for crude oil price analysis based on empirical mode decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xun; Wang, Shou-Yang; Lai, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of understanding the underlying characteristics of international crude oil price movements attracts much attention from academic researchers and business practitioners. Due to the intrinsic complexity of the oil market, however, most of them fail to produce consistently good results. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), recently proposed by Huang et al., appears to be a novel data analysis method for nonlinear and non-stationary time series. By decomposing a time series into a small number of independent and concretely implicational intrinsic modes based on scale separation, EMD explains the generation of time series data from a novel perspective. Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is a substantial improvement of EMD which can better separate the scales naturally by adding white noise series to the original time series and then treating the ensemble averages as the true intrinsic modes. In this paper, we extend EEMD to crude oil price analysis. First, three crude oil price series with different time ranges and frequencies are decomposed into several independent intrinsic modes, from high to low frequency. Second, the intrinsic modes are composed into a fluctuating process, a slowly varying part and a trend based on fine-to-coarse reconstruction. The economic meanings of the three components are identified as short term fluctuations caused by normal supply-demand disequilibrium or some other market activities, the effect of a shock of a significant event, and a long term trend. Finally, the EEMD is shown to be a vital technique for crude oil price analysis. (author)

  18. Research on visible and near infrared spectral-polarimetric properties of soil polluted by crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hui-yan; Zhou, Pu-cheng; Pan, Bang-long

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbon contaminated soil can impose detrimental effects on forest health and quality of agricultural products. To manage such consequences, oil leak indicators should be detected quickly by monitoring systems. Remote sensing is one of the most suitable techniques for monitoring systems, especially for areas which are uninhabitable and difficulty to access. The most available physical quantities in optical remote sensing domain are the intensity and spectral information obtained by visible or infrared sensors. However, besides the intensity and wavelength, polarization is another primary physical quantity associated with an optical field. During the course of reflecting light-wave, the surface of soil polluted by crude oil will cause polarimetric properties which are related to the nature of itself. Thus, detection of the spectralpolarimetric properties for soil polluted by crude oil has become a new remote sensing monitoring method. In this paper, the multi-angle spectral-polarimetric instrument was used to obtain multi-angle visible and near infrared spectralpolarimetric characteristic data of soil polluted by crude oil. And then, the change rule between polarimetric properties with different affecting factors, such as viewing zenith angle, incidence zenith angle of the light source, relative azimuth angle, waveband of the detector as well as different grain size of soil were discussed, so as to provide a scientific basis for the research on polarization remote sensing for soil polluted by crude oil.

  19. Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarzio, Jenna M.; Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2018-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope geochemistry is an emerging tool for the study of oil formation and migration processes, and a new technology for petroleum exploration. Little is known, however, about the residency of Re and Os within asphaltene and maltene sub-fractions of crude oil. This information is crucial for understanding the 187Re-187Os radiometric clock held in petroleum systems and for interpreting geochronology for key processes such as oil formation, migration, and biodegradation. In this study, a heavy crude oil was separated into soluble (maltene, MALT) and insoluble (asphaltene, ASPH) fractions using n-heptane as the asphaltene-precipitating agent. The asphaltenes were separated sequentially into sub-fractions using two different solvent pairs (heptane-dichloromethane and acetone-toluene), and the bulk maltenes were separated into saturate, aromatic, and resin (SAR) fractions using open column chromatography. Each asphaltene and maltene sub-fraction was analyzed for Re and Os. The asphaltene sub-fractions and the bulk ASPH, MALT, and crude oil were analyzed for a suite of trace metals by ICP-MS. Our results show that Re and Os concentrations co-vary between the asphaltene sub-fractions, and that both elements are found mostly in the more polar and aromatic sub-fractions. Significant Re and Os are also present in the aromatic and resin fractions of the maltenes. However, each asphaltene and maltene sub-fraction has a distinct isotopic composition, and sub-fractions are not isochronous. This suggests that asphaltene sub-fractionation separates Re-Os complexes to the point where the isotopic integrity of the geochronometer is compromised. The mobility of individual Re and Os isotopes and the decoupling possibilities between radiogenic 187Os produced from 187Re remain elusive, but their recognition in this study is a critical first step. Re and Os correlate strongly with Mo and Cd in the asphaltene sub-fractions, suggesting that these metals occupy

  20. In-situ burning of crude oil and emulsions in broken ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenette, C.C.; Wighus, R.

    1996-01-01

    Large scale burns were conducted in a fjord in Norway, with fresh and emulsified crude oil to determine the feasibility of in-situ burning operations in an ice zone. The objective was to study the flame spreading characteristics of burning oil and emulsions in broken ice. The effect of wind on the flame spreading from one slick area to another was studied. The thermal environment produced by a crude oil fire on the sea surface and the response of a steel construction to the heat exposure from the fire was determined. The studies showed that high burning efficiencies (95 to 99%) could be obtained when burning fresh oil and emulsions contained in broken ice. Flame spreading was observed mostly in the downwind direction, and was dependent on the wind speed and direction. The temperatures and heat fluxes measured in the flames were higher than previously measured in pool fires. 9 refs., 7 figs

  1. Data used for Raimondo et al. 2016 "Effects of Louisiana Crude Oil on the Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) During a Life-Cycle Exposure to Laboratory Oiled Sediment"

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data are provided describing reproduction, length, weight, liver weight, and ovary weight in fish exposed to sediment spiked with weathered oil. Data are also...

  2. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  3. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  4. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  5. DOES VOLATILITY IN CRUDE OIL PRICE PRECIPITATE MACROECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ayoola Omojolaibi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of crude oil price changes on economic activity in an oil dependent economy-Nigeria. A small open economy structural vector autoregressive (SVAR technique is employed to study the macroeconomic dynamics of domestic price level, economic output, money supply and oil price in Nigeria. The sample covers the data from 1985:q1 to 2010:q4. The Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and the Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVDs results suggest that domestic policies, instead of oil-boom should be blamed for inflation. Also, oil price variations are driven mostly by oil shocks, however, domestic shocks are responsible for a reasonable portion of oil price variations.

  6. A new continuous-time formulation for scheduling crude oil operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P. Chandra Prakash; Karimi, I.A.; Srinivasan, R.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive business climate characterized by uncertain oil markets, responding effectively and speedily to market forces, while maintaining reliable operations, is crucial to a refinery's bottom line. Optimal crude oil scheduling enables cost reduction by using cheaper crudes intelligently, minimizing crude changeovers, and avoiding ship demurrage. So far, only discrete-time formulations have stood up to the challenge of this important, nonlinear problem. A continuous-time formulation would portend numerous advantages, however, existing work in this area has just begun to scratch the surface. In this paper, we present the first complete continuous-time mixed integer linear programming (MILP) formulation for the short-term scheduling of operations in a refinery that receives crude from very large crude carriers via a high-volume single buoy mooring pipeline. This novel formulation accounts for real-world operational practices. We use an iterative algorithm to eliminate the crude composition discrepancy that has proven to be the Achilles heel for existing formulations. While it does not guarantee global optimality, the algorithm needs only MILP solutions and obtains excellent maximum-profit schedules for industrial problems with up to 7 days of scheduling horizon. We also report the first comparison of discrete- vs. continuous-time formulations for this complex problem. (Author)

  7. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  8. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  9. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas putida using Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as Substrate for Crude Oil Recovery using Batch Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Masykur, A.; Septyaningsih, I.

    2018-03-01

    The application of biosurfactants which have been produced by Pseudomonas putida in nutrient broth medium supplemented with NaCl and crude palm oil (CPO) for oil recovery has been evaluated. The crude and purified biosurfactants have been examined for oil recovery from a laboratory oil-contaminated sand in agitated flask (batch method). Two synthetic surfactants and water as control was also performed for oil recovery as comparisons. Using batch method, the results showed that removing ability of crude oil from the oil-contaminated sand by purified and crude biosurfactants were 79.40±3.10 and 46.84±2.23 %, respectively. On other hand, the recoveries obtained with the SDS, Triton X-100 and water were 94.33±0.47, 74.84±7.39 and 34.42±1.21%respectively.

  11. Unit root properties of crude oil spot and futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslyuk, Svetlana; Smyth, Russell

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine whether WTI and Brent crude oil spot and futures prices (at 1, 3 and 6 months to maturity) contain a unit root with one and two structural breaks, employing weekly data over the period 1991-2004. To realise this objective we employ Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two endogenous structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich [2003. Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 1082-1089; 2004. Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break. Working Paper no. 04-17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University]. We find that each of the oil price series can be characterised as a random walk process and that the endogenous structural breaks are significant and meaningful in terms of events that have impacted on world oil markets

  12. The predictive content of CBOE crude oil volatility index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Volatility forecasting is an important issue in the area of econophysics. The information content of implied volatility for financial return volatility has been well documented in the literature but very few studies focus on oil volatility. In this paper, we show that the CBOE crude oil volatility index (OVX) has predictive ability for spot volatility of WTI and Brent oil returns, from both in-sample and out-of-sample perspectives. Including OVX-based implied volatility in GARCH-type volatility models can improve forecasting accuracy most of time. The predictability from OVX to spot volatility is also found for longer forecasting horizons of 5 days and 20 days. The simple GARCH(1,1) and fractionally integrated GARCH with OVX performs significantly better than the other OVX models and all 6 univariate GARCH-type models without OVX. Robustness test results suggest that OVX provides different information from as short-term interest rate.

  13. Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Lis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are testing whether the impact of oil prices is different on the overall market and automotive companies. In addition we investigate, if this relationship is nonlinear. For this we use stock return data of US, German and Japanese car companies, and returns of share indices from the same countries as control variables, and Brent crude oil price changes. We first estimate the impact of crude oil on the indices, then clean the indices from these influences, and afterwards estimate the impact on the stocks. For this we are using OLS and EGARCH (1,1. We conclude that in general the car companies‘ stocks do not react more adversely as the overall market to crude oil price increases, while Japanese companies do not show any excess sensitivity at all. German companies tend to be sensitive, and US and German companies are together more sensitive in the more recent time periods.

  14. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Alvarez, Jesus; Solis, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  15. Crude oil market efficiency and modeling. Insights from the multiscaling autocorrelation pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Alvarez, Jesus [Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico); Solis, Ricardo [Departamento de Economia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, Mexico D.F., 09340 (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    Empirical research on market inefficiencies focuses on the detection of autocorrelations in price time series. In the case of crude oil markets, statistical support is claimed for weak efficiency over a wide range of time-scales. However, the results are still controversial since theoretical arguments point to deviations from efficiency as prices tend to revert towards an equilibrium path. This paper studies the efficiency of crude oil markets by using lagged detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to detect delay effects in price autocorrelations quantified in terms of a multiscaling Hurst exponent (i.e., autocorrelations are dependent of the time scale). Results based on spot price data for the period 1986-2009 indicate important deviations from efficiency associated to lagged autocorrelations, so imposing the random walk for crude oil prices has pronounced costs for forecasting. Evidences in favor of price reversion to a continuously evolving mean underscores the importance of adequately incorporating delay effects and multiscaling behavior in the modeling of crude oil price dynamics. (author)

  16. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  17. Long-term Effects of Nutrient Addition and Phytoremediation on Diesel and Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in subarctic Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Reynolds, Charles M.; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a potentially inexpensive method of detoxifying contaminated soils using plants and associated soil microorganisms. The remote locations and cold climate of Alaska provide unique challenges associated with phytoremediation such as finding effective plant species that can achieve successful site clean-up despite the extreme environmental conditions and with minimal site management. A long-term assessment of phytoremediation was performed which capitalized on a study establi...

  18. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  19. A study of relations between physicochemical properties of crude oils and microbiological characteristics of reservoir microflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchenko, I. G.; Polishchuk, Yu. M.; Peremitina, T. O.

    2015-10-01

    The dependence of the population and activity of reservoir microflora upon the chemical composition and viscosity of crude oils has been investigated, since it allows the problem of improvement in the technologies and enhancement of oil recovery as applied to production of difficult types of oils with anomalous properties (viscous, heavy, waxy, high resin) to be solved. The effect of the chemical composition of the oil on the number, distribution, and activity of reservoir microflora has been studied using data on the microbiological properties of reservoir water of 16 different fields in oil and gas basins of Russia, Mongolia, China, and Vietnam. Information on the physicochemical properties of crude oils of these fields has been obtained from the database created at the Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Siberian Branch on the physicochemical properties of oils throughout the world. It has been found that formation water in viscous oil reservoirs is char acterized by a large population of heterotrophic and sulfate reducing bacteria and the water of oil fields with a high paraffin content, by population of denitrifying bacteria.

  20. Downhole Upgrading of Orinoco Basin Extra-Heavy Crude Oil Using Hydrogen Donors under Steam Injection Conditions. Effect of the Presence of Iron Nanocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ovalles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extra-heavy crude oil underground upgrading concept and laboratory experiments are presented which involve the addition of a hydrogen donor (tetralin to an Orinoco Basin extra-heavy crude oil under steam injection conditions (280–315 °C and residence times of at least 24-h. Three iron-containing nanocatalysts (20 nm, 60 nm and 90 nm were used and the results showed increases of up to 8° in API gravity, 26% desulfurization and 27% reduction in the asphaltene content of the upgraded product in comparison to the control reaction using inert sand. The iron nanocatalysts were characterized by SEM, XPS, EDAX, and Mössbauer spectroscopy before and after the upgrading reactions. The results indicated the presence of hematite (Fe2O3 as the predominant iron phase. The data showed that the catalysts were deactivating by particle sintering (~20% increase in particle size and also by carbon deposition. Probable mechanisms of reactions are proposed.

  1. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Alkyl PAH in crude oil cause chronic toxicity to early life stages of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodson, P.V.; Khan, C.W.; Saravanabhavan, G.; Clarke, L.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Environmental Studies; Hollebone, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ; Short, J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Juneau, AK (United States). Auke Bay Lab; Lee, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Centre for Offshore Oil and Gas Environmental Research

    2007-07-01

    In order to mitigate the risk to fisheries following an offshore oil spill, it is necessary to know the components of crude oil that are toxic. Chronic exposure of early life stages of fish to crude oil causes Blue Sac Disease, a syndrome characterized by induction of the cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) enzyme. In this study, effects-driven fractionation of Alaska North Slope Crude was used to identify the classes of compounds that cause CYP1A induction in juvenile rainbow trout and chronic toxicity to developing stages of Japanese medaka. Four fractions of compounds were created by low temperature vacuum distillation. This separated the constituents of oil according to their volatility within defined temperature ranges. The fractions were separated according to their boiling points. With a temperature range of 287-481 degrees C, fraction F3 was the only fraction as toxic as whole oil and induced CYPP1A enzymes of fish. Fractions containing specific classes of alkyl PAH were also collected. For all separations, the performance of the method was evaluated by the extent to which PAH were separated from aliphatics, resins and waxes, as well as by the quantitative recovery of mass in fractions and subfractions. The induction of CYP1A enzymes showed that PAH was present in all fractions that were highly toxic, but the toxicity tests indicated that not all fractions containing PAH were toxic. This research provided a scientific basis for comparing the risks of different crude oils based on chemical analyses that show the different proportions or amounts of PAH present. The results indicate which compounds of concern should be used to determine the extent and success of oil spill remediation, and provide a biological interpretation of chemical fingerprinting used to discriminate the sources of oil pollution. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.A.; Mancini, E.R.; Chamberlain, D.W.; Albright, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  4. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis copolymer use to reduce pour point temperature of diamond crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Dao Viet; Chuong, Thai Hong; Tuy, Dao Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Diamond oil field is located in Block 01&02 Offshore Vietnam. Crude oil from Diamond Well Head Platform (WHP) is evacuated to FPSO via 20km 10" subsea flexible pipeline. The lowest seabed temperature in the field is 22°C, while the pour point temperature (PPT) of Diamond crude oil is very high (36°C) due to high paraffin content (25%). So studying to research a suitable Pour Point Depressant (PPD) for the crude oil is very important. The PPD must have ability to reduce pour point temperature of crude oil from 36°C to 21°C.

  6. Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles for Highly Efficient Asphaltene Separation from Crude Oil Using Ceramic Membrane Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezakazemi Mashallah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aluminum oxide nanoparticles on the removal of asphaltenes from an Iranian crude oil (Soroush using a ceramic membrane with pore size of 0.2 µm were investigated. In order to achieve superior asphaltene separation by ultrafiltration, it is essential to make some changes for destabilizing asphaltene in crude oil. The asphaltene destabilization was done using crude oil contact with an acid containing dissolved metal ions. Metal oxide nanoparticles adsorbed asphaltene molecules and increased their molecular size. The nanoparticle of aluminum oxide was applied to alter precipitation and peptization properties of asphaltenes. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS was used to measurement of the asphaltene molecular size dissolved in toluene. Raman spectroscopy and the Tuinstra equation were used to determine the aromatic sheet diameter (La via the integrated intensities of the G and D1 modes. This revealed that the asphaltene particles react with nano aluminum oxide and the average molecular size of asphaltene was raised from 512.754 to 2949.557 nm and La from 5.482 to 13.787. The obtained results showed that using nano aluminum oxides, asphaltene separation increased from 60–85 wt% to 90–97 wt% based on the asphaltene content of crude oil.

  7. The crude oil market mechanism in the light of the 1990-91 price crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memarian, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to forecast crude oil prices in the 1990-91 crisis. The methodology used is based on the standard supply/demand apparatus, with respect to the possible political circumstances which prevailed during the crisis. The paper begins by modelling crude oil prices. Then the application of the model to the oil market will be discussed. The exclusive findings of this study concern the method of estimating that crude oil prices would grow to a maximum level of $32 per barrel just before the start of the (military) war in January 1991 -and, at the same time, that total excess demand would be around 2.5 million barrels per day, and that, in the case of an injection of about 2.5 mb/d of crude into the market, prices would collapse to their pre-crisis levels of approximately $19/b. It also shows how the effects of political deterioration on prices can be divided into a shift in the slope of the demand curve and a shift in the demand curve itself. (author)

  8. Dynamic Correlation between Stock Market Returns and Crude Oil Prices: Evidence from a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emenike O. Kalu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Modeling the correlation of assets returns volatilities across different markets or segments of a market has practical value for portfolio selection and diversification, market regulation, and risk management. This paper therefore evaluates the nature of time-varying correlation between volatilities of stock market and crude oil returns in Nigeria using Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH model. Results from DCC-GARCH (1,1 model show evidence of volatility clustering and persistence in Nigeria stock market and crude oil returns. The results also show that there is no dynamic conditional correlation in ARCH effects between stock market returns and crude oil prices in Nigeria. The results further show that there is strong evidence of time-varying volatility correlation between stock market and crude oil returns volatility. The findings will help shape policy-making in risk management and market regulation in Nigeria.

  9. Measuring Value-at-Risk and Expected Shortfall of crude oil portfolio using extreme value theory and vine copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenhua; Yang, Kun; Wei, Yu; Lei, Likun

    2018-01-01

    Volatilities of crude oil price have important impacts on the steady and sustainable development of world real economy. Thus it is of great academic and practical significance to model and measure the volatility and risk of crude oil markets accurately. This paper aims to measure the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of a portfolio consists of four crude oil assets by using GARCH-type models, extreme value theory (EVT) and vine copulas. The backtesting results show that the combination of GARCH-type-EVT models and vine copula methods can produce accurate risk measures of the oil portfolio. Mixed R-vine copula is more flexible and superior to other vine copulas. Different GARCH-type models, which can depict the long-memory and/or leverage effect of oil price volatilities, however offer similar marginal distributions of the oil returns.

  10. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  11. Research on the trend of Yen exchange rate and international crude oil price fluctuation affected by Japan’s earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoguang Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Whether this earthquake would become a turning point of the high oil price and whether it would have big impact on yen exchange rate are two issues to be discussed in this paper.Design/methodology/approach: To analyze deeply the internal relations between changes in yen exchange rate caused by Japan’s earthquake and price fluctuation of international crude oil, this research chooses middle rate of yen exchange rate during the 45 days around Japan’s earthquake and price data of international crude oil to do an empirical study, uses VAR model and HP trend decomposition to estimate the mutual effect of yen exchange rate change and price fluctuation of international crude oil in this period.Findings: It has been found in the empirical study with VAR model and HP filter decomposition model on the yen exchange rate and the international crude oil price fluctuation during 45 days around Japan’s earthquake that: the fluctuation of yen exchange rate around the earthquake is one of the main reasons for the drastic fluctuation of international crude oil price in that period. The fluctuation of international crude oil price directly triggered by yen exchange rate occupies 13.54% of its total variance. There is a long-term interactive relationship between yen exchange rate and international crude oil price. The upward trend of international crude oil price after the earthquake was obvious, while yen exchange rate remained relatively stable after the earthquake.Originality/value: As economic globalization goes deeper, the influence of natural disasters on international financial market and world economy will become more and more obvious. It has a great revelatory meaning to studying further each kind of natural disaster’s impacts on international financial market and world economics.

  12. How crude oil consumption impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in twenty three Sub-Saharan African countries. We applied a multivariate panel Granger causality framework during 1985–2011 and we included crude oil price as the control variable of the model. The results indicate that in the short-run, there is a bi-directional causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in oil importing region and there is a uni-directional causality relationship from crude oil consumption to GDP in oil exporting region. However, in the long-run there is a bi-directional causality relationship between them in both regions. Therefore, reducing crude oil consumption without employing appropriate policies adversely impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, in order to reduce crude oil dependency of the region policymakers should pay more attention to the issue of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: ► We examined Granger causality among oil consumption and GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa. ► Crude oil price is the control variable of the model. ► There is short run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP (oil importing). ► There is short run uni-directional causality from oil to GDP (oil exporting). ► There is a long run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP in both regions

  13. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  14. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  15. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  16. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... This spilled oil produces destructive effect on the environment. For example, when ... growth was separated from the oil using gas chromatography. The hydrocarbon that dissolved in carbon tetrachloride ... Gasoline and gas oil were also degraded (Figure 1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. The authors wish to ...

  17. Deciphering biodegradation effects on light hydrocarbons in crude oils using their stable carbon isotopic composition: a case study from the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand [Vieth; Heinz Wilkes

    2006-01-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis has become an important tool in environmental studies and is an especially powerful way to evaluate biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Here, carbon isotope ratios of light hydrocarbons were used to characterise in-reservoir biodegradation in the Gullfaks oil field, offshore Norway. Increasing biodegradation, as characterised, for example, by increasing concentration ratios of Pr/n-C17 and Ph/n-C18, and decreasing concentrations of individual light hydrocarbons ...

  18. Coal tar phototherapy for psoriasis reevaluated: erythemogenic versus suberythemogenic ultraviolet with a tar extract in oil and crude coal tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, N.J.; Wortzman, M.S.; Breeding, J.; Koudsi, H.; Taylor, L.

    1983-01-01

    Recent studies have questioned the therapeutic value of coal tar versus ultraviolet (UV) radiation and their relative necessity in phototherapy for psoriasis. In this investigation, different aspects of tar phototherapy have been studied in single-blind bilateral paired comparison studies. The effects of 1% crude coal tar were compared with those of petrolatum in conjunction with erythemogenic and suberythemogenic doses of ultraviolet light (UVB) using a FS72 sunlamp tubed cabinet. Crude coal tar was clinically superior to petrolatum with suberythemogenic ultraviolet. With the erythemogenic UVB, petrolatum was equal in efficacy to crude coal tar. Suberythemogenic UVB was also used adjunctively to compare the effects of a 5% concentration of a tar extract in an oil base to 5% crude coal tar in petrolatum or the oil base without tar. The tar extract in oil plus suberythemogenic UVB produced significantly more rapid improvement than the oil base plus UVB. The direct bilateral comparison of equal concentrations of tar extract in oil base versus crude coal tar in petrolatum in a suberythemogenic UV photo regimen revealed no statistical differences between treatments. In a study comparing tar extract in oil and the oil base without ultraviolet radiation, the tar extract in oil side responded more rapidly

  19. Potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude oil polluted soil was investigated. Three levels (100 g, 200 g and 300 g) of ash treatments in 2 kg of soil were set up alongside a control (nil ash) after pollution with100 ml of crude oil. Composite soil samples were collected and analyzed at intervals of ...

  20. Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of The Niger Delta. S Tamuno, JM Felix. Abstract. This paper examines the question as to whether crude oil resource is a blessing or curse to Nigeria: The case of the Niger Delta Region. The paper traces the origin of oil exploration and exploitation from ...

  1. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  2. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  3. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  4. Catalytic cracking of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure was cracked over zeolite. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C yielded 46.1% bio-oil with 62.5% recovered energy. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C removed 55.74% oxygen in the crude bio-oil. • The heating value and viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil were 41.4 MJ/kg and 3.6 cP. • Long chain acid methyl esters were cracked into alkanes, alkenes and short chain esters. - Abstract: The crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure which had large amount of long chain esters, was upgraded by thermal cracking over a modified zeolite catalyst. The effects of thermal cracking temperature (350–425 °C), reaction time (15–60 min) and catalyst loading (0–10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. The yield of upgraded bio-oil decreased with the increase of reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading, but the viscosity, heating value and composition of the upgraded bio-oil became more desirable. Taking into the consideration both the yield and quality of the upgraded bio-oil, the optimal thermal cracking could be achieved over 5 wt% catalyst at 400 °C for 30 min. Under this condition, the yield of upgraded bio-oil was 46.14 wt% of the crude bio-oil, and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered. The oxygen content of the upgraded bio-oil was 15.04%, which was less than half of the original value of 33.98%. The viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil was 3.6 cP, compared with 188.9 cP for the crude bio-oil. The heating value of the upgraded bio-oil was 41.4 MJ/kg, compared with 30.54 MJ/kg for the crude bio-oil. Both the viscosity and heating value of the upgraded bio-oil were comparable to those of commercial diesel. The GC–MS analysis showed that the catalytic upgrading resulted in the increased cracking of long-chain acid methyl esters (such as hexadecanoic acid methyl ester

  5. Studies on the dissolution and long term weathering of spilled crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackay, D; Charles, M E; Sumchi, Lee; Lun, R; Ooijen, H van; Romocki, K; Harner, T; Ralfs, M

    1993-04-01

    The development of a laboratory system for the study of the long term behavior of crude oil on a water surface is described. The apparatus consists of a cylindrical glass vessel containing water which is rotated at 33 rpm, thus creating a concave surface in which oil tends to accumulate at the center. Turbulence is induced by a stationary stirrer. Results are described of tests conducted with a number of crude oils and it is concluded that the system is able to create reproducible conditions of controlled evaporation, dissolution, turbulence, photolysis, and oil in water emulsion formation. A major advantage of the system is its simplicity and robustness which permits prolonged exposure of the oil to simulate weathering, over periods of weeks and months. A second system is described which can be used to determine the concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons under oil slicks by in-situ headspace analysis. A prototype submersible sparger sampling system was devised and tested, and results are presented. It is concluded that the system is a promising and practical method of determining the extent to which dissolved hydrocarbons are present in water at various depths under an oil slick. In both cases it is concluded that the concepts have sufficient merit that further work is justified. Recommendations are made for further research and development which will, it is hoped, enable these systems to be used to investigate aspects of the fate and effects of oil spills at sea. 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Ecologically friendly ways to clean up oil spills in harbor water areas: crude oil and diesel sorption behavior of natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Tatjana

    2018-04-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the sorption capacity of natural sorbents (wool, moss, straw, peat) and their composites during the sorption of crude oil and of diesel overspread on the water surface. The work presents the research results of the maximum sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites using crude oil/diesel; the sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites when crude oil/diesel is spilled on the water surface; and the research results of the unrealized part of the crude oil/diesel in the sorbents. The results of the analysis showed that all the sorbents and their composites have their selectivity to crude oil less than 50%. Also the results showed that the distribution of diesel and water in the sorbents and their composites is very different compared with the distribution of crude oil during the sorption analyses. In total, the diesel in the liquid mass absorbed by the straw and the peat amounted to 17 and 20%, respectively. This shows that these sorbents are much more selective for water but not for diesel. A larger part of the diesel was in the liquid amount absorbed by the composites-up to 33%. Accordingly, the use of these composites in watery environments is much more effective than the use of individual sorbents. The composition of sorbents in the composite enhanced both the hydrophobic and the oleophilic properties; as a result, a more effective removal of the diesel and oil from the water surface was achieved.

  7. Radiation processing studies on residual fractions of Olowi petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarfo, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Residual fuel oil is an inexpensive boiler fuel that can replace diesel in some industrial boilers. The viscous waxy nature of residual fuel oil makes it very difficult to use in industries where fuel storage tanks have no heating elements to keep the fuel at temperatures at which it would easily flow. Irradiation is currently being studied as a cost effective means of cracking heavy petroleum crude oil into lighter and more valuable products. Research has shown that irradiation can replace the conventional methods of cracking petroleum with economical benefits. Gamma radiation from a cobalt-60 source was applied to the residue obtained after refining crude oil in this research study, with the intention of causing a similar cracking phenomenon. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the possibility of using gamma radiation to reduce the viscosity of residual fractions of crude oil used as residual fuel oil. This was done by exposing samples of residual fuel oil in glass jars to 9 different doses of gamma radiation, at room temperature and an elevated temperature of 60 degrees Celsius to determine and quantify the effect of radiation on residual fuel oil obtained from the Tema Oil Refinery. The pour points of the irradiated samples were not affected by radiation doses up to 200 kGy while the changes in viscosity for irradiation at room temperature were not significant. Irradiation at 60 degrees Celsius induced a small but significant increase in viscosity at 1 kGy and 200 kGy absorbed doses of irradiation. Irradiation fuels were stable in relation to viscosity, density and pour point over a period of 20 days after exposure. The flash point of irradiated samples, however, decreased by 5.26, 10.53 and 11.34% for 30, 50 and 80 kGy absorbed doses of radiation respectively. Cumulative and continuous doses gave similar results for pour point, density, viscosity and flash point measurements up to 50 kGy. Comparative cost analysis of methods used in maintaining low

  8. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  9. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  10. Optimization of factors affecting the production of biodiesel from crude palm kernel oil and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwornoo, David. K. [Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Private Mail Bag, Kumasi (Ghana); Ahiekpor, Julius C. [Chemical Engineering Department, Kumasi Polytechnic, P.O. Box 854, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel made from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats, has been identified by government to play a key role in the socio-economic development of Ghana. The utilization of biodiesel is expected to be about 10% of the total liquid fuel mix of the country by the year 2020. Despite this great potential and the numerous sources from which biodiesel could be developed in Ghana, studies on the sources of biodiesel and their properties as a substitute for fossil diesel have tended to be limited to Jatropha oil. This paper, however, reports the parameters that influences the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil, one of the vegetable oils obtained from oil palm which is the highest vegetable oil source in Ghana. The parameters studied are; mass ratio of ethanol to oil, reaction temperature, catalyst concentration, and reaction time using completely randomized 24 factorial design. Results indicated that ethanol to oil mass ratio, catalyst concentration and reaction time were the most important factors affecting the ethyl ester yield. There was also an interaction effect between catalyst and time and ethanol- oil ratio and time on the yield. Accordingly, the optimal conditions for the production of ethyl esters from crude palm kernel oil were determined as; 1:5 mass ratio of ethanol to oil, 1% catalyst concentration by weight of oil, 90 minutes reaction time at a temperature of 30 deg C.

  11. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  12. Alkane and crude oil degrading bacteria from the petroliferous soil of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, I.; Mishra, A.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 0.5 percent of transported crude oil finds its way into seawater, largely through accidental spills and discharge of ballast and wash water from oil tankers. Some microorganisms are well known for their ability to degrade a variety of hydrocarbons present in crude oil. Oil spills at sea or on land have demonstrated the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of these organisms. Under laboratory conditions, nitrogen may be supplied in soluble form (inorganic salts of ammonia or nitrate of urea). Since most natural aquatic environments are deficient in utilizable forms of nitrogen, it is necess