WorldWideScience

Sample records for crude oil degradation

  1. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    The marine cyanobacteria Oscillatoria salina Biswas, Plectonema terebrans Bornet et Flanhault and Aphanocapsa sp. degraded Bombay High crude oil when grown in artificial seawater nutrients as well as in plain natural seawater. Oil removals...

  2. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  3. Microbial degradation of resins fractionated from Arabian light crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Hoaki, T.; Kato, M.; Maruyama, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment samples from the Japanese coasts were screened for microorganisms able to degrade resin components of crude oil. A mixed population that could degrade 35% of 5000 ppm resin in 15 days was obtained. This population also metabolized 50% of saturates and aromatics present in crude oil (5000 ppm) in 7 days. A Pseudomonas sp., isolated from the mixed population, emulsified and degraded 30% of resins. It also degraded saturates and aromatics (30%) present in crude oil (5000 ppm). These results were obtained from Iatroscan analysis. Degradation of crude oil was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The peaks corresponding to known aliphatic hydrocarbons in crude oil greatly decreased within the first two days of incubation in the cultures of the RY-mixed population and of Pseudomonas strain UN3. Aromatic compounds detected as a broad peak by GC were significantly degraded at day 7 by Pseudomonas strain UN3, and at day 15 by the RY-mixed population. Investigations are ongoing to determine the genetic basis for the ability of these organisms to grow on the resin fractions of crude oil as a sole source of carbon and energy. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Indigenous production of biosurfactant and degradation of crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Rashedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the isolation and identification of biosurfactant producing bacteria from Iranian oil wells. The biosurfactant production of bacteria isolates was evaluated and confirmed using hemolysis and emulsification tests. The biodegradation of crude oil was studied using GC and HPLC analysis. A total of 45 strains have been isolated. These strains showed less than a 40 mN m-1 reduction in surface tension. The effects of different pH (4.2-9.2, salinity concentrations (1%-15%, and temperatures (25-50 in biosurfactant production of isolated strains were evaluated. One of the strains (Bacillus sp. NO.4 showed a high salt tolerance and a successful production of biosurfactant in a vast pH range. Its maximum biomass production (about 3.1 g L-1 dry weight was achieved after 60 hours of growth. The surface tension of the culture broth dropped rapidly after inoculation and reached its lowest value (36 mN m-1 during the exponential phase after about 36-48 hours of growth. The study of the GC graphs showed that higher aliphatic reduction occurred in fractions with C14 to C24 hydrocarbons. The depicted results of the HPLC graphs indicated a 100% degradation of chrysene and fluorine. In this study, we demonstrated the useful capacities of the isolates in removing oil pollutants and their application in MEOR in vitro.

  5. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on crude oil degradation in a sandy soil. With poultry manure alone, optimal crude oil degradation was obtained at a concentration of 4.0% ...

  6. Biosurfactant and Degradative Enzymes Mediated Crude Oil Degradation by Bacterium Bacillus subtilis A1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Preetham, Elumalai; Machuca, Laura L.; Rahman, Pattanathu K. S. M.; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the biodegradation of the crude oil by the potential biosurfactant producing Bacillus subtilis A1 was investigated. The isolate had the ability to synthesize degradative enzymes such as alkane hydroxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase at the time of biodegradation of hydrocarbon. The biosurfactant producing conditions were optimized as pH 7.0, temperature 40°C, 2% sucrose and 3% of yeast extract as best carbon and nitrogen sources for maximum production of biosurfactant (4.85 g l-1). Specifically, the low molecular weight compounds, i.e., C10–C14 were completely degraded, while C15–C19 were degraded up to 97% from the total hydrocarbon pools. Overall crude oil degradation efficiency of the strain A1 was about 87% within a short period of time (7 days). The accumulated biosurfactant from the biodegradation medium was characterized to be lipopeptide in nature. The strain A1 was found to be more robust than other reported biosurfactant producing bacteria in degradation efficiency of crude oil due to their enzyme production capability and therefore can be used to remove the hydrocarbon pollutants from contaminated environment. PMID:28232826

  7. Laboratory based degradation of light crude oil by aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... This spilled oil produces destructive effect on the environment. For example, when ... growth was separated from the oil using gas chromatography. The hydrocarbon that dissolved in carbon tetrachloride ... Gasoline and gas oil were also degraded (Figure 1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. The authors wish to ...

  8. Bioremediation Potential of Native Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria in Crude Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MARINESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soil is an effective process to clean petroleum pollutants from the environment. Crude oil bioremediation of soils is limited by the bacteria activity in degrading the spills hydrocarbons. Native crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from different crude oil polluted soils. The isolated bacteria belong to the genera Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Bacillus. A natural biodegradable product and bacterial inoculum were used for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from an artificial polluted soil. For soil polluted with 5% crude oil, the bacterial top, including those placed in the soil by inoculation was 30 days after impact, respectively 7 days after inoculum application, while in soil polluted with 10% crude oil,  multiplication top of bacteria was observed in the determination made at 45 days after impact and 21 days after inoculum application, showing once again how necessary is for microorganisms habituation and adaptation to environment being a function of pollutant concentration. The microorganisms inoculated showed a slight adaptability in soil polluted with 5% crude oil, but complete inhibition in the first 30 days of experiment at 10% crude oil.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingopyxis sp. Strain MWB1, a Crude-Oil-Degrading Marine Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Seung Il; Moon, Yoon-Jung; Park, Sung-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Sphingopyxis sp. strain MWB1, which is capable of degrading crude oil, diesel, and kerosene, was isolated from crude oil–contaminated seashore in Tae-an, South Korea. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which comprises 3,118,428 bp with a G+C content of 62.85 mol%. PMID:25477411

  10. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C.; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m−1, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L−1. FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed. PMID:28275373

  11. Characterization of Biosurfactant Produced during Degradation of Hydrocarbons Using Crude Oil As Sole Source of Carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Patowary, Rupshikha; Kalita, Mohan C; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    Production and spillage of petroleum hydrocarbons which is the most versatile energy resource causes disastrous environmental pollution. Elevated oil degrading performance from microorganisms is demanded for successful microbial remediation of those toxic pollutants. The employment of biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbes enhances the effectiveness of bioremediation as biosurfactant plays a key role by making hydrocarbons bio-available for degradation. The present study aimed the isolation of a potent biosurfactant producing indigenous bacteria which can be employed for crude oil remediation, along with the characterization of the biosurfactant produced during crude oil biodegradation. A potent bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil that could efficiently produce biosurfactant by utilizing crude oil components as the carbon source, thereby leading to the enhanced degradation of the petroleum hydrocarbons. Strain PG1 could degrade 81.8% of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) after 5 weeks of culture when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) supplemented with 2% (v/v) crude oil as the sole carbon source. GCMS analysis of the treated crude oil samples revealed that P. aeruginosa PG1 could potentially degrade various hydrocarbon contents including various PAHs present in the crude oil. Biosurfactant produced by strain PG1 in the course of crude oil degradation, promotes the reduction of surface tension (ST) of the culture medium from 51.8 to 29.6 mN m -1 , with the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 56 mg L -1 . FTIR, LC-MS, and SEM-EDS studies revealed that the biosurfactant is a rhamnolipid comprising of both mono and di rhamnolipid congeners. The biosurfactant did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect to mouse L292 fibroblastic cell line, however, strong antibiotic activity against some pathogenic bacteria and fungus was observed.

  12. Characterization of dioxygenases and biosurfactants produced by crude oil degrading soil bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhakumar Muthukamalam

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.

  13. Isolation and characterization of novel hydrocarbon-degrading euryhaline consortia from crude oil and mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedad Díaz, M; Grigson, S J; Peppiatt, C J; Burgess, J G

    2000-11-01

    Two novel and versatile bacterial consortia were developed for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons. They were isolated from crude oil from the Cormorant Field in the North Sea (MPD-7) and from sediment associated with mangrove roots (MPD-M). The bacterial consortia were able to degrade both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils very effectively in seawater (35 g/L NaCl) and synthetic media containing 0 to 100 g/L NaCl (1.7 M). Salinities over twice that of normal seawater decreased the biodegradation rates. However, even at the highest salinity biodegradation was significant. Ratios of nC17 to pristane and nC18 to phytane were significantly lowered across the range of salinity. The lowest values were at 0 and 20 g/L (0.34 M). Phytane was degraded in preference to pristane. The degradation of these compounds was constant over the salinity range, with evidence of a slight increase for consortium MPD-M with increasing salinity. In general, the consortium isolated from mangrove root sediments was more efficient in metabolizing North Sea crude oil than the consortium isolated from Cormorant crude oil. The 5 strains that comprise MPD-M have been tentatively identified as species of the genera Marinobacter, Bacillus, and Erwinia. This is the first report of hydrocarbon-degrading consortia isolated from crude oil and mangrove sediments that are capable of treating oily wastes over such a wide range of salinity.

  14. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  15. Exploration of Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria on Soils Contaminated by Crude Oil From South Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Napoleon, A; Probowati, D S

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3) sites of contaminated soil and treated using SB...

  16. Effects of surfactants on bacteria and the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Per

    1998-12-31

    This thesis investigates the effects of surfactants on the bacterial degradation of alkanes in crude oil. Several alkane oxidising Gram positive and Gram negative were tested for their abilities to oxidise alkanes in crude oil emulsified with surfactants. The surfactants used to make the oil in water emulsions were either of microbial or chemical origin. Oxidation rates of resting bacteria oxidising various crude oil in water emulsions were measured by Warburg respirometry. The emulsions were compared with non-emulsified oil to see which was the preferred substrate. The bacteria were pregrown to both the exponential and stationary phase of growth before harvesting and preparation for the Warburg experiments. 123 refs., 4 figs., 14 tabs.

  17. Optimization of crude oil degradation by Dietzia cinnamea KA1, capable of biosurfactant production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavynifard, Amirarsalan; Ebrahimipour, Gholamhossein; Ghasempour, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was isolation and characterization of a crude oil degrader and biosurfactant-producing bacterium, along with optimization of conditions for crude oil degradation. Among 11 isolates, 5 were able to emulsify crude oil in Minimal Salt Medium (MSM) among which one isolate, named KA1, showed the highest potency for growth rate and biodegradation. The isolate was identified as Dietzia cinnamea KA1 using morphological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The optimal conditions were 510 mM NaCl, pH 9.0, 35 °C, and minimal requirement of 46.5 mM NH4 Cl and 2.10 mM NaH2 PO4 . Gravimetric test and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy technique (GC-MS) showed that Dietzia cinnamea KA1 was able to utilize and degrade 95.7% of the crude oil after 5 days, under the optimal conditions. The isolate was able to grow and produce biosurfactant when cultured in MSM supplemented with crude oil, glycerol or whey as the sole carbon sources, but bacterial growth was occurred using molasses with no biosurfactant production. This is the first report of biosurfactant production by D. cinnamea using crude oil, glycerol and whey and the first study to report a species of Dietzia degrading a wide range of hydrocarbons in a short time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Alkane and crude oil degrading bacteria from the petroliferous soil of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, I.; Mishra, A.K.; Ray, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    It has been estimated that approximately 0.5 percent of transported crude oil finds its way into seawater, largely through accidental spills and discharge of ballast and wash water from oil tankers. Some microorganisms are well known for their ability to degrade a variety of hydrocarbons present in crude oil. Oil spills at sea or on land have demonstrated the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of these organisms. Under laboratory conditions, nitrogen may be supplied in soluble form (inorganic salts of ammonia or nitrate of urea). Since most natural aquatic environments are deficient in utilizable forms of nitrogen, it is necessary to add the same exogeneously, but because of rapid dilution the added source of nitrogen does not remain effective. The need for nitrogen supplements may be overcome by appropriate choice of microbes with the genetic capacity to fix molecular nitrogen. In this paper the authors are reporting the isolation of a strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri from the petroliferous soil of India. This strain has the capacity to degrade alkane and crude oil and to fix nitrogen

  19. The quantitative significance of Syntrophaceae and syntrophic partnerships in methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Grant, R J; Rowan, A K; Hubert, C R J; Callbeck, C M; Aitken, C M; Jones, D M; Adams, J J; Larter, S R; Head, I M

    2011-11-01

    Libraries of 16S rRNA genes cloned from methanogenic oil degrading microcosms amended with North Sea crude oil and inoculated with estuarine sediment indicated that bacteria from the genera Smithella (Deltaproteobacteria, Syntrophaceace) and Marinobacter sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) were enriched during degradation. Growth yields and doubling times (36 days for both Smithella and Marinobacter) were determined using qPCR and quantitative data on alkanes, which were the predominant hydrocarbons degraded. The growth yield of the Smithella sp. [0.020 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)], assuming it utilized all alkanes removed was consistent with yields of bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in methanogenic consortia. Over 450 days of incubation predominance and exponential growth of Smithella was coincident with alkane removal and exponential accumulation of methane. This growth is consistent with Smithella's occurrence in near surface anoxic hydrocarbon degrading systems and their complete oxidation of crude oil alkanes to acetate and/or hydrogen in syntrophic partnership with methanogens in such systems. The calculated growth yield of the Marinobacter sp., assuming it grew on alkanes, was [0.0005 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)] suggesting that it played a minor role in alkane degradation. The dominant methanogens were hydrogenotrophs (Methanocalculus spp. from the Methanomicrobiales). Enrichment of hydrogen-oxidizing methanogens relative to acetoclastic methanogens was consistent with syntrophic acetate oxidation measured in methanogenic crude oil degrading enrichment cultures. qPCR of the Methanomicrobiales indicated growth characteristics consistent with measured rates of methane production and growth in partnership with Smithella. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Crude Oil Degrading and Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria from the Oil-Contaminated Soils of Gachsaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Zahra Hashemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Petroleum hydrocarbons are harmful to the environment, human health, and all other living creatures. Oil and its byproducts in contact with water block sunshine to phytoplanktons and thus break the food chain and damage the marine food source. This study aims to isolate the crude oil degrading and biosurfactant producing bacteria from the oil contaminated soils of Gachsaran, Iran. Materials and Methods: Isolation was performed in peptone-water medium with yeast extract. Oil displacement area, emulsification index and bacterial phylogeny using 16S rRNA analysis were studied. Results and Conclusion: Three isolates were able to degrade the crude oil. In the first day, there were two phases in the medium; after a few days, these three bacteria degraded the crude oil until there was only one phase left in the medium. One strain was selected as a superior strain by homogenizing until the medium became clear and transparent. This method confirmed that the strain produces biosurfactant. According to the morphological and biochemical tests, the strain isolated from the oil contaminated soils is a member of Bacillus subtilis, so to study the bacterial phylogeny and taxonomy of the strain, an analysis of 16S rRNA was carried out, and the phylogenic tree confirmed them. The results verified that oil contaminated soils are good source for isolation of the biosurfactant producing bacteria.

  1. Isolation and identification of crude oil degrading bacteria from gastropod Haustrum scobina collected from Persian Gulf (Bandar Abbas Shoreline provenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinab Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biodegradation is a good alternative rather than chemical and physical methods for cleaning oil contaminated areas. Several factors like crude oil concentration, biosurfactant production, salinity and incubation time affect the biodegradation. Materials and methods: In this study, seawater sample and gastropod were collected from Persian Gulf. To isolate oil degrading bacteria from collected samples, ONR7a medium was used. The strains that had more growth and higher oil removal were selected and identified. The factors such as the effect of different concentrations of oil, incubation time, mixed cultures and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. Results: Six crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated. Between these bacteria 2 strains were selected based on higher oil removal. These strains belonged to the genus Vibrio and Halomonas. Strains with higher Emulsification activity produce more biosurfactant and have higher oil biodegradation. Growth and oil degradation have increment pattern by prolonging the incubation time. Mixed culture of Vibrio and Halomonas strains have higher rates of degradation rather than culturing with one of them. Increase in crudeoil concentration to 2.5% caused reduction in growth of bacteria and degradation of oil. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study show that crude oil degrading bacteria have high diversity in Persian Gulf. These bacteria have higher capability for oil degradation thus they can be used for remediation of oil contaminated areas.

  2. Screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in liquid organic waste (effluent samples)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpe, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    The screening for crude oil degrading bacteria in some liquid organic wastes (cassava mill effluents, rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents) was carried out. Hydrocarbon utilising bacteria were isolated on mineral salt agar using vapour phase technique. The samples yielded 20 bacterial isolates from 13 different genera. Cassava mill effluent and rubber effluent had the highest number (7), while oil palm effluent had the least number (6) of bacterial isolates. The isolates that had the highest occurrence (occurring in all samples) were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Of these 13 genera 9 were gram negative, while only 4 were gram positive. The total heterotrophic bacterial (THB) count and total hydrocarbon utilisers (THU) from all the effluent samples ranged from 3.0 * 10/sup 4/ to 6.0* 10/sup 7/ cfu/mL and 2.3 *10/sup 2/ to 4.2*10/sup 3/ cfu/mL, respectively. The counts of hydrocarbon utilisers were obviously lower than the heterotrophic counts, although the differences in counts were found to be statistically non-significant (P > 0.05). Rubber effluents and oil palm mill effluents had the highest number of hydrocarbon utilisers with three isolates each. The active hydrocarbon utilisers encountered in this study included Serratia marscescens, Bacillus cereus, P. aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus subtilis. Presence of nutrients and crude oil degrading bacteria in these effluents suggests that these effluents can be used to enhance bioremediation through their use as biostimulation and bioaugmentation agents. (author)

  3. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida) demonstrate potential for use in soil bioremediation by increasing the degradation rates of heavy crude oil hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinkosky, Luke; Barkley, Jaimie; Sabadell, Gabriel; Gough, Heidi; Davidson, Seana

    2017-02-15

    Crude oil contamination widely impacts soil as a result of release during oil and gas exploration and production activities. The success of bioremediation methods to meet remediation goals often depends on the composition of the crude oil, the soil, and microbial community. Earthworms may enhance bioremediation by mixing and aerating the soil, and exposing soil microorganisms to conditions in the earthworm gut that lead to increased activity. In this study, the common composting earthworm Eisenia fetida was tested for utility to improve remediation of oil-impacted soil. E. fetida survival in soil contaminated with two distinct crude oils was tested in an artificial (lab-mixed) sandy loam soil, and survival compared to that in the clean soil. Crude oil with a high fraction of light-weight hydrocarbons was more toxic to earthworms than the crude oil with a high proportion of heavy polyaromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The heavier crude oil was added to soil to create a 30,000mg/kg crude oil impacted soil, and degradation in the presence of added earthworms and feed, feed alone, or no additions was monitored over time and compared. Earthworm feed was spread on top to test effectiveness of no mixing. TPH degradation rate for the earthworm treatments was ~90mg/day slowing by 200days to ~20mg/day, producing two phases of degradation. With feed alone, the rate was ~40mg/day, with signs of slowing after 500days. Both treatments reached the same end point concentrations, and exhibited faster degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons C21, decreased. During these experiments, soils were moderately toxic during the first three months, then earthworms survived well, were active and reproduced with petroleum hydrocarbons present. This study demonstrated that earthworms accelerate bioremediation of crude oil in soils, including the degradation of the heaviest polyaromatic fractions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrocarbon degraders establish at the costs of microbial richness, abundance and keystone taxa after crude oil contamination in permafrost environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Shi, Yulan; Liebner, Susanne; Jin, Huijun; Perfumo, Amedea

    2016-01-01

    Oil spills from pipeline ruptures are a major source of terrestrial petroleum pollution in cold regions. However, our knowledge of the bacterial response to crude oil contamination in cold regions remains to be further expanded, especially in terms of community shifts and potential development of hydrocarbon degraders. In this study we investigated changes of microbial diversity, population size and keystone taxa in permafrost soils at four different sites along the China-Russia crude oil pipeline prior to and after perturbation with crude oil. We found that crude oil caused a decrease of cell numbers together with a reduction of the species richness and shifts in the dominant phylotypes, while bacterial community diversity was highly site-specific after exposure to crude oil, reflecting different environmental conditions. Keystone taxa that strongly co-occurred were found to form networks based on trophic interactions, that is co-metabolism regarding degradation of hydrocarbons (in contaminated samples) or syntrophic carbon cycling (in uncontaminated samples). With this study we demonstrate that after severe crude oil contamination a rapid establishment of endemic hydrocarbon degrading communities takes place under favorable temperature conditions. Therefore, both endemism and trophic correlations of bacterial degraders need to be considered in order to develop effective cleanup strategies. PMID:27886221

  5. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  6. Characterization of Crude Oil Degrading Bacteria Isolated from Contaminated Soils Surrounding Gas Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Eraky, Mohamed; Haddad, Ahmed M; Abdel-Gaffar, Abdel-Rahman B; Salem, Ahmed M

    2016-11-01

    A total of twenty bacterial cultures were isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Of the 20 isolates, RAM03, RAM06, RAM13, and RAM17 were specifically chosen based on their relatively higher growth on salt medium amended with 4 % crude oil, emulsion index, surface tension, and degradation percentage. These bacterial cultures had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were most similar to Ochrobactrum cytisi (RAM03), Ochrobactrum anthropi (RAM06 and RAM17), and Sinorhizobium meliloti (RAM13) with 96 %, 100 % and 99 %, and 99 % similarity. The tested strains revealed a promising potential for bioremediation of petroleum oil contamination as they could degrade >93 % and 54 % of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a liquid medium and soil amended with 4 % crude oil, respectively, after 30 day incubation. These bacteria could effectively remove both aliphatic and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons. In conclusion, these strains could be considered as good prospects for their application in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated environment.

  7. Photochemical degradation of crude oil: Comparison between direct irradiation, photocatalysis, and photocatalysis on zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Auria, Maurizio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy)], E-mail: maurizio.dauria@unibas.it; Emanuele, Lucia; Racioppi, Rocco; Velluzzi, Vincenzina [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro 85, 85100 Potenza (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    Direct irradiation for 100 h of crude oil from Basilicata (Southern Italy) gave in the case of linear and branched alkanes a reduction of 9 and 5%, respectively. On the contrary, cyclic alkanes decreased for 54% while aromatic hydrocarbons showed a reduction of 37%. These results are in agreement with a prevalent electron transfer mechanism. Photocatalysis (100 h) gave extensive degradation of crude oil: linear alkanes were degraded for 98.66%, branched alkanes were reduced for 97.31%, cyclic alkanes for 96.04%, while aromatic compounds and alkenes were reduced for 99.54 and 98.38%, respectively. These results are in agreement with a prevalent hydrogen abstraction mechanism. When photocatalysis is performed in the presence of zeolite linear alkanes were degraded for 79.85%, branched alkanes were reduced for 45.38%, cyclic alkanes for 58.10%, while aromatic compounds were reduced for 91.85%. In this case, an increase of the relative amount of alkenes (42.05%) was observed.

  8. Photochemical degradation of crude oil: Comparison between direct irradiation, photocatalysis, and photocatalysis on zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, Maurizio; Emanuele, Lucia; Racioppi, Rocco; Velluzzi, Vincenzina

    2009-01-01

    Direct irradiation for 100 h of crude oil from Basilicata (Southern Italy) gave in the case of linear and branched alkanes a reduction of 9 and 5%, respectively. On the contrary, cyclic alkanes decreased for 54% while aromatic hydrocarbons showed a reduction of 37%. These results are in agreement with a prevalent electron transfer mechanism. Photocatalysis (100 h) gave extensive degradation of crude oil: linear alkanes were degraded for 98.66%, branched alkanes were reduced for 97.31%, cyclic alkanes for 96.04%, while aromatic compounds and alkenes were reduced for 99.54 and 98.38%, respectively. These results are in agreement with a prevalent hydrogen abstraction mechanism. When photocatalysis is performed in the presence of zeolite linear alkanes were degraded for 79.85%, branched alkanes were reduced for 45.38%, cyclic alkanes for 58.10%, while aromatic compounds were reduced for 91.85%. In this case, an increase of the relative amount of alkenes (42.05%) was observed

  9. Dissolution and degradation of crude oil droplets by different bacterial species and consortia by microcosm microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Sheng, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Bacteria are involved in cleanup and degradation of crude oil in polluted marine and soil environments. A number of bacterial species have been identified for consuming petroleum hydrocarbons with diverse metabolic capabilities. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate bacterial consumption by monitoring the volume change to oil droplets as well as effects of oil droplet size on this process. To conduct our study, we developed a micro-bioassay containing an enclosed chamber with bottom substrate printed with stationary oil microdroplets and a digital holographic interferometer (DHI). The morphology of microdroplets was monitored in real time over 100 hours and instantaneous flow field was also measured by digital holographic microscope. The substrates with printed oil droplets were further evaluated with atomic force microscopy (AFM) at the end of each experiment. Three different bacteria species, Pseudomonas sp, Alcanivorax borkumensis, and Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, as well as six bacterial consortia were used in this study. The results show that droplets smaller than 20µm in diameter are not subject to bacterial degradation and the volume of droplet did not change beyond dissolution. Substantial species-specific behaviors have been observed in isolates. The experiments of consortia and various flow shears on biodegradation and dissolution are ongoing and will be reported.

  10. Exploration of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on soils contaminated by crude oil from South Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Napoleon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to explore hydrocarbon degrading bacteria on crude oil contaminated soil with potential to degrade hydrocarbon in oil pollutant. The research started by early August 2013 till January 2014. Soil sampling for this research was taken on several places with contaminated soil location such as Benakat, Rimau, and Pengabuan all of it located in South Sumatera. Conclusion from this research Isolates obtained from three (3 sites of contaminated soil and treated using SBS medium were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pnumoniae, Streptococcus beta hemolisa, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus epidermis and Acinotobacter calcoaceticus. Isolates that survived on 300 ppm of hydrocarbon concentration were Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter cakciaceticus Selected isolates posses the ability to degrade hydrocarbon by breaking hydrocarbon substance as the energy source to support isolates existence up to 1,67 TPH level. Based on results accomplish by this research, we urge for further research involving the capacity of isolates to degrade wide variety of hydrocarbon substance and more to develop the potential of these bacteria for bioremediation.

  11. Bioremediation of soil polluted with crude oil and its derivatives: Microorganisms, degradation pathways, technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beškoski Vladimir P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of soil and water with petroleum and its products occurs due to accidental spills during exploitation, transport, processing, storing and use. In order to control the environmental risks caused by petroleum products a variety of techniques based on physical, chemical and biological methods have been used. Biological methods are considered to have a comparative advantage as cost effective and environmentally friendly technologies. Bioremediation, defined as the use of biological systems to destroy and reduce the concentrations of hazardous waste from contaminated sites, is an evolving technology for the removal and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as industrial solvents, phenols and pesticides. Microorganisms are the main bioremediation agents due to their diverse metabolic capacities. In order to enhance the rate of pollutant degradation the technology optimizes the conditions for the growth of microorganisms present in soil by aeration, nutrient addition and, if necessary, by adding separately prepared microorganisms cultures. The other factors that influence the efficiency of process are temperature, humidity, presence of surfactants, soil pH, mineral composition, content of organic substance of soil as well as type and concentration of contaminant. This paper presents a review of our ex situ bioremediation procedures successfully implemented on the industrial level. This technology was used for treatment of soils contaminated by crude oil and its derivatives originated from refinery as well as soils polluted with oil fuel and transformer oil.

  12. Characterization of native fungi responsible for degrading crude oil from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL-Mooti EL-Hanafy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 15 fungal isolates were obtained from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea in the Yanbu region. Based on the preliminary DCPIP (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol assay, three isolates showed promising oil degrading ability. The next-generation sequencing of the ITS-I and ITS-II internal transcribed spacer regions assigned the isolates to Aspergillus and Penicillium. Among these three strains, Y2 (Aspergillus oryzae was the most efficient, degrading about 99% of the crude oil. The degradation rates were corroborated using spectrophotometric and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. All the three strains proved to be potent oil-degrading strains and, hence, can be utilized to degrade oil contaminants.

  13. Enhanced biological degradation of crude oil in a Spitsbergen tundra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sveum, P.; Faksness, L.-G.

    1993-01-01

    A series of oil-contaminated tundra plots on Spitsbergen was treated with combinations of five different fertilizer additives. Both organic and mineral nutrient sources were used, alone or in combination. Biological degradation of oil was recorded in all of the plots. The extent of degradation depended on the type of fertilizer added. The local conditions influence oil degradation significantly, as well as the effect of the fertilizer. Urea, SkogAN (a slow releasing fertilizer), and a blend of fish meals all give high degrees of oil degradation. Both the microbial parameters and the total heterotrophic respiration are influenced by the addition of fertilizers. 6 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Biosurfactant and enzyme mediated crude oil degradation by Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthipan, Punniyakotti; Elumalai, Punniyakotti; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Sabarinathan, Devaraj; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the optimization of biosurfactant (BS) production using two potential biosurfactant producer Pseudomonas stutzeri NA3 and Acinetobacter baumannii MN3 and role of enzymes in the biodegradation of crude oil. The optimal conditions for P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 for biodegradation were pH of 8 and 7; temperature of 30 and 40 °C, respectively. P. stutzeri NA3 and A. baumannii MN3 produced 3.81 and 4.68 g/L of BS, respectively. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry confirmed that BS was mainly composed of fatty acids. Furthermore, the role of the degradative enzymes, alkane hydroxylase, alcohol dehydrogenase and laccase on biodegradation of crude oil are explained. Maximum biodegradation efficiency (BE) was recorded for mixed consortia (86%) followed by strain P. stutzeri NA3 (84%). Both bacterial strains were found to be vigorous biodegraders of crude oil than other biosurfactant-producing bacteria due to their enzyme production capabilities and our results suggests that the bacterial isolates can be used for effective degradation of crude oil within short time periods.

  15. Bioremediation of crude oil polluted seawater by a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain immobilized on chitin and chitosan flakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentili, A.R.; Cubitto, M.A.; Ferrero, M.; Rodriguez, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In this laboratory-scale study, we examined the potential of chitin and chitosan flakes obtained from shrimp wastes as carrier material for a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain. Flakes decontamination, immobilization conditions and the survival of the immobilized bacterial strain under different storage temperatures were evaluated. The potential of immobilized hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial strain for crude oil polluted seawater bioremediation was tested in seawater microcosms. In terms of removal percentage of crude oil after 15 days, the microcosms treated with the immobilized inoculants proved to be the most successful. The inoculants formulated with chitin and chitosan as carrier materials improved the survival and the activity of the immobilized strain. It is important to emphasize that the inoculants formulated with chitin showed the best performance during storage and seawater bioremediation. (author)

  16. Phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil contaminated drill sites of Assam with the aid of a hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenn, R; Borah, M; Boruah, H P Deka; Roy, A Sarma; Baruah, R; Saikia, N; Sahu, O P; Tamuli, A K

    2014-01-01

    Environmental deterioration due to crude oil contamination and abandoned drill sites is an ecological concern in Assam. To revive such contaminated sites, afield study was conducted to phytoremediate four crude oil abandoned drill sites of Assam (Gelakey, Amguri, Lakwa, and Borholla) with the aid of two hydrocarbon-degrading Pseudomonas strains designated N3 and N4. All the drill sites were contaminated with 15.1 to 32.8% crude oil, and the soil was alkaline in nature (pH8.0-8.7) with low moisture content, low soil conductivity and low activities of the soil enzymes phosphatase, dehydrogenase and urease. In addition, N, P, K, and C contents were below threshold limits, and the soil contained high levels of heavy metals. Bio-augmentation was achieved by applying Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains N3 and N4 followed by the introduction of screened plant species Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Azadirachta indica, and Michelia champaca. The findings established the feasibility of the phytoremediation of abandoned crude oil-contaminated drill sites in Assam using microbes and native plants.

  17. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH ...

  18. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... on the highest achievable oil slick temperature. Based on this mechanism, predictions can then be made depending on the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and the measured surface temperature....

  19. Crude oil market report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Falling demand for refined products and an excess of production capacity are driving world oil prices down further. Competitive price cutting, notably by Mexico, Britain, and the Soviet Union, has left Saudi Arabia the only guardian of a costly pricing discipline in terms of crude oil sales. The current crisis is limited to the producers of crude oil. Refineries are now deciding what, where, and how to buy crude in order to meet the requirements of a slack market place. Saudi Arabia could precipitate a price collapse below $20 per barrel by increasing production volume, but that seems unlikely. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  20. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleftheria eAntoniou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants (BS are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on biosurfactant production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Results indicate that biosurfactant production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of biosurfactants that enables biodegradation of the crude oil. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of crude oil has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  1. Optimal Physical and Nutrient Parameters for Growth of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M for Heavy Crude Oil Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainon Hamzah; Buzarin, M.A.; Aidil Abdul Hamid; Thmanomar, O.; Sahidan Senafi

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the optimal parameters for the production of biomass of Trichoderma virens UKMP-1M, a fungus isolated from oil-polluted wastewater. The isolate showed maximum growth at day six after incubation in Mineral Salt Medium (MSM) in the presence of 3 % (v/ v) heavy Khefji Sour crude oil. Although it grew at pH between 5.0 and 7.0, it grew best at pH 5.5. T. virens UKMP-1M grew at temperatures between 25 and 35 degree Celsius, with its highest growth at 30 degree Celsius. Aeration by agitation at 200 rpm was shown to yield the greatest biomass. Peptone at concentration of 1.5 % (w/ v) was determined to be a better nitrogen source than urea, potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ), yeast extract, ammonium sulphate ((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) and ammonium chloride (NH 4 Cl). Addition of 1 % (v/ v) crude oil to the MSM medium led to higher biomass production than the addition of 3 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % (v/ v) crude oil. The result also revealed that 40 % of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), 100 % of pristane and 74 % of phytane compounds were degraded after 9 days of incubation at optimal physical and nutrient parameters. (author)

  2. 1999 Crude oil market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochener, J.

    1998-01-01

    Baseline projection handling of crude oil prices was discussed, based on actual crude oil price trends from 1992 to 1998. Attention was drawn to the lack of correlation between crude oil and natural gas prices. Predictions for crude oil production were extended to the year 2015. As far as the immediate future is concerned the crude oil price for 1999 was predicted to continue to be sluggish due to competitive pressure from refined products at burner tip. tabs., figs

  3. Bacterial degradation of emulsified crude oil and the effects of various surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of surfactants on the oxidation rate of alkanes in crude oil were investigated using a selected bacterial species, Rhodococcus sp., pregrown to various growth stages. Oxidation rates were measured in a three-hour period by Warburg respirometry. Response to emulsified oil was found to be dependent on the physiological state of the bacteria. In the exponential growth phase oxidation rates were negatively affected by surfactant amendment, whereas in the stationary growth phase oxidation rates appear to have been stimulated. The stimulatory effect was attributed to the chemical structure and physico-chemical properties of the surfactants. Surfactants with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values (HLB) in the intermediate range of 8-12 gave the best values. Neither the commercial dispersants nor the biosurfactants exhibited any stimulative effects. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Degradation of hydrocarbons in crude oil by the ascomycete Pseudallescheria boydii (Microascaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, T. M.; Abbott, S. P.; Foght, J. M.; Currah, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Four strains of Pseudallescheria boydii were isolated from oil-soaked soils in British Columbia and Alberta and compared with strains from cattle dung and raw sewage. Variations in morphology, colony appearance, colony diameter and temperature tolerance were found among the strains. Three of the strains isolated from oil-contaminated soils and the strain from sewage were tested for their ability to utilize hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source. Gas chromatographic analysis of the residual oil revealed that the strains isolated from the oil-contaminated soil degraded the linear aliphatics. The strain derived from sewage utilized volatile n-alkenes (ethane, propane, butane) but did not utilize the liquid saturate compounds. Since certain strains of Pseudallescheria boydii are known to be pathogenic, cautious handling of these fungi was recommended. However, under properly controlled conditions, selected non-pathogenic strains of the fungi may be used as an integral and effective part of intrinsic bioremediation processes. 39 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Bacterial consortia for crude oil spill remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhatre, S.; Purohit, H.; Shanker, R.; Khanna, P.

    1996-01-01

    Oil spills generate enormous public concern and highlight the need for cost effective ad environmentally acceptable mitigation technologies. Physico-chemical methods are not completely effective after a spill. Hence, there is a need for improved and alternative technologies. Bioremediation is the most environmentally sound technology for clean up. This report intends to determine the potential of a bacterial consortium for degradation of Gulf and Bombay High crude oil. A four membered consortium was designed that could degrade 70% of the crude oil. A member of consortium produced a biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, that emulsified crude oil efficiently for effective degradation by the other members of consortium. The wide range of hydrocarbonoclastic capabilities of the selected members of bacterial consortium leads to the degradation of both aromatic and aliphatic fractions of crude oil in 72 hours. (Author)

  6. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The genome sequence of Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T reveals its genetic basis for crude oil degradation and adaptation to the saline soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Nie

    Full Text Available Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T is the type strain of a novel species in the recently published novel genus Polymorphum isolated from saline soil contaminated with crude oil. It is capable of using crude oil as the sole carbon and energy source and can adapt to saline soil at a temperature of 45°C. The Polymorphum gilvum genome provides a genetic basis for understanding how the strain could degrade crude oil and adapt to a saline environment. Genome analysis revealed the versatility of the strain for emulsifying crude oil, metabolizing aromatic compounds (a characteristic specific to the Polymorphum gilvum genome in comparison with other known genomes of oil-degrading bacteria, as well as possibly metabolizing n-alkanes through the LadA pathway. In addition, COG analysis revealed Polymorphum gilvum SL003B-26A1(T has significantly higher abundances of the proteins responsible for cell motility, lipid transport and metabolism, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, transport and catabolism than the average levels found in all other genomes sequenced thus far, but lower abundances of the proteins responsible for carbohydrate transport and metabolism, defense mechanisms, and translation than the average levels. These traits support the adaptability of Polymorphum gilvum to a crude oil-contaminated saline environment. The Polymorphum gilvum genome could serve as a platform for further study of oil-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation and microbial-enhanced oil recovery in harsh saline environments.

  8. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. A MODEL FOR DIFFUSION CONTROLLED BIOAVAILABILITY OF CRUDE OIL COMPONENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of several different structural classes of compounds including alkanes, aromatics, heterocyclic polar compounds, and asphaltenes. The rate and extent of microbial degradation of crude oil depends on the interaction between the physical and biochemi...

  10. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  11. Dynamics of indigenous bacterial communities associated with crude oil degradation in soil microcosms during nutrient-enhanced bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikere, Chioma B; Surridge, Karen; Okpokwasili, Gideon C; Cloete, Thomas E

    2012-03-01

    Bacterial population dynamics were examined during bioremediation of an African soil contaminated with Arabian light crude oil and nutrient enrichment (biostimulation). Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to generate bacterial community fingerprints of the different treatments employing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene as molecular marker. The DGGE patterns of the nutrient-amended soils indicated the presence of distinguishable bands corresponding to the oil-contaminated-nutrient-enriched soils, which were not present in the oil-contaminated and pristine control soils. Further characterization of the dominant DGGE bands after excision, reamplification and sequencing revealed that Corynebacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Rhodococcus erythropolis sp., Nocardioides sp., Low G+C (guanine plus cytosine) Gram positive bacterial clones and several uncultured bacterial clones were the dominant bacterial groups after biostimulation. Prominent Corynebacterium sp. IC10 sequence was detected across all nutrient-amended soils but not in oil-contaminated control soil. Total heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial counts increased significantly in the nutrient-amended soils 2 weeks post contamination whereas oil-contaminated and pristine control soils remained fairly stable throughout the experimental period. Gas chromatographic analysis of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second to the sixth week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks were seen in the oil-contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Results obtained indicated that nutrient amendment of oil-contaminated soil selected and enriched the bacterial communities mainly of the Actinobacteria phylogenetic group capable of surviving in toxic contamination with concomitant biodegradation of the hydrocarbons. The

  12. Crude oil degradation potential of bacteria isolated from oil-polluted soil and animal wastes in soil amended with animal wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voke O. Urhibo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of animal wastes on crude oil degradation potential of strains of Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis isolated from animal wastes (poultry and pig droppings and petroleum-polluted soil was compared in laboratory studies. Both bacterial strains were selected for high crude oil degradation ability after screening many isolates by the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol method. Analyses by gas chromatography (GC showed that degradation of crude oil was markedly enhanced (88.3–97.3% vs 72.1–78.8% in soil amended with animal wastes as indicated by the reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH. TPH reduction by animal waste bacterial strains in animal waste-amended soil was more than the reduction by strains from soil contaminated with petroleum (P < 0.001. The greatest reduction of TPH (96.6–97.3% vs 80.4–95.9% was by poultry waste strains and it occurred in soil amended with poultry waste. GC analyses of n-alkanes showed that although shorter chains were preferentially degraded [32.0–78.5% (C8–23 vs 6.3–18.5% (C24–36] in normal soil, biodegradation of longer chains increased to 38.4–46.3% in animal waste-amended soil inoculated with the same animal wastes’ strains. The results indicate that these animal waste strains may be of potential application for bioremediation of oil-polluted soil in the presence of the wastes from where they were isolated.

  13. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are "green" amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  14. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  15. Record prices [crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    Crude oil prices climbed to new record levels on fears of a future loss of supplies from Iran as Washington stepped up its efforts to persuade Tehran to abandon its programme to produce nuclear fuel. IPE's December Brent contract set a new record for the exchange by trading at $75.80/bbl on 21st April. On the same day October WTI reached an all-time high of $77.30/bbl on Nymex. US product prices gained as refiners struggled to produce sufficient middle distillate. Alarmed by the rising retail price of gasoline, the US Senate debated a reduction in the already low US tax rate on motor spirit. The House of Representatives passed a measure to prohibit overcharging for petrol, diesel and heating oil, but Democrats rejected a Republican proposal to speed-up the process for approving new refineries. President George W Bush announced a temporary easing of new gasoline and diesel specifications (see 'Focus', March 2006) to allow more fuel to be produced. He also agreed to delay the repayment of some 2.1 mn bbl of crude oil lent to companies after last year's hurricanes from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. California announced an inquiry into alleged overcharging for fuel by oil companies operating in the state. (author)

  16. Optimization of Crude Oil and PAHs Degradation by Stenotrophomonas rhizophila KX082814 Strain through Response Surface Methodology Using Box-Behnken Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virupakshappa, Praveen Kumar Siddalingappa; Mishra, Gaurav; Mehkri, Mohammed Ameenuddin

    2016-01-01

    The present paper describes the process optimization study for crude oil degradation which is a continuation of our earlier work on hydrocarbon degradation study of the isolate Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (PM-1) with GenBank accession number KX082814. Response Surface Methodology with Box-Behnken Design was used to optimize the process wherein temperature, pH, salinity, and inoculum size (at three levels) were used as independent variables and Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Biological Oxygen Demand, and Chemical Oxygen Demand of crude oil and PAHs as dependent variables (response). The statistical analysis, via ANOVA, showed coefficient of determination R 2 as 0.7678 with statistically significant P value 0.0163 fitting in second-order quadratic regression model for crude oil removal. The predicted optimum parameters, namely, temperature, pH, salinity, and inoculum size, were found to be 32.5°C, 9, 12.5, and 12.5 mL, respectively. At this optimum condition, the observed and predicted PAHs and crude oil removal were found to be 71.82% and 79.53% in validation experiments, respectively. The % TPH results correlate with GC/MS studies, BOD, COD, and TPC. The validation of numerical optimization was done through GC/MS studies and % removal of crude oil. PMID:28116165

  17. Biogeochemistry of anaerobic crude oil biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Ian; Gray, Neil; Aitken, Caroline; Sherry, Angela; Jones, Martin; Larter, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    Anaerobic degradation of crude oil and petroleum hydrocarbons is widely recognized as a globally significant process both in the formation of the world's vast heavy oil deposits and for the dissipation of hydrocarbon pollution in anoxic contaminated environments. Comparative analysis of crude oil biodegradation under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions has revealed differences not only in the patterns of compound class removal but also in the microbial communities responsible. Under methanogenic conditions syntrophic associations dominated by bacteria from the Syntropheaceae are prevalent and these are likely key players in the initial anaerobic degradation of crude oil alkanes to intermediates such as hydrogen and acetate. Syntrophic acetate oxidation plays an important role in these systems and often results in methanogenesis dominated by CO2 reduction by members of the Methanomicrobiales. By contrast the bacterial communities from sulfate-reducing crude oil-degrading systems were more diverse and no single taxon dominated the oil-degrading sulfate-reducing systems. All five proteobacterial subdivisions were represented with Delta- and Gammaproteobacteria being detected most consistently. In sediments which were pasteurized hydrocarbon degradation continued at a relatively low rate. Nevertheless, alkylsuccinates characteristic of anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation accumulated to high concentrations. This suggested that the sediments harbour heat resistant, possibly spore-forming alkane degrading sulfate-reducers. This is particularly interesting since it has been proposed recently, that spore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria found in cold arctic sediments may have originated from seepage of geofluids from deep subsurface hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  18. Assessing the hydrocarbon degrading potential of indigenous bacteria isolated from crude oil tank bottom sludge and hydrocarbon-contaminated soil of Azzawiya oil refinery, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Abdulatif A; Adetutu, Eric M; Kadali, Krishna K; Morrison, Paul D; Nurulita, Yuana; Ball, Andrew S

    2014-09-01

    The disposal of hazardous crude oil tank bottom sludge (COTBS) represents a significant waste management burden for South Mediterranean countries. Currently, the application of biological systems (bioremediation) for the treatment of COTBS is not widely practiced in these countries. Therefore, this study aims to develop the potential for bioremediation in this region through assessment of the abilities of indigenous hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms from Libyan Hamada COTBS for the biotreatment of Libyan COTBS-contaminated environments. Bacteria were isolated from COTBS, COTBS-contaminated soil, treated COTBS-contaminated soil, and uncontaminated soil using Bushnell Hass medium amended with Hamada crude oil (1 %) as the main carbon source. Overall, 49 bacterial phenotypes were detected, and their individual abilities to degrade Hamada crude and selected COBTS fractions (naphthalene, phenanthrene, eicosane, octadecane and hexane) were evaluated using MT2 Biolog plates. Analyses using average well colour development showed that ~90 % of bacterial isolates were capable of utilizing representative aromatic fractions compared to 51 % utilization of representative aliphatics. Interestingly, more hydrocarbonoclastic isolates were obtained from treated contaminated soils (42.9 %) than from COTBS (26.5 %) or COTBS-contaminated (30.6 %) and control (0 %) soils. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) separated the isolates into two clusters with microorganisms in cluster 2 being 1.7- to 5-fold better at hydrocarbon degradation than those in cluster 1. Cluster 2 isolates belonged to the putative hydrocarbon-degrading genera; Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Brevundimonas with 57 % of these isolates being obtained from treated COTBS-contaminated soil. Overall, this study demonstrates that the potential for PAH degradation exists for the bioremediation of Hamada COTBS-contaminated environments in Libya. This represents the first report on the isolation of

  19. Canada's crude oil resources : crude oil in our daily lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    2001-10-01

    Created in 1975, the Petroleum Communication Foundation is a not-for-profit organization. The objective of the Foundation is to inform Canadians about the petroleum industry in Canada. It produces educational, fact-based publications and programs, employing a multi-stakeholder review process. The first section of this publication is devoted to crude oil and the benefits that are derived from it. It begins by providing a brief definition of crude oil, then moves to the many uses in our daily lives and the environmental impacts like air pollution, spills, and footprint on the land from exploration and production activities. Section 2 details the many uses of crude oil and identifies the major oil producing regions of Canada. A quick mention is made of non-conventional sources of crude oil. The search for crude oil is the topic of section 3 of the document, providing an overview of the exploration activities, the access rights that must be obtained before gaining access to the resource. The drilling of oil is discussed in section 4. Section 5 deals with issues pertaining to reservoirs within rocks, while section 6 covers the feeding of the refineries, discussing topics from the movement of oil to market to the refining of the crude oil, and the pricing issues. In section 7, the uncertain future is examined with a view of balancing the supply and demand, as crude oil is a non-renewable resource. Supplementary information is provided concerning additional publications published by various organizations and agencies. figs

  20. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-01-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01 from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Mao-Cheng; Li, Jing; Liang, Fu-Rui; Yi, Meisheng; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Yuan, Jian-Ping; Peng, Juan; Wu, Chou-Fei; Wang, Jiang-Hai

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Morphological properties of the colonies and cells of strain HZ01. (A) Colonies of strain HZ01 on the LB solid plate; (B) Gram-negative bacterium of strain HZ01 (20 × 100); (C) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photograph of strain HZ01 (×15,000); and (D) Transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) photograph of strain HZ01 (×5000). - Highlights: • A novel petroleum degrading bacterium HZ01 was obtained from the crude oil-contaminated seawater. • Strain HZ01 had been identified as Achromobacter sp. • Strain HZ01 could degrade the evaporated diesel oil with the degradability of 96.6%. • Strain HZ01 could effectively degrade anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrence. • Strain HZ01 may be employed to remove hydrocarbon contaminants. - Abstract: Microorganisms play an important role in the biodegradation of petroleum contaminants, which have attracted great concern due to their persistent toxicity and difficult biodegradation. In this paper, a novel hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium HZ01 was isolated from the crude oil-contaminated seawater at the Daya Bay, South China Sea, and identified as Achromobacter sp. Under the conditions of pH 7.0, NaCl 3% (w/v), temperature 28 °C and rotary speed 150 rpm, its degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 96.6% after 10 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil. Furthermore, Achromobacter sp. HZ01 could effectively utilize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as its sole carbon source, and could remove anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrence about 29.8%, 50.6% and 38.4% respectively after 30 days of incubation. Therefore, Achromobacter sp. HZ01 may employed as an excellent degrader to develop one cost-effective and eco-friendly method for the bioremediation of marine environments polluted by crude oil

  2. Microbial degradation of crude oil in marine environments tested in a flask experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrett, Salvador; Bonner, James S.; Mills, Marc A.; Autenrieth, Robin L.; Stephens, Frank L.

    1997-01-01

    Thirteen different bioremediation products were evaluated for their effectiveness in biodegrading petroleum hydrocarbons. All 13 products tested in this experiment were listed on the NCP product schedule. Of these 13 products, 12 were bioaugmentation agents and one was a biostimulation agent. All the products were tested for toxicity levels initially, using standardized protocols. The products were sampled and analyzed three times over a 28-day period for most-probable number (MPN) of hydrocarbon degraders and total petroleum hydrocarbon as separate fractions. A subsample was analyzed for MPN, and the rest of the sample was extracted and fractionated in total saturated petroleum hydrocarbons (TsPH) and total aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons (TarPH). This experiment revealed that the petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded to an extent significantly greater than that achieved by the naturally occurring microorganisms. (author)

  3. Microbial degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in crude oil: a field-scale study at the low-land rainforest of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, Naga Raju; Scalvenzi, Laura; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala

    2017-10-01

    A field-level feasibility study was conducted to determine total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-degrading potential of two bacterial strains, Bacillus thuringiensis B3 and B. cereus B6, and two fungi, Geomyces pannorum HR and Geomyces sp. strain HV, all soil isolates obtained from an oil field located in north-east region of Ecuador. Crude oil-treated soil samples contained in wooden boxes received a mixture of all the four microorganisms and were incubated for 90 days in an open low-land area of Amazon rainforest. The percent removal of TPHs in soil samples that received the mixed microbial inoculum was 87.45, indicating the great potential of the soil isolates in field-scale removal of crude oil. The TPHs-degrading efficiency was verified by determining the toxicity of residues, remained in soil after biodegradation, toward viability of Artemia salina or seed germination and plant growth of cowpea. Our results clearly suggest that the selected soil isolates of bacteria and fungi could be effectively used for large-scale bioremediation of sites contaminated with crude oil.

  4. Comparative study of biodegradation of crude oil in soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of soil samples treated with 10% (v/w) Escravos light crude oil and amended with chicken droppings and NPK fertilizer revealed that the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial counts were depressed while the proliferation of crude oil degrading bacteria (CDB) in the soil was encouraged. The counts of CDB in oil free ...

  5. Exports of crude oil, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Effective June 1, 1985, licensing and charging of oil exports ended. The Board now issues export orders specifying neither volumes nor prices and covering an exportation period of up to 1 year for light crude oil and up to 2 years for heavy crude oil, available on request to both Canadian and foreign companies. The Board has assumed a monitoring role, and export prices and volumes are reported monthly by exporters. This annual report provides a review of the volumes and prices associated with the supply and disposition of Canadian crude oil during 1988. Highlights are given with detailed information on prices, both internationally, in Canada, and the Chicago posted price by light or heavy crude, and on volumes including capacity and disposition in both domestic and export markets. A short description of the import market is included. Comparisons are made with the previous year. Export volumes of light crude oil in 1988 increased by 13% to average 50,200 m 3 /d. Export volumes of heavy crude also increased by ca 13% to 62,600 m 3 /d. 15 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Effect of temperature on biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, A.; Chaalal, O.

    2005-01-01

    An active strain of anaerobic thermophilic bacteria was isolated from the environment of the United Arab Emirates. This project studied the effect of temperature, salinity and oil concentration on biodegradation of crude oil. Oil weight loss, microbial growth and the changes of the crude oil asphaltene concentration are used to evaluate the oil degradation by this strain. A series of batch experiments was performed to study the effects of bacteria on the degradation of crude oil. The effects of oil concentration, bacteria concentration, temperature and salinity on the biodegradation were investigated. The temperatures of the studied systems were varied between 35 and 75 o C and the salt concentrations were varied between 0 and 10%. Oil concentrations were ranged from 5 to 50% by volume. Experimental work showed the bacteria employed in this project were capable of surviving the harsh environment and degrading the crude oil at various conditions. Increasing the temperature increases the rate of oil degradation by bacteria. Increasing the oil concentration in general decreases the rate of bacteria oil degradation. Salinity plays a major role on the acceleration of biodegradation process of crude oil. An optimum salinity should be determined for every studied system. The finding of this project could be used in either the treatment of oil spill or in-situ stimulation of heavy oil wells. (author)

  7. 15 CFR 754.2 - Crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processed through a crude oil distillation tower. Included are reconstituted crude petroleum, and lease... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude oil. 754.2 Section 754.2....2 Crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated by the SS notation in the “License Requirements...

  8. Mercury in Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Estimates for average mercury concentrations in crude oil range widely from 10 ng/g of oil to 3,500 ng/g of oil. With such a broad range of estimates, it is difficult to determine the contributions of the petroleum sector to the total budget of mercury emissions. In response to concerns that the combustion of petroleum products may be a major source of air-borne mercury pollution, Environment Canada and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute has undertaken a survey of the average total mercury concentration in crude oil processed in Canadian refineries. In order to calculate the potential upper limit of total mercury in all refined products, samples of more than 30 different types of crude oil collected from refineries were measured for their concentration of mercury as it enters into a refinery before processing. High temperature combustion, cold vapour atomic absorption and cold vapour atomic fluorescence were the techniques used to quantify mercury in the samples. The results of the study provide information on the total mass of mercury present in crude oil processed in Canada each year. Results can be used to determine the impact of vehicle exhaust emissions to the overall Canadian mercury emission budget. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. OPEC's optimal crude oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    OPEC decided to stabilise oil prices within a range of 22-28 US Dollar/barrel of crude oil. Such an oil-price-level is far beyond the short and long run marginal costs of oil production, beyond even that in regions with particularly high costs. Nevertheless, OPEC may achieve its goal if world demand for oil increases substantially in the future and oil resources outside the OPEC are not big enough to accordingly increase production. In this case OPEC, which controls about 78% of world oil reserves, has to supply a large share of that demand increase. If we assume OPEC will behave as a partial monopolist on the oil market, which takes into consideration the reaction of the other producers to its own sales strategy, it can reach its price target. Lower prices before 2020 are probable only if the OPEC cartel breaks up. Higher prices are possible if production outside OPEC is inelastic as assumed by some geologists, but they would probably stimulate the production of unconventional oil based on oil sand or coal. Crude oil prices above 30 US Dollar/barrel are therefore probably not sustainable for a long period. (Author)

  10. Biosurfactant production by the crude oil degrading Stenotrophomonas sp. B-2: chemical characterization, biological activities and environmental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Boutheina; Contreras, María Del Mar; Ammar, Sonda; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    In this work, biosurfactant-producing microorganisms were isolated from hydrocarbon-contaminated water collected from Tunisian oilfield. After enrichment and isolation, different bacterial strains were preliminary studied for their biosurfactant/bioemulsifier properties when using crude oil as the unique carbon source. In particular, the isolate strain B-2, a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, efficiently emulsified crude oil. The extracellular biosurfactant product from this strain presented an emulsification activity above 70% and a hydrophobicity of 71%. In addition, a diameter of 6 cm was observed in the oil displacement test. The characterization of B-2 strain using 16S rDNA sequencing enables us to find a high degree of similarity with various members of the genus Stenotrophomonas (with a percentage of similarity of 99%). The emulsification activity of Stenotrophomonas biosurfactant B-2 was maintained in a wide range of pH (2 to 6), temperature (4 to 55 °C), and salinity (0 to 50 g L -1 ) conditions. It also enhanced the solubility of phenanthrene in water and could be used in the re-mobilization of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment. In addition, this biosurfactant exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Infrared spectroscopy suggested potential lipidic and peptidic moieties, and mass spectrometry-based analyses showed that the biosurfactant contains mainly cyclic peptidic structures belonging to the class of diketopiperazines. Therefore, the B-2 strain is a promising biosurfactant-producing microorganism and its derived biosurfactant presents a wide range of industrial applications.

  11. The price of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, A.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The price of crude oil is among the most important prices quoted daily across the world - which is not surprising, since crude oil is the most widely used source of energy worldwide, as well as being a unique commodity. When petroleum burst onto the world stage in 1859, its price first went through some initial gyrations (1860-70), before settling in the $1.00 - 2.00 per barrel range (barring a few exceptions) for a full century. Then, the price underwent two 'shocks' (1973 and 1980), followed by the 'counter-shock' of 1986. Thereafter, the price entered the relative stability of the $15 - 20 /b consensus, where it lingered until recently. Some day, there is bound to be a fresh paradigm of 'insufficient oil reserves', thus ushering in a new era for oil prices. Taking into consideration available data on reserves and expert analysis, it would seem that that day may be years rather than decades away

  12. Market potential for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Fisher, L.; Golosinski, D.; Luthin, A.; Gill, L.; Raggett, C.

    1997-01-01

    Future key markets for Canadian crude were evaluated, and probable flow volumes and prices were identified. Key concerns of market participants such as pricing, alternative crude sources, pipeline tariffs and crude quality, were examined. An overview of the competition faced by Canadian crude supply in global markets was presented. World crude oil supply and demand was discussed. US and Canadian crude oil supply (2000 to 2010), refinery demand for light and heavy crudes, existing future crude oil and refined product pipeline infrastructure, and pricing implications of changing crude oil flows were analyzed. The general conclusion was that the US market will continue to provide growing markets for Canadian crude oil, and that the Canadian supply to fulfill increased export requirements will be available due to the combined effects of increasing heavy crude supply, growing production from the east coast offshore, and recent and ongoing pipeline expansions and additions. 20 refs., 64 tabs., 42 figs

  13. Crude oil pipeline expansion summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix

  14. Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Efficiency and Peroxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Increase in biomass enhanced degradation efficiency above 80 % after 10 days for all concentration of crude oil studied. Peroxidase ... compounds by various bacteria and fungi (Gianfreda et al, 1999) ... into a clean plastic container. Microbial.

  15. Use of adsorption and gas chromatographic techniques in estimating biodegradation of indigenous crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokub, D.; Allahi, A.; Shafeeq, M.; Khalid, Z.M.; Malik, K.A.; Hussain, A.

    1993-01-01

    Indigenous crude oils could be degraded and emulsified upto varying degree by locally isolated bacteria. Degradation and emulsification was found to be dependent upon the chemical composition of the crude oils. Tando Alum and Khashkheli crude oils were emulsified in 27 and 33 days of incubation respectively. While Joyamair crude oil and not emulsify even mainly due to high viscosity of this oil. Using adsorption chromatographic technique, oil from control (uninoculated) and bio degraded flasks was fractioned into the deasphaltened oil containing saturate, aromatic, NSO (nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen) containing hydrocarbons) and soluble asphaltenes. Saturate fractions from control and degraded oil were further analysed by gas liquid chromatography. From these analyses, it was observed that saturate fraction was preferentially utilized and the crude oils having greater contents of saturate fraction were better emulsified than those low in this fraction. Utilization of various fractions of crude oils was in the order saturate> aromatic> NSO. (author)

  16. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  17. First crude oil from Chukotka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenbrister, L.P.; Demidenko, K.A.; Zhmykhova, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of the crude taken from Neogene deposits at a depth of 1486-1443 m are analyzed. The oil is distinguished by low contents of sulfur and resinous-asphaltenic substances, a high content of wax, and a high yield of light cuts distilling below 350 degrees C. The naptha cuts have high contents of naphthenes, and the diesel fuel cuts have high cetane numbers, low sulfur contents, and high contents of straight chain paraffins. The vacuum gasoil has a low density, a low viscosity, a low carbon residue and low contents of sulfur and nitrogen. This gasoil is a good feedstock for catalytic cracking and hydrocracking. The Verkhne-Echin crude is classified as light, low-sulfur, lowresin and high-wax. It can be used to produce jet fuels and summer-grade diesel fuels with low sulfur contents, as well as high-V.I. lube base stocks and liquid and solid paraffins.

  18. Molecular Identification of Bacteria Involved in Degradation of Crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 0189 1731. Available online at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/njb/index ... activities is a main cause of water and soil pollution. One of the ... 60% reduction in household food security and were capable of .... isolates to degrade crude oil, mineral salt media was .... to help maintain the cold chain and prevent the DNA ...

  19. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  20. Degradation of n-alkanes and PAHs from the heavy crude oil using salt-tolerant bacterial consortia and analysis of their catabolic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurav, Ranjit; Lyu, Honghong; Ma, Jianli; Tang, Jingchun; Liu, Qinglong; Zhang, Hairong

    2017-04-01

    In the present study, salt-tolerant strains, Dietzia sp. HRJ2, Corynebacterium variabile HRJ4, Dietzia cinnamea HRJ5 and Bacillus tequilensis HRJ6 were isolated from the Dagang oil field, China. These strains degraded n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) aerobically from heavy crude oil (HCO) in an experiment at 37 °C and 140 rpm. The GC/MS investigation for degradation of different chain lengths of n-alkanes (C8-C40) by individual strains showed the highest degradation of C8-C19 (HRJ5), C20-C30 (HRJ4) and C31-C40 (HRJ5), respectively. Moreover, degradation of 16 PAHs with individual strains demonstrated that the bicyclic and pentacyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (AHs) were mostly degraded by HRJ5, tricyclic and tetracyclic AHs by HRJ6 and hexacyclic AHs by HRJ2. However, the highest degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), total saturated hydrocarbons (TSH), total aromatic hydrocarbons (TAH), n-alkanes (C8-C40) and 16 PAHs was achieved by a four-membered consortium (HRJ2 + 4 + 5 + 6) within 12 days, with the predominance of HRJ4 and HRJ6 strains which was confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The abundance of alkB and nah genes responsible for catabolism of n-alkanes and PAHs was quantified using the qPCR. Maximum copy numbers of genes were observed in HRJ2 + 4 + 5 + 6 consortium (gene copies l -1 ) 2.53 × 10 4 (alkB) and 3.47 × 10 3 (nah) at 12 days, which corresponded to higher degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) (total SOD (T-SOD), Cu 2+ Zn 2+ -SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities in Allium sativum and Triticum aestivum were lower in the HRJ2 + 4 + 5 + 6-treated HCO as compared to the plantlets exposed directly to HCO. The present results revealed the effective degradation of HCO-contaminated saline medium using the microbial consortium having greater metabolic diversity.

  1. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hii, Y.S.; Law, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  2. Comparison of crude oil interfacial behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetge, J.H.; Panchev, N. [Champion Technologies Inc., Fresno, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The bulk properties of crude oil are used to predict its behaviour with regards to treatment, transport and processing. Surface active components, such as asphaltenes, are often used to study or explain critical interfacial behaviour of crude oil. This study investigated the differences and similarities in the interfacial behaviour of the collective surface active component in various crude oils from different sources. The properties of interfaces between crude oil and water were compared using a Teclis drop shape tensiometer. A portion of a crude oil sample was diluted in toluene and contacted with water in a rising drop configuration. Dynamic surface tension and interfacial rheology was examined as a function of time from the early stages of interface formation. Sinusoidal oscillation of the drop volume allowed for the evaluation of visco-elastic behaviour of the crude oil/water interface as it developed with time. The Gibbs elastic modulus, as well as its elastic and viscose components were calculated from the drop shape. The interfacial behaviour was expressed in terms of concentration, oscillation frequency and interface age. It was concluded that knowledge of crude oil interfacial character could be of value in the treatment, transport and processing of crude oils because the its behaviour may play a significant role in crude oil production and processing.

  3. Classification of weathered crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, N.B.; Sjoegren, C.E.; Lichtenthaler, G.

    1987-01-01

    The NORDTEST procedure (1) for oil spill identification has been applied successfully at several occasions. The NORDTEST procedure includes analyses of sulfur (XRF), vanadium and nickel (ICP/AAS), GC, HPLC and UV-fluorescence. The NORDTEST procedure does not include GC-MS as an analytical method. As part of a joint Nordic to evaluate the NORDTEST procedure for oil identification, with participants from Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway, thirty artificially weathered crude oils from four geographical regions have been analyzed (2). The analytical methods evaluated include sulfur analysis, vanadium and nickel analysis, infrared analysis, UV-fluorescence, gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and high resolution GC-mass spectrometry. Figure 1 shows the distribution of variables analyzed in each analytical method. The 190 variables from GC-MS were split into 7 groups according to chemical considerations. These were steranes (25 var.), triterpanes (16 var.), di(+)aromatics (63 var.), sulf. aromatics (30 var.), monoaromatics (19 var.), cycloalkanes (15 var.) and n-alkanes (22) variables. The data from these chemical analyses have been evaluated for use in oil spill identification purposes

  4. Crude oil growth impact on pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, O.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of crude oil production and supply in Canada. Details of oil sands projects in Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River were presented. A chart of oil sands growth by major project was provided. A list of new emerging oil sands crude types was also presented along with details of a synthetic bitumen blending synergy. Maps of Western Canadian crude oil markets were provided, along with details of refinery and market demand by crude type. Various pipeline alternatives to new markets were examined, with reference to Enbridge Pipeline's supply and capacity. Details of the Hardisty to U.S Gulf Coast Pipeline and the Edmonton to Prince Rupert Pipeline and its terminal and dock facilities were presented. It was concluded that pipeline capacity and seasonal factors will influence market demand, while linefill, crude types and the quality of the product will influence operational strategies. tabs., figs

  5. Isolation and Identification of Carcinogen Acenaphthene-Degrading Endemic Bacteria from Crude Oil Contaminated Soils around Abadan Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Kafilzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: PAHs are non-polar organic compounds consisting of two or more fused benzene multi-rings. Among these compounds, acenaphthene is a multi-ring hydrocarbon that occurs abundantly in nature. Use of microorganisms to clean the contaminations of soil can be cheap and effective. The most important acenaphthene-degrading bacteria are pseudomonas, micrococcus, and Bacillus. The goal of this study was to isolate and identify the bacteria which degrade acenaphthene in soils around Abadan Refinery and to investigate the relation between the levels of environmental pollution with acenaphthene. Materials and Methods: Soil samples were collected from three areas around Abadan Refinery. The number of the bacteria was counted on the nutrient agar culture with and without acenaphthene. Isolation of the bacteria was done by culturing the samples on acenaphthene broth with a mineral-salt medium, and on an acenaphthene agar medium. Then, the bacteria were identified via biochemical diagnostic tests. Results: The logarithm average of the bacteria was 4.786 ± 0.073 at a medium with acenaphthene, which was 6.671 ± 0.073 less than that of the control medium. The maximum number of degrading bacteria was 7.089 ± 0.089 at Station C, and the minimum number of the degrading bacteria was 4.485 ± 0.089 at Station B. In this study, Bacillus sp, Micrococcus Luteus, Corynebacterium sp, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas sp bacteria were isolated and identified in terms of frequency, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the soil around Abadan Refinery contained a great number of acenaphthene degrading bacteria, especially Bacillus and Micrococcus.

  6. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattouh, Bassam

    2010-01-01

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  7. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BS) are green amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm biosurfactant producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop c...

  8. Impact of Crude-Oil Spillage Pollution and Chemical Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    significantly (p≤0.01) higher than the level of degradation, except in infiltration rate. Soil pH increased by 26% .... volumes of water were added into the containers on day six. As the days ... crude oil spillage reduced soil moisture availability or.

  9. REVIEW OF PVT CORRELATIONS FOR CRUDE OILS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    win

    approaches that of the fluids used. During the last 50 years, ... applied to crude oils from other regions (Sutton and Farshad,. 1990). ... S. S. Ikiensikimama, Department of Chemistry Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. O. Ogboja ...

  10. Enhanced crude oil biodegradation in soil via biostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Esmaeil; Hassan, Ali

    2016-08-02

    Research on feasible methods for the enhancement of bioremediation in soil contaminated by crude oil is vital in oil-exporting countries such as Kuwait, where crude oil is a major pollutant and the environment is hostile to biodegradation. This study investigated the possibility of enhancing crude oil bioremediation by supplementing soil with cost-effective organic materials derived from two widespread locally grown trees, Conocarpus and Tamarix. Amendments in soils increased the counts of soil microbiota by up to 98% and enhanced their activity by up to 95.5%. The increase in the biodegradation of crude oil (75%) and high levels of alkB expression substantiated the efficiency of the proposed amendment technology for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. The identification of crude-oil-degrading bacteria revealed the dominance of the genus Microbacterium (39.6%), Sphingopyxis soli (19.3%), and Bordetella petrii (19.6%) in unamended, Conocarpus-amended, and Tamarix-amended contaminated soils, respectively. Although soil amendments favored the growth of Gram-negative bacteria and reduced bacterial diversity, the structures of bacterial communities were not significantly altered.

  11. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  12. When Will Occur the Crude Oil Bubbles?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Chi-Wei; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Chang, Hsu-Ling; Lobonţ, Oana-Ramona

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we apply a recursive unit root test to investigate whether there exist multiple bubbles in crude oil price. The method is best suited for a practical implementation of a time series and delivers a consistent date-stamping strategy for the origination and termination of multiple bubbles. The empirical result indicates that there exist six bubbles during 1986–2016 when the oil price deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. Specifically, oil price contains the fundamentals and bubble components. The dates of the bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. The authorities should actively fight speculative bubbles or just observe their evolutions and speculation activities may decrease, which is favour of the stabilisation of the staple commodities including crude oil price. These findings have important economic and policy implications to recognise the cause of bubbles and take corresponding measures to reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price. - Highlights: • Investigate multiple bubbles in crude oil price. • Indicate six bubbles deviate from its intrinsic value based on market fundamentals. • The bubbles correspond to specific events in the politics and financial markets. • Reduce the impact on the real economy cause of the fluctuation of crude oil price.

  13. Sequential enrichment of microbial population exhibiting enhanced biodegradation of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Harayama, Shigeaki.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of oil-degrading bacteria in the coastal waters and sediments of Hokkaido, Japan, was surveyed. It was found that the potential of mixed microbial populations to degrade weathered crude oil was not confined to any ecological components (water or sediment) nor to the sampling stations. One microbial culture that was stable during repeated subculturing degraded 45% of the saturates and 20% of the aromatics present in crude oil in 10 days during the initial screening. The residual hydrocarbons in this culture were extracted by chloroform and dispersed in a fresh seawater-based medium and subsequently inoculated with microorganisms from the first culture. After full growth of the second culture, the residual hydrocarbons were extracted and dispersed in a fresh medium in which microorganisms from the second culture had been inoculated. This sequential process was carried out six times to enrich those microorganisms that grew on the recalcitrant components of crude oil. After repeated exposure of the residual crude oil to the enriched microorganisms, about 80% of the initially added crude oil was degraded. The cultures obtained after each enrichment cycle were kept, and the degradation of fresh crude oil by the enriched microorganisms was monitored. The degrading activity of the enriched cultures increased as the number of enrichment cycles increased. A microbial population that had been selected six times on the residual crude oil could degrade 70% of the saturates and 30% of the aromatics of crude oil, indicating that growth of a microbial population on residual crude oil improved its ability to biodegrade crude oil. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  15. Comparative toxicology of four crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, L.M.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2003-07-01

    Fish that are chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exhibit dioxin-like toxicity characterized by blue sac disease and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Shelf, MESA, the synthetic Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend, and Alaskan North Slope Crude Oil), in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. The study confirmed the assumption that the Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend would be the most toxic due to its high PAH concentration. The results suggest that the main cause of toxicity in crude oil is due to the presence, concentration, and conformation of specific PAHs.

  16. Crude oil spot market pricing: Pearsonian analysis of crude oil spot market prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinnusi, Ayo

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of crude oil pricing before describing a study of sets of 1991 spot market prices, and examining Pearson's model. Empirical distribution characteristics for 14 crude oils are tabulated, and skewness-kurtosis relationship and implication are considered. (UK)

  17. Microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation; from microbial consortia to heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Head, Ian M.; Maguire, Michael J.; Sherry, Angela; Grant, Russell; Gray, Neil D.; Aitken, Carolyn M.; Martin Jones, D.; Oldenburg, Thomas B.P.; Larter, Stephen R. [Petroleum Research Group, Geosciences, University of Calgary (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the microbial ecology of methanogenic crude oil biodegradation. Biodegraded petroleum reservoirs are one of the most dramatic indications of the deep biosphere. It is estimated that heavy oil and oil sands will account for a considerable amount of energy production in the future. Carbon, a major resource for deep subsurface microorganisms, and energy are contained in large quantities in petroleum reservoirs. The aerobic to anaerobic paradigm shift is explained. A key process for in-situ oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs is methanogenesis. New paradigms for in-reservoir crude oil biodegradation are discussed. Variations in anaerobic degradation of crude oil hydrocarbons are also discussed. A graph shows the different patterns of crude oil biodegradation under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Alternative anaerobic alkane activation mechanisms are also shown. From the study, it can be concluded that methanogenic crude oil degradation is of global importance and led to the establishment of the world's enormous heavy oil deposits.

  18. Assessment of Antioxidant Indices after incorporating Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Exposure to crude oil pollution leads to the formation ... vitamin/mineral mixture (5 %). The food ..... hepatic antioxidant enzymes against cadmium induced liver ... Interaction of crude oil with alpha-tocopherol: ... Essential oil from Monodora.

  19. Heavy crude oils - From Geology to Upgrading - An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huc, A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy oils, extra-heavy oils and tar sands are major players for the future of energy. They represent a massive world resource, at least the size of conventional oils. They are found all over the world but Canada and Venezuela together account, by themselves, for more than half of world deposits. They share the same origin as the lighter conventional oils, but their geological fate drove them into thick, viscous tar-like crude oils. Most of them result from alteration processes mediated by microbial degradation. They are characterized by a low content of lighter cuts and a high content of impurities such as sulfur and nitrogen compounds and metals; so, their production is difficult and deployment of specific processes is required in order to enhance their transportability and to upgrade them into valuable products meeting market needs, and honouring environmental requirements. Although these resources are increasingly becoming commercially producible, less than 1% of total heavy crude oil deposits worldwide are under active development. The voluntarily wide scope of this volume encompasses geology, production, transportation, upgrading, economics and environmental issues of heavy oils. It does not pretend to be exhaustive, but to provide an authoritative view of this very important energy resource. Besides presenting the current status of knowledge and technology involved in exploiting heavy oils, the purpose is to provide an insight into technical, economic and environmental challenges that should be taken up in order to increase the efficiency of production and processing, and finally to give a prospective view of the emerging technologies which will contribute to releasing the immense potential reserves of heavy oil and tar deposits. Contents: Part 1. Heavy Crude Oils.1. Heavy Crude Oils in the Perspective of World Oil Demand. 2. Definitions and Specificities. 3. Geological Origin of Heavy Crude Oils. 4. Properties and composition. Part 2. Reservoir Engineering

  20. Degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons by oil field isolated bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mixed consortium was prepared with 15 bacteria isolated by enrichment technique from the sample collected from an oil contaminated site. This consortium was incubated with crude oil to investigate the metabolic capability of bacteria. The degradation efficiency of the isolates in consortium was checked with 2% crude oil ...

  1. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  2. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sang Hoon; Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  3. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  4. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  5. Crude oil hedging: benchmarking price protection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, Edward N.; Pratt, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a review of hedging (protection against a loss) strategies in the crude oil futures and options markets. The introductory section of the report gives details of hedging instruments, and the purposes of hedging crude oil. Hedging strategies including pure futures strategies, pure options strategies, options combination strategies, exotic (Asian) options strategies, and insurance instruments are described. The West Texas intermediate (WTI) market depth, liquidity and hedging effectiveness are examined, and winners and losers, and energy consumers are considered. The appendix gives tables and charts summarising the outcomes of futures and options strategies under different market conditions and expectations. (UK)

  6. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  7. The future for heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expectation, still held in 1993, that the light oil-heavy crude oil differential would go on increasing in favour of light oil has not been fulfilled. Current perceptions are that heavy oil will continue to be relatively strong and there is no inevitable upward trend in light-heavy crude differentials. Non-OPEC production has grown significantly lighter overall in recent years and is likely to continue so for several more years. This is due to expanded light oil production in the North Sea, Latin America and the Far East, and contractions in heavy oil production in Russia and the USA. OPEC production has also become lighter with, in particular, an expansion in light oil and contraction in heavy grades from Saudi Arabia. At the same time, the nature of the demand from refineries has changed with the introduction of new units designed to process the residium from heavy oil distillation. Thus the supply of light oil has expanded while demand for it has contracted with the reverse being true for heavy oil. (2 figures, 1 table) (UK)

  8. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the project...

  9. Allochthonous bioaugmentation in ex situ treatment of crude oil-polluted sediments in the presence of an effective degrading indigenous microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Fodelianakis, Stylianos

    2015-04-01

    Oil-polluted sediment bioremediation depends on both physicochemical and biological parameters, but the effect of the latter cannot be evaluated without the optimization of the former. We aimed in optimizing the physicochemical parameters related to biodegradation by applying an ex-situ landfarming set-up combined with biostimulation to oil-polluted sediment, in order to determine the added effect of bioaugmentation by four allochthonous oil-degrading bacterial consortia in relation to the degradation efficiency of the indigenous community. We monitored hydrocarbon degradation, sediment ecotoxicity and hydrolytic activity, bacterial population sizes and bacterial community dynamics, characterizing the dominant taxa through time and at each treatment. We observed no significant differences in total degradation, but increased ecotoxicity between the different treatments receiving both biostimulation and bioaugmentation and the biostimulated-only control. Moreover, the added allochthonous bacteria quickly perished and were rarely detected, their addition inducing minimal shifts in community structure although it altered the distribution of the residual hydrocarbons in two treatments. Therefore, we concluded that biodegradation was mostly performed by the autochthonous populations while bioaugmentation, in contrast to biostimulation, did not enhance the remediation process. Our results indicate that when environmental conditions are optimized, the indigenous microbiome at a polluted site will likely outperform any allochthonous consortium.

  10. Refining crude oils and gasolines, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1931-11-23

    A process of refining crude oils and gasolines distilled from shale and the like is described, consisting of submitting them to a prewash with soda, an oxidation preferably with hypochlorite solution, a hydrogenation with nascent hydrogen, and finally rectification and neutralization.

  11. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  12. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  13. Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of CRUDE OILS and petroleum products: (i) elution liquid chromatographic separation and gas chromatographic analysis of crude oils and petroleum products. E.O. Odebunmi, E.A. Ogunsakin, P.E.P. Ilukhor ...

  14. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  15. Biotechnological Potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: A Novel Strain for Remediating Water Polluted with Crude Oil Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hy...

  16. Biosurfactant production by Mucor circinelloides on waste frying oil and possible uses in crude oil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanizadeh, Parvin; Moghimi, Hamid; Hamedi, Javad

    2017-10-01

    Biosurfactants are biocompatible surface active agents which many microorganisms produce. This study investigated the production of biosurfactants by Mucor circinelloides. The effects of different factors on biosurfactant production, including carbon sources and concentrations, nitrogen sources, and iron (II) concentration, were studied and the optimum condition determined. Finally, the strain's ability to remove the crude oil and its relationship with biosurfactant production was evaluated. The results showed that M. circinelloides could reduce the surface tension of the culture medium to 26.6 mN/m and create a clear zone of 12.9 cm diameter in an oil-spreading test. The maximum surface tension reduction was recorded 3 days after incubation. The optimum condition for biosurfactant production was achieved in the presence of 8% waste frying oil as a carbon source, 2 g/L yeast extract as a nitrogen source, and 0.01 mM FeSO 4 . M. circinelloides could consume 8% waste frying oil in 5 days of incubation, and 87.6% crude oil in 12 days of incubation. A direct correlation was observed between oil degradation and surface tension reduction in the first 3 days of fungal growth. The results showed that the waste frying oil could be recommended as an inexpensive oily waste substance for biosurfactant production, and M. circinelloides could have the potential to treat waste frying oil. According to the results, the produced crude biosurfactant or fungal strain could be directly used for the mycoremediation of crude oil contamination in oil fields.

  17. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  18. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salmah; Dadrasnia, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  19. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  20. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  1. Bioremediation of crude oil contaminated tea plantation soil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude oil contamination of soil is a major concern for tea industry in Assam, India. Crude oil is a persistent organic contaminant which alters soil physical and biochemical characteristics and makes tea plants more susceptible against crude oil contamination. Therefore, two native bacterial strains designated as AS 03 and ...

  2. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  3. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  4. EPR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy in the Photodegradation Study of Arabian and Colombian Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. B. Guedes

    2006-01-01

    W/m2. The reduction in the linewidth of the free radical of 9.8% in Arabian oil and 18.5% in Colombian oil, as well as the decrease in radical numbers, indicated photochemical degradation, especially in Colombian oil. The linewidth narrowing corresponding to free radicals in the irradiated oils occurred due to the rearrangement among radicals and aromatic carbon consumption. The irradiated oils showed a reduction in the relative intensity of fluorescence of the aromatics with high molecular mass, polar aromatics, and asphaltene. The fluorescent fraction was reduced by 61% in Arabian oil and 72% in Colombian oil, corresponding to photochemical degradation of crude oil aromatic compounds.

  5. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    % of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 mu m) than droplets in the physically...

  6. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que

  7. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  8. Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil | Mensah | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot scale refinning of crude soybean oil. ... Abstract. A laboratory process for refining soybean has been scaled up to a 145 tonne per annum pilot plant to refine crude soybean oil. ... The quality of the refined oil was found to be within national and codex standard specifications for edible oil from vegetable sources.

  9. Electrical desalting - preparing of the crude oil for further processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Nadija; Minovski, Mino; Sokolovski, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Desalting as well as dewatering of the crude oil is important preparing process, which takes place in crude units on the refinery plants. One of the most efficient ways of desalting is use of high voltage electricity. In this work attention is paid on the principals of this process, illustrated with practically gained results from the OKTA Crude Oil Refinery in Macedonia. (Original)

  10. Bioavailability of chemically-dispersed crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, B.C.; Bonner, J.S.; McDonald, T.J.; Fuller, C.B.; Page, C.A.; Dimitriou-Christidis, P.; Sterling, M.C.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    Oil spills can be treated with surfactant compounds to disperse them. This method enables the hydrophobic compounds to overcome their repulsion for water, enter the water phase and be diluted. Once in the water, the biodegradation fraction of the oil biodegrades over time and the residual fraction is deposited over a large area. One major issue which is not fully understood is whether oil compounds pass through the water phase to free floating cells or directly enter oil-attached microbial cells from the oil particle. In this study, crude oil was placed in a swirling flask with Corpus Christi Bay water and was then chemically dispersed with Corexit 9500. The biodegradation was then monitored and assessed. First order rate coefficients were determined based on the disappearance of specific compounds. The rate coefficients for total target PAHs were consistent for all tests. Napthalene, phenanthrene, dibenzothiophene and their alkylated homologs were among the target compounds. The trend was also observed for total target analytes and for total target saturates. The results indicate that the biodegradation rate coefficient was not dependent on the bulk concentration of oil in the water column. It was concluded that biodegradation rates was controlled by partitioning of the compounds between the two phases, and other factors such as particle size distribution and the capability of the microbial culture, temperature and nutrients. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  11. Subordinated Levy Processes and Applications to Crude Oil Options

    OpenAIRE

    Noureddine Krichene

    2005-01-01

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed...

  12. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  13. Effects of different remediation treatments on crude oil contaminated saline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Chao; Guo, Shu-Hai; Wang, Jia-Ning; Li, Dan; Wang, Hui; Zeng, De-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Remediation of the petroleum contaminated soil is essential to maintain the sustainable development of soil ecosystem. Bioremediation using microorganisms and plants is a promising method for the degradation of crude oil contaminants. The effects of different remediation treatments, including nitrogen addition, Suaeda salsa planting, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi inoculation individually or combined, on crude oil contaminated saline soil were assessed using a microcosm experiment. The results showed that different remediation treatments significantly affected the physicochemical properties, oil contaminant degradation and bacterial community structure of the oil contaminated saline soil. Nitrogen addition stimulated the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon significantly at the initial 30d of remediation. Coupling of different remediation techniques was more effective in degrading crude oil contaminants. Applications of nitrogen, AM fungi and their combination enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency of S. salsa significantly. The main bacterial community composition in the crude oil contaminated saline soil shifted with the remediation processes. γ-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the pioneer oil-degraders at the initial stage, and Firmicutes were considered to be able to degrade the recalcitrant components at the later stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving oil biodegradability of aliphatic crude oil fraction by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage of biodegrading ability of B. subtilis and the mixture of these bacteria to n-alkanes and isoprenoids (pristine, phytane) were measured and compared with control. Crude oil is used as a sole source of energy and the incubation period was 24 days, the hydrocarbons loss are detected each 6 day interval using ...

  15. Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  16. Conversion of Crude Oil to Methane by a Microbial Consortium Enriched From Oil Reservoir Production Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina eBerdugo-Clavijo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanogenic biodegradation of crude oil is an important process occurring in petroleum reservoirs and other oil-containing environments such as contaminated aquifers. In this process, syntrophic bacteria degrade hydrocarbon substrates to products such as acetate, and/or H2 and CO2 that are then used by methanogens to produce methane in a thermodynamically dependent manner. We enriched a methanogenic crude oil-degrading consortium from production waters sampled from a low temperature heavy oil reservoir. Alkylsuccinates indicative of fumarate addition to C5 and C6 n-alkanes were identified in the culture (above levels found in controls, corresponding to the detection of an alkyl succinate synthase gene (assA in the culture. In addition, the enrichment culture was tested for its ability to produce methane from residual oil in a sandstone-packed column system simulating a mature field. Methane production rates of up 5.8 μmol CH4/g of oil/day were measured in the column system. Amounts of produced methane were in relatively good agreement with hydrocarbon loss showing depletion of more than 50% of saturate and aromatic hydrocarbons. Microbial community analysis revealed that the enrichment culture was dominated by members of the genus Smithella, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. However, a shift in microbial community occurred following incubation of the enrichment in the sandstone columns. Here, Methanobacterium sp. were most abundant, as were bacterial members of the genus Pseudomonas and other known biofilm forming organisms. Our findings show that microorganisms enriched from petroleum reservoir waters can bioconvert crude oil components to methane both planktonically and in sandstone-packed columns as test systems. Further, the results suggest that different organisms may contribute to oil biodegradation within different phases (e.g., planktonic versus sessile within a subsurface crude oil reservoir.

  17. Vulnerability maps for Druzba crude oil pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladik, P.; Hosnedl, P.; Buresova, H.; Corbet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Maps of risk for individual environmental aspects within the protection zone of the Czech part of the Druzba crude oil pipeline (505.7 km) were developed based on a modified 'H and V index' method. Risk data were added into a GIS of the Druzba pipeline so that the system could be used as conceptual material in the field of environmental protection (a base for the new SCADA system). Considered environmental aspects were assessed in terms of their vulnerability. The criteria were defined as the vulnerability of the aquatic environment (surface waters and ground waters), the vulnerability of soil environment and the vulnerability of biotic components of the environment. (authors)

  18. Microbial Population Dynamics Associated with Crude-Oil Biodegradation in Diverse Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamura, Natsuko; Olson, Sarah H.; Ward, David M.; Inskeep, William P.

    2006-01-01

    Soil bacterial population dynamics were examined in several crude-oil-contaminated soils to identify those organisms associated with alkane degradation and to assess patterns in microbial response across disparate soils. Seven soil types obtained from six geographically distinct areas of the United States (Arizona, Oregon, Indiana, Virginia, Oklahoma, and Montana) were used in controlled contamination experiments containing 2% (wt/wt) crude oil spiked with [1-14C]hexadecane. Microbial populat...

  19. Crude oil prices: Are our oil markets too tight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    The answer to the question posed in the title is that tightness in the market will surely prevail through 1997. And as discussed herein, with worldwide demand expected to continue to grow, there will be a strong call on extra oil supply. Meeting those demands, however, will not be straightforward--as many observers wrongly believe--considering the industry's practice of maintaining crude stocks at ''Just in time'' inventory levels. Further, impact will be felt from the growing rig shortage, particularly for deepwater units, and down-stream capacity limits. While these factors indicate 1997 should be another good year for the service industry, it is difficult to get any kind of consensus view from the oil price market. With most observers' information dominated by the rarely optimistic futures price of crude, as reflected by the NYMEX, the important fact is that oil prices have remained stable for three years and increased steadily through 1996

  20. Successful phytoremediation of crude-oil contaminated soil at an oil exploration and production company by plants-bacterial synergism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Amin, Imran; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2018-06-07

    Phytoremediation is a promising approach for the cleanup of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. This study aimed to develop plant-bacterial synergism for the successful remediation of crude oil-contaminated soil. A consortia of three endophytic bacteria was augmented to two grasses, Leptochloa fusca and Brachiaria mutica, grown in oil-contaminated soil (46.8 g oil kg -1 soil) in the vicinity of an oil exploration and production company. Endophytes augmentation improved plant growth, crude oil degradation, and soil health. Maximum oil degradation (80%) was achieved with B. mutica plants augmented with the endophytes and it was significantly (P oil reduction indicates that catabolic gene expression is important for hydrocarbon mineralization. This investigation showed that the use of endophytes with appropriate plant is an effective strategy for the cleanup of oil-contaminated soil under field conditions.

  1. Crude oil pricing report, issue 89, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report is prepared by the Canadian Oil Markets and Emergency Planning Division (COMEP), Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. It provides a reference for domestic and imported crude oil prices in Canadian markets and illustrates the competitive position of Canadian crude in the U.S. market. The information in this report is in part based on the Crude Oil Pricing Survey (COPS), conducted by COMEP, of Canadian refiners' domestic crude oil purchases, refinery receipts, imports and data from trade publications as well as industry pricing bulletins. 8 tabs

  2. Identification of crude-oil components and microorganisms that cause souring under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, R; Toyama, K; Miyanaga, K; Tanji, Y

    2014-02-01

    Oil souring has important implications with respect to energy resources. Understanding the physiology of the microorganisms that play a role and the biological mechanisms are both important for the maintenance of infrastructure and mitigation of corrosion processes. The objective of this study was to identify crude-oil components and microorganisms in oil-field water that contribute to crude-oil souring. To identify the crude-oil components and microorganisms that are responsible for anaerobic souring in oil reservoirs, biological conversion of crude-oil components under anaerobic conditions was investigated. Microorganisms in oil field water in Akita, Japan degraded alkanes and aromatics to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under anaerobic conditions, and fermenting bacteria such as Fusibacter sp. were involved in VFA production. Aromatics such as toluene and ethylbenzene were degraded by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfotignum sp.) via the fumarate-addition pathway and not only degradation of VFA but also degradation of aromatics by sulfate-reducing bacteria was the cause of souring. Naphthenic acid and 2,4-xylenol were not converted.

  3. Systemic toxicity of dermally applied crude oils in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feuston, M.H.; Mackerer, C.R.; Schreiner, C.A.; Hamilton, C.E. [Stonybrook Labs., Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Two crude oils, differing in viscosity (V) and nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) content, were evaluated for systemic toxicity, In the Crude I (low V, low N, low S) study, the material was applied to the clipped backs of rats at dose levels of 0, 30, 125, and 500 mg/kg. In the Crude II (high V, high N, moderate S) study, the oil was applied similarly at the same dose levels. The crude oils were applied for 13 wk, 5 d/wk. Exposure sites were not occluded. Mean body weight gain (wk 1-14) was significantly reduced in male rats exposed to Crude II; body weight gain of all other animals was not adversely affected by treatment. An increase in absolute (A) and relative (R) liver weights and a decrease in A and R thymus weights were observed in male and female rats exposed to Crude II at 500 mg/kg; only liver weights (A and R) were adversely affected in male and female rats exposed to Crude I. In general, there was no consistent pattern of toxicity for serum chemistry endpoints; however, more parameters were adversely affected in Crude II-exposed female rats than in the other exposed groups. A consistent pattern of toxicity for hematology endpoints was observed among male rats exposed to Crude I and male and female rats exposed to Crude II. Parameters affected included: Crudes I and II, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, Crude II, platelet count. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed the following treatment-related findings: Crude I, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid; Crude II, bone marrow, treated skin, thymus, and thyroid. The LOEL (lowest observable effect level) for skin irritation and systemic toxicity (based on marginal effects on the thyroid) for both crude oils was 30 mg/kg; effects were more numerous and more pronounced in animals exposed to Crude II. Systemic effects are probably related to concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) found in crude oil.

  4. What about oil reserve depletion and crude oil price evolution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report is to give a synthesis of different points of view with respect to the 'Peak Oil' perspective and to the crude oil price evolution. In the first part, the authors examine the evolutions and assessments of oil reserves and productions, by discussing the different types of reserve, the optimistic and pessimistic points of views. Then, in the second part, they analyse the long term price formation, the various production technical costs (conventional oils, heavy oils and asphaltic sands, coal- and gas-based synthetic hydrocarbons, bio-fuels), the external costs (notably in relationship with greenhouse emissions), the relationship between geopolitical issues and short and middle term price formation. In the third and last part, they discuss the possible evolutions and scenarios in terms of demand, production, and prices

  5. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  6. Biodegradation of Bonnylight crude oil by locally isolated fungi from oil contaminated soils in Akure, Ondo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekundayo, F.O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This present investigation was conducted to determine the capability of fungi isolated from soil samples collected from two automobile workshopsto bioremediate Bonnylight crude oil.Methodology and Results: The fungi present on the soil samples collected from two automobile workshops in Akure, Nigeria were investigated using standard microbiological techniques. These fungal isolates were screened for the ability to degrade Bonnylight crude oil. The bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil was observed spectrophotometrically using the broth culture (non- harvested cells and harvested cells of the fungi isolated from the contaminated sites for a period of 20 days on minimal salt broth. Mycotypha microspora, Penicllium italicum, Botryris cinerea, Gliocladium deliquescence, Verticillium albo–atrum and Aspergillus niger were isolated from the contaminated site while Neurospora crassa, A. parasiticus, A. niger and Gonatobotryum apiculatum were isolated from uncontaminated sites. All the fungal isolates were capable of active degradation in varying degrees.Conclusion: The study shows that all the isolated fungi were capable of degrading the crude oil in varying degrees. The active crude oil utilizing fungi in this study were Aspergillus niger (both harvested and non harvested cells and Gliocladium deliquescence (non harvested cells and Penicillium italicum (harvested cells. Aspergillus niger has best degrading ability than other fungi in non harvested and harvested cell condition. However, non harvested cells recorded the higher degradative ability than harvested cells. Therefore, non harvested cells can be employed in bioremediation of Bonnylight crude oil.Significance and Impact of Study: The fungi isolated from automobile mechanic workshops contaminated soil can be exploited in the bioremediation of Bonny Light crude oil.

  7. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.A.; Callaghan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 109 refs

  8. A catalogue of crude oil and oil product properties, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiticar, S.; Bobra, M.; Liuzzo, P.; Callaghan, S.; Fingas, M.; Jokuty, P.; Ackerman, F.; Cao, J.

    1993-02-01

    This catalogue is a compilation of available data on crude oils and petroleum products. The emphasis of the catalogue is upon oils which could potentially impact Canada's environment. Other oils which are unlikely to be of direct Canadian concern are also included because they have been well characterized and used in relevant studies. The properties listed for each oil are those which will provide an indication of a spilled oil's environmental behaviour and effects. The properties on which data is provided include API gravity, density, viscosity, interfacial tension, pour point, flash point, vapor pressure, volatility and component distribution, emulsion formation tendency and stability, weathering, dispersability, major hydrocarbon groups, aqueous solubility, toxicity, sulfur content, fire point, and wax content. Most of the chemical-physical properties listed in this catalogue were measured using standard tests. For certain properties, data are given at different temperatures and for different degrees of oil weathering. An oil's degree of weathering is expresed as the volume or weight percent evaporated from the fresh oil. Weathered oils used for testing were artificially weathered by gas stripping following the method of Mackay and Stiver. 140 refs

  9. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs

  10. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  11. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  12. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  13. Toxicity of crude oil products and detergent on serum alkaline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative effect of exposing Clarias gariepinus juveniles (100.20 + 0.8g) to diferent concentrations of crude oil products and detergent were studied. Bonny Light Crude oil (BLCO), Premium motor spirit (PMS), Dual purpose kerosene (DPK) and Ariel Enzymax Detergent (AED) were respectively applied at three ...

  14. Manihot esculenta crantz in crude oil contaminated soil amended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the performance of Manihot esculenta, Crantz (TMS 30572) in a crude oil polluted soil was investigated in the Botanic Garden of University of Port Harcourt. The soil samples were polluted at four different levels (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) with crude oil and amended with organic supplement (decomposed Centrosem ...

  15. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)], E-mail: Elshafie@squ.edu.om; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Al-Busaidi, Sultan [Oman Refinery Company Laboratories, LLC, P.O. Box 3568 Ruwi PC112 (Oman); Bakheit, Charles [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman); Albahry, S.N. [Department of Biology, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36 Al Khod, Muscat (Oman)

    2007-11-15

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum.

  16. Biodegradation of crude oil and n-alkanes by fungi isolated from Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir; AlKindi, Abdulaziz Yahya; Al-Busaidi, Sultan; Bakheit, Charles; Albahry, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    Ten fungal species isolated from tar balls collected from the beaches of Oman were tested for their abilities to grow and degrade n-alkanes and crude oil. The abilities of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Penicillium chrysogenum to degrade n-alkanes (C13-C18), crude oil were compared and their mycelial biomass was measured. Significant differences were found in the utilization of C15, C16, C17 and C18 by the three fungi. Similarly, significant differences we found in the amount of biomass produced by the three fungi growing on C13, C17, C18 and crude oil. The correlation coefficient of biomass and oil utilization was not statistically significant for Aspergillus niger, significant for Aspergillus terreus and highly significant for P. chrysogenum

  17. Crude oil options market found to be efficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. crude oil options market operates efficiently and does not overreact. The authors, with the JFK School of Government, studied the crude oil options market under a Department of Energy grant. The current market was created in November 1986 when the New York Mercantile Exchange introduced an options contract for delivery of West Texas intermediate crude futures. it has grown greatly since then

  18. Development of Three Bacteria Consortium for the Bioremediation of Crude Petroleum-oil in Contaminated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Abdualdaim M. Mukred; Aidil A. Hamid; Ainon Hamzah; Wan M. Wan Yusoff

    2008-01-01

    We have to developed active microbial consortium that could be of higher degradation of crude oil contaminated groundwater, wastewater aeration pond and biopond at the oil refinery Terengganu Malaysia. Among four isolates that showed good growth only three different isolates (Acinetobacter faecalis WD2, Staphylococcus. sp DD3 and Neisseria elongate TDA4.) were selected based on the growth ability and degradation. Significant growth and effectiveness of hydrocarbon biodegradation of the bacter...

  19. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  20. Crude oil treatment leads to shift of bacterial communities in soils from the deep active layer and upper permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline route.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizhong Yang

    Full Text Available The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils.

  1. Crude Oil Treatment Leads to Shift of Bacterial Communities in Soils from the Deep Active Layer and Upper Permafrost along the China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline Route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sizhong; Wen, Xi; Zhao, Liang; Shi, Yulan; Jin, Huijun

    2014-01-01

    The buried China-Russia Crude Oil Pipeline (CRCOP) across the permafrost-associated cold ecosystem in northeastern China carries a risk of contamination to the deep active layers and upper permafrost in case of accidental rupture of the embedded pipeline or migration of oil spills. As many soil microbes are capable of degrading petroleum, knowledge about the intrinsic degraders and the microbial dynamics in the deep subsurface could extend our understanding of the application of in-situ bioremediation. In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the bacterial communities in response to simulated contamination to deep soil samples by using 454 pyrosequencing amplicons. The result showed that bacterial diversity was reduced after 8-weeks contamination. A shift in bacterial community composition was apparent in crude oil-amended soils with Proteobacteria (esp. α-subdivision) being the dominant phylum, together with Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The contamination led to enrichment of indigenous bacterial taxa like Novosphingobium, Sphingobium, Caulobacter, Phenylobacterium, Alicylobacillus and Arthrobacter, which are generally capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The community shift highlighted the resilience of PAH degraders and their potential for in-situ degradation of crude oil under favorable conditions in the deep soils. PMID:24794099

  2. Procedures in field systems for collecting and demulsifying crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakhitov, G G; Graifer, V I; Tronov, V P; Zakirov, I G

    1969-01-01

    This microscopic study of crude oil emulsification and demulsification showed that the sooner an emulsion is chemically treated, the less its stability. This finding led to the practice of adding demulsifiers to the crude oil in pipelines. This method of demulsification is now used in Romashkino, Bablinsk, and Elkhovs fields. By this early addition of a chemical, the tendency of the pipeline to form stable, highly viscous emulsions is reduced. This treatment also facilitates separation of water from oil in storage tanks. Repeated tests have shown that pipeline demulsification is a highly effective and economic process. This method reduces crude oil dewatering costs by several hundred percent.

  3. Tweens demulsification effects on heavy crude oil/water emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Hayati Roodbari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The demulsification role of Tweens (nonionic polymers was determined in the separation of water from heavy crude oil emulsion. According to the previous researches, these nonionic polymers, having hydrophilic and lipophilic groups, are appropriate for making oil in water emulsion. In this research their effects in certain concentrations on demulsifying of water in crude oil emulsion were proved. High molecular weight, alkenes’ chains and groups of ketone and ester in these polymers can improve their performance for the demulsification of water in crude oil emulsion. Their efficiencies are improved with electronegative groups such as oxygen. They leave no corrosion effect because they are neutral and do not leave counter ions.

  4. Crude oil prices: It's not like '86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    In 1981, daily crude oil productive capacity exceeded demand by more than 25%, leading to a 4-yr price decline from near $40 per barrel levels, and a sharp drop in 1986 to near $12. But, in 1994, the fundamentals are reversed, worldwide demand is growing, conservation movements are not active, and certain geographic areas, like Asia, are set to tax the system as they modernize. Meanwhile, US and Former Soviet Union production is off, without prospects for near-term turnaround. And there is reason to believe OPEC leaders may not feel compelled to cut their output, when combined small cuts of the magnitude of 5% by the rest of the world's producers could accomplish the same objective of raising oil prices. As with any forecast, only time and hindsight will tell the real story, but 1994 could end up being one of the periodic turning points for what has always been a long-term cyclical industry. This paper summarizes the predictions and causes of predicted price changes

  5. EFFICACY OF COMMERCIAL INOCULA IN ENHANCING BIODEGRADATION OF WEATHERED CRUDE OIL CONTAMINATING A PRINCE WILLIAM SOUND BEACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a laboratory study evaluating the effectiveness of 10 commercial products in stimulating enhanced biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil, two of the products provided significantly greater alkane degradation in closed flasks than indigenous Alaskan bacterial population...

  6. Growth of four tropical tree species in petroleum-contaminated soil and effects of crude oil contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Hernández, I.; Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Adams, R.H.; Rivera-Cruz, M.C.; Pérez-Hernández, V.; Jarquín-Sánchez, A.; Geissen, V.; Martínez-Zurimendi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, we evaluated establishment of four tree species and their capacity to degrade crude oil recently incorporated into the soil; the species were as follows: Cedrela odorata (tropical cedar), Haematoxylum campechianum (tinto bush), Swietenia macrophylla (mahogany), and

  7. Experimental study on yield behavior of Daqing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Lei [China University of Petroleum, College of Mechanical and Transportation Engineering, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-15

    The yield behavior of Daqing crude oil was studied by means of multi-mode controlled-stress tests with a high-precision stress controlled rheometer. Two experiments of creep and constant stress loading rate were performed. The yield stress of gelled crude oil was dependent on the test conditions such as the stress loading time and the stress loading rate, but the yield strain did not change with test conditions. The yield strain did exist objectively and it can be used as the criterion for the yielding of the structure of gelled crude oil. The yield strain of gelled oil was studied through experiments of creep, constant stress loading rate, oscillatory shear stress increase, and constant shear rate. The yield strain of gelled crude oil decreased with the increasing gel strength. The experiment of constant speed increase of stress showed the strain softening phenomena for low gel strength oil. (orig.)

  8. Microbial enhanced heavy crude oil recovery through biodegradation using bacterial isolates from an Omani oil field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayegh, Abdullah; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya; Al-Bahry, Saif; Elshafie, Abdulkadir; Al-Bemani, Ali; Joshi, Sanket

    2015-09-16

    Biodegradation is a cheap and environmentally friendly process that could breakdown and utilizes heavy crude oil (HCO) resources. Numerous bacteria are able to grow using hydrocarbons as a carbon source; however, bacteria that are able to grow using HCO hydrocarbons are limited. In this study, HCO degrading bacteria were isolated from an Omani heavy crude oil field. They were then identified and assessed for their biodegradation and biotransformation abilities under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacteria were grown in five different minimum salts media. The isolates were identified by MALDI biotyper and 16S rRNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequences were submitted to GenBank (NCBI) database. The bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis. To assess microbial growth and biodegradation of HCO by well-assay on agar plates, samples were collected at different intervals. The HCO biodegradation and biotransformation were determined using GC-FID, which showed direct correlation of microbial growth with an increased biotransformation of light hydrocarbons (C12 and C14). Among the isolates, B. licheniformis AS5 was the most efficient isolate in biodegradation and biotransformation of the HCO. Therefore, isolate AS5 was used for heavy crude oil recovery experiments, in core flooding experiments using Berea core plugs, where an additional 16 % of oil initially in place was recovered. This is the first report from Oman for bacteria isolated from an oil field that were able to degrade and transform HCO to lighter components, illustrating the potential use in HCO recovery. The data suggested that biodegradation and biotransformation processes may lead to additional oil recovery from heavy oil fields, if bacteria are grown in suitable medium under optimum growth conditions.

  9. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  10. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  11. MICROWAVE HEATING AND SEPARATION OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION FROM MEXICAN CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    VAZQUEZ V., ADRIAN; LOPEZ M., ARTURO; ANDRADE C., LUIS J.; VAZQUEZ A., ARIANA M.

    2014-01-01

    Microwave heating and gravity sedimentation are alternatives for demulsification and layer separation into oil and water layers, this process was demonstrated in the laboratory and provides an option for reducing and oil recovering from water-in-oil Mexican oil emulsions. The combinatorial process was implemented in a test lab using Mexican crude oil samples. The Laboratory samples were 100% and 50-50%, crude and crude-water respectively, were heated. The results were encouraging show that mi...

  12. Inhibition of hydrocarbon bioremediation by lead in a crude oil-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Saleh, E.S.; Obuekwe, C. [Kuwait University (Kuwait). Department of Biological Sciences, Microbiology Program

    2005-07-01

    Analyses of soil samples revealed that the level of lead (total or bioavailable) was three-fold greater in crude oil contaminated than in uncontaminated Kuwaiti soils. Investigation of the possible inhibitory effect of lead on hydrocarbon degradation by the soil microbiota showed that the number of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria decreased with increased levels of lead nitrate added to soil samples, whether oil polluted or not. At 1.0 mg lead nitrate g{sup -1} dry soil, the number of degraders of hexadecane, naphthalene and crude oil declined by 14%, 23% and 53%, respectively. In a similar manner, the degradation and mineralization of different hydrocarbons decreased with increased lead content in cultures, although the decreases were not significantly different (P>0.05). The dehydrogenase activities of soil samples containing hydrocarbons as substrates also declined with an increase in the lead content of soil samples. (author)

  13. Efficiency of crude oil markets: Evidences from informational entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Cruz, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Eduardo; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2012-01-01

    The role of crude oil as the main energy source for the global economic activity has motivated the discussion about the dynamics and causes of crude oil price changes. An accurate understanding of the issue should provide important guidelines for the design of optimal policies and government budget planning. Using daily data for WTI over the period January 1986–March 2011, we analyze the evolution of the informational complexity and efficiency for the crude oil market through multiscale entropy analysis. The results indicated that the crude oil market is informationally efficient over the scrutinized period except for two periods that correspond to the early 1990s and late 2000s US recessions. Overall, the results showed that deregulation has improved the operation of the market in the sense of making returns less predictable. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the probability of having a severe US economic recession increases as the informational efficiency decreases, which indicates that returns from crude oil markets are less uncertain during economic downturns. - Highlights: ► Entropy concepts are used to characterize crude oil prices. ► An index of market efficiency is introduced. ► Except for periods of economic recession, the crude oil market is informationally efficient.

  14. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L.; Buskey, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4–3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod"−"1 d"−"1, which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-C_c_o_p_e_p_o_d"1 d"−"1. Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L"−"1) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼1.3–2.6 mg-oil m"−"3 d"−"1, which would represent ∼0.15%–0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea. - Highlights: • Copepods exposed to dispersed crude oil produced fecal pellets contained numerous small oil droplets (2.4 to 3.5 µm). • Copepods could reject large oil droplets or oil droplets are broken into

  15. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicted crude protein degradation was calculated at rate constants for outflow of 0.04 and 0.06/h respect- ively. ... as buffers, an ionophore and an antibiotic according to general .... the non-bird resistant ('sweet') varieties. Ruminal .... have been affected by both the particle type and the math- ematical model we used.

  16. Degradation of Crude Protein in Groundnut Cake, Guinea Grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...

  17. Expanding U.S. markets for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Angevine, G.; Chan, K.; Renne, G.; Stariha, J.; MacKay, E.

    1993-01-01

    The quantities and types of Canadian, U.S. and competing foreign crudes flowing into U.S. market regions and the potential to retain and/or expand Canadian crude oil sales in each of those markets, was studied. The various pipeline system expansion/construction proposals were reviewed. Findings of the study with respect to prospects for crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were presented. Opportunities and constraints with regard to the potential for incremental crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were detailed. The study concluded that there was a substantial market in the U.S. for incremental sales of Canadian crudes. Most of the refineries in the U.S. market regions were more flexible in terms of their crude diet than they were before the rationalization and restructuring of the industry began. The market for crude oil in the U.S. was shown to be one of the most competitive in the world and the most volatile. The study also revealed that there were risks associated with large additions to the capacity to ship crude oil by pipeline from Western Canada, given the uncertainties surrounding future supply. 4 refs., figs., tabs

  18. An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.

  19. Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Post-Burn Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the Niger delta, crude oil spilled soils are burned as a means of decontaminating the impacted soils. Gas chromatography - flame ionization detector (GCFID) analyses were performed on oil residues extracted from burnt spilled oil soil samples to facilitate detailed chemical composition and characterization of petroleum ...

  20. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  1. Russian crude-oil production and export still increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purho, P.

    2001-01-01

    Russian crude-oil production is still increasing. In 2000 the annual production 6.48 mb/d was about 6% higher than a year before. In 2001 the production is expected to rise near the level 7 mb/d, so the increase in production volume is fast. However, the production is still far away from the maximum level of the former Soviet Union, 12 mb/d. At the moment Russia is the second largest oil producer right after Saudi Arabia. The increase in production is based on intensified use of old oil fields caused by improved technology. The oil export of Russia far abroad in 2000 was 2.5 mb/d and near abroad into FSU countries only about 180 000 b/d. The recent export of crude-oil has been near the maximum export capacity corresponding to 2.7 mb/d. About 61 million tons of oil products were exported in 2000, and even the export of oil products is increasing. Most of this was gas oil and heavy fuel oil, but also the export of gasoline was significant. The export of oil and oil products is mainly based on shipments, but also the share of train transport is high. Nearly all the crude oil is transported west either by ships or via pipelines. The share of railway transport is only few percents. Russia will continue its own oil pumping policy despite of the appeals of OPEC for reduction of oil production. Opinion in Russia is that if the increase of production and export serves the interests of Russia, it will also be carried out. The target value for crude oil for 2002 is 22 USD per barrel. The Russian crude oil production is estimated to grow up to 7.4 - 8.4 mb/d by the year 2010

  2. Influence of the type of crude oil to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming in one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of more important parameters is the type of crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA-Crude Oil Refinery -Skopje, Macedonia. (Original)

  3. Influence of the crude oil type to platforming effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafedzhiski, Branko; Crvenkova, Suzana; Zikovski, Toni

    1999-01-01

    Platforming is one of the most subtleties processing in refinery industry and it is permanent source for research and finding out the higher optimum degree. Optimum of the last effects of platforming directly depends on many parameters. One of the more important parameters is the type of the crude. The purpose of this work is presenting positive and negative effect to the platforming parameters caused by different types of crude in OCTA Crude Oil Refinery - Skopje (Macedonia). (Author)

  4. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  5. A Rapid Method of Crude Oil Analysis Using FT-IR Spectroscopy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June,2016), 24(1): 47-55 ... ABSTRACT: This study determines the viability of the use of Fourier Transform ... IR spectra of Crude oil sample containing a mixture of both degraded (sample 151).

  6. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  7. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Second, since Hamilton (1983) documented the impact of crude oil price volatility .... Hariri,2013) sourced from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). .... is explained by identifying the relative importance of a variable in generating.

  8. Investigating Asphaltenes Composition in Crude Oil Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-22

    Dec 22, 2015 ... composition of asphaltenes by Iatroscan TLC-FID method was compared with the weight% of asphaltenes precipitated. ... SARA in the crude oil samples were determined in this work ..... Fractionation and characterization of.

  9. Enhancement of Crude Oil Polluted Soil by Applying Single and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    bioline.org.br/ja ... 5 kg of soil each was polluted with 200 ml of crude oil ... organic matter, phosphate, nitrate, total hydrocarbon content, potassium and microbial population were analyzed before ... arise mainly from the processing and distribution of.

  10. An isolated bacterial consortium for crude oil biodegradation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(81), pp. ... The removal of crude oil by bioremediation was achieved in less time as compared to natural attenuation ... Environmental pollution, especially with hydrocarbons is a major ...

  11. Bioremediation of crude oil spills in marine and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation can be a safe and effective tool for dealing with crude oil spills, as demonstrated during the cleanup following the Exxon Valdez spill in Alaska. Crude oil has also been spilled on land, and bioremediation is a promising option for land spills too. Nevertheless, there are still areas where understanding of the phenomenon is rather incomplete. Research groups around the world are addressing these problems, and this symposium provides an excellent overview of some of this work

  12. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  13. Pricing and crude oil self-sufficiency. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    How Canada should go about achieving crude oil self-sufficiency and who should develop Canada's petroleum resources are discussed. The degree of urgency and the level of commitment required by government, industry, and consumers are evaluated. What the price should be of Canadian crude oil and who should establish this price are also discussed. The economic aspects of investment, return, and taxation are also included. (DC)

  14. Evaluating the US government's crude oil price projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) 1991 official long run crude oil price projections are evaluated by comparing parameter averages for the forecast period (1991-2010) to parameter averages from crude oil price history (1859-1990). The parameters used in the evaluation are average price, average annual price changes, and average cycle duration (in years). All prices used in the analysis are annual prices in constant 1990 dollars per barrel. 13 figs

  15. Crude oil biodegradation aided by biosurfactants from Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 or its culture broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajna, Kuttuvan Valappil; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Gottumukkala, Lalitha Devi; Pandey, Ashok

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the biosurfactants produced by the yeast Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 for enhancing the degradation of crude oil by a model hydrocarbon degrading strain, Pseudomonas putida MTCC 1194. Pseudozyma biosurfactants were supplemented at various concentrations to the P. putida culture medium containing crude oil as sole carbon source. Supplementation of the biosurfactants enhanced the degradation of crude oil by P. putida; the maximum degradation of hydrocarbons was observed with a 2.5 mg L(-1) supplementation of biosurfactants. Growth inhibition constant of the Pseudozyma biosurfactants was 11.07 mg L(-1). It was interesting to note that Pseudozyma sp. NII 08165 alone could also degrade diesel and kerosene. Culture broth of Pseudozyma containing biosurfactants resulted up to ∼46% improvement in degradation of C10-C24 alkanes by P. putida. The enhancement in degradation efficiency of the bacterium with the culture broth supplementation was even more pronounced than that with relatively purer biosurfactants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salt marsh recovery from a crude oil spill: Vegetation, oil weathering, and response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.Z.; Shigenaka, G.; Henry, C.B. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    When a spill of Prudhoe Bay crude oil covered a fringing Salicornia virginica marsh in Fidalgo Bay, Washington (northern Puget Sound) in February 1991, response personnel used several low-impact techniques to remove oil from the marsh, and minimized access by cleanup workers. Following the response, a monitoring program was established to track marsh recovery, and to document the effectiveness of the response techniques used and their impacts on the marsh. Through monthly sampling over a 16-month period, vegetative growth was monitored and chemical degradation of remaining oil was tracked. Sampling was conducted along transects located in four areas affected in different ways by the spill, including an oiled, trampled section; an oiled, vacuumed section; and an oiled, washed, and vacuumed section. In addition, a control transect was established in an unoiled adjacent marsh. The study included both biological and chemical components. Biological measurements included percent cover of live vegetation (sampled monthly) and below-ground plant biomass (sampled at the beginning of each growing season in April 1991 and April 1992). Sediment samples included surface sediment (monthly) and core samples collected at the beginning and end of the growing seasons. Sediment samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, and indicator compounds were tracked to determine rates of oil degradation. Results from 16 months of post-spill monitoring show that foot trampling was most detrimental to marsh plants, while washing with vacuuming removed the most oil and minimized adverse impacts to vegetation. Dense clay substrate helped prevent oil from penetrating the sediment, thus minimizing acute toxic effects from oil exposure to marsh plant rootstock. By the second growing season post-spill, Salicornia and other marsh plants were growing in all areas except one heavily oiled patch

  17. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B. [Jones Graduate School of Management, Rice University, MS 531, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-04-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  18. The impact of energy derivatives on the crude oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, J.; Ostdiek, B.

    1999-01-01

    We examine the effects of energy derivatives trading on the crude oil market. There is a common public and regulatory perception that derivative securities increase volatility and can have a destabilizing effect on the underlying market. Consistent with this view, we find an abnormal increase in volatility for three consecutive weeks following the introduction of NYMEX crude oil futures. While there is also evidence of a longer-term volatility increase, this is likely due to exogenous factors, such as the continuing deregulation of the energy markets. Subsequent introductions of crude oil options and derivatives on other energy commodities have no effect on crude oil volatility. We also examine the effects of derivatives trading on the depth and liquidity of the crude oil market. This analysis reveals a strong inverse relation between the open interest in crude oil futures and spot market volatility. Specifically, when open interest is greater, the volatility shock associated with a given unexpected increase in volume is much smaller. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Enhanced crude oil biodegradative potential of natural phytoplankton-associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Haydn; Angelova, Angelina; Bowler, Bernard; Jones, Martin; Gutierrez, Tony

    2017-07-01

    Phytoplankton have been shown to harbour a diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), yet it is not understood how these phytoplankton-associated HCB would respond in the event of an oil spill at sea. Here, we assess the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial community associated with a natural population of marine phytoplankton under oil spill-simulated conditions, and compare it to that of the free-living (non phytoplankton-associated) bacterial community. While the crude oil severely impacted the phytoplankton population and was likely conducive to marine oil snow formation, analysis of the MiSeq-derived 16S rRNA data revealed dramatic and differential shifts in the oil-amended communities that included blooms of recognized HCB (e.g., Thalassospira, Cycloclasticus), including putative novel phyla, as well as other groups with previously unqualified oil-degrading potential (Olleya, Winogradskyella, and members of the inconspicuous BD7-3 phylum). Notably, the oil biodegradation potential of the phytoplankton-associated community exceeded that of the free-living community, and it showed a preference to degrade substituted and non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides evidence of compartmentalization of hydrocarbon-degrading capacity in the marine water column, wherein HCB associated with phytoplankton are better tuned to degrading crude oil hydrocarbons than that by the community of planktonic free-living bacteria. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Enhanced biodegradation of alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil by mixed strains and bacterial community analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Li, Chen; Zhou, Zhengxi; Wen, Jianping; You, Xueyi; Mao, Youzhi; Lu, Chunzhe; Huo, Guangxin; Jia, Xiaoqiang

    2014-04-01

    In this study, two strains, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 and Pseudomonas sp. XM-01, were isolated from soil samples polluted by crude oil at Bohai offshore. The former one could degrade alkane hydrocarbons (crude oil and diesel, 1:4 (v/v)) and crude oil efficiently; the latter one failed to grow on alkane hydrocarbons but could produce rhamnolipid (a biosurfactant) with glycerol as sole carbon source. Compared with pure culture, mixed culture of the two strains showed higher capability in degrading alkane hydrocarbons and crude oil of which degradation rate were increased from 89.35 and 74.32 ± 4.09 to 97.41 and 87.29 ± 2.41 %, respectively. In the mixed culture, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 grew fast with sufficient carbon source and produced intermediates which were subsequently utilized for the growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01 and then, rhamnolipid was produced by Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. Till the end of the process, Acinetobacter sp. XM-02 was inhibited by the rapid growth of Pseudomonas sp. XM-01. In addition, alkane hydrocarbon degradation rate of the mixed culture increased by 8.06 to 97.41 % compared with 87.29 % of the pure culture. The surface tension of medium dropping from 73.2 × 10(-3) to 28.6 × 10(-3) N/m. Based on newly found cooperation between the degrader and the coworking strain, rational investigations and optimal strategies to alkane hydrocarbons biodegradation were utilized for enhancing crude oil biodegradation.

  1. Standard guide for determining corrosivity of crude oils

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.2 This guide does not cover detailed calculations and methods, but rather a range of approaches that have found application in evaluating the corrosivity of crude oil. 1.3 Only those methodologies that have found wide acceptance in crude oil corrosivity evaluation are considered in this guide. 1.4 This guide does not address the change in oil/water ratio caused by accumulation of water at low points in a pipeline system. 1.5 This guide is intended to assist in the selection of methodologies that can be used for determining the corrosivity of crude oil under conditions in which water is present in the liquid state (typically up to 100°C). These conditions normally occur during oil and gas production, storage, and transportation in the pipelines. 1.6 This guide does not cover the evaluation of corrosivity of crude oil at higher temperatures (typically above 300°C) that oc...

  2. Application of alkaline waterflooding to a high acidity crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayyouh, M.H. (King Sand Univ., Riyadh (SA). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Abdel-Waly, A.; Osman, A. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Petroleum Engineering Dept.); Awara, A.Z. (Geisum Oil Company, Cairo (EG))

    The enhanced recovery of a high acidity crude oil (South Geisum crude) by alkaline solutions is studied. Acidity, interfacial tension, and contact angle, were investigated. Displacement tests were carried out to study the effect of alkaline slug concentration, slug size, oil alkali type, temperature and viscosity on recovery. The interfacial tension between crude oil and formation water decreases with increasing alkaline concentration until a minimum, after which it increases again. Contact angle measurements indicated oil-wetting conditions that increase by the addition of alkaline solutions. At the early stages of displacement, oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline concentration until a maximum at 4% by weight NaOH concentration. Also, at such early stages, an excessive increase in alkaline concentration results in lower oil recovery. On the other hand, after the injection of many pore volumes of water, oil recovery is almost the same regardless of the alkaline concentration. Oil recovery increases with increasing alkaline slug size until a maximum at 15% PV. Sodium hydroxide slugs produce more oil recovery than sodium carbonate slugs. Oil recovery increases with increasing temperature (from 25 to 55{sup 0}C) and decreasing oil viscosity.

  3. Research on heavy oil degradation by four thermophilic bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Chen, Q.; Liu, Z.; Li, Y. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China)

    2009-07-01

    The Shengli oilfield is the second largest onshore oil field in China, with a crude oil output of approximately 30 million tons per year. The large quantities of wastewater that are produced during thermal recovery methods have posed a challenge in terms of water reuse, reinjection and discharge. The important aspect of wastewater treatment is the removal of residual heavy oil. Biological methods are considered to be efficient in solving this problem. This paper reported on a study in which 4 thermophilic microorganisms which had the ability to biodegrade heavy oil were screened from heavy oil wastewater in the Shengli oilfield. Their degradation to heavy oil was discussed and the suitable biodegradation conditions of these bacteria were investigated. The study showed that the degrading efficiency of heavy oil by the 4 bacteria was up to 42.0, 47.6, 55.6 and 43.4 per cent in the wastewater which contained 500 mg per litre of heavy oil, respectively. The crude oil samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) before and after degradation. The single 4 strains demonstrated strong biodegradability to normal alkanes and aromatics, and the average degrading efficiency was about 50 and 35 per cent. The degrading efficiency of the mixed 4 strains was better than the single ones, particularly for the poor biodegradable hydrocarbons such as phenanthrenes and fluorines. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  4. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  5. Release of Crude Oil from Silica and Calcium Carbonate Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Yan, Wei; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of a North Sea crude oil to silica and calcium carbonate surfaces were studied by a quartz crystal microbalance, while the bare surfaces and adsorbed oil layers were characterized by atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements. Water contact angles were measured...

  6. Test methods for determining asphaltene stability in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asomaning, S. [Baker Petrolite, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The development of test methods for the determination of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils was rendered necessary, due to the high cost of remediating asphaltene deposition in harsh production environments, namely the underwater systems in offshore deepwater. The Oliensis Spot Test, two saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes (SARA)-based screens (the Colloidal Instability Index and Asphaltene-Resin ratio), a solvent titration method with near infrared radiation (NIR) solids detection, and live oil depressurization were used for the purposes of this study, to predict the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils with different API gravity. A complete description of the test methods was provided, and the experimental data obtained as a result was presented. Correlation with data on the deposition histories of the oils was used to validate the experimental stability data. The author discussed the effectiveness of the different tests for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils. The prediction of a crude oil's propensity towards asphaltene precipitation was more accurate with the Colloidal Instability Index and the solvent titration method. Live oil depressurization proved to be very effective for the prediction of the stability of asphaltenes for light oils, where most stability tests fail. tabs., 31 figs.

  7. New insights into oxidation behaviours of crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Innovative technologies will be needed to develop many of the world's oil reservoirs in an economically sustainable manner. In recent years, air injection for light oil reservoirs has gained recognition as an Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) process. In this process, the oxygen from the injected air reacts with a small fraction of the reservoir oil at high temperature to produce a mixture of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. The produced gas generated by the reaction mobilizes the oil downstream, thereby sweeping oil towards the production wells. High pressure air injection used in light oil reservoirs differs from the process used in heavy oil reservoirs, despite the fact that various oxidation reaction schemes exist. The key challenge facing the air injection process is the complexity of the oxidation reaction for crude oil and the lack of understanding of the oxidation behavior of light oils. This study identified a range of oxidation behaviors between light oil and heavy oil. The relationship between crude oil composition and its oxidation behaviors was also examined with reference to 3 different oils and their SARA (saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes) fractions. This study was carried out at various pressures and temperatures using thermogravimetry and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) as the thermal analysis techniques.

  8. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  9. Studies on crude oil removal from pebbles by the application of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wen-xiang; Xia, Yan; Li, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Dan-feng; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Xin-ping

    2015-02-15

    Oil residues along shorelines are hard to remove after an oil spill. The effect of biodiesel to eliminate crude oil from pebbles alone and in combination with petroleum degrading bacteria was investigated in simulated systems. Adding biodiesel made oil detach from pebbles and formed oil-biodiesel mixtures, most of which remained on top of seawater. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) removal efficiency increased with biodiesel quantities but the magnitude of augment decreased gradually. When used with petroleum degrading bacteria, the addition of biodiesel (BD), nutrients (NUT) and BD+NUT increased the dehydrogenase activity and decreased the biodegradation half lives. When BD and NUT were replenished at the same time, the TPH removal efficiency was 7.4% higher compared to the total improvement of efficiency when BD and NUT was added separately, indicating an additive effect of biodiesel and nutrients on oil biodegradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bioremediation of soil contaminated crude oil by Agaricomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Sichani, M Maryam; Assadi, M Mazaheri; Farazmand, A; Kianirad, M; Ahadi, A M; Ghahderijani, H Hadian

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important environmental problems is the decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soil, particularly in the oil-rich country. Bioremediation is the most effective way to remove these pollutants in the soil. Spent mushroom compost has great ability to decompose lignin-like pollution. The purpose of this study was the bioremediation of soil contaminated with crude oil by an Agaricomycetes . Soil sample amended with spent mushroom compost into 3%, 5% and 10% (w/w) with or without fertilizer. Ecotoxicity germination test was conducted with Lipidium sativa . The amplified fragment (18 s rDNA) sequence of this mushroom confirmed that the strain belonged to Pleurotus ostreatus species with complete homology (100% identity). All tests experiment sets were effective at supporting the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil after three months. Petroleum contaminated soil amended with Spent mushroom compost 10% and fertilizer removed 64.7% of total petroleum hydrocarbons compared control. The germination index (%) in ecotoxicity tests ranged from 60.4 to 93.8%. This showed that the petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil amended with 10% Spent mushroom compost had higher bioremediation ability and reduced soil toxicity in less than three months.

  11. Characteristics of bicyclic sesquiterpanes in crude oils and petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Zhendi; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Landriault, Mike

    2009-05-15

    This study presents a quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BSs) in numerous crude oils and refined petroleum products including light and mid-range distillate fuels, residual fuels, and lubricating oils collected from various sources. Ten commonly recognized bicyclic sesquiterpanes were determined in all the studied crude oils and diesel range fuels with principal dominance of BS3 (C(15)H(28)), BS5 (C(15)H(28)) and BS10 (C(16)H(30)), while they were generally not detected or in trace in light fuel oils like gasoline and kerosene and most lubricating oils. Laboratory distillation of crude oils demonstrated that sesquiterpanes were highly enriched in the medium distillation fractions of approximately 180 to 481 degrees C and were generally absent or very low in the light distillation fraction (boiling point to approximately 180 degrees C) and the heavy residual fraction (>481 degrees C). The effect of evaporative weathering on a series of diagnostic ratios of sesquiterpanes, n-alkanes, and biomarkers was evaluated with two suites of weathered oil samples. The change of abundance of sesquiterpanes was used to determine the extent of weathering of artificially evaporated crude oils and diesel. In addition to the pentacyclic biomarker C(29) and C(30) alphabeta-hopane, C(15) and C(16) sesquiterpanes might be alternative internal marker compounds to provide a direct way to estimate the depletion of oils, particularly diesels, in oil spill investigations. These findings may offer potential applications for both oil identification and oil-source correlation in cases where the tri- to pentacyclic biomarkers are absent due to refining or environmental weathering of oils.

  12. Exposure to Crude Oil and Chemical Dispersant May Impact Marine Microbial Biofilm Composition and Steel Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Salerno

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The release of hydrocarbons and chemical dispersant in marine environments may disrupt benthic ecosystems, including artificial reefs, formed by historic steel shipwrecks, and their associated organisms. Experiments were performed to determine the impacts of crude oil, dispersed crude oil, and dispersant on the community structure and function of microorganisms in seawater (SW and biofilms formed on carbon steel, a common ship hull construction material. Steel corrosion was also monitored to illustrate how oil spills may impact preservation of steel shipwrecks. Microcosms were filled with seawater (SW and incubated at 4°C. Carbon steel disks (CSDs were placed in each tank, and tanks were amended with crude oil and/or dispersant or no treatment. SW and CSD biofilms were sampled biweekly for genetic analysis using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons. Predicted and sequenced bacterial metagenomes were analyzed to examine impacts of oil and dispersant on metabolic function. Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia dominated SW and biofilms. Bacterial community structure differed significantly between treatments for SW and biofilms. OTUs affiliated with known (Pseudomonas and potential (Marinomonas hydrocarbon-degraders were roughly twice as abundant in biofilms treated with oil and dispersed oil, and steel corrosion of CSDs in these treatments was higher compared to control and dispersant treatments. OTUs affiliated with the Rhodobacteraceae family (biofilm formers and potential oil degraders were less abundant in the dispersant treatment compared to other treatments in biofilm and SW samples, but OTUs affiliated with the Pseudoalteromonas genus (biofilm formers and proposed hydrocarbon degraders were more abundant in dispersant-treated biofilms. Overall, functional gene analyses revealed a decrease in genes (predicted using PICRUSt and observed in sequenced metagenomes associated with hydrocarbon degradation

  13. Phytoremediation in the tropics--influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-11-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies.

  14. Does Portuguese economy support crude oil conservation hypothesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines cointegration relationships and Granger causality nexus in a trivariate framework among oil consumption, economic growth and international oil price in Portugal. For this purpose, we employ two Granger causality approaches: the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction model (VECM) and the Toda–Yamamoto approaches. Cointegration test proves the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship among these variables and VECM and Toda–Yamamoto Granger causality tests indicate that there is bidirectional causality between crude oil consumption and economic growth (feed back hypothesis). Therefore, the Portuguese economy does not support crude oil conservation hypothesis. Consequently, policymakers should consider that implementing oil conservation and environmental policies may negatively impact on the Portuguese economic growth. - Highlights: ► We examine Granger causality among oil consumption, GDP and oil price in Portugal. ► VECM and Toda–Yamamoto tests found bidirectional causality among oil and GDP. ► Portuguese economy does not support the crude oil conservation hypothesis.

  15. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with CW and Pulsed Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arc; Gallegos, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    For detection, identification and characterization of crude oil we combine several optical methods of remote sensing of crude oil films and emulsions (coherent fringe projection illumination (CFP), holographic in-line interferometry (HILI), and laser induced fluorescence). These methods allow the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills, important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of partial interference patterns. It is shown, that in addition to detection/identification laser illumination in the green-blue region can also degrade oil slicks. Different types of surfaces contaminated by oil spills are tested: oil on the water, oil on the flat solid surfaces and oil on the curved surfaces of pipes. For the detection and monitoring of the laser-induced oil degradation in pipes, coherent fiber bundles were used. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers are tested using pump-probe schemes. This finding suggests that properly structured laser clean-up can be an alternative environmentally-friendly method of decontamination, as compared to the currently used chemical methods that are dangerous to environment.

  16. Comparative Study of Crude Oil Contamination Effect on Industrial and Forest Soil Microbial Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Ansari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Petroleum hydrocarbons are widespread pollutant that enters to soil by some pathwayssuch as: Transportation of crude oil, conservation of oil compounds, crude oil spill and treatment process on refineries. Oil pollution has some ecological effect on soil that disturbed composition and diversity of microbial community. Also this pollution has some effects on microbial activity and enzymes of soil. Forests ecosystems may be polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons via different ways such as transportation and spill of crude oil from resource of petroleum storage. Industrial soil defined as the soils that located in industrial area such as petrochemical plant, mine, chemical factories and etc. These soils always contaminated to many pollutant such as: oil, diesel and heavy metals. These pollutants have some effects on the texture of the soil and microbial community. The aim of this research is to understand the effect of oil pollution on two different soils. Material and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crude oil on soil microbial community, two different soil samples were collected from industrial and forest soils. Six microcosms were designed in this experiment. Indeed each soil sample examined inthree microcosms asunpolluted microcosm, polluted microcosm, and polluted microcosm with nutrient supply of Nitrogen and PhosphorusSome factors were assayed in each microcosm during 120 days of experiment. The included study factors were: total heterotrophic bacteria, total crude oil degrading bacteria, dehydrogenase enzyme and crude oil biodegradation. For enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria nutrient agar medium was used. In this method serial dilutions were done from each soil and spread on nutrient agar medium then different colonies were counted. For enumeration of degrading bacteria Bushnel-Hass (BH medium were used. The composition of this medium was (g/lit: 1 gr KH2PO4, 1gr K2HPO4, 0.2 gr MgSO4.7H2O, 0.02 gr CaCl2, 1 gr NH4

  17. EVALUATION OF CORROSION COST OF CRUDE OIL PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADESANYA A.O.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil production industry as the hub of Nigeria Economy is not immune to the global financial meltdown being experienced world over which have resulted in a continual fall of oil price. This has necessitated the need to reduce cost of production. One of the major costs of production is corrosion cost, hence, its evaluation. This research work outlined the basic principles of corrosion prevention, monitoring and inspection and attempted to describe ways in which these measures may be adopted in the context of oil production. A wide range of facilities are used in crude oil production making it difficult to evaluate precisely the extent of corrosion and its cost implication. In this study, cost of corrosion per barrel was determined and the annualized value of corrosion cost was also determined using the principles of engineering economy and results analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that among the corrosion prevention methods identified, the use of chemical treatment gave the highest cost contribution (81% of the total cost of prevention while coating added 19%. Cleaning pigging and cathodic protection gave no cost. The contribution of corrosion maintenance methods are 60% for repairs and 40% for replacement. Also among the corrosion monitoring and inspection identified, NDT gave the highest cost contribution of 41% of the total cost, followed by coating survey (34%. Cathodic protection survey and crude analysis gives the lowest cost contribution of 19% and 6% respectively. Corrosion control cost per barrel was found to be 77 cent/barrel. The significance of this cost was not much due to high price of crude oil in the international market. But the effect of corrosion in crude oil processing takes its toll on crude oil production (i.e. deferment.

  18. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  19. OPEC announcements and their effects on crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sharon Xiaowen; Tamvakis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate evidence on the effects of OPEC announcements on world oil prices by examining announcements from both official conferences and ministerial meetings on major international crudes, including the key benchmarks and several other heavy and light grades. With data from 1982 to 2008, we use event study methodology and find differentiation in the magnitude and significance of market responses to OPEC quota decisions under different price bands. We also find some (weak) evidence of differentiation between light and heavy crude grades. (author)

  20. Identification of CYP1A inducing compounds in crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Hollebone, B.P.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    One of the major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aquatic ecosystems is crude oil. PAHs are responsible for developmental malformations in the early life stages of fish. The induction of CYP1A enzyme is characteristic of developmental toxicity caused by crude oil. As such, it is an effective biomarker of PAH uptake. It is not known which PAHs cause toxicity because of the complex chemical composition of crude oil. In this study, an approach called Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) was used with different crude oils to separate bioavailable PAHs into petroleum sub-fractions. The extent of CYP1A induction in rainbow trout was measured after 48 hour exposures to each fraction. Low temperature vacuum distillation was used to create white gas, kerosene, coal tar/bitumen and wax fractions. Hepatic CYP1A activity was induced by whole oil and some fractions. The highest PAH concentration was found in the coal tar/bitumen fraction which accounted for most CYP1A induction in whole oil. The wax fraction also caused moderate CYP1A induction, but the white gas fraction did not cause any CYP1A induction. The hypothesis that alkyl PAH may be the most significant source of CYP1A inducers in the coal tar/bitumen fraction was supported by chemical analysis of CYP1A induction potency. Results showed that benzo[a]pyrene accounts for nearly all of the CYP1A induction caused by the wax fraction.

  1. Biodegradation of Alaska North Slope crude oil enhanced by commercial bioremediation agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrett, S.; Bonner, J.S.; Mills, M.A.; McDonald, T.J.; Autenrieth, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The biodegradation of crude oil was studied. Tests were conducted in which natural unpolluted seawater was collected and then contaminated with Alaska North Slope crude oil. The oil was weathered by heating it to 521 degrees F to remove the light-end hydrocarbons. A total of 13 different bioremediation agents were tested, each one separately. Three samples per treatment were destructively analysed for petroleum chemistry. The thirteen treatments were analyzed for oil and grease. It was found that microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons was enhanced by the addition of bioremediation agents, but it was not possible to identify the intermediate products responsible for the increase of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons through time. It was suggested that caution be used when interpreting results since the protocols used to test the products were prone to uncontrollable variations. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  2. Global economic activity and crude oil prices. A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yanan; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the cointegrating relationship between crude oil prices and global economic activity. The Kilian economic index is used as an indicator of global economic activity. Based on a supply-demand framework and the cointegration theory, we find that real futures prices of crude oil are cointegrated with the Kilian economic index and a trade weighted US dollar index, and crude oil prices are influenced significantly by fluctuations in the Kilian economic index through both long-run equilibrium conditions and short-run impacts. We also develop an empirically stable, data-coherent and single-equation error-correction model (ECM) which has sensible economic properties. Empirical results based on the ECM show that the adjustment implied by a permanent change in the Kilian economic index is a relatively drawn-out process. (author)

  3. In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens

    in the small scale water basin. Boilovers were also observed during the burning of a heavy crude oil with a substantial light fraction without a water layer, however, which suggests that water is not essential for boilover occurrence. Further studies are required to determine the conditions under which......The fire dynamics and fire chemistry of in-situ burning of crude oil on water was studied in order to improve predictions on the suitability of this oil spill response method. For this purpose, several operational parameters were studied to determine the factors that control the burning efficiency...... of in-situ burning, i.e. the amount of oil (in wt%) removed from the water surface by the burning process. The burning efficiency is the main parameter for expressing the oil removal effectiveness of in-situ burning as response method and is thus relevant for suitability predictions of in-situ burning...

  4. Liquid ultrasonic flow meters for crude oil measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalivoda, Raymond J.; Lunde, Per

    2005-07-01

    Liquid ultrasonic flow meters (LUFMs) are gaining popularity for the accurate measurement of petroleum products. In North America the first edition of the API standard ''Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons by ultrasonic flow meters using transit time technology'' was issued in February 2005. It addresses both refined petroleum products and crude oil applications. Its field of application is mainly custody transfer applications but it does provide general guidelines for the installation and operation of LUFM's other applications such as allocation, check meters and leak detection. As with all new technologies performance claims are at times exaggerated or misunderstood and application knowledge is limited. Since ultrasonic meters have no moving parts they appear to have fewer limitations than other liquid flow meters. Liquids ultrasonic flow meters, like turbine meters, are sensitive to fluid properties. It is increasingly more difficult to apply on high viscosity products then on lighter hydrocarbon products. Therefore application data or experience on the measurement of refined or light crude oil may not necessarily be transferred to measuring medium to heavy crude oils. Before better and more quantitative knowledge is available on how LUFMs react on different fluids, the arguments advocating reduced need for in-situ proving and increased dependency on laboratory flow calibration (e.g. using water instead of hydrocarbons) may be questionable. The present paper explores the accurate measurement of crude oil with liquid ultrasonic meters. It defines the unique characteristics of the different API grades of crude oils and how they can affect the accuracy of the liquid ultrasonic measurement. Flow testing results using a new LUFM design are discussed. The paper is intended to provide increased insight into the potentials and limitations of crude oil measurement using ultrasonic flow meters. (author) (tk)

  5. Isolation and identification of bacterial consortia responsible for degrading oil spills from the coastal area of Yanbu, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Abd-EL Mooti EL Hanafy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three crude-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from oil-contaminated sites near the Red Sea. Based on a high growth rate on crude oil and on hydrocarbon degradation ability, four strains were selected from the 23 isolated strains for further study. These four strains were selected on the basis of dichlorophenolindophenol assay. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene showed that these isolated strains belonged to genus Pseudomonas and Nitratireductor. Among the four isolates, strains S5 (Pseudomonas sp., 95% and 4b (Nitratireductor sp., 70% were the most effective ones in degrading crude oil. Using a spectrophotometer and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, degradation of more than 90% of the crude oil was observed after two weeks of cultivation in Bushnell–Haas medium. The results showed that these strains have the ability to degrade crude oil and may be used for environmental remediation.

  6. Imported resources - oil crude oil processing in the Czech Republic and its prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soucek, I.; Ottis, I. [Kaucuk, Kralupy nad Vitavou (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    This paper examines the availability of various crude oils, addressing specifically crude oil pipelines to the Czech Republic, both existing and under construction. Secondly, the economic status of two main Czech refineries is examined in comparison to international trends, technical configurations, and product supply and demand.

  7. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  8. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  9. Breakthrough Adsorption Study of Crude Oil Removal Using Buffing Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyaningsih, L. W. N.; Yuliansyah, A. T.; Prasetyo, A.; Arimanintan, S. K.; Putri, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The utilization of leather industry solid waste as adsorbent to separate oil from water emulsions of surfactant flooding process is a solution that is relatively inexpensive. This study was conducted aiming to obtain a mathematical model that is appropriate for the adsorption process of crude oil by buffing dust in emulsion phase with a continuous adsorption method. Variations in the column adsorption experiments were carried out, such as: flow rate of feed of water-crude oil-surfactant, the concentration of crude oil in the feed, and mass of adsorbent used. Data were evaluated using three models: Adams Bohart, Thomas and Yan. Best results are obtained on the following conditions, the feed flow rate of 60 mL/minute, the crude oil concentration in feed is 1.5% volume and the mass of adsorbent used was 10 g. The values of kinetic constant and adsorption capacity obtained from Yan Model was 21.7774 mL/mg/minute and 220.9581 mg/g with the relative error obtained is 5.4424%.

  10. Seahorse (Hippocampus reidi) as a bioindicator of crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delunardo, Frederico Augusto Cariello; de Carvalho, Luciano Rodrigues; da Silva, Bruno Ferreira; Galão, Michel; Val, Adalberto Luís; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana R

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the suitability of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933) for assessing biomarkers of genotoxic effects and its use as a sentinel organism to detect the effects of acute exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons. Fish were exposed to three concentrations of crude oil (10, 20 and 30 g/kg) for 96 h, and the activity of phase II biotransformation enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) was measured. In addition, we performed genotoxicity assays, such as comet assay, micronucleus (MN) test and nuclear abnormalities (NA) induction, on the erythrocytes of the fish species. Our results revealed that the inhibition of hepatic GST activity in H. reidi was dependent on increasing crude oil concentrations. In contrast, an increase in the damage index (DI) and MN frequency were observed with increased crude oil concentrations. These results indicate that the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test were suitable and useful in the evaluation of the genotoxicity of crude oil, which could improve determinations of the impact of oil spills on fish populations. In addition, H. reidi is a promising "sentinel organism" to detect the genotoxic impact of petroleum hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Canadian crude oil production and supply forecast 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In order to enable members to plan for pipeline capacity requirements for transporting Canadian crude oil to markets, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) 2006-2020 crude oil production and supply forecast provides a long-range outlook of Canadian crude oil production. It provides a forecast of supply and demand for both western and eastern Canada. Because offshore eastern oil production does not rely on pipeline access to reach markets, the analysis primarily focuses on western Canadian production and supply. Over the next fifteen years, Alberta's oil sands provides the main source of growth in the western Canadian production forecast. A survey of CAPP members encompassing all oil sands projects was conducted. Survey responses reflect both planned and envisioned projects over a fifteen year period, although some of the envisioned projects have been risk adjusted by modifying the potential completion schedules for projects which are deemed more uncertain. Detailed tables are provided on forecast data. Three sets of tables are included to show production, two supply scenarios and a high level assessment of the need for incremental pipeline capacity. The report also discusses delays and risk factors that could slow the pace of oil sands development and the corresponding increase in production being forecast in the base case. 16 tabs

  12. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils

  13. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkl, Nicole [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany) and PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: nmerkl@uni-hohenheim.de; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: rsk@uni-hohenheim.de; Infante, Carmen [PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela) and Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), FUNINDES, Unidad de Gestion Ambiental, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: luchoben@cantv.net

    2005-11-15

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils.

  14. Effects of Crude Oil and Oil Products on Growth of Some Edible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetative growth response of three local edible mushrooms: Pleurotus pulmonarius (Pp), Pleurotus tuber-regium (Pt) and Lentinus squarrosulus (Ls) on different concentrations of Crude oil (COIL), Automotive Gasoline Oil (AGO), Fresh Engine Oil (ENGOIL) and Spent Engine Oil (SENGOIL) was investigated. The result ...

  15. Explaining crude oil prices using fundamental measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Les

    2012-01-01

    Oil is the world's most important commodity, and improving the understanding of drivers of its price is a longstanding research objective. This article analyses real oil prices during 1984–2007 using a monthly dataset of fundamental and market parameters that cover financial markets, global economic growth, demand and supply of oil, and geopolitical measures. The innovation is to incorporate proxies for speculative and terrorist activity and dummies for major industry events, and quantify price impacts of each. New findings are positive links between oil prices and speculative activity, bond yields, an interaction term incorporating OPEC market share and OECD import dependence, and the number of US troops and frequency of terrorist attacks in the Middle East. Shocks also prove significant with a $6–18 per barrel impact on price for several months. - Highlights: ► Article introduces new variables to the study of oil prices. ► New variables are terrorist incidents and military activity, and oil futures market size. ► Shocks prove important affecting prices by $6–18 per barrel for several months. ► OPEC market influence rises with OECD import dependence.

  16. CRUDE OIL TRANSPORT FROM THE CASPIAN SEA REGION TO EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przybyłowski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world, despite the growing importance and scale of the use of renewable energy , conventional energy resources still play a huge role. The European Union countries are dependent on the oil imports and the their main supplier of crude oil and natural gas has been the Russian Federation. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Caspian Sea region has become an alternative to Russian energy resources. The Unit-ed States , European Union, China and many other countries have shown their interest about this region. Despite a relatively large oil and natural gas reserves, the export of the-se commodities to the West is still problematic. Based on the available data and infor-mation, the publication explores the issue of energy resources transport directions with a particular emphasis on the crude oil from the Caspian Sea region to Europe.

  17. A novel apparatus for long term weathering of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Lun, R.; Skogen, E.; Ooijen, H. Van; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    A novel apparatus is under development for exposing oil in the laboratory to prolonged weathering. The apparatus is mechanically simple and robust and involves contacting oil with water and air, and possibly with solar radiation, under controlled conditions of salinity and turbulence. The principle of operation is that the oil rests on the concave surface of water, which is held in a cylindrical glass vessel and rotated at 33 rpm. The oil is agitated by a fixed stirrer which has a variable pitch. Three oils were studied: Canadian Environmenal Protection Service standard, Kuwait crude, and Prudhoe Bay crude. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil revealed the expected changes in composition due to evaporation, and purge and trap analysis of the water in contact with the oil determined the nature and concentration of the dissolved hydrocarbons. The apparatus also proved successful for testing the formation of water-in-oil emulsions. It is hoped that the system will contribute to an improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the long term weathering processes which occur when oil is spilled at sea. 11 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  18. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  19. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  20. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  1. Assessment of antioxidant indices after incorporating crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were divided into six groups of five rats each as follows: group 1: control, group 2: rats fed crude petroleum oil contaminated catfish diet (CPO-CCD) only, group 3: ... Administration of MWE, MEE and MDEE to the rats fed CPO-CCD significantly (p<0.05) increased the level of blood GSH, blood GSSG, SOD, CAT and ...

  2. Acute Toxicological Effects of Crude Oil On Haematological And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The acute toxicological effects of Brass blend of crude oil on the haemoglobin concentration, and Liver functions in the Guinea pig were studied. 25 Guinea pigs divided into five animals per group were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups. One group served as a control group, while the others received ...

  3. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to ...

  4. Crude oil metabolites in groundwater at two spill sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Steenson, Ross; Thorn, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    Two groundwater plumes in north central Minnesota with residual crude oil sources have 20 to 50 mg/L of nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC). These values are over 10 times higher than benzene and two to three times higher than Diesel Range Organics in the same wells. On the basis of previous work, most of the NVDOC consists of partial transformation products from the crude oil. Monitoring data from 1988 to 2015 at one of the sites located near Bemidji, MN show that the plume of metabolites is expanding toward a lakeshore located 335 m from the source zone. Other mass balance studies of the site have demonstrated that the plume expansion is driven by the combined effect of continued presence of the residual crude oil source and depletion of the electron accepting capacity of solid phase iron oxide and hydroxides on the aquifer sediments. These plumes of metabolites are not covered by regulatory monitoring and reporting requirements in Minnesota and other states. Yet, a review of toxicology studies indicates that polar metabolites of crude oil may pose a risk to aquatic and mammalian species. Together the results suggest that at sites where residual sources are present, monitoring of NVDOC may be warranted to evaluate the fates of plumes of hydrocarbon transformation products.

  5. Assessment and bioremediation of heavy metals from crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of the levels of heavy metals present in crude oil contaminated soil and the application of the earthworm - Hyperiodrilus africanus with interest on the bioremediation of metals from the contaminated soil was investigated within a 90-days period under laboratory conditions. Selected heavy metals such as ...

  6. Bioremediation of a crude oil polluted tropical rain forest soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results suggest that Biostimulation with tilling (nutrient enhanced in-situ bioremediation) and or the combination ofBiostimulation and Bioaugumentation with indigenous hydrocarbon utilizers would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted tropical soils. Key Words: Bioremediation, Bioaugumentation, ...

  7. Bioremediation potential of crude oil spilled on soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillen, S.J.; Young, G.N.; Davis, P.S.; Cook, P.D.; Kerr, J.M.; Gray, N.R.; Requejo, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    Spills sometimes occur during routine operations associated with exploration and production (E and P) of crude oil. These spills at E and P sites typically are small, less than 1 acre (0.4 ha), and the spill may be in remote locations. As a result, bioremediation often represents a cost-effective alternative to other cleanup technologies. The goal of this study was to determine the potential for biodegrading a range of crude oil types and determining the effect of process variables such as soil texture and soil salinity. Crude oils evaluated ranged in American Petroleum institute (API) gravity from 14 degree to 45 degree. The extent of biodegradation was calculated from oxygen uptake data and the total extractable material (TEM) concentration. Based on the data collected, a simple model was developed for predicting the bioremediation potential of a range of crude oil types. Biodegradation rates were significantly lower in sandy soils. Soil salinities greater than approximately 40 mmhos/cm adversely impacted soil microbial activity and biodegradation rate

  8. Bioremediation of a Crude Oil Polluted Tropical Mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A combination of bioaugumentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria, biostimulation with agricultural fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and tilling were employed as remedial options for 20 weeks in a crude oil polluted tidal plain dominated by mangrove (Rhizophora, Laguncularia and Avicenia) vegetation. Soil ...

  9. Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production: a case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta State of ... The results also showed an increase in the occurrence of health hazard, air/noise pollution and heightened deforestation in these communities.

  10. The phytoremediation of crude oil-polluted aquatic environment by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A phytoremediation experiment was carried out in the Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Nigeria to examine the ability of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to detoxify crude oil-polluted aquatic environments. There were fifteen (15) experimental units; twelve (12) had water hyacinth ...

  11. Forecasting Value-at-Risk for Crude-Oil Exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben; Tsiaras, Leonidas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to forecast and evaluate Value-At-Risk for crude-oil exposures. We examine the performance of a GARCH-type based model with lagged implied volatility entering the variance equation as explanatory variable for the predicted variance. The forecasted Values-at...

  12. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  13. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  14. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... aiding the activities of the large numbers of microbes ... math of crude oil pollution of agricultural soils to forestall the adverse effects induced .... International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A) manual series. No. 1, Ibadan ...

  15. CFD modeling of fouling in crude oil pre-heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mahmoud; Aminian, Javad; Bazmi, Mansour; Shahhosseini, Shahrokh; Sharifi, Khashayar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A conceptual CFD-based model to predict fouling in industrial crude oil pre-heaters. ► Tracing fouling formation in the induction and developing continuation periods. ► Effect of chemical components, shell-side HTC and turbulent flow on the fouling rate. - Abstract: In this study, a conceptual procedure based on the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) technique has been developed to predict fouling rate in an industrial crude oil pre-heater. According to the developed CFD concept crude oil was assumed to be composed of three pseudo-components comprising of petroleum, asphaltene and salt. The binary diffusion coefficients were appropriately categorized into five different groups. The species transport model was applied to simulate the mixing and transport of chemical species. The possibility of adherence of reaction products to the wall was taken into account by applying a high viscosity for the products in competition with the shear stress on the wall. Results showed a reasonable agreement between the model predictions and the plant data. The CFD model could be applied to new operating conditions to investigate the details of the crude oil fouling in the industrial pre-heaters.

  16. (A. Chev.) Stevels) Exposed to Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six accessions of cultivated Okra (Abelmoschuscaillei (A. Chev.) Stevels) and Abelmoschusesculentus (L.) Moench) were evaluated using growth parameters in crude oil contaminated soil. Seeds were collected from collected from Nigerian Institute of Horticulture (NIHORT), Ibadan and from home gardens in Benin City.

  17. Efficacy of intervention strategies for bioremediation of crude oil in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The search for the solution to ameliorate the seemingly unending pollution and its side effects necessitated the evaluation on the effect of bioaugmentation, biostimulation and natural attenuation of crude oil pollution in soil microcosms. The bacterial species selected for this study (Bacillus thuringensis strain LG32 and ...

  18. Distribution and geochemical application of aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asif, M.; Tahira, F.

    2007-01-01

    Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons was studied in a set of crude oils, five from northern Indus basin of potwar area and two from southern Indus basin. Diaromatic and triaromatic hydrocarbons were separated from highly complex mixture of sedimentary organic matter by using liquid chromatography techniques such as column chromatography, TLC and GC-FID. These classes of compounds were identified to alkylated isomers of naphthalenes and phenanthrenes by using reference chromatograms and literature data. High concentration of di-,tri- and tetra-methyl naphthalenes was observed in all crude oils except Kal. The relative increase in concentration of alkyl naphthalenes was found as moved to higher methyl substituted isomers. This suggests that they are the product of sedimentary alkylation reactions during catagensis and metagensis. The significant concentration of methyl phenanthrenes indicated source of organic matter. High levels of both 1-MP and 9-MP showed marine and terrestrial source of organic matter except Umer crude oil which is most likely to have terrestrial origin. The ratios of beta-substituted to the alpha-substituted isomers of both alkyl naphthalenes and alkyl phenanthrene were used to assess the thermal maturity of sedimentary organic matter, which revealed high maturity level of Dhurnal, Pindori, Badin and Toot crude oils. (author)

  19. Crude Oil Corrosion Fatigue of L485MB Pipeline Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 137, č. 5 (2015), 051401 ISSN 0094-9930 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * crude oil * pipeline steel * S–N curve * separated water Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.476, year: 2015 http://pressurevesseltech.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/article.aspx?articleID=2107675

  20. Measuring efficiency of international crude oil markets: A multifractality approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The three major international crude oil markets are treated as complex systems and their multifractal properties are explored. The study covers daily prices of Brent crude, OPEC reference basket and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude from January 2, 2003 to January 2, 2014. A multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) is employed to extract the generalized Hurst exponents in each of the time series. The generalized Hurst exponent is used to measure the degree of multifractality which in turn is used to quantify the efficiency of the three international crude oil markets. To identify whether the source of multifractality is long-range correlations or broad fat-tail distributions, shuffled data and surrogated data corresponding to each of the time series are generated. Shuffled data are obtained by randomizing the order of the price returns data. This will destroy any long-range correlation of the time series. Surrogated data is produced using the Fourier-Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (F-DFA). This is done by randomizing the phases of the price returns data in Fourier space. This will normalize the distribution of the time series. The study found that for the three crude oil markets, there is a strong dependence of the generalized Hurst exponents with respect to the order of fluctuations. This shows that the daily price time series of the markets under study have signs of multifractality. Using the degree of multifractality as a measure of efficiency, the results show that WTI is the most efficient while OPEC is the least efficient market. This implies that OPEC has the highest likelihood to be manipulated among the three markets. This reflects the fact that Brent and WTI is a very competitive market hence, it has a higher level of complexity compared against OPEC, which has a large monopoly power. Comparing with shuffled data and surrogated data, the findings suggest that for all the three crude oil markets, the multifractality is mainly due to long

  1. Down-hole catalytic upgrading of heavy crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.G.; Kessler, R.V.; Sawicki, R.A.; Belgrave, J.D.M.; Laureshen, C.J.; Mehta, S.A.; Moore, R.G.; Ursenbach, M.G. [University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Several processing options have been developed to accomplish near-well bore in-situ upgrading of heavy crude oils. These processes are designed to pass oil over a fixed bed of catalyst prior to entering the production well, the catalyst being placed by conventional gravel pack methods. The presence of brine and the need to provide heat and reactant gases in a down-hole environment provide challenges not present in conventional processing. These issues were addressed and the processes demonstrated by use of a modified combustion tube apparatus. Middle-Eastern heavy crude oil and the corresponding brine were used at the appropriate reservoir conditions. In-situ combustion was used to generate reactive gases and to drive fluids over a heated sand or catalysts bed, simulating the catalyst contacting portion of the proposed processes. The heavy crude oil was found to be amenable to in-situ combustion at anticipated reservoir conditions, with a relatively low air requirement. Forcing the oil to flow over a heated zone prior to production results in some upgrading of the oil, as compared to the original oil, due to thermal effects. Passing the oil over a hydroprocessing catalyst located in the heated zone results in a product that is significantly upgraded as compared to either the original oil or thermally processed oil. Catalytic upgrading is due to hydrogenation and the results in about a 50% sulfur removal and an 8{degree} API gravity increase. Additionally, the heated catalyst was found to be efficient at converting CO to additional H{sub 2}. While all of the technologies needed for a successful field trial of in-situ catalytic upgrading exist, a demonstration has yet to be undertaken. 27 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Crude oil prices : how high, how much harm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, M.; Alexander, C.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discussed the issue of crude oil prices and the economy. Crude oil prices are on the rise due to the recent events in the Middle East. In early April, West Texas Intermediate crude oil climbed to nearly US$28 a barrel. Most of the increase reflects the expectation of stronger world oil demand combined with supply constraints on the part of OPEC. Although there has been some concern expressed that rising oil prices may hinder economic recovery, the authors of this report do not see evidence that rising oil prices would throw economic recovery off course, arguing that the current spike will be short-lived. They stated that even under a worse-case scenario where prices remain inflated, there is little reason to fear for the health of the Canadian economy. OPEC is expected to increase its low production quotas in June. In addition, non-OPEC nations (Russia in particular) are expected to increase oil production in the coming months. The authors also indicated that it is unlikely that conflict in the West Bank will disrupt oil supply because Israel is not an oil-exporting nation. However, oil supply could be affected if other Arab nations were drawn into the issue. It was also noted that military action against Iraq would increase oil prices, possibly as high as US$40 a barrel, but the full extent of this hike in price will probably be unsustainable. In addition, the authors emphasized that the increase in energy costs would not be enough to seriously jeopardize the economic recovery in the United States. As for Canada, it is estimated that a US$10 per barrel increase in crude oil prices would have a small, but positive impact on Canadian GDP because in contrast to the United States, Canada produces much more energy than it consumers. In 2001, Canada ran a trade surplus of $2.8 billion. The report ended by stating that although higher oil prices could add a full percentage point to headline inflation by the end of the year, core inflation is likely to remain

  3. Impact of the rheological studies in the transport for pipeline of paraffinic crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L; Vidales, H; Castaneda, M; Leal, O; Barrero R; Garzon, J

    2000-01-01

    The results of this applied research contribute fundamental elements for handling paraffinic crude oils (pipeline design and operation) and the optimization of the use of Pour Point Depressor additives. The rheological studies support the fluid-dynamic analyses that accurately predict the pipeline transport operation, unlike traditional parameters such as pour point and cloud point. Evaluations of rheological behavior was carried out at the laboratory level in concentric viscometers and were scaled at the pilot plant level in a fluid-dynamic test circuit in pipes with diameters from 1.27 to 15.24 cm (1/2 to 6 inches), where the laboratory scale was confirmed. The tests were performed under strain rate temperature and conditions similar to those of pipeline and flow line operation in production fields. Also, the viability to restart pumping after a prolonged shutdown with extreme temperatures was calculated, evaluating creep stress. The study has allowed us to transport Cupiagua crude oil without the PPD additive in a segregated manner, showing that despite its high pour point 300K (27 grades Celsius), in dynamic conditions similar to those in the pipeline, the crude oil flows at temperatures near 283K (10 Celsius degrades) without putting the integrity of the pipe in danger and within operational and equipment restrictions for the company operating the pipeline. This has generated significant savings, due to the additive as well as the possibility to segregate the crude oils, which facilitates the operation of the paraffin plant at the Barrancabermeja Industrial Complex

  4. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longpre, D.; Jaouich, A.; Jarry, V.; Venosa, A.D.; Lee, K.; Suidan, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills

  5. The response of Scirpus pungens to crude oil contaminated sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longpre, D; Jaouich, A [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Jarry, V [Environment Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Venosa, A D [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Lee, K [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont Joli, PQ (Canada). Inst. Maurice Lamontagne; Suidan, M T [Cincinnati Univ., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    1999-01-01

    An exposure study was conducted to determine the impacts of an oil spill on the plant Scirpus pungens and to determine potential recovery rates of the species in the event of an accidental spill within the St. Lawrence River. Scirpus pungens is an important wetland plant which is essential for control of coastal erosion and which provides a unique habitat for a variety of biota. Sediments contaminated with medium-light crude oil were used in this study. Transplants in oiled and unoiled sediments were maintained in greenhouses to monitor changes in plant height, growth and mortality over a 63 day period. Results showed that plants exposed to high concentrations of oiled sediment were much smaller than those exposed to lightly contaminated sediments. Elevated oil concentrations greatly decreased plant biomass. Mortality was highly correlated with oil concentration. Transplants were able to survive, grow and produce new shoots in sediments contaminated with crude oil in a range of concentrations comparable to those associated with oil spills.

  6. Biodegradation of crude oil in Arctic subsurface water from the Disko Bay (Greenland) is limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye, Katrine; Christensen, Jan H.; Johnsen, Anders R.

    2017-01-01

    Biological degradation is the main process for oil degradation in a subsurface oil plume. There is, however, little information on the biodegradation potential of Arctic, marine subsurface environments. We therefore investigated oil biodegradation in microcosms at 2 °C containing Arctic subsurfac...... for the C1-naphthalenes. To conclude, the marine subsurface microorganisms from the Disko Bay had the potential for biodegradation of n-alkanes and isoprenoids while the metabolically complex and toxic PACs and their alkylated homologs remained almost unchanged.......Biological degradation is the main process for oil degradation in a subsurface oil plume. There is, however, little information on the biodegradation potential of Arctic, marine subsurface environments. We therefore investigated oil biodegradation in microcosms at 2 °C containing Arctic subsurface...... seawater from the Disko Bay (Greenland) and crude oil at three concentrations of 2.5-10 mg/L. Within 71 days, the total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration decreased only by 18 ± 18% for an initial concentration of 5 mg/L. The saturated alkanes nC13-nC30 and the isoprenoids iC18-iC21 were biodegraded...

  7. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  8. Crude oil prices: Robust demands strengthens outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the growth in the global demand for oil products by showing the historical trends in production and demand in developing countries. It shows world incremental production growth from 1985 to 1995 and developing countries's demands from 1971 to 1989. The paper goes on to make predictions as to whether the demand growth rate can be sustained. It provides information on the status of the world offshore drilling and production facilities to determine the capacity of this resource

  9. Investigation of alkaline–crude oil reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sheng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, this mechanism and related issues are discussed, analyzed or quantified. In particular, the numerical simulation approach is used. The results show that only a fraction of acid components can be converted into soap; the amount of generated soap could be low. A minimum pH (e.g. 9 is needed for the acids to be converted to soap. The literature information on the effect of amount of acid components (total acid number on oil recovery is also discussed.

  10. Rheological Behaviour of Water-in-Light Crude Oil Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, H.; Taju Ariffin, T. S.; Yahya, E.

    2018-05-01

    Basically, emulsions consist of two immiscible liquids which have different density. In petroleum industry, emulsions are undesirable due to their various costly problems in term of transportation difficulties and production loss. A study of the rheological behaviour of light crude oil and its mixture from Terengganu were carried out using Antoon Paar MCR 301 rheometer operated at pressure of 2.5 bar at temperature C. Water in oil emulsions were prepared by mixing light crude oil with different water volume fractions (20%, 30% and 40%). The objectives of present paper are to study the rheological behaviour of emulsion as a fuction of shear rate and model analysis that fitted with the experimental data. The rheological models of Ostwald-De-Waele and Herschel-Bulkley were fitted to the experimental results. All models represented well the rheological data, with high values for the correlation coefficients. The result indicated that variation of water content influenced shear rate-shear stress rheogram of the prepared emulsions. In the case of 100% light crude oil, the study demonstrated non-Newtonian shear thickening behavior. However, for emulsion with different volume water ratios, the rheological behaviour could be well described by Herschel-Bulkley models due to the present of yield stress parameter (R2 = 0.99807). As a conclusion, rheological studies showed that volume water ratio have a great impact on the shear stress and viscosity of water in oil emulsion and it is important to understand these factors to avoid various costly problems.

  11. The US gasoline situation and crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    Before and during the United States' summer driving season, concern over the country's gasoline supply can potentially influence the direction of the petroleum market. There are three causes of concern: a persistent lack of gasoline-producing capacity; a patchwork of as many as 18 different kinds of gasoline specifications; and the introduction of stringent new specifications for reformulated gasoline. However, gasoline stocks should be able to meet the needs of this year's driving season, at a time of ample crude oil availability, with strong imports. But, unplanned outages in the US logistics system and refining centres, or major disruptions in external gasoline supplies, could trigger price spikes that would, in turn, lead to frequently stronger crude oil prices, especially with the observed robust oil demand growth in China. (Author)

  12. Microbial ecology of a crude oil contaminated aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Warren, E.; Godsy, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed microbial analyses of a glacial outwash aquifer contaminated by crude oil provide insights into the pattern of microbial succession from iron reducing to methanogenic in the anaerobic portion of the contaminant plume. We analysed sediments from this area for populations of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters and methanogens, using the most probable number method. On the basis of the microbial data the anaerobic area can be divided into distinct physiological zones dominated by either iron-reducers or a consortium of fermenters and methanogens. Chemistry and permeability data show that methanogenic conditions develop first in areas of high hydrocarbon flux. Thus, we find methanogens both in high permeability horizons and also where separate-phase crude oil is present in either the saturated or unsaturated zone. Microbial numbers peak at the top of the separate-phase oil suggesting that growth is most rapid in locations with access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface.

  13. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  14. Detection of genetically modified soybean in crude soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Zorica; Vasiljević, Ivana; Zdjelar, Gordana; Ðorđević, Vuk; Ignjatov, Maja; Jovičić, Dušica; Milošević, Dragana

    2014-02-15

    In order to detect presence and quantity of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean in crude oil extracted from soybean seed with a different percentage of GMO seed two extraction methods were used, CTAB and DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The amplifications of lectin gene, used to check the presence of soybean DNA, were not achieved in all CTAB extracts of DNA, while commercial kit gave satisfactory results. Comparing actual and estimated GMO content between two extraction methods, root mean square deviation for kit is 0.208 and for CTAB is 2.127, clearly demonstrated superiority of kit over CTAB extraction. The results of quantification evidently showed that if the oil samples originate from soybean seed with varying percentage of RR, it is possible to monitor the GMO content at the first stage of processing crude oil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On Boiling of Crude Oil under Elevated Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2016-02-01

    We construct a thermodynamic model for theoretical calculation of the boiling process of multicomponent mixtures of hydrocarbons (e.g., crude oil). The model governs kinetics of the mixture composition in the course of the distillation process along with the boiling temperature increase. The model heavily relies on the theory of dilute solutions of gases in liquids. Importantly, our results are applicable for modelling the process under elevated pressure (while the empiric models for oil cracking are not scalable to the case of extreme pressure), such as in an oil field heated by lava intrusions.

  16. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E. O.; Kpeglo, D. O.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Schandorf, C.; Adu, P. A. S.; Faanu, A.; Abankwah, E.; Lawluvi, H.; Awudu, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers. (authors)

  17. Radiation doses and hazards from processing of crude oil at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darko, E O; Kpeglo, D O; Akaho, E H K; Schandorf, C; Adu, P A S; Faanu, A; Abankwah, E; Lawluvi, H; Awudu, A R

    2012-02-01

    Processing of crude oil has been carried out in Ghana for more than four decades without measures to assess the hazards associated with the naturally occurring radionuclides in the raw and processed materials. This study investigates the exposure of the public to (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in crude oil, petroleum products and wastes at the Tema oil refinery in Ghana using gamma-ray spectrometry. The study shows higher activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in the wastes than the crude oil and the products with estimated hazard indices less than unity. The values obtained in the study are within recommended limits for public exposure indicating that radiation exposure from processing of the crude oil at the refinery does not pose any significant radiological hazard but may require monitoring to establish long-term effect on both public and workers.

  18. Islamic versus conventional stock market and its co-movement with crude oil: a wavelet analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamarudin, Eka Azrin; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Crude oil market plays an important role in economic development and its price changes give huge impact to the financial markets. In this paper, the relationships between crude oil and stock markets are examined. This study has selected Malaysian Islamic and conventional stock markets as a case study. Financialisation of crude oil and its frequent inclusion into investment portfolios warrant an analysis of the relationship between crude oil and stock market indices at various time scales or i...

  19. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate supply-side peak oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okullo, Samuel; Reynes, Frederic

    2010-09-15

    More often, oil supply has been modeled on the basis of resource availability and demand. The impact of strategy between oil producers has largely been ignored or overly simplified. In this paper, we formulate a model that embodies a weak and strong OPEC for varied rates of reserve additions. With this economic equilibrium model which has the capability to generate a supply side peak in oil production, we show that although reserves of conventional crude oil may seem abundant. OPEC has the ability to lead to substantial crude oil reserve depletion in non-OPEC countries by 2050 given likely depletion rates.

  20. Comparisons Between Asphaltenes from the Dead and Live-Oil Samples of the Same Crude Oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aquino-Olivos, M.A.; Andersen, Simon Ivar; Lira-Galeana, C.

    2003-01-01

    extracted and analyzed. These pressure-driven asphaltenes found on the filter were found to make up in the range between 50 and 100 ppm of the whole crude oil. Opening of the cell did not reveal asphaltenes retained due to wall adhesion. Size exclusion chromatography tests performed on both the live......-oil-derived asphaltenes and the standard asphaltenes as precipitated by atmospheric titration on the same crude oil, revealed that the live-oil asphaltenes had apparent smaller hydrodynamic volume and narrower distributions than the standard asphaltenes for two oils. Further FTIR tests also showed large differences...

  1. Phylogenetic diversity of dominant bacterial communities during bioremediation of crude oil-polluted soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Thomas Cloete

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation of hydrocarbon pollutants is advantageous owing to the cost-effectiveness of the technology and the ubiquity of hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms in the soil. Soil microbial diversity is affected by hydrocarbon perturbation thus selective enrichment of hydrocarbon utilizers occurs. Hydrocarbons interact with the soil matrix and soil microorganisms determining the fate of the contaminants relative to their chemical nature and microbial degradative capabilities respectively. Bacterial dynamics in crude oil-polluted soil microcosms undergoing bioremediation were investigated over a 42-day period. Four out of the five microcosms containing 4kg of pristine soil each were contaminated with 4% Arabian light crude oil. Three microcosms were amended with either 25g of NPK fertilizer, calcium ammonium nitrate or poultry droppings respectively while the fourth designated oil-contaminated control was unamended. The fifth microcosm had only pristine soil and was set up to ascertain indigenous bacterial community structure pre-contamination. Biostimulated soils were periodically tilled and watered. Hydrocarbon degradation was measured throughout the experimental period by gas chromatography. Gas chromatographic tracing of residual hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils showed marked attenuation of contaminants starting from the second (day 14 till the sixth (day 42 week after contamination whereas no significant reduction in hydrocarbon peaks was seen in the oil contaminated control soil throughout the 6-week experimental period. Molecular fingerprints of bacterial communities involved in aerobic biodegradation of crude oil hydrocarbons in biostimulated soils and controls were generated with DGGE using PCR-amplification of 16S rRNA gene obtained from extracted total soil community DNA. DGGE fingerprints demonstrated that NPK, calcium ammonium nitrate and poultry droppings selected different bacterial populations during the active phase of oil

  2. Composite reinforced alumina ceramics with titan and lantana for use in coating storage tanks and transport of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.E.; Rego, S.A.B.C.; Oliveira, J.C.S.; Ferreira, R.A. Sanguinetti; Yadava, Y.P.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work is to use ceramics to improve the performance of the tanks that store and transport crude oil and which use metallic materials for their manufacture. These tanks in contact with crude oil undergo a process of degradation on their surfaces, since crude oil is a highly corrosive substance. And in turn ceramic materials have good stability in hostile environments. However, they are inherently fragile for display little plastic deformation. Therefore, the choice of a ceramic composite alumina-titania-lantana has high mechanical strength and high toughness which were produced by thermo-mechanical processing. These composites were sintered at 1350 ° C for 36 hours, and it was held Vickers hardness testing and microstructural characterization to assess their surfaces before and after the attack by crude to use such material as ceramic coating. These results will be presented at the congress. (author)

  3. Improving the Forecasting Accuracy of Crude Oil Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuluo Yin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, oil is the key element of energy sustainability, and its prices and economy have a strong mutual influence. Modeling a good method to accurately predict oil prices over long future horizons is challenging and of great interest to investors and policymakers. This paper forecasts oil prices using many predictor variables with a new time-varying weight combination approach. In doing so, we first use five single-variable time-varying parameter models to predict crude oil prices separately. Second, every special model is assigned a time-varying weight by the new combination approach. Finally, the forecasting results of oil prices are calculated. The results show that the paper’s method is robust and performs well compared to random walk.

  4. World market of crude oil - review of possible scenarios of forecasting for the crude oil price movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, Risto

    2003-01-01

    Throughout most of 2002, crude oil prices were solidly within the range preferred by producers in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), $22 to $28 per barrel for the OPEC 'basket price' (Fig. 1). OPEC producers have been demonstrating disciplined adherence to announced cutbacks in production. Early in 2003, a dramatic upward turn in crude oil prices was brought about by a combination of two factors. First, a general strike against the Chavez regime resulted in a sudden drop in Venezuela's oil exports. Although other OPEC producers agreed to increase production to make up for the lost Venezuelan output, the obvious strain on worldwide spare capacity kept prices high. Second, price volatility was exacerbated by fears of war in Iraq. (Original)

  5. Effects of Subsurface Microbial Ecology on Geochemical Evolution of a Crude-Oil Contaminated Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I. M.; Godsy, E. M.; Warren, E.; Hostettler, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    We have identified several subsurface habitats for microorganisms in a crude oil contaminated located near Bemidji, Minnesota. These aquifer habitats include: 1) the unsaturated zone contaminated by hydrocarbon vapors, 2) the zones containing separate-phase crude oil, and 3) the aqueous-phase contaminant plume. The surficial glacial outwash aquifer was contaminated when a crude oil pipeline burst in 1979. We analyzed sediment samples from the contaminated aquifer for the most probable numbers of aerobes, iron reducers, fermenters, and three types of methanogens. The microbial data were then related to gas, water, and oil chemistry, sediment extractable iron, and permeability. The microbial populations in the various contaminated subsurface habitats each have special characteristics and these affect the aquifer and contaminant chemistry. In the eight-meter-thick, vapor-contaminated vadose zone, a substantial aerobic population has developed that is supported by hydrocarbon vapors and methane. Microbial numbers peak in locations where access to both hydrocarbons and nutrients infiltrating from the surface is maximized. The activity of this population prevents hydrocarbon vapors from reaching the land surface. In the zone where separate-phase crude oil is present, a consortium of methanogens and fermenters dominates the populations both above and below the water table. Moreover, gas concentration data indicate that methane production has been active in the oily zone since at least 1986. Analyses of the extracted separate-phase oil show that substantial degradation of C15 -C35 n-alkanes has occurred since 1983, raising the possibility that significant degradation of C15 and higher n-alkanes has occurred under methanogenic conditions. However, lab and field data suggest that toxic inhibition by crude oil results in fewer acetate-utilizing methanogens within and adjacent to the separate-phase oil. Data from this and other sites indicate that toxic inhibition of

  6. An empirical analysis of the risk of crude oil imports in China using improved portfolio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Wei, Yi-Ming; Fan, Ying; Liu, Lan-Cui

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the diversification index of China's crude oil imports during the period 1996-2004, and explores the relationship between the monthly prices and Brent crude oil cash prices. Accordingly, we calculate the systematic and specific risks using portfolio theory of China's crude oil import over the period 1996-2004. Because China's crude oil import increased rapidly since 1996, we improve upon the traditional portfolio theory and develop a risk index model of portfolio theory for crude oil imports in order to explore objectively the changes in China's crude oil import risks. The results show that China's crude oil import risk is affected extensively by the fluctuation of international oil prices. So the traditional portfolio theory is insufficient to measure China's crude oil import risk. The improved portfolio theory risks index model reflects the effect of international oil prices, diversification, imports, and geopolitics factors etc., on crude oil import risk, and changes in crude oil import risk. Therefore, the risk index model of portfolio theory provides greater theoretical and methodological robustness as an indicator of China's crude oil import security than that offered from the application of traditional measures of dependence. (author)

  7. Biological treatment: Soil impacted with crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertson, N.; Severns, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    Biological land treatment proved to be a successful way to manage contamination at a California oil and gas production property. During the project, approximately 120,000 yards of contaminated soil was treated in the treatment plots to below the cleanup goals of 1,000 milligrams per kilograms (mg/kg) total petroleum hydrocarbons. In general, remaining hydrocarbon levels in treated soil were the 200 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbons range or lower. Cleanup goals were achieved in less than 2 months for each lift of soil treated. The treated soil was used as fill material in the excavation. No significant odor problems occurred during the project. Groundwater monitoring confirmed that no impact to groundwater occurred due to the biological land treatment process. Design of the treatment plan and regulatory requirements are also discussed

  8. Study of the gelation behaviour of Brazilian waxy crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziglio, C.M.; Sant' Ana, D.F. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The precipitation of wax from crude oil results in the formation of a paraffin network which evolves into a gel structure, causing a major operating issue for the petroleum industry. A gelled oil in a pipeline may need a very high re-start pressure that is beyond the capacity of the pump. The gelation of the oil can also develop into a wax deposit on the pipeline wall that restricts the flow of crude oil. Rheometry tests were used in this study to determine the yielding process of wax gels formed by the cooling of Brazilian crude oils. The effect of selected chemical additives on the gel strength was also examined. Dynamic rheology was used to study the oil-gel transition under quiescent conditions. Two rheological methods were used to study the gel yield stress, which is related to the gel strength. In the Creep and Recovery method, a stress was applied to the sample for a short period while the resulting deformation was measured. The stress was then removed to allow the sample to recover the gel structure. The steps of creep and recovery were repeated with an increasing stress value. The yield stress was identified as the minimum stress to cause an irreversible deformation in the sample. The yield stress of the gelled oil was estimated through dynamic measurements. Gel breakdown occurred when the sample was submitted to a critical strain, which is related to the yield stress value. This study showed that the gelation temperature can be reduced considerably by adding small amounts of readily available additives. These additives have an influence on yield stress values. In a cold re-start situation, they can reduce the pump pressure.

  9. Factors affecting future crude oil production in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugh, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the face of booming regional demand, crude oil production in the South East Asian region will decline from a 1996 peak of 5.7 million barrels a day to 3.5 million barrels a day in 2005 unless major new exploration investments are undertaken. The current fiscal terms for such investment will not attract continued significant funds to the region given the low crude price outlook, tough competitive global environment for the upstream industry, and the emergence of more attractive fiscal terms in politically and commercially stable countries with proven prospectivity. There is evidence from the emerging trend toward fiscal terms softening and differentiation around risk in some countries, that the commercial reality is becoming accepted. It remains to be seen if the various national political, bureaucratic and industry constituencies guiding these decisions within the region can respond decisively to mitigate the growing crude import dependency. (author). 2 tabs

  10. Problems in waterflooding fields containing paraffinic crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalev, A G; Lyutin, L V; Perevalov, V G

    1968-11-01

    When Caspian seawater is injected into the Uzen field reservoir, the temperature of the reservoir oil can be lowered 10/sup 0/ to 20/sup 0/C below initial reservoir temperature. Because Uzen crude oil is saturated with paraffin, the cold injection water can deposit paraffin in the formation and reduce oil recovery. In a related study, it was shown that the lower temperature should not adversely affect capillary and wettability behavior of the crude oil in the reservoir. Oil recovery was found to be essentially independent of water composition. However, fresh water is easier to handle in injection systems than brines. Several studies have shown that oil recovery from Uzen field should be increased by use of hot injection water. Various methods of heating the water are discussed. To reduce corrosivity and scaling of hot brine, sodium hexametaphosphate is added in concentrations of 2 to 15 mg/liter. It is concluded that it would be practical to use hot injection water in this field.

  11. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  12. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  13. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, B.E. (Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body--heavily contaminated; oil covering 30-60% of the body--moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur--lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with stress of captivity and/or oil exposure.

  14. Histopathologic lesions in sea otters exposed to crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, T.P.; Harris, R.K.; Moeller, R.B.; Pletcher, J.M.; Haebler, R.J.; Ballachey, Brenda E.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) that appeared to be contaminated with oil, that were in danger of becoming contaminated, or that were behaving abnormally were captured and taken to rehabilitation centers. Exposure to oil was assessed by visual examination when otters arrived at the centers. Degree of oil exposure was graded according to the following criteria: oil covering greater than 60% of the body - heavily contaminated; oil covering 30–60% of the body - moderately contaminated; oil covering less than 30% of the body or light sheen on fur - lightly contaminated. If there was no oil visible, otters were considered uncontaminated. Tissues from 51 oil-contaminated sea otters (14 males, 37 females) and from six uncontaminated sea otters (three males, three females) that died in rehabilitation centers were examined histologically. Among oil-contaminated sea otters, 19/46 had interstitial pulmonary emphysema, 13/40 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage, 11/47 had centrilobular hepatic necrosis, 14/47 had periportal to diffuse hepatic lipidosis, and 10/42 had renal tubular lipidosis. Of the uncontaminated sea otters, 1/6 had gastric erosion and hemorrhage and 1/6 had diffuse hepatic lipidosis. Histologic examinations were performed on tissues from five sea otters (three males, two females) found dead with external oil present 15 to 16 days after the spill. Periportal hepatic lipidosis and renal tubular lipidosis were found in 3/5, and interstitial pulmonary emphysema was found in 1/5. Tissues from six apparently normal sea otters (four males, two females) collected from an area not affected by an oil spill were examined histologically, and none of these lesions were found. We conclude that interstitial pulmonary emphysema, centrilobular hepatic necrosis, and hepatic and renal lipidosis of sea otters were associated with exposure to crude oil. Gastric erosion and hemorrhage may have been associated with

  15. New contact system in crude oil desalting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, J; Duque; Diaz, J; Nunez, A; Guarin, F; Carvajal, F

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the ICP contactor and the mixture valve on the desalting process was evaluated as a contact system in the crude oil washing process. The evaluation was carried out in the two desalters at the Cartagena refinery (GRC) and a desalter at the Barrancabermeja refinery (GCB) of ECOPETROL. The pressure drop was measured and the efficiency of the desalting processes, dehydration and hydrocarbon crude intake in the water was calculated based on the BS and W measurement, salt content and hydrocarbon concentration in the water. Results showed that the contactor improved desalting, water in the crude oil was reduced and crude carry-over in the wastewater was reduced between 50 and 92% at the Barrancabermeja refinery, and between 40 and 95% at the Cartagena refinery, which mean savings of approximately us$ 373.000 dollars per year at both refineries, due to the fact that less water is loaded into the process. Furthermore, hydrocarbon 1055 in wastewater was reduced by about 3650 barrels per year. The pressure drop was reduced between 88 and 94 % in relation to the mixing valve

  16. Causality Relationship between Crude Oil Variables and Budget Variables in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Zukarnain; Shamsuddin, Sofian

    2017-01-01

    As an oil and gas exporter, Malaysia profited from higher world energy prices. However, the fall in oil prices from highs in 2014 significantly affected Malaysia’s government revenue (GR), hence its expenditure since the Malaysian GR still largely depends on oil revenues. Malaysia also has problems with high spending on energy subsidy, shrinking in its net crude oil export, and narrowing the gap between its crude oil production and consumption. Given this scenario, not only shocks in crude oi...

  17. Cracking of crude oil in the molten metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat A. Glikin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is investigated the process of crude oil and its individual fractions cracking in the molten metals medium to produce light petroleum products. Thermodynamic calculations demonstrate the possibility of using lead and tin including alloys thereof as the melt. The cracking of West Siberian crude oil is studied at temperatures 400-600 °C. It is detected that as the temperature increases there is increase of aromatic hydrocarbons and olefins content in gasoline while naphthenes, n- and i-paraffins content reduces. Optimal temperature for cracking in molten metals is ~500 °C. The use of a submerged nozzle increases the yield of light petroleum products by ~2%. The research octane number of gasoline produced is 82-87 points. It is determined that the yield of light petroleum products depending on the experimental conditions is increased from 46.9 to 55.1-61.3% wt.   

  18. Wavelet regression model in forecasting crude oil price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohd Helmie; Shabri, Ani

    2017-05-01

    This study presents the performance of wavelet multiple linear regression (WMLR) technique in daily crude oil forecasting. WMLR model was developed by integrating the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and multiple linear regression (MLR) model. The original time series was decomposed to sub-time series with different scales by wavelet theory. Correlation analysis was conducted to assist in the selection of optimal decomposed components as inputs for the WMLR model. The daily WTI crude oil price series has been used in this study to test the prediction capability of the proposed model. The forecasting performance of WMLR model were also compared with regular multiple linear regression (MLR), Autoregressive Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) using root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE). Based on the experimental results, it appears that the WMLR model performs better than the other forecasting technique tested in this study.

  19. Coalescence kinetics of dispersed crude oil in a laboratory reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, M.C. Jr.; Ojo, T.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Page, C.A.; Ernst, A.N.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the effects of salinity and mixing energy on the resurfacing and coalescence rates of chemically dispersed crude oil droplets. This kinetic study involved the use of mean shear rates to characterize the mixing energy in a laboratory reactor. Coagulation kinetics of dispersed crude oil were determined within a range of mean shear rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 per second, and with salinity values of 10 and 30 per cent. Observed droplet distributions were fit to a transport-reaction model to estimate collision efficiency values and their dependence on salinity and mixing energy. Dispersant efficiencies were compared with those derived from other laboratory testing methods. Experimentally determined dispersant efficiencies were found to be 10 to 50 per cent lower than predicted using a non-interacting droplet model, but dispersant efficiencies were higher than those predicted using other testing methods. 24 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  20. Design of crude oil storage tank for acoustic emission testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Masrul Nizam Salleh; Abd Razak Hamzah; Norasiah Abd Kasim

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of crude oil storage tank needs to be well managed because they can contain a large inventory of hazardous material and because of the high cost such as cleaning and waste disposal prior to disposal and maintenance. Costs involved in cleaning and inspection can be up to several hundreds thousand Malaysian Ranting. If the floor then proves to be in good condition, these costs have been wasted. Acoustic Emission (AE) is proposed to be use for monitoring the floor of the storage tank on line without doing cleaning and waste disposal. A storage tank will be fabricated for storing the crude oil and then the corrosion process will be monitor using AE method. This paper will discuss the background, material and is technical specification, design and also the difficulties faced during design and fabrication process. (Author)

  1. Crude oil and finished fuel storage stability: An annotated review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisman, M.L.; Anderson, R.P.; Woodward, P.W.; Giles, H.N.

    1991-01-01

    A state-of-the-art review and assessment of storage effects on crude oil and product quality was undertaken through a literature search by computer accessing several data base sources. Pertinent citations from that literature search are tabulated for the years 1980 to the present. This 1990 revision supplements earlier reviews by Brinkman and others which covered stability publications through 1979 and an update in 1983 by Goetzinger and others that covered the period 1952--1982. For purposes of organization, citations are listed in the current revision chronologically starting with the earliest 1980 publications. The citations have also been divided according to primary subject matter. Consequently 11 sections appear including: alternate fuels, gasoline, distillate fuel, jet fuel, residual fuel, crude oil, biodegradation, analyses, reaction mechanisms, containment, and handling and storage. Each section contains a brief narrative followed by all the citations for that category.

  2. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Yue-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  3. Thermal properties and burning efficiency of crude oils and refined fuel oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Alva, Wilson Ulises Rojas; Mindykowski, Pierrick Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The thermal properties and burning efficiencies of fresh and weathered crude oils and a refined fuel oil were studied in order to improve the available input data for field ignition systems for the in-situ burning of crude oil on water. The time to ignition, surface temperature upon ignition, heat......-cooled holder for a cone calorimeter under incident heat fluxes of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 kW/m2. The results clearly showed that the weathered oils were the hardest to ignite, with increased ignition times and critical heat fluxes of 5-10 kW/m2. Evaporation and emulsification were shown...

  4. Coals to Newcastle: Will Alberta become a crude oil importer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessel, W.; Foley, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The security of markets for Canadian heavy crude oil (HCO) under different conditions is examined. The emphasis of the study is on the conditions under which bitumen blend from Alberta could penetrate certain markets that have generally been identified as potential prospects. A secondary question concerns the cost reductions in bitumen production and upgrading that would be needed for bitumen blend and synthetic crude oil (SCO) to penetrate these same markets if long-term oil prices settle at US$18/bbl for Saudi light delivered to the USA Gulf Coast in 2010. A brief overview is first presented of some of the world and US factors that will affect the demand for Canadian HCO, with specific reference to the demand in the northern USA in 2010. The determination of the volume of HCO that can or will be processed at a refinery or a combination of refineries in a given market is then discussed. The cost and volume numbers for 2010 as provided in the National Energy Board's latest Canadian energy supply and demand forecast are used in the analysis. It is concluded that all traditional markets outside of the Canadian prairies could be lost if world oil prices stay below US$18/bbl for extended periods. At prices below US$17/bbl, bitumen producers would have trouble competing with imported crude oils in Edmonton unless bitumen production costs decline from current levels. The potential for bitumen production costs to decline enough for diluted bitumen to compete with US$18/bbl oil is better than the prospect for SCO costs to decrease enough to compete in eastern Canada or the northern USA at those price levels. 9 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Laboratory evaluation of biodegradation of crude oil contaminated tundra soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schepart, B.S.; Hyzy, J.B.; Jorgenson, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was designed to evaluate oil degradation rates in heavily contaminated soil samples from an oil spill site under various redox and nutrient conditions. Reduction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the experiment by indigenous bacteria was found to be negligible under aerobic conditions for all nutrient amendments over a 12-week period. The unexpectedly poor performance of the aerobic treatment may have been due to the high concentration of TPH (153,487 ppM) and the slow rate at which indigenous bacteria grew, or the preferential use of biogenic carbon over petroleum hydrocarbons. In contrast, under anaerobic conditions TPH was reduced by 47% in high nitrogen and phosphorous microcosms. The unexpectedly good performance of anaerobic bacteria indicates that promotion of oil degradation in saturated subsurface soils is feasible. The best degradation rates, however, were achieved by application of bacterial amendments, which reduced TPH up to 60% over 12 weeks. The higher degradation rates using bacterial amendments were attributed to the relatively rapid rate at which the bacteria colonized the substrates. This result suggests that bacterial additions in the field would be useful for promoting more rapid degradation of oil, while the slower growing indigenous oil-degrading bacteria population is allowed to increase. 19 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  7. Fatigue behaviour of X70 steel in crude oil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gajdoš, Lubomír; Šperl, Martin; Bystrianský, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2015), s. 243-246 ISSN 1580-2949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP105/10/2052; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE02000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : corrosion fatigue * S-N curve * X70 steel * crude oil * separated water Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2015 http://mit.imt.si/Revija/izvodi/mit152/gajdos.pdf

  8. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  9. Crude oil pricing in Asia and future problems; Asia no gen`yu pricing to kongo no kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [The Institute of Energy Economics, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper describes pricing factors of crude oil for Asia and future problems. Price of the Middle East crude oil for Asia is determined by linking the spot price of Dubayy crude oil using as a marker. Factors affecting the pricing of marker crude oil include the information dispatching functions for prices of spot market and paper market of marker crude oil, the presence of competitive crude oil, and the correlation between market of oil products and price of crude oil. The paper market of Dubayy crude oil with a small scale of trading provides poor impact and transparency. In Asia, there is no strong competitive crude oil except the Middle East crude oil. There is only a weak price linking between crude oil and products. These are the background that the price of Middle East crude oil stays at the high level and the price adjusting functions are hard to work. The marker crude oil should be changed to another except Dubayy crude oil, and information should be dispatched from purchasers based on the stable standard crude oil. The real paper market should be created, and the force of speaking to oil producing countries should be enhanced by concentrating forces of major oil consuming countries in Asia. It is necessary to find out competitive crude oils. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Economic repercussions of OPEC's crude oil price increases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merklein, H A

    1980-05-01

    Accusations that the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) created the world energy crisis and destroyed the economies of oil-importing nations are challenged by Dr. Merklein. He shows that the economic impact of OPEC price increases have only accelerated an already-developing energy shortage and only reflect the existing problems of inflation, unemployment, and declining currency exchange rates. The real problem is argued to be a US energy policy that is incapable of responding appropriately to what should be a manageable crude oil tax. When the arguments against OPEC policies are examined in an historical context, they are shown to be essentially neutral. 4 tables. (DCK)

  11. Deep hydrotreating of middle distillates from crude and shale oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, M.V. [The Blechner Center for Industrial Catalysis and Process Development, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    1997-06-20

    The potential scientific and technological solutions to the problems that appear as a result of shifting the hydrotreating of crude oil middle distillates and shale oils from the `normal` to the `deep` mode are considered on the basis of the reactivities and transformation routes of the least-reactive sulfur-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-containing compounds. The efficiency of selecting the optimal feedstock, increasing the process severity, improving the catalysts activity, and using alternative catalytic routes are compared, taking into account the specific issues related to deep hydrodesulfurization/hydrodenitrogenation/hydrodeoxygenation, i.e., chemical aspects, kinetics and catalysts

  12. Response surface analysis to improve dispersed crude oil biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad A.; Aziz, Hamidi A.; Mohajeri, Leila [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed H. [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2012-03-15

    In this research, the bioremediation of dispersed crude oil, based on the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation in the closed system, was optimized by the application of response surface methodology and central composite design. Correlation analysis of the mathematical-regression model demonstrated that a quadratic polynomial model could be used to optimize the hydrocarbon bioremediation (R{sup 2} = 0.9256). Statistical significance was checked by analysis of variance and residual analysis. Natural attenuation was removed by 22.1% of crude oil in 28 days. The highest removal on un-optimized condition of 68.1% were observed by using nitrogen of 20.00 mg/L and phosphorus of 2.00 mg/L in 28 days while optimization process exhibited a crude oil removal of 69.5% via nitrogen of 16.05 mg/L and phosphorus 1.34 mg/L in 27 days therefore optimization can improve biodegradation in shorter time with less nutrient consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Price dynamics of crude oil and the regional ethylene markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masih, Mansur; Algahtani, Ibrahim; De Mello, Lurion

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the first attempt to investigate: (1) is the crude oil (WTI) price significantly related to the regional ethylene prices in the Naphtha intensive ethylene markets of the Far East, North West Europe, and the Mediterranean? (2) What drives the regional ethylene prices? The paper is motivated by the recent and growing debate on the lead-lag relationship between crude oil and ethylene prices. Our findings, based on the long-run structural modelling approach of Pesaran and Shin, and subject to the limitations of the study, tend to suggest: (1) crude oil (WTI) price is cointegrated with the regional ethylene prices (2) our within-sample error-correction model results tend to indicate that although the ethylene prices in North West Europe and the Mediterranean were weakly endogenous, the Far East ethylene price was weakly exogenous both in the short and long term. These results are consistent, during most of the period under review (2000.1-2006.4) with the surge in demand for ethylene throughout the Far East, particularly in China and South Korea. However, during the post-sample forecast period as evidenced in our variance decompositions analysis, the emergence of WTI as a leading player as well, is consistent with the recent surge in WTI price (fuelled mainly, among others, by the strong hedging activities in the WTI futures/options and refining tightness) reflecting the growing importance of input cost in determining the dynamic interactions of input and product prices. (author)

  14. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  15. Extraction and characterization of crude oil asphaltenes sub fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Silas R.; Calado, Lucas S.; Honse, Siller O.; Mansur, Claudia R.E.; Lucas, Elizabete F.

    2011-01-01

    Asphaltenes from crude oil have been studied for a long time. However, until today their chemical structures and physical-chemical properties are not well established. Nowadays, it is accepted that asphaltenes are dispersed in the crude oil as macro structures, which are mainly constituted of some condensed aromatic rings (about 6-20), containing aliphatic or naphthenic groups. The asphaltenes are also defined as the crude oil fraction that is insoluble in low molar mass n-alkanes and soluble in aromatic solvents, like benzene and toluene In order to investigate the molecular structure, in this work the asphaltenes were separated by using a different procedure as that normally described in the literature and characterized by infrared spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, x-ray fluorescence, elemental analyses and particle size and size distribution. The difference in subfractions polarity can be attributed not only to the aromaticity changes but also to the content of elements, such as N, O, Fe, V, Si e Ni. (author)

  16. Two-stage hydroprocessing of synthetic crude gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahay, A.; Chmielowiec, J.; Fisher, I.P.; Monnier, J. (Petro-Canada Products, Missisauga, ON (Canada). Research and Development Centre)

    1992-02-01

    The hydrocracking of synthetic crude gas oils (SGO), which are commercially produced from Canadian oil sands, is strongly inhibited by nitrogen-containing species. To alleviate the pronounced effect of these nitrogenous compounds, SGO was hydrotreated at severe conditions prior to hydrocracking to reduce its N content from 1665 to about 390 ppm (by weight). Hydrocracking was then performed using a commercial nickel-tungsten catalyst supported on silica-alumina. Two-stage hydroprocessing of SGO was assessed in terms of product yields and quality. As expected, higher gas oil conversion were achieved mostly from an increase in naphtha yield. The middle distillate product quality was also clearly improved as the diesel fuel cetane number increased by 13%. Diesel engine tests indicated that particulate emissions in exhaust gases were lowered by 20%. Finally, pseudo first-order kinetic equations were derived for the overall conversion of the major gas oil components. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Method for estimating boiling temperatures of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Evaporation is often the dominant mechanism for mass loss during the first few days following an oil spill. The initial boiling point of the oil and the rate at which the boiling point changes as the oil evaporates are needed to initialize some computer models used in spill response. The lack of available boiling point data often limits the usefulness of these models in actual emergency situations. A new computational method was developed to estimate the temperature at which a crude oil boils as a function of the fraction evaporated using only standard distillation data, which are commonly available. This method employs established thermodynamic rules and approximations, and was designed to be used with automated spill-response models. Comparisons with measurements show a strong correlation between results obtained with this method and measured values

  18. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  19. The use of chromatographic indexes to study the biodegradation of crude oil in cold/icy seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siron, R.; Pelletier, E.

    1993-01-01

    A group of five protected mesocosms (3.5 m 3 each) was used to study the biodegradation of dispersed crude oil in cold and icy seawater. A wide range of oil concentrations was tested over four experiments lasting two weeks to six months. Various oil treatments were studied with respect to the natural bacterial degradation: chemically dispersed and untreated crude oil; and oil adsorbed on, and released from, an immersed substrate. The study was concerned with oil accommodated in the water column, accumulated in surface (sheens and emulsions), and collected in sediment traps. The oil biodegradation was assessed by means of the following gas chromatographic indexes: C17/pristane; C18/phytane; n-alkanes/isoprenoids; pristane/phytane; naphthalene/phenanthrene; 2-methyl naphthalene/1-methyl naphthalene; and methylnaphthalenes/total substituted naphthalenes. A combined index of biodegradation defined from the most significant hydrocarbon ratios is proposed to evaluate the overall biodegradation of dissolved compounds and oil droplets, involving both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Coupled with mesocosm facilities, this approach appears very convenient to determine the potential degradability of crude oils by natural indigenous microflora. 26 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Options for Environmental Sustainability of the Crude Palm Oil Industry in Thailand through Enhancement of Industrial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.; Rulkens, W.H.; Mol, A.P.J.; Khaodhair, S.

    2006-01-01

    The crude palm oil industry plays an important role in the economic development of Thailand and in enhancing the economic welfare of the population. Despite obvious benefits of this industrial development, it also significantly contributes to environmental degradation, both at the input and the

  1. Microbial activity in Alaskan taiga soils contaminated by crude oil in 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroe, E.M.; Lindstrom, J.E.; Brown, E.J.; Raddock, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    Biodegradation, often measured via microbial activity, includes destruction of environmental pollutants by living microorganisms and is dependent upon many physical and chemical factors. Effects of mineral nutrients and organic matter on biodegradation of Prudhoe Bay crude oil were investigated at a nineteen-year-old oil spill site in Alaskan taiga. Microcosms of two different soil types from the spill site; one undeveloped soil with forest litter and detritus (O horizon) and one more developed with lower organic content (A horizon), were treated with various nitrogen and phosphorus amendments, and incubated for up to six weeks. Each microcosm was sampled periodically and assayed for hydrocarbon mineralization potential using radiorespirometry, for total carbon dioxide respired using gas chromatography, and for numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria using most probable number counting techniques. Organic matter in the O horizon soil along with combinations of mineral nutrients were found to stimulate microbial activity. No combination of mineral nutrient additions to the A horizon soil stimulated any of the parameters above those measured in control microcosms. The results of this study indicate that adding mineral nutrients and tilling the O horizon into the A horizon of subarctic soils contaminated with crude oil, would stimulate microbial activity, and therefore the biodegradation potential, ultimately increasing the rate of destruction of crude oil in these soils

  2. Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisbury, J.W.; D'Aria, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    It is important to develop a remote sensing technique for reliable detection of oil slicks for reasons of both oil exploration and environmental protection. Yet, unambiguous detection has proven an elusive goal. This article presents new thermal infrared spectra of oil slicks made from five different crude oil samples with a wide range of API gravities and compositions. After a brief outgassing phase, all oil slick spectra are quite similar and little affected by thickness, extended exposure to air or sunlight, and even by emulsification with seawater (mousse formation). Thus, oil slicks provide a remarkably unvarying spectral signature as remote sensing targets in the thermal infrared compared to other regions of the spectrum. This spectral signature in the 8-14 μm atmospheric window is flat, with an average reflectance of 4%. Seawater, on the other hand, has a spectrum that varies in reflectance with wavelength in the 8-14 μm window from 0.90 to 3.65%. In addition, the authors show that sea foam displays a reflectance spectrum quite similar to that of seawater in the 8-14 μm region, because the very high absorption coefficient of water in this wavelength region prevents volume scattering in foam bubbles. This results in a relatively uniform spectral background, against which oil slicks can be detected, based on their different spectral signature. Thus, thermal infrared multispectral remote sensing appears to offer a simple and reliable technique for aircraft or satellite detection of oil slicks

  3. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil

  4. Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarzio, Jenna M.; Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2018-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) isotope geochemistry is an emerging tool for the study of oil formation and migration processes, and a new technology for petroleum exploration. Little is known, however, about the residency of Re and Os within asphaltene and maltene sub-fractions of crude oil. This information is crucial for understanding the 187Re-187Os radiometric clock held in petroleum systems and for interpreting geochronology for key processes such as oil formation, migration, and biodegradation. In this study, a heavy crude oil was separated into soluble (maltene, MALT) and insoluble (asphaltene, ASPH) fractions using n-heptane as the asphaltene-precipitating agent. The asphaltenes were separated sequentially into sub-fractions using two different solvent pairs (heptane-dichloromethane and acetone-toluene), and the bulk maltenes were separated into saturate, aromatic, and resin (SAR) fractions using open column chromatography. Each asphaltene and maltene sub-fraction was analyzed for Re and Os. The asphaltene sub-fractions and the bulk ASPH, MALT, and crude oil were analyzed for a suite of trace metals by ICP-MS. Our results show that Re and Os concentrations co-vary between the asphaltene sub-fractions, and that both elements are found mostly in the more polar and aromatic sub-fractions. Significant Re and Os are also present in the aromatic and resin fractions of the maltenes. However, each asphaltene and maltene sub-fraction has a distinct isotopic composition, and sub-fractions are not isochronous. This suggests that asphaltene sub-fractionation separates Re-Os complexes to the point where the isotopic integrity of the geochronometer is compromised. The mobility of individual Re and Os isotopes and the decoupling possibilities between radiogenic 187Os produced from 187Re remain elusive, but their recognition in this study is a critical first step. Re and Os correlate strongly with Mo and Cd in the asphaltene sub-fractions, suggesting that these metals occupy

  5. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits.

  6. Exporting Alaskan North Slope crude oil: Benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy study examines the effects of lifting the current prohibitions against the export of Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude. The study concludes that permitting exports would benefit the US economy. First, lifting the ban would expand the markets in which ANS oil can be sold, thereby increasing its value. ANS oil producers, the States of California and Alaska, and some of their local governments all would benefit from increased revenues. Permitting exports also would generate new economic activity and employment in California and Alaska. The study concludes that these economic benefits would be achieved without increasing gasoline prices (either in California or in the nation as a whole). Lifting the export ban could have important implications for US maritime interests. The Merchant Marine Act of 1970 (known as the Jones Act) requires all inter-coastal shipments to be carried on vessels that are US-owned, US-crewed, and US-built. By limiting the shipment of ANS crude to US ports only, the export ban creates jobs for the seafarers and the builders of Jones Act vessels. Because the Jones Act does not apply to exports, however, lifting the ban without also changing US maritime law would jeopardize the jobs associated with the current fleet of Jones Act tankers. Therefore the report analyzes selected economic impacts of several maritime policy alternatives, including: Maintaining current law, which allows foreign tankers to carry oil where export is allowed; requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on Jones Act vessels; and requiring exports of ANS crude to be carried on vessels that are US-owned and US-crewed, but not necessarily US-built. Under each of these options, lifting the export ban would generate economic benefits

  7. Rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2 facilitates crude oil distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshifa Md Noh, Nur; Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Amirul; Nasir Mohamad Ibrahim, Mohamad; Ramli Mohd Yahya, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A biosurfactant-producing and hydrocarbon-utilizing bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa USM-AR2, was used to assist conventional distillation. Batch cultivation in a bioreactor gave a biomass of 9.4 g L(-1) and rhamnolipid concentration of 2.4 g L(-1) achieved after 72 h. Biosurfactant activity (rhamnolipid) was detected by the orcinol assay, emulsification index and drop collapse test. Pretreatment of crude oil TK-1 and AG-2 with a culture of P. aeruginosa USM-AR2 that contains rhamnolipid was proven to facilitate the distillation process by reducing the duration without reducing the quality of petroleum distillate. It showed a potential in reducing the duration of the distillation process, with at least 2- to 3-fold decreases in distillation time. This is supported by GC-MS analysis of the distillate where there was no difference between compounds detected in distillate obtained from treated or untreated crude oil. Calorimetric tests showed the calorie value of the distillate remained the same with or without treatment. These two factors confirmed that the quality of the distillate was not compromised and the incubation process by the microbial culture did not over-degrade the oil. The rhamnolipid produced by this culture was the main factor that enhanced the distillation performance, which is related to the emulsification of hydrocarbon chains in the crude oil. This biotreatment may play an important role to improve the existing conventional refinery and distillation process. Reducing the distillation times by pretreating the crude oil with a natural biosynthetic product translates to energy and cost savings in producing petroleum products.

  8. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  9. 15 CFR 754.3 - Petroleum products not including crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petroleum products not including crude... SUPPLY CONTROLS § 754.3 Petroleum products not including crude oil. (a) License requirement. As indicated... required to all destinations, including Canada, for the export of petroleum products, excluding crude oil...

  10. Technical Proposal for Loading 3000 Gallon Crude Oil Samples from Field Terminal to Sandia Pressurized Tanker to Support US DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David; Allen, Raymond

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is seeking access to crude oil samples for a research project evaluating crude oil combustion properties in large-scale tests at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM. Samples must be collected from a source location and transported to Albuquerque in a tanker that complies with all applicable regulations for transportation of crude oil over public roadways. Moreover, the samples must not gain or lose any components, to include dissolved gases, from the point of loading through the time of combustion at the Sandia testing facility. In order to achieve this, Sandia designed and is currently procuring a custom tanker that utilizes water displacement in order to achieve these performance requirements. The water displacement procedure is modeled after the GPA 2174 standard “Obtaining Liquid Hydrocarbons Samples for Analysis by Gas Chromatography” (GPA 2014) that is used routinely by crude oil analytical laboratories for capturing and testing condensates and “live” crude oils, though it is practiced at the liter scale in most applications. The Sandia testing requires 3,000 gallons of crude. As such, the water displacement method will be upscaled and implemented in a custom tanker. This report describes the loading process for acquiring a ~3,000 gallon crude oil sample from commercial process piping containing single phase liquid crude oil at nominally 50-100 psig. This document contains a general description of the process (Section 2), detailed loading procedure (Section 3) and associated oil testing protocols (Section 4).

  11. EVALUATING THE SHORT RUN EFFECTS OF U.S. CRUDE OIL INVENTORY LEVELS ON WTI CRUDE OIL PRICE FROM 1993 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobi Olasojiand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was to investigate the short-term influence of U.S. crude oil inventories on WTI crude oil prices from 1993 to 2013. This study is important for policy makers who wish to reduce the persistent and growing price volatility of crude oil and its related products as well as businesses such as airline companies who wish to make annual budgetary sales decisions. Using OLS multiple regression, cointegration, VECM and Ex-post forecast techniques; we provide evidence of an inelastic relationship in which a 1% increase in U.S. crude oil inventories is associated with 0.46% decrease in WTI crude oil prices; however this was only valid for 22% of WTI crude oil price variation. We also find that past data on U.S. crude oil inventories could be used to predict future WTI crude oil prices movement. Contrary to literature, the results of the VECM analysis indicate there is no short-run relationship between both variables over the trajectory.

  12. Daily Crude Oil Price Forecasting Using Hybridizing Wavelet and Artificial Neural Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Shabri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method based on integrating discrete wavelet transform and artificial neural networks (WANN model for daily crude oil price forecasting is proposed. The discrete Mallat wavelet transform is used to decompose the crude price series into one approximation series and some details series (DS. The new series obtained by adding the effective one approximation series and DS component is then used as input into the ANN model to forecast crude oil price. The relative performance of WANN model was compared to regular ANN model for crude oil forecasting at lead times of 1 day for two main crude oil price series, West Texas Intermediate (WTI and Brent crude oil spot prices. In both cases, WANN model was found to provide more accurate crude oil prices forecasts than individual ANN model.

  13. Effect of dispersants on the growth of indigenous bacterial population and biodegradation of crude oil

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Row, A.

    Oil dispersants (5 from Castrol Ltd., Bombay and 2 from British Petroleum, London) were studied individually and in combination with Saudi Arabian crude oil for their effect on the growth of indigenous bacteria and on the biodegradation of oil. None...

  14. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  15. Application of Biosurfactants Produced by Pseudomonas putida using Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as Substrate for Crude Oil Recovery using Batch Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanti, V.; Handayani, D. S.; Masykur, A.; Septyaningsih, I.

    2018-03-01

    The application of biosurfactants which have been produced by Pseudomonas putida in nutrient broth medium supplemented with NaCl and crude palm oil (CPO) for oil recovery has been evaluated. The crude and purified biosurfactants have been examined for oil recovery from a laboratory oil-contaminated sand in agitated flask (batch method). Two synthetic surfactants and water as control was also performed for oil recovery as comparisons. Using batch method, the results showed that removing ability of crude oil from the oil-contaminated sand by purified and crude biosurfactants were 79.40±3.10 and 46.84±2.23 %, respectively. On other hand, the recoveries obtained with the SDS, Triton X-100 and water were 94.33±0.47, 74.84±7.39 and 34.42±1.21%respectively.

  16. Unit root properties of crude oil spot and futures prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslyuk, Svetlana; Smyth, Russell

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we examine whether WTI and Brent crude oil spot and futures prices (at 1, 3 and 6 months to maturity) contain a unit root with one and two structural breaks, employing weekly data over the period 1991-2004. To realise this objective we employ Lagrange multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two endogenous structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich [2003. Minimum Lagrange multiplier unit root test with two structural breaks. Review of Economics and Statistics, 85, 1082-1089; 2004. Minimum LM unit root test with one structural break. Working Paper no. 04-17, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University]. We find that each of the oil price series can be characterised as a random walk process and that the endogenous structural breaks are significant and meaningful in terms of events that have impacted on world oil markets

  17. The predictive content of CBOE crude oil volatility index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Liu, Li; Li, Xiaolei

    2018-02-01

    Volatility forecasting is an important issue in the area of econophysics. The information content of implied volatility for financial return volatility has been well documented in the literature but very few studies focus on oil volatility. In this paper, we show that the CBOE crude oil volatility index (OVX) has predictive ability for spot volatility of WTI and Brent oil returns, from both in-sample and out-of-sample perspectives. Including OVX-based implied volatility in GARCH-type volatility models can improve forecasting accuracy most of time. The predictability from OVX to spot volatility is also found for longer forecasting horizons of 5 days and 20 days. The simple GARCH(1,1) and fractionally integrated GARCH with OVX performs significantly better than the other OVX models and all 6 univariate GARCH-type models without OVX. Robustness test results suggest that OVX provides different information from as short-term interest rate.

  18. Oil and Cars: The Impact of Crude Oil Prices on the Stock Returns of Automotive Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Lis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are testing whether the impact of oil prices is different on the overall market and automotive companies. In addition we investigate, if this relationship is nonlinear. For this we use stock return data of US, German and Japanese car companies, and returns of share indices from the same countries as control variables, and Brent crude oil price changes. We first estimate the impact of crude oil on the indices, then clean the indices from these influences, and afterwards estimate the impact on the stocks. For this we are using OLS and EGARCH (1,1. We conclude that in general the car companies‘ stocks do not react more adversely as the overall market to crude oil price increases, while Japanese companies do not show any excess sensitivity at all. German companies tend to be sensitive, and US and German companies are together more sensitive in the more recent time periods.

  19. Comparative Toxicity of Different Crude Oils on the Cardiac Function of Marine Medaka (Oryzias melastigma Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhendong Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effect of different crude oils (heavy crude oil and bonny light crude oil on embryos of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma was measured and evaluated by exposure to the water-accommodated fraction (WAF in the present study. The cardiac function of medaka embryos was used as target organ of ecotoxicological effect induced by oil exposure. Results showed that the developing marine medaka heart was a sensitive target organ to crude oil exposure the heavy crude oil WAF was more toxic to cardiac function of medaka embryos than bonny light cured oil one. Cardiac function of medaka embryos was clearly affected by exposure to heavy crude oil WAF after 24 hours exposure and showed a dose-dependent slowing of heart rate. Furthermore, swelled and enlarged heart morphology, lowered blood circulation and accumulation of blood cells around the heart area were found. However, the toxic effect of bonny light crude oil on cardiac function of medaka embryos was comparatively low. Statistical results showed that the cardiac function was only affected by highest bonny light crude oil WAF (9.8 mg/L exposure treatment. These findings indicated that cardiac function of marine medaka embryo was a good toxicity model for oil pollution and could be used to compare and evaluate the toxicity of different crude oils. The heart rate was an appropriate endpoint in the acute toxicity test.

  20. Exploring crude oil production and export capacity of the OPEC Middle East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    As the world economy highly depends on crude oil, it is important to understand the dynamics of crude oil production and export capacity of major oil-exporting countries. Since crude oil resources are predominately located in the OPEC Middle East, these countries are expected to have significant leverage in the world crude oil markets by taking into account a range of uncertainties. In this study, we develop a scenario for crude oil export and production using the ACEGES model considering uncertainties in the resource limits, demand growth, production growth, and peak/decline point. The results indicate that the country-specific peak of both crude oil export and production comes in the early this century in the OPEC Middle East countries. On the other hand, they occupy most of the world export and production before and after the peak points. Consequently, these countries are expected to be the key group in the world crude oil markets. We also find that the gap between the world crude oil demand and production broadens over time, meaning that the acceleration of the development of ultra-deep-water oil, oil sands, and extra-heavy oil will be required if the world continuous to heavily rely on oil products. - Highlights: ► We simulate the future scenario of crude oil export and production using ACEGES. ► The simulated results are analyzed using the GAMLSS framework. ► The peak points of oil export and production will come early in this century. ► The OPCE Middle East will produce most of the world crude oil in the near future. ► These countries will continuously be the key players in the crude oil markets.

  1. Crude oil price analysis and forecasting based on variational mode decomposition and independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin

    2017-10-01

    As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.

  2. Environmental drivers of differences in microbial community structure in crude oil reservoirs across a methanogenic gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna L Shelton

    2016-09-01

    the 17 down-dip wells had statistically similar microbial communities despite significant changes in environmental parameters between oil fields. Together, this implies that no single microbial population is a reliable indicator of a reservoir’s ability to degrade crude oil to methane, and that geochemistry may be a more important indicator for selecting a reservoir suitable for microbial enhancement of natural gas generation.

  3. Structural Study of Asphaltenes from Iranian Heavy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davarpanah L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, asphaltene precipitation from Iranian heavy crude oil (Persian Gulf off-shore was performed using n-pentane (n-C5 and n-heptane (n-C7 as light alkane precipitants. Several analytical techniques, each following different principles, were then used to structurally characterize the precipitated asphaltenes. The yield of asphaltene obtained using n-pentane precipitant was higher than asphaltene precipitated with the use of n-heptane. The asphaltene removal affected the n-C5 and n-C7 maltene fractions at temperatures below 204°C, as shown by the data obtained through the simulated distillation technique. Viscosity of heavy oil is influenced by the asphaltene content and behavior. The viscosity dependence of the test heavy oil on the shear rate applied was determined and the flow was low at y. above 25 s-1 . The reconstituted heavy oil samples were prepared by adding different amounts of asphaltenes to the maltenes (deasphalted heavy oil and asphaltene effects were more pronounced at the low temperature of 25°C as compared with those at the higher temperatures. According to the power law model used in this study the flowability of the test heavy oil exhibited a pseudoplastic character. Structural results obtained from Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of the different functional groups in the precipitated asphaltenes. For instance, the presence of different hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic and alicyclic based on their characteristics in the FTIR spectra was confirmed. Resins are effective dispersants, and removal of this fraction from the crude oil is disturbing to the colloidal nature of heavy oil; asphaltene flocculation and precipitation eventually occur. Appearance of pores in the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM images was used as an indicator of the resin detachment. With the use of 1H and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy, two important structural parameters of the

  4. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  5. Environmental considerations in a high desert, crude oil pipeline spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.A.; Mancini, E.R.; Chamberlain, D.W.; Albright, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    A road grader punctured a high-pressure crude oil pipeline in the California high desert resulting in the release of approximately 4,200 barrels of Alaska North Slope crude oil. Oil sprayed over a steeply sloped hillside and flowed into an adjacent, densely vegetated ephemeral stream channel which carried secondary treatment sewage discharge. Three underflow dams were constructed in the channel within 2.8 km of the site. To ensure containment at the first dam, the sewage discharge was diverted from the channel, eventually to an upland impulse sprinkler irrigation system. Channel water and phase-separated ANS crude oil, impounded behind the first dam, percolated through alluvial sands/gravels to a depth of about five meters. The oil percolated through the soils on the receding surface of the water, affecting soils to an equivalent depth and saturating a horizontally narrow band of stream-bank soils as much as two to four meters into the bank. Stream channel undergrowth and a small number of mature trees were cleared to provide access for cleanup and/or to remove oiled plants. A large number of trees experienced partial leaf-drop within 25 days of the spill while two heavily oiled trees died. New vegetative growth was evident within five weeks of the spill. Site restoration included planting cuttings of five riparian tree species and hydroseeding exposed banks. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from not detectable to 203,000 parts per million and averaged approximately 25,000 ppm in affected soils as sampled in place and in stockpiles. Approximately 30,000 tons of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was excavated from the length of the stream channel (3,600 tons) as well as the area behind the first dam and spill site (26,400 tons). All soils were staged on site for waste profiling and final disposition. After treatment, the contaminated soil was beneficially reused as daily cover at a southern California landfill at a turnkey cost of approximately $57/ton

  6. Effect of Sewage-Sludge on Bioremediation of a Crude-Oil Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Sharifi Hosseini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Khuzestan Province accommodates the largest oil-fields with huge petroleum production in Iran. During the Persian Gulf war in 1991, more than 6-8 million gallons of oil was spilt in the Persian Gulf, the greatest amount of which was transported into Khuzestan soil. Thus, oil removal from contaminated soil by advanced technologies such as bioremediation seems to be of vital necessity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sewage-sludge application on bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil. Soil samples (5kg were artificially contaminated with crude oil to a level of 1000 mg/kg. Sewage sludge treatments were applied at the 3 levels of 0, 100, and 200 gr/5kg soil in 3 replicates. The soils were kept in the normal moisture aerobic environment for 5 and 10 weeks. The soils were then analyzed for Hydrocarbon-degrading heterotrophic bacterial count. Oil extraction from the samples was accomplished using the oil Soxhlet extraction method and oil degradation was measured by GC chromatography. The results showed that the hydrocarbon-degrading and heterotrophic bacterial counts in all the treatments increased with time. Results indicate that heterotrophic bacterial population increased from 6×103 cfu/gr soil to  2×1010  cfu/gr soil. Also, C/N ratio decreased from 6 to 3. GC results indicated that all normal Alkanes and Isopernoids, i.e. Phytane and Pristane, decreased by 50-90 percent in all the treatments. It was also found that the application of sewage sludge at 100 gr/5kg soil to oil-contaminated soil leads to greater rates of biodegradation after 5 weeks

  7. Synthesis copolymer use to reduce pour point temperature of diamond crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Dao Viet; Chuong, Thai Hong; Tuy, Dao Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Diamond oil field is located in Block 01&02 Offshore Vietnam. Crude oil from Diamond Well Head Platform (WHP) is evacuated to FPSO via 20km 10" subsea flexible pipeline. The lowest seabed temperature in the field is 22°C, while the pour point temperature (PPT) of Diamond crude oil is very high (36°C) due to high paraffin content (25%). So studying to research a suitable Pour Point Depressant (PPD) for the crude oil is very important. The PPD must have ability to reduce pour point temperature of crude oil from 36°C to 21°C.

  8. Performance Optimization of Centrifugal Pump for Crude Oil Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.I. Bellary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil transport is an essential task in oil and gas industries, where centrifugal pumps are extensively used. The design of a centrifugal pump involves a number of independent parameters which affect the pump performance. Altering some of the parameters within a realistic range improves pump performance and saves a significant amount of energy. The present research investigated the pump characteristics by modifying the number of blades and the exit blade-angles. Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard k-ε two-equation turbulence closure were used for steady and incompressible flow of crude oil through the pump. The experimental set-up was installed and the pump performance calculated numerically  was compared with the experiments.   The investigations showed that the number of blades and the exit blade-angles have a significant influence on the head, shaft power, and efficiency. The vortical flow structures, recirculation and reverse flow characteristics around the impeller were investigated to explain the flow dynamics of impeller and casing. A larger number of blades on the rotor showed dominant streamlined flow without any wake phenomena. The combined effect of the number of blades and exit blade angle has led to an increase in head and efficiency through the parametric optimization.

  9. Novel diesel-oil-degrading bacteria and fungi from the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddela, N R; Masabanda, M; Leiva-Mora, M

    2015-01-01

    Isolating new diesel-oil-degrading microorganisms from crude-oil contaminated sites and evaluating their degradation capacities are vitally important in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and crude-oil exploitation. In this research, new hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and fungi were isolated from the crude-oil contaminated soil of the oil-fields in the Amazon rainforest of north-east Ecuador by using a soil enrichment technique. Degradation analysis was tracked by gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector. Under laboratory conditions, maximum degradability of the total n-alkanes reached up to 77.34 and 62.62 removal ratios after 30 days of incubation for the evaporated diesel oil by fungi (isolate-1) and bacteria (isolate-1), respectively. The 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the microorganisms were most closely (99-100%) related to Bacillus cereus (isolate-1), Bacillus thuringiensis (isolate-2), Geomyces pannorum (isolate-1), and Geomyces sp. (isolate-2). Therefore, these strains enable the degradation of hydrocarbons as the sole carbon source, and these findings will benefit these strains in the remediation of oil-polluted environments and oil exploitation.

  10. How crude oil consumption impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashiri Behmiri, Niaz; Pires Manso, José R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in twenty three Sub-Saharan African countries. We applied a multivariate panel Granger causality framework during 1985–2011 and we included crude oil price as the control variable of the model. The results indicate that in the short-run, there is a bi-directional causality relationship between crude oil consumption and economic growth in oil importing region and there is a uni-directional causality relationship from crude oil consumption to GDP in oil exporting region. However, in the long-run there is a bi-directional causality relationship between them in both regions. Therefore, reducing crude oil consumption without employing appropriate policies adversely impacts on economic growth of Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, in order to reduce crude oil dependency of the region policymakers should pay more attention to the issue of energy efficiency programs. - Highlights: ► We examined Granger causality among oil consumption and GDP in Sub-Saharan Africa. ► Crude oil price is the control variable of the model. ► There is short run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP (oil importing). ► There is short run uni-directional causality from oil to GDP (oil exporting). ► There is a long run bi-directional causality among oil and GDP in both regions

  11. The Necessity of a Graded Tariff System between Crude Oil and Oil Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, B.R. [SK Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    Even though the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products has been continuously insisted by oil refining companies since the export and import liberalization of 1997, and its necessity has been admitted by the government, press, and academia, the expanded implementation of the graded tariff system has not been yet realized. Some people says that the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products is a kind of desperate plans, which oil refining companies suggests to stop the importing companies' rapid growth, so it will eventually restrict the competition of the domestic oil market due to the withering of importing companies. However, the graded tariff system between crude oil and oil products should have been enforced in 1997 as a complementary measure of the import liberalization like other industries or the advanced countries' cases. It is the basic tariff principle that the low tariff is levied on raw materials and the high tariff on final products in order to protect domestic industry. The remaining things are just to form the sympathy and to agree socially for the reorganization of tariff structure in the reasonable way. It is not desirable to make a fool mistake such as a proverb; t is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has bolted. owing to the unreasonable tariff system.

  12. Electrochemical removal of metals from crude oil samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welter, K.; Salazar, E.; Balladores, Y.; Marquez, O.P.; Marquez, J.; Martinez, Y. (Laboratorio de Electroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101-Venezuela)

    2009-02-15

    Removal of vanadium from vanadyl (IV) meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (VO-MTPP) and vanadyl (IV) octa-ethylporphyrin (VO-OEP) and metals removal from Ayacucho Venezuelan crude oil samples were performed using electrochemical techniques. According to cyclic voltammograms, a potential of - 2.3 V vs. Ag/AgNO{sub 3} (0.1 M), LiClO{sub 4} (0.1 M) in acetonitrile, was chosen for running electrolysis at platinum (Pt), graphite (G) and glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. Qualitative analysis was done by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) while quantification was performed by AAS and inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Three stages (best results) of the study are reported: (a) when using commercial porphyrins; the best conditions for electrolysis were: tetrahydrofuran (THF)/20% methanol (MeOH)/1% perchloric acid (HClO{sub 4}) on GC, producing 84% hydro-demetalation (HDM) for VO-MTPP, and 78% HDM for VO-OEP; (b) when using extracts of crude oil; demetalation percentages, after 90 min of electrolysis, on graphite, and after 120 min of electrolysis on platinum, were 66.44% and 64.10% HDM respectively, no discrimination of metals under these conditions (c) from electrolysis in whole crude oil, quantitative analysis gave: vanadium (V) 31.2 mg/kg, iron (Fe) 65, 0 mg/kg and nickel (Ni) 6, 3 mg/kg, with charge efficiencies of V (7.5%), Fe (79.6%) and Ni (8.2%). (author)

  13. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  14. Exergy analysis of a crude oil atmospheric distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.; Gonzalez, G.V.; Garcia, V.H.; Pulido, R.; Escarcega, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of an exergy analysis to an existing and operating crude oil atmospheric distillation unit. The objective of such an analysis is to fully understand where energy inefficiencies and real energy losses are located and where modifications should be implemented to improve the overall utilization of energy in the plant. First, the description of the process and the block diagram are presented. After that, the calculating procedure to obtain the exergy balance, the exergy losses, the effectiveness and the improvement potential for each plant component is described and the corresponding results are shown. Finally, the component and overall evaluations are discussed

  15. Electrolysis-driven bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellagamba, Marco; Cruz Viggi, Carolina; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Rossetti, Simona; Aulenta, Federico

    2017-09-25

    Bioremediation is an effective technology to tackle crude oil spill disasters, which takes advantage of the capacity of naturally occurring microorganisms to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons under a range of environmental conditions. The enzymatic process of breaking down oil is usually more rapid in the presence of oxygen. However, in contaminated sediments, oxygen levels are typically too low to sustain the rapid and complete biodegradation of buried hydrocarbons. Here, we explored the possibility to electrochemically manipulate the redox potential of a crude oil-contaminated marine sediment in order to establish, in situ, conditions that are conducive to contaminants biodegradation by autochthonous microbial communities. The proposed approach is based on the exploitation of low-voltage (2V) seawater electrolysis to drive oxygen generation (while minimizing chlorine evolution) on Dimensionally Stable Anodes (DSA) placed within the contaminated sediment. Results, based on a laboratory scale setup with chronically polluted sediments spiked with crude oil, showed an increased redox potential and a decreased pH in the vicinity of the anode of 'electrified' treatments, consistent with the occurrence of oxygen generation. Accordingly, hydrocarbons biodegradation was substantially accelerated (up to 3-times) compared to 'non-electrified' controls, while sulfate reduction was severely inhibited. Intermittent application of electrolysis proved to be an effective strategy to minimize the energy requirements of the process, without adversely affecting degradation performance. Taken as a whole, this study suggests that electrolysis-driven bioremediation could be a sustainable technology for the management of contaminated sediments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil: comparison of different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaohui; Lu, Mang

    2010-11-15

    Biostimulation with inorganic fertilizer and bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon utilizing indigenous bacteria were employed as remedial options for 12 weeks in a crude oil-contaminated soil. To promote oil removal, biocarrier for immobilization of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was developed using peanut hull powder. Biodegradation was enhanced with free-living bacterial culture and biocarrier with a total petroleum hydrocarbon removal ranging from 26% to 61% after a 12-week treatment. Oil removal was also enhanced when peanut hull powder was only used as a bulking agent, which accelerated the mass transfer rate of water, oxygen, nutrients and hydrocarbons, and provided nutrition for the microflora. Dehydrogenase activity in soil was remarkably enhanced by the application of carrier material. Metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were identified by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for remediation of crude oil polluted soil was investigated. Three levels (100 g, 200 g and 300 g) of ash treatments in 2 kg of soil were set up alongside a control (nil ash) after pollution with100 ml of crude oil. Composite soil samples were collected and analyzed at intervals of ...

  18. Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude Oil Resource: A Blessing Or Curse To Nigeria – The Case Of The Niger Delta. S Tamuno, JM Felix. Abstract. This paper examines the question as to whether crude oil resource is a blessing or curse to Nigeria: The case of the Niger Delta Region. The paper traces the origin of oil exploration and exploitation from ...

  19. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  20. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  1. Speculation and volatility spillover in the crude oil and agricultural commodity markets: A Bayesian analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiaodong; Yu, Cindy L.; Hayes, Dermot J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses factors that potentially influence the volatility of crude oil prices and the possible linkage between this volatility and agricultural commodity markets. Stochastic volatility models are applied to weekly crude oil, corn, and wheat futures prices from November 1998 to January 2009. Model parameters are estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Speculation, scalping, and petroleum inventories are found to be important in explaining the volatility of crude oil prices. Several properties of crude oil price dynamics are established, including mean-reversion, an asymmetry between returns and volatility, volatility clustering, and infrequent compound jumps. We find evidence of volatility spillover among crude oil, corn, and wheat markets after the fall of 2006. This can be largely explained by tightened interdependence between crude oil and these commodity markets induced by ethanol production.

  2. Ecodynamics of oil-degrading bacteria and significance of marine mixed populations in the degradation of petroleum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Tanaka, Hiroki; Komukai, Shyoko

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies, screening of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and studies of the potentials of various single and mixed bacterial populations in the utilization of petroleum compounds were carried out to understand the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in marine ecosystems. Populations of hydrocarbon utilizers were larger in coastal regions than in pelagic environments. Ecological observations indicated that oil-degrading bacteria were ubiquitously distributed in both temperate and tropical environments, irrespective of oil-polluted and unpolluted ecosystem. Bacteria were grown with n-tet-radecane, pristane, propylbenzene, phenanthrene, and crude oil as the sole carbon source; and substrate specificities of the purified strains were characterized. Based on the assimilation characteristics of the isolated strains, an artificial mixed-culture system was constructed. Biodegradation of crude oil by the natural mixed population was found to be higher than by the artificial mixed population. However, when some of the substrate-specific degraders were artificially mixed with natural microflora, the degradation of hard-to-degrade aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil was enhanced

  3. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  4. Influence of chemical surfactants on the biodegradation of crude oil by a mixed bacterial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hamme, J.D.; Ward, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted in which the effects of surfactant physicochemical properties on crude oil biodegradation by a mixed-bacterial culture were examined. The effects of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) and molecular structure on the biodegradation of Bow River crude oil were determined. It was shown that chemical surfactants have the potential to improve crude oil biodegradation in complex microbial systems. Surfactant selection should consider factors such as molecular structure, HLB and surfactant concentration. 26 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Soil water repellency at old crude oil spill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, J.L.

    1999-08-01

    This thesis presents the current state of knowledge regarding the cause of soil water repellency and characterizes disaggregated nonwettable surface soils found at old crude oil spill sites. Pollution-induced water repellency generally develops following prolonged exposures of soil to liquid- or vapour-phase petroleum hydrocarbons. The condition varies significantly in terms of severity and persistence. Soil water repellency retards plant growth and disturbs the hydrological balance of ecosystems. Disaggregated water-repellent soils are also very susceptible to dispersal by erosion, posing a threat to the productivity of surrounding soils. The author described the probable causes of soil water repellency under the following three main themes: (1) accumulation of hydrophobic organic material in soil, (2) redistribution and re-organisation of this material in soil, and (3) stabilisation of the hydrophobic organic material. This final process is necessary to ensure persistence of induced water repellency symptoms. Petroleum residues as water-repellent substances in weathered nonwettable oil-contaminated soils were also discussed and a hypothesis about soil water repellency was presented which deals with flexible conformation in organic matter coatings. Processes leading to the development of soil water repellency following crude oil contamination were also described. It was determined that soil water repellency is a function of the packing density and the chain conformation of amphiphilic organic molecules in the outermost layer of soil organic matter coatings. This research suggests that the fractional coverage of alkyl chains on soil particle surfaces determines the degree of water repellency that is displayed by soil. It was shown that prompt remediation of some oil-contaminated plots can effectively prevent the development of soil water repellency. 4 refs., 32 tabs., 22 figs., 5 appendices

  6. Influence of crude oil treatment to the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammadov, F.F.; Rzayev, P.F.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Environmental menace is linking with the unprecedented man-caused explosion and perspective global warming at the result of atmosphere pollution. If similar tendency is continued radical changing's will not happen in future which catastrophically reflects in ecology, climate of the planet, finally in the population health of the Earth. However, unfortunately one-sidedly economy increasing are chiefly directed to the oil-gas sector and from year to year amount increasing of means of transport causes man's impact to the environment. Further increasing of these processes obviously can lead to the dangerous ecological situation. In the economical and efficiency increasing process country population depend directly on the level of energy consumption. Application of nature-conservative measures and technology, promotional efficiency increasing of energy usage, its total usage decreasing, simultaneous reducing of hazardous substance lead to the considerable but cardinal results. That's why taking into consideration above mentioned circumstance, conclusion one is oil and gas saving, reducing of hazardous substance, we can greatly economize by the gradual way of natural energy replacement into renewable energy. In this connection, special interest for Azerbaijan creates high-grade potential solar radiation usage problem in several fields of national economy, especially in oil sector of the country. There is a real background for effective usage of high-grade potential solar radiation in Azerbaijan oil industry. As the process of primary crude oil treatment in the condition of oil fields for its further transportation to Oil Refining Plant the temperature is to be near 50-60 degrees to be very readily reached to various solar radiation engineering systems. On the base on the above mentioned for realizing this process we built and developed high-grade temperature solar plant with parabolic trough concentrator. Economy till 40% of national fuels (mazut, gas

  7. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien; Hu, Hsu-Ning; Chiou, Jer-Shiou

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  8. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content. In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions: 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.

  9. Jump dynamics with structural breaks for crude oil prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yen-Hsien [Department of Finance, Chung Yuan Christian University (China); Hu, Hsu-Ning [Department of Money, Banking and Finance, TamKang University (China); Chiou, Jer-Shiou [Department of Finance and Banking, Shih Chien University, 70 Ta-Chih Street, Taipei 104 (China)

    2010-03-15

    This study investigates the joint phenomena of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance and jump intensity along with verification of structural breaks for crude oil prices. We adopt a Component-ARJI model with structural break analysis, utilizing daily data on West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot and futures contracts. The analytical results verify the existence of permanent and transitory components in conditional variance, with the permanent component of conditional variance increasing with the occurrence of a sudden major event (such as the Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait, Operation Desert Storm and the war between the US and Iraq), and a relatively greater increase in the transitory component over the same period. Notably, jump intensity fluctuates with an increase in the transitory component of conditional variance in response to abnormal events. It is the transitory component which serves as the primary influential factor for jumps in returns; therefore, speculators are willing to take large risks, particularly with respect to anticipating future price movements, or gambling, in the hopes of rapidly making substantial gains; thus, speculators prefer the temporary volatility component and engage in trade activities. However, investors prefer the permanent volatility component, because they may well be better off relocating their assets into more stable portfolios to outperform the market portfolio over the long run. (author)

  10. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  11. Comparative toxicity of four crude oils to the early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, L.M.J.; Khan, C.W.; Akhtar, P.; Hodson, P.V.; Short, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aquatic ecosystems. Fish that are chronically exposed to alkyl PAHs show dioxin-like toxicity characterized by the presence of blue sac disease (BSD) and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). This study compared the relative toxicity of four crude oils (Scotian Light Crude, MESA, the synthetic Federated Crude, and Alaska North Slope Crude) to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The study examined the influence of the four crudes in causing the disease in rainbow trout embryos living in simulated spawning beds with hydrocarbon-contaminated gravel. Each oil had different chemical characteristics and PAH concentrations. Mortality in the direct exposure experiment increased as the oil concentration increased. The same trend was observed for the BSD prevalence. The study showed that Scotian Light Crude was the least toxic, with BSD increasing only at the highest concentration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. NEB view of development potential and markets for heavy crude oil. [Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotland, W A; Gutek, A M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The phased reduction in total crude oil and equivalent exports, from 911 Mpbd in 1974 to 465 Mbpd in 1976, has no doubt had a disruptive effect on the rate of development of heavy crude oil reserves. The effect could have become more series as total exports continued to drop. However, the separate licensing of heavy crude oil for export will allow heavy crude oil to enter available markets until the early 1980s. The construction of one or several upgrading facilities by the early 1980s, combined with growing domestic requirements for heavy crude oil feedstock, could make the disposition of heavy oil largely independent of the purchasing patterns of export markets. The prospect of increased market stability combined with increasing cash flows should provide an appropriate environment to optimize the role that heavy oil resources can play in Canada's future energy balance. (12 refs.)

  13. Crude oil and stock markets. Stability, instability, and bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J. Isaac; Ratti, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the long-run relationship between the world price of crude oil and international stock markets over 1971:1-2008:3 using a cointegrated vector error correction model with additional regressors. Allowing for endogenously identified breaks in the cointegrating and error correction matrices, we find evidence for breaks after 1980:5, 1988:1, and 1999:9. There is a clear long-run relationship between these series for six OECD countries for 1971:1-1980.5 and 1988:2-1999.9, suggesting that stock market indices respond negatively to increases in the oil price in the long run. During 1980.6-1988.1, we find relationships that are not statistically significantly different from either zero or from the relationships of the previous period. The expected negative long-run relationship appears to disintegrate after 1999.9. This finding supports a conjecture of change in the relationship between real oil price and real stock prices in the last decade compared to earlier years, which may suggest the presence of several stock market bubbles and/or oil price bubbles since the turn of the century. (author)

  14. From oil spills to barley growth - oil-degrading soil bacteria and their promoting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Annett; Reinhard, Anne; Alimbetova, Anna; Omirbekova, Anel; Pasler, Lisa; Schumann, Peter; Kabisch, Johannes; Mukasheva, Togzhan; Schauer, Frieder

    2016-11-01

    Heavy contamination of soils by crude oil is omnipresent in areas of oil recovery and exploitation. Bioremediation by indigenous plants in cooperation with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms is an economically and ecologically feasible means to reclaim contaminated soils. To study the effects of indigenous soil bacteria capable of utilizing oil hydrocarbons on biomass production of plants growing in oil-contaminated soils eight bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soils in Kazakhstan and characterized for their abilities to degrade oil components. Four of them, identified as species of Gordonia and Rhodococcus turned out to be effective degraders. They produced a variety of organic acids from oil components, of which 59 were identified and 7 of them are hitherto unknown acidic oil metabolites. One of them, Rhodococcus erythropolis SBUG 2054, utilized more than 140 oil components. Inoculating barley seeds together with different combinations of these bacterial strains restored normal growth of the plants on contaminated soils, demonstrating the power of this approach for bioremediation. Furthermore, we suggest that the plant promoting effect of these bacteria is not only due to the elimination of toxic oil hydrocarbons but possibly also to the accumulation of a variety of organic acids which modulate the barley's rhizosphere environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Design challenges for large Arctic crude oil tanker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyerusalimskiy, A.; Noble, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Vasily Dinkov vessel was delivered by Samsung Heavy Industries shipyard to Russian ship-owner Sovcomflot. It is the largest icebreaking tanker ever built. The vessel was designed and constructed to transport crude oil from the Varandey offshore terminal in the southeastern Barents Sea to a transshipment location near Murmansk, Russia. The vessel is under long-term charter for Naryanmarneftegas, a joint venture of Lukoil and ConocoPhillips. The new ship was constructed strictly to the requirements, specification, and concept design provided by the charterer. The Varandey oil transportation concept and the vessel operational profile resulted in some conflicting requirements, compromising technical solutions, and assumptions yet to be proven in operation. This paper described the design challenges and selected approach to solve the solution to the tanker key design elements. These included the ice transit and other Arctic environmental challenges; open water performance issues; and icebreaking hull structure design challenges associated with modern shipbuilding technology standards and cost efficiency. The principle characteristics of the Vasily Dinkov were first presented and the Varandey crude oil transportation system was also described. Several features have made the Vasily Dinkov the most advanced icebreaking tanker to date, such as the icebreaking concept which has expanded the capability of both traditional icebreaking ships fitted with the icebreaker bow and double acting ships intended to operate astern only in the ice; the largest azimuthal twin screw propulsion plant for the Arctic with highest ice torque capacity ever specified for cargo vessel; and the first customized, automated, asymmetric steering control system designed to improve open water maneuverability and steering stability of podded vessels. It was concluded that the transportation system, the overall vessel concept and many of the vessel features require validation based on operational

  16. Induction of reactive oxygen species in marine phytoplankton under crude oil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhan, Koray; Zahraeifard, Sara; Smith, Aaron P; Bargu, Sibel

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of phytoplankton to the water-accommodated fraction of crude oil can elicit a number of stress responses, but the mechanisms that drive these responses are unclear. South Louisiana crude oil was selected to investigate its effects on population growth, chlorophyll a (Chl a) content, antioxidative defense, and lipid peroxidation, for the marine diatom, Ditylum brightwellii, and the dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa triquetra, in laboratory-based microcosm experiments. The transcript levels of several possible stress-responsive genes in D. brightwellii were also measured. The microalgae were exposed to crude oil for up to 96 h, and Chl a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), the glutathione pool (GSH and GSSG), and lipid peroxidation content were analyzed. The cell growth of both phytoplankton species was inhibited with increasing crude oil concentrations. Crude oil exposure did not affect Chl a content significantly in cells. SOD activities showed similar responses in both species, being enhanced at 4- and 8-mg/L crude oil exposure. Only H. triquetra demonstrated enhanced activity in GSSG pool and lipid peroxidation at 8-mg/L crude oil exposure, suggesting that phytoplankton species have distinct physiological responses and tolerance levels to crude oil exposure. This study indicated the activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phytoplankton under crude oil exposure; however, the progressive damage in cells is still unknown. Thus, ROS-related damage in nucleic acid, lipids, proteins, and DNA, due to crude oil exposure could be a worthwhile subject of study to better understand crude oil toxicity at the base of the food web.

  17. Plasmid profilling and similarities in identities of probable microbes isolated from crude oil contaminated agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmid analysis of bacteria isolated from agricultural soil experimentally contaminated with crude oil was carried out and the resultant bands’ depicting the different molecular sizes of the plasmid DNA molecules per isolate was obtained. There was no visible band observed for Klebsiella indicating that the organism lack plasmid DNA that confers degradative ability to it, possibly the gene could be borne on the chromosomal DNA which enabled its persistence in the polluted soil. Molecular characterization was undertaken to confirm the identities of the possible microorganisms that may be present in crude oil-contaminated soil. The result of the DNA extracted and amplified in a PCR using EcoRI and EcoRV restriction enzymes for cutting the DNA of the bacterial cells indicated no visible band for cuts made with EcoRV restriction enzyme showing that the enzyme is not specific for bacterial DNA of isolates in the samples, hence there was no amplification. By contrast though, visible bands of amplicons were observed using EcoRI restriction enzymes. The resultant visible bands of microbial profile obtained using the universal RAPD primer with nucleotide sequence of 5’—CTC AAA GCA TCT AGG TCC A---3’ showed that only Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus mycoides had visible bands at identical position on the gel indicating that both species possibly had identical sequence or genes of negligible differences coding for degradation of hydrocarbons as shown by similar values in molecular weight and positions in the gel electrophoresis field.

  18. Effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays and Capsicum frutescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakiri, J.O.; Onofeghara, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of crude oil pollution on the germination of Zea mays F7 and F27 and Capsicum frutescens were investigated. Crude oil was found to inhibit the germination of all the seed types used. The rate of germination decreased signficantly with increase in the length of the period of presoaking. The germination percentage of oil-soaked seeds of Zea mays also fell significantly with time. Seeds of Capsicum frutescens are most tolerant of crude oil in their germination response. The seeds were found to retain almost 100% viability after nearly 1 year of presoaking in crude oil. The lag phase preceding the germination of such seeds, however, increased threefold. Germination inhibition is attributed primarily to the physical surface characteristics of soil, which make it function as a physical barrier to water and oxygen. However, crude oil, where it penetrates, may be toxic to the embryos.

  19. Corrosion of mild steel, copper and brass in crude oil / seawater mixture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Mild steel, copper and brass coupons were introduced in natural seawater containing varying amount of crude oil. Mild steel showed higher rate of corrosion in seawater containing oil and lower corrosion rate in natural as well as artificial seawater...

  20. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate peak oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the peak in US crude oil production 30 years ago, more and more non-OPEC producers have seen their production decline as a result of resource depletion. OPEC, on the other hand has extracted a comparatively smaller proportion of its reserve base. Given that new non-OPEC discoveries are

  1. Application of microbiological methods for secondary oil recovery from the Carpathian crude oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaskiewicz, J

    1974-01-01

    The investigation made it possible to isolate from different ecologic environmental (soil, crude oil, formation water, industrial wastes) bacteria cultures of the genus Arthrobacter, Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Peptococcus, and Pseudomonas. These heterotrophic bacteria are characterized by a high metabolic and biogeochemical activity hydrocarbon transformation. Experiments on a technical scale were conducted from 1961 to 1971 in 20 wells; in this study, only the 16 most typical examples are discussed. The experiments were conducted in Carpathian crude oil reservoirs. To each well, a 500:1 mixture of the so-called bacteria vaccine (containing an active biomass of cultures obtained by a specific cultivation method and holding 6 x 10/sup 5/ bacteria cells in 1 ml of fluid, 2,000 kg of molasses, and 50 cu m of water originating from the reservoir submitted to treatment) was injected at 500 to 1,200 m. The intensification of the microbiological processes in the reservoir was observed. This phenomenon occurred not only in the wells to which the bacteria vaccine was injected, but also in the surrounding producing wells. At the same time, an increase in the crude oil production occurred on the average within the range from 20 to 200% and the surpluses of crude oil production continued for 2 to 8 yr. (92 refs.)

  2. Cross-correlations between crude oil and exchange markets for selected oil rich economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA), this paper studies the cross-correlation behavior between crude oil market and five selected exchange rate markets. The dataset covers the period of January 1,1996-December 31,2014, and contains 4,633 observations for each of the series, including daily closing prices of crude oil, Australian Dollars, Canadian Dollars, Mexican Pesos, Russian Rubles, and South African Rand. Our empirical results obtained from cross-correlation statistic and cross-correlation coefficient have confirmed the existence of cross-correlations, and the MF-DCCA results have demonstrated a strong multifractality between cross-correlated crude oil market and exchange rate markets in both short term and long term. Using rolling window analysis, we have also found the persistent cross-correlations between the exchange rates and crude oil returns, and the cross-correlation scaling exponents exhibit volatility during some time periods due to its sensitivity to sudden events.

  3. Bacterial rhizosphere and endosphere populations associated with grasses and trees to be used for phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Kaneez; Afzal, Muhammad; Imran, Asma; Khan, Qaiser M

    2015-03-01

    Different grasses and trees were tested for their growth in a crude oil contaminated soil. Three grasses, Lolium perenne, Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica, and two trees, Lecucaena leucocephala and Acacia ampliceps, were selected to investigate the diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. We found a higher number of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria associated with grasses than trees and that the endophytic bacteria were taxonomically different from rhizosphere associated bacteria showing their spatial distribution with reference to plant compartment as well as genotype. The rhizospheric soil yielded 22 (59.45 %), root interior yielded 9 (24.32 %) and shoot interior yielded 6 (16.21 %) hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. These bacteria possessed genes encoding alkane hydroxylase and showed multiple plant growth-promoting activities. Bacillus (48.64 %) and Acinetobacter (18.91 %) were dominant genera found in this study. At 2 % crude oil concentration, all bacterial isolates exhibited 25 %-78 % oil degradation and Acinetobacter sp. strain BRSI56 degraded maximum. Our study suggests that for practical application, support of potential bacteria combined with the grasses is more effective approach than trees to remediate oil contaminated soils.

  4. The use of modern on-site bioremediation systems to reduce crude oil contamination on oilfield properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, W.W.; Wilson, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Oil-field properties frequently have areas in which the soil has been degraded with crude oil. Soil contaminated in this manner is often considered either a hazardous waste or designated waste under regulatory guidelines. As a result, there is often concern about an owner's liabilities and the financial institution's liabilities whenever oilfield properties are transferred to new operators, abandoned, or converted to other uses such as real estate. There is also concern about the methods and relative costs to remediate soil which has been contaminated with crude oil. Modern, well-designed, soil bioremediation systems are cost effective for the treatment of crude oil contamination, and these systems can eliminate an owner's subsequent liabilities. Compared to traditional land-farming practices, a modern on-site bioremediation system (1) requires significantly less surface area, (2) results in lower operating costs, and (3) provides more expeditious results. Compared to excavation and off-site disposal of the contaminated soil, on-site bioremediation will eliminate subsequent liabilities and is typically more cost effective. Case studies indicate that o-site bioremediation systems have been successful at reducing the crude oil contamination in soil to levels which are acceptable to regulatory agencies in less than 10 weeks. Total costs for on-site bioremediation has ranged from $35 to $40 per cubic yard of treated soil, including excavation

  5. Causes for an asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.K.; Laskowski, C.

    2005-01-01

    We revisit the issue of asymmetries in the relation between the price of crude oil and refined petroleum products in the United States. An econometric analysis of monthly data indicates that the asymmetric relationship between the price of crude oil and motor gasoline is generated by refinery utilization rates and inventory behavior. The asymmetric relation between the price of crude oil and home heating oil probably is generated by contractual arrangements between retailers and consumers. Together, these results imply that price asymmetries may be generated by efficient markets. Under these conditions, there is little justification for policy interventions to reduce or eliminate price asymmetries in motor gasoline and home heating oil markets. (author)

  6. Bioremediation potential of a tropical soil contaminated with a mixture of crude oil and production water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha Dos Santos; Casella, Renata da Costa; Vital, Ronalt Leite; Sebastin, Gina Vasquez; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-12-01

    A typical tropical soil from the northeast of Brazil, where an important terrestrial oil field is located, was accidentally contaminated with a mixture of oil and saline production water. To study the bioremediation potential in this area, molecular methods based on PCR-DGGE were used to determine the diversity of the bacterial communities in bulk and in contaminated soils. Bacterial fingerprints revealed that the bacterial communities were affected by the presence of the mixture of oil and production water, and different profiles were observed when the contaminated soils were compared with the control. Halotolerant strains capable of degrading crude oil were also isolated from enrichment cultures obtained from the contaminated soil samples. Twenty-two strains showing these features were characterized genetically by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and phenotypically by their colonial morphology and tolerance to high NaCl concentrations. Fifteen ARDRA groups were formed. Selected strains were analyzed by 16S rDNA sequencing, and Actinobacteria was identified as the main group found. Strains were also tested for their growth capability in the presence of different oil derivatives (hexane, dodecane, hexadecane, diesel, gasoline, toluene, naphthalene, o-xylene, and p-xylene) and different degradation profiles were observed. PCR products were obtained from 12 of the 15 ARDRA representatives when they were screened for the presence of the alkane hydroxylase gene (alkB). Members of the genera Rhodococcus and Gordonia were identified as predominant in the soil studied. These genera are usually implicated in oil degradation processes and, as such, the potential for bioremediation in this area can be considered as feasible.

  7. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeda

    Full Text Available We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1 the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in mesozooplankton communities, (2 the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3 the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4 the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20, dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1 and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1 to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  8. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  9. Phytoremediation of some tropical soils contaminated with petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyibo, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken in three phases to identify (phase 1), screen (phase 11) and evaluate (phase 111) plants for their phytoremediation potential. In Phase 1, 15 plant species made up of grasses and legumes namely: Paspalum. vaginatum, Cynodon.dactylon, Pueraria. phaseoloides, Centrosema. pubescens, Panicum. maximum, Schrankia. leptocarpa, Eclipta. alba (Linn.), Cyperus. haspen (Linn.), Melastromastrum. capitatum, Acreceras. zizanoides Dandy, Pteridum aquilinum (Linn), Ludwigia.decurrens Walt,Setaria longiseta P.Beauv., Physalis angulata (Linn.), and Desmodium scorpiurus Desv.were identified on sites previously polluted by crude oil spills in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The first 6 species were used in phase 11 while the first four species were earmarked (rolled over) for phase 111. Responses to Questionnaire indicated that majority of residents in the selected sites/communities had lived in these areas for 10 or more years had mainly JHS/SHS education; were self employed – mainly farmers and fishers although most were unemployed in the public sector. Adverse effects of the operations of oil companies particularly oil spillage on the environment and local residents include: loss of vegetation and farmlands, soil and water body contamination, weak social and cultural institutions (disrespect by youth for elders and institutions), militancy and hostage taking among youth from the area. In phase 11, seeds of legumes among the six selected species were collected from Accra, Aburi environs and Kusi in the Eastern region of Ghana; they were scarified, cultured in growth medium and the seedlings which emerged from them were transplanted into experimental pots, each containing 2000g of either Alajo or Toje soil series. One week after transplanting, each pot was simulated with a corresponding serial crude oil concentration of 0% (control) 1 % (24ml), 3% (83ml), 5.5% (130ml) and 8% (189ml) or 10% (237ml) in three replicates. These concentrations were arrived at

  10. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E. [Ministry of Science. Inst. of Oceanography, La Habana (Cuba); Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A. [Balearic Island Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares (Spain); Navarro, A. [Ministry of Industry, Oil Research Center, La Habana (Cuba)

    1998-09-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10{sup 6} cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Swelling and tribological properties of melt-mixed fluoroelastomer/nitrile rubber blends under crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagelsir, Yasin; Li, San-Xi; Lv, Xiaoren; Wang, Shijie; Wang, Song; Osman, Zeinab

    2018-01-01

    The melt-mixed fluoroelastomer (FKM)/ nitrile rubber (NBR) blends of (90/10, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40 and 50/50) ratios with same hardness were prepared, and their swelling and tribological properties under crude oil were investigated for the purpose of developing high performance cost-effective elastomers meeting requirement of oil extraction progressive cavity pump stator. Differential scanning calorimetry confirmed compatible blend system for all blends. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) showed co-continuous morphology of 200-400 nm phase size for all blends, expect FKM/NBR (90/10) which exhibited partially continuous phase morphology of 100-250 nm phase size. The results of swelling and linear wear tests under crude oil indicated that swelling percentage, coefficient of friction and specific wear rate of FKM/NBR blends were much better than NBR, with FKM/NBR (90/10 and 80/20) showing swelling percentage and specific wear rate very close to FKM. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy disclosed that fracture of macromolecular chains was the main mechanochemical effect of unswollen and swollen worn surfaces, in addition to oxygenated degradation detected with increasing NBR ratio in the blends. The fracture of macromolecular chains resulted in slight fatigue wear mechanism, which was also confirmed by FE-SEM of the worn surfaces.

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of Pina Cuban crude oil by a culture of mixed marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, I.N.; Perigo, E.; Bergueiro, J.R.; Pita, A.; Mayol, M.A.; Navarro, A.

    1998-01-01

    The ability of a mixed marine bacteria culture to degrade Pina Cuban crude oil in the presence of nutrients and sea water was studied. Laboratory experiments were conducted in flasks with 100 ml of saline liquid containing 1 per cent crude. The flasks were inoculated with marine bacteria (IDO-225, IDO-226, and IDO-229) at a final concentration of 10 6 cell/ml. The cultures were grown at 29 degrees C for 21 days. Bacterial growth, and surface and interfacial tension were measured after 5, 13 and 21 days. Results showed that the marine bacteria were effective in accelerating the biodegradation process of Pina Cuban oil. The efficiency of the process increased when nutrients were added to the system. This biopreparation also accelerated emulsification of the oil without any negative effects to the natural microbiota. The biological oxygen demand at five days and at the end of the experiment was determined. The biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant were also measured. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  13. An analysis of price and volatility transmission in butter, palm oil and crude oil markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bergmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent changes to the common agricultural policy (CAP saw a shift to greater market orientation for the EU dairy industry. Given this reorientation, the volatility of EU dairy commodity prices has sharply increased, creating the need to develop proper risk management tools to protect farmers’ income and to ensure stable prices for processors and consumers. In addition, there is a perceived threat that these commodities may be replaced by cheaper substitutes, such as palm oil, as dairy commodity prices become more volatile. Global production of palm oil almost doubled over the last decade while butter production remained relatively flat. Palm oil also serves as a feedstock for biodiesel production, thus establishing a new link between agricultural commodities and crude oil. Price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices, as well as between butter, palm oil and crude oil prices, before and after the Luxembourg agreement, are analysed. Vector autoregression (VAR models are applied to capture price transmission effects between these markets. These are combined with a multivariate GARCH model to account for potential volatility transmission. Results indicate strong price and volatility transmission effects between EU and World butter prices. EU butter shocks further spillover to palm oil volatility. In addition, there is evidence that oil prices spillover to World butter prices and World butter volatility.

  14. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim with this investigation was to quantify the impact of different veld condition classes, viz. poor, moderate and good on soil-water utilization (SWU: crude protein produced per unit of evapotranspiration), during four growing seasons (2000/01 – 2003/2004). Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the ...

  15. Crude protein changes on grassland along a degradation gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration was determined by quantifying the soil-water balance equation with the aid of runoff plots and soil-water content measurements. Crude protein ... The study shows that it is important to keep grassland in optimal condition to utilize limited soil water for sustainable plant and therefore animal production.

  16. Optimization of China Crude Oil Transportation Network with Genetic Ant Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration both shipping and pipeline transport, this paper first analysed the risk factors for different modes of crude oil import transportation. Then, based on the minimum of both transportation cost and overall risk, a multi-objective programming model was established to optimize the transportation network of crude oil import, and the genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were employed to solve the problem. The optimized result shows that VLCC (Very Large Crude Carrier is superior in long distance sea transportation, whereas pipeline transport is more secure than sea transport. Finally, this paper provides related safeguard suggestions on crude oil import transportation.

  17. Learning Crude Oil by Using Scientific Literacy Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, R.; Zakiyah, I. A.; Farida, I.; Ramdhani, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    A research has been conducted to create a crude oil learning media in the form of scientific literacy-oriented comic. The research included some phases, namely: concept analysis, material transformation to concept map, indicator identification and science literacy aspect. The product was made based on flowcharts and storyboards that have been validated by expert validators. The product has characteristics namely; 1) Develops indicators and aspects of science literacy, 2) presents the materials in form of story of science fiction genre, 3) has characters adopting levels of scientific literacy, 4) has optional stories, because it depends on questions asked to develop scientific literacy in terms of content, context, process and attitude. Based on feasibility test, the product is feasible to be used as learning media. It is suggested to do an expanded experiment to examine its affectivity in improving scientific literacy and growing students’ awareness about the issues of energy crisis and the impacts of fossil fuel use on the environment.

  18. Bioremediation of crude oil waste contaminated soil using petrophilic consortium and Azotobacter sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fauzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect Petrophilic and Azotobacter sp. consortium on the rate of degradation of hydrocarbons, Azotobacter growth, and Petrophilic fungi growth in an Inceptisol contaminated with crude oil waste originating from Balongan refinery, one of Pertamina (Indonesia’s largest state-owned oil and gas company units in Indramayu – West Java. This study was conducted from March to April 2014 in the glasshouse of research station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University at Ciparanje, Jatinangor District, Sumedang Regency of West Java. This study used a factorial completely randomized design with two treatments. The first treatment factor was Petrophilic microbes (A consisting of four levels (without treatment, 2% Petrophilic fungi, 2% Petrophilic bacteria, and the 2% Petrophilic consortium, and Azotobacter sp. The second treatment factor was Azotobacter sp. (B consisting of four levels (without treatment, 0.5%, Azotobacter sp., 1% Azotobacter sp., and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. The results demonstrated interaction between Petrophilic microbes and Azotobacter sp. towards hydrocarbon degradation rate, but no interaction was found towards the growth rate of Azotobacter sp. and Petrophilic fungi. Treatments of a1b3 (2% consortium of Petrophilic fungi with 1.5% Azotobacter sp. and a3b3 (2% Petrophilic consortium and 1.5% Azotobacter sp. had hydrocarbon degradation rate at 0.22 ppm/day for each treatment, showing the highest hydrocarbon degradation rate.

  19. Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between Isoko and her immediate neighbours in the western Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... The article shows that the discovery of crude oil petroleum in the western Niger Delta marked a watershed in the history of intergroup relations in the area. Keywords: Discovery ...

  20. A Formula for the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion of Crude Oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new formula for the calculation of the coefficient of world crude oils has been developed. The formula is semi theoretical. The empirical part was obtained by regression calculation of the Formation Volume Factor of the gas free crude oil at reservoir temperature. Comparison of the calculated values of the Formation ...

  1. Reduction of Sulphur Content of Urals Crude Oil Prior to Processing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of sulphur in crude oil poses enormous challenges as regards its negative environmental and economic impacts. As such, the safety of the personnel and the equipment is at high risk during the processing of Urals crude oil in Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) because of its sour nature.

  2. Price elasticity of demand for crude oil: estimates for 23 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.C.B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses a multiple regression model derived from an adaptation of Nerlove's partial adjustment model to estimate both the short-run and long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in 23 countries. The estimates so obtained confirm that the demand for crude oil internationally is highly insensitive to changes in price. (author)

  3. Studies on sludge from waxy crude oil storage tank. II. Solvent fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal, S.A.; Zarapkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.C. [D.G. Ruparel College, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-12-31

    The sludge formed from crude oil (Bombay Hindu Crude oil) dump storage has been analysed by solvent extraction with a series of solvents of increasing polarity. The extract fractions so obtained have been analysed extensively. The nature of the sludge is compared with the similar sludges reported by other workers. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  5. Comparison of the effects of crude and spent oils on Tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic effects of bonnylight crude and spent oils on Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings were conducted under laboratory conditions at the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria for two months. Five concentrations (5 ml/L, 10 ml/L, 20 m1/L, 50 m1/L and l00 ml/L) of water soluble fraction (WSF) of crude and spent oils were ...

  6. 75 FR 11841 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Short Supply Regulations, Petroleum (Crude Oil) AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security. ACTION... supporting documentation for license applications to export petroleum (crude oil) and is used by licensing...

  7. An estimation of crude oil import demand in Turkey: Evidence from time-varying parameters approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Ilhan; Arisoy, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model crude oil import demand and estimate the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey based on a time-varying parameters (TVP) approach with the aim of obtaining accurate and more robust estimates of price and income elasticities. This study employs annual time series data of domestic oil consumption, real GDP, and oil price for the period 1966–2012. The empirical results indicate that both the income and price elasticities are in line with the theoretical expectations. However, the income elasticity is statistically significant while the price elasticity is statistically insignificant. The relatively high value of income elasticity (1.182) from this study suggests that crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. This result indicates that imported crude oil is a normal good and rising income levels will foster higher consumption of oil based equipments, vehicles and services by economic agents. The estimated income elasticity of 1.182 suggests that imported crude oil consumption grows at a higher rate than income. This in turn reduces oil intensity over time. Therefore, crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income. - Highlights: • We estimated the price and income elasticities of imported crude oil in Turkey. • Income elasticity is statistically significant and it is 1.182. • The price elasticity is statistically insignificant. • Crude oil import in Turkey is more responsive to changes in income level. • Crude oil import during the estimation period is substantially driven by income.

  8. A laboratory study of particulate and gaseous emissions from crude oil and crude oil-dispersant contaminated seawater due to breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar-Mohajer, Nima; Li, Cheng; Rule, Ana M.; Katz, Joseph; Koehler, Kirsten

    2018-04-01

    Crude oil spill incidents occur frequently causing a verity of occupational, ecological and environmental problems. Dispersants are applied to enhance the dispersion rate of crude oil slicks into the water column. In this study, the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 20 μm, total particle-bound aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAH) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are measured in a 6 x 0.3 x 0.6 m tank as plunging breaking waves entrain oil slicks. The experiments are performed for seawater with slicks of crude oil, crude oil-dispersant mixture and dispersant only. The measurements investigate the effects of wave energy and slick properties on the temporal evolution of the emissions. The total number concentrations of particles originating from the oil-dispersant mixture are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those of crude oil across the entire nano-scale range, reaching 100x for 20 nm particles. Conversely, the differences in concentration are small in the micron range. The average concentrations of pPAH are variable but similar (150-270 ng/m3). The VOC concentrations for crude oil-dispersant mixtures are 2-3 times lower than those of crude oil, presumably due to the surfactant effect on mass diffusion. The drastic increase in ultrafine particle concentrations may raise concerns about effects of inhalation by cleanup workers and downstream communities though VOC emissions reduce. Findings through this study provide insight into how the spray of dispersant may change the ratio of airborne particulate matter and VOC emissions from seawater due to natural processes.

  9. The Effect Of Additional Detergent In Crude Palm Oil In The Process Of Separation Stearin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezekyah Hasibuan, Vina; aini, Nur; Febriyanti; Ayubi Pane, Salahudin Al

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to find out how much stearin is formed from the addition of detergent and to understand the process of separation of crude olein with crude stearin from raw material of crude palm oil (CPO). Using a detergent fractionation system, detergent fractionation is a continuous crystallization of oil with controlled cooling and the separation of fractions by weight or centrifuge after supplementing surfactant.

  10. Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japper-Jaafar A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.

  11. Multifractal detrended cross-correlations between crude oil market and Chinese ten sector stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liansheng; Zhu, Yingming; Wang, Yudong; Wang, Yiqi

    2016-11-01

    Based on the daily price data of spot prices of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and ten CSI300 sector indices in China, we apply multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-DCCA) method to investigate the cross-correlations between crude oil and Chinese sector stock markets. We find that the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and energy sector stock market is the highest, followed by the strength of multifractality between WTI crude oil and financial sector market, which reflects a close connection between energy and financial market. Then we do vector autoregression (VAR) analysis to capture the interdependencies among the multiple time series. By comparing the strength of multifractality for original data and residual errors of VAR model, we get a conclusion that vector auto-regression (VAR) model could not be used to describe the dynamics of the cross-correlations between WTI crude oil and the ten sector stock markets.

  12. Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-OKTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovski, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

  13. Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikovski, Toni

    2005-01-01

    Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

  14. Does Climate Change Mitigation Activity Affect Crude Oil Prices? Evidence from Dynamic Panel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Dike

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates how climate change mitigation affects crude oil prices while using carbon intensity as the indicator for climate change mitigation. The relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity is estimated using an Arellano and Bond GMM dynamic panel model. This study undertakes a regional-level analysis because of the geographical similarities among the countries in a region. Regions considered for the study are Africa, Asia and Oceania, Central and South America, the EU, the Middle East, and North America. Results show that there is a positive relationship between crude oil prices and carbon intensity, and a 1% change in carbon intensity is expected to cause about 1.6% change in crude oil prices in the short run and 8.4% change in crude oil prices in the long run while the speed of adjustment is 19%.

  15. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa. A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. (author)

  16. Reduction of benzene and naphthalene mass transfer from crude oils by aging-induced interfacial films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Subhasis; Pasion, Catherine; Alshafie, Mohammed

    2004-04-01

    Semi-rigid films or skins form at the interface of crude oil and water as a result of the accumulation of asphaltene and resin fractions when the water-immiscible crude oil is contacted with water for a period of time or "aged". The time varying patterns of area-independent mass transfer coefficients of two compounds, benzene and naphthalene, for dissolution from crude oil and gasoline were determined. Aqueous concentrations of the compounds were measured in the eluent from flow-through reactors, where a nondispersed oil phase and constant oil-water interfacial area were maintained. For Brent Blend crude oil and for gasoline amended with asphaltenes and resins, a rapid decrease in both benzene and naphthalene mass transfer coefficients over the first few days of aging was observed. The mass transfer coefficients of the two target solutes were reduced by up to 80% over 35 d although the equilibrium partition coefficients were unchanged. Aging of gasoline, which has negligible amounts of asphaltene and resin, did not result in a change in the solute mass transfer coefficients. The study demonstrates that formation of crude oil-water interfacial films comprised of asphaltenes and resins contribute to time-dependent decreases in rates of release of environmentally relevant solutes from crude oils and may contribute to the persistence of such solutes at crude oil-contaminated sites. It is estimated that the interfacial film has an extremely low film mass transfer coefficient in the range of 10(-6) cm/min.

  17. Effects of selected thermophilic microorganisms on crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Particular attention was paid to heavy crude oils from Venezuela, California, Alabama, Arkansas, Wyoming, Alaska, and other oil producing areas. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between {open_quotes}biodegraded{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}biotreated{close_quotes} oils. Preliminary results indicate the introduced microorganisms may become the dominant species in the bioconversion of oils. These studies also indicate the biochemical interactions between crude oils and microorganisms follow distinct trends, characterized by a group of chemical markers. Core-flooding experiments have shown significant additional crude oil recoveries are achievable with thermophilic microorganisms at elevated temperatures similar to those found in oil reservoirs. In addition, the biochemical treatment of crude oils has technological applications in downstream processing of crude oils such as in upgrading of low grade oils and the production of hydrocarbon based detergents.

  18. effect of crude oil extracts on early stages of african catfish

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Nigerian Bonny light crude oil and Exxon Mobil Oso off-shore condensate during a ... of Oso condensate extract when larval integument was damaged. It is ... Spills of oil condensate from Oso Exxon Mobil Oil rig readily enter the .... compounds are extracted from oil films in natural .... Resources and Fishing Rome, 9-13 Dec.

  19. Effect of crude oil and palm bunch ash on maize growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanue Ogboma Dania; Temitayo Fayehun; Osemhengbe Ruth Akhabue

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of different crude oil fractions (whole crude and water soluble fraction) at 2% contamination (98% distilled water) and the effect of 2 g of palm bunch ash (PBA) on the phytotoxicity of crude oil fraction on growth parameters such as percentage of seedling emergence, plant height, number of leaves, length of root, length of radical and leaf area in maize (Zea mays). Methods: A total of 180 bags containing 500 g of loamy soil each were used for this study, of which 30 bags containing loamy soil each served as control, 60 bags of soil were added each 2% crude oil fraction and 60 bags of soil were added each 2% crude oil fraction and 2 gPBA each, while 30 bags of soil contained each 2 g ofPBA only. The maize grown on the soil was harvested after 7, 14 and 21 days of seedling emergence and assessed for growth parameters. Results: The growth parameters (plant height, length of root, length of radicle, number of leaves, and leaf area) in maize were significantly reduced in the crude oil fraction treatment (P≤0.05). The treatment containingPBA was found to have significant improvement compared to the crude oil fraction contaminated treatment. Conclusions: The study has revealed the deleterious effect of crude oil at 2% on maize and its effect was ameliorated usingPBA.

  20. Hedging strategy for crude oil trading and the factors influencing hedging effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Won-Cheol; Jae Kim, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the hedging effectiveness of different hedge type and period by Korean oil traders. Both crude oil price and exchange rate risks are considered. Theoretical models are formulated to estimate the hedge ratios by separate and complex hedge types. The hedging period covers 1-12 months. This study also performs some statistical works to investigate the relationship between the hedging effectiveness and the crude oil price sensitivity to exchange rate. In addition, the relationship between the hedging effectiveness and the volatilities of crude oil price and exchange rate is analyzed. (author)

  1. Toxicological evaluation of a lake ecosystem contaminated with crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, D.; Ramey, B.

    1995-01-01

    Winona Lake on the Daniel Boone National Forest in Powell County, Kentucky, was used from the mid 1950's to 1987 as a water source for water-injection oil drilling and as a brine disposal site. The lake was contaminated with excessive amounts of crude oil. A multi phase investigation was conducted, including chemical analysis of water and sediment, water toxicity tests using a cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia dubia, sediment toxicity tests using an amphipod, Hyalella azteca, and a faunal survey of the communities of the lake and stream both above and below the lake. The sediment was laden with petroleum hydrocarbons (4.1 parts per thousand), while the water showed no contamination. The C dubia test results showed no significant water toxicity. The contaminated sediment adjacent to the dam produced 75% mortality in H. azteca. The faunal survey indicated little or no impact on the upstream and downstream communities but the lake community was highly impacted, especially the benthos. Pollution tolerant Chaoborus sp. were the only organisms collected from sediment samples dredged from the lake. Contamination was limited to the sediment within the lake but the impact on the entire lake community was severe

  2. Effect of Bombay high crude oil and its water-soluble fraction on growth and metabolism of diatom Thalassiosira sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.R.; Pandit, R.A.; Kadam, A.N.; Indap, M.M.

    Effect of Bombay high crude oil (BHC) and its water-soluble fraction (WSF) on growth and metabolism of the phytoplankton, Thalassiosira sp. was assessed. The study revealed the signs of acute toxicity at higher concentrations of crude oil (0...

  3. Biodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, H. P.; Erdner, D.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    An enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. While the oil degradation and bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of sunlight on oil and bacterial assemblages in surface waters have received less attention. In this study, we amended surface water collected near the DWH site with crude oil and/or Corexit dispersant and incubated under natural sunlight in the nGoM for 36 d in summer of 2013. The residual alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkalyted PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS, and bacterial community was determined via pyrosequencing. The results show that n-alkane biodegradation rate constants (first order) were ca. ten-fold higher than the photooxidation rate constants. While biodegradation was characterized by a lag phase, photooxidation rate constants for the 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAHs, were 0.08-0.98 day-1 and 0.01-0.07 day-1, respectively. Compared to biodegradation, photooxidation increased the transformation of 4-5 ring PAHs by 70% and 3-4 ring alkylated PAHs by 36%. Sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and a driver of shifts in bacterial community structure in oil and Corexit treatments. In amended treatments, sunlight increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Halomonas and Bartonella, while the dark treatments enriched Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Pseudomonas. This suggests that different bacteria are degrading the hydrocarbons in the dark and under light exposure. In a follow up study using DNA-Stable isotope probing (SIP), we identified the alkane and PAH degraders using 13C-labeled hexadecane and phenanthrene, respectively. The results of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses in the light and dark incubations will be presented. For the first

  4. ORGANIC MATTER AND CRUDE PROTEIN DEGRADATION SYNCHRONY IN DIETS SELECTED BY RANGE GOATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramírez Orduña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim to asses the synchrony of organic matter and crude protein degradation in the rumen of diets selected by range goats through two years. Five esophageal cannulated adult male goats were used to collect extrusa samples during summer (August 9–13 and autumn (November 29 –December 3 of 2006, winter (February 20 – 24, spring (April 29 –May 5, summer (September 10–15 and autumn (December 4–8 of 2007 and winter (February 20 – 25 and spring (May 9 –13 of 2008. Extrusa samples were subjected to chemical analysis to determine organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP in situ and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter. OM and CP intake were estimated by total fecal collection. Effective extent of degradation of the OM and CP was calculated hourly and total 24 hours. From the hourly quantity of OM and CP degraded, a synchrony index of CP to OM was calculated, and from the total 24 hours degradation, degraded organic matter intake and crude protein intake were also estimated. Sampling date was the main effect that determined the variation of diet OM and CP degradation parameters. Degraded crude protein intake as a proportion of degraded OM was affected by sampling date and was correlated to rainfall. During winter of the first year degraded crude protein intake was below the requirements for maintenance or to promote growth for range goats weighing 40 kg. Even though, synchrony index between OM and CP degradation was affected by sampling date goats maintained a high synchrony index throughout the years.

  5. Workshop Papers: Directions and Marketing of Synthetic Crude Oil and Heavy Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology in an effort to bring together experts from the various sectors of the petroleum industry to outline their views of the directions that the synthetic crude oil market will pursue over the next decade and into the 21. century. The motivation for the Workshop came from the many announcements during 1996 and 1997 by several Canadian oil companies about plans to initiate or expand their heavy oil and synthetic crude production. During the same period, at least one US refiner also announced plans to revamp an existing refinery to allow it to process Canadian heavy oil and synthetic crude. The workshop was organized to review these plans and to discuss such questions as (1) Would the selected technologies be the familiar carbon rejection or hydrogen addition methods, or would there be radical advanced technologies? (2) Would the products be fully or partially upgraded? (3) How would they be processed in the refinery? (4) Would there be a market? This collection of papers or viewgraphs comprise all the formal presentations given at the workshop. The final section also contains the edited notes recorded during the question and answer periods. refs., tabs., figs

  6. Acute toxicities of crude oils and oil-dispersant mixtures to Red sea fishes and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1975-11-01

    Crude oil from fields in the Persian Gulf and in the Sinai plus a chemical oil dispersant were tested, using static bioassay procedures, for toxicity to adults or juveniles of ten marine species: Heteroxenia fuscescens, a soft coral; Nerita forskali and Drupa granulata, gastropod molluscs; Mytilus variabilis, a mussel; Acanthopleura haddoni, a chiton (mollusc); Echinometra mathaei, sea urchin; Calcinus latens, a hermit crab; Palaemon pacificus, a shrimp; Parupeneus barberinus, goatfish; and Siganus rivulatus, rabbitfish. Concentrations fatal to 50 percent of individual test species in 168 hours, LC-50 (168 h), ranged from 0.74 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Persian Gulf crude, from 14.5 to more than 30.0 ml/liter for Sinai crude, and from 0.006 to 0.064 ml/liter for the dispersant. In general, fishes and crustaceans were the most sensitive groups assayed and molluscs the most resistant. LC-50 (168 h) values for oil-dispersant mixtures of 10 parts oil to 1 part dispersant (v/v) for selected species ranged from 0.047 to 0.152 ml/liter which appears to reflect the biocidal properties of the dispersant. Some individuals that survived immersion in high concentrations of the test compounds for 168 h were adversely affected during treatment and afterwards.

  7. Time Course-Dependent Methanogenic Crude Oil Biodegradation: Dynamics of Fumarate Addition Metabolites, Biodegradative Genes, and Microbial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney R. A. Toth

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation of crude oil in subsurface petroleum reservoirs has adversely impacted most of the world's oil, converting this resource to heavier forms that are of lower quality and more challenging to recover. Oil degradation in deep reservoir environments has been attributed to methanogenesis over geological time, yet our understanding of the processes and organisms mediating oil transformation in the absence of electron acceptors remains incomplete. Here, we sought to identify hydrocarbon activation mechanisms and reservoir-associated microorganisms that may have helped shape the formation of biodegraded oil by incubating oilfield produced water in the presence of light (°API = 32 or heavy crude oil (°API = 16. Over the course of 17 months, we conducted routine analytical (GC, GC-MS and molecular (PCR/qPCR of assA and bssA genes, 16S rRNA gene sequencing surveys to assess microbial community composition and activity changes over time. Over the incubation period, we detected the formation of transient hydrocarbon metabolites indicative of alkane and alkylbenzene addition to fumarate, corresponding with increases in methane production and fumarate addition gene abundance. Chemical and gene-based evidence of hydrocarbon biodegradation under methanogenic conditions was supported by the enrichment of hydrocarbon fermenters known to catalyze fumarate addition reactions (e.g., Desulfotomaculum, Smithella, along with syntrophic bacteria (Syntrophus, methanogenic archaea, and several candidate phyla (e.g., “Atribacteria”, “Cloacimonetes”. Our results reveal that fumarate addition is a possible mechanism for catalyzing the methanogenic biodegradation of susceptible saturates and aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil, and we propose the roles of community members and candidate phyla in our cultures that may be involved in hydrocarbon transformation to methane in crude oil systems.

  8. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediger, Volkan S., E-mail: volkanediger@gmail.co [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey); Berk, Istemi [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: {yields}We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. {yields} We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. {yields} We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. {yields} We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. {yields} Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  9. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Berk, Istemi

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  10. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-01-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively. - Highlights: • Limited desulfurization in the light distillate fraction of Arabian crude oils using γ-rays was observed. • FTIR analysis confirms limited unchanged in density, viscosity and yields of Arabian crude oils. • In absence of oxidizer, radiation-induced sulfur transfer was observed in gasoline and diesel fractions of Arabian crude oils. • Radiation-induced oxidative desulfuration of the light distillate fractions depends on its characteristics.

  11. Eastern Canadian crude oil supply and its implications for regional energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Canada has been blessed with immense energy resources; however, their distribution is not uniform. One such example is crude oil, which is found primarily in western Canada. Eastern Canada, consisting of the six eastern-most provinces (Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Quebec), produce limited quantities of crude oil, most of which is exported to the United States. Ideally, western Canadian crude oil would meet the demands of eastern Canada; however, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the absence of oil pipelines means that eastern Canada increasingly relies on supplies of crude oil from a small number of oil exporting countries, many with declining production. This paper examines crude oil production, supply, and its refining in eastern Canada. It shows that crude production in the region has reached its peak and that increasing global competition for crude oil will affect energy security in eastern Canada, either through price increases or supply shortages, or both. (author)

  12. Lifting the US crude oil export ban: A numerical partial equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Lissy; Huppmann, Daniel; Holz, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    The upheaval in global crude oil markets and the boom in shale oil production in North America brought scrutiny on the US export ban for crude oil from 1975. The ban was eventually lifted in early 2016. This paper examines the shifts of global trade flows and strategic refinery investments in a spatial, game-theoretic partial equilibrium model. We consider detailed oil supply chain infrastructure with multiple crude oil types, distinct oil products, as well as specific refinery configurations and modes of transport. Prices, quantities produced and consumed, as well as infrastructure and refining capacity investments are endogenous to the model. We compare two scenarios: an insulated US crude oil market, and a counter-factual with lifted export restrictions. We find a significant expansion of US sweet crude exports with the lift of the export ban. In the US refinery sector, more (imported) heavy sour crude is transformed. Countries importing US sweet crude gain from higher product output, while avoiding costly refinery investments. Producers of heavy sour crude (e.g. the Middle East) are incentivised to climb up the value chain to defend their market share and maintain their dominant position. - Highlights: • We study the impacts of lifting the US crude ban on global oil flows and investments. • We find massive expansion of US sweet crude oil exports. • We analyze the resulting welfare effects for US producers, refiners and consumers. • We indicate the changes on global trade patterns. • We conclude that lifting the ban is the right policy for the US and the global economy.

  13. Marine crude-oil biodegradation: a central role for interspecies interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The marine environment is highly susceptible to pollution by petroleum, and so it is important to understand how microorganisms degrade hydrocarbons, and thereby mitigate ecosystem damage. Our understanding about the ecology, physiology, biochemistry and genetics of oil-degrading bacteria and fungi has increased greatly in recent decades; however, individual populations of microbes do not function alone in nature. The diverse array of hydrocarbons present in crude oil requires resource partitioning by microbial populations, and microbial modification of oil components and the surrounding environment will lead to temporal succession. But even when just one type of hydrocarbon is present, a network of direct and indirect interactions within and between species is observed. In this review we consider competition for resources, but focus on some of the key cooperative interactions: consumption of metabolites, biosurfactant production, provision of oxygen and fixed nitrogen. The emphasis is largely on aerobic processes, and especially interactions between bacteria, fungi and microalgae. The self-construction of a functioning community is central to microbial success, and learning how such “microbial modules” interact will be pivotal to enhancing biotechnological processes, including the bioremediation of hydrocarbons. PMID:22591596

  14. Tolerance to biodegraded crude oil in marine invertebrate embryos and larvae is associated with expression of a multixenobiotic resistance transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdoun, Amro M; Griffin, Fred J; Cherr, Gary N

    2002-11-13

    The toxicity of water-soluble fractions of biodegraded crude oil (BWSF) to embryos and larvae of two marine invertebrates, the white sea urchin (Lytechinus anamesus) and the fat innkeeper (Urechis caupo), was studied. Santa Barbara Channel crude oil was artificially weathered and subjected to biodegradation using a mixed microbe culture obtained from natural oil seep sites. The degradation culture inoculated with seep sediment microbes accumulated 43.7 microg/l water-soluble hydrocarbons. In contrast water-soluble fractions from the non-degraded cultures (NWSF) only accumulated 3.05 microg/l. BWSF proved deleterious to Lytechinus embryo development at low concentrations (EC50 = 0.33 mg/l) but was essentially non-toxic to Urechis embryos/larvae up to 3.0 mg/l. An established mechanism for handling of a wide array of xenobiotics in Urechis embryos is the multixenobiotoic resistance transporter multixenobiotic response (MXR, also known as multidrug resistance, MDR). This mechanism is primarily mediated by ATP-dependent, efflux pumps that extrude a wide array of xenobiotic compounds. In this study, we show that Lytechinus larvae do not appear to express MXR efflux protein nor MXR mediated dye efflux capacity. In contrast, BWSF acts as a competitive inhibitor of MXR transport-mediated dye efflux in Urechis larvae. These results suggest that MXR may be an important mechanism for extrusion of the by-products of crude oil degradation by microbes, and that the level of its expression may determine the susceptibility of organisms to degraded oil hydrocarbons. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Stimulation of diesel degradation and biosurfactant production by aminoglycosides in a novel oil-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas luteola PRO23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković Iva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is promising technology for dealing with oil hydrocarbons contamination. In this research growth kinetics and oil biodegradation efficiency of Pseudomonas luteola PRO23, isolated from crude oil-contaminated soil samples, were investigated under different concentrations (5, 10 and 20 g/L of light and heavy crude oil. More efficient biodegradation and more rapid adaptation and cell growth were obtained in conditions with light oil. The 5 to 10 g/L upgrade of light oil concentration stimulated the microbial growth and the biodegradation efficiency. Further upgrade of light oil concentration and the upgrade of heavy oil concentration both inhibited the microbial growth, as well as biodegradation process. Aminoglycosides stimulated biosurfactant production in P. luteola in the range of sub-inhibitory concentrations (0.3125, 0.625 μg/mL. Aminoglycosides also induced biofilm formation. The production of biosurfactants was the most intense during lag phase and continues until stationary phase. Aminoglycosides also induced changes in P. luteola growth kinetics. In the presence of aminoglycosides this strain degraded 82% of diesel for 96 h. These results indicated that Pseudomonas luteola PRO23 potentially can be used in bioremediation of crude oil-contaminated environments and that aminoglycosides could stimulate this process. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31080

  16. A new approach to model strain change of gelled waxy crude oil under constant stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Lei; Song, Changyu; Yan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deformation of gelled waxy crude oil with loaded stress is worthy of research for the flow assurance of pipelining system. A dispersion parameter was introduced to characterize the disruption degree of wax crystal structure in crude oil with shear action. Based on fractional calculus theory, a rh...... monotonously with test temperature. Multiple creep curves of gelled waxy crude oil at a certain temperature can be described with this model......., a rheological model incorporating dispersion parameter was proposed to describe creep of gelled waxy crude. A discrete and numerical algorithm was proposed to solve the model. Combining with the experimental results of five kinds of waxy crude oil, the model parameters were regressed and found to change...

  17. Isolation and application of hydrocarbon degradation of indigenous microbial from oil contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadang Sudrajat; Nana Mulyana; Tri Retno DL

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this research are to obtain indigenous potential microbes from bacterial and fungal groups which have capable of degrading hydrocarbon from crude oil contaminated soil. The research carried out were isolation, selection, and identification potential microbial isolates capable of degrading hydrocarbon from oil contaminated soil located at Cepu East Java. The isolates were tested for their growth and ability to degrades crude oil. Each isolate was inoculated unto minimum mineral salt medium (MSM) contained 1% crude oil. Viability and stability test of selected isolates were carried out on irradiated compost carrier materials contained 5% crude oil. The fours series microbial s consortium consists of microbial consortium I, II, III, and IV were tested for the in vitro biodegradability of hydrocarbon. The results shows there sixty two (62) isolates are obtained, among them 42 bacteria and 20 molds. From 42 bacterial isolates, only 8 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Three of these isolates are identified Bacillus cereus (BMC2), Bacillus sp (BMC4), and Pseudomonas sp (BMC6). Whereas from 20 fungal isolates, only 4 strains were potent hydrocarbon degraders. Two of these isolates are identified Aspergillus fumigatus (FMC2) and Aspergillus niger (FMC6). All isolates show good growth in mineral salt medium contained crude oil with decrease in pH. The ability of decrease of TPH content by the bacterial and fungal isolates were 54, 61, 67, 74, and 78% respectively at day 30. The viability and stability of microbial isolates show considerable good viability on irradiated compost carrier materials after 14 days storage. From the fours series microbial consortium, the highest TPH degradation rates is found in microbial consortium III (BMC6, BMC2, and FMC6) with 89,1% in 5 weeks. (author)

  18. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used...

  19. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  20. Zinc availability in relation to selected soil properties in a crude oil polluted eutric tropofluvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukwuma, M.C.; Eshett, E.T.; Onweremadu, E.U.; Okon, M.A. [Federal Univ. of Technology, Owerri (Nigeria). Dept. of Soil Science and Technology

    2010-04-01

    This study examined zinc availability in crude oil-polluted soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of zinc on the physiochemical properties of soils in relation to remediation activities. The study was located at a site in Nigeria where crude oil spillage had occurred over a period of 2 months. The region was characterized by quarternary, alluvium, meander belt, wooded back swamps as well as fresh water swamps and Sombreiro-Warri Deltaic plains with large deposits of petroleum and natural gas. Three different land units were studied, notably (1) unpolluted, (2) polluted without vegetation and (3) polluted with vegetation. Soil sampling was conducted using a transect method. Hydrometer analyses were conducted to determine particle size distribution, while a core method was used to determine bulk density. Soil pH, total carbon, phosphorus, and total nitrogen were also measured. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to correlate and regress zinc availability against the selected soil properties. The study showed that zinc availability increased with increases in the value of the effective carbon cation exchange capacity in the unpolluted and polluted samples without vegetation. Zinc decreased with increased clay and organic matter content. Results suggested that soils must be reclaimed quickly in order to prevent additional degradation. 48 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Use Of Biodegradation Ratios In Monitoring Trend Of Biostimulated Biodegradation In Crude Oil Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorondu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with biodegradation experiment on soil contaminated with crude oil. The soil sample sets A BC D E F G were amended with inorganic fertilizer to enhance microbial growth and hydrocarbon degradation moisture content of some of the sets were as well varied. Biodegradation ratios nC17Pr nC18Ph and nC17nC18PrPh were used to monitor biodegradation of soil sets A BC D E F G for a period of 180. The soil samples were each contaminated with the same amount of crude oil and exposed to specific substrate treatment regarding the amount of nutrients and water content over the same period of time. The trend in biodegradation of the different soil sample sets shows that biodegradation ratio nC17nC18PrPh was more reflective of and explains the biodegradation trend in all the sample sets throughout the period of the experiment hence a better parameter ratio for monitoring trend of biostimulated biodegradation. The order of preference of the biodegradation ratios is expressed as nC18Ph nC17Pr nC17nC18 PrPh. This can be a relevant support tool when designing bioremediation plan on field.

  2. Experiment on the Influence Factors of Steam Distillation Rate of Crude Oil in Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the influence of complexity of reservoir properties in porous media and the diversity of operating conditions on the steam distillation rate of crude oil in the process of heavy oil exploitation with steam injection, steam distillation simulation devices are used to study steam distillation rate of crude oil in porous media. Then steam distillation ratio is obtained under the condition of different core permeability, oil saturation, steam temperatures, system pressure, steam injection rates and steam distillation rates with different viscosities of crude oil. The results show that the steam distillation rate of crude oil in porous media depends mainly on the nature of the crude oil itself, for temperature and pressure are the key factors compared with the pore structure, the initial oil saturation and steam injection rate. The experimental results help estimate the amount of crude oil and the required steam in the reservoir in the steam drive process, aiming to facilitate the optimization design and operation of steam drive.

  3. Upgrading of heavy crude oil with supported and unsupported transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nares, H.R.; Schacht-Hernandez, P.; Cabrera-Reyes, M.C.; Ramirez-Garnica, M.; Cazarez-Candia, O. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Atepehuacan (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Heavy crude oil presents many problems such as difficulty in transportation, low processing capacity in refineries, and low mobility through the reservoir due to high viscosity which affects the index of productivity of the wells. Because of these challenges, it is necessary to enhance heavy crude oil, both aboveground and underground. The effects of several metallic oxides used to upgrade heavy crude oil properties were examined in order to increase the mobility of reservoir oil by reducing viscosity and improving the quality of the oil. This can be accomplished by reducing the asphaltene and sulfur contents and increasing the American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity using transition metal supported in alumina and unsupported from transition metals derived from either acetylacetonate or alkylhexanoate in liquid phase homogeneously mixed with heavy crude oil as well as metal transition supported in alumina. KU-H heavy crude oil from the Golf of Mexico was studied. The results were obtained by Simulated Distillation and True Boiling Point (TBP). It was concluded that the use of crude oil thermal hydrocracking allowed the API gravity to increase and considerably reduce the viscosity. As a result, the productivity index in wells was increased. However there is a high formation of coke that could damage the conductivity of the rock and then reduce the potential of oil recovery. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  4. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel, E-mail: zirame@unisa.ac.z [Department of Economics, University of South Africa, P.O Box 392, Unisa 0003 (South Africa)

    2010-12-15

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: {yields}The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. {yields} The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. {yields} There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  5. Price and income elasticities of crude oil import demand in South Africa: A cointegration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziramba, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa as a function of real income and the price of crude oil over the period 1980-2006. We carried out the Johansen co integration multivariate analysis to determine the long-run income and price elasticities. A unique long-run cointegration relationship exists between crude oil imports and the explanatory variables. The short-run dynamics are estimated by specifying a general error correction model. The estimated long-run price and income elasticities of -0.147 and 0.429 suggest that import demand for crude oil is price and income inelastic. There is also evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports. - Research Highlights: →The paper examines the demand for imported crude oil in South Africa over the period 1980-2006. → The estimated long-run price and income elasticities are -0.147 and 0.429, respectively. → There is evidence of unidirectional long-run causality running from real GDP to crude oil imports.

  6. Volatility spillovers in China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haixia, Wu; Shiping, Li

    2013-01-01

    Price volatility spillovers among China’s crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets are analyzed based on weekly price data from September 5, 2003 to August 31, 2012, employing the univariate EGARCH model and the BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008. In the overall sample period, the results simultaneously provide strong evidence that there exist unidirectional spillover effects from the crude oil market to the corn and fuel ethanol markets, and double-directional spillovers between the corn market and the fuel ethanol market. However, the spillover effects from the corn and fuel ethanol markets to the crude oil market are not significant. -- Highlights: •Employing univariate EGARCH model and BEKK-MVGARCH model, respectively. Unidirectional spillover effects from crude oil market to corn and fuel ethanol markets. •Double-directional spillovers between corn market and fuel ethanol market. •The spillover effects from corn and fuel ethanol markets to crude oil market are not significant. •The empirical results indicate a higher interaction among crude oil, corn and fuel ethanol markets after September, 2008

  7. Leadership Strategies for Maintaining Profitability in a Volatile Crude Oil Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braimoh, Lucky Anderson

    Volatile crude oil prices significantly affect the profitability of crude oil firms. The purpose of this single case study was to explore strategies some crude oil and gas business leaders used to remain profitable during periods of crude oil price volatility. The target population comprised 8 crude oil and gas business leaders located in Calgary, Canada, whose company remained profitable despite crude oil price volatility. The transformational leadership theory formed the conceptual framework for the study. Data were collected through the use of semistructured face-to-face interviews, company reports, and field notes. Data analysis involved a modified Van Kamm method, which included descriptive coding, a sequential review of the interview transcripts, and member checking. Based on methodological triangulation and thematic analysis, 5 themes emerged from the study, including communication and engagement; motivation and empowerment; measurement, monitoring, and control; self-awareness and humility; and efficiency and optimization. The implications for social change include the potential for crude oil and gas companies in Calgary, Canada to manage production costs, ensure earnings and profitability, and thus improve the socioeconomic well-being of Calgary indigenes through improved employment opportunities.

  8. Characteristics of gas-liquid dynamics in operation of oil fields producing non-Newtonian crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Khasaev, A M; Gurbanov, R S; Akhmedov, Z M

    1968-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that crude oils from Azerbaidzhan, Uzbekistan, Tataria, Kazakhstan and other areas have anomalous properties under reservoir conditions. Such crude oils are non-Newtonian and (1) obey Darcys Law at low velocities; (2) obey an exponential law at higher velocities; and (3) obey a modified Darcys Law at most velocities. A discussion is given of (1) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils together with gas or water; (2) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils in well tubing; (3) behavior of wells producing non-Newtonian crude oils; and (4) pumping of non-Newtonian oils in wells. Experiments have shown that a visco-plastic liquid does not fill pump inlets completely; as the diameter of the pump inlet decreases so also does the degree of liquid filling. A statistical analysis of production data from 160 fields with Newtonian oil and 129 fields with non- Newtonian oil has shown that much higher production is obtained from fields with Newtonian crude oils.

  9. Energetic dependency on the oil reserve- resources of crude oil in the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Sidorová

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil belongs to the most important energy resources nowadays., However its reserves are the smallest in comparison with other energy resources as coal, gas or uranium. The world oil consumption continuously increases and within 20-year period there could be about one third. So, the consumption of combustibles will probably increase and the reserves will decrease. Promising are new resources or a better utilization of primary sources. It´s a question of a short time when world scientists should think about this indisputably worldwide problem and would provide an equivalent substitution with an available ecological solution.

  10. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the stratigraphy and the poorly documented petroleum geology of the Belize-Guatemala area in northern Central America. Guatemala is divided by the east-west trending La Libertad arch into the North and South Petén Basins. The arch is the westward continuation of the Maya...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  11. Consequences of oil film degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravendran, Rathesan

    2017-01-01

    In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution.......In a review of recent studies into two-stroke lubrication, Rathesan Ravendran and Peter Jensen of Hans Jensen Lubricators highlight the importance of cylinder oil distribution....

  12. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... to non-volatile. Due to the relatively low heat feedback (reradiation and convection, in kW/m2) to the fuel surface of small scale pool fires, as compared to large scale pool fires, these heat losses were shown to limit the burning efficiency in small scale experiments. By subjecting small scale crude...

  13. Sulfur transfer in the distillate fractions of Arabian crude oils under gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, Ahmed A.; Soliman, Yasser S.; Alkhuraiji, Turki S.

    2017-05-01

    Desulfurization of light distillation fractions including gasoline, kerosene and diesel obtained from the four Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) upon γ-rays irradiation to different doses was investigated. In addition, yields vol%, FTIR analysis, kinematic viscosity and density of all distillation fractions of irradiated crude oils were evaluated. Limited radiation-induced desulfurization of those fractions was observed up to an irradiation dose of 200 kGy. FTIR analysis of those fractions indicates the absence of oxidized sulfur compounds, represented by S=O of sulfone group, indicating that γ-irradiation of the Arabian crude oils at normal conditions does not induce an oxidative desulfurization in those distillation fractions. Radiation-induced sulfur transfer decreases by 28.56% and increases in total sulfur by 16.8% in Arabian extra light oil and Arabian medium crude oil respectively.

  14. The Effect of the Operating Conditions on the Apparent Viscosity of Crude Palm Oil During Oil Clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Zuhair, Mirghani I. Ahmed and Yousif A. Abakr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil, using rotary viscometer, under different boundary conditions. It was experimentally shown that the apparent viscosity of palm oil drops with increasing of the shear rate and the temperature.  However, the effect of temperature on the viscosity tends to fade at temperatures beyond 80 oC.  A correlation between the apparent viscosity of crude palm oil and the operating conditions was developed. This correlation can be used in design of crude palm oil settlers and in determining the optimum operating conditions.Key Words:  Crude palm oil, apparent viscosity, shear rate, modelling, separation 

  15. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J J; Gonzalez, J J; Viloria, A; De Veer, H; De Abreu, Y

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  16. Multivariate EMD-Based Modeling and Forecasting of Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaijian He

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical studies reveal evidence of the co-existence of heterogeneous data characteristics distinguishable by time scale in the movement crude oil prices. In this paper we propose a new multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD-based model to take advantage of these heterogeneous characteristics of the price movement and model them in the crude oil markets. Empirical studies in benchmark crude oil markets confirm that more diverse heterogeneous data characteristics can be revealed and modeled in the projected time delayed domain. The proposed model demonstrates the superior performance compared to the benchmark models.

  17. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  18. Corrosion of API 5L B and X52 in crude oil/water/gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, J.J.; Gonzalez, J.J.; Viloria, A.; De Veer, H.; De Abreu, Y.

    2000-02-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted to evaluate the corrosion behavior of API 5L grade B and X52 steels using Furrial's crude oil in the presence of water and gas containing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). The results suggest that the corrosiveness of this crude oil/water/gas mixture is not detrimental to either steel. However, pitting corrosion was observed. The low general corrosion rates measured were attributed to the natural inhibiting properties of the crude oil.

  19. Price Relationships in the Petroleum Market: An Analysis of Crude Oil and Refined Product Prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Voelker, Teresa

    2001-08-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  20. Price relationships in the petroleum market. An analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, Frank; Gjoelberg, Ole; Volker, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes

  1. Price relationships in the petroleum market: an analysis of crude oil and refined product prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asche, F.; Gjoelberg, O.; Voelker, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices are investigated in a multivariate framework. This allows us to test several (partly competing) assumptions of earlier studies. In particular, we find that the crude oil price is weakly exogenous and that the spread is constant in some but not all relationships. Moreover, the multivariate analysis shows that the link between crude oil prices and several refined product prices implies market integration for these refined products. This is an example of supply driven market integration and producers will change the output mix in response to price changes. (author)

  2. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  3. Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1990-11-28

    Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Artificial Intelligence for Inferential Control of Crude Oil Stripping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ebnali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripper columns are used for sweetening crude oil, and they must hold product hydrogen sulfide content as near the set points as possible in the faces of upsets. Since product    quality cannot be measured easily and economically online, the control of product quality is often achieved by maintaining a suitable tray temperature near its set point. Tray temperature control method, however, is not a proper option for a multi-component stripping column because the tray temperature does not correspond exactly to the product composition. To overcome this problem, secondary measurements can be used to infer the product quality and adjust the values of the manipulated variables. In this paper, we have used a novel inferential control approach base on adaptive network fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for stripping process. ANFIS with different learning algorithms is used for modeling the process and building a composition estimator to estimate the composition of the bottom product. The developed estimator is tested, and the results show that the predictions made by ANFIS structure are in good agreement with the results of simulation by ASPEN HYSYS process simulation package. In addition, inferential control by the implementation of ANFIS-based online composition estimator in a cascade control scheme is superior to traditional tray temperature control method based on less integral time absolute error and low duty consumption in reboiler.

  5. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedregal, D.J.; Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  6. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed M El-Awad; Fuad Abas; Mak Kian Sin

    2000-01-01

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  7. Modelling demand for crude oil products in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedregal, D.J. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales and Instituto de Matematica Aplicada a la Ciencia y la Ingenieria (IMACI), Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM), Avenida Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Dejuan, O.; Gomez, N.; Tobarra, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha (UCLM) (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    This paper develops an econometric model for the five most important crude oil products demand in Spain. The aim is the estimation of a range of elasticities of such demands that would serve as the basis for an applied general equilibrium model used for forecasting energy demand in a broader framework. The main distinctive features of the system with respect to previous literature are (1) it takes advantage of monthly information coming from very different information sources and (2) multivariate unobserved components (UC) models are implemented allowing for a separate analysis of long- and short-run relations. UC models decompose time series into a number of unobserved though economic meaningful components mainly trend, seasonal and irregular. A module is added to such structure to take into account the influence of exogenous variables necessary to compute price, cross and income elasticities. Since all models implemented are multivariate in nature, the demand components are allowed to interact among them through the system noises (similar to a seemingly unrelated equations model). The results show unambiguously that the main factor driving demand is real income with prices having little impact on energy consumption. (author)

  8. Review of Alberta Crown Crude Oil Marketing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G. R.; Kromm, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    This report contains an independent evaluation of the operations of the private marketing agents that are currently marketing the Alberta Crown's share of royalty crude oil. The evaluation includes a review of pricing performance, working relationship, current issues and the overall performance of the marketing arrangements during the fiscal years of 1997 and 1998. Overall, the outsourcing of sales of Crown production to agents is judged to be successful. For example, it has been noted that agents are becoming more aggressive in maintaining and increasing their margins. On the other hand, the increased level of aggressiveness in marketing, while tending to maximize Crown revenues, is also creating a potential conflict on how margins should be shared between the Crown and its agents. Also, there has been evidence of some management issues between the agents and the Crown concerning the extent to which the Crown should share in any increased value which the agent generates by increased third party marketing activities. These differences need to be addressed in order to maintain the strong performance of the marketing program. The consultants also recommend additional guidelines on risk management issues that more clearly define the Crown's risk tolerance. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Exergy analysis of a distillation tower for crude oil fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, R.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the application of the exergy method to a crude oil atmospheric distillation tower is presented. The fundamentals and procedures are presented as well as the main parameters used to describe the thermodynamic performance of the system, such as Exergy Losses, Effectiveness and Improvement Potential. A parametric analysis of the influence on the effectiveness of the tower is then performed as a function of the number of trays, the amount of stripping steam, the use of reboilers and the operation pressure. The results obtained are discussed. As expected, the effectiveness of the tower increases with the overall number of trays in the tower and in the stripping columns for a constant operation pressure and a constant amount of stripping steam but there is a limit at which the pressure drop across the trays and the stripping steam requirements make the effectiveness decrease. The use of reboilers in the stripping columns adjacent to the main tower allows an increase in the effectiveness basically due to a greater heat integration. Finally, the increase in the operation pressure of the tower produces an increase of the effectiveness but also an increase in the stripping steam requirements

  10. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  11. Short-term outlook for Canadian crude oil to 2006 : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada along with the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. This report is intended to expand the effectiveness of the Board's monitoring activities by providing an assessment of the current state of the petroleum industry and the potential for growth. It provides an 18-month outlook on international and domestic crude oil prices; drilling and exploration activity; supply projections for Canadian crude oil and petroleum products; Canada's crude oil trade balance and markets for Canadian crude; existing export pipeline networks and project expansion plans; and, the Canadian petroleum products industry and the impact of higher prices. It also identifies the major issues and challenges associated with the development of Canada's crude oil. The 2 major oil producing areas in Canada are the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) including the oil sands, and offshore eastern Canada. While conventional production in the WCSB is declining, development focus has shifted to Alberta's oil sands as well as Hibernia, Terra Nova and White Rose, the 3 major oil fields offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. High energy prices have resulted in record profits for the Canadian oil and gas industry, and has stimulated billions of dollars in investment, with Alberta's oil sands being the main beneficiary. The 19 refineries in Canada have been operating at about 90 per cent capacity for the last several years due to strong demand for transportation fuels. 10 tabs., 37 figs., 2 appendices

  12. Life cycle water demand coefficients for crude oil production from five North American locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2017-10-15

    The production of liquid fuels from crude oil requires water. There has been limited focus on the assessment of life cycle water demand footprints for crude oil production and refining. The overall aim of this paper is address this gap. The objective of this research is to develop water demand coefficients over the life cycle of fuels produced from crude oil pathways. Five crude oil fields were selected in the three North American countries to reflect the impact of different spatial locations and technologies on water demand. These include the Alaska North Slope, California's Kern County heavy oil, and Mars in the U.S.; Maya in Mexico; and Bow River heavy oil in Alberta, Canada. A boundary for an assessment of the life cycle water footprint was set to cover the unit operations related to exploration, drilling, extraction, and refining. The recovery technology used to extract crude oil is one of the key determining factors for water demand. The amount of produced water that is re-injected to recover the oil is essential in determining the amount of fresh water that will be required. During the complete life cycle of one barrel of conventional crude oil, 1.71-8.25 barrels of fresh water are consumed and 2.4-9.51 barrels of fresh water are withdrawn. The lowest coefficients are for Bow River heavy oil and the highest coefficients are for Maya crude oil. Of all the unit operations, exploration and drilling require the least fresh water (less than 0.015 barrel of water per barrel of oil produced). A sensitivity analysis was conducted and uncertainty in the estimates was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biodegradation of marine crude oil pollution using a salt-tolerant bacterial consortium isolated from Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinfei; Zhao, Lin; Adam, Mohamed

    2016-04-15

    This study aims at constructing an efficient bacterial consortium to biodegrade crude oil spilled in China's Bohai Sea. In this study, TCOB-1 (Ochrobactrum), TCOB-2 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-3 (Brevundimonas), TCOB-4 (Bacillus) and TCOB-5 (Castellaniella) were isolated from Bohai Bay. Through the analysis of hydrocarbon biodegradation, TCOB-4 was found to biodegrade more middle-chain n-alkanes (from C17 to C23) and long-chain n-alkanes (C31-C36). TCOB-5 capable to degrade more n-alkanes including C24-C30 and aromatics. On the basis of complementary advantages, TCOB-4 and TCOB-5 were chosen to construct a consortium which was capable of degrading about 51.87% of crude oil (2% w/v) after 1week of incubation in saline MSM (3% NaCl). It is more efficient compared with single strain. In order to biodegrade crude oil, the construction of bacterial consortia is essential and the principle of complementary advantages could reduce competition between microbes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Investigating the influence of pressure and temperature on malaysian crude oil density and viscosity for improved recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, M.K.; Derahman, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaysia has great potential as a crude oil or fossil fuel producing country. To increase oil production, behavior of Malaysian Crude Oil has been analyzed with reference to temperature and pressure variations. The effect of these parameters on crude oil density and viscosity has been observed, to select the methodology to be adopted for increases recovery by implementing enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project. Based on this study it has been decided to further explore the feasibility of increasing reservoir pressure. (author)

  15. Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Process technology for refining crude soybean oil – a product from soycake meal production in Ghana. ... yield of 83.3 per cent was recorded. Results of quality assessment of the final laboratory refined oil compared favourably with Ghana Standards Board's specification for edible soybean oil. Ghana Journal of Science Vol.

  16. A Microfluidic Method to Assess Emulsion Stability in Crude-Oil/Water Separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krebs, T.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The control of emulsion stability and droplet size is of crucial importance for oil production, especially for the processes of crude/oil water separation and cleanup of produced water. To recover pure oil and water, coalescence between droplets needs to take place, the extent of which will depend

  17. Multivariate Time Series Forecasting of Crude Palm Oil Price Using Machine Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchymalay, Kasturi; Salim, N.; Sukprasert, Anupong; Krishnan, Ramesh; Raba'ah Hashim, Ummi

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between crude palm oil (CPO) price, selected vegetable oil prices (such as soybean oil, coconut oil, and olive oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil), crude oil and the monthly exchange rate. Comparative analysis was then performed on CPO price forecasting results using the machine learning techniques. Monthly CPO prices, selected vegetable oil prices, crude oil prices and monthly exchange rate data from January 1987 to February 2017 were utilized. Preliminary analysis showed a positive and high correlation between the CPO price and soy bean oil price and also between CPO price and crude oil price. Experiments were conducted using multi-layer perception, support vector regression and Holt Winter exponential smoothing techniques. The results were assessed by using criteria of root mean square error (RMSE), means absolute error (MAE), means absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Direction of accuracy (DA). Among these three techniques, support vector regression(SVR) with Sequential minimal optimization (SMO) algorithm showed relatively better results compared to multi-layer perceptron and Holt Winters exponential smoothing method.

  18. Changes in cardiac activity, oxygen uptake and perfusion indices in Carcinus maenas (L. ) exposed to crude oil and dispersant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    Cardiac activity and oxygen consumption increased when C. maenas were exposed to a 20% solution of the water-soluble fraction of Fortes crude oil, a 10% solution of the dispersant BP1100WD or a combination of both. Normal feeding behaviour was disrupted. Perfusion indices (Q/VO2) decreased as locomotor activity increased following exposure to crude oil. However, exposure to dispersant or dispersant + crude oil resulted in elevation of perfusion index despite crabs becoming active. All test animals survived for at least 6 weeks following exposure to the pollutants. The acute, sublethal effects of dispersant and dispersant + crude oil were more severe than the effects of crude oil alone.

  19. Import demand of crude oil and economic growth. Evidence from India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2009-01-01

    This study establishes a long-run equilibrium relationship among quantity of crude oil import, income and price of the imported crude in India for the time span 1970-1971 to 2005-2006 using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration. Empirical results show that the long-term income elasticity of imported crude in India is 1.97 and there exists a unidirectional long-run causality running from economic growth to crude oil import. So reduction of crude oil import will not affect the future economic growth in India in the long-run. India should take various energy efficiency and demand side management measures in transport sector along with other measures like expanding and strengthening indigenous resource-base, substituting imported fuels by domestic fuels and de-controlling the price of petroleum products to reduce its import dependence. (author)

  20. Efisiensi Perusahaan Crude Palm Oil (CPO di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amzul Rifin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is an important Indonesian agricultural product as a raw material for cooking oil and an export commodity. In order to achieve maximum profit, the companies producing the CPO need to produce it efficiently. This study used the data from the 2013 Annual Manufacturing Survey conducted by the Statistics Indonesia. In this survey, there were 547 factories producing CPO. The efficiency measurement utilized the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach using value of production as the output and two inputs, namely the number of workers and raw material value. The results showed that there are 17 factories out of 547 factories which are efficient indicated by the efficiency value of one. Factories owned by the private national companies have the highest average of efficiency followed by the foreign and government-owned companies. In regards to location, factories located in Kalimantan Island have higher average efficiency compared to those located in Sumatra Island and other islands. Meanwhile, factories with local market orientation have a higher efficiency compared to those with export market orientation.Keywords: CPO, efficiency, data envelopment analysis (DEAABSTRAKCrude Palm Oil (CPO merupakan salah satu andalan produk pertanian Indonesia baik sebagai bahan baku minyak goreng maupun komoditas ekspor. Untuk mencapai keuntungan maksimum, maka perusahaan penghasil CPO perlu berproduksi secara efisien. Penelitian ini menggunakan data-data perusahaan sawit yang berasal dari Survei Perusahaan Industri Manufaktur 2013 yang dilakukan oleh Badan Pusat Statistik. Pada survei ini terdapat 547 pabrik yang merupakan penghasil CPO. Pengukuran efisiensi menggunakan analisis Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA dengan satu output, yaitu nilai produksi serta dua input, yaitu jumlah pekerja dan nilai bahan baku. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan dari 547 perusahaan terdapat 17 perusahaan yang efisien yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai efisiensi sebesar satu

  1. Molecular Dynamics Simulation: The Behavior of Asphaltene in Crude Oil and at the Oil/Water Interface

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Fengfeng; Xu, Zhen; Liu, Guokui; Yuan, Shiling

    2014-01-01

    of the repulsion of the anionic headgroups. Anionic C5 Pe has a distinct affinity to the oil/water interface during the simulation, while the C5 Pe molecules persist in the crude oil domain. A three-stage model of anionic C5 Pe molecules adsorbed at the oil

  2. Solids precipitation in crude oils, gas-to-liquids and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Karthik

    Gas-to-liquids (GTL) liquids are obtained from syngas by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The blending of GTL liquids produced from natural gas/coal reserves and crude oils is a possibility in the near future for multiple reasons. Solids precipitation is a major problem in pipelines and refineries leading to significant additional operating costs. The effect of the addition of a paraffinic GTL liquid to crude oils on solids precipitation was investigated in this study. A Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic technique was used to obtain solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) data for the various samples. The SLE of multiple systems of model oils composed of n-alkanes was investigated preliminarily. Blends of a model oil simulating a GTL liquid composition and a crude oil showed that the wax precipitation temperature (WPT) decreased upon blending. Three crude oils from different geographic regions (Alaskan North Slope, Colorado and Venezuela) and a laboratory-produced GTL liquid were used in the preparation of blends with five different concentrations of the GTL liquid. The wax precipitation temperatures of the blends were found to decrease with the increasing addition of the GTL liquid for all the oils. This effect was attributed to the solvent effect of the low molecular weight-paraffinic GTL liquid on the crude oils. The weight percent solid precipitated that was estimated as a function of temperature did not show a uniform trend for the set of crude oils. The asphaltene onset studies done on the blends with near-infrared spectroscopy indicated that the addition of GTL liquid could have a stabilizing effect on the asphaltenes in some oils. Analytical techniques such as distillation, solvent separation, HPLC, GC, and GPC were used to obtain detailed composition data on the samples. Two sets of compositional data with 49 and 86 pseudo-components were used to describe the three crude oils used in the blending work. The wax precipitation was calculated using a

  3. Relative contributions of microbial and infrastructure heat at a crude oil-contaminated site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ean; Bekins, Barbara A.

    2018-04-01

    Biodegradation of contaminants can increase the temperature in the subsurface due to heat generated from exothermic reactions, making temperature observations a potentially low-cost approach for determining microbial activity. For this technique to gain more widespread acceptance, it is necessary to better understand all the factors affecting the measured temperatures. Biodegradation has been occurring at a crude oil-contaminated site near Bemidji, Minnesota for 39 years, creating a quasi-steady-state plume of contaminants and degradation products. A model of subsurface heat generation and transport helps elucidate the contribution of microbial and infrastructure heating to observed temperature increases at this site. We created a steady-state, two-dimensional, heat transport model using previous-published parameter values for physical, chemical and biodegradation properties. Simulated temperature distributions closely match the observed average annual temperatures measured in the contaminated area at the site within less than 0.2 °C in the unsaturated zone and 0.4 °C in the saturated zone. The model results confirm that the observed subsurface heat from microbial activity is due primarily to methane oxidation in the unsaturated zone resulting in a 3.6 °C increase in average annual temperature. Another important source of subsurface heat is from the active, crude-oil pipelines crossing the site. The pipelines impact temperatures for a distance of 200 m and contribute half the heat. Model results show that not accounting for the heat from the pipelines leads to overestimating the degradation rates by a factor of 1.7, demonstrating the importance of identifying and quantifying all heat sources. The model results also highlighted a zone where previously unknown microbial activity is occurring at the site.

  4. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Biocrude Compositions Compared to Petroleum Crude and Shale Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Jacqueline M.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Schaub, Tanner M.

    2017-02-17

    We provide a direct and detailed comparison of the chemical composition of petroleum crude oil (from the Gulf of Mexico), shale oil, and three biocrudes (i.e., clean pine, microalgae Chlorella sp., and sewage sludge feedstocks) generated by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) reveals that HTL biocrudes are compositionally more similar to shale oil than petroleum crude oil and that only a few heteroatom classes (e.g., N1, N2, N1O1, and O1) are common to organic sediment- and biomass-derived oils. All HTL biocrudes contain a diverse range of oxygen-containing compounds when compared to either petroleum crude or shale oil. Overall, petroleum crude and shale oil are compositionally dissimilar to HTL oils, and >85% of the elemental compositions identified within the positive-ion electrospray (ESI) mass spectra of the HTL biocrudes were not present in either the petroleum crude or shale oil (>43% for negative-ion ESI). Direct comparison of the heteroatom classes that are common to both organic sedimentand biomass-derived oils shows that HTL biocrudes generally contain species with both smaller core structures and a lower degree of alkylation relative to either the petroleum crude or the shale oil. Three-dimensional plots of carbon number versus molecular double bond equivalents (with observed abundance as the third dimension) for abundant molecular classes reveal the specific relationship of the composition of HTL biocrudes to petroleum and shale oils to inform the possible incorporation of these oils into refinery operations as a partial amendment to conventional petroleum feeds.

  5. Superoleophillic electrospun polystrene/exofoliated graphite fibre for selective removal of crude oil from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, Enock O.; Olorundare, F. O. Grace; Nkosi, D.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, B. B.

    2016-04-01

    During oil spills, the aquatic environment is greatly endangered because oil floats on water making the penetration of sunlight difficult therefore primary productivity is compromised, birds and aquatic organisms are totally eliminated within a short period. It is therefore essential to remove the oil from the water bodies after the spillage. This work reports on the fabrication of oil loving electrospun polystyrene-exofoliated graphite fibre with hydrophobic and oleophillic surface properties. The fibre was applied for the selective adsorption of crude oil from simulated crude oil spillage on water. The maximum oil adsorption capacity of the EPS/EG was 1.15 kg/g in 20 min while the lowest oil adsorption capacity was 0.81 kg/g in 10 min. Cheap oil adsorbent was developed with superoleophillic and superhydrophobic properties.

  6. The impacts of the export ban on Alaskan crude oil trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, P.G.; Bausell, C.W.; Vogelsang, A.

    1990-01-01

    The authors investigated the petroleum markets impacts of lifting the ban on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil exports. This paper reports on some aspects of this investigation. The economic analysis relied heavily on the modeling of the ANS crude trade conducted on behalf of GAO by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) using the Transportation and Refining of International Petroleum model (TRIP). In contrast to previous studies, this one suggests that transportation costs may not be the only major factor in the realignment of ANS crude trade in response to lifting the ban. The differences in the yields of ANS crude and various crudes used by refiners in Pacific Rim countries on the one hand, and the product demand slates of the US West Coast and the potential buyers of ANS crude in Pacific Rim may also figure prominently in determining the reallocation of ANS crude if exports are permitted

  7. Fuzzy logic controller for crude oil levels at Escravos Tank Farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) for crude oil flow rates and tank levels was designed for monitoring flow and tank level management at Escravos Tank Farm in Nigeria. The fuzzy control system incorporated essence of expert knowledge required to handle the tasks. Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) control of crude flow ...

  8. [Oil degradation by basidiomycetes in soil and peat at low temperatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, N A; Klein, O I; Pivchenko, D V; Landesman, E O; Pozdnyakova, N N; Turkovskaya, O V; Zaichik, B Ts; Ruzhitskii, A O; Koroleva, O V

    2016-01-01

    A total of 17 basidiomycete strains causing white rot and growing on oil-contaminated substrates have been screened. Three strains with high (Steccherinum murashkinskyi), average (Trametes maxima), and low (Pleurotus ostreatus) capacities for the colonization of oil-contaminated substrates have been selected. The potential for degrading crude oil hydrocarbons has been assessed with the use of fungi grown on nonsterile soil and peat at low temperatures. Candida sp. and Rhodococcus sp. commercial strains have been used as reference organisms with oil-degrading ability. All microorganisms introduced in oil-contaminated soil have proved to be ineffective, whereas the inoculation of peat with basidiomycetes and oil-degrading microorganisms accelerated the destruction of oil hydrocarbons. The greatest degradation potential of oil-aliphatic hydrocarbons has been found in S. murashlinskyi. T. maxima turned out to be the most successful in degrading aromatic hydrocarbons. It has been suggested that aboriginal microflora contributes importantly to the effectiveness of oil-destructing microorganisms. T. maxima and S. murashkinskyi strains are promising for further study as oil-oxidizing agents during bioremediation of oil-contaminated peat soil under conditions of low temperatures.

  9. Spectral signatures of fluorescence and light absorption to identify crude oils found in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2014-08-01

    To protect the natural marine ecosystem, it is necessary to continuously enhance knowledge of environmental contamination, including oil pollution. Therefore, to properly track the qualitative and quantitative changes in the natural components of seawater, a description of the essential spectral features describing petroleum products is necessary. This study characterises two optically-different types of crude oils (Petrobaltic and Romashkino) - substances belonging to multi-fluorophoric systems. To obtain the spectral features of crude oils, the excitation-emission spectroscopy technique was applied. The fluorescence and light absorption properties for various concentrations of oils at a stabilised temperature are described. Both excitation-emission spectra (EEMs) and absorption spectra of crude oils are discussed. Based on the EEM spectra, both excitation end emission peaks for the wavelengthindependent fluorescence maximum (Exmax/ Emmax) - characteristic points for each type of oil - were identified and compared with the literature data concerning typical marine chemical structures.

  10. A reexamination of the crude oil price-unemployment relationship in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1996-01-01

    This study begins by asking whether fluctuations in the price of crude oil have affected employment and the rate of unemployment in the US. After reviewing previous assessments of the issue, the existence of an empirical relationship between the rate of unemployment and crude oil price volatility is established using Granger causality. Subsequently, the nature of the relationship is estimated with the results suggesting that at least three full years are required before the measurable impact of a percentage change in the real price of crude oil on the change in unemployment is exhausted. Finally, the structural stability of the functional relationship between the change in unemployment and the volatility of the price of crude oil and the percentage change in gross national product is examined

  11. Vaporization order and burning efficiency of crude oils during in-situ burning on water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    furthermore showed that the vaporization was diffusion-limited. Analysis of the heat transfer balance for the crude oils indicated that the energy available for evaporation decreased over time due to increasing heat losses, which were caused by the volatility controlled vaporization order. Presumably, larger......In order to improve the understanding of the burning efficiency and its observed size dependency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water, the vaporization order of the components in crude oils was studied. The vaporization order of such multicomponent fuels was assessed by studying the surface...... these results. The crude oils did not show any steady state behavior, but instead had an increasing surface temperature and decreasing burning rate and flame height, indicating a volatility controlled vaporization order. An increasing concentration gradient from the medium to heavy fraction in the burn residues...

  12. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; Alam, Mohammad J.; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: → We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. → A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. → Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  13. Is there co-movement of agricultural commodities futures prices and crude oil?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natanelov, Valeri, E-mail: valeri.natanelov@ugent.be [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Alam, Mohammad J. [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Agribusiness and Marketing, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Bangladesh); McKenzie, Andrew M. [Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, AR (United States); Van Huylenbroeck, Guido [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    Even though significant attempts have appeared in literature, the current perception of co-movement of commodity prices appear inadequate and static. In particular we focus on price movements between crude oil futures and a series of agricultural commodities and gold futures. A comparative framework is applied to identify changes in relationships through time and various cointegration methodologies and causality tests are employed. Our results indicate that co-movement is a dynamic concept and that some economic and policy development may change the relationship between commodities. Furthermore we show that biofuel policy buffers the co-movement of crude oil and corn futures until the crude oil prices surpass a certain threshold. - Highlights: > We show that co-movement of commodity futures is a temporal concept. > A variation in parallel movement between 2 large periods occurs. > Biofuel policy buffers parallel movement of corn and crude oil futures

  14. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water juvenile shrimps were more sensitive to the mixture of the hydro-test effluent and crude oil than the freshwater habitat. This could be ...

  15. Detection of simulated pitting corrosion and noises in crude oil storage tank by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri Mohd; Latif, N.A.; Azhar Mohd Sinin; Mohamad Daud; Abd Nasir Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    The damage mechanisms associated with crude oil storage tanks can be complex and varied and include pitting corrosion due to presence of species such as sulphate reducing bacteria. Acoustic Emission (AE) could be used to characterise the pitting corrosion signal in crude oil storage tanks but it is extremely difficult to simulate the pitting corrosion in the laboratory using crude oil as electrolyte because crude oil is considered as non corrosive medium. In this study, induced current have been introduced onto a surface ASTM 516 steel as an electrical source to simulate the electrical noise produced during pitting corrosion process and AE sensor have been used to detect this current. It is found that AE system could detect AE signal release during current induction this current and is expected that if the exact simulation of the current magnitude produced during pitting corrosion process is made available, AE characterisation of pitting corrosion in such tank could be made possible. (Author)

  16. Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of bonny light crude oil on anti-oxidative enzymes and total proteins in Wistar rats. Christian E Odo, Okwesili FC Nwodo, Parker E Joshua, Chibuike S Ubani, Okon E Etim, Okechukwu PC Ugwu ...

  17. Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of crude oil pollution on maize growth and soil properties in Ihiagwa, Imo State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development.

  18. Forecasting short-run crude oil price using high- and low-inventory variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Michael; Zyren, John; Shore, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    Since inventories have a lower bound or a minimum operating level, economic literature suggests a nonlinear relationship between inventory level and commodity prices. This was found to be the case in the short-run crude oil market. In order to explore this inventory-price relationship, two nonlinear inventory variables are defined and derived from the monthly normal level and relative level of OECD crude oil inventories from post 1991 Gulf War to October 2003: one for the low inventory state and another for the high inventory state of the crude oil market. Incorporation of low- and high-inventory variables in a single equation model to forecast short-run WTI crude oil prices enhances the model fit and forecast ability

  19. Effect of Crude Oil Price on Agricultural Productivity in Nigeria (1981 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, 2013. Effect of Crude Oil ... foreign exchange earnings since early. 1970s. ..... has been an improvement in the devaluation of the currency in .... IMF papers, Vol. 27:637 – 677.

  20. The role of Canadian heavy crude oil in the North American market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mink, F J; Antonia, H A

    1977-01-01

    Canadian reserves of heavy gravity crude oil are vast and the potential producibility from those reserves is expected to be surplus to Canadian requirements into the 1990s. This study focuses on the impact that market constraints may have on the future supply of heavy gravity crude oils from the W. Canadian basin. It observes that severe export restrictions will not only limit the orderly development of available reserves in the area but also will impair the prospects of additional enhanced recovery of conventional heavy crude reserves and restrict future experimental applications of oil sands recovery in the Cold Lake deposit of Alberta. Since it is expected that export restrictions for heavy gravity crude oil will be lifted in the future, the outlook for expanded development of indigenous reserves is promising.