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Sample records for crude fiber intake

  1. High-fiber diets with reduced crude protein for commercial layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MFFM Praes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating diets containing different fiber sources and two crude protein levels on the performance, egg quality, and nitrogen metabolism of commercial layers. In total, 392 48-wk-old Isa Brown layers were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design in a 3x2+1 (control factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of three fiber feedstuffs (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls, and rice hulls and two dietary crude protein levels (12% and 16%. Cottonseed hulls associated with the high crude protein level (16% resulted in the worst feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs. Diets with 16% crude protein resulted in the highest feed intake, egg production, egg weight, egg mass values, and improved feed conversion ratio (kg eggs/kg feed. The dietary inclusion of soybean hulls determined low yolk pigmentation, and of rice hulls, low egg specific gravity. The 16% crude protein diet with rice hulls promoted the best feed conversion ratio. Hens fed the reference diet presented higher egg mass and better feed conversion ratio per kg eggs and per dozen eggs. Hens fed the diets with low crude protein level (12% had reduced nitrogen excretion, but presented worse egg production.

  2. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

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    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population.

  3. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

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    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  4. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  5. Growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks to various levels of crude fiber and protein in the diet

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    Maijon Purba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of crude fiber in diet is important for duck growth, but there is a limit in its use in order for the ducks to grow normally. The purpose of this study was to evaluate growth and carcass production responses of EPMp broiler ducks under different levels of crude fiber and protein in diets. Four hundreds and twenty day old ducklings were allocated into 7 treatments with 6 replications and each replication consisted of 10 ducks. The treatments were the factorial combinations of crude fiber content of 6 or 9% and protein content of 19, 21, or 23%; and BR-1 (starter diet as positive control. The variables observed were: feed intake, weekly body weight, and percentage of carcass production. The results showed that all variables observed were not significantly affected by CF content, but highly significantly affected by crude protein levels in diet. Protein content of 19 or 21% in diet resulted in a better performance for EPMp ducks. The inclusion of high CF in diet did not affect carcass percentage, except for reduced abdominal fat. The study implies that administration of high CF (6 or 9% with a protein content of 19 or 21% in the diet are still acceptable to EPMp ducks at 12 weeks.

  6. Crude protein levels in diets containing pelleted concentrate for lactating goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and composition

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    Edileusa de Jesus dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of crude protein (100, 130, 160 and 190 g kg-1 of dry matter of diets composed of 200 g kg-1 of Tifton 85 grass hay and 800 g kg-1 of pelleted concentrate on intake, nutrient digestibility, production and composition of milk in lactating goats. Eight female Saanen goats with 42.7 ± 1.43 kg and 57.7 ± 7.37 days of lactation and milk production of 2 ± 0.22 kg at the beginning of the experiment were housed in individual 1.32 × 3.10 m stalls and distributed into two 4 × 4-balanced Latin squares. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ether extract and total digestible nutrients showed a quadratic effect, with maximum intake of 2.030; 2.000; 305; 769; 55 and 1.574 g day-1 at the levels of 140.7; 140.8; 189.2; 140.9; 144.9 e 142.7 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrient level varied linearly, with increases estimated at 0.54; 0.50, 2.02, 0.49, 0.80 and 0.63 g/100g for each percentage unit of protein added to the diet, respectively. Milk production was affected, with increase of 0.54 g for each 1% crude protein added to the diet. Milk lactose level decreased linearly, unlike the fat level, which increased linearly. Protein level showed a quadratic behavior, with a maximum of 36.7 g per kg of milk at the level of 160.5 g per kg of DM. It is recommended to use crude protein between 135 g and 150 g per kg of dry matter of diets consisting of 800 g of pelleted concentrate (composed of soybean meal replacing the alfalfa hay as protein source per kg of DM for lactating goats producing 2 kg of milk per day.

  7. Prospective Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Breast Cancer Risk

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    Deschasaux, Mélanie; Zelek, Laurent; Pouchieu, Camille; His, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Latino-Martel, Paule; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background Mechanistic hypotheses suggest a potential effect of dietary fiber on breast carcinogenesis through the modulation of insulin-like growth factor bioactivity, estrogen metabolism and inflammation. An association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk has been suggested in epidemiological studies but remains inconclusive. In particular, data is lacking regarding the different types of dietary fibers. Objective The objective was to investigate the prospective relationship between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk, taking into account different types of dietary fiber (overall, insoluble, soluble and from different food sources: cereals, vegetables, fruits and legumes). Design 4684 women from the SU.VI.MAX cohort were included in this analysis as they completed at least three 24h-dietary records within the first two years of follow-up. Among them, 167 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed during a median follow-up of 12.6 years (between 1994 and 2007). The associations between quartiles of dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk were characterized using multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Results Total fiber intake was not associated with breast cancer risk (HRQuartile4vs.Quartile1 = 1.29 (95%CI 0.66–2.50), P-trend = 0.5), nor was fiber intake from cereals (P-trend = 0.1), fruits (P-trend = 0.9) and legumes (P-trend = 0.3). In contrast, vegetable fiber intake was related to a decreased risk of breast cancer (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 0.50 (0.29-0.88), P-trend = 0.03). Overall vegetable intake (in g/day) was not associated with breast cancer risk (P-trend = 0.2). Conclusion This prospective study suggests that vegetable fiber intake may contribute to reduce breast cancer risk, in line with experimental mechanistic data. PMID:24244548

  8. Inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet of dairy cows on intake, milk yield and composition

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    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of crude glycerin (CG, corrected for protein with a byproduct of processing corn, mazoferm, on intake, production and composition of milk from Holstein cows. A total of 12 Holstein cows distributed in three Latin squares 4x4, with average production of 15 kg. The animals were fed four diets, protein and isocaloric, referring to four levels of replacement of corn grain by mixing PG-80, 0, 33.3, 66.6 and 100.0% based on the total dry matter, which corresponded respectively to 0, 40, 80 and 120 g of CG/kg dry matter. The cows were milked mechanically twice a day, making up the record of milk production of each experimental period and collected a sample of milk for evaluation of lactose, fat, protein, total solids and somatic cell count (SCC. Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the MIXED procedure of the Statistical Analysis System. The dry matter intake, the average milk production and milk production adjusted to 35 g fat / kg milk, were not affected (P>0.05 by the inclusion of GP-80 mixture in the diet. The nutritional composition of milk (fat, protein, lactose and total solids was not affected by treatments (P>0.05. The use of crude glycerin in diets to meet protein and energy requirements of animals does not compromise the dry matter intake, production, composition and milk quality for cows of low production.

  9. Dietary Fiber Intake in Young Adults and Breast Cancer Risk.

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    Farvid, Maryam S; Eliassen, A Heather; Cho, Eunyoung; Liao, Xiaomei; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated fiber intake during adolescence and early adulthood in relation to breast cancer (BC) risk in the Nurses' Health Study II. Among 90,534 premenopausal women who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1991, we documented 2833 invasive BC cases during 20 years of follow-up. In 1998, 44,263 of these women also completed a questionnaire about their diet during high school; among these women, we documented 1118 cases of BC by end of follow-up. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BC across categories of dietary fiber. Among all women, early adulthood total dietary fiber intake was associated with significantly lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.81; 95% CI 0.72-0.91; Ptrend = .002). Higher intakes of soluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.86; 95% CI 0.77-0.97; Ptrend = .02) and insoluble fiber (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.80; 95% CI 0.71-0.90; Ptrend dietary fiber intake in adolescence was also associated with lower BC risk (RR for highest versus lowest quintile 0.84; 95% CI 0.70-1.01; Ptrend = .04). For the average of fiber intake during adolescence and early adult life, the RR comparing highest with lowest quintiles was 0.75 (95% CI 0.62-0.91, Ptrend = .004). Our findings support the hypothesis that higher fiber intakes reduce BC risk and suggest that intake during adolescence and early adulthood may be particularly important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake in Relation to Knee Pain Trajectory.

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    Dai, Zhaoli; Lu, Na; Niu, Jingbo; Felson, David T; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-09-01

    Dietary fiber may reduce knee pain, in part by lowering body weight and reducing inflammation. In this study, we assessed whether fiber intake was associated with patterns of knee pain development. In a prospective, multicenter cohort of 4,796 men and women ages 45-79 years with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis, participants underwent annual followups for 8 years. Dietary fiber intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index pain trajectories, which were assessed for associations with dietary fiber intake using polytomous regression models. Of the eligible participants (4,470 persons and 8,940 knees, mean ± SD age 61.3 ± 9.1 years, 58% women), 4.9% underwent knee replacement and were censored at the time of surgery. Four distinct knee pain patterns were identified: no pain (34.5%), mild pain (38.1%), moderate pain (21.2%), and severe pain (6.2%). Dietary total fiber was inversely related to membership in the moderate or severe pain groups (P ≤ 0.006 for trend for both). Subjects in the highest versus those in the lowest quartile of total fiber intake had a lower risk of belonging to the moderate pain pattern group (odds ratio [OR] 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.61-0.93]) and severe pain pattern group (OR 0.56 [95% CI 0.41-0.78]). Similar results were found with grain fiber and these 2 pain pattern groups. Our findings suggest that a high intake of dietary total or grain fiber, particularly the recommended daily fiber average intake of 25 gm per day, is associated with a lower risk of developing moderate or severe knee pain over time. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Acetylation of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber as an adsorbent for removal of crude oil.

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    Asadpour, Robabeh; Sapari, Nasiman B; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Kakooei, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    Removal of oil spillage from the environment is a global concern. Various methods, including the use of fibers as sorbents, have been developed for oil spill control. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber is a plant biomass that may be acetylated by acetic anhydride using N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) as a catalyst; here, the extent of acetylation may be calculated in terms of weight percent gain (WPG). The modified fiber was used to remove Tapis and Arabian crude oils. The optimum time, temperature, and catalyst concentration were 4 h, 120 °C, and 3 %, respectively, and these parameters could achieve an 11.49 % increase in WPG. The optimized parameters improved the adsorption capacity of OPEFB fibers for crude oil removal. The acetylated OPEFB fibers were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy to observe the functional groups available and morphology. Kinetic and isotherm studies were conducted using different contact times and oil/water ratios. The rate of oil sorption onto the OPEFB fibers can be adequately described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Adsorption studies revealed that adsorption of crude oil on treated OPEFB fiber could be best described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  12. Dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes and colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

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    Zhong, Xiao; Fang, Yu-Jing; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Lu, Min-Shan; Zheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Chinese adults to investigate the effect of fiber intake on colorectal cancer risk. The present study aimed to examine the associations of dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults. A total of 613 cases with colorectal cancer were consecutively recruited between July 2010 and October 2012 and frequency matched to 613 controls by age (5-yr interval) and gender. Dietary information was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for potential confounders. Total dietary fiber and fiber fraction intakes were found to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the lowest quartile, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest quartile were 0.38 (0.27-0.55) for total dietary fiber, 0.45 (0.32-0.64) for vegetable fiber, and 0.41 (0.28-0.58) for fruit fiber, respectively. In addition, no significant association was found between soy fiber intake and colorectal cancer risk. This study showed that a high intake of dietary fiber, particularly derived from vegetables and fruit, was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in Chinese adults.

  13. Fiber intake modulates the association of alcohol intake with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Chajès, Veronique;

    2016-01-01

    fiber as a modifying factor of the association of alcohol and breast cancer using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). This study included 334,850 women aged 35-70 years at baseline enrolled in the ten countries of the EPIC study and followed up for 11...... computed. During 3,670,439 person-years, 11,576 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. For subjects with low intake of fiber (24.2 g/day) the risk of BC was 1.02 (0.......99-1.05) (test for interaction p=0.011). This modulating effect was stronger for fiber from vegetables. Our results suggest that fiber intake may modulate the positive association of alcohol intake and BC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  14. Effect of dietary fiber and crude protein content in feed on nitrogen retention in pigs.

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    Patrás, P; Nitrayová, S; Brestenský, M; Heger, J

    2012-12-01

    Eight gilts (29.9 ± 1.7 kg initial BW) were used to evaluate effects of dietary (crude) fiber on N excretion via feces and urine at 2 levels of dietary CP. Pigs were fed 4 dietary treatments according to a double 4 × 4 Latin square. Treatments were low (14%) CP and low (3.25%) (crude) fiber (LPAA), low CP and high (4.46%) fiber (LPAABP), high (18.8%) CP and low fiber (HP), and high CP and high fiber (HPBP). Diets were based on soybean (Glycine max) meal, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and maize (Zea mays) and were supplemented with crystalline AA. High fiber diets contained 15% dried beet (Beta vulgaris) pulp. Pigs were housed in metabolic cages and fed 2 equal meals at 0700 and 1700 h at a daily rate of 90 g/kg BW(0.75). Water was offered ad libitum. Each experimental period consisted of a 6-d adaptation followed by a 4-d collection of feces and urine (bladder catheters). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Differences between means (P fiber (HP vs. HPBR). With added fiber, urinary N excretion (g/d) was reduced (P fiber diets irrespective of dietary CP content. Dietary fiber level did not affect DMI. Fecal DM excretion (g/d) was higher (P fiber content than in pigs fed diets with high CP and low fiber content. In conclusion, beet pulp fiber added to diets increased fecal N and reduced urinary N and in diets with higher CP content increased overall N retention.

  15. Prospective association between alcohol intake and hormone-dependent cancer risk: modulation by dietary fiber intake.

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    Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Fassier, Philippine; Latino-Martel, Paule; Druesne-Pecollo, Nathalie; Zelek, Laurent; Duverger, Lucie; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Touvier, Mathilde

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn may increase hormone-dependent cancer risk. This association may be modulated by dietary fiber intake, which has been shown to decrease steroid hormone bioavailability (decreased blood concentration and increased sex hormone-binding globulin concentration). However, this potential modulation has not been investigated in any prospective cohort. Our objectives were to study the relation between alcohol intake and the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (breast, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, and testicular) and to investigate whether dietary fiber intake modulated these associations. This prospective observational analysis included 3771 women and 2771 men who participated in the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants study (1994-2007) and completed at least 6 valid 24-h dietary records during the first 2 y of follow-up. After a median follow-up of 12.1 y, 297 incident hormone-dependent cancer cases, including 158 breast and 123 prostate cancers, were diagnosed. Associations were tested via multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Overall, alcohol intake was directly associated with the risk of hormone-dependent cancers (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.84; P-trend = 0.02) and breast cancer (HR: 1.70; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.61; P-trend = 0.04) but not prostate cancer (P-trend = 0.3). In stratified analyses (by sex-specific median of dietary fiber intake), alcohol intake was directly associated with hormone-dependent cancer (tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.82; P-trend = 0.002), breast cancer (HR: 2.53; 95% CI: 1.30, 4.95; P-trend = 0.02), and prostate cancer (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 0.65, 2.89; P-trend = 0.02) risk among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake (P-trend = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6, respectively). The P-interaction between alcohol and dietary fiber

  16. Application of modified polypropylene (crude) fibers concrete to strengthen the support structures in deep mine roadway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Yuan-zhi; ZHANG Da-lin; HU Jin-hua

    2012-01-01

    The an thors developed a new composite cement base material by mixing the high tenacity polypropylene (coarse) fiber in plain cement base for the cement-layer-spray technology.By studying the key parameters of the fiber dosage,the spray layer thickness,and the fiber reinforced concrete injection time,etc.It is found that the ideal volume ratio of polypropylene (crude) fiber is 0.8% (V/V),and the secondary lining fiber concrete spraying should start when the shrinkage rate is lower than 0.5 mm/d,and the optimal thickness of shotcrete is 120 mm.The supporting effects and the economic benefits were studied using a real project practice,and the result obtained can be a good reference for practical applications of this new supporting material in the future.

  17. Dietary Crude Lecithin Increases Systemic Availability of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid with Combined Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Nick; Balvers, Martin; Cansev, Mehmet; Maher, Timothy J; Sijben, John W C; Broersen, Laus M

    2016-07-01

    Crude lecithin, a mixture of mainly phospholipids, potentially helps to increase the systemic availability of dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Nevertheless, no clear data exist on the effects of prolonged combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin on RBC and plasma PUFA levels. In the current experiments, levels of DHA and choline, two dietary ingredients that enhance neuronal membrane formation and function, were determined in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) from rats after dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils with and without concomitant dietary supplementation of crude lecithin for 2-3 weeks. The aim was to provide experimental evidence for the hypothesized additive effects of dietary lecithin (not containing any DHA) on top of dietary DHA on PUFA levels in plasma and RBC. Dietary supplementation of DHA-containing oils, either as vegetable algae oil or as fish oil, increased DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and total n-3 PUFA, and decreased total omega-6 PUFA levels in plasma and RBC, while dietary lecithin supplementation alone did not affect these levels. However, combined dietary supplementation of DHA and lecithin increased the changes induced by DHA supplementation alone. Animals receiving a lecithin-containing diet also had a higher plasma free choline concentration as compared to controls. In conclusion, dietary DHA-containing oils and crude lecithin have synergistic effects on increasing plasma and RBC n-3 PUFA levels, including DHA and EPA. By increasing the systemic availability of dietary DHA, dietary lecithin may increase the efficacy of DHA supplementation when their intake is combined.

  18. Small intestine development of laying hens fed different fiber sources diets and crude protein levels

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    MFFM Praes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the presente study was to evaluate the effects on different dietary fiber sources and crude protein levels on the intestinal morphometry of commercial layers. Isa Brown® layers with 48 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 3 x 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, resulting in seven treatments with seven replicates of eight birds each. At the end of the fourth experimental period (28 days each, birds were 64 weeks of age and were randomly chosen (two birds per replicate, totaling 14 birds per treatment, weighed and sacrificed by neck dislocation. Their intestine was dissected and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for subsequent analysis of intestinal morphometry. Treatments consisted of diets containing three different fiber sources (cottonseed hulls, soybean hulls or rice husks and two crude protein levels (12% or 16%. Soybean hulls and 16% crude protein level promoted, in general, an increase in villus height and crypt depth in the three intestinal segments. In the duodenum, the control diet resulted in higher villus height and crypt depth relative to the diets containing fiber. In the jejunum, higher crypt depth values. In the ileum, dietary fiber increased villus height as compared to the control diet.

  19. The influence of dietary crude protein intake on bone and mineral metabolism in sheep

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    T.S. Brand

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased dietary protein consumption is thought to cause calciuresis, a negative calcium balance and increased bone loss that may result in skeletal deformities and fracture. To explore this hypothesis, 40 approximately 100-day-old meat-type Merino ram lambs were fed, for 6 months, diets with an increasing crude protein (CP content (114, 142, 171 and 190 g/kg DM but approximately on an iso-nutrient basis with regard to metabolisable energy, calcium and phosphorus. Increased protein consumption modestly (NS enhanced calciuresis and resulted in significant (P < 0.01 limb skewness. This could not, however, be ascribed to osteopaenic bones, and compared with animals consuming lower protein rations, the bone mineral density (BMD and vertebral trabecular bone volume of animals fed high protein diets were significantly increased: theBMDof thoracic vertebrae was positively related to the CP intake (r=0.62; P < 0.001. In animals consuming higher protein diets, skeletal radiology and quantitative bone histology revealed no evidence of increased bone turnover as would be expected in animals that are in negative calcium balance. No relationship existed between limb skewness and the growth rate of lambs. However, the ratio of Ca:P in the forelimb (r = -0.98, vertebrae (r = -0.72 and rib (r = -0.42 was found to be inversely correlated with increased protein intake and resulted from an increase in the phosphorus content of bone, while the amount of bone calcium was unaffected. We conclude that qualitative micro-architectural abnormalities, and not mere bone loss, may underlie the skeletal deformities induced by increased protein consumption in sheep.

  20. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  1. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  2. Superhydrophobic and superoleophillic surface of porous beaded electrospun polystrene and polysytrene-zeolite fiber for crude oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alayande, S. Oluwagbemiga; Dare, E. Olugbenga; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Akinlabi, A. Kehinde; Aiyedun, P. O.

    2016-04-01

    This research presents a cheap route procedure for the preparation of a potential adsorbent with superhydrophobic/superoleophillic properties for selective removal of crude oil from water. In this study, expanded polystyrene (EPS) was electrospun to produce beaded fibers in which zeolite was introduced to the polymer matrix in order to impart rough surface to non-beaded fiber. Films of the EPS and EPS/Zeolite solutions were also made for comparative study. The electrospun fibers EPS, EPS/Zeolite and resultant films were characterized using SEM, BET, FTIR and optical contact angle. The fibers exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophillic wetting properties with water (>1500) and crude oil (00). The selective removal of crude oil presents new opportunity for the re-use of EPS as adsorbent in petroleum/petrochemical industry.

  3. Low-dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for recurrent abdominal pain in children

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, A. Z.; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio; Morais,Mauro Batista de; Tabacow, K. M. M. D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate dietary fiber intake in children with recurrent abdominal pain.Design: Cross-sectional study with control group.Setting: Outpatients of the Pediatric Gastroenterology public health clinic of the Darcy Vargas Children's Hospital, Brazil.Subjects: Forty-one patients with recurrent abdominal pain were evaluated and 41 children, as a control group.Interventions: Macronutrients and fiber intake evaluation by the Daily Food Intake method. Two tables of fiber composition in fo...

  4. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective

  5. Dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks among US adults, NHANES 1999-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Kya N; Ommerborn, Mark J; Pham, Do Quyen; Djoussé, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R

    2013-12-01

    Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and nonpregnant women aged 20+ years from the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Consistently, dietary fiber intake remained below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7-17.0 g. Mexican Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69-0.88), 0.66 (0.61-0.72), and 0.77 (0.71-0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, although statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Low dietary fiber intake from 1999-2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary Fiber Intake and Cardiometabolic Risks among US Adults, NHANES 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Kya N.; Ommerborn, Mark J.; Pham, Do Quyen; Djousse, Luc; Clark, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary fiber may decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors. We examined trends in dietary fiber intake among diverse US adults between 1999 and 2010, and investigated associations between dietary fiber intake and cardiometabolic risks including metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular inflammation, and obesity. Methods Our cross-sectional analysis included 23,168 men and non-pregnant women aged 20+ years from 1999–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate predicted marginal risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risks of having the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity associated with quintiles of dietary fiber intake. Results Dietary fiber intake remained consistently below recommended adequate intake levels for total fiber defined by the Institute of Medicine. Mean dietary fiber intake averaged 15.7g–17.0g. Mexican-Americans (18.8 g) consumed more fiber than non-Hispanic Whites (16.3 g) and non-Hispanic Blacks (13.1 g). Comparing the highest to lowest quintiles of dietary fiber intake, adjusted predicted marginal risk ratios (95% CI) for the metabolic syndrome, inflammation, and obesity were 0.78 (0.69–0.88), 0.66 (0.61–0.72), and 0.77 (0.71–0.84), respectively. Dietary fiber was associated with lower levels of inflammation within each racial and ethnic group, though statistically significant associations between dietary fiber and either obesity or metabolic syndrome were seen only among whites. Conclusions Low dietary fiber intake from 1999–2010 in the US, and associations between higher dietary fiber and a lower prevalence of cardiometabolic risks suggest the need to develop new strategies and policies to increase dietary fiber intake. PMID:24135514

  7. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; Pglycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between glycerin inclusion levels in the diet and the serum concentrations of hormones related to feed intake and energy balance control.

  8. Microwave thermal remediation of crude oil contaminated soil enhanced by carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Yazhi

    2009-01-01

    Thermal remediation of the soil contaminated with crude oil using microwave heating enhanced by carbon fiber (CF) was explored. The contaminated soil was treated with 2.45 GHz microwave, and CF was added to improve the conversion of microwave energy into thermal energy to heat the soil. During microwave heating, the oil contaminant was removed from the soil matrix and recovered by a condensation system of ice-salt bath. The experimental results indicated that CF could efficiently enhance the microwave heating of soil even with relatively low-dose. With 0.1 wt.% CF, the soil could be heated to approximately 700 degrees C within 4 min using 800 W of microwave irradiation. Correspondingly, the contaminated soil could be highly cleaned up in a short time. Investigation of oil recovery showed that, during the remediation process, oil contaminant in the soil could be efficiently recovered without causing significant secondary pollution.

  9. Effects of feeding crude glycerin on performance and ruminal kinetics of lactating Holstein cows fed corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based, low-fiber diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J H; Wang, D; Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R

    2012-07-01

    The objective was to determine whether crude glycerin could partially replace concentrate ingredients in corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based diets formulated to support minimal milk fat production without reducing milk production. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24; 116 ± 13d in milk) were assigned to dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design; namely, 2 dietary roughage sources (cottonseed hulls or corn silage) and 3 dietary concentrations of glycerin [0, 5, or 10% on a dry matter (DM) basis]. Four different cows received each dietary treatment in each of 3 periods such that each diet was evaluated using 12 cows. Crude glycerin, produced using soybean oil, contained 12% water, 5% oil, 6.8% sodium chloride, and 0.4% methanol. Glycerin partially replaced ground corn, corn gluten feed, and citrus pulp. Diets of minimum fiber concentrations were fed to lactating dairy cows and resulted in low concentrations of milk fat (averaging 3.12% for cows fed diets without glycerin). The effects of glycerin on cow performance and ruminal measurements were the same for both dietary roughage sources with the exception of feed efficiency. Replacing concentrate with crude glycerin at 5% of dietary DM increased DM intake without increasing milk yield. Concentration and yield of milk fat were reduced when glycerin was fed at 10% of dietary DM. This was accompanied by a 30% reduction in apparent total-tract digestion of dietary neutral detergent fiber. Crude glycerin affected the microbial population in the rumen as evidenced by increased molar proportions of propionic, butyric, and valeric acids and decreased molar proportions of acetic acid. Efficiency of N utilization was improved as evidenced by lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and ruminal ammonia-N. Cows fed cottonseed hull-based diets consumed 5.3 kg/d more DM but produced only 1.7 kg/d more milk, resulting in reduced efficiency. Increased production of ruminal microbial protein, molar

  10. The relation of intake fibers and glycemic load over glycemic, anthropometric and dietetic markers in pre-diabetic patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrícia Molz; Camila Schreiner Pereira; Tânia Leonir Gassen; Daniel Prá; Silvia Isabel Rech Franke

    2015-01-01

    .... Evidences suggest that the glycemic control is directly associated to the fibers intake. This study correlated the influence of fibers intake and glycemic load with glycemic, anthropometric and dietetic markers in pre-diabetic patients. Methods...

  11. Effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk according to estrogen and progesterone receptor status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Ho, S C; Cheng, S-Z; Chen, Y-M; Fu, J-H; Lin, F-Y

    2011-08-01

    There is few data on the association between dietary fiber intake and estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-defined breast cancer risk. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between total dietary fiber and dietary fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk by ER and PR status in a hospital-based case-control study among Chinese women. Four hundred and thirty-eight cases with primary breast cancer were consecutively recruited from June 2007 to August 2008 and frequency matched to 438 controls by age (5-year interval) and residence (rural/urban). A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake through a face-to-face interview. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting for various potential confounders. A statistically significant inverse association was found between total dietary fiber and fiber fractions intake and breast cancer risk. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for the highest versus the lowest quartile of intake were 0.31 (0.20-0.47) for total dietary fiber, 0.73 (0.48-1.11) for soy fiber, 0.48 (0.22-0.97) for vegetable fiber and 0.54 (0.31-0.92) for fruit fiber. No association was observed for cereal fiber intake and risk. An inverse association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk was observed in ER+, ER-, PR+, ER+PR+ and ER-PR+ tumors. Our results suggest that consumption of total dietary fiber and fiber from vegetable and fruit was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. These inverse associations were more prominent in some subtypes of ER and PR breast cancers.

  12. Dietary fiber intake and total mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2014-09-15

    Greater intake of dietary fiber has been associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases. Some observational studies have examined the association between dietary fiber intake and total mortality, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases for all articles published through November 30, 2013, and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to calculate a pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval using a random-effects model. Seven prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and total mortality, including 62,314 deaths among 908,135 participants, were identified. The pooled adjusted relative risk of total mortality for the highest category of dietary fiber intake versus the lowest was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.80). In a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled adjusted relative risk for a 10-g/day increment of dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0 92). By source of fiber, cereal and, to a lesser extent, vegetable fiber were significantly associated with lower total mortality, while fruit fiber showed no association. In conclusion, high dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of total mortality.

  13. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary fiber intake on long-term mortality. Objective: We aimed to study recent and long-term dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Design: The effects of recent and long-term dietary fiber intakes on mor

  14. Dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality over 40 y: the Zutphen Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streppel, M.T.; Ocke, M.C.; Boshuizen, H.C.; Kok, F.J.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the effects of dietary fiber intake on long-term mortality. Objective: We aimed to study recent and long-term dietary fiber intake in relation to coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Design: The effects of recent and long-term dietary fiber intakes on

  15. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, J.Y.F.; Smeele, R.J.M.; Harington, K.D.; Loon, van F.M.; Wanders, A.J.; Venn, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and

  16. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kok-Sun; Tan, Charmaine You Mei; Mohd Daud, Muhd Ashik; Seow-Choen, Francis

    2012-09-07

    To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation. Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation. Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded. All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk. Thereafter, they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable. Dietary fiber intake, symptoms of constipation, difficulty in evacuation of stools, anal bleeding, abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo. The median age of the patients (16 male, 47 female) was 47 years (range, 20-80 years). At 6 mo, 41 patients remained on a no fiber diet, 16 on a reduced fiber diet, and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons. Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d) to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% (P dietary fiber.

  17. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-Qi; Lin, Yi-Wei; Chen, Hong; Qin, Jie; Zheng, Xiang-Yi; Xu, Xin; Xie, Li-Ping

    2017-01-01

    The association between fiber intake and pancreatic cancer risk is conflicting and poorly explored. The aim of study was to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2015 were conducted to identify relevant studies. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were combined using random-effects models to assess the risk of pancreatic cancer when comparing extreme categories of fiber intake. Dose-response meta-analysis was performed for studies reporting categorical risk estimates for at least 3 exposure levels. One cohort and thirteen case-control studies were identified. The overall analysis revealed a strong inverse association between risk of pancreatic cancer and high fiber intake (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.44-0.61). No publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dose-response analyses showed that the summary OR for an increment of 10 g daily intake of fiber was 0.88 (0.84 to 0.92). A high intake of dietary fiber was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Further well-designed prospective studies are warranted to confirm the inverse association and to identify the dietary fiber types involved.

  18. Dietary fiber intake and depressive symptoms in Japanese employees: The Furukawa Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Takako; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Ito, Rie; Kimura, Yasumi; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Kawakami, Norito; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-05-01

    Dietary fiber may play a favorable role in mood through gut microbiota, but epidemiologic evidence linking mood to dietary fiber intake is scarce in free-living populations. We investigated cross-sectionally the associations of dietary intakes of total, soluble, insoluble, and sources of fiber with depressive symptoms among Japanese workers. Participants were 1977 employees ages 19-69 y. Dietary intake was assessed via a validated, brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of depressive symptoms adjusted for a range of dietary and non-dietary potential confounders. Dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits was significantly inversely associated with depressive symptoms. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the lowest through the highest tertile of vegetable and fruit fiber were 1.00 (reference), 0.80 (0.60-1.05), and 0.65 (0.45-0.95), respectively (P for trend = 0.03). Dietary intake of total, soluble, insoluble, and cereal fiber was not associated with depressive symptoms. Higher dietary fiber intake from vegetables and fruits may be associated with lower likelihood of having depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of low dietary fiber intake as a risk factor for chronic constipation in children

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, Mauro B. [UNIFESP; Vitolo, Marcia R.; Aguirre, Andrea NC [UNIFESP; Fagundes-Neto, Uyssis [UNIFESP

    1999-01-01

    Background: Scarce information exists regarding dietary fiber intake in children with chronic constipation. the objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the intake of fiber as a risk factor for chronic constipation.Methods: Fifty-two children with a mean age of 6.8 +/- 3.2 years who had chronic constipation were age and gender matched with 52 children with normal intestinal habits. the fiber content of the diet was evaluated with a 24-hour dietary recall. Two tables of fiber compo...

  20. Non Dispersive Chemical Deacidification of Crude Palm Oil in Hollow Fiber Membrane Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubiar Purwasasmita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance of chemical deacidification of crude palm oil (CPO using aqueous NaOH solution in a polysulfone hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane was investigated. The effects of operating temperature, NaOH concentration and flow rates on percentage of free fatty acids (FFA removal, oil loss, soap entrainment and overall mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. Overall mass transfer coefficients, soap content in oil and neutral oil loss all increased when the temperature was increased from 60 to 70°C due to an increase of the FFA distribution value. A minimum 0.25 N of NaOH or a NaOH to FFA molar ratio of about 7.62 was required to facilitate the expected extraction efficiency. The increased oil flowrate slightly enhanced the solute transport kinetics, while the aqueous phase flowrate did not significantly influence deacidification efficiency or mass transfer coefficient. About 97% of FFA removal was achieved within 4 hours. The maximum oil loss observed was 11% and the highest soap content in the oil without separation step was 3150 ppm. The values of the overall mass transfer coefficient varied from 2.97×10-7 to 7.71×10-7 m/s. These results show the potential of using the non dispersive membrane contacting process for chemical deacidification of CPO as well as other vegetable oils.

  1. Association between dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yihua; Qian, Yufeng; Pan, Yiwen; Li, Peiwei; Yang, Jun; Ye, Xianhua; Xu, Geng

    2015-08-01

    The association between coronary heart disease (CHD) and dietary fiber intake is not consistent, especially for the subtypes of dietary fiber. The aim of our study was to conduct a meta-analysis of existing cohort published studies assessing the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of CHD, and quantitatively estimating their dose-response relationships. We searched PubMed and EMBASE before May 2013. Random-effect model was used to calculate the pool relative risk (RRs) for the incidence and mortality of CHD. Dose-response, subgroup analyses based on fiber subtypes, heterogeneity and publication bias were also carried out. Eighteen studies involving 672,408 individuals were finally included in the present study. The pooled-adjusted RRs of coronary heart disease for the highest versus lowest category of fiber intake were 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.91-0.96, P fiber subtypes (cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber), indicated that RRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.99, P = 0.032), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86-0.98, P = 0.01), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.01, P = 0.098) respectively for all coronary event and 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.92, P = 0.001), 0.68 (95% CI, 0.43-1.07, P = 0.094), 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-1.12, P = 0.383) for mortality. In addition, a significant dose-response relationship was observed between fiber intake and the incidence and mortality of CHD (P dietary fiber is inversely associated with risk of coronary heart disease, especially for fiber from cereals and fruits. Besides, soluble and insoluble fibers have the similar effect. A significant dose-response relationship is also observed between fiber intake and CHD risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Stages of Change in Adopting Healthy Diets: Fat, Fiber, and Correlates of Nutrient Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Data on dietary intake and stages of change from 17,121 employees in the Working Well Trail show that a greater proportion have tried to reduce fat rather than increase fiber consumption. Stage of change predicted 8-13% of variance in dietary intake. (SK)

  3. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  4. Dietary Fiber Intake Is Inversely Associated with Periodontal Disease among US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Samara Joy; Trak-Fellermeier, Maria Angelica; Joshipura, Kaumudi; Dye, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 47% of adults in the United States have periodontal disease. Dietary guidelines recommend a diet providing adequate fiber. Healthier dietary habits, particularly an increased fiber intake, may contribute to periodontal disease prevention. Our objective was to evaluate the relation of dietary fiber intake and its sources with periodontal disease in the US adult population (≥30 y of age). Data from 6052 adults participating in NHANES 2009-2012 were used. Periodontal disease was defined (according to the CDC/American Academy of Periodontology) as severe, moderate, mild, and none. Intake was assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. The relation between periodontal disease and dietary fiber, whole-grain, and fruit and vegetable intakes were evaluated by using multivariate models, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and dentition status. In the multivariate logistic model, the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with moderate-severe periodontitis (compared with mild-none) compared with the highest dietary fiber intake quartile (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.69). In the multivariate multinomial logistic model, intake in the lowest quartile of dietary fiber was associated with higher severity of periodontitis than dietary fiber intake in the highest quartile (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.62). In the adjusted logistic model, whole-grain intake was not associated with moderate-severe periodontitis. However, in the adjusted multinomial logistic model, adults consuming whole grains in the lowest quartile were more likely to have more severe periodontal disease than were adults consuming whole grains in the highest quartile (OR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.62). In fully adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic models, fruit and vegetable intake was not significantly associated with periodontitis. We found an inverse relation between dietary fiber intake and periodontal disease among US adults ≥30 y old. Periodontal disease was associated with low whole

  5. Dietary fiber intake is inversely associated with stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-12-01

    Prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to stroke risk have reported inconsistent results. This study assessed the association between intake of total fiber and fiber sources and stroke incidence in healthy Swedish adults. The analysis was based on 69,677 participants (aged 45-83 y) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and the Cohort of Swedish Men who were free from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline (1 January 1998). Diet was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Cases of stroke were ascertained through linkage to the Swedish Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cause of Death Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to calculate RRs, adjusted for potential confounders. During 10.3 y of follow-up, 3680 incident stroke cases, including 2722 cerebral infarctions, 363 intracerebral hemorrhages, 160 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 435 unspecified strokes, were ascertained. High intakes of total fiber and fiber from fruits and vegetables but not from cereals were inversely associated with risk of stroke. After adjustment for other risk factors for stroke, the multivariable RRs of total stroke for the highest vs. lowest quintile of intake were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.99) for total fiber, 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.95) for fruit fiber, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.00) for vegetable fiber, and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84, 1.04) for cereal fiber. These findings indicate that intake of dietary fiber, especially fruit and vegetable fibers, is inversely associated with risk of stroke. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, Y.; Hunter, D.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Bergkvist, L.; Berrino, F.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Buring, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Fuchs, C.S.; Giovannucci, E.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Graham, S.; Harnack, L.; Hartman, A.M.; Jacobs, D.R.; Kato, I.; Krogh, V.; Leitzmann, M.F.; McCullough, M.L.; Miller, A.B.; Pietinen, P.; Rohan, T.E.; Schatzkin, A.; Willett, W.C.; Wolk, A.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Zhang, S.M.; Smith-Warner, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Context: Inconsistent findings from observational studies have continued the controversy over the effects of dietary fiber on colorectal cancer. Objective: To evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: From 13 prospective c

  7. Dietary intake of fiber and risk of knee osteoarthritis in two U.S. prospective cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: Dietary fiber reduces body weight and inflammation both of which are linked with knee osteoarthritis (OA). We examined the association between fiber intake and risk of knee OA. Methods: We used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) of 4796 participants and Framingham Offspring Os...

  8. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread...... is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults...... months later. Results: Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.999.8 and 28.199.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were 12% lower (pB0.001). Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the estimated dietary fiber intake of the two methods was r0.63 (pB0...

  9. Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of inflammatory bowel disease: result from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Wu, Yili; Li, Fang; Zhang, Dongfeng

    2015-09-01

    Several epidemiological investigations have been conducted to evaluate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and inflammatory bowel diseases, but the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the evidence from observational studies. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant articles published up to November 2014. The combined relative risks were calculated with the fixed- or random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed using restricted cubic spline model. We hypothesized that the meta-analysis could yield a summary effect, which would indicate that dietary fiber intake could decrease the risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease (CD). Overall, 8 articles involving 2 cohort studies, 1 nested case-control study, and 5 case-control studies were finally included in this study. The pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals of ulcerative colitis and CD for the highest vs lowest categories of dietary fiber intake were 0.80 (0.64-1.00) and 0.44 (0.29-0.69), respectively. A linear dose-response relationship was found between dietary fiber and CD risk, and the risk of CD decreased by 13% (P fiber intake. The results from this meta-analysis indicated that the intake of dietary fiber was significantly associated with a decreased risk of inflammatory bowel disease.

  10. Dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian-bao; Ding, Pei-pei; Chen, Jian-feng; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Long; Liu, Huan; Liu, Peng-cheng; Che, Jian-ping; Zheng, Jun-hua; Yao, Xu-dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationships between dietary fiber intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched to find eligible studies. Random-effects relative risk (RR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used. Besides, random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations. Finally, publication bias was assessed by Egger's test and Begg's test. All p values were two tailed. Seven studies, including two cohort studies and five case-control studies, were eligible and included in this meta-analysis. Overall analysis in highest versus lowest level revealed that total dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced RCC risk (RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.74-0.96). In addition, pooled estimated data showed that risk of RCC was significantly associated with vegetable and legume fiber intake (RR 0.70, RR 0.80, respectively), but not with fruit and cereal fiber intake (RR 0.92, RR 1.04, respectively). However, in dose-response analysis, no significant association was reported. Finally, no publication bias was detected by Egger's or Begg's test. The dietary fiber intake, especially vegetable and legume fiber, may be associated with reduced RCC risk. Considering the limitations of the included studies, more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Trends in dietary fiber intake in the United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dana E; Mainous, Arch G; Lambourne, Carol A

    2012-05-01

    Intake of dietary fiber has been recommended for many years as part of the guidelines from the American Heart Association, the Institute of Medicine, and other groups. The recommended Adequate Intake for dietary fiber for adults is 25 to 38 g/day (14 g/1,000 kcal/day). To determine the average daily intake of dietary fiber among adults during the past decade and, specifically, to document progress toward national goals. Cross-sectional weighted data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey among adults aged 18 years and older. Data were collected from noninstitutionalized adults aged 18 years and older using a nationally representative, complex, multistage, probability-based survey of people living in the United States that was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. Daily dietary fiber intake by members of the US population based on 2-year groupings of the continuous survey from 1999 to 2008. Mean daily dietary fiber intake for 1999-2000 was 15.6 g/day, for 2001-2002 intake was 16.1g/day, for 2003-2004 intake was 15.5 g/day, for 2005-2006 intake was 15.8 g/day, and for 2007-2008 intake was 15.9 g/day. Participants with obesity (body mass index ≥30) consistently reported lower fiber intake than did individuals with normal weight or overweight (14.6 to 15.4 g/day and 15.6 to 16.8 g/day, respectively; Pfiber intake of 12.5 g/day at baseline that increased modestly to 13.1 g/day by 2007-2008. Daily fiber intake generally has not progressed toward national goals during the past decade, but there are some differences according to health and social factors. Additional clinical practice and public health strategies are needed. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Sun Ho; Charmaine You Mei Tan; Muhd Ashik Mohd Daud; Francis Seow-Choen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation.METHODS:Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation.Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded.All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract.They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk.Thereafter,they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable.Dietary fiber intake,symptoms of constipation,difficulty in evacuation of stools,anal bleeding,abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo.RESULTS:The median age of the patients (16 male,47 female) was 47 years (range,20-80 years).At 6 mo,41 patients remained on a no fiber diet,16 on a reduced fiber diet,and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons.Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change.Of those who stopped fiber completely,the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P < 0.001);those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d)to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P < 0.001); those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation.For no fiber,reduced fiber and high fiber groups,respectively,symptoms of bloating were present in 0%,31.3% and 100% (P < 0.001) and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%,43.8% and 100% (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION:Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake

  13. Dietary fiber intake and mortality in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yikyung; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-06-27

    Dietary fiber has been hypothesized to lower the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. However, little is known of the effect of dietary fiber intake on total death and cause-specific deaths. We examined dietary fiber intake in relation to total mortality and death from specific causes in the NIH (National Institutes of Health)-AARP Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cause of death was identified using the National Death Index Plus. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks and 2-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During an average of 9 years of follow-up, we identified 20 126 deaths in men and 11 330 deaths in women. Dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly lowered risk of total death in both men and women (multivariate relative risk comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82; P for trend, Dietary fiber intake also lowered the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases by 24% to 56% in men and by 34% to 59% in women. Inverse association between dietary fiber intake and cancer death was observed in men but not in women. Dietary fiber from grains, but not from other sources, was significantly inversely related to total and cause-specific death in both men and women. Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases. Making fiber-rich food choices more often may provide significant health benefits.

  14. Intake of Grains and Dietary Fiber and Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness by Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Tabung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations among intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber and aggressiveness of prostate cancer in African Americans (AA, n=930 and European Americans (EA, n=993 in a population-based, case-only study (The North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project, PCaP. Methods. Prostate cancer aggressiveness was categorized as high, intermediate or low based on Gleason grade, PSA level and clinical stage. Dietary intake was assessed utilizing the NCI Diet History Questionnaire. Logistic regression (comparing high to intermediate/low aggressive cancers and polytomous regression with adjustment for potential confounders were used to determine odds of high prostate cancer aggressiveness with intake of refined grains, whole grains and dietary fiber from all sources. Results. An inverse association with aggressive prostate cancer was observed in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of total fiber intake (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.50–0.97 and OR = 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40–0.93, resp. as compared to the lowest tertile of intake. In the race-stratified analyses, inverse associations were observed in the 3rd tertile of total fiber intake for EA (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.87 and the 2nd tertile of intake for AA (OR = 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35–0.95. Conclusions. Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with aggressive prostate cancer among both AA and EA men.

  15. Fat/Fiber intakes and sex hormones in healthy premenopausal women in USA

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which diet affects breast cancer (BC) risk are poorly understood but a positive relationship between fat and a negative association with fiber intake and BC risk have been demonstrated. Here we study the association between dietary fat/fiber ratio and estrogen metabolism. Fifty women were recruited, 22 were included in the low fat/high fiber and 22 were in the high fat/low fiber and 6 did not meet our criteria. Estrogens (determined in plasma, urine and feces) and dietary re...

  16. Wet Oxidation of Crude Manure and Manure Fibers: Substrate Characteristics Influencing the Pretreatment Efficiency for Increasing the Biogas Yield of Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uellendahl, Hinrich; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The biogas yield of manure is typically lower than 25 m3/t due to its low dry matter content and its high ratio of lignocellulosic fibers that are recalcitrant towards anaerobic digestion. A new pre-treatment method – wet oxidation – has been tested for disruption of the lignocellulosic fiber...... structure with subsequent higher degradation efficiencies and methane yields. A screening of crude manure and the separated fiber fraction shows that wet oxidation is more adequate for treatment of high concentrated solid fraction than for crude manure and an increase of 35% in biogas yield can be gained...... from wet oxidation of digested fibers. The wet oxidation treatment of the manure fiber fraction has to be carefully adjusted in order to achieve the highest increase in biogas yield for the manure fiber fraction under low production of inhibiting compounds and low losses of valuable organic matter....

  17. Increased fruit, vegetable and fiber intake and lower fat intake reported among women previously treated for invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Flatt, Shirley W; Rock, Cheryl L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Newman, Vicky; Pierce, John P

    2002-06-01

    To describe the dietary intake patterns of women before and after breast cancer diagnosis. 3,084 women (age range 27 to 70 years) who had been treated for early-stage breast cancer, who were free of recurrent disease, and who were willing to complete study questionnaires. A descriptive analysis of baseline demographic and lifestyle questionnaire data, including reported dietary intake data from women who have had breast cancer participating in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention trial. Outcomes include dietary intakes of high- and low-fat foods, fruits and vegetables, and whole grains. Analyses included frequency of intake of selected food items, chi2 analysis to determine associations between reported intakes and demographic and personal characteristics, and logistic regression to assess odds of making more healthful changes. Women who have had breast cancer reported higher fruit, vegetable, and fiber-rich food intakes (58%, 60%, 38% more, respectively) and lower intakes of high-fat foods, including fast foods, after diagnosis. Those older than age 60 years were more likely to report no change in intake, including red meat (41%), vegetables (51%), and whole grains (62%). Odds ratios (OR) for more healthful diet choices varied by age and time since diagnosis. The longer the time since diagnosis the more likely women selected low-fat (vs high-fat) foods (OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.09 for 3 to 4 years vs dietetics professionals may be able to promote healthful and evidence-based eating habits among women previously treated for breast cancer.

  18. [Intake of dietary fiber in the Central American isthmus: nutritional implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, E; Bressani, R

    1989-09-01

    Mean intakes of dietary fiber (DF) were estimated in the population of Central America and Panama, using the results of dietary surveys conducted in 1969 and 1986 both in rural and urban areas, as well as data on the DF content of foods as consumed in the region. Data on preschool children were also estimated. The results indicated that DF intake in urban areas is lower than that of rural areas, particularly in Costa Rica and Panama. In 1969, intake varied from 32g in El Salvador to 15g in Panama in urban areas, while in rural areas intake was from 45g in El Salvador to 13g in Panama. The foods which contributed most to the total intake in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras were tortillas and beans, while in Costa Rica and Panama, beans provided the largest intake. In preeschool children, intake was 12.5g in El Salvador and 5.4g in Costa Rica in 1969, which is the same tendency as that found for adults. From more recent data on food intake, it was found that DF intake had decreased in the rural areas of El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica, being between 4 and 9% in the first two countries and 12% in Costa Rica. In the urban area of the latter, from 1969 to 1986 a decrease in DF intake of around 20% has taken place.

  19. Dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a dose-response analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Baodong; Fang, Hong; Xu, Wanghong; Yan, Yujie; Xu, Huilin; Liu, Yinan; Mo, Miao; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yanping

    2014-02-01

    Observational studies suggest an association between dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes, but the results are inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies evaluating the associations of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Relevant studies were identified by searching EMBASE (from 1974 to April 2013) and PubMed (from 1966 to April 2013). The fixed or random-effect model was selected based on the homogeneity test among studies. In addition, a 2-stage random-effects dose-response meta-analysis was performed. We identified 17 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of type 2 diabetes involving 19,033 cases and 488,293 participants. The combined RR (95 % CI) of type 2 diabetes for intake of total dietary fiber, cereal fiber, fruit fiber and insoluble fiber was 0.81 (0.73-0.90), 0.77 (0.69-0.85), 0.94 (0.88-0.99) and 0.75 (0.63-0.89), respectively. A nonlinear relationship was found of total dietary fiber intake with risk of type 2 diabetes (P for nonlinearity fiber intake. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the intakes of dietary fiber may be inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Preparation of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes/Hydroxyl-Terminated Silicone Oil Fiber and Its Application to Analysis of Crude Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method to analyze the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in crude oils has been developed based on direct immersion solid-phase microextraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DI-SPME-GC × GC/TOFMS. A novel fiber, multiwalled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyl-terminated silicone oil (MWNTs-TSO-OH, was prepared by sol-gel technology. Using standard solutions, the extraction conditions were optimized such as extraction mode, extraction temperature, extraction time, and salts effect. With the optimized conditions, a real crude oil sample was extracted and then analyzed in detail. It shows that the proposed method is very effective in simultaneously analyzing the normal and branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and biomarkers of crude oil such as steranes and terpanes. Furthermore, the method showed good linearity (r > 0.999, precision (RSD < 8%, and detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 1.6 ng/L.

  1. Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed with high level of starch or neutral detergent soluble fiber associated with sunflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane da Silva Morgado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different carbohydrate sources associated with sunflower oil on intake, digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance in diets of lambs. Twenty lambs were used, assigned in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with two sources of neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate, starch and neutral detergent soluble fiber, with and without the inclusion of 4.2% sunflower oil. The dry matter intake was not affected by carbohydrate sources and the inclusion of oil. Diets with a high percentage of starch provided higher digestibility of dry matter, starch and ether extract. The different sources of carbohydrates had no interference on digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent soluble fiber, nonfiber carbohydrates, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and acid detergent fiber. The addition of oil in the diets increased the digestibility of ether extract. The combination of 4.2% oil in the diet high in soluble neutral detergent fiber had no influence on the nutrient digestibility, otherwise, the addition of oil at high starch diet caused a significant reduction in the digestibility of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, hemicellulose and nonfiber carbohydrates. The quantities of nitrogen intake, absorbed and retained, did not differ as sources of carbohydrates and oil inclusion in the diet. The association of 4.2 % sunflower oil to the different sources of carbohydrates in the diet does not affect consumption and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. The addition of 4.2 % oil in the diet with high starch (28% of DM diet promotes reduction in digestibility of organic matter, of fibrous and nonfibrous carbohydrate in the diet.

  2. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.W. de

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the t

  3. Effects of dietary fiber intake on inflammation in chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases are associated with inflammation due the increase of TNF-α, IL-6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. Occidental life style, specially related to the changes in food habits as observed in the past years, have an important role in the development of these diseases. Among the life style changes identified as having an impact in the development of diseases, is the decrease in dietary fiber consumption. Some studies have shown the negative relationship between fiber ingestion and inflammatory markers in chronic diseases. Dietary fibers have an important and a well-known role in different physiologic functions such as intestinal peristalsis, weight reduction by acting on satiety mechanisms, preventing colon cancer, reducing cholesterol and post-prandial glycaemia.

  4. Dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population, What We Eat in America, NHANES 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to present data on the dietary fiber intake of the U.S. population and the food categories that contribute to total intake. The dietary intake data were from a twenty-four hour recall provided by 9,042 individuals ages two and older, except breast-fed children, who par...

  5. Decreased dietary fiber intake and structural alteration of gut microbiota in patients with advanced colorectal adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Min; Yu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Ji-Lin; Lin, Yan-Wei; Kong, Xuan; Yang, Chang-Qing; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yuan, Yao-Zong; Liu, Fei; Wu, Jian-Xin; Zhong, Liang; Fang, Dian-Chun; Zou, Weiping; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-05-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that diet is one of the most important environmental factors involved in the progression from advanced colorectal adenoma (A-CRA) to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the possible effects of dietary fiber on the fecal microbiota of patients with A-CRA. Patients with a diagnosis of A-CRA by pathological examination were enrolled in the A-CRA group. Patients with no obvious abnormalities or histopathological changes were enrolled in the healthy control (HC) group. Dietary fiber intake was assessed in all patients. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were detected by gas chromatography. The fecal microbiota community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing based on 16S ribosomal RNA. Lower dietary fiber patterns and consistently lower SCFA production were observed in the A-CRA group (n = 344). Principal component analysis showed distinct differences in the fecal microbiota communities of the 2 groups. Clostridium, Roseburia, and Eubacterium spp. were significantly less prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) than in the HC group (n = 47), whereas Enterococcus and Streptococcus spp. were more prevalent in the A-CRA group (n = 47) (all P fiber intake than in those in both the low-fiber HC subgroup and the high-fiber A-CRA subgroup (all P fiber dietary pattern and subsequent consistent production of SCFAs and healthy gut microbiota are associated with a reduced risk of A-CRA. This trial was registered at www.chictr.org as ChiCTR-TRC-00000123.

  6. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in habitual dietary fiber intake may modify effects of dietary fiber interventions, thus measurement of habitual dietary fiber intake is relevant to apply in intervention studies on fiber-rich foods, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is a commonly used method. Rye bread is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults. Design In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6 months later. Results Estimates of mean dietary fiber intake were 24.9±9.8 and 28.1±9.4 g/day when applying the FFQ and DR, respectively, where FFQ estimates were ~12% lower (pdietary fiber intake of the two methods was r=0.63 (pdietary intake of first and second FFQ were very similar (22.2±4.0 and 23.3±4.1 g/day, respectively, p=0.42) and showed a correlation of r=0.95 (95% CI 0.83–0.99). Conclusion The developed FFQ showed moderate underestimation of dietary fiber intake (g/day), adequate ranking of subjects according to their dietary fiber intake, and good reproducibility. The FFQ is therefore believed to be a valuable tool for epidemiology and screening in human interventions, where intake of dietary fibers is of specific interest. PMID:25490961

  7. Eating addiction? The nerves and fibers that control food intake

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cues in our environment, like the smell of palatable food or the logo of a popular food chain, might provoke feelings of hunger and cravings for food. When exposed to a palatable treat it takes self-control to inhibit intake. These behaviors are reminiscent of addictive behavior. Indeed the topics 'food addiction', 'chocolate addiction' or 'sugar addiction' have been extensively covered in the popular press. The scientific community however, remains divided. Here we review the literatu...

  8. Association between Dietary Fiber Intake and Physical Performance in Older Adults: A Nationwide Study in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, I-Chien; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Yu, Shu-Han; Tsai, Yi-Fen; Shen, Shi-Chen; Kuo, Ken N.; Chen, Ching-Yu; Liu, Kiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical performance is a major determinant of health in older adults, and is related to lifestyle factors. Dietary fiber has multiple health benefits. It remains unclear whether fiber intake is independently linked to superior physical performance. We aimed to assess the association between dietary fiber and physical performance in older adults. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted with community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older (n=2680) from the ongoing Healthy Aging Longitudinal Study (HALST) in Taiwan 2008-2010. Daily dietary fiber intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Physical performance was determined objectively by measuring gait speed, 6-minute walk distance, timed “up and go” (TUG), summary performance score, hand grip strength. Results Adjusting for all potential confounders, participants with higher fiber intake had significantly faster gait speed, longer 6-minute walk distance, faster TUG, higher summary performance score, and higher hand grip strength (all P fiber intake, the lowest quartile of fiber intake was significantly associated with the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed (adjusted OR, 2.18 in men [95% CI, 1.33-3.55] and 3.65 in women [95% CI, 2.20-6.05]), 6-minute walk distance (OR, 2.40 in men [95% CI, 1.38-4.17] and 4.32 in women [95% CI, 2.37-7.89]), TUG (OR, 2.42 in men [95% CI, 1.43-4.12] and 3.27 in women [95% CI, 1.94-5.52]), summary performance score (OR, 2.12 in men [95% CI, 1.19-3.78] and 5.47 in women [95% CI, 3.20-9.35]), and hand grip strength (OR, 2.64 in men [95% CI, 1.61-4.32] and 4.43 in women [95% CI, 2.62-7.50]). Conclusions Dietary fiber intake was independently associated with better physical performance. PMID:24244650

  9. Evaluation of fiber intake in diabetes 2 patients of an asistencial center of Rosario city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Zapata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: a diet high in fiber has associated with better glycaemic control in diabetes 2 patients, being the soluble fraction of the most effective in the control of blood sugar levels. The aim of the study is determine the amount of total, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber intake by patients with type 2 diabetes who attended a medical centre for diabetics in Rosario.Material and methods: descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted. It was determined a sample of 60 adults with a diagnosis of diabetes type 2 >6 months, 18 to 70 years old, with no disease or intestinal disorders. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire of foods source of dietary fiber, and a photo album was used to identify the portion size. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and Chi-square and ANOVA test was used to evaluate the association.Results: the average consumption of total fiber was 18,8±5,9 g/d, 14, 8±4,6 g/d corresponded to insoluble fiber and 4,0±1,5 g/d to soluble fiber. Fruits and vegetables contributed 82% of soluble fiber. Most patients (62% had a consumption of fiber total less than the recommendation of the ADA, and 60% presented an inadequate relationship between intake of soluble and insoluble fiber.Conclusions: it is necessary to increase the contribution of total dietary fiber, especially the soluble fraction in diabetes 2 patients, because there are evidences that supports its benefits.

  10. "allometry" Deterministic Approaches in Cell Size, Cell Number and Crude Fiber Content Related to the Physical Quality of Kangkong (Ipomoea reptans) Grown Under Different Plant Density Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, A.; Atiman, S. A.; Puteh, A.; Abdullah, N. A. P.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Zulkeefli, A. A.; Othman, S.

    Kangkong, especially the upland type (Ipomoea reptans) is popularly consumed as a vegetable dish in the South East Asian countries for its quality related to Vitamins (A and C) and crude fiber contents. Higher fiber contents would prevent from the occurrence of colon cancer and diverticular disease. With young stem edible portion, its cell number and size contribute to the stem crude fiber content. The mathematical approach of allometry of cell size, number, and fiber content of stem could be used in determining the 'best' plant density pressure in producing the quality young stem to be consumed. Basically, allometry is the ratio of relative increment (growth or change) rates of two parameters, or the change rate associated to the log of measured variables relationship. Kangkog grown equal or lower than 55 plants m-2 produced bigger individual plant and good quality (physical) kangkong leafy vegetable, but with lower total yield per unit area as compared to those grown at higher densities.

  11. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% w/w (based on the weight of CA. The PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fiber mats were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological appearance of both the neat and the PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fibers were smooth with the average diameters in a range of 335-694 nm. The amounts of water retention and release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 were studied and compared with the corresponding cast-films fabricated by the solvent casting method. The amount of water retention of the PE extract-loaded fiber mats was about 112-205% which was higher than that of the cast films (i.e. 25-35%. The study of release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats and films was carried out by total immersion method in an acetate buffer at 32°C for 72 h. The PE extract-loaded fiber mats exhibited greater amount of extract released than those of the cast films. The maximum amounts of PE extract released from fiber mats and films were about 40-80% and 18-23%, respectively.

  12. Total Dietary Fiber, and Selected Vegetable, Fruit, Legume and Cereal Fiber Intake and Risk of Heart Attack in Periodontitis Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wood

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have found an association between periodontal disease and coronary artery disease(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001; Genco, Offenbacher et al. 2002, and have even implicated periodontal disease as a risk factor(Arbes, Slade et al. 1999; Beck, Elter et al. 2001, however have not proven causality(Hujoel, Drangholt et al. 2000. Although dietary amounts, sources, and types (soluble versus insoluble of fiber have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack (Liu, Buring et al. 2002; Negri, Vecchia et al. 2003, this author is unaware of studies that have examined the association between food sources of dietary fiber and heart attack risk in subjects with periodontitis.This study was designed to determine whether total dietary fiber and fiber from different plant sources (vegetables, fruits, legumes, or cereals modified self-reported HA risk, as well as acute-phase inflammatory responses in subjects with periodontitis using NHANES III data.Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between total dietary fiber intake levels, and selected vegetables, fruits, legumes, and cereal fiber intake and the risk of self-reported history of heart attack (HA in periodontitis subjects using data available in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III.Materials and Methods: Adult participants in NHANES III were used in this study. Zero to thirty three (0-33 percent of sites with periodontal attachment loss > 3 mm was considered a healthy periodontium, while greater than thirty three percent (>33 of sites with periodontal attachment loss of > 3 mm as periodontitis. The outcome variable was the self-reported history of HA. Total dietary fiber, and monthly selected vegetable, fruit, legume and cereal consumption were divided into low and adequate levels. Data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and multivariate analyses using SPSS ®. P<0.05 was used to

  13. Dietary fibers reduce food intake by satiation without conditioned taste aversion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamanana, Rojo; Even, Patrick C; Darcel, Nicolas; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2013-02-17

    It is well known that intake of dietary fiber (DF) potently decreases food intake and feelings of hunger and/or promotes satiety ratings. However, the mechanisms explaining these effects are not well characterized. This work was performed to determine which of satiation and/or satiety mechanisms provoke the decrease of food intake induced by DF in mice. We tested in an intra-group protocol a low-viscosity (LV, fructo-oligosaccharide), a viscous (VP, guar gum) and a high-viscosity (HV, mixture of guar gum and fructo-oligosaccharide) preload. These were given to mice by intra-gastric gavage. It appeared that viscous preloads such as VP and HV reduced the daily energy intake by 14% and 21% respectively. The strong effect of HV was mainly due to a large decrease of meal size (by 57%) and meal duration (by 65%) with no effect on ingestion rate during the first 30 min after administration. Therefore, the DF-induced decrease of energy intake was due to a satiation mechanism. This is further supported by a 3-fold increased sensitization of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract as observed by c-Fos protein immunolabelling. No compensation of food intake was observed during the rest of the day, a phenomenon that may be explained by the fact that metabolic rate remained high despite the lower food intake. We have also shown that the DF-induced inhibition of food intake was not paired with a conditioned taste aversion. To conclude, this work demonstrates that DF inhibits food intake by increasing satiation during ~1h after administration.

  14. Fiber Intake and PAI-1 in type 2 diabetes: Look AHEAD Trial Findings at Baseline and Year 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belalcazar, L. Maria; Anderson, Andrea M.; Lang, Wei; Schwenke, Dawn C.; Haffner, Steven M.; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Rushing, Julia; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Reeves, Rebecca; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Tracy, Russell P.; Ballantyne, Christie M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is elevated in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may contribute, independently of traditional factors, to increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Fiber intake may decrease PAI-1 levels. We examined the associations of fiber intake and its changes with PAI-1, before and during an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss (ILI) in 1,701 Look AHEAD participants with dietary, fitness and PAI-1 data at baseline and 1-year. Look AHEAD was a randomized CVD trial in 5,145 overweight/obese subjects with T2DM, comparing ILI (goal of ≥7% reduction in baseline weight) with a control arm of diabetes support and education (DSE). ILI participants were encouraged to consume vegetables, fruits and grain products low in sugar and fat. At baseline, median fiber intake was 17.9 g/d. Each 8.3 g/day higher fiber intake was associated with a 9.2% lower PAI-1 level (p=0.008); this association persisted after weight and fitness adjustments (p=0.03). Higher baseline intake of fruit (p=0.019) and high-fiber grain and cereal (p=0.029) were related to lower PAI-1 levels. Although successful in improving weight and physical fitness at 1-year, ILI in Look AHEAD resulted in small increases in fiber intake (4.1g/day, compared with -2.35 g/day with DSE), which were not related to PAI-1 change (p=0.34). Only 31.3% of ILI participants (39.8% of women; 19.1% of men) met daily fiber intake recommendations. Increasing fiber intake in overweight/obese individuals with diabetes interested in weight loss is challenging. Future studies evaluating changes in fiber consumption during weight loss interventions are warranted. PMID:25131348

  15. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-01-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (pdietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (pdietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi. PMID:24471093

  16. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Huybrechts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

  17. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Bolca, Selin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; De Keyzer, Willem; Van Oyen, Herman; Van Camp, John; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan; Huybrechts, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines). The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%), followed by fruits (17.8%), potatoes and grains (16.0%), energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%), and vegetables (11.8%). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits) were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular. PMID:21673925

  18. Intake of fiber-rich foods among medical and dietetics students from University of Medicine and Pharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Zita, Fazakas; Szucks, Victoria; Tarcea, Monica; Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Romania was found to be the country with the highest frequency of obesity in the EU, also cardiovascular diseases and cancer represent the main cause of mortality. Diet is an important associated factor for a number of complex chronic diseases, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. One of the cause of these is the low intake of fibers from diet. Our objective was to assess the total dietary fiber intake, consumption habits and the knowledge about f...

  19. Sex, Body Mass Index, and Dietary Fiber Intake Influence the Human Gut Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominianni, Christine; Sinha, Rashmi; Goedert, James J.; Pei, Zhiheng; Yang, Liying; Hayes, Richard B.; Ahn, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the composition of the human gut microbiome is important in the etiology of human diseases; however, the personal factors that influence the gut microbiome composition are poorly characterized. Animal models point to sex hormone-related differentials in microbiome composition. In this study, we investigated the relationship of sex, body mass index (BMI) and dietary fiber intake with the gut microbiome in 82 humans. We sequenced fecal 16S rRNA genes by 454 FLX technology, then clustered and classified the reads to microbial genomes using the QIIME pipeline. Relationships of sex, BMI, and fiber intake with overall gut microbiome composition and specific taxon abundances were assessed by permutational MANOVA and multivariate logistic regression, respectively. We found that sex was associated with the gut microbiome composition overall (p=0.001). The gut microbiome in women was characterized by a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes (p=0.03). BMI (>25 kg/m2 vs. Fiber from beans and from fruits and vegetables were associated, respectively, with greater abundance of Actinobacteria (p=0.006 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.05) and Clostridia (p=0.009 and false discovery rate adjusted q=0.09). Our findings suggest that sex, BMI, and dietary fiber contribute to shaping the gut microbiome in humans. Better understanding of these relationships may have significant implications for gastrointestinal health and disease prevention. PMID:25874569

  20. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  1. Intake of nutrients, fiber, and sugar in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in comparison to healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Zolfaghari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease.

  2. Intake of dietary fiber, especially from cereal foods, is associated with lower incidence of colon cancer in the HELGA cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Skeie, Guri; Landberg, Rikard

    2012-01-01

    The role of dietary fiber on the risk of colon and rectal cancer has been investigated in numerous studies, but findings have been inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident colon (including distal and proximal colon) a...

  3. A prospective study of long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Khalili, Hamed; Konijeti, Gauree G; Higuchi, Leslie M; de Silva, Punyanganie; Korzenik, Joshua R; Fuchs, Charles S; Willett, Walter C; Richter, James M; Chan, Andrew T

    2013-11-01

    Increased intake of dietary fiber has been proposed to reduce the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]). However, few prospective studies have examined associations between long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident CD or UC. We collected and analyzed data from 170,776 women, followed up over 26 years, who participated in the Nurses' Health Study, followed up for 3,317,425 person-years. Dietary information was prospectively ascertained via administration of a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 years. Self-reported CD and UC were confirmed through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). We confirmed 269 incident cases of CD (incidence, 8/100,000 person-years) and 338 cases of UC (incidence, 10/100,000 person-years). Compared with the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted cumulative average intake of dietary fiber, intake of the highest quintile (median of 24.3 g/day) was associated with a 40% reduction in risk of CD (multivariate HR for CD, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.90). This apparent reduction appeared to be greatest for fiber derived from fruits; fiber from cereals, whole grains, or legumes did not modify risk. In contrast, neither total intake of dietary fiber (multivariate HR, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-1.17) nor intake of fiber from specific sources appeared to be significantly associated with risk of UC. Based on data from the Nurses' Health Study, long-term intake of dietary fiber, particularly from fruit, is associated with lower risk of CD but not UC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate this association. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pectin is not pectin: A randomized trial on the effect of different physicochemical properties of dietary fiber on appetite and energy intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, A.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Schols, H.A.; Graaf, de C.; Mars, M.

    2014-01-01

    An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber

  5. Cost savings of reduced constipation rates attributed to increased dietary fiber intakes: a decision-analytic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmier, Jordana K; Miller, Paige E; Levine, Jessica A; Perez, Vanessa; Maki, Kevin C; Rains, Tia M; Devareddy, Latha; Sanders, Lisa M; Alexander, Dominik D

    2014-04-17

    Nearly five percent of Americans suffer from functional constipation, many of whom may benefit from increasing dietary fiber consumption. The annual constipation-related healthcare cost savings associated with increasing intakes may be considerable but have not been examined previously. The objective of the present study was to estimate the economic impact of increased dietary fiber consumption on direct medical costs associated with constipation. Literature searches were conducted to identify nationally representative input parameters for the U.S. population, which included prevalence of functional constipation; current dietary fiber intakes; proportion of the population meeting recommended intakes; and the percentage that would be expected to respond, in terms of alleviation of constipation, to a change in dietary fiber consumption. A dose-response analysis of published data was conducted to estimate the percent reduction in constipation prevalence per 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake. Annual direct medical costs for constipation were derived from the literature and updated to U.S. $ 2012. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact on adult vs. pediatric populations and the robustness of the model to each input parameter. The base case direct medical cost-savings was $12.7 billion annually among adults. The base case assumed that 3% of men and 6% of women currently met recommended dietary fiber intakes; each 1 g/day increase in dietary fiber intake would lead to a reduction of 1.9% in constipation prevalence; and all adults would increase their dietary fiber intake to recommended levels (mean increase of 9 g/day). Sensitivity analyses, which explored numerous alternatives, found that even if only 50% of the adult population increased dietary fiber intake by 3 g/day, annual medical costs savings exceeded $2 billion. All plausible scenarios resulted in cost savings of at least $1 billion. Increasing dietary fiber consumption is associated with

  6. Variability in feed and total mixed ration neutral detergent fiber and crude protein analyses among commercial laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, A N; Mertens, D; Zaman, S; Vander Pol, M; Price, W J

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the variability in amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and crude protein (CP) analyses of feed and total mixed ration (TMR) samples among feed analysis laboratories. Two TMR were prepared that varied in the dry matter proportion of forage and concentrates: 45% forage (LF-TMR) versus 60% forage (HF-TMR). Replicated TMR and individual feed samples were dried, ground through a 4-mm screen, and sent to 10 commercial and 4 research or development laboratories for aNDF and CP analyses. Laboratories were asked to complete a detailed questionnaire regarding the aNDF procedure used. Variability in aNDF and CP analyses was assessed using univariate statistics and mixed modeling procedures. Significant variability in the aNDF analysis of individual feeds was found among the participating laboratories. The variability was particularly large for low-aNDF feeds such as distillers and barley grains. The variability among laboratories in the aNDF analysis of low-fiber TMR was greater than of high-fiber TMR, with the most likely reason being their greater proportions of grains and protein concentrates and the effect of variation in the aNDF protocols, particularly α-amylase use, on the analysis of these types of feeds. Variability due to the technique used for aNDF analysis was not statistically significant when outlier labs using the filter bag technique were removed; however, laboratories using the filter bag technique tended to produce more variable results than did laboratories using variation of the crucible technique (SE=2.542 vs. 0.930, respectively). Calculated aNDF values for TMR, based on proportions and aNDF analysis of individual feeds, were slightly greater than analyzed aNDF values for TMR. Results from this ringtest emphasize the need for feed analysis laboratories to follow the official aNDF method exactly. Variation within and among laboratories can be reduced by replicating analysis and including reference

  7. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  8. Influence of Nitrogen Sources and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation on Growth, Crude Fiber and Nutrient Uptake in Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir.) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alice I. TCHIAZE; Victor D. TAFFOUO; Henri FANKEM; Kenne, Martin; Régis BAZIRAMAKENGA; Ekodeck, Georges E.; Antoun, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, B) have immense potential application in sustainable agriculture as ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides. In this study, the effects of three nitrogen (N) sources (NO3-, NH4+ and NO3NH4) and PGPR on growth, crude fiber and nutrient uptake were investigated in squash plants. Some growth parameters [root dry weight (RDW), shoot dry weight (SDW), total plant dry weight (PDW), number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), stem diameter (SD) and numb...

  9. Income and race/ethnicity influence dietary fiber intake and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen; Anderson, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Grains, fruits, and vegetables are the primary sources of dietary fiber (DF), with the white potato contributing nearly 7% of the DF to the US food supply. The DF composition of the white potato-with or without the skin and regardless of cooking method-compares well with the DF content of other vegetables. Many health benefits, including improved gastrointestinal health, are attributed to greater DF consumption; however, less than 3% of males and females have an adequate intake of DF. Because of this population-wide shortfall, DF is considered to be a nutrient of concern. In this study, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010, we examined the mean intake of DF across sex, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and poverty threshold. This study shows that mean intake of DF is far below recommendations, with children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years consuming an average of less than 14 g of DF per day. Adults 20+ years old consume, on average, about 17 g of DF per day, and men consume significantly more DF than women. Non-Hispanic black adults consume significantly less DF compared with other race/ethnic groups. Lower family income and living at less than 131% of poverty were associated with lower DF intakes among adults. Federal and local government policies should encourage consumption of all vegetables, including the white potato, as an important source of DF.

  10. Correlation between Intake of Dietary Fiber and Adherence to the Korean National Dietary Guidelines in Adolescents from Jeonju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunmi; Na, Woori; Kim, Misung; Kim, Eunsoo; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2012-12-01

    This study surveyed dietary intake and adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines in Korean adolescents. To elucidate basic data for use in nutrition education, which aims to improve adolescent compliance with the national dietary guidelines and to increase the intake of dietary fiber, we evaluated the sources of fiber in adolescent diets. This study included 182 male and 212 female students from 2 middle schools in the Jeonju province. From November 15~20, 2011, we surveyed the students for general characteristics, adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, and dietary intake. Dietary fiber intake was 16.57 ± 6.95 g/day for male students and 16.14 ± 7.11 g/day for female students. The food groups that contributed most to dietary fiber intake were (in descending order) cereals, vegetables, seasoning, and fruits. The fiber-containing food items consumed most were cabbage- kimchi, cooked rice, instant noodles, and cabbage. Based on adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines, the vegetable-based intake of dietary fiber in groups 1 (score 15~45), 2 (score 46~52), and 3 (score 53~75) were 4.41 ± 2.595 g/day, 4.12 ± 2.692 g/day, and 5.49 ± 3.157 g/day, respectively (p<0.001). In addition, the total intake of dietary fiber varied significantly among the three groups (p<0.001) as follows: Group 1, 14.99 ± 6.374 g/day; Group 2, 15.32 ± 6.772 g/day; and Group 3, 18.79 ± 7.361 g/day. In this study, we discovered that adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines correlates with improved intake of dietary fiber. Therefore, marketing and educational development is needed to promote adherence to the Korean national dietary guidelines. In addition, nutritional education is needed to improve dietary fiber consumption through the intake of vegetables and fruits other than kimchi.

  11. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (Pglycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  12. Crude glycerin in diets for feedlot Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco van Cleef

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on feed intake, performance, carcass characteristics, and total digestibility of Nellore bulls. In experiment 1, cattle (n = 30 were fed a control diet without crude glycerin and diets containing 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin, for 103 d. Animals were harvested and data of carcass characteristics were collected. In experiment 2, a digestibility trial was performed using indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF as internal marker, and five rumen-cannulated steers. Both experiments were conducted as a randomized complete block design and data were analyzed using mixed procedures. In experiment 1 no differences were observed among treatments on dry matter intake, and performance variables. Regarding carcass characteristics, no effect was observed, except for carcass fat estimates, which were greater in treatments with crude glycerin. In experiment 2, crude glycerin promoted a decrease in digestibility of fibrous fractions NDF and HEM, and increased digestibility of crude protein by 6%. Although it caused negative effect on digestibility of fibrous fraction of diets, crude glycerin can be a good energy source for Nellore bulls, since no losses are observed on performance and carcass characteristics when animals are fed up to 30% of this by-product.

  13. No association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation or arterial stiffness in youth with type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M.; Crandell, Jamie; Liese, Angela D.; Lamichhane, Archana P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Dabelea, Dana; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Shah, Amy S.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Wadwa, R. Paul; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To examine the association of dietary fiber intake with inflammation and arterial stiffness among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the US. Methods Data are from youth ≥ 10 years old with clinically diagnosed T1D for ≥ 3 months and ≥ 1 positive diabetes autoantibody in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Fiber intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with measurement error (ME) accounted for by structural sub-models derived using additional 24-hour dietary recall data in a calibration sample and the respective exposure-disease model covariates. Markers of inflammation, measured at baseline, included IL-6 (n=1405), CRP (n=1387), and fibrinogen (n=1340); markers of arterial stiffness, measured approximately 19 months post-baseline, were available in a subset of participants and included augmentation index (n=180), pulse wave velocity (n=184), and brachial distensibility (n=177). Results Mean (SD) T1D duration was 47.9 (43.2) months; 12.5% of participants were obese. Mean (SD) ME-adjusted fiber intake was 15 (2.8) g/day. In multivariable analyses, fiber intake was not associated with inflammation or arterial stiffness. Conclusion Among youth with T1D, fiber intake does not meet recommendations and is not associated with measures of systemic inflammation or vascular stiffness. Further research is needed to evaluate whether fiber is associated with these outcomes in older individuals with T1D or among individuals with higher intakes than those observed in the present study. PMID:24613131

  14. Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroki; Iwase, Masanori; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ogata-Kaizu, Shinako; Ide, Hitoshi; Kikuchi, Yohei; Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Joudai, Tamaki; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Nakamura, Udai; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-12-11

    Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally. Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations. We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

  15. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyu; Shi, Lei; Pang, Wenhui; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Haibo; Shi, Guanggang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD). We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g.) administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight), respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) content in fecal samples using real-time PCR. Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ) cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly. Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper fiber supplementation promotes effectively the

  16. Dietary Fiber Intake Regulates Intestinal Microflora and Inhibits Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Airway Inflammation in a Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, academic studies suggest that global growth of airway allergic disease has a close association with dietary changes including reduced consumption of fiber. Therefore, appropriate dietary fiber supplementation might be potential to prevent airway allergic disease (AAD.We investigated whether dietary fiber intake suppressed the induction of AAD and tried to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms.The control mice and AAD model mice fed with 4% standard-fiber chow, while low-fiber group of mice fed with a 1.75% low-fiber chow. The two fiber-intervened groups including mice, apart from a standard-fiber diet, were also intragastric (i.g. administrated daily with poorly fermentable cellulose or readily fermentable pectin (0.4% of daily body weight, respectively. All animals except normal mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA to induce airway allergic inflammation. Hallmarks of AAD were examined by histological analysis and ELISA. The variation in intestinal bacterial composition was assessed by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA content in fecal samples using real-time PCR.Low-fiber diet aggravated inflammatory response in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice, whereas dietary fiber intake significantly suppressed the allergic responses, attenuated allergic symptoms of nasal rubbing and sneezing, decreased the pathology of eosinophil infiltration and goblet cell metaplasia in the nasal mucosa and lung, inhibited serum OVA-specific IgE levels, and lowered the levels of Th2 cytokines in NALF and BALF, but, increased Th1 (IFN-γ cytokines. Additionally, dietary fiber intake also increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and decreased Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Levels of probiotic bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, were upgraded significantly.Long-term deficiency of dietary fiber intake increases the susceptibility to AAD, whereas proper fiber supplementation promotes

  17. Intake of Nutrients, Fiber, and Sugar in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Comparison to Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Hamid; Askari, Gholamreza; Siassi, Fereydoun; Feizi, Awat; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the world. Although some studies have been conducted about dietary intakes of these patients, but the results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to survey all macronutrients and micronutrients included in dietary intake of these patients for better understanding the factors influencing this disease. Methods: The present study is a case-control conducted in Isfahan city, Iran. The cases were recently diagnosed patients with NAFLD who identified by ultrasonography. The case (159) and control (158) individuals were matched in age and gender. Data of general characteristics and physical activity of individuals were collected through questionnaire. Dietary intake was also collected using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire. Results: Waistline and body mass index for the case group were more than the control group (P < 0.05). Physical activity level in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD. Dietary intake of saturated fatty acids and sugar in patients with NAFLD was more than healthy individuals (P < 0.05). Intake of total dietary fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium in healthy individuals was more than patients with NAFLD (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In total, it seems the type of dietary intake source is associated with NAFLD. Increasing saturated fatty acids and sugar and decreasing fiber, folic acid, Vitamin D, zinc, and potassium intake might play a role in the progression of this disease. PMID:27625763

  18. Specific food intake, fat and fiber intake, and behavioral correlates of BMI among overweight and obese members of a managed care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherwood Nancy E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study examined correlates of body mass index (BMI in overweight and obese members of a managed care organization seeking treatment for obesity. It assessed intake of specific foods, dietary fat or fiber, and behaviors attempted to control weight. Methods Participants were 508 men and 1293 women who were > 18 years and had a self-reported BMI > 27.0. This paper reports analyses of baseline and 24-month follow-up data from a randomized weight-loss trial. Cross-sectional and prospective relationships between BMI and behaviors were examined with regression analyses controlling for age and education. Results At baseline, hamburger and beef consumption were associated with higher BMI for men; for women, hamburger, fried chicken, hot dog, bacon or sausage, egg, French fry, and overall fat consumption were associated with higher BMI, while eating high fiber cereal, fruit, and overall fiber intake were associated with lower BMI. Virtually all forms of weight control behavior were reported more often in heavier people. Subscribing to exercise magazines, however, was associated with lower BMI. Decreased fat intake and increased fruit/vegetable/fiber intake over the course of the study were associated with reductions in BMI at 24 months. Conclusion The same behaviors that differentiate individuals with different body weight in the general population also differentiate between individuals of different body weights at the high end of the weight distribution. Educational efforts aimed at preventing weight gain and reducing obesity might benefit from focusing on specific foods known to be associated empirically with body weight and weight change over time.

  19. Intakes of dietary fiber, vegetables, and fruits and incidence of cardiovascular disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shiro; Yoshimura, Yukio; Kamada, Chiemi; Tanaka, Sachiko; Horikawa, Chika; Okumura, Ryota; Ito, Hideki; Ohashi, Yasuo; Akanuma, Yasuo; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Sone, Hirohito

    2013-12-01

    Foods rich in fiber, such as vegetables and fruits, prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) among healthy adults, but such data in patients with diabetes are sparse. We investigated this association in a cohort with type 2 diabetes aged 40-70 years whose HbA1c values were ≥ 6.5% in Japan Diabetes Society values. In this cohort study, 1,414 patients were analyzed after exclusion of patients with history of CVDs and nonresponders to a dietary survey. Primary outcomes were times to stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Hazard ratios (HRs) of dietary intake were estimated by Cox regression adjusted for systolic blood pressure, lipids, energy intake, and other confounders. Mean daily dietary fiber in quartiles ranged from 8.7 to 21.8 g, and mean energy intake ranged from 1,442.3 to 2,058.9 kcal. Mean daily intake of vegetables and fruits in quartiles ranged from 228.7 to 721.4 g. During the follow-up of a median of 8.1 years, 68 strokes and 96 CHDs were observed. HRs for stroke in the fourth quartile vs. the first quartile were 0.39 (95% CI 0.12-1.29, P = 0.12) for dietary fiber and 0.35 (0.13-0.96, P = 0.04) for vegetables and fruits. There were no significant associations with CHD. The HR per 1-g increase was smaller for soluble dietary fiber (0.48 [95% CI 0.30-0.79], P dietary fiber. Increased dietary fiber, particularly soluble fiber, and vegetables and fruits were associated with lower incident stroke but not CHD in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. LC-QTOF/MS metabolomic profiles in human plasma after a 5-week high dietary fiber intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Barri, Thaer; Ulmius, Matilda

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the alterations of plasma metabolome profiles to identify exposure and effect markers of dietary fiber intake. Subjects (n¿=¿25) aged 58.6 (1.1)¿years (mean and SD) with a body mass index of 26.6 (0.5)¿kg/m(2) were given a high fiber (HF) and a low fiber (LF) diet......, in a 5-week randomized controlled crossover intervention. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products, whereas the LF diet was made of equivalent food products to the HF diet, but without adding fibers. Blood plasma samples were collected...

  1. Fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake in relation to cancer risk: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    Fruit, vegetables, and certain components of plant foods, such as fiber, have long been thought to protect against cancer. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is a prospective cohort that includes >500,000 participants from 10 European countries and has made a substantial contribution to knowledge in this research area. The purpose of this article is to summarize the findings published thus far from the EPIC study on the associations between fruit, vegetable, or fiber consumption and the risk of cancer at 14 different sites. The risk of cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake. The risk of colorectal cancer was inversely associated with intakes of total fruit and vegetables and total fiber, and the risk of liver cancer was also inversely associated with the intake of total fiber. The risk of cancer of the lung was inversely associated with fruit intake but was not associated with vegetable intake; this association with fruit intake was restricted to smokers and might be influenced by residual confounding due to smoking. There was a borderline inverse association of fiber intake with breast cancer risk. For the other 9 cancer sites studied (stomach, biliary tract, pancreas, cervix, endometrium, prostate, kidney, bladder, and lymphoma) there were no reported significant associations of risk with intakes of total fruit, vegetables, or fiber.

  2. Increasing dietary fiber intake in terms of kiwifruit improves constipation in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annie On On Chan; Gigi Leung; Teresa Tong; Nina YH Wong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if increased dietary fiber, in terms of kiwifruit, is effective in Chinese constipated patients.METHODS: 33 constipated patients and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited for a 4-wk treatment of kiwi fruit twice daily. Response during wk 1-4 was defined as an increase in complete spontaneous bowl, motion (CSBM)≥ 1/wk. Secondary efficacy included response during wk 1-4, individual symptoms and scores of bowel habits and constipation. Responses were compared with the baseline run-in period. Colonic transit time and anorectal manometry were performed before and after treatment.RESULTS: Responder rate was 54.5% in the constipated group. The mean CSBM increased after treatment (2.2 ± 2.6 vs 4.4 ± 4.6, P = 0.013). There was also improvement in the scores for bothersomeness of constipation (P = 0.02), and satisfaction of bowel habit (P = 0.001), and decreased in days of laxative used (P =0.003). There was also improvement in transit time (P =0.003) and rectal sensation (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in the bowel symptoms or anorectal physiology in the healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: Increasing dietary fiber intake is effective in relieving chronic constipation in Chinese population.

  3. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaëlle M. A. van Gijssel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fiber (DF intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS. These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042, and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI −0.037, −0.003, but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  4. Associations between Dietary Fiber Intake in Infancy and Cardiometabolic Health at School Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijssel, Rafaëlle M A; Braun, Kim V E; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2016-08-30

    Dietary fiber (DF) intake may be beneficial for cardiometabolic health. However, whether this already occurs in early childhood is unclear. We investigated associations between DF intake in infancy and cardiometabolic health in childhood among 2032 children participating in a population-based cohort in The Netherlands. Information on DF intake at a median age of 12.9 months was collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. DF was adjusted for energy intake using the residual method. At age 6 years, body fat percentage, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, insulin, triglycerides, and blood pressure were assessed and expressed in age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores (SDS). These five factors were combined into a cardiometabolic risk factor score. In models adjusted for several parental and child covariates, a higher DF intake was associated with a lower cardiometabolic risk factor score. When we examined individual cardiometabolic factors, we observed that a 1 g/day higher energy-adjusted DF intake was associated with 0.026 SDS higher HDL-cholesterol (95% CI 0.009, 0.042), and 0.020 SDS lower triglycerides (95% CI -0.037, -0.003), but not with body fat, insulin, or blood pressure. Results were similar for DF with and without adjustment for energy intake. Our findings suggest that higher DF intake in infancy may be associated with better cardiometabolic health in later childhood.

  5. Dietary fiber intake is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression and cardiovascular risk, but not protein nutritional status, in adults with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Huang, Yan-Feng; Wang, Ming-Qing; Chen, De-Xiu; Wan, Heng; Wei, Lian-Bo; Xiao, Wei

    Evidence suggests that dietary fiber benefits patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, this conclusion requires further validation. In this study, we examined the effects of dietary fiber on kidney function, inflammation, indoxyl sulfate, nutritional status, and cardiovascular risk in patients with advanced CKD. We performed linear regressions to assess the association between dietary fiber intake and CKD parameters. The aforementioned parameters were compared over an 18-month follow- up period. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to investigate the association between fiber intake and Cardiac vascular disease (CVD). In total, 157 patients were included in this study. Dietary fiber and inflammatory indices were associated (interleukin [IL]-6: β=-0.024, p=0.035). The differential estimated glomerular filtration rate (ΔeGFR) as well as levels of C-reactive protein, IL-6, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol in the higher fiber intake (>=25 g/day) group were lower than those in the lower fiber intake (Dietary fiber intake may be a protective factor associated with CVD (hazard ratio=0.537 and 0.305- 0.947). The protein nutritional status was not different between the two groups (p>0.05). Our results suggest that increasing fiber intake can retard the decrease in the eGFR; can reduce the levels of proinflammatory factors, indoxyl sulfate, and serum cholesterol; and is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk, but does not disrupt the nutritional status of patients with CKD.

  6. Non-Traditional Aspects of Renal Diets: Focus on Fiber, Alkali and Vitamin K1 Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, Adamasco; D’Alessandro, Claudia; Gesualdo, Loreto; Cosola, Carmela; Gallieni, Maurizio; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Fusaro, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Renal diets for advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) are structured to achieve a lower protein, phosphate and sodium intake, while supplying adequate energy. The aim of this nutritional intervention is to prevent or correct signs, symptoms and complications of renal insufficiency, delaying the start of dialysis and preserving nutritional status. This paper focuses on three additional aspects of renal diets that can play an important role in the management of CKD patients: the vitamin K1 and fiber content, and the alkalizing potential. We examined the energy and nutrients composition of four types of renal diets according to their protein content: normal diet (ND, 0.8 g protein/kg body weight (bw)), low protein diet (LPD, 0.6 g protein/kg bw), vegan diet (VD, 0.7 g protein/kg bw), very low protein diet (VLPD, 0.3 g protein/kg bw). Fiber content is much higher in the VD and in the VLPD than in the ND or LPD. Vitamin K1 content seems to follow the same trend, but vitamin K2 content, which could not be investigated, might have a different pattern. The net endogenous acid production (NEAP) value decreases from the ND and LPD to the vegetarian diets, namely VD and VLPD; the same finding occurred for the potential renal acid load (PRAL). In conclusion, renal diets may provide additional benefits, and this is the case of vegetarian diets. Namely, VD and VLPD also provide high amounts of fibers and Vitamin K1, with a very low acid load. These features may have favorable effects on Vitamin K1 status, intestinal microbiota and acid-base balance. Hence, we can speculate as to the potential beneficial effects on vascular calcification and bone disease, on protein metabolism, on colonic environment and circulating levels of microbial-derived uremic toxins. In the case of vegetarian diets, attention must be paid to serum potassium levels. PMID:28468236

  7. Total dietary fiber intakes in the US population are related to whole grain consumption: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicks, Marla; Jonnalagadda, Satya; Albertson, Ann M; Joshi, Nandan

    2014-03-01

    Whole grain (WG) foods have been shown to reduce chronic disease risk and overweight. Total dietary fiber is associated with WG and its health benefits. The purpose was to determine whether associations exist between WG intake (no-WG intake, 0 ounce equivalent [oz eq]; low, >0-dietary fiber intake among Americans 2 years and older. One-day food intake data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2010 (n = 9042) showed that only 2.9% and 7.7% of children/adolescents (2-18 years) and adults (≥19 years) consumed at least 3 WG oz eq/d, respectively. For children/adolescents and adults, individuals in the high WG intake group were 59 and 76 times more likely to fall in the third fiber tertile, respectively, compared with those with no-WG intake. Total dietary fiber intake from food sources varied by WG intake group for children/adolescents and adults with more total dietary fiber consumed from ready-to-eat (RTE) and hot cereals and yeast breads/rolls in the high WG intake group compared with the no-WG intake group. Major WG sources for children/adolescents and adults included yeast bread/rolls (24% and 27%, respectively), RTE cereals (25% and 20%, respectively), and oatmeal (12% and 21%, respectively). Among those with the highest WG intake, WG RTE cereal with no added bran was the greatest contributor to total dietary fiber compared with other RTE cereal types. Whole grain foods make a substantial contribution to total dietary fiber intake and should be promoted to meet recommendations.

  8. Influence of Nitrogen Sources and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation on Growth, Crude Fiber and Nutrient Uptake in Squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poir. Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice I. TCHIAZE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, B have immense potential application in sustainable agriculture as ecofriendly biofertilizers and biopesticides. In this study, the effects of three nitrogen (N sources (NO3-, NH4+ and NO3NH4 and PGPR on growth, crude fiber and nutrient uptake were investigated in squash plants. Some growth parameters [root dry weight (RDW, shoot dry weight (SDW, total plant dry weight (PDW, number of leaves (NL, shoot length (SL, stem diameter (SD and number of ramifications (NR], crude fiber (cellulose content and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn were determined. Application of NO3-,NH4+ or NO3NH4 singly or in combination with PGPR inoculation led to a significant increase in RDW, SDW, PDW, NL, SL, SD and NR. Na, Cu and Zn contents, on the contrary, decreased in inoculated treated plants while no significant differences were recorded in cellulose contents (CE of leaves except in plants fed with NO3-. The leaf CE content ranged from 12.58 to 13.67%. The plants supplied with NO3+B, NH4+B and NO3NH4+B showed significantly higher plant biomass and accumulation of N, P, K and Mn concentrations in leaves compared to all other treatments. These results suggest that specific combinations of PGPR with NO3-, NH4+ or NO3NH4 fertilizers can be considered as efficient alternative biofertilizers to improve significantly the squash growth and nutrient uptake.

  9. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P men.

  10. Relative validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary fiber intake in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Lorenzen, Janne Kunchel; Kristensen, Mette Bredal

    2014-01-01

    is the major contributor of dietary fiber in the Danish population, and a nation-specific FFQ is therefore needed. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the relative validity and reproducibility of a self-administered quantitative FFQ designed to assess total dietary fiber intake among Danish adults....... Design: In order to assess the relative validity of the FFQ, a total of 125 participants completed both a 7-day weighed dietary recording (DR) and an FFQ consisting of 60 questions. To evaluate the reproducibility of the FFQ, a sub-group of 12 participants subsequently completed an FFQ approximately 6...

  11. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  12. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Saki; Inoue, Manami; Saito, Eiko; Abe, Sarah K; Sawada, Norie; Ishihara, Junko; Iwasaki, Motoki; Yamaji, Taiki; Shimazu, Taichi; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shibuya, Kenji; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested a protective effect of dietary fiber intake on breast cancer risk while the results have been inconsistent. Our study aimed to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk and to explore whether this association is modified by reproductive factors and hormone receptor status of the tumor. A total of 44,444 women aged 45 to 74 years from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study were included in analyses. Dietary intake assessment was performed using a validated 138-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer incidence were calculated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models. During 624,423 person-years of follow-up period, 681 breast cancer cases were identified. After adjusting for major confounders for breast cancer risk, inverse trends were observed but statistically non-significant. Extremely high intake of fiber was associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but this should be interpreted with caution due to limited statistical power. In stratified analyses by menopausal and hormone receptor status, null associations were observed except for ER-PR- status. Our findings suggest that extreme high fiber intake may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer but the level of dietary fiber intake among Japanese population might not be sufficient to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  13. Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study1,2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Jenab, M.; Lukanova, A.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Touillaud, M.; Kaaks, R.; Rusten, A. von; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Benetou, V.; Grioni, S.; Panico, S.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Polidoro, S.; Bakker, M.F.; Gils, C.H. van; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Krum-Hansen, S.; Engeset, D.; Skeie, G.; Pilar, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Buckland, G.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, D.; Rodriguez, L.; Travis, R.; Key, T.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Sund, M.; Lenner, P.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Aune, D.; Riboli, E.; Romieu, I.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources (vegetab

  14. Dietary fiber intake and risk of hormonal receptor-defined breast cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study1,2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, P.; Rinaldi, S.; Jenab, M.; Lukanova, A.; Olsen, A.; Tjonneland, A.; Overvad, K.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Touillaud, M.; Kaaks, R.; Rusten, A. von; Boeing, H.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lagiou, P.; Benetou, V.; Grioni, S.; Panico, S.; Masala, G.; Tumino, R.; Polidoro, S.; Bakker, M.F.; Gils, C.H. van; Ros, M.M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Krum-Hansen, S.; Engeset, D.; Skeie, G.; Pilar, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Buckland, G.; Ardanaz, E.; Chirlaque, D.; Rodriguez, L.; Travis, R.; Key, T.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Sund, M.; Lenner, P.; Slimani, N.; Norat, T.; Aune, D.; Riboli, E.; Romieu, I.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited scientific evidence has characterized the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer (BC) by menopausal status and hormone receptor expression in tumors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the relation between total dietary fiber and its main food sources

  15. A Prospective Study of Long-term Intake of Dietary Fiber and Risk of Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Khalili, Hamed; Konijeti, Gauree G.; Higuchi, Leslie M.; de Silva, Punyanganie; Korzenik, Joshua R.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Richter, James M.; Chan, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Increased intake of dietary fiber has been proposed to reduce risk of inflammatory bowel diseases (Crohn’s disease [CD], ulcerative colitis [UC]). However, few prospective studies have examined associations between long-term intake of dietary fiber and risk of incident CD or UC. Methods We collected and analyzed data from 170,776 women, followed over 26 y, who participated in the Nurses’ Health Study, followed for 3,317,425 person-y. Dietary information was prospectively ascertained via administration of a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire every 4 y. Self-reported CD and UC were confirmed through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). Results We confirmed 269 incident cases of CD (incidence 8/100,000 person-y) and 338 cases of UC (incidence 10/100,000 person-y). Compared to the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted cumulative average intake of dietary fiber, intake of the highest quintile (median of 24.3 g/day) was associated with a 40% reduction in risk of CD (multivariate HR for CD, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.90). This apparent reduction appeared to be greatest for fiber derived from fruits; fiber from cereals, whole grains, or legumes did not modify risk. In contrast, neither total intake of dietary fiber (multivariate HR, 0.82; 95% CI 0.58–1.17) nor intake of fiber from specific sources appeared to be significantly associated with risk of UC. Conclusion Based on data from the Nurses’ Health Study, long-term intake of dietary fiber, particularly from fruit, is associated with lower risk of CD but not UC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that mediate this association. PMID:23912083

  16. Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas : The EPIC-EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date, di

  17. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.

  18. Increasing doses of fiber do not influence short-term satiety or food intake and are inconsistently linked to gut hormone levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly J. Willis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: People who eat more fiber often have a lower body weight than people who eat less fiber. The mechanism for this relationship has been explained, in part, by increased satiety, which may occur as a result of changes in appetite-suppressing gut hormone levels, and decreases in food intake at subsequent meals. Objective: We hypothesized that increasing doses of mixed fiber, consumed in muffins for breakfast, would proportionally influence satiety, gut hormone levels, and subsequent food intake. Design: This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. Healthy men (n=10 and women (n=10 with a BMI of 24±2 (mean±SEM participated in this study. Fasting subjects consumed a muffin with 0, 4, 8, or 12 g of mixed fibers and approximately 500 kcal. Visual analog scales rated hunger and satiety for 3 h; blood was drawn to measure ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, and peptide YY3–36 (PYY3–36 at various intervals; and food intake was measured at an ad libitum lunch. Results: Responses to satiety-related questions did not differ among treatments. However, despite lack of differences in satiety, gut hormone levels differed among treatments. Ghrelin was higher after the 12 g fiber dose than after the 4 and 8 g fiber doses. GLP-1 was higher after the 0 g fiber dose than after the 12 and 4 g fiber doses, and PYY3–36 did not differ among fiber doses. Food intake was also indistinguishable among doses. Conclusion: Satiety, gut hormone response, and food intake did not change in a dose-dependent manner after subjects consumed 0, 4, 8, and 12 g of mixed fiber in muffins for breakfast.

  19. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532 rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p < 0.05. When the average dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020 and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048. In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Beneficial Effect of Higher Dietary Fiber Intake on Plasma HDL-C and TC/HDL-C Ratio among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Wu, Jiang; Tang, Jie; Wang, Jia-Ji; Lu, Chu-Hong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-04-29

    Research has shown that high-dose supplemental dietary fiber intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors. To clarify such a relationship, we examined the association between daily dietary fiber intake and plasma lipids using a cross-sectional design including 1034 (M 502, F 532) rural-to-urban workers in China. We found a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intakes and increase of HDL cholesterol in male workers. There was also a dose-response relationship between increased dietary fiber intake and decreased total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) ratio in both male and female workers, after adjusting for potential confounders (p for trend, all p dietary fiber intake increased from less than 18 g/day to over 30 g/day, the average HDL cholesterol level increased by 10.1%, and the TC/HDL-C ratio decreased by 14.4% for males (p = 0.020) and by 11.1% for females (p = 0.048). In conclusion, higher daily dietary fiber consumption is associated with beneficial effect on cholesterol for rural-to-urban workers in China, suggesting its potential beneficial effect on decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Odd-chain fatty acids as a biomarker for dietary fiber intake: a novel pathway for endogenous production from propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Karolin; Schumann, Sara; Nickel, Daniela; Hornemann, Silke; Petzke, Klaus J; Schulze, Matthias B; Pfeiffer, Andreas Fh; Klaus, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Background: The risk of type 2 diabetes is inversely correlated with plasma concentrations of odd-chain fatty acids [OCFAs; pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0)], which are considered as biomarkers for dairy fat intake in humans. However, rodent studies suggest that OCFAs are synthesized endogenously from gut-derived propionate. Propionate increases with dietary fiber consumption and has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity.Objective: We hypothesized that OCFAs are produced in humans from dietary fibers by a novel endogenous pathway.Design: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 16 healthy individuals were supplemented with cellulose (30 g/d), inulin (30 g/d), or propionate (6 g/d) for 7 d. In addition, human hepatoma cells were incubated with different propionate concentrations. OCFAs were determined in plasma phospholipids and hepatoma cells by gas chromatography.Results: Cellulose did not affect plasma OCFA levels, whereas inulin and propionate increased pentadecanoic acid by ∼17% (P dietary fiber intake and not only dairy fat. This trial was registered at www.germanctr.de as DRKS00010121. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Ten-Year Trends in Fiber and Whole Grain Intakes and Food Sources for the United States Population: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current U.S. dietary guidance includes recommendations to increase intakes of both dietary fiber and whole grain (WG. This study examines fiber and WG intakes, food sources and trends from 2001 to 2010 based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data for children/adolescents (n = 14,973 and adults (n = 24,809. Mean fiber intake for children/adolescents was 13.2 (±0.1 g/day. Mean fiber intake for adults 19–50 years (y was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day and for adults 51+ was 16.1 (±0.2 g/day. There were significant increases in fiber intake from 2001–2010 for children/adolescents and for adults 51+ y. Mean WG intake for children/adolescents was 0.52 (±0.01 oz eq/day. Mean WG intake for adults 19–50 y was 0.61 (±0.02 oz eq/day and for adults 51+ 0.86 (±0.02 oz eq/day. There were no significant changes in WG intake for any age group from 2001–2010. The main food groups contributing to dietary fiber intake for children/adolescents were vegetables (16.6%, grain mixtures (16.3%, other foods (15.8% and fruits (11.3%. For adults 19+ y, the main sources of dietary fiber were vegetables (22.6%, other foods (14.3%, grain mixtures (12.0% and fruits (11.1%. Major WG sources for children/adolescents included ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC (31%, yeast breads/rolls (21% and crackers and salty grain snacks (21%. The main sources of WG for adults 19+ were yeast breads/rolls (27%, RTEC (23% and pastas/cooked cereals/rice (21%. Recommending cereals, breads and grain mixtures with higher contents of both dietary fiber and WG, along with consumer education, could increase intakes among the United States (U.S. population.

  3. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and distal colon cancer and that this effect of dietary

  4. Dietary fiber intake and risk of colorectal cancer and incident and recurrent adenoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Andrew T; Coleman, Helen G; Huang, Wen-Yi; Kitahara, Cari M; Cantwell, Marie M; Berndt, Sonja I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer. However, it remains unclear at which stage in the carcinogenic pathway fiber may act or which food sources of dietary fiber may be most beneficial against colorectal cancer development. Objective: The objective was to prospectively evaluate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of incident and recurrent colorectal adenoma and incident colorectal cancer. Design: Study participants were identified from the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Participants received flexible sigmoidoscopy at baseline and 3 or 5 y after. Dietary fiber intake was measured by using a self-reported dietary questionnaire. The colorectal cancer, incident adenoma, and recurrent adenoma analyses were based on 57,774, 16,980, and 1667 participants, respectively. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the risk of incident and recurrent adenoma, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the risk of colorectal cancer across categories of dietary fiber intake, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Elevated total dietary fiber intake was associated with a significantly reduced risk of incident distal colorectal adenoma (ORhighest vs. lowest tertile of intake: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.91; P-trend = 0.003) but not recurrent adenoma (P-trend = 0.67). Although the association was not statistically significant for colorectal cancer overall (HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.03; P-trend = 0.10), a reduced risk of distal colon cancer was observed with increased total fiber intake (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03). Protective associations were most notable for fiber originating from cereals or fruit. Conclusions: This large, prospective study within a population-based screening trial suggests that individuals consuming the highest intakes of dietary fiber have reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and

  5. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    Eight Simmental heifers (initial BW 313.4 ± 13.2 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental treatments in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. The experiment was performed in four 28-d periods. Treatments tested were a control diet in which barley straw (BS) was used as a fiber source and 3 diets where the main difference was the nonforage fiber source used: soybean hulls (SH), beet pulp (BP) in pellets, and whole cottonseed (WCS). All ingredients, except the fiber sources, were ground through a 3-mm screen. Fiber ingredients were incorporated at 10, 17, 17, and 16% (on DM basis) in BS, SH, BP, and WCS, respectively. All diets were offered ad libitum as total mixed ration and designed to be isoenergetic (2.95 Mcal ME/kg DM), isonitrogenous (15% CP, DM basis), and with a NDF content of 20% (on DM basis) although there was a discrepancy between the theoretical and the actual chemical composition of the diets. Particle size separation was performed using the 3-screen Penn State Particle Separator. Animals were allotted in 8 individual roofed concrete pens equipped with a feedbunk and water trough. Intake was recorded over 7 d in the last week of each experimental period. Behavior was recorded for 24-h on d 2 and d 6 of each experimental week using a digital video recording device. A digital color camera was set up in front of each pen. Data recorded, except behavioral activities, were statistically analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. To test treatment effect for each behavioral activity, analysis was performed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Diets ranked from greater to lesser proportion of particles of less than 1.18 mm as follows: SH, BS, WCS, and BP. Dry matter intake of heifers fed WCS was greater than the remaining treatments (P = 0.049). The greatest average ruminal pH was registered in heifers fed BS (6.4) and BP (6.3) whereas the smallest was recorded in SH diet (5.9), with WCS (6.2) occupying an intermediate position (P = 0.006). Total

  6. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2–18 Year Olds and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12–18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Brauchla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1 the food sources of fiber in children, (2 the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3 the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible diet reports (N=4,667 and stratified by 2–11 year olds (n=2072 and 12–18 year olds (n=2595. Results showed that the food sources are predominantly foods that are low in dietary fiber, but are consumed at high levels. In 2–18 year old plausible reporters, the risk for overweight/obesity decreased by 17% from children in the medium tertile of fiber density intake compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.83, P value = 0.043 and by 21% between the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR=0.79, P value = 0.031. There was a protective effect of being in the medium tertile of dietary fiber density (OR=0.68, P value <0.001 on impaired glucose metabolism. These results indicate a beneficial effect of higher fiber density in children’s diets.

  7. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2–18 Year Olds) and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12–18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003–2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchla, Mary; Juan, WenYen; Story, Jon; Kranz, Sibylle

    2012-01-01

    Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1) the food sources of fiber in children, (2) the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3) the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible diet reports (N = 4,667) and stratified by 2–11 year olds (n = 2072) and 12–18 year olds (n = 2595). Results showed that the food sources are predominantly foods that are low in dietary fiber, but are consumed at high levels. In 2–18 year old plausible reporters, the risk for overweight/obesity decreased by 17% from children in the medium tertile of fiber density intake compared to the lowest tertile (OR = 0.83, P value = 0.043) and by 21% between the highest compared to the lowest tertile (OR = 0.79, P value = 0.031). There was a protective effect of being in the medium tertile of dietary fiber density (OR = 0.68, P value fiber density in children's diets. PMID:22957219

  8. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    Fiber digestibility is an important factor regulating DMI in ruminants. Additionally, the ensiling process can also affect digestibility and chemical composition of the forage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of sugarcane NDF digestibility (NDFD) and conservation method on intake, rumen kinetics, and the ruminal ecosystem of steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (275±22 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDFD were used: IAC86-2480 with high NDFD and SP91-1049 with low NDFD. Experimental diets were formulated with 40% sugarcane, either freshly cut or as silage, and 60% concentrate on a DM basis. Each experimental period lasted for 14 d, with the last 4 d used for determination of intake, ruminal evacuation, and ruminal fluid collection. The effect of fiber digestibility on DM and NDF intake was dependent on the forage conservation method (P=0.01). High NDFD increased (P<0.01) DMI only when sugarcane was offered as silage, having no effect (P=0.41) on DMI when offered as freshly cut. Conservation method had no effect on total ruminal mass, with only a tendency (P<0.10) for greater NDF and indigestible NDF ruminal mass in steers fed the low-NDFD genotype. The NDF turnover and passage rates were greater (P<0.05) for the genotype with high NDFD but only when offered as silage. Liquid turnover rate in the rumen was greater (P=0.02) for diets containing silage, with no effect of genotype (P=0.87). There was no effect of NDFD genotype on ruminal pH (P=0.77); however, diets containing sugarcane as silage increased (P<0.01) ruminal pH. Total concentration of short chain fatty acids (P=0.05) and proportions of propionate (P=0.01) were greater for diets containing fresh sugarcane. Diets with fresh sugarcane increased the ruminal population of Streptococcus bovis (P<0.01) and Ruminococcus albus (P=0.03). The relative population

  9. Dietary fiber intake and head and neck cancer risk: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Turati, Federica; Parpinel, Maria; Decarli, Adriano; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Hashibe, Mia; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Edefonti, Valeria

    2017-11-01

    The possible role of dietary fiber in the etiology of head neck cancers (HNCs) is unclear. We used individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, to examine the association between fiber intake and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Odds Ratios (ORs) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression applied to quintile categories of non-alcohol energy-adjusted fiber intake and adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use and other known or putative confounders. Fiber intake was inversely associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer combined (OR for 5th vs. 1st quintile category = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.40-0.59; p for trend <0.001) and with laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.82, p for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral and pharyngeal cancer combined. Nonetheless, inverse associations were consistently observed for the subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancers and within most strata of the considered covariates, for both cancer sites. Our findings from a multicenter large-scale pooled analysis suggest that, although in the presence of between-study heterogeneity, a greater intake of fiber may lower HNC risk. © 2017 UICC.

  10. Cost-of-illness analysis reveals potential healthcare savings with reductions in type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease following recommended intakes of dietary fiber in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohammad M. H.; Gyles, Collin L.; Marinangeli, Christopher P. F.; Carlberg, Jared G.; Jones, Peter J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are leading causes of mortality and two of the most costly diet-related ailments worldwide. Consumption of fiber-rich diets has been repeatedly associated with favorable impacts on these co-epidemics, however, the healthcare cost-related economic value of altered dietary fiber intakes remains poorly understood. In this study, we estimated the annual cost savings accruing to the Canadian healthcare system in association with reductions in T2D and CVD rates, separately, following increased intakes of dietary fiber by adults. Methods: A three-step cost-of-illness analysis was conducted to identify the percentage of individuals expected to consume fiber-rich diets in Canada, estimate increased fiber intakes in relation to T2D and CVD reduction rates, and independently assess the potential annual savings in healthcare costs associated with the reductions in rates of these two epidemics. The economic model employed a sensitivity analysis of four scenarios (universal, optimistic, pessimistic, and very pessimistic) to cover a range of assumptions within each step. Results: Non-trivial healthcare and related savings of CAD$35.9-$718.8 million in T2D costs and CAD$64.8 million–$1.3 billion in CVD costs were calculated under a scenario where cereal fiber was used to increase current intakes of dietary fiber to the recommended levels of 38 g per day for men and 25 g per day for women. Each 1 g per day increase in fiber consumption resulted in annual CAD$2.6 to $51.1 million savings for T2D and $4.6 to $92.1 million savings for CVD. Conclusion: Findings of this analysis shed light on the economic value of optimal dietary fiber intakes. Strategies to increase consumers’ general knowledge of the recommended intakes of dietary fiber, as part of healthy diet, and to facilitate stakeholder synergy are warranted to enable better management of healthcare and related costs associated with T2D and CVD in Canada. PMID

  11. Low-energy density and high fiber intake are dietary concerns in female endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melin, Anna Katarina; Tornberg, Å B; Skouby, Sven O.

    2016-01-01

    of athletes with LEA and/or FHA. Endurance athletes (n = 45) were recruited from national teams and competitive clubs. Protocols included gynecological examination, body composition, eating disorder evaluation, and 7-day dietary intake and EA assessment. Athletes with disordered eating behavior/eating...

  12. Intake of rye bread ileostomists increases ileal excretion of fiber polysaccharide components and organic acids but does not increase plasma or urine lignans and isoflavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, D; Aman, P; Knudsen, K E; Lundin, E; Zhang, J X; Hallmans, G; Härkönen, H; Adlercreutz, H

    1996-06-01

    The excretion of starch, enzyme-resistant starch, dietary fiber components and organic acids (short-chain fatty acids plus lactic acid) as well as plasma and urine lignans and isoflavonoids was studied in eight ileostomists consuming mixed diets with wheat bread (low fiber diet) or rye bread (high fiber diet) in a crossover design. Average ileal excretions of enzyme-available starch were 3.5 g/d during the low fiber period and 4.1 g/d during the high fiber period. The excretion of enzyme-resistant starch was approximately the same (2.3 g/d) in both periods. In comparison with intake, similar amounts of total fiber residues were excreted both by subjects receiving the low fiber diet (3.4 g/d) and by those receiving the high fiber diet (2.7 g/d). However, subjects excreted significantly more of certain polysaccharide residues (fucose, galactose, and uronic acids) than they ingested. On average, the excretion of organic acids was 18.6 mmol/d during the low fiber period and 30.2 mmol/d during the high fiber period. No significant differences in plasma lignans were observed between the high fiber and the low fiber dietary periods. The present findings indicate that enzyme-available starch is highly digested and that a microbial breakdown of dietary fibers and probably other carbohydrates occurs in the small intestine. However, the bacterial activity in the ileostomists was not sufficient to cause an increased level in plasma lignans even when subjects consumed the high fiber rye diet.

  13. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  14. Modeling dietary fiber intakes in US adults: implications for public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to simulate the application of the dietary recommendations to increase dietary fiber (DF)-containing foods. This study used 24-hour dietary recalls from NHANES 2003-2006 to model the impact of different approaches of increasing DF with current dietary patterns of US adults...

  15. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedirko, V.; Lukanova, A.; Bamia, C.; Trichopolou, A.; Trepo, E.; Noethlings, U.; Schlesinger, S.; Aleksandrova, K.; Boffetta, P.; Tjonneland, A.; Johnsen, N. F.; Overvad, K.; Fagherazzi, G.; Racine, A.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Grote, V.; Kaaks, R.; Boeing, H.; Naska, A.; Adarakis, G.; Valanou, E.; Palli, D.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Siersema, P. D.; Peeters, P. H.; Weiderpass, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Quiros, J. R.; Zamora-Ros, R.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Huerta, J. M.; Barricarte, A.; Johansen, D.; Lindkvist, B.; Sund, M.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Chuang, S. C.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.; Werner, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellula

  16. Filling America's fiber intake gap: Summary of a roundtable to probe realistic solutions with a focus on grain-based foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current fiber intakes are alarmingly low, with long-term implications for public health related to risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, certain gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, and the continuum of metabolic dysfunctions including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. With more than ...

  17. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    2005-01-01

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  18. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Affenito, SG; Thompson, DR; Barton, BA; Franko, DL; Daniels, [No Value; Obarzanek, E; Schreiber, GB; Striegel-Moore, RH

    Objective To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Design Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal

  19. Fiber fractions intake and digestibility for pregnant ewes with nutritional restriction or not Consumo e digestibilidade aparente das frações fibrosas por ovelhas gestantes submetidas ou não à restrição nutricional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veridiana Basoni da Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The fibrous fractions intake and digestibility in pregnant ewes submitted or not to nutritional restriction. 73 ewes were used at different pregnancy stages, with different fetuses numbers and 10 non-pregnant ewes, all of Santa Ines breed. Animals were submitted or not to nutritional restriction in accordance with the treatments. Animal nutritional requirements were calculated according to recommendations for predicted dry matter intake, energy (total digestible nutrients, TDN and crude protein (CP. From the animals which received nutritional restriction were removed 15% of energy (TDN and crude protein requirements. Ewes diet was composed by maize meal (Zea mays, soybean meal (Glycine max, Tifton chopped hay (Cynodon spp. and limestone. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 2 x 2 x 4 factorial arrangement. Fetuses number influenced on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and acid detergent fiber. Nutritional restriction, as expected, reduced dry matter intake and, consequently, apparent digestibility of nutrients studied. Cellulose intake was influenced significantly during pregnancy by the number of fetuses and nutritional management. It was observed that body size, age and fetuses number influenced in the capacity of neutral detergent fiber intake. This fact shows that ewes which did not reach the full growth should receive special attention with quantity and especially with forage quality.Objetivou-se avaliar o consumo e a digestibilidade das frações fibrosas por ovelhas gestantes mantidas ou não sob restrição nutricional. Foram utilizadas 73 ovelhas em diferentes fases da gestação, com diferentes números de fetos, e 10 ovelhas não prenhes, todas da raça Santa Inês. Os animais foram submetidos ou não à restrição nutricional de acordo com os tratamentos. As exigências nutricionais dos animais foram calculadas segundo as recomendações para consumo de matéria seca, energia

  20. Glycemic index, glycemic load, dietary carbohydrate, and dietary fiber intake and risk of liver and biliary tract cancers in Western Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedirko, V; Lukanova, A; Bamia, C; Trichopolou, A; Trepo, E; Nöthlings, U; Schlesinger, S; Aleksandrova, K; Boffetta, P; Tjønneland, A; Johnsen, N F; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Racine, A; Boutron-Ruault, M C; Grote, V; Kaaks, R; Boeing, H; Naska, A; Adarakis, G; Valanou, E; Palli, D; Sieri, S; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Panico, S; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Siersema, P D; Peeters, P H; Weiderpass, E; Skeie, G; Engeset, D; Quirós, J R; Zamora-Ros, R; Sánchez, M J; Amiano, P; Huerta, J M; Barricarte, A; Johansen, D; Lindkvist, B; Sund, M; Werner, M; Crowe, F; Khaw, K T; Ferrari, P; Romieu, I; Chuang, S C; Riboli, E; Jenab, M

    2013-02-01

    The type and quantity of dietary carbohydrate as quantified by glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), and dietary fiber may influence the risk of liver and biliary tract cancers, but convincing evidence is lacking. The association between dietary GI/GL and carbohydrate intake with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; N = 191), intrahepatic bile duct (IBD; N = 66), and biliary tract (N = 236) cancer risk was investigated in 477 206 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Dietary intake was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from proportional hazard models. HBV/HCV status was measured in a nested case-control subset. Higher dietary GI, GL, or increased intake of total carbohydrate was not associated with liver or biliary tract cancer risk. For HCC, divergent risk estimates were observed for total sugar = 1.43 (1.17-1.74) per 50 g/day, total starch = 0.70 (0.55-0.90) per 50 g/day, and total dietary fiber = 0.70 (0.52-0.93) per 10 g/day. The findings for dietary fiber were confirmed among HBV/HCV-free participants [0.48 (0.23-1.01)]. Similar associations were observed for IBD [dietary fiber = 0.59 (0.37-0.99) per 10 g/day], but not biliary tract cancer. Findings suggest that higher consumption of dietary fiber and lower consumption of total sugars are associated with lower HCC risk. In addition, high dietary fiber intake could be associated with lower IBD cancer risk.

  1. INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF Andropogon gayanus HAY AT THREE DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cayô Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, fiber fractions, energy, and the nitrogen balance of Andropogon gayanus hay at three different stages (56, 84 and 112 days. The statistical design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates. Dry matter, fiber fractions, and energy apparent digestibility were higher (P<0.05 for hay harvested at 56 and 84 days. Crude protein intake and apparent digestibility of A. gayanus hay harvested at 56 days of growth were greater (P<0.05 than the hay harvested at 84 and 112 days. The A. gayanus hay showed the best voluntary intake and digestibility at 56 and 84 days of age. Keywords: forage; nutritive value; sheep.

  2. Utilização da fibra bruta na nutrição da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Effect of crude fiber on the nutrition of piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus

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    Evoy Zaniboni Filho

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho da piracanjuba, quando arraçoada com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra bruta. Empregou-se um lote de 60 alevinos, com peso médio de 17,40±3,06g e comprimento padrão médio de 11,70±0,73cm, alojados em 12 aquários circulares de fibra de vidro com capacidade para 150L e numa lotação de cinco peixes por aquário, com abastecimento de água proporcionado por um sistema de circulação fechada. Utilizaram-se rações com semelhante composição em proteína (32%, níveis de energia que variaram de 3.037 a 3.356 kcal ED/kg de ração e níveis crescentes de fibra bruta (5%, 7%, 8% e 9% por 105 dias. Constatou-se que os peixes apresentaram melhor resposta de ganho de peso, quando arraçoados com dietas contendo 9% de fibra bruta e que a utilização de níveis de fibra bruta, acima dos convencionalmente empregados, proporcionou baixos níveis de gordura na carcaça, sem que houvesse prejuízos ao desempenho zootécnico, e que as rações podem ser elaboradas empregando-se subprodutos de origem vegetal ricos em fibra bruta.The present experiment evaluated the performance of Brycon orbignyanus fed on diets with different levels of crude fiber. Fish with mean weight of 17.40±3.06 g and total length of 11.70±0,73cm were stocked in 12 fiberglass aquariums (150 L fitted with center standpipes in a recirculating system at a density of 5 fish/aquarium. The fish were fed four diets containing similar levels of protein (32%, energy levels varyng from 3,037 to 3,356 kcal DE/kg, and crude fiber levels of 5%; 7%; 85 and 9% for 105 days. The fish had better weight gain when fed diet containing 9% of crude fiber, and it can be concluded that fish fed diets containing higher levels of crude fiber than usually used result in fish with less fat on carcass without loss of growth, and by products of plant origin rich in fiber could be used to produce diets for this kind of fish.

  3. Cardiometabolic risk factors are associated with high urinary enterolactone concentration, independent of urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenfeld, Cara L

    2014-09-01

    The study objective was to evaluate independent and interactive associations of dietary fiber intake and high urinary enterolignans with cardiometabolic risk factors. The analysis included 2260 adults (≥20 y of age) from the 2003-2010 NHANES. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate obesity and clinically defined cardiometabolic risk factors in relation to dietary fiber intake and urinary enterolignan concentrations. Three sets of models were created: 1) independent associations, 2) mutually adjusted associations, and 3) interactions. Models were adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking status, and energy intake. High concentrations were considered to be above the 90th percentile of urinary enterolignan concentrations. Increasing dietary fiber intake was associated with high blood pressure (P = 0.02) and low serum HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.03). High urinary enterodiol concentration was not associated with obesity or cardiometabolic risk factors. High urinary enterolactone concentration was inversely associated with obesity (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.66), abdominal obesity (OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.87), high serum C-reactive protein (CRP; OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74), high serum triglycerides (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), low serum HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.61), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.74). In mutually adjusted models, enterolactone associations observed in independent models remained similar, but associations for dietary fiber intake were attenuated, with the exception of blood pressure. In interaction models, there were 2 significant interactions: between high urinary enterodiol concentration and dietary fiber intake for high serum CRP (P = 0.04) and high plasma glucose (P = 0.04). Overall, being in the highest 10% of urinary enterolactone concentration was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of dietary fiber intake and enterodiol concentration. Future studies are

  4. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

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    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  5. A high intake of dietary fiber influences C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, but not glucose and lipid metabolism, in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson-Persson, Anna; Ulmius, Matilda; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Karhu, Toni; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Onning, Gunilla

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how a diet high in dietary fiber, with several fiber sources included, modulates glucose and lipid metabolism and the inflammatory response in humans. Subjects (n = 25) aged 58.6 (1.1) years (mean and SD) with a BMI of 26.6 (0.5) kg/m(2) and a total cholesterol (TC) of 5.8 (0.1) mmol/L (mean and SEM) were given a high fiber (HF) and low fiber (LF) diet, in a randomized controlled 5-week crossover intervention, separated by a 3-week washout. The HF diet consisted of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber incorporated into test food products; one bread roll, one ready meal, and two beverages consumed daily. Equivalent food products, without added fibers, were provided in the LF diet. Total dietary fiber intake was 48.0 g and 30.2 g per day for the HF and LF diet, respectively. Significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) was observed between the diets (P = 0.017) and a significant reduction in fibrinogen within the HF diet (P = 0.044). There were no significant effects in other measured circulating cytokines or in glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. Our study suggests that a 5-week high dietary fiber intake of oat bran, rye bran, and sugar beet fiber might reduce the low-grade inflammatory response measured as CRP which could, together with reduced fibrinogen, help to prevent the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. The effects of dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Defa; Liu, Ling; Zang, Jianjun; Duan, Qiwu; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2013-04-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of total dietary fiber level on nutrient digestibility and the relationship between apparent total tract digestibility of total dietary fiber, and soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and available energy. Sugar beet pulp was as the only fiber source. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 6 Latin square with an adaptation period of 7 d followed by a 5-d total collection of feces and urine. Feed intake tended to decrease (P =0.10) as total dietary fiber level increased. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy decreased (P fiber increased but the digestibility of soluble dietary fiber and insoluble dietary fiber increased (P fiber increased.

  7. Validation of an in vitro model for predicting rumen and total-tract fiber digestibility in dairy cows fed corn silages with different in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibilities at 2 levels of dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2015-01-01

    An in vivo study was performed to validate an in vitro procedure that predicts rate of fiber digestion and total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility (TTNDFD). Two corn silages that differed in fiber digestibility were used in this trial. The corn silage with lower fiber digestibility (LFDCS) had the TTNDFD prediction of 36.0% of total NDF, whereas TTNDFD for the corn silage with higher fiber digestibility (HFDCS) was 44.9% of total neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Two diets (1 with LFDCS and 1 with HFDCS) were formulated and analyzed using the in vitro assay to predict the TTNDFD and rumen potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) digestion rate. Similar diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, high-producing dairy cows in 2 replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. A 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with main effects of intake (restricted to approximately 90% of ad libitum intake vs. ad libitum) and corn silage of different fiber digestibility. Treatments were restricted and ad libitum LFDCS as well as restricted and ad libitum HFDCS. The input and output values predicted from the in vitro model were compared with in vivo measurements. The pdNDF intake predicted by the in vitro model was similar to pdNDF intake observed in vivo. Also, the pdNDF digestion rate predicted in vitro was similar to what was observed in vivo. The in vitro method predicted TTNDFD of 50.2% for HFDCS and 42.9% for LFDCS as a percentage of total NDF in the diets, whereas the in vivo measurements of TTNDFD averaged 50.3 and 48.6% of total NDF for the HFDCS and LFDCS diets, respectively. The in vitro TTNDFD assay predicted total-tract NDF digestibility of HFDCS diets similar to the digestibility observed in vivo, but for LFDCS diets the assay underestimated the digestibility compared with in vivo. When the in vitro and in vivo measurements were compared without intake effect (ad libitum and restricted) considering only diet effect of silage fiber

  8. Associations of dietary fiber intake with long-term predicted cardiovascular disease risk and C-reactive protein levels (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data [2005-2010]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hongyan; Van Horn, Linda; Shay, Christina M; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2014-01-15

    Dietary fiber intake might reduce cardiovascular risk factor levels and, in turn, might lower the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A total of 11,113 subjects, aged 20 to 79 years with no history of CVD, from the 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in the present study to examine associations of dietary fiber intake with predicted lifetime CVD risk and C-reactive protein levels. Dietary fiber intake showed a significant gradient association with the likelihood of having a low or an intermediate predicted lifetime CVD risk among young and middle-age adults. In fully adjusted multinomial logistic models, dietary fiber intake was related to a low lifetime CVD risk with an odds ratio of 2.71 (95% confidence interval 2.05 to 3.59) in the young adults and 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.42 to 3.20) in the middle-age adults and was related to an intermediate lifetime risk of 2.65 (95% confidence interval 1.79 to 3.92) in the young and 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.32 to 2.98) in the middle-age adults compared with a high lifetime risk. A significant inverse linear association was seen between dietary fiber intake and log-transformed C-reactive protein levels with a regression coefficient ± standard error of -0.18 ± 0.04 in the highest quartile of fiber intake compared with the lowest fiber intake. In conclusion, these data suggest that dietary fiber intake is independently associated with the predicted lifetime CVD risk, especially in young and middle-age adults. A greater amount of dietary fiber intake might be associated with lower C-reactive protein levels.

  9. Higher intake of fruits, vegetables or their fiber reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Yu; Fang, Jun-Chao; Gao, Zong-Hua; Zhang, Can; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies reported no significant association of consuming fruit or vegetables, or fruit and vegetables combined, with type 2 diabetes. Others reported that only a greater intake of green leafy vegetables reduced the risk of type 2 diabetes. To further investigate the relationship between them, we carried out a meta-analysis to estimate the independent effects of the intake of fruit, vegetables and fiber on the risk of type 2 diabetes. Searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE for reports of prospective cohort studies published from 1 January 1966 to 21 July 2014 were carried out, checking reference lists, hand-searching journals and contacting experts. The primary analysis included a total of 23 (11 + 12) articles. The pooled maximum-adjusted relative risk of type 2 diabetes for the highest intake vs the lowest intake were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87-0.96) for total fruits, 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.84) for blueberries, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93) for green leafy vegetables, 0.72 (95% CI 0.57-0.90) for yellow vegetables, 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cruciferous vegetables and 0.93 (95% CI 0.88-0.99) for fruit fiber in these high-quality studies in which scores were seven or greater, and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80-0.94) for vegetable fiber in studies with a follow-up period of 10 years or more. A higher intake of fruit, especially berries, and green leafy vegetables, yellow vegetables, cruciferous vegetables or their fiber is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affenito, Sandra G; Thompson, Douglas R; Barton, Bruce A; Franko, Debra L; Daniels, Stephen R; Obarzanek, Eva; Schreiber, George B; Striegel-Moore, Ruth H

    2005-06-01

    To describe age- and race-related differences in breakfast consumption and to examine the association of breakfast intake with dietary calcium and fiber and body mass index (BMI). Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 9-year, longitudinal biracial cohort study with annual 3-day food records. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study recruited 2,379 girls (1,166 white and 1,213 African American), aged 9 or 10 years at baseline for an observational study. Retention rates were very high at visits two through four (96%, 94%, and 91%), but declined to a low of 82% at visit seven, and increased to 89% at visit 10. Frequency of breakfast consumption, dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI. Generalized estimation equations methodology was used to examine differences in the frequency of breakfast eating by age and race. Generalized estimation equations analyses were also conducted to test whether breakfast consumption was predictive of intake of dietary calcium and fiber, and BMI, adjusting for potentially confounding effects of site, age, race, parental education, physical activity, and total energy intake. Frequency of breakfast eating declined with age, white girls reported more frequent breakfast consumption than African-American girls, and the racial difference decreased with increasing age. Days eating breakfast were associated with higher calcium and fiber intake in all models, regardless of adjustment variables. Days eating breakfast were predictive of lower BMI in models that adjusted for basic demographics (ie, site, age, and race), but the independent effect of breakfast was no longer significant after parental education, energy intake, and physical activity were added to the model. Dietetics professionals need to promote the importance of consuming breakfast to all children and adolescents, especially African-American girls.

  11. Dietary fiber intake is associated with HbA1c level among prevalent patients with type 2 diabetes in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China.

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    Junyi Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary factors play an important role in glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, little is known about their effects among Chinese diabetic patients, whose diets are typically abundant in fiber and high in glycemic index (GI values. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 934 patients with type 2 diabetes and 918 healthy volunteers from Pudong New Area, Shanghai, China, were interviewed during the period of Oct-Dec, 2006 to elicit demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary habits were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements, bio-specimen collection and biochemical assays were conducted at the interview according to a standard protocol. In this population, diabetic patients consumed lower levels of energy and macronutrients but had higher levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycolated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, triglyceride and body mass index than healthy adults. While the average consumption levels of the nutrients among diabetic patients did not vary along duration of the disease, the average levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with increasing duration. Regardless of diabetes duration, HbA1c level was observed lower in patients having a higher fiber or lower GI intake. Compared with those with the lowest tertile intake of fiber, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs for poor glycemic control reduced from 0.75 (95%CI: 0.54-1.06 to 0.51 (95%CI: 0.34-0.75 with increasing tertile intake (P for trend <0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary fiber may play an important role in reducing HbA1c level. Increasing fiber intake may be an effective approach to improve glycemic control among Chinese diabetic patients.

  12. Níveis de concentrado e proteína bruta na dieta de bovinos Nelore nas fases de recria e terminação: consumo e digestibilidade Concentrate and crude protein levels in growing Nelore bulls diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Vinhas Ítavo

    2002-04-01

    with 360 kg in the finishing phase. The treatments were four concentrate levels (20, 40, 60, and 80% and two percentages of crude protein (15 and 18% in the diets. It was used an experimental design randomized, with four replicates, in the growing, phase and two, in the finish phase. It was used Tifton 85' bermudagrass hay as roughage. In growing phase, the maximum dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and total carbohydrates (TCHO intakes of 7.60, 7.23, 1.30, and 5.77 kg/day were estimated for 45.94, 46.94, 40.91, and 48.18% of concentrate, respectively. The fiber intake presented linear reduction with the increase of the concentrate level in the diet, while the NDF digestibility did not differ. The TND maximum, 72.33%, was estimated with 40.4% of concentrate and the crude protein content did not effect the nutrient digestibility in the growing phase. In the growing phase, maximum DM, OM, CP and TCHO intakes of 7.60, 7.23, 1.30, and 5.77 kg/day were estimated for 45.94, 46.94, 40.91, and 48.18% of concentrate, respectively. The NDF intake linear by reducted as concentrate level in the diet incresead, while the NDF digestibility did not differ. In the finishing phase, the DM, CP, NDF and ADF intakes were linearly reduced was the concentrate levels increased, while the OM, TCHO and TDN intakes were not affected. The DM and TCHO digestibility linearly increased, while the CP and EE were not affected by the concentrate levels in the diets.

  13. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  14. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  15. Association of Self-efficacy and Decisional Balance with Stages of Change for Fiber Intake and Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Keshani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Constructs of behavioral models such as trans-theoretical model can be associated with healthy eating behaviors like increasing fiber intake. They can also be effective in improving these behaviors in patients with diabetes. This study aimed to assess the association of self-efficacy and decisional balance with stages of change for fiber intake and glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 145 literate male and female patients with type 2 diabetes (aged 30 to 65 years they were randomly selected from the patients’ list of “Charity Foundation for Special Diseases” and ”Iranian Diabetes Society” in Tehran-Iran. Stages of change, self-efficacy, and decisional balance questionnaires were filled out, and three food records were used to assess their nutritional status. Blood samples were taken to assess fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and insulin resistance. One-way ANOVA and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. The tests were done using the SPSS software (ver. 16. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: 126 patients with type 2 diabetes completed the study. Participants’ mean age was 53.5±6.02 and 65% were men. Patients in post-action stages revealed higher self-efficacy than did those in pre-action stages (P=0.035. A relationship was observed between insulin resistance and self-efficacy (P=0.040. One unit increase in self-efficacy decreased the risk of insulin resistance by 12%, and each unit increase in decisional balance increased the chance of eating sufficient fiber by 2.2 times. There was also a significant relationship between the perceived cons (P<0.0001 and self-efficacy (P=0.037 with fiber intake after adjustment with confounders. Conclusions: This study suggests that there is a relationship between transtheoretical model constructs such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, especially cons, with

  16. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, U; Bruun, T S; Poulsen, J; Theil, P K

    2017-06-01

    Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact on feed intake, plasma metabolites, milk production and litter performance. Backfat thickness and BW of sows were recorded on days 3, 17 and 28 of lactation; blood was sampled on days 3 and 17; milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10, 17 and 24 of lactation; and piglets were weighed on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of lactation. Litter gain and milk yield during late lactation were greater in sows fed C8TG or SOYO than in sows fed PFAD (P=0.05), whereas loss of BW (P=0.60) and backfat (P=0.70) was unaffected by fat source. Milk protein on days 3 and 10 of lactation were lower in C8TG and SOYO sows, than in PFAD sows (Psows. Milk yield was unaffected by fiber treatment (P=0.43), whereas milk protein concentration was lowest in ALF sows (Psows. In conclusion, performance was enhanced in SOYO and C8TG compared with PFAD sows, possibly associated with reduced energy intake in PFAD-fed sows. Furthermore, the SBP diet seemed to impair feed intake and litter gain at peak lactation, suggesting that effects of the dietary fiber fraction on energy intake determines the potential

  17. Dietary fiber and saturated fat intake associations with cardiovascular disease differ by sex in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallström, Peter; Sonestedt, Emily; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Persson, Margaretha; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations between intake of macronutrients and dietary fiber and incident ischemic cardiovascular disease (iCVD) in men and women. We used data from 8,139 male and 12,535 female participants (aged 44-73 y) of the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. The participants were without history of CVD and diabetes mellitus, and had reported stable dietary habits in the study questionnaire. Diet was assessed by a validated modified diet history method, combining a 7-d registration of cooked meals and cold beverages, a 168-item food questionnaire (covering other foods and meal patterns), and a 1-hour diet interview. Sociodemographic and lifestyle data were collected by questionnaire. iCVD cases, which included coronary events (myocardial infarctions or deaths from chronic ischemic heart disease) and ischemic strokes, were ascertained via national and local registries. Nutrient-disease associations were examined by multivariate Cox regressions. During a mean follow-up of 13.5 years, we identified 1,089 male and 687 female iCVD cases. High fiber intakes were associated with lower incidence rates of iCVD in women and of ischemic stroke in men. In post-hoc analysis, we discovered statistically significant interactions between intake of fiber and saturated fat; these interactions also differed between men and women (p<0.001). In this well-defined population, a high fiber intake was associated with lower risk of iCVD, but there were no robust associations between other macronutrients and iCVD risk. Judging from this study, gender-specific nutrient analysis may be preferable in epidemiology.

  18. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    , and body weight change over 3 years among Danish children. METHODS: Multiple regression analyses were performed using anthropometric and dietary data of 398 boys and girls (8-10 years) who were enrolled in 1997/1998 and followed up in 2000/2001. Validated 24-hour recall interviews were conducted in order......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27......OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...

  19. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-02

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake-probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior.

  20. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e desempenho de vacas leiteiras em pastejo com dietas com diversos níveis de concentrado e proteína bruta Intake, apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of milking cows under pasture as a function of levels of concentrate and crude protein in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Viana da Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de quatro níveis de concentrado - NC (0, 1, 3 e 5 kg/vaca/dia e dois de proteína bruta - PB (11 e 13% na matéria seca total sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade e o desempenho de vacas leiteiras. Utilizaram-se oito vacas mestiças Holandês-Zebu com 520 ± 40 kg, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 8 × 8 em oito períodos de 10 dias para avaliação dos efeitos de tratamento, animal e período. O experimento foi conduzido em pastagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum na estação chuvosa e os concentrados foram constituídos de fubá de milho, farelo de soja, ureia e mistura mineral. O consumo de matéria seca (MS não diferiu entre os tratamentos e o consumo do pasto tendeu a diminuir com o aumento de NC. Os consumos de PB e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF aumentaram de acordo com os NC e PB na dieta, enquanto os consumos de nutrientes digestíveis totais, CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e extrato etéreo aumentaram somente com aumento de NC. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD da MS e CNF aumentaram e diminuíram, respectivamente, com o aumento do NC, enquanto o CD da PB aumentou com os NC e PB e o CD da FDN aumentou com o nível de PB na dieta. A produção de leite aumentou somente com os NC. Os constituintes do leite não foram influenciados pelos NC, mas houve aumento do teor de lactose e extrato seco do leite com o aumento da PB na dieta. Vacas em pastagem no período das águas e produzindo 12 kg de leite/dia podem receber dietas contendo 11% de PB e a resposta à suplementação é baixa, variando de 0,63 a 0,22 kg de leite/kg de concentrado, em comparação aos 2,2 kg/kg sugerido pelo NRC 2001 de gado de leite.The effects of four levels of concentrate - LC (0, 1, 3 and 5 kg/cow/day and two of crude protein - CP (11 and 13% crude protein in total dry matter on the intake, digestibility and performance of milking cows were evaluated. Eight crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows with 520 ± 40 kg were

  1. Soluble Fiber with High Water-Binding Capacity, Swelling Capacity, and Fermentability Reduces Food Intake by Promoting Satiety Rather Than Satiation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Zhao, Xichen; Xu, Chuanhui; Zhou, Yuanfei; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    To understand whether soluble fiber (SF) with high water-binding capacity (WBC), swelling capacity (SC) and fermentability reduces food intake and whether it does so by promoting satiety or satiation or both, we investigated the effects of different SFs with these properties on the food intake in rats. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four equal groups and fed the control diet or diet containing 2% konjac flour (KF), pregelatinized waxy maize starch (PWMS) plus guar gum (PG), and PWMS starch plus xanthan gum (PX) for three weeks, with the measured values of SF, WBC, and SC in the four diets following the order of PG > KF > PX > control. Food intake, body weight, meal pattern, behavioral satiety sequence, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal content were evaluated. KF and PG groups reduced the food intake, mainly due to the decreased feeding behavior and increased satiety, as indicated by decreased meal numbers and increased inter-meal intervals. Additionally, KF and PG groups increased concentrations of acetate acid, propionate acid, and SCFAs in the cecal contents. Our results indicate that SF with high WBC, SC, and fermentability reduces food intake—probably by promoting a feeling of satiety in rats to decrease their feeding behavior. PMID:27706095

  2. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  3. Fibra bruta e óleo em dietas práticas para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Crude fiber and oil in diets for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste estudo, avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de fibra bruta e de óleo de soja em rações para a tilápia do Nilo. Utilizaram-se 24 aquários circulares de 250 L, dotados de sistema individual de reabastecimento de água e aquecimento. A densidade de estocagem foi de sete peixes/aquário, totalizando 168 peixes, com peso inicial médio de 6,41±0,05 g. Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar aparente, taxa de crescimento específico e taxa de eficiência protéica foram avaliados. Foram analisados a composição química e o rendimento de carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático dos peixes. O experimento foi realizado segundo um esquema fatorial 3 x 2 (três níveis de fibra bruta 6,00; 9,00 e 12,00%, com e sem óleo de soja no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que a fibra interfere de forma significativa na digestibilidade aparente da dieta, com ação positiva para a proteína e negativa para a matéria seca, não interferindo na digestibilidade do extrato etéreo; que a fibra bruta não tem efeito significativo sobre o rendimento de carcaça e no depósito de gordura visceral, mas a inclusão de óleo à ração tem efeito significativo no depósito de gordura visceral; que a fibra resulta em efeito significativo na composição química da carcaça (teor de água e proteína, não tendo efeito sobre sua composição em gordura; e que a inclusão de gordura à ração diminui e eleva de forma significativa, respectivamente, o conteúdo de proteína e extrato etéreo da carcaça. Concluiu-se que, na fase de alevinagem (6,40 a 31,00g, pode-se utilizar na dieta da tilápia do Nilo até 9,00% de fibra bruta, e que a suplementação de níveis excessivos de lipídeos na dieta piora a composição da carcaça e resulta em maior depósito de gordura visceral.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of different crude fiber and soybean oil levels in diets for

  4. Effect of the Ratio of Non-fibrous Carbohydrates to Neutral Detergent Fiber and Protein Structure on Intake, Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation, and Nitrogen Metabolism in Lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, T; Tu, Y; Zhang, N F; Deng, K D; Diao, Q Y

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of the ratio of non-fibrous carbohydrates to neutral detergent fibre (NFC/NDF) and undegraded dietary protein (UDP) on rumen fermentation and nitrogen metabolism in lambs. Four Dorper×thin-tailed Han crossbred lambs, averaging 62.3±1.9 kg of body weight and 10 mo of age, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments of combinations of two levels of NFC/NDF (1.0 and 1.7) and two levels of UDP (35% and 50% of crude protein [CP]). Duodenal nutrient flows were measured with dual markers of Yb and Co, and microbial N (MN) synthesis was estimated using (15)N. High UDP decreased organic matter (OM) intake (p = 0.002) and CP intake (p = 0.005). Ruminal pH (p<0.001), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N; p = 0.008), and total volatile fatty acids (p<0.001) were affected by dietary NFC/NDF. The ruminal concentration of NH3-N was also affected by UDP (p<0.001). The duodenal flow of total MN (p = 0.007) was greater for lambs fed the high NFC/NDF diet. The amount of metabolisable N increased with increasing dietary NFC:NDF (p = 0.02) or UDP (p = 0.04). In conclusion, the diets with high NFC/NDF (1.7) and UDP (50% of CP) improved metabolisable N supply to lambs.

  5. Nutrients intake and digestibility in sheep fed with residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp

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    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate nutrient intake and digestibility by sheep fed diets containing residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp (RETP. We used four sheep with a mean body weight (BW of 40.38 kg, whose pens were distributed in a Latin square design. The diet treatments contained 0, 5, 10 and 15% of RETP. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and the differences observed were tested using regression equations at 5% significance. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrates (TC, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC,expressed in g day-1, % BW and g kg0,75-1, were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the inclusion of RETP. The intake of ether extract (EE and neutral detergent fiber (NDF showed a linear increase (p<0.05 as RETP content rose. However, the digestibility of DM, CP, TC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN decreased linearly (p<0.05, while the digestibility of EE, NDF, ADF, and NFC, with average values of 62.12%; 79.95%; 41.59%; 37.12%, and 91.57%, respectively, were not significantly affected (p>0.05 when RETP was included in the diet. The inclusion of up to 15% of the residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp changes the intake of ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, and reduced dry matter, crude protein, and total carbohydrates in the sheep’s diet.

  6. Multicompartmental nontargeted LC-MS metabolomics: explorative study on the metabolic responses of rye fiber versus refined wheat fiber intake in plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    A multicompartmental nontargeted LC–MS metabolomics approach was used to study the metabolic responses on plasma and urine of hypercholesterolemic pigs after consumption of diets with contrasting dietary fiber composition (whole grain rye with added rye bran versus refined wheat). To study...... consumption of nonrefined dietary fiber is reflected in higher excretion of phenolic compounds and dicarboxylic acids in urine and lower levels of linoleic acid derived oxylipins and cholesterol in plasma, which can be linked to beneficial health effects of rye components. On the other hand, pro......-inflammatory lipid mediators were detected in higher concentration after rye consumption compared to refined wheat, which is opposite to what would be expected. These may indicate that even though a positive lowering effect with respect to cholesterol and fatty acids was achieved, this effect of rye dietary fiber...

  7. Effects of corn silage hybrids and dietary nonforage fiber sources on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and productive performance of lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J

    2010-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary

  8. Evaluation of Maize Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF, Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF, Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN, Dry Matter Intake (DMI and Net Energy for Lactation (NEL in Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Javanmard

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different intercropping combinations on some maize qualitative traits, an experiment was conducted as a completely randomized block design with three replications in Agricultural Research Station, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, in 2006 and 2007. Two maize (Zea mays L. hybrids (704, 301, vetch (Vicia villosa, bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia, berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris single crops as well as intercrops of maize hybrids with legumes were used. The results showed that neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of forage maize in intercropping with legume decreased. The lowest neutral detergent fiber (NDF was obtained from 301 hybrid-vetch mixture and 301 hybrid –bitter vetch mixture. The NDF was used to predict DMI and was negatively correlated with DMI, which means that when NDF is low the quality and DMI are high. Also, the lowest ADF content was achieved in intercropping of 301 hybrid with bitter vetch, vetch and bean. As ADF decreased there was an increment in TDN, which means that animals are able to utilize the nutrients present in the forage. In conclusion, with the decrease of NDF and ADF in intercrops, DMI, TDN and net energy for lactation (NEL content increased. Intercropping of maize with legume improved the forage quality in terms of TDN, DDM, NEL, NDF and ADF concentrations, as compared with the single cropping of maize.

  9. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-07-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn's disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn's disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn's disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn's disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn's disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn's disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn's disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn's disease patients in remission.

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  11. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P fasting plasma alkylrecorsinol concentrations, a biomarker of whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat.

  12. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  13. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  14. The Effect of High Dietary Fiber Intake on Decrease of Risk of Colorectal Cancer%高纤维膳食对降低结直肠癌发病风险的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑜元

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer( CRC)increases rapidly in recent years. The role of dietary structure in CRC pathogenesis has caught much attention. This review summarizes the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC. Accumulating evidence reveals that up to 90% CRC can be prevented by improvement of dietary structure,and high fiber intake(10-35 g/d)decreases 10%-17% of risk of CRC. All kinds of dietary fiber have preventive effect. So far, dietary fiber intake in Chinese people does not reach the recommended level. Optimization of dietary structure,increase intake of whole grains,vegetable and fruit,addition of fiber to daily food are effective approaches for prevention of CRC.%近年我国结直肠癌( CRC)发病率呈快速升高趋势,饮食结构在其发病中的作用备受关注。本文阐述膳食纤维与CRC的发病关系。资料显示,近90%的CRC可通过合理的饮食加以预防,坚持高纤维膳食(10~35 g/d)人群的CRC发病风险下降10%~17%,各种食物的纤维均有预防作用。目前国人膳食纤维摄入量低于推荐量,调整饮食结构,推广粗粮,多吃蔬果,在传统食品中添加纤维是预防CRC的有效措施。

  15. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite em vacas no terço inicial da lactação alimentadas com níveis crescentes de proteína bruta no concentrado Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas no terço inicial da lactação recebendo dietas contendo níveis crescentes (20; 23; 26 e 29% da matéria natural - MN de proteína bruta (PB no concentrado. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças (Holandês x Zebu, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4. Foram utilizados quatro períodos de 15 dias cada, considerando-se uma semana de adaptação. A dieta consistiu de 60% de silagem de milho como volumoso e 40% de concentrado. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT aumentaram linearmente, enquanto o consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF apresentou redução linear com os níveis de PB no concentrado. As digestibilidades da MS, matéria orgânica (MO, PB e FDN elevaram linearmente em função dos teores de PB. A produção de leite (PL e PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, as quantidades de gordura e proteína e suas concentrações no leite não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB no concentrado. No entanto, a PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura de 29,08 kg/dia foi numericamente superior para o nível de 26% de PB na MN do concentrado. O concentrado contendo 26% de PB utilizado na proporção de 40%, que correspondeu a 15,5% na MS da dieta total, permitiu melhores respostas na produção de leite em vacas produzindo em média 28 kg/dia de leite no terço inicial da lactação e alimentadas com silagem de milho como volumoso.The intake, total apparent digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition were evaluated in early lactation cows fed with increasing levels (20; 23; 26 and 29% natural matter - NM of crude protein (CP in concentrate. Twelve crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three latin square (4x4, in four periods of 15 days each (one week of adaptation. The feeding consisted of 60% of

  16. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun

    2017-01-01

    literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF......Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized.......Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans.Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy...

  17. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... height, mass loss rate and residues of three hydrocarbon liquids (n-octane, dodecane and hexadecane), two crude oils (DUC and REBCO) and one hydrocarbon liquid mixture of the aforementioned hydrocarbon liquids were studied using the Crude Oil Flammability Apparatus. The experimental results were compared...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...

  18. Dietary fiber showed no preventive effect against colon and rectal cancers in Japanese with low fat intake: an analysis from the results of nutrition surveys from 23 Japanese prefectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Fuchs' report in 1999, the reported protective effect of dietary fiber from colorectal carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question its real benefit. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between diet, especially dietary fiber and fat and colorectal cancer in Japan. Methods A multiple regression analysis (using the stepwise variable selection method was performed using the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs of colon and rectal cancer in 23 Japanese prefectures as objective variables and dietary fiber, nutrients and food groups as explanatory variables. Results As for colon cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficients were positively significant for fat (1,13, P = 0.000, seaweeds (0.41, P = 0.026 and beans (0.45, P = 0.017 and were negatively significant for vitamin A (-0.63, P = 0.003, vitamin C (-0.42, P = 0.019 and yellow-green vegetables (-0.37, P = 0.046. For rectal cancer, the standardized partial correlation coefficient in fat (0.60, P = 0.002 was positively significant. Dietary fiber was not found to have a significant relationship with either colon or rectal cancers. Conclusions This study failed to show any protective effect of dietary fiber in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese in this analysis, which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with a high fat intake (US Americans.

  19. Consumo de nutrientes e desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com dietas que contêm diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Intake of nutrients and performance of lambs fed with diets containing different levels of neutral detergent fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Ramos Cardoso

    2006-02-01

    composed of ground corn, soybean meal, common salt, limestone and dicalcium phosphate. The four diets were isoproteic with 17% of crude protein. Twenty lambs, with an average of 42 days old were used in the experiment and slaughtered when they reach 30kg live weight. The experimental design was completely ramdomized, with four treatments and five replications. The intake of nutrients, daily average weigh gain (DWG feed conversion (FC and the number of days to the reachr 30kg of live weight were evaluated. The addition of increasing levels of NDF to the diet caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter (DMI, organic matter (OMI, crude protein (CPI, ethereal extract (EEI, total carbohydrates (TCHOI and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCI. On the other hand, the consumption of neutral detergent fiber (NDFI and acid detergent fiber (ADFI increased linearly with the increase of NDF in the diets. The increase of the fiber level in the diet resulted in linear reduction in DWG and in FC, which caused a linear increase in the amount of days to lambs reach the slaughter weight.

  20. Effects of Dietary Fiber Source and Crude Fiber Level on Nutrient Digestibility, Intestinal Digestive Enzyme Activities and Cecal Microbial Diversity of Meat Rabbits%饲粮纤维源及粗纤维水平对肉兔营养物质消化率、肠道消化酶活性及盲肠菌群多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂芹; 孙佳易; 郭东新; 田河; 李建涛; 潘秀东

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fiber source and crude fiber ( CF) level on nutrient digestibility, intestinal digestive enzyme activities and cecal microbial diversity of meat rabbits. Six diets were formulated according to a two-factor experiment design based on isonitrogenous and isocaloric, one factor was fiber source ( alfalfa hay meal and rice husk meal) , and another was CF level ( 12%, 14% and 16%) . A total of 144 Hyla growing rabbits with the age of 70 to 80 days and average body weight of ( 2 002 ± 77) g were selected and randomly allocated in individual cages for six groups of 4 replicates containing six rab-bits per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 4 weeks. Digestion experiment was conducted by the method of total fecal collection at the end of feeding trial. Afterwards, rabbits were slaughtered, and intestinal contents were sampled and stored for digestive enzyme activities and cecal microbial diversity determination. The results showed as follows:1) meat rabbits fed diets with the alfalfa hay meal as fiber source had significantly higher dry matter ( DM) , CF, acid detergent fiber ( ADF) and acid detergent lignin ( ADL) digestibility compared with meat rabbits fed diets with the rice husk meal as fiber source ( P0.05) , but meat rabbits fed diets with alfalfa hay meal as fiber source had the significantly higher cecal flora species evenness than that of meat rabbits fed diets with rice husk meal as fiber source ( P0.05),但苜蓿草粉组的盲肠菌群均衡指数极显著高于稻壳粉组( P<0.01)。 CF水平对盲肠菌群丰富度和香农指数有显著影响( P<0.05),其中16%CF水平组的数值均为最高。综上所述,在本试验条件下:1)苜蓿草粉组肉兔DM、CF、ADF、ADL 的消化率及盲肠菌群均衡指数显著或极显著高于稻壳粉组,但十二指肠胰蛋白酶活性极显著低于稻壳粉组。2)饲粮CF水平为12%时肉兔的ADE和各主要营养物质的消化率最

  1. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  2. Effect of sun flower oil addition (Helianthus annuus in diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating Garut sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khotijah L

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status of ewes at pre-breeding phase is critical for good reproductive process. Thirty-two ewes Garut sheep (initial body weight 22.5±2.21 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effects of addition of sunflower oil in the diet on nutrient intake, growth performance and characteristics of estrous of pre-mating garut sheep. Ewes were fed grass and supplemented with one of four isonitrogenous high concentrate diets containing four levels of sunflower oil; they were (M0 no addition of sunflower oil; (M1 2% sunflower oil; (M2 4% sunflower oil and (M3 6% sunflower oil addition. Results showed that the addition significantly reduced dry matter intake (p < 0.05, highly significantly reduce crude protein, Ca and P intake (p < 0.01, higly significant increased ether extract intake (p < 0.01 and significantly increased long of estrous (p < 0.05. There was no difference in crude fiber intake, TDN intake, body weight gain, length of estrous onset and response of estrous for ewes fed the four experimental diets. Response on estrous of treatments M0, M1, M2 and M3 were 62.50; 50.00; 75,00 and 62.5% respectively. It is concluded that the addition of sunflower oil up to 6% in the pre-mating ration affects the nutrient intake without interferering the performance, and it tends to improve the charachteristic estrous of Garut ewes.

  3. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on wool production, feeding behavior, and body condition of Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meale, S J; Chaves, A V; Ding, S; Bush, R D; McAllister, T A

    2013-02-01

    The increasing availability of crude glycerin from the biodiesel industry has led to an interest in its use as an energy source in ruminant diets. However, its effects on ruminal fermentation patterns and methane (CH4) production are unclear, and there are no reports on the effect of its inclusion in the diet on wool production or growth of Merino sheep. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of increasing levels of crude glycerin on in vitro ruminal fermentation and CH4 production and DMI, BW, feeding behavior, and wool growth and quality in Merino ewes. Crude glycerin (99.2% pure, colorless, odorless, viscous liquid) replaced whole wheat grain in completely pelleted diets at levels of 0%, 6%, and 12% DM in both in vitro and in vivo studies. For in vitro studies, diets were dried and ground through a 1-mm screen and incubated on 2 different days for 24 h. Modified McDougal's buffer and rumen liquor were mixed 3:1, and gas production and CH4 concentration was measured after 6, 12, and 24 h of incubation with pH and IVDMD measured at 24 h. Cumulative gas (mL/g DM) and methane (mL) production was similar (P ≥ 0.35) among dietary treatments. In vitro dry matter disappearance (%) increased (P glycerin. For the in vivo study, 39 Merino ewes were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 13 ewes/treatment). Pelleted diets were available continuously for a 10-wk period through the use of automatic feeders. Ewes were weighed every 7 d. Wool yield was determined on mid-side patches of 100 cm(2) shorn at d 0 and d 70. Dye bands were used to determine wool growth and fiber length. Intake and ADG were similar among treatments (P = 0.59). Neither wool yield, length, spinning fineness, nor fiber diameter (μm) were affected after supplementation with crude glycerin (P ≥ 0.13). This study indicates the potential for crude glycerin to be included in the diets of Merino sheep at up to 12% DM without negatively affecting wool yield and quality.

  4. Alimentos industrializados en la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos Contribution of processed foods to the energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes of Mexican children aged 1 to 4 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinorah González-Castell

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Clasificar los alimentos consumidos por preescolares mexicanos, en relación con su proceso de elaboración y temporalidad: a industrializados modernos (IM, b industrializados tradicionales (IT y c no industrializados (NI. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Con base en información del recordatorio de 24 horas de la Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición 1999 en niños de 1-4 años (n=1 070 se analizó la contribución de cada categoría de alimentos en energía, macronutrimentos y fibra. RESULTADOS: La contribución de energía a partir de IM e IT, respectivamente, fue: energía, 17 y 31%; proteína total, 14 y 25%; proteína vegetal, 10 y 10%; proteína animal, 17 y 34%; carbohidratos, 18 y 26%; fibra, 4 y 5%; grasa total, 15 y 41%; grasa saturada, 16 y 52%; y colesterol, 7 y 7 por ciento. CONCLUSIONES: Los alimentos industrializados aportan más de 39% de la energía, proteína animal, carbohidratos y grasas a la dieta de los preescolares mexicanos. Se recomienda la participación de la industria alimentaria para prevenir la mala nutrición infantil en México.OBJECTIVE: To classify the foods consumed by Mexican children 1-4 years in three food categories according to the preparation process and temporality: a Processed Modern Foods (PMF, b Processed Traditional Foods (PTF and c Non-Processed Foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls were collected from the National Nutrition Survey 1999 in children 1-4 years (n =1070. The contribution of each food category to the total energy, macronutrient and fiber intakes was analyzed. RESULTS: The contribution of PMF and PTF was as follows, respectively: Energy: 17%, 31%; total protein: 14%, 25%; non-animal protein: 10%, 10%; animal protein: 17%, 34%; carbohydrates: 18%, 26%; fiber: 4%, 5%; total fat 15%, 41%; saturated fat 16%, 52%; and cholesterol 7%, 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The contribution of PF to the diets of Mexican children accounts for >39% of energy, total protein, animal protein

  5. Development and evaluation of semi-purified diets for fiber related studies in Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vajihe emampour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to develop and evaluate a semi-purified diet suitable for fiber related studies without negative impacts on performance, serum biochemistry and intestinal morphology of growing Japanese quails. Total of 144 Japanese quail chicks were used in a factorial arrangement using completely randomized design with 6 treatments, 4 replicates of 6 quails in each replicate. The levels of dietary crude fiber (3.37%, 1.18% and 0.08%, respectively viz. high, medium and low crude fiber diets. The dietary supplementation levels of a commercial feed additive concentrate fiber-Arbocel were considered 0 and 3 %. The medium crude fiber semi-purified diet produced acceptable growth performances comparable to conventional high crude fiber diet. Serum triglyceride concentration was influenced by the levels of dietary crude fiber and the highest level was related to low crude fiber diet which was significantly different from high crude fiber diet (P

  6. Crude glycerin in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the bio-diesel industry, there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of bio-diesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of f...

  7. Crude glycerin for monogastrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the rapid expansion of the biodiesel industry there will be substantial amounts of crude glycerol (the principal co-product of biodiesel production) that will become available for use as a livestock feedstuff. Because glycerol is a precursor to glucose via gluconeogenesis, is a backbone of fat ...

  8. The utilization of crude fish oil (CFO) to increase mudcrab (Scylla serrata) feed quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamid, Mirni; Agustono

    2017-02-01

    Crude fish oil is one of essential fatty acid sources, which is found in Sardinella lemuru. This research aims to study the quality improvement of mudcrab(Scylla serrata) feed. Four feed formulations were designed by using completely randomized design, including P0 = trash fish + 1% tapioca starch; P1=trash fish + 2.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch;, P2= trash fish +4.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P3=trash fish + 6.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch; P4=trash fish +8.0% crude fish oil + 1% tapioca starch, respectively, which were carried out in quadruplicate. This study showed that feed formulation significantly affected crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash, organic matter and nitrogen free extract and energy of mudcrab. The P2 feed was the best formulation but had a slight different from P3 formulation.

  9. Crude oil burning mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Malmquist, L.M.V.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve predictions for the burning efficiency and the residue composition of in-situ burning of crude oil, the burning mechanism of crude oil was studied in relation to the composition of its hydrocarbon mixture, before, during and after the burning. The surface temperature, flame...... to the predictions of four conceptual models that describe the burning mechanism of multicomponent fuels. Based on the comparisons, hydrocarbon liquids were found to be best described by the Equilibrium Flash Vaporization model, showing a constant gas composition and gasification rate. The multicomponent fuels...... followed the diffusion-limited gasification model, showing a change in the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel and its evaporating gases, as well as a decreasing gasification rate, as the burning progressed. This burning mechanism implies that the residue composition and burning efficiency mainly depend...

  10. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  11. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  12. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed with diets containing cassava peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Santos Guimarães

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sheep farming is designated to economic exploitation, and dry matter intake is the most important factor that influences the performance of animal, thus seeking alternative foods. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inclusion levels of cassava peel on intake, digestibility and performance of feedlot lambs. We used 32 crossbred lambs Santa Inês uncastrated, mean body weight of 21 ± 1.5 kg. Treatments were arranged in a randomized design to animals, with inclusion levels of cassava peel (0, 10, 20, 30% in the diet dry matter and forage cassava leaf hay. During 70 days, there have been weighing the food provided, leftovers, and animals, and feces collection. The intake of dry matter (DMI, organic matter (OMI, crude protein (CPI, ether extract (EEI, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDIap, total carbohydrates (CTI, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFCI, total digestible nutrients (TDNI, as well as DMI and NDFap/kgCP, DMI and NDFIap/PC0.75 levels have not been affected by the inclusion of cassava peel. Similar results for DM digestibility, NDF, CP, MO, CT and the TDN. DEE had a growing linear effect whereas DNFC presented a quadratic effect. Average daily gain (ADG, feed conversion (FC, initial body weight (BWinitial, final body weight (BWfinal, warm carcass weight (WCW and warm carcass yield (WCR showed no changes. It is concluded that the peel cassava may be included in diet until 30%, without change dry matter intake and animal performance.

  13. Intake and total apparent digestibility in lambs fed six maize varieties in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dantas dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, energy intake and nitrogen balance of silages of six maize varieties with early or super early cycles recommended to Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four male castrated lambs were lodged in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used, with means compared by Tukey test at 5%. There were no differences among varieties for any of the evaluated variables regarding intake and apparent digestibility. Concerning the intake of digestible energy, metabolizable energy and the ratio content of digestible and metabolizable energy, significant differences were observed between varieties and BRS Assum Preto showed highest values of metabolizable energy (2.650,8 kcal/day. All of the treatments presented positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among themselves. The varieties asessed can be an additional option to the semiarid regions in Brazil.

  14. Consumo, digestibilidade aparente total, produção e composição do leite em vacas no terço médio da lactação alimentadas com níveis crescentes de proteína bruta no concentrado Intake, total apparent digestibility, milk production and composition in mid lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein in the concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas no terço médio da lactação recebendo dietas contendo níveis crescentes de proteína bruta (PB no concentrado (20; 23; 26 e 29% da matéria natural - MN. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas em lactação da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos (4x4. Foram utilizados quatro períodos de 15 dias cada, sendo uma semana considerada de adaptação. A dieta consistiu de 70% de silagem de milho como volumoso e 30% de concentrado. Os consumos e as digestibilidades da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CHOT, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram alterados, enquanto o consumo e a digestibilidade de PB aumentaram em função dos níveis de PB no concentrado. A produção de leite (PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, as quantidades de gordura e proteína no leite aumentaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de PB no concentrado. No entanto, a PL de 19,21 kg/dia e a PL corrigida para 3,5% de gordura de 20,74 kg/dia para o nível de 23% de PB na MN do concentrado, foram muito próximas daquelas obtidas nos níveis de 26 e 29% de PB no concentrado. O concentrado contendo 23% de PB na MN utilizado na proporção de 30%, que correspondeu a 12,3% de PB na MS da dieta total, proporcionou melhor eficiência na produção de leite em vacas produzindo em média 20 kg/dia de leite no terço médio da lactação e alimentadas com silagem de milho na proporção de 70% na MS da dieta total.Intake, total apparent digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition were evaluated in mid lactation cows fed with increasing levels of crude protein (CP in the concentrate (20, 23, 26 and 29% natural matter-NM. Twelve Holstein crossbred lactating cows were assigned to three

  15. Intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay with or without urea and markers recovery in sheep

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    Guilherme Ribeiro Alves

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of silages containing pineapple pulp and coast-cross hay, with or without addition of urea, and the recovery of the markers chromium oxide (Cr2O3, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF, indigestible acid detergent fiber (iADF, and indigestible dry matter (iDM, in a digestibility assay, in sheep. Treatments were as follows: two levels of pineapple pulp (818 and 758 g kg−1 and two levels of urea (with and without urea, in a completely randomized design. Twelve sheep (three per treatment were used, kept in metabolic cages. Fecal excreta were determined by total collection or estimated by using the markers. Marker samples were obtained in morning and afternoon collections, with mean concentrations obtained for both daily activities. The level of silage pulp did not affect intake, while addition of urea increased the intake of crude protein (CP, but did not influence the intakes of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber. The digestibility coefficients of all afore-mentioned fractions increased with the increase in pulp, the same happening with the addition of urea. The internal marker with lowest variability among the internal markers was iADF, with mean values near 100%. Mean recovery of Cr2O3 was approximately 107%, but with lower variability among treatments. Inclusion of pineapple pulp in silage does not influence intake, while addition of urea only increases the intake of CP. The levels of pineapple pulp in silage with or without urea increase the digestibility of the silage. Indigestible acid detergent fiber is the marker with lowest variability of recovery, with mean recovery for the four silages used very close to 100%.

  16. Fiber, intestinal sterols, and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C T; Gopalakrishna, G S; Nichols, B L

    1978-03-01

    It has been postulated that dietary fiber's protective effect against the development of colon cancer, diverticular disease, and atherosclerosis may be due to the adsorption and/or dilution of intestinal sterols such as bile acids and neural sterols and their bacterial metabolites by component(s) of fiber. Dietary fiber is made up of four major components-cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin. There is evidence that hemicellulose and pectin may induce an increase in fecal bile acid excretion in man which may be accompanied by a decrease in serum cholesterol. Natural fibers, such as rolled oats, alfalfa, guar gum, and Bengal gram have been shown to have hypocholesterolemic properties of alfalfa, wheat straw, and some other fibers found considerable amounts of bile acids in vitro. On the other hand, wheat bran, oat hulls, and all the synthetic fibers tested bound only negligible amounts of bile acids under the same conditions. Vegetarians in the United States have lower plasma lipids and different plasma lipoprotein patterns than those of comparable control populations on regular mixed diet. They also have smaller daily fractional turnover rates of cholic acid and deoxycholic acid pool size. In addition, populations on a mixed Western diet, where the rate of large bowel cancer is high (North American, English, Scottish, etc.) degraded and excreted cholesterol and bile acid metabolites to a greater degree than populations where the rate of colon cancer is comparatively low (Ugandan, Japanese, etc). It cannot be denied that the fiber theory linking fiber deficiency with the development of colon cancer and other diseases, is simple, attractive and appears to be firmly based in common sense. When subjected to research studies, however, the situation appears much more complex than expected. Although some progress is being made, the data are often contradictory and confusing, probably due to lack of adequate documentation of fiber intake (e.g., use of dietary fiber

  17. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet...

  18. Ingestão de fibra alimentar e tempo de trânsito colônico em pacientes com constipação funcional Fiber intake and colonic transit time in functional constipated patients

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    Adriana Cruz Lopes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Pacientes com constipação funcional que não melhoram com suplementação de fibras dietéticas, representam importante problema clínico. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as relações entre as quantidades de fibras ingeridas, intensidade da constipação e o tempo de trânsito colônico em pacientes com constipação funcional. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 30 pacientes constipados funcionais, sem melhoras após suplementação dietética com fibras e 18 pessoas controle, sadias, sem queixas digestivas, utilizando inquéritos individuais quanto à ingestão de fibras e a intensidade da constipação e, por meio da técnica dos marcadores radiopaco, o tempo de trânsito colônico, total e segmentar. RESULTADOS: Apesar da maior ingestão diária de fibras (26,3 ± 12,9 g, constipados x 9,3 ± 5,2 g, controles, os sintomas da constipação mostraram-se intensos nos constipados (escore médio = 21,3 ± 4,07. O tempo normal para o trânsito colônico foi de 58,8h. O trânsito colônico total, em média, foi mais lento nos constipados (41,0 ± 22,8h, constipados x 21,8 ± 18,5h, controles. Constipados com trânsito lento (>58,8h apresentaram inércia colônica (oito, obstrução de saída (um e lentificação no cólon esquerdo (um. Constipados com trânsito normal (BACKGROUND: Patients with functional constipation presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement represents important clinical issue. AIMS: To evaluate the relations among the amount of ingested fiber, the constipation intensity and the colonic transit time in patients with functional constipation. METHODS: We evaluated 30 patients, presenting no response to treatment using fibers supplement, and 18 healthy volunteers conducting individual inquiry into fibers intake, constipation intensity and the total and segmental colonic transit evaluation using radiopaque markers. RESULTS: In the constipated, despite the good level of fiber intake (26.3 ± 12.9 g, constipated x 9.3 ± 5,2 g

  19. Níveis de proteína na dieta de bovinos Nelore de três condições sexuais: consumo, digestibilidades total e parcial, produção microbiana e parâmetros ruminais Increasing crude protein levels in diets of Nellore cattle: intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and ruminal metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Magno Liberal Véras

    2007-08-01

    .Twelve Nellore cattle fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to investigate the effects of increasing dietary crude protein level (7, 10, 13, and 15% on intake, ruminal and total tract digestibility of nutrients, microbial protein synthesis, degradabilities of corn silage, corn starch, and cottonseed meal, and ruminal metabolism. Animals were blocked by sexual category (heifers, bulls and steers averaging 254.8, 285.1, and 265.6 kg of body weight, respectively and then assigned to one out of three Latin squares. Samples were incubated in the rumen of one animal of each sexual category to estimate ingredient degradability after determination of DM, CP and NDF in the incubation residues. Ruminal fluid was collected before and after-feeding to determine pH and concentration of ammonia while ruminal samples for bacterial isolation were taken 6 hours post-feeding. Blood (BUN and urine (UU were also collected for measurement of urea concentration. The degradation rates of DM and CP were both lower in corn silage than on corn starch and cottonseed meal. The interaction sexual condition x dietary crude protein level was not significant for nutrient intake. With the exception of EE and NFC, no other significant effect of dietary CP level was observed for daily intake of nutrients. Increasing dietary CP level affected total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and NFC and also resulted in higher concentrations of BUN and UU. A significant dietary crude protein level x collection time interaction was observed for ruminal NH3 but not for ruminal pH. It was concluded that increasing dietary CP levels affected intake and total tract digestibility of most nutrients.

  20. Maglev crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Ernst G.

    1994-05-01

    This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

  1. The food and nutrient intakes of the Tarahumara Indians of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, M T; Fry, M M; Connor, W E

    1979-04-01

    A nutritional survey of 372 semiacculturated Tarahumara Indians in the Sierra Madre Occidental Mountains of Mexico was carried out to determine the composition of their diet and its nutritional adequacy. Dietary histories from 174 adults and 198 children were obtained by interviews and field observations during 1973 and 1974. The histories for the children were calculated in part from the menus of six boarding church schools. Nutrient calculations of daily intake were based upon food composition tables and some actual analyses of Tarahumara foods. The protein intake was ample, at 87 g, and generously met the FAO/WHO recommendations for daily intake of essential amino acids. Fat contributed only 12% of total calories, its composition being 2% saturated and 5% polyunsaturated with a P/S ratio of 2. The mean dietary cholesterol intake was very low, less than 100 mg/day, and the plant sterol intake was high, over 400 mg/day. Carbohydrate comprised 75 to 80% of total calories, mostly from starch. Only 6% of total calories were derived from simple sugars. The crude fiber intake was high, 18 to 21 g/day. Salt consumption was moderately low, 5 to 8 g/day. The daily intakes of calcium, iron, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, thiamin niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B6 exceeded or approximated the FAO/WHO recommendations. Thus, the simple diet of the Tarahumara Indians, composed primarily of beans and corn, provided a high intake of complex carbohydrate and was low in fat and cholesterol. Their diet was found to be generally of high nutritional quality and would, by all criteria, be considered antiatherogenic.

  2. Effects of including scrapes of residual dehydrated cassava in sheep feeding on intake and nutrient digestibility

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    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inclusion of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of scrapes residual dehydrated cassava (SRDC in sheep feed on the intake and total digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients. We used four sheep with body weight (BW of 26.0 kg, distributed in a Latin square design. The sheep were placed in metabolism cages and received two meals a day. The variables studied were subjected to analysis of variance and differences were tested using regression analysis at the 5% significance level. We determined that the inclusion of different concentrations of SRDC in sheep feeding did not modify (p > 0.05 the intake of intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, or total carbohydrates (TC expressed in g animal-1 day-1, g kg0.75-1 and %BW. On average 2.83%, 2.58%, 0.34%, 0.07%, 1.62%, 0.91%, and 2.24% of the BW were obtained for intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, and TC, respectively. However, the four experimental diets negatively affected the NFC intake and %BW (p 0.05 the digestibility coefficient of most of the variables measured (DM, OM CP, EE, NDF, ADF, TCH, NFC, with average values of 67.79%, 67.61%, 53.87%, 81.42%, 55.61%, 39.07%, 70.95%, and 91.48%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the inclusion of up to 30% of SRDC in sheep diets would not affect intake or nutrient digestibility

  3. Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Forages in Goats Grazing on Introduced Pasture

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    Zewei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of diet ingested by goats grazing on an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture were measured across spring (May, summer (July, autumn (October and winter (March. In each season, 12 Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (6 wethers and 6 does with an average live weight of 22.2±1.3 kg and 19.5±0.8 kg, respectively were used to graze on a 2 hectares size paddock. Diet selection was observed and the plant parts selected by grazing goats and whole plant L. chinensis were sampled simultaneously. The alkane pair C32:C33 and C36 were used to estimate intake and digestibility, respectively. The results showed that the plant parts selected by goats had higher crude protein (CP and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF than the whole plant, especially in the autumn and winter. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and metabolizable energy (ME by goats was highest in summer (p<0.05. The goats ingested more CP, ME, and less ADF in spring than in autumn (p<0.05. The intakes of DM, CP, and ME were lowest in winter (p<0.05. There were significant differences in nutrient intake between wethers and does in each season, except for the ADF and ME intake per metabolic weight (LW0.75. The nutrient digestibilities were higher in spring and summer, and decreased significantly during the autumn and winter (p<0.05. Goats, especially wethers, had a relative constant NDF digestibility across seasons, however, the apparent digestibility of CP in both wethers and does, decreased to negative values in winter. The grazing goats experienced relatively sufficient nutrients supply in spring and summer, and a severe deficiency of CP and ME in winter.

  4. Intake, performance, and carcass characteristics of lambs fed spineless cactus replacing wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Sabrina Carla Rodrigues; Pessoa, Ricardo Alexandre Silva; Ferreira, Marcelo de Andrade; Soares, Luciana Felizardo Pereira; Silva, Janaina de Lima; de Abreu, Karen Santos Felix; de Melo, Ana Caroline Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    To assess the intake, digestibility of nutrients, ingestive behavior, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs, 36 F1 Santa Ines × Dorper male lambs with an initial average weight of 19.5 ± 0.27 kg were fed with different levels of spineless cactus (0, 33, 66, and 100 %) as a replacement of the wheat bran. The replacement diets had no effect on the intake of dry matter (DM) or crude protein (CP), whose average values were 962 and 140 g/day, respectively. There was a quadratic effect on the intake of digestible organic matter (OM) and the digestibility of DM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC). The highest average daily gain (ADG) of 168 g/day was achieved at 58.7 % replacement level. The highest hot and cold carcass weights of 15.4 and 14.5 kg were achieved at 62.4 and 56.9 % replacement levels. For lambs in the feedlot, we recommend replacing wheat bran with up to 58.7 % spineless cactus.

  5. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  6. Penambahan Multi Enzim dan Ragi Tape dalam Ransum Berserat Tinggi (Pod–Kakao untuk Menurunkan Kolesterol Daging Broiler MULTYENZYM AND YEAST SUPPLEMENTATION IN HIGH CRUDE FIBER RATION (CACCAO-POD DECREASING MEAT CHOLESTROL OF BROILER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciani .

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been conducted to investigate the effect of multy enzym (optizyme enzyme andyeast addited to caccao-pod in the ration to reduce 6 weeks broiler meat cholesterol. This research used acompletely randomized design (CRD with four treatments: as a control ration (0% caccao-pod; 15%caccao-pod; 15% cacao-pod + 0,20% optizyme enzyme and 15% caccao-pod + 0,20% yeast, with six replicates.There were five broilers 2 weeks similar on the same weight in each replicate. The experimental diets forthe 6 weeks finishing period were formulated to 20% crude protein and Energy Metabolish (2900 ME kcal/kg in mash formed diet while drinking water was given ad libitum. The experiment was done 4 weeks.The result there was a significant decreas of cholesterol on the diet content 0,20% optizyme enzyme or0,20% yeast, were reduced distribution body fat and meat cholesterol.

  7. Glicerina bruta no suplemento para cordeiros lactentes em pastejo de azevém Crude glycerin in supplement to suckling lambs on ryegrass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Ribeiro Sanquetta de Pellegrin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de níveis de glicerina bruta sobre o consumo de suplemento e o desempenho de cordeiros lactentes mantidos a pasto, além das características quali-quantitativas do pasto de azevém. Foram utilizados 32 cordeiros lactentes distribuídos nos tratamentos: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de glicerina bruta, em substituição ao milho, no suplemento isoproteico (18% PB fornecido diariamente em quantidade equivalente a 2% do peso corporal. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos níveis de glicerina bruta sobre as características qualitativas e quantitativas do pasto, na composição de proteína bruta e fibra detergente neutro e na carga animal suportada pela pastagem, nem no consumo de suplemento, ganho de peso médio diário e o número de dias até o abate dos cordeiros. Níveis de até 30% de glicerina bruta, em substituição ao milho, no suplemento fornecido para cordeiros lactentes pastejando azevém não comprometem o consumo de suplemento, desempenho e período de terminação dos animais.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of levels of crude glycerin in the supplement intake and performance of suckling lambs on ryegrass pasture, beyond the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of ryegrass pastures. It was used 32 suckling lambs distributed between the treatments: 0, 10, 20 and 30% of crude glycerin, replacing corn, in the isoproteic supplement (18% CP offered daily in an amount equivalent to 2% of body weight. There was no effect (P>0.05 of the levels of crude glycerin on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of pastures, composition of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber, stocking rate supported by ryegrass pasture, neither on supplement intake, average weight gain and number of days to slaughter the lambs. Levels up to 30% of crude glycerin, replacing corn, provided in the supplement to suckling lambs grazing ryegrass didn't compromise the supplement intake, performance and termination period of the

  8. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the micr

  9. Dietary Intake of Fiber, Fruit and Vegetables Decreases the Risk of Incident Kidney Stones in Women: A Women's Health Initiative Report

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, MD; Hsi, RS; Chi, T; Shara, N; Wactawski-Wende, J; Kahn, AJ; Wang, H.; Hou, L; Stoller, ML

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Results Mean age of the women was 64±7 years, 85% were white and 2,937 (3.5%) experienced a kidney stone in a median followup of 8 years. In women with no history of kidney stones higher total dietary fiber (6% to 26% decreased risk, p

  10. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  11. Effects of high concentrations of dietary crude glycerin on dairy cow productivity and milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezequiel, J M B; Sancanari, J B D; Machado Neto, O R; da Silva, Z F; Almeida, M T C; Silva, D A V; van Cleef, F O S; van Cleef, E H C B

    2015-11-01

    An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1.5 kg/d milk yield) were used in the study. The experimental period included 2 wk for adaptation and 1 wk for data collection. Cows were fed diets containing 0 (control), 15, or 30% crude glycerin (83% glycerol). Cows were milked, milk weights were recorded twice daily, and milk samples were collected for milk quality analyses at d 18 and 19 in each experimental period. Feeding cows with crude glycerin linearly decreased dry-matter intake, the 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and the solid-corrected milk yield. Hepatic enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments, except gamma-glutamyl transferase, which was decreased with the 15% crude glycerin diet. Serum glucose and albumin showed quadratic effect with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Plasma cholesterol as well as total protein linearly decreased with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Milk fat concentration and yield showed a quadratic effect of treatments. Solid yield decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of crude glycerin. Odd-chain fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat linearly increased with addition of crude glycerin in the diets. Together, these results suggest that crude glycerin has potential to replace corn; however, feeding diets in which corn is replaced with crude glycerin at 30% of dietary DM greatly reduces animal performance.

  12. Soybean hulls replacing ground corn in diets for early lactation Saanen goats: intake, digestibility, milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate productive performance and milk quality of Saanen goats fed diets with soybean hulls replacing ground corn (0, 50 and 100% replacement in early lactation (from birth to 50 days of lactation. Fourteen goats (72.30±9.14 kg of BW were used in a completely randomized design. Animals were confined in individual stalls, with daily control of feed intake and milk production. On the 30th day of lactation, fecal sampling started in order to determine nutrients digestibility. Every month, milk samples were collected for analyses of fat, protein, lactose and total solid percentage, somatic cell count, N-urea, acidity, density and also milk fatty acid profile. No differences were observed between diets for body weight, daily weight gain and intake (kg/day of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein or indigestible neutral detergent fiber. However, for neutral detergent fiber intake, the diet with complete substitution presented the best results. Cocerning digestibility coefficients of dry matter and nutrients (organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber the diet with 100% replacement also presented the best results. For milk production, milk production efficiency and milk composition, no difference was observed between diets. For milk fatty acid profile, there were differences between diets for some fatty acids. Soybean hulls can be used replacing ground corn in diets for Saanen goats in the early lactation, because it improves the digestibility of the diet and nutrients, does not change productive performance or the milk physical-chemical quality and increases the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk.

  13. 膳食纤维摄入与前列腺癌发生风险关系的Meta 分析%Dietary fiber intake and risk of prostate cancer:a Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维帅; 曾亚奇; 邵月娟; 王昆

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of prostate cancer.Methods Electronic databases including PubMed,EMBase,Cochrane library,China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI),Wanfang and CBMwere searched to find eligible studies.Random-effects relative risk (RR)and its corresponding 95%CI were used.Besides,random-effects dose-response analyses were also performed to clarify the dose-response relations.Results Ten studies,including five cohort studies and five case-control studies,were eligible and included in this Meta-analysis.The pooled RR of prostate cancer for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.87 (95%CI:0.77-0.99,Z =2.10,P =0.035). In addition,pooled estimated data showed that risk of prostate cancer was significantly associated with soluble fiber (RR =0.78,95%CI:0.64-0.95,Z =2.45,P =0.014)and insoluble fiber (RR =0.65,95%CI:0.45-0.88,Z =2.79,P =0.005),but not with fruit,vegetable and cereal fiber intake.However,in dose-response analysis,no significant association was reported (RR =0.996,95%CI:0.989-1.002).Sensitivity analysis showed that the overall results were relatively stable,and omission of any single study had little effect on the combined results.Conclusion Dietary fiber intake is negative related to the risk of prostate cancer. Intake of dietary fiber is recommended to prevent prostate cancer.Considering the limitations of the included studies,more well-designed prospective studies will be needed to confirm our findings.%目的:探讨膳食纤维摄入与前列腺癌发生风险之间的关系。方法系统检索 PubMed、EMBase、Cochrane library、中国知网数据库(CNKI)、万方数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)中符合要求的文献,采用 Meta 分析方法,以随机模型和95%CI 为效应量分析膳食纤维摄入量与前列腺癌发生之间的关系。另外,采用随机剂量反应模型进行定量分析。结果共纳入10

  14. Residual frying oil in the diets of sheep: intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Lucas Terra Peixoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake and nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen in lambs of diets containing different levels of residual frying oil. Methods Levels of 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg dry matter (DM base of residual frying oil in the diets of lambs were evaluated. Five castrated lambs with initial body weights of 36.8±3.3 kg, distributed in a Latin square (5×5 design, were used. Results There was a decreasing linear effect on the intake of DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TCH, and nonfibrous carbohydrates (NFC. There was an increased linear intake of ether extract (EE. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF, TCH, and NFC, as well as urine nitrogen excretion, nitrogen balance and ruminal parameters, were not influenced by different levels of residual frying oil in the diet. EE digestibility presented a crescent linear effect. Conclusion It can be concluded that the addition of residual frying oil to the diets of sheep can affect nutrient intake without affecting the digestibility of most nutrients (with the exception of EE, nitrogen balance and ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration.

  15. Effect of feeding cows in early lactation with diets differing in roughage-neutral detergent fiber content on intake behavior, rumination, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adin, G; Solomon, R; Nikbachat, M; Zenou, A; Yosef, E; Brosh, A; Shabtay, A; Mabjeesh, S J; Halachmi, I; Miron, J

    2009-07-01

    This study measured the effects of including soyhulls as partial roughage replacement in total mixed rations (TMR) fed to 25 pairs of cows during early lactation, on the dry matter (DM) intake, particle kinetics, rumination, in vivo DM and NDF digestibility, milk and FCM yields, and BW changes. The 2 diets used in this study differed in the content of roughage and roughage NDF [23.5 vs. 35.0%, and 12.8 vs. 18.7% in the experimental (EXP) and control (CON) TMR, respectively]. The EXP TMR contained 20.5% less physically effective NDF than the CON TMR (11.7 vs. 14.1% of DM, respectively). These differences were expressed in a greater intake per meal (by 13.3%), a higher rate of meal intake (by 23.2%), a similar number of meals per day, a shorter daily eating duration (by 13%), and a higher total daily DMI (by 7.2%) in the EXP cows as compared with the CON cows. The in vivo DM and NDF digestibility was higher by 4.9 and 22.7%, respectively, in the EXP cows than in the CON cows. The rumination time for the TMR in the EXP cows was 12.7% (54.3 min/d) shorter than in the CON cows, and this was probably related to the difference of 12.4% in physically effective NDF intake between the 2 groups. Patterns of daily rumination and feed consumption throughout an average day showed a delay of approximately 1 to 2 h between the eating and rumination peaks. Particle flow from the rumen of the EXP cows was characterized by a longer rumen mean retention time (by 17.8%) and longer rumination time per kilogram of roughage ingested (by 23.5%) as compared with the CON cows. Thus, favorable conditions for NDF digestion were created in the rumen of the EXP cows, as reflected in their rumen pH values (6.67). The advantage of the EXP cows in intake and digestibility was reflected in a concomitant increase of 7.4% in milk production and of 9.2% in FCM yield as compared with the CON cows. No difference was found between the 2 groups with respect to efficiency of feed utilization for milk

  16. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre o consumo e a dinâmica de trânsito e degradação ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN da forragem em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, castrados, com peso corporal inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto; e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais de 15 dias. Não foram observados efeitos da suplementação sobre o consumo voluntário, com exceção do consumo de PB, que aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição da ureia por albumina nos suplementos teve efeito linear sobre o consumo de PB. Os consumos dos demais componentes da dieta não foram afetados pela composição dos suplementos. Nenhum efeito foi observado sobre a taxa de passagem ruminal de compostos fibrosos. O fornecimento de suplementos ampliou, em média, a estimativa da taxa comum de latência e degradação da FDN. Contudo, não houve efeito da alteração na composição dos suplementos sobre este parâmetro. A suplementação de bovinos com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis no rúmen proteicos ou não-proteicos durante o período das águas não afeta o consumo voluntário de pasto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on intake and ruminal transit and degradation dynamics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF in grazing cattle

  17. Nondietary Gut Materials Interfere with the Determination of Dietary Fiber Digestibility in Growing Pigs When Using the Prosky Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Carlos A; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J

    2015-08-01

    Reported negative ileal and total tract dietary fiber (DF) digestibility values are physiologically untenable and suggest the presence of nondietary material in the gut contents that interferes with the DF determination. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of interfering material (IM) when the Prosky method was used to determine DF digestibility. Fourteen pigs (41.6 ± 3.0 kg) were surgically implanted with ileal T-cannulas. A semisynthetic fiber-free diet and 2 semisynthetic diets containing kiwifruit as the sole fiber source [25 or 50 g fiber/kg dry matter (DM)] were prepared. Titanium dioxide was used as an indigestible marker. Pigs were fed the kiwifruit-containing diets (n=7 per diet) for 44 d, followed by the fiber-free diet (n=14) for 7 d. Ileal digesta and feces were collected over 3 d, starting on days 42 and 49. The flow of IM and the soluble, insoluble, and total DF digestibility were determined. Considerable amounts of IM were present when the Prosky method was applied to ileal digesta (12 g/kg DM intake) and feces (28 g/kg DM intake) collected from pigs fed the fiber-free diet after adaptation to the diet containing 50 g/kg DM of fiber. The pigs adapted to the highest fiber concentration had 0.9- and 0.7-fold greater ileal and fecal IM flows than their counterparts adapted to the lowest concentration. In the ileal digesta, crude mucin was the main IM source in the soluble DF fraction (66%). In the ileal digesta and feces, microbial cells were the main IM source in the insoluble DF fraction. The determined ileal soluble DF and total tract insoluble DF digestibilities increased by 44-54% and 78% respectively after correction for IM (P fiber is determined with the Prosky method, leading to a marked underestimation. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Identifying practical solutions to meet America's fiber needs: proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M

    2014-07-08

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the "Food & Fiber Summit," which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber's role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  19. Phthalate Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Compilation of literature-reported intake values of phthalates; specifically dibutyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DiNP)....

  20. Importance of dietary fiber in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L

    1995-10-01

    Dietary fiber has important health benefits in childhood, especially in promoting normal laxation. Currently, children consume amounts of dietary fiber that appear to be inadequate for optimal health promotion and disease prevention. It is prudent to recommend that children older than 2 years of age increase dietary fiber intake to an amount equal to or greater than their age + 5 g/day. According to the "age + 5" rule dietary fiber intake would increase from 8 g/day at age 3 years to 25 g/day by age 20 years. After age 20, dietary fiber levels of 25 to 35 g/day are recommended. Dietary fiber intake should be increased gradually in childhood by increasing consumption of a variety of fruits, vegetables, legumes, cereals, and other whole-grain products. Although very high fiber intake in childhood could have adverse effects, the potential health benefits of a moderate increase in dietary fiber substantially outweigh the possible risks, especially in highly industrialized countries such as the United States. A safe range of dietary fiber intake for children may be between age + 5 and age + 10 g/day. This range is considered safe even for children and adolescents with marginal intakes of some vitamins and minerals; should provide enough dietary fiber for normal laxation; and may provide enough added dietary fiber to help prevent chronic diseases.

  1. Efeito do tratamento físico associado à adubação em pastagem degradada de braquiária, nos teores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido Effect of the physical treatment associated to fertilization in degraded pastures of brachiaria grass on crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergente fiber content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ramos Prazeres Bomfim

    2003-08-01

    harrow and harrowing, N and P amendments in the recovery of a degraded pasture of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. This experiment was run in a degraded pasture of the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Lavras, southern area of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment was set from December/98 through April/00. A randomized block design was used in split plot scheme, allocating physical treatments into the main plots and the treatments with N and P into the subplots. The fertilization based on the results of the soil analysis consisted in the application of 100 kg/ha of N, 100 kg/ha of P2O5, and the combination of these two doses. Soil addition of N and P increased the levels of crude protein, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber as response to higher P in the plant. The physical treatments affected negatively crude protein content. However, the application of N reduced these negative effects, but increased the neutral detergent fiber levels.

  2. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins.

  3. Effects of Eucalyptus Crude Oils Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation, Microorganism and Nutrient Digestibility in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis crude oils (EuO supplementation on voluntary feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics in swamp buffaloes. Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes, body weight (BW of 420±15.0 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were untreated rice straw (RS without EuO (T1 and with EuO (T2 supplementation, and 3% urea-treated rice straw (UTRS without EuO (T3 and with EuO (T4 supplementation. The EuO was supplemented at 2 mL/h/d in respective treatment. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate mixture was offered at 3 g/kg BW while roughage was fed ad libitum. Total dry matter and roughage intake, and apparent digestibilites of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were improved (p0.05 affected by either roughage sources or EuO supplementation. However, buffaloes fed UTRS had higher ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen as compared with RS. Total volatile fatty acid and butyrate proportion were similar among treatments, whereas acetate was decreased and propionate molar proportion was increased by EuO supplementation. Feeding UTRS resulted in lower acetate and higher propionate concentration compared to RS. Moreover, supplementation of EuO reduced methane production especially in UTRS treatment. Protozoa populations were reduced by EuO supplementation while fungi zoospores remained the same. Total, amylolytic and cellulolytic bacterial populations were increased (p<0.01 by UTRS; However, EuO supplementation did not affect viable bacteria. Nitrogen intake and in feces were found higher in buffaloes fed UTRS. A positive nitrogen balance (absorption and retention was in buffaloes fed UTRS. Supplementation of EuO did not affect nitrogen utilization. Both allantoin excretion and absorption and microbial nitrogen supply were increased by UTRS whereas

  4. Childhood obesity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Yi; Qi, Sui-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is growing in China at present. Childhood obesity reflects complex interactions of genetic, environmental, social and behavioral factors. Foods, nutritional components, and food intake patterns may be associated with the increasing obesity rate in children. Articles about the relationship between childhood obesity and food intake were collected from the databases including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Foods and nutritional components such as calcium, dietary fiber are inversely related to obesity, whereas others such as vitamin B and sugar-sweeten beverages play a positive role in obesity development. The differences in food intake pattern also influence the risk of obesity. Food intake is an important factor influencing childhood obesity. One strategy to prevent childhood obesity is to take foods of moderate amount in a proper pattern.

  5. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers’ fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products—i.e., households without children...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  6. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.; Jones, Julie Miller; Rodriguez, Judith; Slavin, Joanne; Zelman, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap. PMID:25006857

  7. Identifying Practical Solutions to Meet America’s Fiber Needs: Proceedings from the Food & Fiber Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Mobley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiber continues to be singled out as a nutrient of public health concern. Adequate intakes of fiber are associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, certain gastrointestinal disorders and obesity. Despite ongoing efforts to promote adequate fiber through increased vegetable, fruit and whole-grain intakes, average fiber consumption has remained flat at approximately half of the recommended daily amounts. Research indicates that consumers report increasingly attempting to add fiber-containing foods, but there is confusion around fiber in whole grains. The persistent and alarmingly low intakes of fiber prompted the “Food & Fiber Summit,” which assembled nutrition researchers, educators and communicators to explore fiber’s role in public health, current fiber consumption trends and consumer awareness data with the objective of generating opportunities and solutions to help close the fiber gap. The summit outcomes highlight the need to address consumer confusion and improve the understanding of sources of fiber, to recognize the benefits of various types of fibers and to influence future dietary guidance to provide prominence and clarity around meeting daily fiber recommendations through a variety of foods and fiber types. Potential opportunities to increase fiber intake were identified, with emphasis on meal occasions and food categories that offer practical solutions for closing the fiber gap.

  8. Avaliação da digestão ruminal, intestinal e total da matéria orgânica, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de rações com diferentes fontes de proteína utilizadas em bovinos Evaluation of ruminal, intestinal and total digestion of the organic matter, crude protein in bovine rations neutral detergent fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se três novilhos Holandês Preto & Branco (±300 kg implantados com cânulas: ruminal e duodenal, distribuídos no delineamento em quadrado latino 3x3, para avaliar fontes de proteína nas rações, sobre a digestão ruminal, intestinal e total da matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações formuladas com três fontes de proteína: uréia (UR, farinha de penas (FPE e farelo de glúten de milho (FGM. Diariamente os animais eram alimentados às 8h e 16h, e nos mesmos horários introduzia-se via cânula ruminal 5 g de Cr2O3. Os períodos tiveram duração de 14 dias, sendo 11 dias para adaptação às rações e 3 dias para coleta. Foram coletadas digesta duodenal e fezes por um período de 72 horas, a cada 6 horas. As fontes de proteína não influenciaram (P > ,05 na ingestão ou nas digestões parcial ou total da MO. Entre os tratamentos houve diferenças (P 0,05 pelos tratamentos. Dessa forma, as rações com as fontes de proteína utilizadas, mesmo apresentando diferenças no potencial de degradação, as digestibilidades totais da MO, PB e FDN não sofreram efeitos.Three ruminant and duodenal fistulated steers (300 kg were used in a 3x3 Latin square design to evaluate protein sources in the rations, on the ruminant, intestinal and total digestion of the organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The treatments were composed of three rations with: urea (UR, feather meal (FEM and corn gluten meal (CGM. The animals were fed daily at 8:00 am and 4:00 p.m. and, at the same time 5 g of Cr2O3 were introduced in the rumen. Periods lasted 14 days out of 11 days were used for adaptation to the ration and 3 days were used for the sample collection. During 72 hours duodenal contents and feces were collected, every 6 hours. The protein sources did not influence (p > 0.05 the OM intake or the partial/total digestibility. Among the treatments

  9. Frequency of fiber-rich food intake and associated factors in a Southern Brazilian population Freqüência do consumo de alimentos fontes de fibras e fatores associados em população do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samanta Winck Madruga

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the frequency of fiber-rich food intake and evaluate its association with socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral characteristics. A city representative sample was selected and 3,993 subjects (> 10 years were interviewed. The study used the Block Screening Questionnaire. A majority of subjects - 65.6% (95%CI: 64.2-67.1 - presented an inadequate intake frequency. Adjusted analysis for the overall sample showed an increased risk of inadequate frequency among men, adolescents, people of lower socioeconomic levels, current smokers, those insufficiently active and those having fewer than four daily meals. Age group-stratified analysis showed that among adolescents, living alone was a risk factor; for adults, risk factors were sex (male, current smoker, insufficiently active and fewer than four daily meals and; among the elderly they were male and being a current smoker. A lower socioeconomic level was associated to the outcome in all groups. Although the inadequate frequency of intake is very common in this population, teenagers are at a higher risk, pointing to a need for public health actions targeting this particular age group.Verificar a freqüência do consumo de alimentos fontes de fibras e avaliar sua associação com características sócio-econômicas, demográficas e comportamentais. Foi selecionada amostra representativa da cidade e 3.993 indivíduos (> 10 anos foram entrevistados. Foi utilizado o instrumento Block Screening. A maioria da amostra, 65,6% (IC95%: 64,2-67,1, mostrou freqüência inadequada de consumo. A análise ajustada para amostra global mostrou risco aumentado de freqüência inadequada entre homens, adolescentes, de menor nível sócio-econômico, fumante atual, insuficientemente ativo e aqueles que faziam menos de 4 refeições/dia. A análise por faixa etária mostrou que entre adolescentes, morar sozinho foi um fator de risco; entre adultos, homens, fumantes

  10. Crude value management through pipeline systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segato, R. [Suncor Energy Marketing Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation reviewed Suncor's integrated oil flow operations with particular focus on the best practices in crude oil quality management from source rocks to refineries. Suncor produces synthetic crude at its operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. The crude reaches destinations across North America. The quality of injected and delivered crude varies because of pipeline and terminal logistics, which implies changes in valuation. Refinery planners, engineers and crude traders are faced with the challenge of maximizing profitability while minimizing risk. Refiners face a continuously changing landscape in terms of crude classifications, new commodity developments, batch interferences, shared tank bottoms and sampling limitations. tabs., figs.

  11. Performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of male calves fed starter concentrate with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raylon Pereira Maciel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the effects of including crude glycerin in the diet on intake, performance, rumen development, and carcass traits of dairy crossbred veal calves fed starter concentrate containing 0, 80, 160, and 240 g kg−1 crude glycerin. Twenty-eight calves with an average weight of 38.03±6.7 kg and five days of age were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments with seven replications. Calves were individually housed in covered stalls equipped with feeders and drinkers for 56 days. The calf response to inclusion of crude glycerin in the concentrate changed over the weeks and the inclusion level of 240 g kg−1 resulted in greater dry matter intake and average daily gain. There was no effect on the final weight and total weight gain of the animals, with mean values of 73.60 and 35.16 kg, respectively. The weight of the rumen-reticulum adjusted for body weight, empty body weight, and total stomach weight increased linearly with the inclusion of crude glycerin. Blood total protein, globulin, urea, cholesterol, gamma glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations did not differ among treatments. Carcass traits and meat color were not affected. Crude glycerin can be added to dairy calf starter concentrate up to 240 g kg−1 dry matter because it benefits concentrate intake, performance, and rumen development without affecting animal health.

  12. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  13. Intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation, and concentrations of metabolites in steers fed with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Paulo Andrade; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Jaeger, Soraya Maria Palma Luz; de Paula Leite, Meiby Carneiro; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Correia, Braulio Rocha; de Santana Filho, Nivaldo Barreto

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated peanut cake as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of steers. We used five castrated Holstein × Zebu steers, fistulated, with average live weight 550 kg, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The diets were composed of Tifton hay and ground corn with peanut cake (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) as a replacement for soybean meal in the concentrate. Intake (kg/day) of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein were not affected by peanut cake, but ether extract intake increased linearly with the level of peanut cake in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter showed a quadratic effect, with a calculated maximum regression level of 56 % at 37 % replacement. There was no effect of the level of peanut cake on metabolizable energy intake and net energy, ammonia nitrogen, rumen pH, plasma urea, and glucose concentrations. We recommend replacing soybean meal in the concentrate with up to 40 % peanut cake.

  14. Effects of perennial ryegrass cultivars on intake, digestibility, and milk yield in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, B M; Taweel, H Z; Smit, H J; Elgersma, A; Dijkstra, J; Tamminga, S

    2005-09-01

    The effects of 8 diploid perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on dry matter (DM) intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield (MY) of dairy cows were evaluated in the summer of 2000 and 2001. Each summer, herbage was harvested daily and stall-fed to 12 dairy cows during six 2-wk periods. Six cultivars were fed in 3 periods (1, 3, and 5) according to a double 3 x 3 Latin square design. In the other periods (2, 4, and 6), 2 cultivars were fed in a repeated measurement design. Herbage mass and leaf blades in the sward canopy varied among cultivars, but differences were not consistent between years. The largest differences in herbage composition were found in water-soluble carbohydrate content, followed by crude protein content. only small differences were found in the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. A higher water-soluble carbohydrate content was found in 2 cultivars in both years, whereas ranking of cultivars in crude protein and NDF content was not consistent with years. Dry matter intake and MY were not affected by cultivar. In both years, DM digestiblity was high (>77%), with very small differences among cultivars in 2000 (<0.5%) and larger differences in 2001 (up to 4%). This was associated with a delayed heading date in 2001, resulting in larger differences in leaf blades and NDF content among cultivars. It may be concluded that the 8 cultivars used in our experiments do not provide grass breeders with encouraging evidence to include selection criteria for an increased DM intake, DM digestibility, and MY in their grass breeding schemes.

  15. RUMINAL FERMENTATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE AT LOW AND HIGH LEVEL INTAKE OF GROWING AND MATURE KACANG GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luthfi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare ruminal Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA concentration andblood glucose in young and mature Kacang goats at different feeding levels. Eigth male young Kacanggoats weights at 12.75±2.68 kg (6-7 months and male mature goat weights at ± 17.34±3.32 kg (8-12months were used in this study. The pelleted complete feed was formulated to give 18,8% of CrudeProtein (CP and 78.82% of total digestible nutrients (TDN. The experiment design was nested designexperimental 2x2 with 4 replications. The main factors (based on nested were young and mature goatsand the second factor was low feeding (near maintenance level and high feeding (2X maintenance.Data measured were daily feed intake, feed digestibilities, ruminal VFA concentration and bloodglucose. The data obtained were analyzed by using analysis of variance. The results showed that drymatter intake (DMI, digestible carbohydrates, digestible crude fiber, and digestible organic matter wasaffected by age (P<0.05, as well as level of feeding (P<0.001, but age and feeding level has no effecton digestibility (P>0.05. Ruminal VFA and blood glucose concentrations were found similar (P>0.05 neither in young and mature goats. However, VFA and concentration on the 3 and 6 h on high feeding aswell as blood glucose on 3 h in high feeding were higher than those on low feeding.

  16. Investigation into the Nephrotoxicity of Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Udemezue

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bonny-light crude oil was assessed in adult albino rats. The rats were administered with 200, 400, and 800mg/kg body weight of the crude oil orally for 7 days. Fluid intake was measured daily, initial and final animal body was recorded. The toxic effects on the kidneys were assessed and histological studies carried out. The results revealed that the kidney cells were damaged; crude oil caused a destruction of the renal reserve capacity. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05 in creatinine in the high dose group (800mg/kg, and a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in urea concentration. Histological examination indicates that crude oil induced severe pathologic changes in the forms of necrosis and oedema.

  17. Jet fuels from synthetic crudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the technical problems in the conversion of a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or a coal synthetic crude oil into a suitable aviation turbine fuel. Three syncrudes were used, one from shale and two from coal, chosen as representative of typical crudes from future commercial production. The material was used to produce jet fuels of varying specifications by distillation, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Attention is given to process requirements, hydrotreating process conditions, the methods used to analyze the final products, the conditions for shale oil processing, and the coal liquid processing conditions. The results of the investigation show that jet fuels of defined specifications can be made from oil shale and coal syncrudes using readily available commercial processes.

  18. 7 CFR 29.1010 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.1010 Section 29.1010 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1010 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. Crude leaves are usually hard and slick as a...

  19. Health Benefits of Fiber Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Agro, Nicole C; Eliasson, Åsa M; Mialki, Kaley L; Olivera, Joseph D; Rusch, Carley T; Young, Carly N

    2017-02-01

    Although fiber is well recognized for its effect on laxation, increasing evidence supports the role of fiber in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the health benefits of fiber and its fermentation, and describe how the products of fermentation may influence disease risk and treatment. Higher fiber intakes are associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Fiber may also have a role in lowering blood pressure and in preventing obesity by limiting weight gain. Fiber is effective in managing blood glucose in type 2 diabetes, useful for weight loss, and may provide therapeutic adjunctive roles in kidney and liver disease. In addition, higher fiber diets are not contraindicated in inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome and may provide some benefit. Common to the associations with disease reduction is fermentation of fiber and its potential to modulate microbiota and its activities and inflammation, specifically the production of anti-inflammatory short chain fatty acids, primarily from saccharolytic fermentation, versus the deleterious products of proteolytic activity. Because fiber intake is inversely associated with all-cause mortality, mechanisms by which fiber may reduce chronic disease risk and provide therapeutic benefit to those with chronic disease need further elucidation and large, randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm causality.Teaching Points• Strong evidence supports the association between higher fiber diets and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer.• Higher fiber intakes are associated with lower body weight and body mass index, and some types of fiber may facilitate weight loss.• Fiber is recommended as an adjunctive medical nutritional therapy for type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and certain liver diseases.• Fermentation and the resulting shifts in

  20. Characteristic Temperatures of Waxy Crude Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yingru; Zhang Jinjun; Li Hongying; Chen Jun

    2007-01-01

    Gel point or pour point is widely used to evaluate the low temperature flowability of crude oil. However, it is not adequate to describe the gelling properties of waxy crude oils under flow conditions with gel point or pour point,since the rheological behavior of crude oils is dependent on shear history. Waxy crude oils tend to gel at a low temperature. Based on gelation theory, the characteristic temperature of waxy crude oil was determined by analyzing viscosity-temperature data. Two mathematical models were developed for calculating characteristic temperatures of virgin crude oils and pour point depressants (PPD) beneficiated crude oils, respectively. By using these two models, the characteristic temperatures of crude oils that have experienced shearing and thermal histories can be predicted. The model for predicting the characteristic temperature of virgin crude oils has an average relative deviation of 4.5%, and all predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. Tested by 42 sets of data, the prediction model for crude oil treated with PPD has a high accuracy, with an average relative deviation of 4.2%, and 95.2 percent of predicted values have a deviation within 2 ℃. These two models provide useful ways for predicting the flowability of crude oils in pipelines when only wax content, wax appearance point and gel point are available.

  1. Processing of Liaohe Highly Sour Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shijie

    2006-01-01

    In order to solve the problems related with processing low-quality Liaohe highly sour crude, the Liaohe Petrochemical Company has explored the possibility in optimizing the processing of highly sour crude by adopting different process schemes depending upon the properties of the highly sour crude. The Liaohe naphthenic-base crude oil with low freezing point is earmarked for manufacture of naphthenic lube oils and heavy traffic paving asphalt, while the extra-heavy Liaohe crude with high acid number is routed directly to delayed coking unit coupled with corresponding corrosion preventing measures, resulting in tackling the problem of equipment corrosion arising from refining of Liaohe highly sour crude to obtain light distillates from Liaohe heavy crude through a short process scheme.

  2. Consumo de fibra alimentar e de macronutrientes por crianças com constipação crônica funcional Fiber and nutrients intake in constipated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane C. Gomes

    2003-09-01

    .OBJECTIVES: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the intake of fiber alimentary and macronutrients in constipated children. METHODS: Fifty-four children (aged 2-12 yr with diagnosis of chronic functional constipation were investigated at the Pediatric Hospital, "Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte", Natal, RN, Brazil. They were age and sex matched with 50 patients without constipation. A standard questionnaire was applied to both groups and a 3 day dietary record was analyzed by computer software. RESULTS: The mean age at onset of symptoms was 29,0 ± 26,1 months. There was not sex predominance and no difference about nutritional condition between the groups. Constipated children ate less fiber, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and less caloric and protein adequated percentuals. The proportion of children who ate less dietary fiber than recommended (age + 5 g /day was greater in the constipated group (83,3% than in controls (66,6%; odds ratio 2,6. CONCLUSION: Constipated children ate less fiber and macronutrients than children without constipation. Intake of dietary fiber below the minimum recommendation is a risk factor for chronic functional constipation in children.

  3. Ramjet Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Propulsion a vitesse elevee : Conception du moteur - integration et gestion thermique ) 14. ABSTRACT Intake design for supersonic engines, in common...straightener. The annular gap at the inner diameter of the straightener feeds air to a centrally located pilot flame and the proportion that passes to...integrated with the missile forebody. A central air transfer duct feeds the Odin engine at the rear. The central schematic in figure 10 shows the

  4. Composição químico-bromatológica e degradabilidade In Situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro da casca do fruto de três variedades de maracujá (Passiflora spp Chemical composition and In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of three varieties passion fruit (Passiflora spp shelves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Villela Vieira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição químico-bromatológica e as degradabilidades potenciais e efetivas da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do resíduo (casca das variedades de maracujá amarela (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener, roxa (Passiflora edulis Sims e doce (Passiflora alata e da mistura das variedades amarela e roxa. Calcularam-se, também, o consumo de MS e as concentrações de amônia, ácidos graxos voláteis e pH no líquido ruminal e a taxa de passagem das fases líquida e sólida da digesta no rúmen de bovinos. Os resíduos (casca in natura apresentaram grande quantidade de água, enquanto a variedade roxa apresentou o maior teor de matéria seca (17,01% e o amarelo, o menor (10,78%. O teor de proteína bruta variou de 9,82% na MS, para a variedade amarela, a 7,53%, para a doce. O teor de fósforo foi 0,13% na MS para a variedade doce, chegando a 0,09, para a roxo, e 0,08%, para a amarelo. Os teores de cálcio, FDN e FDA não diferiram entre as variedades. Às 48 horas de incubação no rúmen, a degradabilidade atingiu ponto máximo para o teor de MS, PB e FDN. Houve interação de tempo e variedade na degradabilidade de MS, PB e FDN. As degradabilidades de PB e FDN foram influenciadas pelas variedades. A DE da FDN foi maior para a mistura (45,85% e menor para a doce (34,61%. O consumo médio de MS foi de 16,90 kg/animal, equivalente a 3,27% do peso vivo ou 156,11 g/kg0,75, quando se utilizou farelo de casca (resíduo com 90% de MS. As concentrações de ácidos graxos voláteis mantiveram-se na faixa de 7,76 a 10,87 mmoles/100 mL. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,03 a 6,75 e o N-amoniacal, de 4,93 a 9,86 mg/100 mL.Chemical composition and the potential and effective degradabilities of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of passion fruit residue (shelves were studied in the varieties yellow (Passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa Degener

  5. High Carbohydrate-Fiber Nutrition for Running and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber in producing energy for health and exercise are discussed. Long-distance runners should have a high intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber. (PP)

  6. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  7. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  8. Characterization of crude glycerol from biodiesel plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shengjun; Luo, Xiaolan; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-06-13

    Characterization of crude glycerol is very important to its value-added conversion. In this study, the physical and chemical properties of five biodiesel-derived crude glycerol samples were determined. Three methods, including iodometric-periodic acid method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and gas chromatography (GC), were shown to be suitable for the determination of glycerol content in crude glycerol. The compositional analysis of crude glycerol was successfully achieved by crude glycerol fractionation and characterization of the obtained fractions (aqueous and organic) using titrimetric, HPLC, and GC analyses. The aqueous fraction consisted mainly of glycerol, methanol, and water, while the organic fraction contained fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), free fatty acids (FFAs), and glycerides. Despite the wide variations in the proportion of their components, all raw crude glycerol samples were shown to contain glycerol, soap, methanol, FAMEs, water, glycerides, FFAs, and ash.

  9. Viscosity-temperature correlation for crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanshool, J.; Niazi, E. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Al-Nahrain Univ., Baghdad (Iraq)

    2004-12-01

    The kinematic viscosities of crude oils were measured over a temperature range 10-50 C and at atmospheric pressure. These data were used to develop a method to predict the viscosity of crude oils, based upon API gravity, pour point and molecular weight. The proposed new correlation has been verified using data base of about twelve Middle East crude oils, showing significantly improved correlation, with an average absolute deviation of 5.3%. The correlation is also applicable to crude oils with a wide range of API gravities, pour points and molecular weights. (orig.)

  10. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  11. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  12. Maize silage supplementation to lower quality grass silage improves the intake, apparent digestibility and N retention in wether sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Matić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between lower quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L. and maize silage (MS (Zea mays L. on ad libitum intake, digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone, and GS and MS mixtures in ratios of 67:33 or 33:67 (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was harvested at the beginning of flowering of orchardgrass (about 35 % of plants were in flower while the MS used was of lower DM and starch concentration (264 g kg-1 fresh weight and 211 g kg-1 DM respectively. Mean DM content of GS was 408 g kg-1 fresh weight. MS was lower in crude protein (CP (62 g kg-1 DM than the GS (98 g kg-1 DM (P<0.001. GS contained larger quantities of neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P<0.001 than MS. Inclusion of MS in the diet (33 % vs. 67 % had positive linear effects on fresh matter (FM voluntary intake (P<0.05, digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, digestible OM in the DM (D-value (P<0.05, starch digestibility (P<0.05, N intake (P<0.01, N output in faeces (P<0.05 and absorbed N (P<0.05. A positive associative effect of GS and MS was observed for all intake parameters measured (FM, DM, OM, NDF (quadratic, P<0.05 to P<0.01, digestibility of DM, ADF (quadratic, P<0.05, CP (quadratic, P<0.01, N intake and absorbed N (quadratic, P<0.01. It was concluded that positive interactions of GS and MS were recorded for a limited number of parameters because of the lower quality MS than required for the full benefit of two forages fed together.

  13. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  14. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire to assess dietary intake of women living in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNÁNDEZ-AVILA MAURICIO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the reproducibility and validity of a 116 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, designed to assess the relation between dietary intake and chronic diseases. Material and methods. To test the reproducibility of the FFQ questionnaire, the FFQ was administered twice to 134 women residing in Mexico City at an interval of approximately one year; to assess the validity we compared results obtained by the FFQs with those obtained by four 4-day 24-hour recalls at three month intervals. Validity and reproducibility were evaluated using regression analysis and Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients of log-e and calorie-adjusted nutrient scores. Results. Mean values for intake of most nutrients assessed by the two food frequency questionnaires were similar. However, means for the 24-hr recall were significantly lower. Intraclass correlation coefficients for nutrient intakes, assessed by questionnaires, administered one year apart, ranged from 0.38 for cholesterol to 0.54 for crude fiber. Correlation coefficients between energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, measured by diet recalls, and the first FFQ ranged from 0.12 for polyunsaturated fatty acids to 0.67 for saturated fatty acids. Regression coefficients between 24-hr recall and FFQ,s were all significant were significant for all nutrients, except for polyunsaturated fat, folic acid, vitamin E and Zinc. Conclusions. These data indicate that this semi-quantitative FFQ is reproducible and provides a useful estimate by which to categorize individuals by level of past nutrient intake. However, its application outside Mexico City or in different age and gender populations will require additional modifications and validation efforts.

  15. 7 CFR 29.6009 - Crude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crude. 29.6009 Section 29.6009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6009 Crude. A subdegree of maturity. (See Rule 15.)...

  16. Response of broiler chickens to different dietary crude protein and feeding regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO Oyedeji

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Five isocaloric (3200kcal/kg diets were used in an experiment designed to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP and feeding regimens on broiler performance. Day-old broilers were randomly distributed into four groups using a completely randomized design. Each group was replicated three times with ten broiler chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for eight weeks. Broilers in group 1 received 23% CP from 0 to 3 weeks, 20% CP from 3 to 6 weeks and 18% CP from 6 to 8 weeks, while broilers in group 2 received 23% CP between 0 and 6 weeks and 18% CP between 6 and 8 weeks. Besides, broilers in group 3 were fed 23% CP from 0 to 4 weeks and 16% CP from 4 to 8 weeks, whereas group 4 was given 18% CP from 0 to weeks. Water was supplied ad libitum for broilers in the different dietary groups. A metabolic trial was carried out on the third week of the experiment using a total collection method. Proximate analyses of diets and faecal samples were performed according to the methods outlined by the Association Of the Official Analytical Chemists. Results at market age showed that broiler performance with respect to feed intake, weight gain, feed to gain ratio and water intake were not significantly influenced by CP regimens (p>0.05. Furthermore, CP regimens did not significantly influence broilers liveability (p>0.05. Protein retention, fat utilization and available fiber were not significantly influenced among treatments (p> 0.05. Economic data showed that cost to benefit ratio of producing broilers was comparable among broilers for all CP regimens used in this trial (p>0.05. It was concluded that a single diet of 18% CP and 3200kcal/kg metabolizable energy would be most suitable and convenient for farmers who are engaged in on-farm feed production for broilers as compared with the standard feeding regimens of broiler starter and broiler finisher diets.

  17. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcour, Jan A; Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term "dietary fiber" groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the "fiber gap"-that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer.

  18. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control. There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic. Here, the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill. General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  19. Hyperglycemia in poor controlled diabetes from crude tamarind herbal pill:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj; Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is an important finding in the diabetic patient with poor glycemic control.There are several possible causes of hyperglycemic.Here,the author presents an interesting case study on a female diabetic patient presenting with hyperglycemic due to intake of crude tamarind herbal pill.General practitioner should realize that the use of alternative medicine can be a cause of unexplained hyperglycemic episode in diabetic patient.

  20. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-01-01

    (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)—experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...... children also gain most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households with the lowest...... initial consumption share of fiber-rich products— families with children—appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average...

  1. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children) - experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without...... children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...

  2. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (psilage increased (psilage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  3. New crude oils from Caspian Depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmykhova, N.M.; Krylova, S.M.; Arenbrister, L.P.; Kolevatova, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    In this article the authors are reporting data on the characteristics of crude oils from new fields of the North Emba oil district (Zhanazhol, Kozhasaya, Karachaganak) and old fields in this same district (Kenkiyak, Kara-Tyube), and also the Tengiz field, which was discovered in the South Emba district. During the last few years, twenty samples of crude oils and condensates from these fields have been investigated at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Petroleum Processing (VNII NP). Characteristics of some of these crudes are listed.

  4. Suriname installing first crude-oil pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, E.W. (E.W. McAllister Engineering Services, Houston, TX (US))

    1992-04-27

    This paper reports that the first cross country crude-oil pipeline in the south American country of Suriname is currently under construction. The State Oil Co. of Suriname (Staatsolie) is building the 34.4-mile, 14-in. pipeline to deliver crude oil from the Catharina Sophia field (Tambaredjo) to the Tout Lui Faut terminal near the capital, Paramaribo. Crude oil from the Jossi Kreek field will be injected at mile point (MP) 3.4. Oil from these two fields is now being moved to tout Lui Faut by Staatsolie-owned motorized ocean barges. Increased production to meet requirements of a planned refinery near Tout Lui Faut prompted the pipeline.

  5. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  6. Influencia da adubação nitrogenada e idade de corte sobre os teores de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro de três cultivares de capim-elefante (Influence of nitrogen fertilization and age of cutting on the crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents of three elephant-grass varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Avelar Magalhães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEste trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos de três doses denitrogênio (150, 300 e 450 kg de N/ha e cinco idades de corte (28, 35, 42, 56 e 84 dias sobre os teores de proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN do capim-elefante cvs. Napier, Pioneiro e Roxo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em parcelas subsubdivididas e quatro repetições. As gramíneas foram plantadas em covas, em área irrigada por aspersão fixa de baixa vazão. O corte de uniformização foi realizado 93 dias após o plantio, e em seguida foram aplicados os níveis de nitrogênio, usando-se uréia. Foi observado que a cv. Roxo apresentou o maior teor médio de PB, enquanto a Napier apresentou o menor teor. Os maiores teores de PB foram obtidos através da utilização de 450 e 300 kg de N/ha. A análise de regressão indicou linearidade negativa dos efeitos da idade sobre os teores de PB da planta. Os teores de FDN foram crescentes em função da idade de corte. A análise de variância nãodetectou diferenças significativas entre as cultivares testadas e nem nos níveis de nitrogênio aplicados sobre os teores de FDN.SummaryThis experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of three nitrogen levels (150; 300 and 450 kg of N/ha and five cutting ages (28, 35, 42, 56 and 84 days on the crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF contents of the elephant-grass vars. Napier, Pioneiro and Roxo. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with treatments arranged as a split-split-plot and four repetitions. The grassy varieties were established in hollows, in area irrigated for fixed aspersion of low outflow. The uniformization cut was carried through 93 days after the plantation, and after that the nitrogen levels had been applied, using themselves urea. TheCP content had been gotten from the nitrogen determination, for the method of Kjeldahl (N x 6.25. It was observed that the var. Roxo presented the highest CP

  7. Trends of the dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18-45 in nine provinces(autonomous region)from 1989 to 2006%1989-2006年中国九省(区)居民膳食纤维摄入状况及其变化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠君; 张兵; 杜文雯; 刘爱东; 张继国; 王志宏; 苏畅; 马玉霞; 翟凤英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the status and trend of dietary fiber intake and its food sources among Chinese residents aged 18-45 years old in 9 provinces(autonomous region),from 1989 to 2006.Methods Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data of three consecutive days from China Health and Nutrition Survey(1989,1991,1993,1997,2000,2004 and 2006)were used.And the 18-45 years old subjects with complete information on dietary survey were included.The sample size of these 7 surveys were 5597,5596,5323,5485,5308,4144 and 3889,respectively.The trends of dietary fiber intake and food sources by time and sex were studied.Results From 1989 to 2000,the total of daily dietary fiber intake of 18-45 years old healthy residents decreased from 15.1 g/d to 11.6 g/d,insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased from 22.6 g/d to 17.8 g/d.In villages,from 1989 to 2000,the insoluble dietary fiber intake decreased 5.1 g/d in males and 5.2 g/d in females(13.2,11.8 g in 2000,respectively; 18.3,17.0 g in 1989,respectively).In 2006,the insoluble dietary intake was 12.6 g/d in males and 11.2 g/d in females in villages.In cities,from 1989 to 2006,the insoluble dietary fiber intake was 9.4-11.8 g/d in males and 8.3-10.8 g/d in females.The total dietary fiber intake was 15.7-17.6 g/d in males and 13.5-16.4 g/d in females.The difference of insoluble and total dietary fiber intake between city and village was decreasing.In 2006,70.6%(8.4/11.9)insoluble dietary fiber came from vegetables((4.1 ± 3.1)g/d),wheat flour and its products((2.6 ± 3.6)g/d),rice and its products((1.7 ± 1.3)g/d).Conclusion Dietary fiber intake among Chinese aged 18-45 in 9 provinces(autonomous region)decreased from 1989 to 2006.Vegetables,wheat flour,rice and their products were the major food sources of insoluble dietary fiber.%目的 分析1989-2006年中国9个省(自治区)18~45岁健康居民膳食纤维的摄入状况、膳食纤维食物来源及其的变化趋势.方法 以1989、1991、1993、1997、2000、2004和2006年中国

  8. Performance of juvenile mojarra supplied with feed containing varying levels of crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Henrique Bastos de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of the Brazilian aquaculture has stimulated the development of the productive chain of native species, including marine environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of juvenile mojarra fish (Diapterus rhombeus fed diets containing different concentrations of crude protein (32, 36, 40 and 44 g 100 g-1. The 80 juvenile mojarra (7.2±1.5 g were kept in 16 circular tanks (150 L. The study design used was completely randomized with four treatments and four repetitions. The fish were fed four times a day. At the end of the experiment (60 days the final weight, feed intake, weight gain (WG, feed:gain ratio (FGR, protein efficiency rate (PER, energy efficiency rate, specific growth, survival rate and, body composition were evaluated. It was verified significant effect of protein level on the WG, with the best value at the level of 38.20 g 100 g-1 of crude protein. For FGR, the best estimated value occurred with 38.06 g 100 g-1 of crude protein, similar to that reported for the PER (38.91 g 100 g-1. The other performance parameters and body composition were not influenced by crude protein levels. Diet crude protein concentrations between 38.06 and 38.91 g 100 g-1 provide the best performance indices for juvenile mojarra.

  9. Effect of Humulus scandens for Traditional Fiber Sources on Digestion,Diarrhea,and Performance of Growing Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wan-hua; GU Zi-lin; WEI Kun-peng; LIU Ya-juan; WANG Zeng-li

    2009-01-01

    This work was to determine which concentration of a mixture of fresh Humulus scandens(HS)and fresh alfalfa could be included in diets for rabbits.The fresh forage of three experimental diets is composed of 100% alfalfa,50% alfalfa+50% HS,100% HS,respectively.30 rabbits[(1.42±0.056)kg]were used to determine nutrient digestibility.A feeding trial was carried out using 90 weaning rabbits[35 d of age;(512±6.5)g].Increasing content of HS in the diet did not affect digestibility of DM(dry matter),CF(crude fiber),CP(crude protein),GE(gross energy),and EE(ether extract).But diarrhea decreased markedly(P<0.01)compared with the diets that had no HS.ADFI(average daily feed intake)increased by 4.3%(P<0.05)and 3.6%(P<0.05)when rabbits fed the diet with 100% HS of fresh forage compared with the diets containing 0 and 50% HS,respectively.Feed efficiency improved significantly(P<0.05)by 2.07 and 5.30% when rabbits fed 0 and 50% HS of fresh forage,respectively,compared with 100% HS.There was no effect on ADG(average daily weight gain).In conclusion,the mixture(50∶50)of HS and alfalfa constitutes an alternative source of fiber for fattening rabbits and prevents diarrhea effectively.

  10. Fiber diffraction without fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, H-C; Schwander, P; Uddin, M; Saldin, D K

    2013-06-28

    Postprocessing of diffraction patterns of completely randomly oriented helical particles, as measured, for example, in so-called "diffract-and-destroy" experiments with an x-ray free electron laser can yield "fiber diffraction" patterns expected of fibrous bundles of the particles. This will allow "single-axis alignment" to be performed computationally, thus obviating the need to do this by experimental means such as forming fibers and laser or flow alignment. The structure of such particles may then be found by either iterative phasing methods or standard methods of fiber diffraction.

  11. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  12. Improving performance of electrostatic heater-theaters for light crude doped heavy crude; A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Ray, S.; Rai, R. [Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology, New Bombay (India)

    1995-12-31

    Crude oil treatment systems for heavy oil assume paramount importance due to the difficult nature of emulsions formed and presence of water in the form of small droplets. With the aging of heavy oil fields, operating under active water drive, water content in the emulsion produced increases substantially. This has a direct impact on heater-treater performance and treated crude quality. A typical problem is discussed in this paper where the gradual increase in emulsion production over a period of time in heavy oil belts of ONGC have affected the electrostatic heater-treater performance, treating light crude doped heavy crude, resulting in increased BS&W (basic sediments and water) in the treated crude. Critical levels of water cut in both heavy and light crudes have been identified beyond which the existing emulsion treating system becomes ineffective. Analysis have also been carried out to identify optimum mixing proportion which result in the most effective demulsification.

  13. Extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: new technology overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E. [Infrastructure and Upgrading Department PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela); Zacarias, L [Refining Department. PDVSA-Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    Venezuela has reserves of heavy and extra heavy crude oil in the eastern part of the country. There is a need for lower capital cost extraction technologies. At the moment, heavy oil is diluted with light or medium crude oil before it is sold on the market. In order to remove this requirement, PDVSA Research Institute has been working on developing a new technology to convert heavy crude oil into upgraded crude oil. This paper presents the technology, named Aquaconversion, and its applications. The technology consists of a catalytic steam conversion process which converts heavy oil into transportable upgraded crude oil with a higher density and lower viscosity than can be achieved using other technologies. This technology can be used onsite to obtain transportable upgraded crude or to replace visbreaking units in refineries. This paper presents a new technology that makes the extraction of heavy oil in Venezuela economically feasible.

  14. Crude Oil Trading Using Turbo Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Šoltés

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two objectives. The first one is to contribute to the debate regarding the validity of the Hubbert Crude Oil Peak Theory. Its acceptance should guide economic policies, especially over time. The other objective is to characterize modern investment tools for short-term investments, or more precisely for trading, which use the leverage effect significantly. They are so called Turbo Certificates and they are used to trade crude oil.

  15. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and activ

  16. The dynamics of crude oil price differentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattouh, Bassam [The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, 57 Woodstock Road, Oxford OX2 6FA (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Crude oil price differentials are modelled as a two-regime threshold autoregressive (TAR) process using the method proposed by Caner and Hansen [Caner, M., Hansen, B.E. Threshold autoregression with a unit root. Econometrica 2001; 69; 1555-1596.]. While standard unit root tests suggest that the prices of crude oil of different varieties move closely together such that their price differential is stationary, the TAR results indicate strong evidence of threshold effects in the adjustment process to the long-run equilibrium. These findings suggest that crude oil prices are linked and thus at the very general level, the oil market is 'one great pool' (Adelman, M.A. International oil agreements. The Energy Journal 1984; 5; 1-9.). However, differences in the dynamics of adjustment suggest that within this one pool, oil markets are not necessarily integrated in every time period and hence the dynamics of crude oil price differentials may not follow a stationary process at all times. Although the development of a liquid futures market around the crude oil benchmarks has helped make some distant markets more unified, arbitrage is not costless or risk-free and temporary breakdowns in the benchmarks can lead to decoupling of crude oil prices. (author)

  17. Effect of psyllium gum and wheat bran on spontaneous energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J; Levitsky, D A; VanSoest, P J; Robertson, J B; Kalkwarf, H J; Roe, D A

    1987-11-01

    Energy intake, fecal energy output, and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured in 12 females who consumed either approximately 23 g/d supplementary fiber or a 4 g/d fiber control. Fiber supplements were crackers containing psyllium gum, wheat bran, or a combination of the two fiber sources. After 1 wk on the control cracker, subjects consumed the three high-fiber crackers and the control cracker for 2-wk periods in a balanced design. Gum and combination supplements gave increased bloating and flatulence. Increase in abdominal pain was reported with gum supplement. Mean daily fecal energy was 96 kcal/d with control crackers and was increased by 63 kcal with high-fiber crackers. Gum and combination supplements significantly decreased intake of digestible energy by 153 and 115 kcal/d, respectively. This suppression was not dependent upon fiber intolerance. Wheat bran supplement had no effect on energy intake.

  18. Influência da monensina sódica no consumo e na digestibilidade de dietas com diferentes teores de proteína para ovinos Effect of monensin on intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients in sheep fed diets with different crude protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Morais de Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    or not with 28 mg of monensin/kg of DM. Diets contained 65% of signalgrass hay (Brachiaria decumbens and 35% of concentrate; a diet containing only signal grass hay was also fed. The concentrate of diets with 11.4% CP was composed by corn and urea while that of diets with 16.5% CP was based on corn and soybean meal. A completely randomized block design was used and treatment differences were separated by complete orthogonal contrasts. Although monensin significantly reduced the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, TC, NDF and TDN, no differences were observed for apparent digestibility of nutrients. Monensin also reduced fecal excretion of N but the greatest N retention was observed in animals fed diets with no supplementation. Diets with the highest CP levels also had the highest CP intake while those with the lowest CP levels showed greatest intakes of EE and TC. Dietary CP level had no significant effect on nutrient digestibility with the exception of CP and EE, which were higher on animals fed diets with high and low CP contents, respectively. The diet containing only signalgrass hay resulted in the lowest intake and digestibility of nutrients and also led to a negative N balance.

  19. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber.

  20. Effect of boron as an antidote on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and fluorine balance in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) exposed to high fluoride ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.

  1. Pengaruh Penambahan Kosubstrat pada Biodegradasi Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Any Juliani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penambangan minyak bumi tidak hanya dilakukan oleh perusahaan-perusahaan besar, tetapi juga oleh masyarakat secara tradisional. Potensi pencemaran lingkungan yang ditimbulkan oleh kegiatan penambangan rakyat ini menjadi lebih tinggi karena pengelolaannya yang tradisional. Salah satu jenis pencemaran yang ditimbulkannya misalnya adalah tanah atau perairan yang tercemar oleh minyak bumi (crude oil pada saat berlangsungnya kegiatan penambangan. Salah satu upaya untuk dapat mengatasinya adalah dengan bioremediasi. Bioremediasi merupakan teknologi pengolahan pencemar dengan memanfaatkan aktivitas mikroba, terutama dari golongan bakteri. Bioremediasi tersebut harus melibatkan bakteri yang memiliki kapasitas metabolic untuk melakukan biodegradasi terhadap crude oil tersebut. Crude oil sendiri pada dasarnya merupakan senyawa hidrokarbon yang merupakan sumber karbon yang kaya bagi mikroba. Namun demikian, biodegradasi crude oil relative lebih sulit dilakukan karena karakteristiknya yang merupakan senyawa dengan berat molekul dan ukuran yang besar. Oleh karena itu penambahan kosubstrat yang lebih sederhana dapat dilakukan untuk membantu biodegradasi terutama pada tahap awal proses. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kosubstrat dalam hal ini glukosa terhadap biodegradasi crude oil. Penelitian dilakukan dalam media cair dengan bioaugmentasi melalui penambahan inoculum bakteri yang diisolasi dari tanah yang dikondisikan terhadap crude oil dalam beberapa variasi reactor. Indikasi terjadinya biodegradasi diperiksa melalui pengukuran terhadap parameter Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH dan Total Plate Count (TPC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kosubstrat glukosa memberikan pengaruh positif terhadap penurunan TPH. Penurunan TPH tertinggi setelah 28 hari adalah sebesar 25,3 % yang diberikan oleh reactor dengan penambahan kosubstrat serta konsentrasi crude oil awal sebesar 8.1 %. Sementara itu reactor tanpa

  2. Crude Oil Spot Price Forecasting Based on Multiple Crude Oil Markets and Timeframes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a multiple kernel learning (MKL-based regression model for crude oil spot price forecasting and trading. We used a well-known trend-following technical analysis indicator, the moving average convergence and divergence (MACD indicator, for extracting features from original spot prices. Additionally, we factored in the possibility that movements of target crude oil prices may be related to other important crude oil markets besides the target market for the prediction time horizon since traders may find price movement information within other relevant crude oil markets useful. We also considered multiple timeframes in this study since trends may differ across different timeframes and, in fact, traders may use their own timeframes. Therefore, for forecasting target crude oil prices, this study emphasizes on features pertaining to other important crude oil markets and different timeframes in addition to features of the target crude oil market and target timeframe. Moreover, the MKL framework has been used to fuse information extracted from different sources and timeframes of the same data source. Experimental results show that out-of-sample forecasting using the MKL method is superior to benchmark methods in terms of root mean square error (RMSE and average percentage profit (APP. They also show that the information from multiple timeframes is useful for prediction, but that from another crude oil market is not.

  3. Radiation for crude drugs contaminated with microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satake, Motoyoshi; Sekita, Setsuko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Recently, it became urgent to develop an effective method for repressing the microbials in a crude drug and its preparation. In some countries in Asia and Western countries, radiosterilization for natural drugs has been approved and the dose was within a range. 10-30 kGy. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the safety of such radiosterilization for crude drugs. Concerning bacterial contamination in the original materials for crude drugs, the proportion rates of materials containing less than 10{sup 3}, 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 5} cells were 54, 27 and 19%, respectively. Since the previous study revealed that those microbials were almost diminished by exposure to 10 kGy, various crude drugs were exposed to 5 kGy and the amounts of remaining microbials were determined. The number of microbials remained after radiation at 5 kGy was 1 x 10{sup 3} for plantago seed, rhubarb and cyperus rhizome and less than 10{sup 2} for other samples tested. The effects of radiation on the respective active ingredients of each crude drug underwent using HPLC. (M.N.)

  4. Comprehensive Evaluation of Tahe Medium Gravity Crude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li; Zou Ying; Weng Huixin

    2008-01-01

    The comprehensive evaluation of Tahe medium gravity crude has demonstrated that this type of crude belongs to a intermediate base sour crude, featuring high vanadium content (103ppm), high carbon residue content, low pour point, and low acid value. Based on the crude processing conditions at SINOPEC Luoyang Petrochemical Branch Company, a proposal on the appropriate process flow scheme for processing Tahe crude oil has been raised with the main ideas presented as follows. The IBP-175 ℃ fraction is not an ideal feedstock for catalytic reforming; the 75-250℃ fraction is a qualified feedstock for zeolite de-waxing; the 140-230℃ fraction can be used to manufacture the No. 3 jet fuel through appropriate distillation range adjustment and product refining; the 175-350℃ fraction can be directly used to manufacture No.-10 diesel through proper refining; the atmospheric resid boiling over 350℃ is not suited to be used as the RFCC feedstock; the 350-520℃ vacuum distillate oil can be used as the FCC feedstock; and the vacuum residuum boiling over 520℃ is a good feedstock for manufacture of asphalt.

  5. Fiber biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton fiber cells arising from seed epidermis is the most important agricultural textile commodity in the world. To produce fully mature fibers, approximately two months of fiber developmental process are required. The timing of four distinctive fiber development stages consisting of initiation, ...

  6. Milk production and composition responds to dietary neutral detergent fiber and starch ratio in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Xiaoqiao; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Junli; Ma, Lu

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) : starch ratio could be considered as a nutritional indicator to evaluate carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis. Eight primiparous dairy cows were assigned to four total mixed rations with NDF : starch ratios of 0.86, 1.18, 1.63 and 2.34 from T1 to T4 in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dry matter intake and milk production were decreased from T1 to T4. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, NDF and crude protein were linearly decreased from T1 to T4. As NDF : starch ratio increased, milk protein content and production, and milk lactose content and production were linearly reduced. However, milk fat content was linearly increased from T1 to T4. Quadratic effect was observed on milk fat production with the highest level in T3. Averaged rumen pH was linearly increased from T1 to T4, and subacute rumen acidosis occurred in T1. Ruminal propionate and butyrate concentration were linearly decreased, and microbial crude protein and metabolizable protein decreased from T1 to T4. It is concluded that NDF : starch ratio can be considered as a potential indicator to evaluate dietary carbohydrate composition and manipulate milk production and composition synthesis.

  7. DIGESTION OF HIGH FIBER DIET IN SHEEP AND GOAT OF JENEPPONTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Rahardja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Four does (goat, G and four ewes (sheep, S of Jeneponto were fed chaffed rice straw hay (3.7%crude protein, 63.5% cell wall constituents, 44.5% acid detergent fiber and 6.2% acid detergent lignin,all based on dry matter. The intakes and digestibility of the diet by G and S were compared. Bothspecies consumed the same level of the diet. G digested dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crudefiber, and lignin of the diet to a significant higher extent than did by S. The superiority of G over S indigesting the diet was attributable with longer retention time of ruminal fluid and particulate matters inthe rumen and the entire gut, which then resulted in higher proportion of small size particles (<1 mmsieve, higher proportions of propionic, butyric, valeric and isovaleric acid concentrations produced inthe rumen. Additionally for further studies, there were some possibilities of G having a better chewingactivity (duration and intensity, and ability to maintain higher rumen ammonia levels by a greater urearecycle to the rumen, particularly through salivation.

  8. Immunomodulatory properties of two wheat bran fractions - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in obese mice fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; De Backer, Fabienne; Cani, Patrice D; Bindels, Laure B; Stroobants, Aurore; Portetelle, Daniel; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2008-10-01

    Several data suggest that fermentable dietary fibers could play a role in the control of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In mice, dietary fructans, which are extensively fermented in caeco-colon by bifidobacteria, decrease fat mass development and modulate gastrointestinal peptides involved in the control of food intake (namely glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1). The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two cereal bran fractions isolated from wheat - aleurone-enriched and crude fractions - in a nutritional model of obesity. In a first experiment, we confirmed that 2 weeks of treatment with a high fat (HF) diet is sufficient to exhibit glucose intolerance and to increase adiposity in mice. In the second experiment, mice were fed a HF or a HF diet enriched with 10% wheat bran fractions during 3 weeks. None of the wheat bran fractions modified body weight, adipose tissue mass, glucose or lipid homeostasis. Wheat bran fractions increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the caecal content without any effect on caecal enlargement and on GLP-1 precursor expression in the colon. Furthermore, wheat bran fractions decreased circulating interleukin 6 (IL-6) and CD68 mRNA in the visceral adipose tissue, suggesting a decrease in recruited-tissue macrophages. We propose that specific and early immunomodulatory properties of cereal products with prebiotic properties, may occur in obese mice independently of extensive gut fermentation.

  9. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  10. Modelling and Simulation of Crude Oil Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulfatai JIMOH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work was carried out to develop a model equation for the dispersion of crude oil in water. Seven different crude oils (Bonny Light, Antan Terminal, Bonny Medium, Qua Iboe Light, Brass Light Mbede, Forcados Blend and Heavy H were used as the subject crude oils. The developed model equation in this project which is given as...It was developed starting from the equation for the oil dispersion rate in water which is given as...The developed equation was then simulated with the aid of MathCAD 2000 Professional software. The experimental and model results obtained from the simulation of the model equation were plotted on the same axis against time of dispersion. The model results revealed close fittings between the experimental and the model results because the correlation coefficients and the r-square values calculated using Spreadsheet Program were both found to be unity (1.00.

  11. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  12. Degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro, de diferentes gramíneas, em novilhos suplementados com misturas múltiplas In situ degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber of different grasses in steers supplemented with multiple mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2004-04-01

    tratamentos. O fornecimento de fonte nitrogenada e/ou energética mostrou ser eficiente na degradabilidade efetiva da MS, em média, 6,8% maior do que os outros sem essas fontes.The experiment was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the effect of different mineral supplements on the degradability of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber in cattle on pasture, at Escola Agrotecnica Federal de Cuiabá - MT, from July to November, 2001. It was utilized 12 steers. Twelve steers aged 18 months and average weight of 240 kilograms, from several breedings and rumen fistulated, were utilized. From the differing management of the pasture, the area was divided into six padlocks, provided with covered drinker and feeder. The rotated grazing with 14 days occupation and the stocking rate of 1 animal/ha was utilized. The treatments were: T0 - pasture without minerals (control; T1 - pasture with mineralized salt; T2 - Pasture with mineralized salt plus urea; T3 - Pasture with mineralized salt plus urea plus corn; T4 - pasture with mineralized salt plus urea plus soybean meal; T5 - pasture with mineralized salt plus urea plus soybean meal plus corn. The sample of forage was obtained by the technique of simulated grazing and homogenized. The forage used in the degradability trial showed a mean of 8.4% of CP and 77.2% of NDF on the DM basis and was incubated in natura with 37.2% DM. The in situ ruminal degradability was obteined with the nylon bag technique. Each nylon bag contained 20 mg DM/cm² of surface and incubated in rumen for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The potential and effective degradability and the undegradable fraction of DM, CP and NDF were analyzed utilizing the Randomized Block Design with six treatments and six replicates and means compared by the Scott Knott test. The blocks were arranged by considering each fistulated animal. The results obtained showed that, for the effective degradability of DM, there was difference (P0.05 by the treatments

  13. Economic policies for healthier food intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Leif Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    children also gain the most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households...... with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products - families with children - appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than the average...... household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients....

  14. CNPC's Crude Production Maintained Steady Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Mature oilfields report steady output rises despite reserves decline Ghina's largest oil base Daqing Oilfield has fulfilled its production target by stabilizing its crude oil output above 40 million tons in the past year,although its reserves have been on the decline.Its 2008 crude oil production stood at 40.2 million tons,which was the smallest in three years if compared to the 41.7 million tons in 2007 and 43.41 million tons in 2006.But its 2008 natural gas output hit 2.76 billion cubic meters,up 8.241 percent from the 2.55 billion cubic meters in 2007.

  15. Alba is first heavy North Sea crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-27

    The development of the Alba oil field will constitute two North Sea firsts: the first Eocene reservoir developed, and the first development to handle heavy crude. The field was discovered in Block 16/26 of the North Sea's U.K. sector in 1984. The Alba field is in the heart of the North Sea, about midway between the northern fields of the East Shetlands basin and the southern Fulmar and Argyll fields. About 250 million bbl of the estimated 1 billion bbl reservoir of 20{degrees} gravity crude is believed recoverable.

  16. Crude glycerin in supplement to primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture: nutritional and productive characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida de Santana Júnior

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and productive characteristics of primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, using different levels of crude glycerin in the supplement. The experiment was conducted at Rancho Santana farm, located in Jequié city, Bahia, Brazil, in the period from December 21, 2010 to March 16, 2011. Ten ¾ Holstein × ¼ Dairy Gyr lactating primiparous cows, with 109±24 days of lactation and a mean age of 30±6 months and mean body weight of 426.2±68.29 kg were distributed into five treatments, using two simultaneous 5 × 5 latin squares. Treatments consisted of inclusion levels (0, 94, 191, 289, 389 g/kg dry matter basis of crude glycerin in the supplement. Intake, digestibility, milk production and composition were measured. Results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and regression at 0.05 probability. For all consumption variables no significant differences were found between the levels of crude glycerin. Except for the digestibility of ether extract, all digestibility values were similar between treatments. The fat content and yield showed quadratic effect between treatments. No significant differences were observed for protein, lactose, total solids, nonfat dry extract, fat:protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen and somatic cell count between treatments. For primiparous lactating cows grazing on tropical pasture, up to 389 g of crude glycerin/kg of dietary supplement can be included without nutritional and productive interference.

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. In addition, intake of dietary fiber has beneficial effects on risk factors for developing several chronic diseases. Dietary Reference Intakes recommend consumption of 14 g dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on epidemiologic studies showing protection against cardiovascular disease. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for children, the critically ill, and the very old are unknown. The Dietary Reference Intakes for fiber are based on recommended energy intake, not clinical fiber studies. Usual intake of dietary fiber in the United States is only 15 g/day. Although solubility of fiber was thought to determine physiological effect, more recent studies suggest other properties of fiber, perhaps fermentability or viscosity are important parameters. High-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and have been linked to lower body weights. Evidence that fiber decreases cancer is mixed and further research is needed. Healthy children and adults can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing variety in daily food patterns. Dietary messages to increase consumption of high-fiber foods such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables should be broadly supported by food and nutrition professionals. Consumers are also turning to fiber supplements and bulk laxatives as additional fiber sources. Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness, so the best advice is to consume fiber in foods. Look for physiological studies of effectiveness before selecting functional fibers in dietetics practice.

  18. Simulation of pipelining pours point depressant beneficiated waxy crude oil through China West Crude Oil Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿英; 张劲军; 凌霄; 黄启玉; 林小飞; 贾邦龙; 李宇光

    2008-01-01

    Flow properties of waxy crude oils,particularly the beneficiated waxy crude oils,are sensitive to shear history that the crude oil experienced,called the shear history effect.To simulate this shear history effect accurately is vital to pipeline design and operation.It has been demonstrated by our previous that the energy dissipation or entropy generation due to viscous flow in the shear process is a suitable parameter for simulating the shear history effect.In order to further verify the reliability of this approach,experimental simulations were conducted for three PPD-beneficiated waxy crude oils transported through the China West Crude Oil Pipeline,a most complicated long-distance-crude-oil-pipeline technically and operationally so far in China.The simulations were made by using a stirred vessel and with the energy dissipation of viscous flow as the shear simulation parameter.Comparison between the flow properties of crude oils obtained from field test and experimental simulations,it is found that the gel points and viscosities from experimental simulations are in good agreement with the field data.

  19. Urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cows fed diets with 2 different levels of dietary crude protein and starch with or without monensin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, E B; Ross, D A; Fessenden, S W; Wall, C J; Van Amburgh, M E

    2014-03-01

    Rumensin (monensin; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) has been shown to reduce ammonia production and microbial populations in vitro; thus, it would be assumed to reduce ruminal ammonia production and subsequent urea production and consequently affect urea recycling. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary crude protein (CP) and 2 levels of starch, with and without Rumensin on urea-N recycling in lactating dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (107 ± 21 d in milk, 647 kg ± 37 kg of body weight) were fed diets characterized as having high (16.7%) or low (15.3%) CP with or without Rumensin, while dietary starch levels (23 vs. 29%) were varied between 2 feeding periods with at least 7d of adaptation between measurements. Cows assigned to high or low protein and to Rumensin or no Rumensin remained on those treatments to avoid carryover effects. The diets consisted of approximately 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix specific to the treatment diets, with 0.5 kg of wheat straw added to the high starch diets to enhance effective fiber intake. The diets were formulated using Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (version 6.1), and the low-protein diets were formulated to be deficient for rumen ammonia to create conditions that should enhance the demand for urea recycling. The high-protein diets were formulated to be positive for both rumen ammonia and metabolizable protein. Rumen fluid, urine, feces, and milk samples were collected before and after a 72-h continuous jugular infusion of (15)N(15)N-urea. Total urine and feces were collected during the urea infusions for N balance measurements. Milk yield and dry matter intake were improved in cows fed the higher level of dietary CP and by Rumensin. Ruminal ammonia and milk and plasma urea nitrogen concentrations corresponded to dietary CP concentration. As has been shown in vitro, Rumensin reduced rumen ammonia concentration by

  20. Dietary fiber in irritable bowel syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Ystad, Synne Otterasen; Mazzawi, Tarek; Gundersen, Doris

    2017-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder. It is widely believed that IBS is caused by a deficient intake of dietary fiber, and most physicians recommend that patients with IBS increase their intake of dietary fiber in order to relieve their symptoms. However, different types of dietary fiber exhibit marked differences in physical and chemical properties, and the associated health benefits are specific for each fiber type. Short-chain soluble and highly fermentable dietary fiber, such as oligosaccharides results in rapid gas production that can cause abdominal pain/discomfort, abdominal bloating/distension and flatulence in patients with IBS. By contrast, long-chain, intermediate viscous, soluble and moderately fermentable dietary fiber, such as psyllium results in a low gas production and the absence of the symptoms related to excessive gas production. The effects of type of fiber have been documented in the management of IBS, and it is known to improve the overall symptoms in patients with IBS. Dietary fiber acts on the gastrointestinal tract through several mechanisms, including increased fecal mass with mechanical stimulation/irritation of the colonic mucosa with increasing secretion and peristalsis, and the actions of fermentation byproducts, particularly short-chain fatty acids, on the intestinal microbiota, immune system and the neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract. Fiber supplementation, particularly psyllium, is both safe and effective in improving IBS symptoms globally. Dietary fiber also has other health benefits, such as lowering blood cholesterol levels, improving glycemic control and body weight management.

  1. Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-04-22

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known "prebiotics", "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health." To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  2. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  3. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  4. Biomass composition of a Candida pseudotropicalis new strain grown on crude sweet whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, A.; Poncet, S.; Jacob, F.; Perrier, J.

    1987-01-01

    A yeast strain isolated from whey and named Candida LY 496 was grown continuously on crude sweet whey. The obtained biomass had a crude protein content of 47%. The amino acid composition was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). All essential amino acids were present and among them lysine was predominant (11.8%). The total nucleic acids of the biomass was 6.4%. Lipids represented 5% and the fatty acids 2% of the dry matter; 75% of the fatty acids were unsaturated, and linoleic acid constituted only 1% of the total fatty acids. Niacin and vitamin B2 were the most abundant vitamins of the B group. Therefore Candida LY 496 biomass could be incorporated in animal food intakes. (Refs. 23).

  5. CRUDE OIL BIOREMEDIATION: THE AMERICAN EXPERIENCE (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a state-of-the-art extended abstract presentation summary of the outputs from the oil spill program over the last 11 years. It summarizes the results of 3 field studies involving intentional releases of crude oil: the Delaware study in 1994 (sandy beach), the St. Lawrence...

  6. Waxy crude oil flow restart ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, Andre Gaona; Varges, Priscilla Ribeiro; Mendes, Paulo Roberto de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br; Ziglio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A, R.J., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ziglio@petrobras.com.br

    2010-07-01

    Under the hot reservoir conditions, waxy crudes behave like Newtonian fluids but once they experience very cold temperatures on the sea floor, the heavy paraffin's begin to precipitate from the solution impacting non- Newtonian flow behavior to the crude (Chang 2000, Lee 2009, Davidson 2004) and begin to deposit on the pipe wall leave blocked of pipeline. This gel cannot be broken with the original steady state flow operating pressure applied before gelation (Chang 1998). Restarting waxy crude oil flows in pipelines is a difficult issue because of the complex rheological behavior of the gelled oil. Indeed, below the WAT, the gelled oil exhibits viscoplastic, thixotropic, temperature-dependent, and compressible properties due to the interlocking gel-like structure formed by the crystallized paraffin compounds and the thermal shrinkage of the oil. The main objective of this work is to determine the minimal pressure to restart the flow, and the relationship between the fluid rheology , pipe geometry and the restart pressure of the flow. Experiments will be performed to investigate the displacement of carbopol aqueous solutions (viscoplastic fluid without thixotropic effects) by Newtonian oil flowing through a strait pipe to validate the experimental apparatus. Therefore, tests will be made with different fluids, like Laponite and waxy crude oils. (author)

  7. Utilization of crude glycerin in nonruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refined glycerin is a colorless, viscous liquid, containing approximately 99% glycerin; and a metabolizable energy per kilogram of approximately 3,850 and 3,700 kcal for swine and poultry, respectively. The crude glycerin co-product generated from biodiesel production facilities, in contrast, ranges...

  8. China's Crude Oil Imports Rises Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Chinese imports of crude oil rose 10.8 percent year-on-year over the first four months of this year, due to the country's growing need for resources to fuel its rapidly developing economy, the General Administration of Customs (GAC) announced in mid-May.

  9. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  10. Degradation of crude oil by marine cyanobacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.; Vipparty, V.; David, J.J.; Chandramohan, D.

    was measured by gravimetric and gas chromatographic methods. Around 45-55% of the total fractions of crude oil (containing 50% aliphatics, 31% waxes and bitumin, 14% aromatics and 5% polar compounds) were removed in the presence of these cultures within 10 days...

  11. Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloley, Andrew W. [CH2M Hill, Englewood, CO (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates. Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection (type and corrosion allowance); management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection (PMI). The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. (author)

  12. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  13. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: I. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong; Berg, Eric Paul

    2014-04-01

    The effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of yearling heifers were investigated in a 150-day feeding trial. Eighteen, crossbred heifers (Brahman x Thai native) were randomly allotted according to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. Low or high levels of CEP (15 or 30% of concentrate, LCEP, or HCEP) were basal treatments and 0, 2, and 4% CPO were daily top-dressed. Concentrate was supplemented at 1.75% of body weight (BW) and rice straw offered ad libitum. CEP level had no significance on feed intake. CPO increased roughage intake, concentrate intake, and total feed intake when expressed as %BW/d (P 0.05). Intake of fat increased with higher levels of CPO (P 0.05). We concluded that CEP can be used up to 30% in the diet, with or without additional fat inclusion.

  14. Behavior and performance of sows fed different levels of fiber and reared in individual cages or collective pens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÁBIO E.L. BUDIÑO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen pregnant sows were used. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 2x2 factorial scheme consisting of two housing systems (individual cages and collective pens and two diets (low [2.67%] and high [13.14%] level of crude fiber. Physiological, behavioral, environmental, and hormonal parameters were studied. In addition, the following productive and reproductive parameters were evaluated: weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion of the sow and piglets, number of piglets born dead and alive, number and weight at weaning, and backfat thickness of sows. Pregnant sows reared in collective pens and fed a high-fiber diet exhibited better physiological responses, indicating greater comfort and better animal welfare. The environmental variables were close to the comfort zone of the animals. In addition to providing a more comfortable environment, housing pigs in collective pens reduced stereotypy, permitting the sows to express a more natural behavior. The high-fiber diet did not interfere with female productive performance. Tifton hay can therefore be indicated as an alternative for the formulation of sow diets to improve animal welfare.

  15. Prediction of rumen fiber pool in cattle from dietary, fecal, and animal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Detmann, E; Krizsan, S J

    2016-07-01

    Feed intake control in ruminants is based on the integration of physical constraints and metabolic feedbacks. Physical constraints are related to the fill caused by the weight or volume of digesta in the reticulo-rumen. The amount of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the rumen (RNDF) may be used as an indicator of rumen fill. The objective of this study was to develop equations predicting RNDF from diet and animal characteristics using a meta-analysis technique. A treatment mean data set (n=314) was obtained from 84 studies, in which rumen pool size and diet digestibility were determined in lactating cows (n=231) or growing cattle (n=83). The data were analyzed using linear and nonlinear mixed models. Intake, rumen pool size, and fecal output of NDF were scaled to body weight (BW)(1.0). Due to the heterogeneous nature of dietary NDF, predictions of RNDF based on NDF intake were not precise. Predictions were markedly improved by dividing NDF into potentially digestible and indigestible fractions, because rumen turnover time of indigestible NDF was 2.7 times longer than that of potentially digestible NDF. At equal NDF intake, RNDF was negatively associated with dietary crude protein concentration and positively with the proportion of concentrate in the diet. Models based on fecal NDF output generally performed better than those based on NDF intake, probably because the effects of intrinsic characteristics of dietary cell walls and associative effects of dietary components collectively influence fecal NDF output. The model based on fecal NDF output was improved by including dietary concentration of forage NDF in the model, reflecting slower turnover of forage NDF compared with concentrate NDF. The curvilinear relationship between fecal NDF output and RNDF could be described by a quadratic, Mitscherlich, or power function equation, which performed better than the quadratic or Mitscherlich equation. In addition to fecal NDF output and dietary concentration of forage NDF

  16. Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Mark A; O'Reilly, Eilis; Augustsson, Katarina

    2004-01-01

    of coronary heart disease. METHODS: We analyzed the original data from 10 prospective cohort studies from the United States and Europe to estimate the association between dietary fiber intake and the risk of coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Over 6 to 10 years of follow-up, 5249 incident total coronary cases......BACKGROUND: Few epidemiologic studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease have compared fiber types (cereal, fruit, and vegetable) or included sex-specific results. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pooled analysis of dietary fiber and its subtypes and risk...... associated with risk of coronary heart disease....

  17. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  18. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Wendy J; Stewart, Maria L

    2015-11-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Dietary fiber is defined by the Institute of Medicine Food Nutrition Board as "nondigestible carbohydrates and lignin that are intrinsic and intact in plants." Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. Higher intakes of dietary fiber reduce the risk of developing several chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and some cancers, and have been associated with lower body weights. The Adequate Intake for fiber is 14 g total fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on research demonstrating protection against coronary heart disease. Properties of dietary fiber, such as fermentability and viscosity, are thought to be important parameters influencing the risk of disease. Plant components associated with dietary fiber may also contribute to reduced disease risk. The mean intake of dietary fiber in the United States is 17 g/day with only 5% of the population meeting the Adequate Intake. Healthy adults and children can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing their intake of plant foods while concurrently decreasing energy from foods high in added sugar and fat, and low in fiber. Dietary messages to increase consumption of whole grains, legumes, vegetables, fruits, and nuts should be broadly supported by food and nutrition practitioners.

  19. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  20. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including t...

  1. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution. ... Community-level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon-source utilization ... impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota interactions, ecosystem monitoring, ...

  2. Application of Markov Model in Crude Oil Price Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuhu Isah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is an important energy commodity to mankind. Several causes have made crude oil prices to be volatile. The fluctuation of crude oil prices has affected many related sectors and stock market indices. Hence, forecasting the crude oil prices is essential to avoid the future prices of the non-renewable natural resources to rise. In this study, daily crude oil prices data was obtained from WTI dated 2 January to 29 May 2015. We used Markov Model (MM approach in forecasting the crude oil prices. In this study, the analyses were done using EViews and Maple software where the potential of this software in forecasting daily crude oil prices time series data was explored. Based on the study, we concluded that MM model is able to produce accurate forecast based on a description of history patterns in crude oil prices.

  3. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of degradation of crude protein was higher for maize meal than for whole or flaked maize. Extent of crude protein ... flaked maize diets. Urea was added to increase ..... isolation of proteolytic bacteria from the sheep rumen. J. Gen. Microbiol.

  4. Effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing wether lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, P J; Neary, M K; Lemenager, R P; Lake, S L

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crude glycerin on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing wether lambs. Thirty black-faced, Suffolk-cross wether lambs (44.1 +/- 5.6 kg initial BW) were stratified and blocked by BW to 1 of 5 individually fed, isocaloric, isonitrogenous dietary treatments containing 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20% crude glycerin (88% pure) on a DM basis. Diets were fed once daily for ad libitum consumption and contained 15% chopped hay, approximately 25% dried distillers grains with solubles, and the specified treatment combination of cracked corn replaced with increasing amounts of crude glycerin. Wethers were weighed on 14-d intervals and were selected for slaughter when they reached an approximate 12th-rib fat depth of 0.51 cm (28 to 84 d on trial). Carcass characteristics were collected after a 48-h chill. Dry matter intake (linear, P = 0.004) and ADG (quadratic, P = 0.05) increased with increasing concentrations of glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d of the feeding period. Similarly, G:F tended to increase quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing concentrations of crude glycerin in the diet during the first 14 d. However, there were no differences among treatments for final BW, days on feed, or cumulative DMI, cumulative ADG, and cumulative G:F (P >or= 0.11). Body wall thickness, dressing percent, HCW, LM area, flank streaking, leg score, conformation score, quality grade, yield grade, and percent boneless, closely trimmed retail cuts did not differ (P >or= 0.21). Adding up to 15% crude glycerin to finishing wether diets improved feedlot performance, particularly during the first 14 d, without any concomitant effect on carcass characteristics.

  5. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  6. Effect of Plants Containing Secondary Compounds with Palm Oil on Feed Intake, Digestibility, Microbial Protein Synthesis and Microbial Population in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Anantasook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of rain tree pod meal with palm oil supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and microbial populations in dairy cows. Four, multiparous early-lactation Holstein-Friesian crossbred (75% lactating dairy cows with an initial body weight (BW of 405±40 kg and 36±8 DIM were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. The four dietary treatments were un-supplementation (control, supplementation with rain tree pod meal (RPM at 60 g/kg, supplementation with palm oil (PO at 20 g/kg, and supplementation with RPM at 60 g/kg and PO at 20 g/kg (RPO, of total dry matter intake. The cows were offered concentrates, at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2, and chopped 30 g/kg of urea treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The RPM contained condensed tannins and crude saponins at 88 and 141 g/kg of DM, respectively. It was found that supplementation with RPM and/or PO to dairy cows diets did not show negative effects on feed intake and ruminal pH and BUN at any times of sampling (p>0.05. However, RPM supplementation resulted in lower crude protein digestibility, NH3-N concentration and number of proteolytic bacteria. It resulted in greater allantoin absorption and microbial crude protein (p<0.05. In addition, dairy cows showed a higher efficiency of microbial N supply (EMNS in both RPM and RPO treatments. Moreover, NDF digestibility and cellulolytic bacteria numbers were highest in RPO supplementation (p<0.05 while, supplementation with RPM and/or PO decreased the protozoa population in dairy cows. Based on this study, supplementation with RPM and/or PO in diets could improve fiber digestibility, microbial protein synthesis in terms of quantity and efficiency and microbial populations in dairy cows.

  7. Survey on eating disorder-related thoughts, behaviors, and their relationship with food intake and nutritional status in female high school students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jhen; Lin, Wei; Wong, Yueching

    2011-02-01

    Eating disorders are now a global health problem for adolescents and young female adults. The level of eating disorders among young female adults is growing in Asian countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate body image, weight concerns, eating attitudes, dietary intake, and nutritional status related to eating disorders of female high school students in Taiwan. A total of 1605 female high school students participated in this study. The written questionnaire included respondents' demographics and weight concerns, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and 24-hour dietary recall. Blood chemistry data were also collected. The data were analyzed using a Student t test, χ(2) analysis, and logistic regression. Disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors were found in 17.11% of participants (measured by an EAT-26 score ≥20). Logistic regression analyses showed that disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors were significantly associated with overestimation of body weight, unrealistic body weight goal, dissatisfaction with body weight, and weight loss experiences. The reported intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, zinc, and vitamins B6 and B12 were significantly lower in participants with disturbed eating patterns than in participants without disturbance issues. Conversely, participants with disturbed eating patterns had higher dietary and crude fiber intake than participants without disturbed eating issues. The percentage of participants with abnormal values of total iron-binding capacity and serum iron was significantly higher in those with disturbed eating patterns than in those without disturbed eating patterns. Disturbed eating attitudes/behaviors exist among female adolescents in Taiwan, and these behaviors jeopardize their nutritional status. The possibility of using the EAT-26 as a reference to predict the quality and quantity of food intake among female adolescents is worthy of further study.

  8. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  9. Tanker spills Norwegian crude oil off Shetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-11

    This paper reports that crude oil was spilling last week from the U.S. owned Braer tanker after the 89,000 dwt vessel ran aground on the south end of Scotland's Shetland Islands. Workers were trying to assess the extent of damage to the tanker, shoreline, and wildlife after the January 5 accident. Braer's cargo amounted to 607,000 bbl of Norwegian oil bound for Canada. Braer loaded its cargo and sailed January 3 from Den norske stats oljeselskap AS's Mongstad, Norway, terminal with crude from Gullfaks field in the Norwegian North Sea. The $11 million shipment was destined for Ultramar Canada Inc.'s 125,000 b/d refinery at St. Romuald, Que.

  10. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  11. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  12. Associations between dietary fiber and colorectal polyp risk differ by polyp type and smoking status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2014-05-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer.

  13. Associations between Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Polyp Risk Differ by Polyp Type and Smoking Status12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Smalley, Walter E.; Ness, Reid M.; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association of dietary fiber intake with colorectal cancer risk is established. However, the association may differ between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Dietary fiber intakes were estimated by self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs with adjustment for potential confounders. Analysis also was stratified by cigarette smoking and sex. High dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of colorectal polyps (P-trend = 0.003). This association was found to be stronger among cigarette smokers (P-trend = 0.006) than nonsmokers (P-trend = 0.21), although the test for multiplicative interaction was not statistically significant (P = 0.11). This pattern of association was more evident for high-risk adenomatous polyps (ADs), defined as advanced or multiple ADs (P-interaction smoking and dietary fiber intake = 0.09). Among cigarette smokers who smoked ≥23 y, a 38% reduced risk of high-risk ADs was found to be associated with high intake of dietary fiber compared with those in the lowest quartile fiber intake group (P-trend = 0.004). No inverse association with dietary fiber intake was observed for low-risk ADs, defined as single nonadvanced ADs. Cigarette smoking may modify the association of dietary fiber intake with the risk of colorectal polyps, especially high-risk ADs, a well-established precursor of colorectal cancer. PMID:24572038

  14. Use programmable controllers on crude trunklines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J. (Square D Co. (US))

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on the use of programmable controllers on a 530-mi. 10-in., bidirectional crude oil trunkline linking Midland and Port Arthur, Texas. It has 14 pump stations and one control center. Amdel, constructed in 1926, allows injection/exit points at Port Arthur, Hearne, Bronte, Forsan, big Spring and Midland, Texas. A 6 MHz analog microwave backbone supplies the communications between the remote pump stations and the control center.

  15. Volatile hydrocarbons inhibit methanogenic crude oil degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eSherry

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenic degradation of crude oil in subsurface sediments occurs slowly, but without the need for exogenous electron acceptors, is sustained for long periods and has enormous economic and environmental consequences. Here we show that volatile hydrocarbons are inhibitory to methanogenic oil biodegradation by comparing degradation of an artificially weathered crude oil with volatile hydrocarbons removed, with the same oil that was not weathered. Volatile hydrocarbons (nC5-nC10, methylcyclohexane, benzene, toluene and xylenes were quantified in the headspace of microcosms. Aliphatic (n-alkanes nC12-nC34 and aromatic hydrocarbons (4-methylbiphenyl, 3-methylbiphenyl, 2-methylnaphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene were quantified in the total hydrocarbon fraction extracted from the microcosms. 16S rRNA genes from key microorganisms known to play an important role in methanogenic alkane degradation (Smithella and Methanomicrobiales were quantified by quantitative PCR. Methane production from degradation of weathered oil in microcosms was rapid (1.1 ± 0.1 µmol CH4/g sediment/day with stoichiometric yields consistent with degradation of heavier n-alkanes (nC12-nC34. For non-weathered oil, degradation rates in microcosms were significantly lower (0.4 ± 0.3 µmol CH4/g sediment/day. This indicated that volatile hydrocarbons present in the non-weathered oil inhibit, but do not completely halt, methanogenic alkane biodegradation. These findings are significant with respect to rates of biodegradation of crude oils with abundant volatile hydrocarbons in anoxic, sulphate-depleted subsurface environments, such as contaminated marine sediments which have been entrained below the sulfate-reduction zone, as well as crude oil biodegradation in petroleum reservoirs and contaminated aquifers.

  16. Crude Documentary to Screen at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Maria-José

    2008-11-01

    A documentary on oil might be a bit difficult to pitch, even to your own family and friends. Marine biologist and filmmaker Richard Smith learned that lesson when in late 2005, he started working on Crude: The Incredible Journey of Oil. When Smith told acquaintances about the project, their responses were ``muted, at best,'' joked the Australian filmmaker when he received AGU's 2008 Walter Sullivan Award for Excellence in Science Journalism.

  17. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  18. Nutrient Intake in Italian Infants and Toddlers from North and South Italy: The Nutrintake 636 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cassatella, Cristina; Morelli, Ambra; Cucugliato, Maria Cristina; Catinello, Giuseppina; del Balzo, Valeria; Guidarelli, Lucia; Agostoni, Carlo; Mameli, Chiara; Troiano, Ersilia; Bedogni, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to compare the intake of energy, macronutrients, fiber, sodium and iron and the anthropometric status of infants and toddlers living in North (Milano) and South Italy (Catania). Nutrient intake was evaluated using a 7-day weighed food record. Out of 400 planned children aged 6 to 36 months, 390 (98%) were recruited, 189 in Milano and 201 in Catania. The mean (standard deviation) age was 17 (9) months in Milano and 17 (10) months in Catania. Anthropometry, energy intake and macronutrient intake were similar in Milano and Catania. However, iron intake was 27% lower and fiber intake 16% higher in Milano than in Catania. Despite normal anthropometry and energy intake, in the pooled sample there was a high intake of proteins, simple carbohydrates, saturated fats and sodium, and a low intake of iron and fiber compared to Italian reference values. This is the first study to report the macro- and micro-nutrient intake of children aged <12 months using the 7-day weighed food record and one of the very few studies that have employed such reference method in children from the general population. PMID:25111122

  19. CHARACTERISTICS OF AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CRUDE OILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗斌杰; 李新宇

    1994-01-01

    Crude oils from different basins in China ,Australia and New Zealand were analyzed to character-ize aromatic hydrocarbons produced in different environments by means of GC/MS .The distributions of some common compounds such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, chrysene,pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorine,dibenzothiophene and dibenzofuran were found to be related to sedimentary environments.Especially the relative contents of fluorenes ,dibenzofurans and dibenzothiophenes can be used to di-vide the oils into three types(1) saline or marine carbonate environment;(2) fresh-brackish water lake;(3) swamp and coal-bearing sequence.A romatic biomarkers (e.g.retene, nor-abietene,derivatives of lupeol and β-amyrin)represent higher plant inpults with respect to the precursors of crude oils. High contents of sulphur-containing compounds like benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene series indicate a reducing sulphur-abundant diagenetic condition .The benzohopane series (C32-C35) was identified both in hypersaline and coal-bearing basins, and it is postulated to be the result of strong bacteria activity.In all the sam-ples, a complete series of alkyl benzenes was analyzed .The similarity of its carbon-number distrbu-tion with that of n-alkanes probably suggests their genetic relationship. The distribution of the methylphenanthrene series reflects the evolution degree of crude oils,MPI holding a positive correlation with C29-sterane 20S/(20S+20R).

  20. Dietary crude protein reduction on growth and carcass performance of 22 to 42-day-old broilers reared under different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Pereira de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to verify the effects of dietary crude protein reduction on growth and carcass performance of 22-42-day-old broilers reared under different temperatures. Treatments were set up in a five by two factorial arrangement, with five crude protein levels (220, 210, 200, 190 and 184 g/kg and two temperatures (21.6 and 32.2 ºC. Diets were isocaloric and essential amino acid-to-lysine ratio was maintained constant in all treatments. There was no interaction between crude protein reduction and environmental temperature for any of the parameters evaluated. Crude protein had no influence on feed intake. Nevertheless, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were linearly influenced by crude protein reduction. Worse performance was also observed in birds exposed to heat stress as compared with birds kept under thermoneutral temperature. There was no effect of crude protein reduction on breast and legs. Birds kept under heat stress had lower breast yield and higher leg yield as compared with broilers reared at 21.6 ºC. Any crude protein reduction in the range of 220 to 184 g/kg for 22 to 42-day-old broilers has a negative effect on their performance. Heat stress worsens broiler performance and breast yield.

  1. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  2. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  3. Understanding crude oil import demand behaviour in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Marbuah, George

    2014-01-01

    Crude oil importation is a major drain on the economy of Ghana, yet no study has attempted to analyse the determinants of crude oil imports. This paper brings to the fore an understanding of the key drivers of crude oil import demand. Using the autoregressive distributed lag modelling framework (ARDL), we estimate variant short-run and long-run import demand models for crude oil using time series data over the period 1980-2012. The results show that demand for crude oil is price inelastic in ...

  4. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Today’s changeable market and resultant disturbance of crude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In case study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  5. Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    phosphate buffers in saliva which neutralize these acids. ... determine the effect of different levels of NaHCO3 on dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein (CP), neutral ..... increased the post-ruminal supply of amino acids by accelerating rumen ...

  6. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The predominan

  7. Dietary intake of phytoestrogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker MI; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The dietary intake of phytoestrogens supposedly influences a variety of diseases, both in terms of beneficial and adverse effects. This report describes current knowledge on dietary intakes of phytoestrogens in Western countries, and briefly summarizes the evidence for health effects. The

  8. The impact of fruit and vegetable intake on weight management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetables (FV) are important sources of phytochemicals, dietary fiber, and low energy density, and their consumption may be protective against obesity. Despite these potential benefits of FV consumption on human health, rates of FV intake remain low throughout the world. This chapter revi...

  9. Properties of Tahe crude oil and influence of separation components on crude oil viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaogang, Chen; Hongjun, Deng [Northwest Oilfield Branch Engineering and Technology Institute of Sinopec (China); Jixiang, Guo; Heyi, Wang; Meiqin, Lin [Enhanced Oil Recovery Research Center, China University of Petroleum (China)], email: guojx002@163.com

    2010-07-01

    The Tahe oil field in Xinjiang produces oil from depths of 5500m to 7000m whose temperatures range from 128 to 140 Celsius. The formation waters have a high salinity. To determine the major factors that contribute to the viscosity of the oil, such as saturate, aromatic resin, and asphaltene, a variety of techniques were used. Measurements were done using IR, scanning electron microscopy, energy spectrum analysis (EDX), elemental analysis, and ICP techniques. It was found, as predicted, that the viscosity of the crude oil decreased with increase of the temperature. However, different types of crude oil have various levels of temperature-sensitive turning points. The Tahe oil fields have a higher turning point due to the asphaltene and resins. To conduct the experiment the Tahe crude AD11 was separated into oil fractions using toluene as the solvent. It was concluded that the asphaltene has the greatest impact on viscosity.

  10. Dispersed catalysts for transforming extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude: phase identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, S.; Canizales, E.; Machin, I. [Gerencia Depttal de Investigacion Estrategica en Refinacion PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela); Segovia, X.; Rivas, A.; Lopez, E.; Pena, J.P.; Rojas, J.D.; Sardella, R. [Gerencia Depttal de Infraestructura y Mejoramiento en Faja Petrolifera PDVSA Intevep (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    A new technology to convert extra heavy crude oil into transportable upgraded crude has been developed. A water/oil emulsion composed of steam and catalyst precursors is introduced in the feed which then generates unsupported dispersed catalyst in situ under thermal decomposition. The aim of this paper is to characterize the particles. The study was conducted in a laboratory and on a pilot scale on three different vacuum residues using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and a transmission electron microscope. Results showed that the particles were formed by oxides and inorganic sulphur based in transition metals and their sizes ranged between 5 and 120 nm; in addition, good dispersion was observed. This study demonstrated that the process involved in the generation of dispersed catalyst is extremely complex and showed that further work with heavy crude oils and its residua is required to understand the mechanisms involved.

  11. Consumo de fibra dietética, sodio, potasio y calcio y su relación con la presión arterial en hombres adultos normotensos Dietary fiber, energy, sodium, potassium and calcium intake and its relationship to blood pressure in normotensive male adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Nydia Ballesteros-Vásquez

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto del consumo de fibra dietética, energía, sodio, potasio y calcio sobre la presión arterial de un grupo de adultos normotensos, tomando en cuenta indicadores tales como la edad, el sexo, la actividad física y la obesidad. Material y métodos. Se evaluaron 38 sujetos del sexo masculino de 30 a 45 años de edad, normotensos, aparentemente sanos y residentes de la ciudad de Hermosillo, Sonora, México. Se midió la presión arterial y se realizó una evaluación dietética, antropométrica y de actividad física. Resultados. La dieta resultó ser alta en fibra y en grasa. El sodio estaba 56% por arriba de la recomendación en 87% de los casos y fue la variable que más efecto mostró sobre la presión diastólica. De los sujetos estudiados, 36.9% tenían sobrepeso y obesidad, y se encontró una asociación significativa entre el índice de masa corporal y la presión diastólica y sistólica. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación significativa entre la hipertensión arterial y el alto consumo de sodio, el sobrepeso y la obesidad en sujetos normotensos.Objective. To evaluate the effect of dietary fiber, energy, sodium, calcium and potassium intake on the blood pressure of a group of normotensive adults. Material and methods. Subjects were 38 healthy normotensive adult males aged 30-45 years, resident of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Blood pressure, diet, anthropometric data and physical activity were recorded. Results. Their diet was high in fiber and fat. Sodium intake was 56% above the recommended values in 87% of the subjects, and the variable with the highest correlation to diastolic blood pressure. Of the subjects, 36.9% were overweight and obese, and a significant statistic association was found between BMI and diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Conclusions. A significant relationship was found between hypertension and high consumption of sodium, overweight and obesity in healthy adult normotensive males.

  12. Soluble fiber dextrin enhances the satiating power of beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsivais, Pablo; Carter, Brett E; Christiansen, Matthew; Perrigue, Martine M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four types of fiber on satiety and energy intakes at the next meal using a standard double-blinded preload study design. Study participants (14 men and 22 women) each took part in 6 study sessions. Study preloads were a combination of a solid snack and a liquid beverage (energy range 0.78-0.83 MJ) containing four different types of fiber: soluble fiber dextrin (12 g), soluble corn fiber (11.8 g), polydextrose (11.8 g), and resistant starch (11.2g). All four fibers were compared to two control conditions of equal volume: an isoenergetic, low-fiber preload and a lower-energy, low-fiber preload. All preloads were presented twice for a total of 0.35-1.65 MJ and 1-24 g fiber. Satiety ratings were collected for 20 min intervals for 220 min during the morning testing session. A test meal was served at 1200 h and plate waste measured. The five higher-energy preloads led to higher fullness and lower hunger ratings compared to the low-energy control but were not significantly different from each other. Relative to the isoenergetic control, only soluble fiber dextrin significantly suppressed energy intakes (p=0.023). Supplementing beverages with soluble fiber dextrin affects short term energy intake and may have implications for weight control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  14. [Dietary Fiber and Pubertal Development among Children and Adolescents--a Cross-sectional Study in Chengdu, Sichuan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo; Liu, Yan; Xue, Hong-mei; Luo, Jiao; Chen, Yan-rong; Bao, Yu-xin; Duan, Ruo-nan; Yang, Ming-zhe; Cheng, Guo

    2016-03-01

    To determine the association between intake of dietary fiber and pubertal development among children and adolescents in Chengdu. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 1 340 children and adolescents aged 9-15 years. Data about dietary intake were collected through 24-h dietary self-recall. Pubertal development was measured by trained investigators using Tanner criteria. Consumptions of total fiber and fiber from different sources were compared among the participants with different stages of pubertal development. Data from 1 328 children and adolescents were analyzed. Boys (n = 667) at a later stage of pubertal development consumed less total fiber and fruit fiber than those at an earlier stage (P fiber than those at an earlier stage (P Dietary fiber intake, especially fruit fiber, is lower in children and adolescents with early commencement of puberty development. Further studies are needed to establish the relationship between dietary fiber and pubertal development.

  15. simulations of roughage intake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nsahlai

    South African Journal of Animal Science 2007, 37 (4) ... The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Illius and Gordon's simulation .... Materials and Methods .... the crude protein (CP) content of the diet was introduced as a covariate to ...

  16. Bagaço de mandioca em dietas de novilhas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes e desempenho produtivo Cassava bagasse in diets of dairy heifers: intake of nutrients and productive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Dias

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão de quatro níveis, 0, 7, 14 e 21%, de bagaço de mandioca na dieta de novilhas leiteiras foi avaliada durante 56 dias. Utilizaram-se 20 novilhas leiteiras ¾Gir x ¼Holandês. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, recebendo dietas compostas por silagem de sorgo e concentrado, duas vezes ao dia. As dietas foram balanceadas para promover ganho de peso de 0,70kg/dia. Realizaram-se pesagens, a cada 28 dias, para determinar o ganho de peso. Avaliaram-se o consumo dos nutrientes, o ganho médio diário (GMD e a conversão alimentar (CA. O consumo foi expresso em kg/dia, porcentagem do peso corporal (%PC e gramas por kg de peso metabólico (g/kg0,75. Os consumos de matéria seca e de proteína bruta não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, mas os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido apresentaram comportamento linear decrescente com o aumento do nível de bagaço; para o consumo de carboidratos não fibrosos, houve aumento linear (PThe inclusion of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of cassava bagasse in the diet of dairy was evaluated during 56 days. Twenty ¾Gir x ¼Holstein heifers were used, being five animals per treatment. The diets were balanced to provide a weight gain of 0.70kg/day, and it was measured at every 28 days. Intake of nutrients, average daily weight gain (DWG, and feed conversion (FC were evaluated. The intake was expressed in kg/day, body weight percentage (BW% and grams for kg of metabolic weight (g/kg0.75. The intakes of dry matter and crude protein were not affected by the inclusion of cassava bagasse to the diet, but intakes of the neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber linearly decreased with the increase of the cassava bagasse level. However, the intake of non-fiber carbohydrates linearly increased (P<0.10. The DWG was 0.84; 0.80; 0.79; and 0.51 kg/day and the FC was 7.2; 7.5; 8.4; and 12.6 for treatments 0, 7, 14, and 21%, respectively. The best

  17. Whole grain, dietary fiber, and incidence of endometrial cancer in a danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Whole grains and dietary fiber might be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk through their effects on sex hormone metabolism and body fat. We investigated whether a higher intake of whole grains and dietary fiber was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in the Diet...... included as cohort members, 217 had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. No clear associations were found between intake of whole grains or dietary fiber and the incidence of endometrial cancer....

  18. Estimativa de consumo de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro por vacas leiteiras sob pastejo, suplementadas com diferentes quantidades de alimento concentrado Estimation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber intake by grazing dairy cows supplemented with different amounts of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Estimou-se o consumo de matéria seca e de fibra em detergente neutro por vacas leiteiras mestiças em pastejo de gramíneas do gênero Brachiaria. Foram utilizadas 24 vacas em lactação, distribuídas em três tratamentos com oito vacas cada, suplementadas com 4, 6 ou 8kg de matéria natural de alimento concentrado/vaca/dia, no momento da ordenha, duas vezes ao dia. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, sendo oito blocos com três vacas em cada um, cada vaca sendo alimentada com um dos três tratamentos. O consumo de fibra em detergente neutro da gramínea foi de 1,1, 1,0 e 1,2%/peso vivo naquelas vacas suplementadas com 4, 6 e 8kg/vaca/dia, respectivamente, sendo o tratamento com a maior quantidade de suplemento diferente dos demais (PThe intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF by crossbred lactating cows were estimated under Brachiaria grazing. Twenty-four cows were allotted in three treatments in order to receive 4, 6, or 8kg of concentrate twice a day, during the milking. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks, being eight blocks with three cows in each. The intake of NDF was 1.1, 1.0, and 1.2 of live weight for cows fed 4, 6, and 8kg of concentrate per day, respectively. The 8kg concentrate treatment produced different results (P<0.05 from the others. The increase of concentrate supply also increased (P<0.05 the total consumption of pasture dry matter, which were 1.8, 1.8, and 2.0% of live weight for cows supplemented with 4, 6, and 8kg of concentrate per day, respectively. It was concluded that high level of concentrate offered to lactating cows under tropical grazing induced a greater intake of total pasture dry matter and NDF, regarding the live weight.

  19. Effect of halophyte Salicornia bigelovii Torr and graded levels of dietary crude protein on feed performance and carcass traits of camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed H. Mahmoud

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of source of roughage and crude protein level on feeding performance and carcass traits of Majaheem camels (Camelus dromedarius. Forty-eight male calf-camels weighing 203.3±5.1 kg were equally assigned to a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of two sources of roughage (Rhodes grass hay and dry salicornia biomass and three dietary crude protein levels (12, 14.5, and 17%; the feeding trial lasted for 18 weeks. The results showed that slaughter and hot carcass weights, average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed efficiency, and separable fat from 9th-11th rib joint increased as the crude protein in the diets increased from 12 to 14.5%, whereas increasing crude protein to 17% resulted in no further changes. Slaughter weight, average daily gain, hot carcass weight, rib eye area, and separable lean did not differ between Rhodes grass and salicornia diets, but salicornia-fed camels had higher dry matter intake and produced heavier kidney fat and separable fat weights than camels fed Rhodes grass diets. It is suggested that the inclusion of salicornia biomass as a roughage ingredient up to 25% in the diet containing not greater than 14.5% crude protein can be utilized without adverse effect on feeding performance of calf-camels.

  20. Effects of fumarate on ruminal ammonia accumulation and fiber digestion in vitro and nutrient utilization in dairy does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C-W; Chen, Y-S; Cheng, Y-H; Cheng, Y-S; Yang, C-M J; Chang, C-T

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of fumarate on ruminal ammonia accumulation and fiber digestion in vitro and on feed intake and nutrient utilization in dairy does. Batch cultures of mixed rumen microorganisms were used to study effects of different concentrations of fumarate on fermentation with various N sources (ammonia as ammonium bicarbonate, casein amino acids, casein peptides, gelatin peptides) and feeds (bermudagrass hay, mixed diet of 60% bermudagrass hay plus 40% concentrate) for 6 and 24h, respectively. Substrates were grouped into pairs for separate incubations. Monosodium fumarate was added to incubation tubes to achieve final concentrations of 0, 5, and 10mM fumarate. More ammonia accumulated at the end of incubation with added ammonium bicarbonate. Ammonia concentration was higher for peptide compared with amino acid incubation, and for casein peptide compared with gelatin peptide. Addition of fumarate linearly decreased ammonia for all N sources and for feed substrates. For all substrate types, fumarate treatment increased acetate, propionate, and total volatile fatty acids (VFA), decreased acetate to propionate ratio, and tended to reduce branched-chain VFA. Digestion of feed neutral detergent fiber (NDF) by rumen microorganisms was improved by fumarate along with elevated endoglucanase and xylanase activities. In an animal metabolism experiment, 8 dairy does (4 per treatment) were used in a completely randomized design for 21 d. Does were fed a hay plus concentrate diet without (control) or with fumarate (6 g/head per day) supplementation to determine feed intake, whole-tract nutrient digestibility, and N utilization. Fumarate treatment did not affect weight change or feed intake but increased whole-tract digestion of gross energy, crude protein, and cellulose. Digested N was increased by fumarate supplementation; however, N retention was unaffected. Plasma glucose concentration was elevated with fumarate but urea N

  1. Prebiotics, Fermentable Dietary Fiber, and Health Claims12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Per; Courtin, Christophe M; Hamaker, Bruce R; Verbeke, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the positive effects of dietary fiber on health have increasingly been recognized. The collective term “dietary fiber” groups structures that have different physiologic effects. Since 1995, some dietary fibers have been denoted as prebiotics, implying a beneficial physiologic effect related to increasing numbers or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota. Given the complex composition of the microbiota, the demonstration of such beneficial effects is difficult. In contrast, an exploration of the metabolites of dietary fiber formed as a result of its fermentation in the colon offers better perspectives for providing mechanistic links between fiber intake and health benefits. Positive outcomes of such studies hold the promise that claims describing specific health benefits can be granted. This would help bridge the “fiber gap”—that is, the considerable difference between recommended and actual fiber intakes by the average consumer. PMID:26773010

  2. Flexible scheduling model of crude oil operations under crude supply disturbance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ming; QIAN Yu; LI Xiu-Xi

    2009-01-01

    Today's ohangeable market and resultant disturbance of orude oil supply require agile and flexible scheduling of crude oil operation. The objective of flexible scheduling is to keep stable crude oil op-eration and satisfy production demands under the circumstances of supply disturbance. In this paper, a new mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) formulation is set up for crude oil scheduling firstly, and then some heuristic rules worked out by some experts are proposed to linearize bilinear terms and prefix some binary variables in the MINLP model. These rules not only reduce the complexity of the MINLP model, but also can be used to solve the scheduling problems in various conditions. In oase study, the new model with heuristic rules and the best models reported in the literature are com-pared and evaluated in three benchmark examples in the normal situation, and then three abnormal situations of supply delay are considered based on the new approach. The results of case study show that the new flexible approach can handle crude oil scheduling problems efficiently in both normal and abnormal conditions.

  3. Kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maqbool, T.; Hussein, I.A.; Fogler, H.S. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The kinetics of asphaltene precipitation from crude oils was investigated using n-alkane precipitants. Recent studies have shown that there is a kinetic phenomenon associated with asphaltene precipitation. This study showed that the time needed to precipitate the asphaltenes can vary from a few minutes to several months, depending on the amount of n-alkane precipitant added. As such, the onset of asphaltene precipitation is a function of the concentration of precipitant and time. A technique to quantify the amount of asphaltenes precipitated as a function of time and precipitant concentration was presented. This study also investigated the kinetic effects caused by various precipitants. Optical microscopy was used to monitor the growth of asphaltene aggregates with time. Refractive index measurements provided further insight into the kinetics of asphaltene precipitation. Polarity based fractionation and dielectric constant measurements were used to compare the nature of asphaltenes precipitated early in the precipitation process with the asphaltenes precipitated at later times. It was concluded that asphaltenes precipitating at different times from the same crude oil-precipitant mixture are different from one another. 3 refs.

  4. Ecuador plans expanded crude-oil line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschat, J.; Sabathier, J. (Beicip-Franlab, Rueil-Malmaison (France))

    1995-01-23

    Ecuador plans to increase throughput of the 309 mile, 20 and 26-in. Trans Ecuadorian pipeline that moves crude oil from the Oriente in the Amazon basin to the Pacific coast for refining in local refineries and export. Increasing crude-oil production is driving the expansion. In investment, it is the largest pipeline project in the country in more than 20 years. In August 1992, Petro-ecuador, the Ecuadorian state company in charge of petroleum, hired the French petroleum consulting firm Beicip-Franlab to carry out the basic engineering and preparation of the technical tender documents for increasing the pipeline's throughput. The revamped Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, together with the Triunfo Nuevo-Condijua pipeline, will form the new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. This means that they will be integrated into a single system controlled and monitored from a main dispatching center in Guajalo near Quito which is now Petroecuador's maintenance center for the existing pipeline. As there is no supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) system now on the Trans Ecuadorian pipeline, scada will be built along with a new telecommunication network covering the entire new Trans Ecuadorian pipeline system. Also, to comply with the most modern requirements in terms of environmental protection, especially in a country subject to seismic activity, a leak-detection system will be implemented on all lines.

  5. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  6. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  7. Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunciado, T.R.; Sydenstricker, T.H.D.; Amico, S.C. [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, (Brazil). Department of Mechanical Engineering

    2005-11-15

    Oil spills are a global concern due to their environmental and economical impact. various commercial systems have been developed to control these spills, including the use of fibers as sorbents. This research investigates the use of various vegetable fibers, namely mixed leaves residues, mixed sawdust, sisal (Agave sisalana), coir fiber (Cocos nucifera), sponge-gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and silk-floss as sorbent materials of crude oil. Sorption tests with crude oil were conducted in deionized and marine water media, with and without agitation. Water uptake by the fibers was investigated by tests in dry conditions and distillation of the impregnated sorbent. The silk-floss fiber showed a very high degree of hydrophobicity and oil sorption capacity of approximately 85 g oil/g sorbent (in 24 hours). Specific gravity measurements and buoyancy tests were also used to evaluate the suitability of these fibers for the intended application. (author)

  8. Effects of dietary fibers with different physiochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Da Silva, C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to ass

  9. Effects of dietary fibers with different physiochemical properties on feeding motivation in adult female pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Da Silva, C.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    he satiating effects of dietary fiber may depend more on physicochemical properties of the fiber than on total fiber intake. These properties are expected to affect satiety feelings and feeding motivation due to different effects in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to

  10. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into malic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Malic acid production from the biodiesel coproduct crude glycerol by Aspergillus niger ATCC 9142, ATCC 10577 and ATCC 12846 was observed to occur with the highest malic acid level acid being produced by A. niger ATCC 12846. Fungal biomass production from crude glycerol was similar, but ATCC 10577 produced the highest biomass. Fungal biotransformation of crude glycerol into the commercially valuable organic acid malic acid appeared feasible.

  11. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Recently China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has gradually set up its own down stream industry in response to the development of oil fields, the demand of domestic market and the unique characteristics of crude oil resources.The capacity of crude oil processing has reached 21million tons per year approximately and 14 million tons of crude oil was processed in 1994,making up one-tenth of CNPC's total output.

  12. Yemen's light, sweet Alif crude assayed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-23

    Crude oil from Yemen's Alif field has been assayed. The light sweet crude, also known as Marib, is part of the Marib al-Jawf concession in northern Yemen. Alif field was discovered in 1984 by Hunt Oil Co. The field was declared commercial in November 1985. Alif production averaged 118,500 b/d in 1992. Physical and chemical properties are listed for the whole crude and its fractions.

  13. Toxicity assessment of unrefined crude oil fractions in soil ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudey, J.S.; Wilson, J.J. [HydroQual Lab. Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Chu, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The chemical and physical differences amongst crude oils and bioavailability (toxicity) of crude oil constituents are not addressed with existing numerical criteria for remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The constituents of crude oil include short chain hydrocarbons, such as light ends or gasoline, and long chain hydrocarbons (saturates), aromatic and polar compounds and heavier asphaltenes. Natural weathering and biodegradation take care of the lighter compounds. Less biodegradable are the heavier compounds which tend to be immobile. A range of questions concerning these immobile substances need to be answered to determine their effect on the bioavailability, hence toxicity, when solutes become solvents, etc. In this study, different crude oils and crude oil fractions were assessed as to their effect on the bioavailability (as toxicity) to microbes, plants and invertebrates. Five fractions with boiling point distillation were obtained from the separation of each of three base crude oils for a total of fifteen fractions. This practical approach to fractionating hydrocarbon represents the standard method for crude characterization. Ecological relevance, volume requirements, and availability of standard methods formed the basis for the selection of the tests and test species. The relative amounts of the different compounds (aromatics, saturates, polars, and asphaltenes) were different for each crude. Worm survival and lettuce seeding emergence tests were conducted on the spiked soils, and the extracts were tested with bacterial luminescence and lettuce root elongation. The results obtained for the three crude oils were similar. It was found that the heavier fractions were not toxic. Aging decreased the toxicity of aqueous extracts of spiked soils. Methanol extracts showed no loss of toxicity. The toxicity of whole crude was compared to the toxicity recovered in the fractions. The aqueous extracts of the naphthenic crude and the methanol extract of the

  14. Potato fiber as a dietary fiber source in dog foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasevich, M R; Rossoni Serao, M C; de Godoy, M R C; Swanson, K S; Guérin-Deremaux, L; Lynch, G L; Wils, D; Fahey, G C; Dilger, R N

    2013-11-01

    Potato fiber (PF), a coproduct of potato starch manufacture, was evaluated as a potential novel fiber source in dog food. Potato fiber contained 55% total dietary fiber, 29% starch, 4% crude protein, and 2% acid-hydrolyzed fat. The PF substrate was evaluated for chemical composition, in vitro digestion and fermentation characteristics, and in vivo responses. For the in vitro hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion and fermentation experiment, raw and cooked PF substrates were first subjected to hydrolytic-enzymatic digestion to determine OM disappearance and then fermented using dog fecal inoculum. Fermentation characteristics were then measured at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. For the in vivo experiment, 10 female mixed-breed dogs (6.13±0.17 yr; 22±2.1 kg) were provided 5 diets with graded concentrations (0%, 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, or 6%) of PF in a replicated 5×5 Latin square design. Dogs were acclimated to the test diet for 10 d, followed by 4 d of total fecal collection. Fresh fecal samples were collected to measure fecal pH and fermentation end products. In vitro digestion revealed that raw and cooked PF were 32.3% and 27.9% digested enzymatically, whereas in vitro fermentation showed that PF was fermentable through 9 h. Raw PF had greater (Pdietary fiber digestibility exhibited a linear increase (Pdietary PF. Fecal protein catabolite concentrations were low or undetectable, with the exception of spermidine, which exhibited a linear increase with increasing concentrations of PF. These findings indicated that inclusion of PF elicited favorable fermentation characteristics without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility or stool characteristics, indicating that PF could be a functional dietary fiber source in dog foods.

  15. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  16. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  17. Bioconversion technologies of crude glycerol to value added industrial products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Garlapati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crude glycerol that is produced as the by-product from biodiesel, has to be effectively utilized to contribute to the viability of biodiesel. Crude glycerol in large amounts can pose a threat to the environment. Therefore, there is a need to convert this crude glycerol into valued added products using biotechnological processes, which brings new revenue to biodiesel producers. Crude glycerol can serve as a feedstock for biopolymers, poly unsaturated fatty acids, ethanol, hydrogen and n-butanol production and as a raw material for different value added industrial products. Hence, in this review we have presented different bioconversion technologies of glycerol to value added industrial products.

  18. Vacuum fiber-fiber coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrici, Axel; Bjelajac, Goran; Jonkers, Jeroen; Jakobs, Stefan; Olschok, Simon; Reisgen, Uwe

    2017-02-01

    Research and development carried out by the ISF Welding and Joining Institute of RWTH Aachen University has proven that combining high power laser and low vacuum atmosphere provides a welding performance and quality, which is comparable to electron beam welding. The developed welding machines are still using a beam forming which takes place outside the vacuum and the focusing laser beam has to be introduced to the vacuum via a suitable window. This inflexible design spoils much of the flexibility of modern laser welding. With the target to bring a compact, lightweight flying optics with flexible laser transport fibers into vacuum chambers, a high power fiber-fiber coupler has been adapted by II-VI HIGHYAG that includes a reliable vacuum interface. The vacuum-fiber-fiber coupler (V-FFC) is tested with up to 16 kW sustained laser power and the design is flexible in terms of a wide variety of laser fiber plug systems and vacuum flanges. All that is needed to implement the V-FFC towards an existing or planned vacuum chamber is an aperture of at least 100 mm (4 inch) diameter with any type of vacuum or pressure flange. The V-FFC has a state-of-the-art safety interface which allows for fast fiber breakage detection for both fibers (as supported by fibers) by electric wire breakage and short circuit detection. Moreover, the System also provides connectors for cooling and electric signals for the laser beam optics inside the vacuum. The V-FFC has all necessary adjustment options for coupling the laser radiation to the receiving fiber.

  19. NUTRIOSE1(R)膳食纤维补充剂对男性超重者的体重,体成分,能量摄人量和饥饿感的影响%Effects of NUTRIOSE(R) dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAETITIA GUERIN-DEREMAUX; 厉曙光; MARINE POCHAT; DANIEL WILS; 袁琨; MOHAMED MUBASHER; CHERYL REIFER; LARRY E. MILLER

    2013-01-01

    目的 评估NUTRIOSE(R)水溶性膳食纤维对中国成年男性超重者的体重、体成分、能量摄入量和饥饿感的影响.方法 在双盲条件下,将受试者随机分成两组,分别摄入含17 g NUTRIOSE(R)水溶性膳食纤维(实验组,n=60)和含17 g麦芽糊精(对照组,n=60)的果汁250 ml,每天2次,为期12周.在试验的第0周,第4周,第8周和第12周测量受试者的体重和体成分,每3天评估1次受试者的日均能量摄入量和饥饿感.结果 12周后,实验组受试者平均体重较对照组轻1.5 kg(P <0.001),体质指数平均减少0.5 kg/m2 (P<0.001),身体脂肪率平均降低了0.3% (P<0.001).且在试验开始的第3天,NUTRIOSE(R)水溶性膳食纤维组的日均能量摄入量就低于对照组(12周平均日能量摄入量,实验组较对照组低3 079 kJ/天,P<0.001).试验过程中,实验组受试者的饥饿感比对照组受试者的饥饿感小(P <0.001).结论 NUTRIOSE(R)膳食纤维补充剂有助于男性超重者改善体成分,降低体重和日均能量摄入量,减少饥饿感.%Objective To determine the effect of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(R), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. Methods The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(R)(test group, n =60) or a maltodextrin (control group, re = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Results After 12weeks, test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P <0. 001) , body mass index (0. 5 kg/m2, P <0. 001) and body fat percentage (0. 3% , P<0. 001) versus controls. NUTRIOSE(R) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3 079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as the third day. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta, e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho Consumption and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy, and balance of nitrogen of silages of five maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.R. Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantificaram-se o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG 5011 e BR 3123. Foram utilizados 15 carneiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para coleta total de fezes e urina. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos quanto ao consumo e digestibilidade da MS, da EB e da PB (P>0,05. Os consumos de MS, EB e PB digestíveis e energia metabolizável também não foram diferentes entre os híbridos (P>0,05. Quanto às relações consumo de energia digestível/consumo de MS e consumo de energia metabolizável/consumo de MS, o genótipo AG5011 foi semelhante ao HT01 (P>0,05 e superior aos demais (P0,05. Todos os genótipos produziram silagens de bom valor nutritivo, entretanto o genótipo AG5011 apresentou maior eficiência na utilização da energia (PThe voluntary intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and the nitrogen balance, of silages of five maize genotypes (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG5011 and BR3123 were quantified. Fifteen sheep were stored in metabolic cages for total collection of feces and urine. A complete randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions was used. The intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. The intake of digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and metabolic energy did not differ (P>0.05 among the genotypes. The ratios of digestible energy intake/dry matter intake and metabolic energy intake/dry matter intake of the genotype AG5011 silage was similar (P>0.05 to HT01, and higher than the other genotypes (P<0.05. All genotypes showed similar and positive nitrogen balance, and all of them produced silages of good nutritional value

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Wedelia trilobata crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, A; Rosas-Romero, A J

    1999-05-01

    A biological screening of activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, and fungi of crude extracts from Wedelia trilobata is reported. The n-hexane extract showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Gram-positive bacteria); along with Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella group C, Salmonella paratyphi, and Shigella sonnei (Gram-negative bacteria). The ethyl acetate extract was active only against Salmonella group C; and the aqueous extract was inactive against the tested bacteria. None of the tested extracts showed biological activity against the yeasts (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Rhodotorula rubra) or the fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Mucor sp., Trichophyton rubrum).

  2. Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guipeng; ZHANG Li; SUN Xiaojing; JING Weiwen

    2006-01-01

    Photochemical degradation of crude oil in seawater is an important issue in marine environmental protection and is studied in this work. Results showed that petroleum hydrocarbons could be effectively degraded by the irradiation of high-pressure mercury light or natural sunlight. Photochemical reaction was controlled by various factors including light source, aquatic medium, heavy metal ion and photo-sensitizer. The rate of photo-degradation was fast at the initial stage of exposure, exhibiting a first-order reaction kinetic behavior. However, after irradiation for a few hours, the concentration of water-soluble fraction (WSF) of petroleum hydrocarbons stabilized. For all experimental conditions, the range of the photo-degradation rate is from 0.001 3 to 0.005 7/min.

  3. Sino-Kazakh Crude Pipeline Starts Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The Sino-Kazakh Crude Oil Pipeline financed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) and KazMunaiGaz, the state oil company of Kazakhstan,was launched on December 15, 2005, thanks to the commitments and endeavors of governments and constructors of both countries. The pipeline, with diameter of 813 mm, the total length of 962.2 km running from the Kazakhstan Atasu in the west to China's Alashankou in the east, with the phase I designed annual capacity up to 10 million tons. The launch of the pipeline is a milestone of the China-Kazakhstan energy cooperation, having great importance to the countries' economic growths, China's energy security strategy and the diversification of Kazakh oil exports.

  4. Non-Aqueous and Crude Oil Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blázquez Christian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Foams produced from non-aqueous media are less common than water-based foams but they play an important role in many industries and engineering processes. The low surface tension of hydrocarbon fluids limits the adsorption of common surface activity substances and different compounds and methods must be considered to generate and stabilize oil-based foam. Likewise, the destruction of unwanted non-aqueous based foam requires specific considerations not found with aqueous systems. Of particular interest are petroleum-based foams, which are highly complex due to the wide variety of compounds and gases that can be found. We provide an overview of the major mechanisms known to be important for non-aqueous foam stability with a spotlight on crude-oil foams.

  5. Calcium Uptake in Crude Tissue Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Philip A.; Kranias, Evangelia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The various isoforms of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) are responsible for the Ca2+ uptake from the cytosol into the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR). In some tissues, the activity of SERCA can be modulated by binding partners, such as phospholamban and sarcolipin. The activity of SERCA can be characterized by its apparent affinity for Ca2+ as well as maximal enzymatic velocity. Both parameters can be effectively determined by the protocol described here. Specifically, we describe the measurement of the rate of oxalate-facilitated 45Ca uptake into the SR of crude mouse ventricular homogenates. This protocol can easily be adapted for different tissues and animal models as well as cultured cells. PMID:26695031

  6. Impact of Expanded North Slope of Alaska Crude Oil Production on Crude Oil Flows in the Contiguous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeRosa, Sean E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Flanagan, Tatiana Paz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The National Transportation Fuels Model was used to simulate a hypothetical increase in North Slope of Alaska crude oil production. The results show that the magnitude of production utilized depends in part on the ability of crude oil and refined products infrastructure in the contiguous United States to absorb and adjust to the additional supply. Decisions about expanding North Slope production can use the National Transportation Fuels Model take into account the effects on crude oil flows in the contiguous United States.

  7. The nutritional quality of herbaceous legumes on goats: Intake, digestibility and nitrogen balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Ginting

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of forages is a critical factor that determine the sustainability of the animal-plantation production system. In this typical production system, cover crops could be an important sources of forages to support the animal production. The study is aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality (chemical compositions, intake, digestibility and N balances of herbaceous legumes namely Arachis pintoi and Arachis glabrata having potential for used as alternative cover crops in plantation. Centerocema pubescens, a conventional cover crops used in plantation, was used as control. Twenty-one mature male goats (16-18 kg were used in this experiment. The animals were put in individual metabolism cages, divided into three groups (7 animal per group based on the body weight, and were randomly allocated into one of the three forages. The experiment was run in a Completely Randomized Design. The animals were allocated to an adaptation period for 14 days, followed by intake measurement for 5 days and fecal and urine collection for the next 7 days. During the fecal and urine collection forages were offered at 90% of the maximum intake. Chemical analyses showed that the DM and OM contents were relatively equal among the forages, but the crude protein content of C. pubescens (23.56% are relatively higher than those of A. pintoi (16.94% or of A. glabrata (15.19% The fiber (NDF content was also relatively higher in C. pubescens (59.37% than in A. pintoi (16.94% or A. glabrata (41.50%. The forage intake was highest (P0.05 between goats fed A. pintoi (466 g/d or A. glabrata (453 g/d. A similar trend was seen when intake was expressed as % BW (3.80, 3.50 and 3.40, respectively or as g/kg BW0.75 (42.4, 39.5 and 38.4, respectively. The digestion coeficient of DM (81.3% or OM (83.5% were highest (P0.05 between A. glabrata (71.9 and 73.2%, respectively and C. pubescens (73.7 and 74.2%, respectively. The trends were the same with the digestion coeficient of ADF

  8. Chemical composition of Pechora Sea crude oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derkach S. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of the Pechora Sea shelf oil and its chemical composition have been studied using the methods of refractometry, titrimetry, viscometry, rheometry and standard methods for the analysis of oil and petroleum products. The fractionation of oil is held at atmospheric pressure, some fractions boiling at the temperature below and above 211 °C have been received. Chemical structural-group composition of oil and its components has been investigated using a Fourier infrared (IR spectroscopy method. The density of oil has been obtained, it is equal to 24.2 API. The chemical composition analysis shows that water content in the investigated oil sample is about 0.03 % (by weight. The oil sample contains hydrocarbons (including alkanes, naphthenes, arenes and asphaltenes with resins; their content is equal to 89 and 10 % (by weight respectively. Alkane content is about 66 %, including alkanes of normal structure – about 37 %. The solidification temperature of oil sample is equal to –43 °C. This low temperature testifies obliquely low content of solid alkanes (paraffin. Bearing in mind the content of asphaltenes with resins we can refer the investigated oil sample to resinous oils. On the other hand spectral coefficient values (aromaticity quotient and aliphaticity quotient show that oil sample belongs to naphthenic oils. According to the data of Fourier IR spectroscopy contents of naphthenes and arenes are 5.9 and 17.8 % respectively. Thus, the obtained data of chemical structural-group composition of crude oil and its fractions indicate that this oil belongs to the heavy resinous naphthenic oils. The rheological parameters obtained at the shear deformation conditions characterize the crude oil as a visco-plastic medium.

  9. Macronutrients Content and Energy Value of Fiber Rich Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovorka Vujić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and cereal based products are an important source of energy, fibers and a range of macro- and micronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, minerals etc. Most of the evidences for health benefits of cereal foods are related to the fiber rich wholegrain foods and its role in reducing risk of degenerative chronic diseases, so-called Western diseases (constipation, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, diverticulosis, obesity, and colon cancer. To evaluate fiber-rich cereal products as a functional food, nine types of biscuits based on whole grain wheat flour with enlarged share of dietary fibers were experimentally prepared. The goal of this study was to present the contents of main macronutrients, such as total proteins, carbohydrates and total fat in mentioned biscuits and to estimate contributions of each individual component to biscuit’s energy value in relation to new reference values. Our results show that regarding Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI given by the Food and Nutrition Board, USA (FNB 2005, examined biscuits can be considered as a good source of macronutrients and dietary fibers in nutrition. Consumption of those biscuits ensure relatively balanced intake of energy originated from main macronutrients. Being high in total dietary fibers (16.50 up to 46.77 g/1000 kcal that is considerably higher than recommended by Adequate Intake (AI for total dietary fibers based on 14 g/1000 kcal of required energy (DRI 2005, investigated biscuits can significantly contribute to the intake of those health enhancing components.

  10. Sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants as demulsifiers for crude oil emulsions: 2-demulsification of different types of crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Azim, A.A.A.; Abdel-Raouf, M.E.S.; Abdul-Raheim, A.R.M.; Maysor, N.E.S. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Cairo (Egypt). Petroleum Application Dept.], e-mail: drmanar770@yahoo.com

    2010-10-15

    The present work studies demulsification of two types of crude oil emulsions by nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants. The effect of pH and salinity of aqueous phase of crude oil on emulsion stability was considered, and the correlation between demulsification rate and the type of crude was studied. Nine sugar-based ethoxylated amine surfactants were tested as demulsifiers for light and heavy crudes at different aqueous phase conditions. It was found that the light crude was more easily demulsified than the heavy crude. The experimental data showed that changes in pH or salinity of the aqueous phase of the emulsion enhance its stability and decrease the demulsification efficiency of the applied demulsifiers. Also, it has been shown that surfactants based on glucose octyl amine ethoxylates (GO) are the most effective in demulsifying the investigated emulsions. The data reveal that maximum demulsification efficiency is attained at a neutral pH whereas it decreases in both directions for either of the investigated crude oils. Furthermore, the results indicate that the percentage of water separation decreases as the salinity of the emulsion's aqueous phase increases. Light crudes showed better demulsification than heavy crudes under any test condition. The demulsification process for selected emulsions was monitored by optical microscopy. (author)

  11. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Isaksson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high-fiber diet compared to a refined wheat low-fiber diet was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of meal frequency on apparent absorption of nutrients was studied for the first time. Design: Ten participants that had undergone ileostomy consumed standardized iso-caloric diets, including low-fiber wheat bread (20 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks followed by high-fiber rye bread (52 g dietary fiber per day for 2 weeks. The diets were consumed in an ordinary (three meals per day and a nibbling (seven meals per day meal frequency in a cross-over design. Ileal effluents were collected during 24 h at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect was independent of meal frequency. This suggests that a high intake of rye may result in lower availability of macronutrients for small intestinal digestion and absorption. A regular intake of rye may therefore have implications for weight management.

  12. Carcass characteristics of feedlot lambs fed crude glycerin contaminated with high concentrations of crude fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Pereira, L G R; Duarte, M S; Valadares Filho, S C; Oliveira, A S; Souza, N K P; Lima, J C M

    2014-01-01

    Thirty non-castrated male lambs with 20±2.3 kg average body weight (BW) were randomly assigned to five treatments consisted of different dietary concentrations of crude glycerin (CG; 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12% on DM basis) to evaluate the effects on performance, carcass and meat quality traits. A quadratic effect was observed for performance (P=0.04), final BW (P0.05) on carcass pH neither on shear-force, cooking loss and ether extract content in longissimus. The inclusion of CG tended to reduce the Zn content in meat (P=0.09). The data suggests that CG (36.2% of glycerol and 46.5% of crude fat) may be used in diets of finishing lambs with concentrations up to 3% without negative effects on performance and main carcass traits. Moreover, inclusion of CG seems to not affect quality and safety of meat for human consumption.

  13. Intake and digestibility of diets containing castor bean meal detoxified to finish of sheep Consumo e digestibilidade de dietas contendo farelo de mamona destoxificado para ovinos em terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcônio Martins Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including detoxified castor bean meal to substitute soy bean meal was evaluated to sheep finishing diets on intake, digestibility and energy value of the diets. A positive linear effect was verified for ether extract intake and acid detergent fiber with an intake raise of 0.015 g/BW0.75 in ether extract and 0.090 g/BW0.75 in acid detergent fiber per each unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added to the diet. There was maximun value in hemicellulose intake when included 39.55% of detoxified castor bean meal to the diet. Negative linear effect was verified for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, respectively, with 0.0536, 0.0507, 0.0705 and 0.0572% decreases per unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added. Positive quadratic effect was verified for neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility with 54.93 and 64.53% maximum in levels of the 38.6 and 31.4, respectively. Detoxified castor bean meal inclusion does not influence dry matter and nutrients intake, attending these animal class nutritional requirements. Including detoxified castor bean meal decreases dry mater, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, being in this situation recommended the inclusion of to 33% in the diet by allowing high neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility. Despite these effects, the energy value of the diets is not influenced by the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal.Avaliou-se a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado em dietas para ovinos em terminação. O consumo de extrato etéreo e fibra em detergente ácido foi linear positivo, com aumento de 0,015 e 0,090g/UTM por unidade percentual de inclusão de farelo de mamona destoxificado, respectivamente. O consumo máximo de hemicelulose ocorreu para dietas que continham 39,55% de farelo de mamona destoxificado. A digestibilidade da matéria seca, mat

  14. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  15. High-fiber rye diet increases ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients compared with low-fiber wheat diet independent of meal frequency in ileostomy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Landberg, Rikard; Sundberg, Birgitta;

    2013-01-01

    Background:Whole-grain foods and cereal dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight. This may partly result from lower energy utilization of high-fiber diets. Objective: In the present study, the impact on ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients in response to a rye bread high...... at the third day of each of the four dietary periods and analyzed for gross energy and nutrient contents. Results: The results showed that intake of rye bread high-fiber diet compared to the refined wheat low-fiber diet caused an increase in ileal excretion of energy and macronutrients. The effect...

  16. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking....... At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association...... caffeine and smoking is biologically plausible, and the lack of effect among smokers may be due to faster metabolism of caffeine. Our findings suggest that especially nonsmoking women who wish to achieve a pregnancy might benefit from a reduced caffeine intake....

  17. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... INTRODUCTION. The environmental impact of petroleum exploration in. Nigeria and other oil producing countries has been on the increase. ... The test organisms were isolated from crude oil sludge environment of Qua Iboe ... was supplemented with 1% Bunny light crude oil (from Exxonmobil. Producing ...

  18. Building a Consensus Forecast for Crude Oil Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    recommendations for follow-on research. 4 II. LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins with a review of the history of crude oil production beginning...import supply curves Domestic crude oil production Domestic natural gas liquids production Domestic gas-to-liquids production Domestic coal-to-liquids

  19. Processing and Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude Oil (continued)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xianqing; Men Cungui

    1995-01-01

    @@ Strategy of the Comprehensive Utilization of Naphthenic Base Heavy Crude The further study on the properties and characteristics of the naphthenic base heavy crude shows that the utilization of naphthenic acid, production of low freezing point lube stocks and a series of asphalts are important future trends for comprehensive utilization of these resources.

  20. Crude Production Tops 2 Million Tons at Qinghai Oil Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The crude oil output of Qinghai Oil Field in Qaidam basin of the northwestern China's Qinghai Province topped two million tons at the end of 2000.This is the first time that the annual crude oil output of the oilfield has exceeded two millions, according to Huang Ligong, general manager of Qinghai Oil Field under PetroChina.

  1. WASTE WATER TREATMENT IN VISCOUS CRUDE PROCESSING IN SHENGLI OILFIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huaijie; Xu Hui

    1997-01-01

    @@ Apart from sewage pretreatment and stepped control, the Viscous Crude Processing Plant of Shengli Petrochemical General Works has established a new process of sewage treatment featuring with flexible and advanced technology and strong impact strength, with the crude sewage treatment yield reaching more than 95%.

  2. Metabolizable energy value of crude glycerin for laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with laying hens was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy-nitrogen corrected (AMEn) value of crude glycerin, a coproduct of biodiesel production. Crude glycerin (86.95% glycerol, 9.22% water, 0.03% methanol, 1.26% sodium, 3625 kcal/kg gross energy) was obtained from...

  3. Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... optimum pH and temperature of the crude enzyme were about 6.0 and 60°C respectively. ... Key words: Mango seeds, crude extract, amylase activity. .... from a standard curve of starch (substrate) concentration against.

  4. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge

  5. Crude Oil Hedging Strategies Using Dynamic Multivariate GARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Tansuchat (Roengchai); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe paper examines the performance of four multivariate volatility models, namely CCC, VARMA-GARCH, DCC and BEKK, for the crude oil spot and futures returns of two major benchmark international crude oil markets, Brent and WTI, to calculate optimal portfolio weights and optimal hedge rat

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CRUDE SHEABUTTER LEAF-EXTRACTS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AGROSEARCH UIL

    *Forest Research Institute of Nigeria, FRIN P. M. B. 5054, Ibadan Nigeria ... dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, or ether extracts were higher (P < 0.05) for goats ... A concentrate-based feeding system for livestock production has several ... leaves, stems and roots of tropical trees and shrubs including the sheabutter tree; ...

  7. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  8. EFFECTS OF PROTEIN-XANTHOPHYLL (PX CONCENTRATE OF ALFALFA ADDITIVE TO CRUDE PROTEIN-REDUCED DIETS ON NITROGEN EXCRETION, GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz GRELA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The infl uence of protein-xanthophyll (PX concentrate of alfalfa supplement to crude protein-reduced diets was examined in relation to nitrogen excretion, performance parameters and pig meat quality. The investigations included 60 growers (PL x PLW x Duroc crossbreeds assigned to 3 groups. The conclusion is that there is a large potential to decrease nitrogen emission to the environment by 10% lowering of dietary crude protein intake along with reduced animal growth rate and elevated mixture utilization. Inclusion of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX of alfalfa to the diet is likely to diminish disadvantageous productive parameters arising from limiting of total crude protein level in relation to the requirements of pigs feeding norms [1993]. At the same time, it improves feed nitrogen utilization and reduces noxious odour emissions from a piggery. The components of a protein-xanthophyll concentrate (PX contribute to increased liver and kidney weight.

  9. Caffeine intake and fecundability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Henriksen, T B; Hjollund, N H

    1998-01-01

    the effect of caffeine from different sources (coffee, tea, cola, and chocolate). Clearly, the relationship between caffeine and fecundability needs further research, given the high prevalence of caffeine intake among women of childbearing age. We examined the independent and combined effects of smoking....... At enrollment and in six cycles of follow-up, both partners filled out a questionnaire on different factors including smoking habits and their intake of coffee, tea, chocolate, cola beverages, and chocolate bars. In all, 1596 cycles and 423 couples were included in the analyses. The cycle-specific association...

  10. An Empirical Study of Asian Crude Oil Premiums

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The price of Middle East crude oil exported to Asian countries has been higher than that to Europe and America for a long period, and this price differential made Asian countries pay more than European and American countries. Prior investigations found that "Asian Crude Oil Premium" did exist at a relatively low oil price level. However, world oil price soared after 2003, making the price of Middle East crude oil exported to European countries or America rise quickly, sometimes even higher than that to Asia. Under this situation, this paper uses the price of Middle East crude oil sold to Europe or America or Asia to test if the premium exists at a high oil price level and concludes that the crude oil price premium of Asia against America does not exist, but the premium of Asia against Europe still exists.

  11. A very-low-fat vegan diet increases intake of protective dietary factors and decreases intake of pathogenic dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Antonella; Weidner, Gerdi; Sumner, Michael D; Chi, Christine S; Ornish, Dean

    2008-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that dietary factors in plant-based diets are important in the prevention of chronic disease. This study examined protective (eg, antioxidant vitamins, carotenoids, and fiber) and pathogenic (eg, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol) dietary factors in a very-low-fat vegan diet. Ninety-three early-stage prostate cancer patients participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assigned to a very-low-fat (10% fat) vegan diet supplemented with soy protein and lifestyle changes or to usual care. Three-day food records were collected at baseline (n=42 intervention, n=43 control) and after 1 year (n=37 in each group). Analyses of changes in dietary intake of macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, carotenoids, and isoflavones from baseline to 1 year showed significantly increased intake of most protective dietary factors (eg, fiber increased from a mean of 31 to 59 g/day, lycopene increased from 8,693 to 34,464 mug/day) and significantly decreased intake of most pathogenic dietary factors (eg, saturated fatty acids decreased from 20 to 5 g/day, cholesterol decreased from 200 to 10 mg/day) in the intervention group compared to controls. These results suggest that a very-low-fat vegan diet can be useful in increasing intake of protective nutrients and phytochemicals and minimizing intake of dietary factors implicated in several chronic diseases.

  12. Crude oil prices: Speculation versus fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Marek Krzysztof

    Beginning in 2004, the price of crude oil fluctuates rapidly over a wide range. Large and rapid price increases have recessionary consequences and dampen long-term infrastructural investment. I investigate whether price changes are driven by market fundamentals or speculation. With regard to market fundamentals, I revisit econometric evidence for the importance of demand shocks, as proxied by dry maritime cargo rates, on oil prices. When I eliminate transportation costs from both sides of the equation, disaggregate OPEC and non-OPEC production, and allow for more than one cointegrating relation, I find that previous specifications are inconsistent with arguments that demand shocks play an important role. Instead, results confirm the importance of OPEC supply shocks. I investigate two channels by which speculation may affect oil prices; the direct effect of trader behavior and changes in oil from a commodity to a financial asset. With regard to trader behavior, I find evidence that trader positions are required to explain the spread between spot and futures prices of crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange. The inclusion of trader positions clarifies the process of equilibrium error correction, such that there is bidirectional causality between prices and trader positions. This creates the possibility of speculative bubbles. With regard to oil as a commodity and/or financial asset, I use a Kalman Filter model to estimate the time-varying partial correlation between returns to investments in equity and oil markets. This correlation changes from negative to positive at the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The low interest rates used to rescue the economy depress convenience yields, which reduces the benefits of holding oil as a commodity. Instead, oil becomes a financial asset (on net) as the oil market changed from contango to backwardation. Contradicting simple political narratives, my research suggests that both market fundamentals and speculation drive

  13. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Consumo de nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de ovelhas alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de fibra em detergente neutro Nutrient intake, milk yield and composition of ewes fed diet containing different neutral detergent fiber levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Haetinger Hübner

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de fibra na dieta sobre o consumo de nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de ovelhas. Dezoito ovelhas multíparas, confinadas 24 horas após o parto em baias individuais, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em três níveis dietéticos de FDN (tratamento: 34, 43 e 52%. As dietas, constituídas por mistura completa de silagem de milho e concentrado (grão de milho triturado, farelo de soja e mistura mineral foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (13% PB. A produção e a composição do leite foram avaliadas a cada sete dias, durante 42 dias. Houve influência do nível de FDN da dieta sobre os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, FDN, FDA, CNE e CT (kg/dia, %PV e g/kgPVº,75, que apresentaram comportamento quadrático. O máximo consumo de MS estimado correspondeu ao nível de 42,7% de FDN na dieta. Verificou-se efeito quadrático da produção de leite em função dos tratamentos, sendo a produção máxima estimada no nível de 39,8% de FDN na dieta. A relação entre proteína do leite e nível de FDN da dieta foi quadrática. A quantidade de gordura (g/dia e a densidade do leite decresceram linearmente com o incremento do nível FDN na dieta. A produção de sólidos totais (g/dia e as produções de leite corrigidas para 3,5% e para sólidos totais variaram de forma quadrática. O estádio da lactação influenciou a produção de leite, de modo que o pico da lactação situou-se entre a primeira e terceira semanas de lactação.The experiment was carried to evaluate the effect of different levels of fiber in the diet on the nutrients intake, daily milk yield and composition of ewes. Eighteen multiparous ewes, housed in individual cage 24 hours postpartum, were randomly assigned to three levels of dietary NDF (treatment: 34, 43 and 52%. The diets constituted by a total mixed ration of corn silage, and a concentrate mix (ground corn, soybean meal

  15. Peptides and Food Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  16. Waxes and asphaltenes in crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, N.X. [Branch of Vietnam Petroleum Institute, Ho Chi Min City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Geochemistry; Hsieh, M.; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    1999-07-01

    High molecular weight (HMW) hydrocarbons (> C{sub 40}) and asphaltenes are important constituents of petroleum, and can cause problems related to crystallization and deposition of paraffin waxes during production and transportation, as well as in the formation of tar mats. However, traditional methods to isolate asphaltene fractions, by adding 40 volumes in excess of low boiling point solvents such as pentane, hexane or heptane, can produce asphaltene fractions which are contaminated with a significant amount of microcrystalline waxes (> C{sub 40}). The presence of these microcrystalline waxes in the asphaltene fractions has the potential to provide misleading and ambiguous results in modeling and treatment programs. The sub-surface phase behaviour of an asphaltene fraction will be quite different from that of a wax-contaminated asphaltene fraction. Similarly accurate modelling of wax drop-out requires information on pure wax fractions and not asphaltene-dominated fractions. Hence the aim of this paper is to describe a novel method for the preparation of wax-free asphaltene fractions. In addition, this method provides a quantitative subdivision of the wax fraction into pentane soluble and insoluble waxes which, when correlated with physical properties of crude oil such as viscosity, pour point, cloud point, etc., may help explain causes of wax deposition during production, transportation and storage of petroleum. (author)

  17. Alberta oil sands crudes : upgrading and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashar, M. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Open pit mining and in situ techniques, such as steam stimulation, are used to recover Alberta's bitumen and heavy oil resources, which have higher viscosities than conventional hydrocarbons. The bitumen is typically upgraded to synthetic crude oil (SCO). In the simplest processing scheme, the bitumen is blended with diluent for ease in pipeline transport and then processed at refineries with upgrading facilities. The bitumen is also upgraded to light SCO at world-scale upgraders in Alberta. The SCO is then processed at refineries in downstream markets. The 2 categories of upgrading, notably primary and secondary upgrading, were described in this article along with technology options for both categories. Slurry hydrocracking is regarded as the most interesting emerging residual fuel upgrading technology. It combines special catalyst mixes with the latest slurry reactor designs as well as innovative catalyst capture and recycle schemes to produce very high conversions and potentially superior upgrading economics. The increase in volume and rate of SCO from Alberta provides refiners in the oil sands marketing sector an unprecedented choice of opportunities to improve profitability. Key trends indicate that production will increase substantially from 2008 to 2030. 5 figs.

  18. Apparent fiber digestibility and fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations with ingestion of two types of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredstrom, S B; Lampe, J W; Jung, H J; Slavin, J L

    1994-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are products of dietary fiber fermentation. As such, fiber digestibility is thought to be related to SCFA production. The effects of two concentrations of cereal fiber as wheat bran (WB) and vegetable fiber (VF) on fiber digestibility were examined in 34 free-living volunteers. Five diets consisting of a fiber-free liquid nutrition supplement and quick breads containing either (1) 0 g of fiber, (2) 10 g of WB, (3) 30 g of WB, (4) 10 g of VF, or (5) 30 g of VF were consumed in random order. Apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was determined. Colonic fluid, collected by in vivo dialysis in 9 subjects, was analyzed for SCFAs by gas chromatography. Digestibility of NDF was greater with WB than with VF ingestion in those 9 subjects, but digestibility was not different with ingestion of both fibers when all 34 subjects were considered. No effect of intake level was seen with either WB or VF. Fiber ingestion increased acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations above those on the 0 g of fiber diet (43%, 31%, and 90%, respectively; p fibers. No correlation between NDF digestibility and SCFA concentrations was observed. Despite differences in origin, chemistry, particle size, and subject transit time, the WB and VF were similar in NDF fermentability. Molar ratios of specific SCFAs were influenced by type of fiber ingested.

  19. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study Consumo de alimentos com alto teor de gordura e fibras entre adolescentes, segundo posição socioeconômica: a visita de 11 anos da coorte de nascimentos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda B. Neutzling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%, butter or margarine (74.6%, beans (66.4% and milk (48.5%. Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber.O estudo descreve alimentos consumidos por adolescentes pertencentes à coorte de nascimentos de 1993 de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, conforme o nível socioeconômico. Foi feita uma análise transversal com dados coletados no acompanhamento de 2004-2005. A freqüência alimentar no último ano foi avaliada pelo questionário Block. A posição socioeconômica foi verificada com base no índice de bens, dividido em quintis. Os alimentos mais consumidos diariamente foram: pão branco (83%, manteiga ou margarina (74,6%, feijão (66,4% e leite (48,5%. O consumo de manteiga ou margarina, pão e feijão foram mais freqüentes entre adolescentes pertencentes ao primeiro (menor quintil do índice de bens, e o consumo de leite foi maior no último quintil. Frutas, vegetais e salada verde tiveram baixo consumo principalmente entre os mais pobres. Todos os grupos socioeconômicos apresentaram consumo elevado de alimentos ricos em gordura e baixo consumo de alimentos ricos em fibra.

  20. Economic viability of crude glycerin in diets for lambs finished in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauriceia Costa Carvalho Barros

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the economic viability of increasing levels of crude glycerin (CG in diets for finishing lambs. The trial was carried out at Southwest State University of Bahia, Itapetinga-BA. Twenty five crossbred, Santa Inês x Dorper, with 24 ± 2,0 kg, were housed in individual pens. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of increasing levels of dietary CG (0, 2.65, 5.33, 8.06 and 10.84% and the roughage used was the Tifton 85 hay. Diets were formulated to meet the nutritional requeriments, aiming a gain of 200 g day-1. The analysis was based on use of economic indicators Net Present Value (NPV and Internal Rate of Return (IRR. The animals dry matter intake decreased linearly (P0.05 on performance and meat production results. None of the treatments showed economic viability.

  1. Soluble vs. insoluble fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoluble vs. soluble fiber; Fiber - soluble vs. insoluble ... There are 2 different types of fiber -- soluble and insoluble. Both are important for health, digestion, and preventing diseases. Soluble fiber attracts water and turns to gel during digestion. ...

  2. Inclusão de silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas em lactação, mantidas em pasto de Cynodon: consumo e digestibilidade - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637 Inclusion levels of superior third of cassava foliage silage for dairy cows in tropical graze: intake and digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i2.637

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cristina da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão (0%, 10%, 20% e 30% da silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (STSRM para vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas à pasto, analisando o consumo e a digestibilidade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4x4, e para o fator níveis de inclusão, regressão. Foram analisados: consumo de matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, proteína bruta (PB, carboidratos totais (CCT, carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF; digestibilidade aparente da matéria orgânica (DMO, proteína bruta (DPB, fibra em detergente neutro (DFDN, carboidratos totais (DCT e carboidratos não fibrosos (DCNF. Houve efeito crescente (p The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the intake and digestibility of Holsteins dairy cow fed with Cynodon graze and inclusion levels (0, 10, 20 e 30% of superior third of cassava foliage silage (STCFS. Eight lactating dairy cow were used in a square design 4x4 and to inclusion levels, regression was used. The following aspects were analyzed: organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrate (TC, nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC; apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, total carbohydrate (ADTC, nonfiber carbohydrate (ADNFC. The inclusion levels of STCFS had an increasing effect (p < 0.05 to total OMI, STCFS + concentrate DOI, STCFS + concentrate NDF, total CP, total TC, total NFC in kg/day and total OMI and total % live weight. The ADCP had decreasing effect (p < 0.05 with the increase of inclusion levels of STCFS.

  3. Corrosion Resistant FBG-Based Quasi-Distributed Sensor for Crude Oil Tank Dynamic Temperature Profile Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério da Silva Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a corrosion resistant, maneuverable, and intrinsically safe fiber Bragg grating (FBG-based temperature optical sensor. Temperature monitoring is a critical activity for the oil and gas industry. It typically involves acquiring the desired parameters in a hazardous and corrosive environment. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE was proposed as a means of simultaneously isolating the optical fiber from the corrosive environment and avoiding undesirable mechanical tensions on the FBGs. The presented sensor head is based on multiple FBGs inscribed in a lengthy single mode fiber. The sensor presents an average thermal sensitivity of 8.82 ± 0.09 pm/°C, resulting in a typical temperature resolution of ~0.1 °C and an average time constant value of 6.25 ± 0.08 s. Corrosion and degradation resistance were verified by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy during 90 days exposure to high salinity crude oil samples. The developed sensor was tested in a field pilot test, mimicking the operation of an inland crude tank, demonstrating its abilities to dynamically monitor temperature profile.

  4. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  5. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  6. Rheological and textural properties of cracker dough with addition of pea dietary fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dokić Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are becoming aware of health benefits of dietary fiber intake. In past years, the development of products containing different fiber is increasing. The aim of this research was to look into the effect of addition pea fiber to dough for crackers. Rheological and textural properties were evaluated. In order to develop dough in which wheat flour was partly substituted with pea fiber, it was necessary to increase water content. The addition of 5% and 10% of pea fiber affected intramolecular linkages of gluten and lowered elastic properties of the dough. Dough with addition of 30% of fiber was brittle, grainy and impossible to process.

  7. Research on the Facilitation of Dietary Fiber to Body Digestive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the facilitation of dietary fiber to body intestinal canal digestive function; Make analyses to the efficacy of different dietary fibers to digestive system and study their mechanism of action. The research shows that dietary fiber can promote the proliferation of beneficial bacterium and can restrain the production of harmful bacterium. Through the research on intrinsic factor intestinal flora and extrinsic factor dietary fiber which have an influence on body metabolism, it discussed and analyzed the interaction relation between the intake of dietary fiber and the variety and quantity of intestinal flora. Dietary fiber can facilitate body digestive function.

  8. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults.

  9. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fib...

  10. Fiber and colorectal diseases: Separating fact from fiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Yang Tan; Francis Seow-Choen

    2007-01-01

    Whilst fruits and vegetables are an essential part of our dietary intake, the role of fiber in the prevention of colorectal diseases remains controversial. The main feature of a high-fiber diet is its poor digestibility. Soluble fiber like pectins, guar and ispaghula produce viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal tract delaying small bowel absorption and transit. Insoluble fiber, on the other hand, pass largely unaltered through the gut. The more fiber is ingested, the more stools will have to be passed.Fermentation in the intestines results in build up of large amounts of gases in the colon. This article reviews the physiology of ingestion of fiber and defecation. It also looks into the impact of dietary fiber on various colorectal diseases. A strong case cannot be made for a protective effect of dietary fiber against colorectal polyp or cancer. Neither has fiber been found to be useful in chronic constipation and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also not useful in the treatment of perianal conditions.The fiber deficit - diverticulosis theory should also be challenged. The authors urge clinicians to keep an open mind about fiber. One must be aware of the truths and myths about fiber before recommending it.

  11. Fiber resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Ince

    2004-01-01

    In economics, primary inputs or factors of production define the term ‘resources.’ Resources include land resources (plants, animals, and minerals), labor, capital, and entrepreneurship. Almost all pulp and paper fiber resources are plant materials obtained from trees or agricultural crops. These resources encompass plant materials harvested directly from the land (...

  12. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or frequency of lesions in the examined tissues. This experiment demonstrated that

  13. Dietary fiber, kidney function, inflammation, and mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Risérus, Ulf; Krishnamurthy, Vidya M; Cederholm, Tommy; Arnlöv, Johan; Lindholm, Bengt; Sjögren, Per; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2014-12-05

    In the United States population, high dietary fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of inflammation and mortality in individuals with kidney dysfunction. This study aimed to expand such findings to a Northern European population. Dietary fiber intake was calculated from 7-day dietary records in 1110 participants aged 70-71 years from the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (examinations performed during 1991-1995). Dietary fiber was adjusted for total energy intake by the residual method. Renal function was estimated from the concentration of serum cystatin C, and deaths were registered prospectively during a median follow-up of 10.0 years. Dietary fiber independently and directly associated with eGFR (adjusted difference, 2.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per 10 g/d higher; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.3 to 4.9). The odds of C-reactive protein >3 mg/L were lower (linear trend, P=0.002) with higher fiber quartiles. During follow-up, 300 participants died (incidence rate of 2.87 per 100 person-years at risk). Multiplicative interactions were observed between dietary fiber intake and kidney dysfunction in the prediction of mortality. Higher dietary fiber was associated with lower mortality in unadjusted analysis. These associations were stronger in participants with kidney dysfunction (eGFRdietary fiber was associated with better kidney function and lower inflammation in community-dwelling elderly men from Sweden. High dietary fiber was also associated with lower (cancer) mortality risk, especially in individuals with kidney dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Membrane Assisted Simultaneous Extraction and Derivatization with Triphenylphosphine of Elemental Sulfur in Arabian Crude Samples by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Zahrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of trace level elemental sulfur from crude oil samples is a tedious task. Recently, several gas chromatographic methods were reported in which selective triphenylphosphine derivatization of sulfur was used to form triphenylphosphine sulfide. Direct quantitation of elemental sulfur from crude oil requires an efficient sample preparation method. This paper describes how simultaneous extraction derivatization of elemental sulfur was performed for the first time using porous hollow fiber membrane. A thick (0.25 um pore size; 1550 μm wall thickness; and 5500 μm inner diameter hollow fiber membrane filled with triphenylphosphine (dissolved N-methylpyrrolidone is used as a solvent bar. The solvent bar is tumbled freely in the crude oil sample; the elemental sulfur was extracted and derivatized. Finally, the derivatized sulfur was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Various experimental conditions of solvent bar microextraction (SBME were optimized to achieve higher extraction. The linear range was established between 1 and 50 μg/mL, while a squared regression coefficient was found to be 0.9959 μg/mL. Relative standard deviation (RSD was below 10%. Relative recoveries were calculated for SBME in crude oil samples and were in the range between 98.2% and 101.2%.

  15. Peptides and Food Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo; Aranzazu Perianes Cachero; Lilian Puebla Jiménez; Vicente eBarrios; Eduardo eArilla

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the r...

  16. Familial Resemblance in Dietary Intakes of Children, Adolescents, and Parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogl, Leonie H.; Silventoinen, Karri; Hebestreit, Antje

    2017-01-01

    children using repeated 24-h dietary recalls, from which the usual energy and food intakes were estimated with the U.S. National Cancer Institute Method. Food items were categorized as healthy or unhealthy based on their sugar, fat, and fiber content. Interclass and intraclass correlations were calculated......Information on familial resemblance is important for the design of effective family-based interventions. We aimed to quantify familial correlations and estimate the proportion of variation attributable to genetic and shared environmental effects (i.e., familiality) for dietary intake variables...... and determine whether they vary by generation, sex, dietary quality, or by the age of the children. The study sample consisted of 1435 families (1007 mothers, 438 fathers, 1035 daughters, and 1080 sons) from the multi-center I.Family study. Dietary intake was assessed in parents and their 2–19 years old...

  17. Consumo e digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e produção e composição do leite de vacas alimentadas com teores crescentes de proteína bruta na dieta contendo cana-de-açúcar e concentados Intake and total digestibility of nutrients and milk production and composition in dairy cows fed with increasing crude protein levels in the diet with sugar cane and concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabrícia de Araujo Cordeiro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de teores crescentes de PB na MS total da dieta (11,5; 13,0; 14,5 e 16,0% sobre os consumos e a digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de vacas leiteiras no terço inicial da lactação. O experimento foi constituído de quatro períodos experimentais de 15 dias, sete para adaptação dos animais à dieta e oito para coleta de dados. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, manejadas em cochos individuais, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos balanceados 4 × 4. Utilizou-se concentrado à base de farelo de algodão e fubá de milho (40% e, como volumoso, cana-de-açúcar corrigida com 1% de uréia + sulfato de amônio (9:1, na proporção de 60% (% MS. Os consumos médios diários de nutrientes, exceto EE e CNF, diferiram à medida que os teores de PB da dieta aumentaram. Os teores de PB na dieta não afetaram os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes. A produção de leite corrigida ou não para 3,5% de gordura e seus componentes (gordura, PB e lactose, expressa em g/dia, e o nitrogênio uréico no leite (NUL tiveram efeito linear crescente, enquanto a eficiência de utilização de N sofreu efeito linear negativo dos teores de PB da dieta. A dieta com 16% PB resultou em valores numericamente maiores de consumo e produção do leite e de seus componentes se comparada às dietas com menores teores de PB.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of increasing levels of CP in the total DM of diet (11.5, 13.0, 14.5 and 16.0% on the intakes and the total digestibility of nutrients and the milk production and composition of dairy cows in initial third of lactation. The research was constituted by four experimental periods of 15 days each, seven for adaptation of the animals to the diet and eight for data collection. Eight cows, individually fed, were distributed to two balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares. A cottonseed meal, ground corn-based concentrate (40

  18. Morpho-anatomical diagnostic of medical plants and medicinal crude

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila M. Seraya

    2012-01-01

    The main conclusions of the investigations of macro- and microscopically features of the plants and herbal drug crude of Ukraine are represented in the works of the author and the main publications are quoted.

  19. 300,000-tonnage Crude Oil Dock Put into Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aproject of Jointly establishing 300,000-tonnage crude oil dock of Tianjin Port has been put into operations, thanks to its outut grid successfully connected with oil pipeline of Sinopec Tanggu reservior.

  20. Relationship between waxy crude viscosities and wax crystal microstructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏; 张劲军; 侯磊; 王海峰

    2008-01-01

    It is important and profound to quantitatively study the relation between rheology and microstructure for development of the microstructural mechanism of crude oil rheology and even for the waxy crude oil pipelining.However,due to the high complexity and irregularity of wax crystal morphology,quantitative characterization is hard to achieve.This has hampered further study on the rheology-microstructure relationship.A new approach combined the fractal geometry and the stereology theory is presented for quantifying the intricate wax crystal morphology and structure.Based on the characterization,the effects of microstructures and oil composition on the waxy crude viscosities are analyzed quantitatively.It further validates the previous qualitative research and enriches understanding into the microstructural mechanism of waxy crude oil rheology.

  1. Dynamic Relationship between Crude Oil Price, Exchange Rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    that uses the Granger causality test and generalized variance decomposition analysis ... observed between the Nigerian stock market and crude oil prices and the ... changing oil prices on stock prices and exchange rates an important guide to.

  2. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) on the cytoarchitecture of the rat kidney and body weight. ... The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration lasted ...

  3. (maize) to a crude oil polluted agricultural soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... respectively for maize growing on crude oil polluted soils. These results .... organic carbon and total nitrogen contents were analyzed using methods .... applied facilitated the degradation of the contaminant by aiding the ...

  4. effect of crude oil contamination on the compressive strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    This revealed clearly that crude oil is a compressive strength inhibitor in the production of concrete. ... the near shore community. ... the resulting emulsified water, affect aquatic life [3]. 2. ... impacts. Large areas of the mangrove ecosystem have.

  5. High temperature corrosion control and monitoring for processing acidic crudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, C. [Betz/GE Water and Process Technologies, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of processing heavy crudes and bitumen in a reliable and economical way was discussed. Many refiners use a conservative approach regarding the rate at which they use discounted crudes or depend upon capital-intensive upgrades to equipment. New strategies based on data-driven decisions are needed in order to obtain the greatest benefit from heavy feedstock. The feasibility of successfully processing more challenging feed can be estimated more accurately by better understanding the interactions between a particular feed and a particular crude unit. This presentation reviewed newly developed techniques that refiners can use to determine the feeds corrosion potential and the probability for this potential to manifest itself in a given crude unit. tabs., figs.

  6. The relationship between SARA fractions and crude oil stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ashoori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltene precipitation and deposition are drastic issues in the petroleum industry. Monitoring the asphaltene stability in crude oil is still a serious problem and has been subject of many studies. To investigate crude oil stability by saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA analysis seven types of crudes with different components were used. The applied methods for SARA quantification are IP-143 and ASTM D893-69 and the colloidal instability index (CII is computed from the SARA values as well. In comparison between CII results, the values of oil compositions demonstrated that the stability of asphaltenes in crude oils is a phenomenon that is related to all these components and it cannot be associated only with one of them, individually.

  7. Modelling conditional correlations for risk diversification in crude oil markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); R. Tansuchat (Roengchai)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates univariate and multivariate conditional volatility and conditional correlation models of spot, forward and futures returns from three major benchmarks of international crude oil markets, namely Brent, WTI and Dubai, to aid in risk diversification. Conditional

  8. Optimum Temperature and Thermal Stability of Crude Polyphenol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The activity of the crude enzyme from all the fruits used was found to decrease at various degrees after incubation for ... that catalyzes two different reactions, using molecular oxygen: the .... Temperature is one of the factors that affect the rate.

  9. Will Low Crude Oil Prices Cause a Global Recession?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariana Papatulica; Petre Prisecaru

    2016-01-01

    ...), in January 2016. Several economists are raising the question whether low crude oil prices are a "growth factor or a curse" for the world economy, and whether they could even cause a recession...

  10. Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uptake of crude petroleum hydrocarbons by mudflat bacteria exposed to ... spills is enhanced by the 'continuous' input of nitrogenous fertilizer (NPK) components. ... The net result is the increased recovery potential of this estuarine ...

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by plants crude extracts and their characterization using UV, XRD, TEM and EDX. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Plant extracts are very cost effective and eco-friendly, thus, can be an economic and ...

  12. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-05-13

    May 13, 2015 ... Key words: Species diversity, impact of crude oil pollution, soil – biota ... and inundated soil environment has proven to be a .... These were stored at -80°. ... For PCR AOA (Polymerase Chain Reaction – Ammonia Oxidizing.

  13. Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxicity, phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of crude extracts from ... of both species was studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests (BST) for the first time. ... Both aqueous and methanol extracts of the two medicinal plants ...

  14. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, fiber, simple sugars, and insulin resistance - The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Cathrine; Pedersen, Oluf; Færch, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    .05). Intake of dietary fiber explained the associations with daily glycemic load and total carbohydrate and attenuated the association with fruit and vegetables. No significant associations were observed for daily glycemic index or sucrose. CONCLUSIONS - Habitual intake of diets with a high glycemic index......OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index daily glycemic, load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - The inter99 study......, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS - intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.0001), whereas daily glycemic load and intake of glucose, fructose, dietary fiber, total carbohydrate, fruit, and vegetables were inversely associated with HOMA-IR (P < 0...

  15. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  16. Crude Oil Remote Sensing, Characterization and Cleaning with CW and Pulsed Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Chirita, Arc; Gallegos, Sonia C.

    2014-01-01

    For detection, identification and characterization of crude oil we combine several optical methods of remote sensing of crude oil films and emulsions (coherent fringe projection illumination (CFP), holographic in-line interferometry (HILI), and laser induced fluorescence). These methods allow the three-dimensional characterization of oil spills, important for practical applications. Combined methods of CFP and HILI are described in the frame of coherent superposition of partial interference patterns. It is shown, that in addition to detection/identification laser illumination in the green-blue region can also degrade oil slicks. Different types of surfaces contaminated by oil spills are tested: oil on the water, oil on the flat solid surfaces and oil on the curved surfaces of pipes. For the detection and monitoring of the laser-induced oil degradation in pipes, coherent fiber bundles were used. Both continuous-wave (CW) and pulsed lasers are tested using pump-probe schemes. This finding suggests that properly structured laser clean-up can be an alternative environmentally-friendly method of decontamination, as compared to the currently used chemical methods that are dangerous to environment.

  17. Mild Obesity, Physical Activity, Calorie Intake, and the Risks of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Kwan Lee; So, Kyeong A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.; Mi Kyung Kim

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether obesity, physical activity, and calorie intake are associated with the risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. METHODS: We enrolled 1125 women (age, 18-65 years) into a human papillomavirus cohort study established from 2006 to 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and to assess whether body mass index...

  18. New heavy crude oil flow improver increases delivery : application scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, J.; Johnston, R.; Lauzon, P. [ConocoPhillips Specialty Products Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Flow improvers or drag reducing agents have been used for over 25 years as a method to increase fluid flow in hydrocarbon pipelines. The technology is effective in refined projects, light and medium crude oils. This paper presented a new development in flow improver technology that allows treatment of heavy crude oil slates. It discussed case studies of flow improver treatment of heavy oils in various pipeline system as well as factors that affect commercial success. tabs., figs.

  19. Kurdistan crude oils as feedstock for production of aromatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam R. Karim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crude oils from various locations in Iraqi Kurdistan were fully evaluated, so that enables refiners to improve their operation by selecting the best crude oil that yields high naphtha content to be used as a catalytic reforming feedstock after determination of total sulfur content and then de sulfurizing them, then cyclizing or reforming these sweet naphtha cuts to produce aromatic fractions which can be split into benzene, toluene, and xylenes.

  20. Degradation of Microbes for the Crude Oil Contaminants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Production and storage-transportation of crude oil can not only give rise to soil pollution but also destroy ecological environment. Degradation of microbes for oily soil was studied with the instnunent, Geofina Hydrocarbon Meter (GHM), by experimental analysis qualitatively and quantitatively in the paper. Analytical result showed that the crude oil could be considerably degraded by eating-oil microbes in oily soil and the number of eating-oil microbes increased while the working hours of oil-well risi...

  1. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  2. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  3. ESTIMATE OF WORLD HEAVY CRUDE OIL AND NATURAL BITUMEN RESOURCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Richard F.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    The quantity of heavy hydrocarbons - heavy crude oil and natural bitumens - known or surmised to be present in the earth is large. The total is estimated to fall in the range of 5,879,712-5,942,139 million barrels. The portion of this that may ultimately prove recoverable is small, perhaps on the order of 500,000 million barrels of heavy crude oil and 200,000 million barrels of bitumen.

  4. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana

    2016-03-01

    As the world's oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  5. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  6. Modeling of well drilling heating on crude oil using microwave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntini, Melania Suweni, E-mail: melania@physics.its.ac.id; Pramono, Yono Hadi; Yustiana [Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya Kampus ITS, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    As the world’s oil reserves are dwindling, some researchers have been prompted to make a breakthrough to further improve the efficiency of exploration and production. One of the technologies used is heating the crude oil. This paper presents the modeling results of heat treatment on crude oil using microwave energy. Modeling is conducted by assuming that the diameter of the well is 11,16 cm, the heat source is applied on the surface of the well, and the cut-off frequency in the air and on crude oil are 1,56 GHz. and 0.91 GHz, respectively. The energy generated by the microwave radiation is converted into heat energy which is absorbed by the crude oil. Consequently, this energy increases the temperature of crude oil through a heat transfer mechanism. The results obtained showed that the temperature of crude oil is about 200°C at a depth of 62.5cm, and at a distance of 3 cm from the center of the well. Temperature along the well follows an exponential function, which is from the center of the well in the direction radially outward from the cylinder axis. It has been observed that the temperature decreases as measured from the well surface along the cylinder.

  7. Enbridge system : crude types, transportation and handling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anand, A. [Enbridge Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The supply of crude oil from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is expected to increase by approximately 2.1 million barrels per day by 2015. The crudes that Enbridge handles range from 19 API to 40 API and 0.1 per cent sulphur to 4.7 per cent sulphur. The diverse supply of crude oil that the Enbridge system handles includes conventional heavy, synthetic heavy, heavy high tan, heavy low residual, medium, light sour, heavy sour, light sweet, light sweet synthetic, condensate and olefinic crudes. This presentation discussed Enbridge's plans for infrastructure expansion, crude types and quality assurance program. The company's infrastructure plans include the expansion of regional pipelines to bring more supplies to the mainline; expansion of the mainline capacity to existing markets; and providing pipeline access to new markets. Merchant storage terminals will be provided in some locations. The quality of various crude types will be maintained through judicious sequencing and tank bottoms crossings. tabs., figs.

  8. High amount of dietary fiber not harmful but favorable for Crohn disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuji, Tsuyotoshi; Nakane, Kunio; Komatsu, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    Current chronic diseases are a reflection of the westernized diet that features a decreased consumption of dietary fiber. Indigestible dietary fiber is metabolized by gut bacteria, including Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, to butyrate, which has a critical role in colonic homeostasis owing to a variety of functions. Dietary fiber intake has been significantly inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases. Crohn disease (CD) is not an exception. However, even authors who reported the inverse association between dietary fiber and a risk of CD made no recommendation of dietary fiber intake to CD patients. Some correspondence was against advocating high fiber intake in CD. We initiated a semivegetarian diet (SVD), namely a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, for patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Our SVD contains 32.4 g of dietary fiber in 2000 kcal. There was no untoward effect of the SVD. The remission rate with combined infliximab and SVD for newly diagnosed CD patients was 100%. Maintenance of remission on SVD without scheduled maintenance therapy with biologic drugs was 92% at 2 years. These excellent short- and long-term results can be explained partly by SVD. The fecal bacterial count of F prausnitzii in patients with CD is significantly lower than in healthy controls. Diet reviews recommend plant-based diets to treat and to prevent a variety of chronic diseases. SVD belongs to plant-based diets that inevitably contain considerable amounts of dietary fiber. Our clinical experience and available data provide a rationale to recommend a high fiber intake to treat CD.

  9. Association between dietary fiber and lower risk of all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhao, Long-Gang; Wu, Qi-Jun; Ma, Xiao; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2015-01-15

    Although in vitro and in vivo experiments have suggested that dietary fiber might have beneficial effects on health, results on the association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality in epidemiologic studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess this association. Pertinent studies were identified by searching articles in PubMed and Web of Knowledge through May 2014 and reviewing the reference lists of the retrieved articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined using random-effects models. Seventeen prospective studies (1997-2014) that had a total of 67,260 deaths and 982,411 cohort members were included. When comparing persons with dietary fiber intakes in the top tertile with persons whose intakes were in the bottom tertile, we found a statistically significant inverse association between fiber intake and all-cause mortality, with an overall relative risk of 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.87; I(2) = 41.2%). There was a 10% reduction in risk for per each 10-g/day increase in fiber intake (relative risk = 0.90; 95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.94; I(2) = 77.2%). The combined estimate was robust across subgroup and sensitivity analyses. No publication bias was detected. A higher dietary fiber intake was associated with a reduced risk of death. These findings suggest that fiber intake may offer a potential public health benefit in reducing all-cause mortality.

  10. Crude glycerin in diets for Nelore heifers on pasture in dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mesquita da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin (CG in the diet of Nellore heifers grazing Brachiaria brizantha during the dry season, on nutrients intake and digestibility, performance, reproductive efficiency and economic viability. Sixty Nelore heifers with initial average weight of 285.89 ± 18.74 kg and approximately 19 ± 2 months of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets containing 0.0; 4.0; 8.0; 12.0 and 16.0% of CG inclusion in the diet. The average dry matter (DM daily intake showed decreasing linear effect (P 0.05, with a mean value of 50.93%. The average daily gain (ADG of heifers showed decreasing linear effect (P0.05 by dietary inclusion of GB, with average values of 75% and 1.29 doses pregnant-¹, respectively. The economic viability indicators were not positive in the short and medium term. Supplements for over 0.7% of the PC in animals maintained in Brachiaria brizantha with low nutritional quality, it is not recommended to include GB, since its inclusion in any level reduced around 15% weight gain. However, depending on the cost of coproduct, it can be includes up to 16% in the diet, even considering this drop in performance.

  11. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F.; Shikany, James M.; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A.; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A. A.; Chapkin, Robert S.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2016-01-01

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women’s Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993–2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans. PMID:27916893

  12. The Interaction between Dietary Fiber and Fat and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Sandi L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Tinker, Lesley F; Shikany, James M; Snetselaar, Linda; Martinez, Jessica A; Kato, Ikuko; Beresford, Shirley A A; Chapkin, Robert S; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-11-30

    Combined intakes of specific dietary fiber and fat subtypes protect against colon cancer in animal models. We evaluated associations between self-reported individual and combinations of fiber (insoluble, soluble, and pectins, specifically) and fat (omega-6, omega-3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), specifically) and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the Women's Health Initiative prospective cohort (n = 134,017). During a mean 11.7 years (1993-2010), 1952 incident CRC cases were identified. Cox regression models computed multivariate adjusted hazard ratios to estimate the association between dietary factors and CRC risk. Assessing fiber and fat individually, there was a modest trend for lower CRC risk with increasing intakes of total and insoluble fiber (p-trend 0.09 and 0.08). An interaction (p = 0.01) was observed between soluble fiber and DHA + EPA, with protective effects of DHA + EPA with lower intakes of soluble fiber and an attenuation at higher intakes, however this association was no longer significant after correction for multiple testing. These results suggest a modest protective effect of higher fiber intake on CRC risk, but not in combination with dietary fat subtypes. Given the robust results in preclinical models and mixed results in observational studies, controlled dietary interventions with standardized intakes are needed to better understand the interaction of specific fat and fiber subtypes on colon biology and ultimately CRC susceptibility in humans.

  13. Economic policies for healthier food intake: the impact on different household categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda

    2011-04-01

    This paper simulates the impact across household types of fully funded tax reforms designed to increase consumers' fiber intake from grain consumption. Our results suggest that household types with the highest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products--i.e., households without children (seniors, couples without children, and single women without children)--experience the highest increase in fiber intake from these reforms. However, they also experience high increases in unhealthy nutrients from the reforms, making the net health effects difficult to evaluate. Seniors and couples without children also gain most financially, paying less food taxes and facing, depending on the reform, either a lower price level than before the reform or a lower increase in the price level than the average household. These household types also face the lowest initial price level. Households with the lowest initial consumption share of fiber-rich products--families with children--appear to gain the least financially from the reforms: they pay more food taxes and face relatively high increases in price levels. Further, in general they experience an increase in fiber intake smaller than that of the average household. However, they do generally see reductions in the intake of added sugar, and in many cases saturated fat, which positively affects the health of families with children, who often overconsume these nutrients.

  14. Dietary Intake and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Icelanders Following Voluntarily a Low Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidottir, Anita S; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjörg; Ramel, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    Most studies regarding low-carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been intervention studies. The aim of the current study was to investigate dietary intake and cardiovascular risk factors among individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD. A cross-sectional study was conducted (N = 54, 20-66yrs) in Reykjavik, Iceland. Participants recorded food intake for three days. Blood samples were analyzed for cardiovascular risk factors. Nearly half of the participants were obese and around 60% had been on a LCD for ≥ 6 months. Fifty percent claimed they had lost weight during the past month. The median intake of carbohydrate, protein and fat were 8%, 22% and 68% E (hereof 25% saturated fatty acids), respectively. The consumption of bread and wholegrain cereals was very low (intake of dietary fiber (11g/day). Median fruit intake was 12 g/day. Intake of red meat and meat products was double that of the general population or ~900 g/week. Median intake of vitamins and minerals were mostly higher than the estimated average requirements. Cardiovascular risk factors were mostly within normal range. Mean blood lipids were slightly elevated although the high density lipoprotein/total cholesterol ratio was normal. Despite poor diet quality and high prevalence of obesity, individuals who voluntarily follow a LCD have cardiovascular risk factors mostly within reference range. These individuals consume very low amounts of carbohydrates and high amounts of fat and saturated fat acids. Intake of red meat and processed meat exceeds recommended intake. Very low intake of whole grain cereals and fruits results in low intake of fiber. Long term health implications need to be examined further in longitudinal studies.

  15. Physicochemical properties of surimi gels fortified with dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debusca, Alicia; Tahergorabi, Reza; Beamer, Sarah K; Matak, Kristen E; Jaczynski, Jacek

    2014-04-01

    Although dietary fiber provides health benefits, most Western populations have insufficient intake. Surimi seafood is not currently fortified with dietary fiber, nor have the effects of fiber fortification on physicochemical properties of surimi been thoroughly studied. In the present study, Alaska pollock surimi was fortified with 0-8 g/100 g of long-chain powdered cellulose as a source of dietary fiber. The protein/water concentrations in surimi were kept constant by adding an inert filler, silicon dioxide in inverse concentrations to the fiber fortification. Fiber-fortified surimi gels were set at 90 °C. The objectives were to determine (1) textural and colour properties; (2) heat-induced gelation (dynamic rheology); and (3) protein endothermic transitions (differential scanning calorimetry) of surimi formulated with constant protein/water, but variable fiber content. Fiber fortification up to 6 g/100 g improved (Pfiber. Dynamic rheology correlated with texture and showed large increase in gel elasticity, indicating enhanced thermal gelation of surimi. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that fiber fortification did not interfere with thermal transitions of surimi myosin and actin. Long-chain fiber probably traps water physically, which is stabilized by chemical bonding with protein within surimi gel matrix. Based on the present study, it is suggested that the fiber-protein interaction is mediated by water and is physicochemical in nature.

  16. Peptides and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sobrino Crespo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nutrients created by the digestion of food are proposed to active G protein coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells e.g. the L-cell. This stimulates the release of gut hormones. Hormones released from the gut and adipose tissue play an important rol in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure (1.Many circulating signals, including gut hormones, can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons directly, after passing across the median eminence. The ARC is adjacent to the median eminence, a circumventricular organ with fenestrated capillaries and hence an incomplete blood-brain barrier (2. The ARC of the hypothalamus is believed to play a crucial role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The ARC contains two populations of neurons with opposing effect on food intake (3. Medially located orexigenic neurons (i.e those stimulating appetite express neuropeptide Y (NPY and agouti-related protein (AgRP (4-5. Anorexigenic neurons (i.e. those inhibiting appetite in the lateral ARC express alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART (6. The balance between activities of these neuronal circuits is critical to body weight regulation.In contrast, other peripheral signals influence the hypothalamus indirectly via afferent neuronal pathway and brainstem circuits. In this context gastrointestinal’s vagal afferents are activated by mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors, and converge in the nucleus of the tractus solitaries (NTS of the brainstem. Neuronal projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypotalamus (1, 7. Gut hormones also alter the activity of the ascending vagal pathway from the gut to the brainstem. In the cases of ghrelin and Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY, there are evidences for both to have a direct action on the arcuate nucleus and an action via the vagus nerve a

  17. Effects of Dietary Fiber and Its Components on Metabolic Health

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fib...

  18. Increasing dietary crude protein does not increase the methionine requirement in kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strieker, M J; Morris, J G; Kass, P H; Rogers, Q R

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the methionine (met) requirement of kittens is correlated with the concentration of dietary crude protein (CP). The study used 48 male kittens in two replications of six 4 x 4 Latin squares, each representing one concentration of met (1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, 6.0 or 9.0 g/kg diet) with four CP concentrations (150, 200, 300 and 500 g/kg diet) in 2-week periods. Cystine was present in the lowest CP diet at 5.3 g/kg diet and increased as dietary CP increased. Body weight gain, food intake, nitrogen balance and plasma amino acids, glucose, insulin, cortisol, somatomedin C, T(3) and T(4) concentrations on day 12 were measured. From breakpoint analysis of the nitrogen retention curves, the met requirement of kittens was found to be 3.1, 3.8, 3.1 and 2.4 g met/kg for the 150, 200, 300 and 500 g CP/kg diets, respectively. When met was limiting (1.5 or 2.5 g/kg diet), increasing dietary CP did not decrease, but rather increased food intake, body weight gain and nitrogen retention. Plasma met concentrations increased as dietary met increased and at 2.5-3.5 g met/kg diet were not different among kittens fed the various CP diets. Total plasma T(3) and T(4) increased significantly as dietary CP increased in kittens given the 2.5 and 4.5 g met/kg diets. Results indicate that food intake and possibly altered hormonal secretion play a role in this growth response. In conclusion, the met requirement of growing kittens, unlike omnivores and herbivores studied, was not positively correlated with the concentration of dietary CP.